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Sample records for convergent plate boundary

  1. Composite transform-convergent plate boundaries: description and discussion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan, H.F.; Coleman, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    The leading edge of the overriding plate at an obliquely convergent boundary is commonly sliced by a system of strike-slip faults. This fault system is often structurally complex, and may show correspondingly uneven strain effects, with great vertical and translational shifts of the component blocks of the fault system. The stress pattern and strain effects vary along the length of the system and change through time. These margins are considered to be composite transform-convergent (CTC) plate boundaries. Examples are given of structures formed along three CTC boundaries: the Aleutian Ridge, the Solomon Islands, and the Philippines. The dynamism of the fault system along a CTC boundary can enhance vertical tectonism and basin formation. This concept provides a framework for the evaluation of petroleum resources related to basin formation, and mineral exploration related to igneous activity associated with transtensional processes. ?? 1992.

  2. The proximity of hotspots to convergent and divergent plate boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, S.A.; Olson, P.L. )

    1989-05-01

    An analysis of four different hotspot distributions, ranging from Morgan's (1972) original list of 19 to Vogt's (1981) list of 117 reveals that the hotspots are preferentially located near divergent plate boundaries. The probability of this proximity occurring by chance alone is quite remote, less than 0.01 for all four hotspots distributions. The same analysis also reveals that the hotspots are preferentially excluded from regions near convergent plate boundaries. The probability of this exclusion occurring by chance alone is 0.1 or less for three out of the four distributions examined. The authors interpret this behavior as being a consequence of the effects of large scale convective circulation on ascending mantle plumes. Mantle thermal plumes, the most probable source of hotspots, arise from instabilities in a basal thermal boundary layer. Plumes are suppressed from regions beneath convergent boundaries by descending flow and are entrained into the upwelling flow beneath spreading centers. Plate-scale convective driven by subduction may also advect mantle thermal plumes toward spreading centers.

  3. The proximity of hotspots to convergent and divergent plate boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Stuart A.; Olson, Peter L.

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of four different hotspot distributions, ranging from Morgan's (1972) original list of 19 to Vogt's (1981) list of 117 reveals that the hotspots are preferentially located near divergent plate boundaries. The probability of this proximity occurring by chance alone is quite remote, less than 0.01 for all four hotspot distributions. The same analysis also reveals that the hotspots are preferentially excluded from regions near convergent plate boundaries. The probability of this exclusion occurring by chance alone is 0.1 or less for three out of the four distributions examined. We interpret this behavior as being a consequence of the effects of large scale convective circulation on ascending mantle plumes. Mantle thermal plumes, the most probable source of hotspots, arise from instabilities in a basal thermal boundary layer. Plumes are suppressed from regions beneath convergent boundaries by descending flow and are entrained into the upwelling flow beneath spreading centers. Plate-scale convective circulation driven by subduction may also advect mantle thermal plumes toward spreading centers.

  4. , 120 , 4051 Proof for Two Parallel-running Convergent Plate Boundaries

    E-print Network

    Ikegami, Takashi

    parallel-aligned major plate boundaries, i.e., collision suture and the oceanic trench. Key words, 120 , 40­51 Proof for Two Parallel-running Convergent Plate Boundaries in the Earliest Mesozoic and Tsujimori2012on the position of the geotec- tonic boundary between the North China and South China blocks

  5. Seismicity at the convergent plate boundary offshore Crete, Greece, observed by an amphibian network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, D.; Meier, T.; Bohnhoff, M.; Harjes, H.-P.

    2010-04-01

    We investigate microseismic activity at the convergent plate boundary of the Hellenic subduction zone on- and offshore south-eastern Crete with unprecedented precision using recordings from an amphibian seismic network. The network configuration consisted of up to eight ocean bottom seismometers as well as five temporary short-period and six permanent broadband stations on Crete and surrounding islands. More than 2,500 local and regional events with magnitudes up to M L = 4.5 were recorded during the time period July 2003-June 2004. The magnitude of completeness varies between 1.5 on Crete and adjacent areas and increases to 2.5 in the vicinity of the Strabo trench 100 km south of Crete. Tests with different localization schemes and velocity models showed that the best results were obtained from a probabilistic earthquake localization using a 1-D velocity model and corresponding station corrections obtained by simultaneous inversion. Most of the seismic activity is located offshore of central and eastern Crete and interpreted to be associated with the intracrustal graben system (Ptolemy and Pliny trenches). Furthermore, a significant portion of events represents interplate seismicity along the NNE-ward dipping plate interface. The concentration of seismicity along the Ptolemy and Pliny trenches extends from shallow depths down to the plate interface and indicates active movement. We propose that both trenches form transtensional structures within the Aegean plate. The Aegean continental crust between these two trenches is interpreted as a forearc sliver as it exhibits only low microseismic activity during the observation period and little or no internal deformation. Interplate seismicity between the Aegean and African plates forms a 100-km wide zone along dip from the Strabo trench in the south to the southern shore-line of Crete in the north. The seismicity at the plate contact is randomly distributed and no indications for locked zones were observed. The plate contact below and north of Crete shows no microseismic activity and seems to be decoupled. The crustal seismicity of the Aegean plate in this area is generally confined to the upper 20 km in agreement with the idea of a ductile deformation of the lower crust caused by a rapid return flow of metamorphic rocks that spread out below the forearc. In the region of the Messara half-graben at the south coast of central Crete, a southward dipping seismogenic structure is found that coalesces with the seismicity of the Ptolemy trench at a depth of about 20 km. The accretionary prism south of Crete indicated by the Mediterranean Ridge showed no seismic activity during the observation period and seems to be deforming aseismically.

  6. The behavior of a convergent plate boundary - Crustal deformation in the South Kanto district, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, C. H.; Kato, T.

    1978-01-01

    The northwesternmost part of the Sagami trough, a part of the Philippine Sea-Eurasian plate boundary, was ruptured during the great South Kanto earthquake in 1923. Very extensive and frequent geodetic measurements of crustal deformation have been made in the South Kanto district since the 1890's, and these constitute the most complete data set on crustal movements in the world. These data were reanalyzed and interpreted and according to our interpretation indicate the following sequence of events. The coseismic movements were due to oblique thrust and right lateral slip of about 8 m on a fault outcropping at the base of the Sagami trough. This was followed by postseismic deformation resulting from reversed afterslip of 20-60 cm that occurred at an exponentially decaying rate in time. The interseismic deformation is produced by steady subduction at a rate of about 1.8 cm/yr. During subduction the top 10-15 km of the plate boundary is apparently locked, while deeper parts slip aseismically at an irregular rate. No significant precursory deformation was observed. The recurrence time for 1923 type earthquakes is 200-300 years. The Boso and Miura peninsulas are broken into a series of fault-bound blocks that move semi-independently of the surrounding region. The subduction zone itself, where it is exposed on land, is shown to be a wide zone encompassing several faults that are active at different times.

  7. Plate boundary readjustment in oblique convergence: Example of the Neogene of Hispaniola, Greater Antilles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pubellier, Manuel; Mauffret, Alain; Leroy, Sylvie; Vila, Jean Marie; Amilcar, Helliot

    2000-08-01

    The Haitian fold-and-thrust belt is the major mountain belt of Haiti (western part of Hispaniola, Greater Antilles) and resembles a compressive restraining bend between the two major faults which have driven the opening of the Cayman Basin since the Eocene. During the rifting stage, from the middle to the late Eocene, this area underwent an extensional evolution with fissural volcanic activity along NE-SW tilted blocks. The Haitian fold-and-thrust belt was constructed from the Early Miocene until the Present by stacking sedimentary units into a collisional wedge perpendicular to the tilted blocks, which was propagating to the southwest. During the construction of the wedge, piggyback basins were formed and progressively uplifted. During the late Neogene, convergence is localized in the Cul-de-Sac-Enriquillo trough where the active front proceeds southward onto the Beata ridge. In this area, Miocene to Quaternary wrench structures of the lower plate, like the Southern Peninsula and the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden faults, are reactivated as normal faults, owing to the loading of the fold-and-thrust belt.

  8. Imaging the ascent path of fluids and partial melts at convergent plate boundaries by geophysical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luehr, B. G.; Koulakov, I.; Kopp, H.; Rabbel, W.; Zschau, J.

    2011-12-01

    During the last decades many investigations were carried out at active continental margins to understand the link between the subduction of the fluid saturated oceanic plate and the process of ascent of fluids and partial melts forming a magmatic system that leads to volcanism at the earth surface. For this purpose structural information are needed about the slap itself, the part above it, the ascent paths as well as the storage of fluids and partial melts in the mantle and the crust above the down going slap up to the volcanoes on the surface. If we consider statistically the distance between the trench and the volcanic chain as well as the inclination angle of the down going plate, then the mean value of the depth distance down to the Wadati Benioff zone results of approximately 100 kilometers. Surprisingly, this depth range shows pronounced seismicity at most of all subduction zones. Additionally, mineralogical investigations in the lab have shown that the diving plate is maximal dehydrated around 100 km depth because of temperature and pressure conditions at this depth range. However, assuming a vertical fluid ascent there are exceptions. For instance at the Sunda Arc beneath Central Java the vertical distance results in approximately 150 km. But, in this case seismic investigations have shown that the fluids do not ascend vertically, but inclined even from a source area at around the 100 km depth. The ascent of the fluids and the appearance of partial melts as well as the distribution of these materials in the crust can be proved by seismic and seismological methods. With the seismic tomography these areas are imaged by lowered seismic velocities, high Vp/Vs ratios, as well as increased attenuation of seismic shear waves. But, to explore plate boundaries large and complex amphibious experiments are required, in which active and passive seismic investigations should be combined. They have to recover a range from before the trench to far behind the volcanic chain, to provide under favorable conditions information down to a depth of 150 km. In particular the record of the natural seismicity and its distribution allows the three-dimensional imaging of the entire crust and lithosphere structure above the Wadati Benioff zone with the help of tomographic procedures, and therewith the entire ascent path region of the fluids and melts, which are responsible for volcanism. The seismic velocity anomalies detected so far are within a range of a few per cent to more than 30% reduction. In the lecture findings of different subduction zones are compared and discussed.

  9. Dynamics of convergent plate boundaries: Insights from subduction-related serpentinite melanges from the northern edge of the Caribbean plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Casco, A.

    2012-04-01

    Subduction-related rock complexes, many of them tectonic melanges, occur in the Central America-Caribbean-Andean belt. I review the lithology and P-T-t paths of HP rocks and offer interpretations and generalizations on the thermal estate of the subducting plate(s), the melange forming events, and the exhumation history of rock complexes formed in the northern branch of the Caribbean subduction zone (Cuba and nearby Guatemala and Dominican Republic; ca. 3000 km apart). These complexes contain high pressure rocks formed and exhumed at the convergent (Pacific-Atlantic) leading edge of the Caribbean plate during ca. 100 Ma (early Cretaceous-Oligocene), attesting for long lasting oceanic -followed by continental- subduction/accretion in the region. Lithologic data indicate a complex melange-forming process. In most cases, the HP rocks represent subducted MOR-related lithologies occurring as tectonic blocks within serpentinite-matrix melanges interpreted as exhumed fragments of the subduction channel(s). Most of these melanges, however, contain fragments of arc/forearc-related non metamorphic and metamorphic (low-P and high-P) sedimentary and igneous rocks. While the HP blocks of arc/forearc material indicate subduction erosion at depth, the interpretation of the LP and non-metamorphic blocks is not straight forward. Indeed, tectonic blocks of HP metamafic rocks are surrounded by antigorite-serpentinite which, in turn, is surrounded by a low-P, low-T (chrysotile-lizardite) serpentinite that makes much of the mélange. These relations indicate that the melanges represent, in fact, tectonic stacks of shallow low-T forearc serpentinite that incorporate tectonic blocks/slices of the subduction-channel (high-P, high-T serpentinite and HP metamafic blocks) and of the arc/forearc crust (low-P and non-metamorphic blocks). This picture is similar to that of HP continental margin-derived tectonic stacks containing exotic slices of antigoritite-serpentine melanges (with blocks of MORB-derived eclogite) incorporated late in the convergent history when oceanic subduction was completed. Hence, incorporation of tectonic slices of the subduction channel into the shallow (low-P, low-T) melanges and subducted/accreted continental margins occur when collision-related dynamics imposed by subduction of buoyant continental or oceanic lithosphere affected the plate margin. Aqueous fluid, sourced from both subducted sediment and metamafic/ultramafic material, was available in large quantity in the subduction environment, as indicated by massive antigoritite, rinds of metasomatic rocks around included HP metamafic rocks, retrogressed eclogite, jadeitite and hydrothermal veins within antigoritite. Such a vigorous hydrology (fluid-flow) deep in the subduction environment point to the development of wide subduction channels and explain the abundance of accreted blocks. It can also explain the scarcity of large scale (>km) slices of the subducted oceanic lithosphere in the belt, for these are likely the result of focalized distribution of deformation occurring when forearc peridotite is barely hydrated (Agard et al., Long-term coupling along the subduction plate interface: Insights from exhumed rocks and models. This session, EGU 2012). Alternatively, these large tectonic slices may have been formed by the collision dynamics caused by late-stage subduction/accretion of the continental margin (or buoyant -thick- oceanic crust). Except maturation (cooling) of the subduction zone with time at orogenic belt-scale, no other simple generalization can be reached on the thermal state of the subducting plate and the exhumation process of the subduction channel. P-T-t paths of HP rocks indicate that slab fragments ranging from cold to hot coexisted during relatively short time intervals (ca. 10 Myr), and some fragments of the subduction channel were exhumed shortly after formation while others lasted several tens of Myr to arrive to the near-surface forearc/accretionary environment. A rather variable thermal state and dynamic history of the subduction environme

  10. Focal Mechanisms at the convergent plate boundary in Southern Aegean, Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshou, Alexandra; Papadimitriou, Eleftheria; Drakatos, George; Evangelidis, Christos; Karakostas, Vasilios; Vallianatos, Filippos; Makropoulos, Konstantinos

    2014-05-01

    Greece is characterized by high seismicity, mainly due to the collision between the European and the African lithospheric plates and the dextral strike slip motion along the North Anatolia Fault zone and North Aegean Trough. The subduction of the Eastern Mediterranean oceanic plate along the Hellenic Arc under the Aegean microplate along with the accompanied roll back of the descending slab is considered the main tectonic feature of the region (Papazachos and Comninakis 1971; Makropoulos and Burton 1984; Papazachos et al. 2000a, b). The divergent motion between the Aegean block and mainland Europe is indicated by an extension zone in the northern Aegean, with Crete and Aegean diverging from mainland Europe at a rate of about 3.5 cm yr-1 with Africa moving northward relative to Europe at a rate of about 1 cm yr-1 (Dewey et al., 1989; Papazachos et al., 1998; Mc-Clusky et al., 2000; Reilinger et al., 2006). In this tectonically complicated area diverge types of deformation are manifested, in addition to the dominant subduction processes. Aiming to shed more light in the seismotectonic properties and faulting seismological data from the Hellenic Unified Seismological Network (HUSN) were selected and analyzed for determining focal mechanisms using the method of moment tensor inversion, additional to the ones being available from the routine moment tensor solutions and several publications. Thus, 31 new fault plane solutions for events with magnitude M>4.0, are presented in this study, by using the software of Ammon (Randall et al., 1995). For this scope the data from at least 4 stations were used with an adequate azimuthal coverage and with an epicentral distance not more than 350 km. The preparation of the data includes the deconvolution of instruments response, then the velocity was integrated to displacement and finally the horizontal components were rotated to radial and transverse. Following, the signal was inverted using the reflectivity method of Kennett (1983) as implemented by Randall (1994) in order to determine Green's functions. Initially, iterative inversions were performed considering a crude depth interval of 5 km and the relative misfit functions were computed. In a second stage, inversions were performed considering a finer depth interval of 1-2 km around the depth where the lowest misfit was exhibited. During the analysis different velocity models were used (Karagianni et al., 2005; Novotny et al., 2001; Papazachos et al., 1997). This research has been funded by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek national resources under the framework of the "THALES Program: SEISMO FEAR HELLARC" project of the "Education & Lifelong Learning" Operational Programme.

  11. Links between crustal melting, plate boundary forces, and syn-convergent exhumation in the Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulcahy, S. R.; Roeske, S.; McClelland, W.; Jourdan, F.; Renne, P. R.; Vervoort, J. D.; Vujovich, G. I.

    2011-12-01

    Transitions from convergence to extension during an orogenic cycle result from the dynamic interaction between plate bounding forces, the thermal and rheologic evolution of the lithosphere, and contrasts in gravitational potential energy within an orogen. The presence of melt in the middle and lower crust, in particular, exerts a profound effect on the rheology of orogenic belts and in facilitating a change from convergence to extension and orogenic collapse. Determining whether or not melting was as an effective driving mechanism of extension within a given orogen requires accurately constraining the timing and duration of melting in the crust with respect to plate convergence, crustal thickening, and lithospheric extension. The Sierras Pampeanas of northwest Argentina record the transition from a Cambrian convergent margin to an Ordovician collisional orogen with the accretion of the allochthonous Precordillera terrane. Regional convergence associated with Famatina arc magmatism initiated as a result of east dipping subduction by ˜515-495 Ma and the majority of arc magmatism occurred from ˜485 to 465 Ma. Initial collision of the Precordillera terrane with the Famatina arc margin began by ~470 Ma and the terrane had fully collided by the Late Ordovician (˜458-449 Ma). Syn-convergent extension within the Sierra de Pie de Palo initiated at middle to lower crustal depths at ~436 Ma and continued through ~417 Ma. We present new U-Pb zircon and sphene, Lu-Hf garnet, and 40Ar/39Ar amphibole and mica ages and thermobarometry from lower crustal granulite facies migmatites of the Loma de Las Charcas. These data, coupled with existing regional isotopic ages and one-dimensional thermal modeling, suggest that: 1) regional peak granulite facies metamorphism occurred at ~465 Ma with near isothermal temperatures of ~850° C from ~5-12 kb within the Famatina arc; 2) Ordovician melts remained at temperatures above their solidus for 20-30 million years following peak granulite facies metamorphism, throughout a time period marked by regional oblique convergence; and 3) the onset of syn-convergent extension occurred after regional migmatites cooled beneath their solidus, and was synchronous with the establishment of a new plate margin to the west of the Precordillera terrane at ~436 Ma. The presence of large volumes of melt throughout the middle and lower crust was insufficient to drive extension during regional convergence and terrane accretion. Exhumation was likely the result of a change in the plate bounding forces.

  12. From arc-continent collision to continuous convergence, clues from Paleogene conglomerates along the southern Caribbean-South America plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, A.; Montes, C.; Ayala, C.; Bustamante, C.; Hoyos, N.; Montenegro, O.; Ojeda, C.; Niño, H.; Ramirez, V.; Valencia, V.; Rincón, D.; Vervoort, J.; Zapata, S.

    2012-12-01

    A Paleogene conglomeratic-sandy succession preserves the complex record of arc-continent collision, orogen collapse and basin opening, followed by inversion related to renewed oblique convergence. This record is unique because both arc and continental margin are now severely fragmented and only partially exposed along the southern Caribbean-South American boundary in northern Colombia. We studied these clastic sequences in the San Jacinto deformed belt using an integrated provenance study that includes conglomerate clast counting, geochemistry and U-Pb and Hf isotopic analysis in magmatic clasts, together with sandstone petrography, heavy mineral analysis and detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology. The record of events extracted from these coarse clastic rocks includes the formation and approach of an allochthonous Upper Cretaceous intra-oceanic arc active from 88 Ma until 73 Ma. This arc collides against the upper Paleozoic to Triassic continental margin after 73 Ma, but before late Paleocene times. Poorly exposed remnants of serpentinized peridotites and middle pressure metamorphic detritus are related to closure of an intervening oceanic basin between the continent and the colliding arc. This orogen was emerged in late Maastrichtian-early Paleocene, and then collapsed as recorded by the thick upper Paleocene and younger succession of the San Jacinto deformed belt where the coarse clastics, subject of this study, are exposed. Orogenic collapse may have been the result of subduction zone flip, with incipient subduction of the buoyant Caribbean Plate under South America.

  13. An updated digital model of plate boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Peter

    2003-03-01

    A global set of present plate boundaries on the Earth is presented in digital form. Most come from sources in the literature. A few boundaries are newly interpreted from topography, volcanism, and/or seismicity, taking into account relative plate velocities from magnetic anomalies, moment tensor solutions, and/or geodesy. In addition to the 14 large plates whose motion was described by the NUVEL-1A poles (Africa, Antarctica, Arabia, Australia, Caribbean, Cocos, Eurasia, India, Juan de Fuca, Nazca, North America, Pacific, Philippine Sea, South America), model PB2002 includes 38 small plates (Okhotsk, Amur, Yangtze, Okinawa, Sunda, Burma, Molucca Sea, Banda Sea, Timor, Birds Head, Maoke, Caroline, Mariana, North Bismarck, Manus, South Bismarck, Solomon Sea, Woodlark, New Hebrides, Conway Reef, Balmoral Reef, Futuna, Niuafo'ou, Tonga, Kermadec, Rivera, Galapagos, Easter, Juan Fernandez, Panama, North Andes, Altiplano, Shetland, Scotia, Sandwich, Aegean Sea, Anatolia, Somalia), for a total of 52 plates. No attempt is made to divide the Alps-Persia-Tibet mountain belt, the Philippine Islands, the Peruvian Andes, the Sierras Pampeanas, or the California-Nevada zone of dextral transtension into plates; instead, they are designated as "orogens" in which this plate model is not expected to be accurate. The cumulative-number/area distribution for this model follows a power law for plates with areas between 0.002 and 1 steradian. Departure from this scaling at the small-plate end suggests that future work is very likely to define more very small plates within the orogens. The model is presented in four digital files: a set of plate boundary segments; a set of plate outlines; a set of outlines of the orogens; and a table of characteristics of each digitization step along plate boundaries, including estimated relative velocity vector and classification into one of 7 types (continental convergence zone, continental transform fault, continental rift, oceanic spreading ridge, oceanic transform fault, oceanic convergent boundary, subduction zone). Total length, mean velocity, and total rate of area production/destruction are computed for each class; the global rate of area production and destruction is 0.108 m2/s, which is higher than in previous models because of the incorporation of back-arc spreading.

  14. The seismotectonics of plate boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, J.; Brune, J. N.; Goodkind, J.; Wyatt, F.; Agnew, D. C.; Beaumont, C.

    1981-01-01

    Research on the seismotectonics of plate boundaries is summarized. Instrumental development and an observational program designed to study various aspects of the seismotectonics of southern California and the northern Gulf of California are described. A unique superconducting gravimeter was further developed and supported under this program for deployment and operation at several sites. Work on Earth tides is also discussed.

  15. Introduction to the special issue on convergent plate margin dynamics Convergent plate margins are arguably the most complicated and

    E-print Network

    Rawlinson, Nick

    of many investigations and discussions since the advent of plate tectonic theory. Due to the varied is hidden deep beneath the surface, much remains enigmatic and unknown about these important plate tectonic of the development of geological and geodynamic theories on convergent plate margins. Furthermore, the paper

  16. Convergent plate margin dynamics: New perspectives from structural geology, geophysics and geodynamic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellart, W. P.; Rawlinson, N.

    2010-03-01

    Convergent plate margins occur when two adjoining tectonic plates come together to form either a subduction zone, where at least one of the converging plates is oceanic and plunges beneath the other into the mantle, or a collision zone, where two continents or a continent and a magmatic arc collide. Convergent plate margins are arguably the most complicated and dynamic plate boundaries on Earth and have been the subject of many investigations and discussions since the advent of plate tectonic theory. This paper provides a historical background and a review of the development of geological and geodynamic theories on convergent plate margins. Furthermore, it discusses some of the recent advances that have been made in the fields of structural geology, geophysics and geodynamics, which are fundamental to our understanding of this phenomenon. These include: (1) the finding that plates and plate boundaries move at comparable velocities across the globe; (2) the emerging consensus that subducted slabs are between two to three orders of magnitude stronger than the ambient upper mantle; (3) the importance of lateral slab edges, slab tearing and toroidal mantle flow patterns for the evolution of subduction zones; and (4) clear evidence from mantle tomography that slabs can penetrate into the lower mantle. Still, many first-order problems regarding the geodynamic processes that operate at convergent margins remain to be solved. These include subduction zone initiation and the time of inception of plate tectonics, and with it convergent plate margins, on Earth. Fundamental problems in orogenesis include the mechanism that initiated Andean mountain building at the South American subduction zone, the potential episodicity of mountain building with multiple cycles of shortening and extension, and the principal driving force behind the construction of massive mountain belts such as the Himalayas-Tibet and the Andes. Fundamental questions in subduction dynamics regard the partitioning of subduction into a trench and plate component, and the distribution of energy dissipation in the system. In seismic imaging, challenges include improving resolution at mid to lower mantle depth in order to properly understand the fate of slabs, and better constraining the 3-D flow-related anisotropic structure in the surrounding mantle. Future insights into such fundamental problems and into the regional and global dynamics of convergent plate margins will likely be obtained from integrating spatio-temporal data, structural geological data, geophysical data and plate kinematic data into plate tectonic reconstructions and three-dimensional geodynamic models of progressive deformation.

  17. Absolute plate motions by boundary velocity minimizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaula, W. M.

    1975-01-01

    The main interaction of the earth's interior with the lithosphere is as a material source and sink. An absolute reference frame defined by minimizing the translational motion of tectonic plate boundaries differs by 0.6 cm/year from a frame defined by hot spot traces and by 0.4 cm/year from the frame defined by the most plausible model of drag forces on the plates. The rms absolute translational velocities are about 2 cm/year for ocean-ocean plate boundaries and 1.5 cm/year for ocean-continent plate boundaries. The close agreement between the source and sink and the drag-dependent definitions suggests that the lithosphere, as a stress guide, to some extent controls the locations of its sources and sinks.

  18. Plate stability by boundary element method

    SciTech Connect

    Elzein, A.; Brebbia, C.A.; Orszag, S.A.

    1991-12-31

    As indicated by the title, this publication is devoted to the application of the Boundary Element Method (BEM) to the analysis of elastic plastes subjected to inplane forces. Three classes of plate problems associated with the buckling phenomenon are considered, viz: The state of plane stress, buckling of plates caused by edge loads, and moderately large deflections of slightly warped plates. The first (introductory) chapter gives an historical background and the behavior, theory, and analyses of plates. Chapter 2 briefly comments on the phenomenon of buckling and clearly presents the universal expressions and equations of the linear and nonlinear theories established by Kirchhoff for thin plates. A prominent place is assigned to the airy plane-stress function introduced into the nonlinear flexural theory of plates by A Foeppl and Th von Karman.

  19. The Rivera-Cocos Plate Boundary Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandy, W. L.; Mortera-Gutierrez, C. A.; Michaud, F.; Ortega Ramírez, J.

    2013-05-01

    The nature of the boundary between the Rivera and Cocos plates has long been controversial. Early studies (predominantly earthquake studies) suggested that it was a NE oriented left lateral transform boundary. With the collection of multi-beam bathymetric data during the SEAMAT cruise of the N/O Jean Charcot in 1987 it became clear that this early proposal was not entirely correct as no clear transform morphology was observed. Shortly after the SEAMAT campaign, three main proposals emerged to explain this lack of transform morphology. The first two proposals favored the results of earthquake studies over the new multibeam data. The first proposed that the boundary is indeed a left-lateral transform boundary, you just cannot see it. In other words, it was a diffuse boundary and the resolution of the multi-beam data was not sufficient to reveal the associated deformation. The second proposal was that it was an east-west oriented, dextral transform, the proposal being based on the results of an earthquake directivity analysis. The third proposal favored the morphologic data over the earthquake data and proposed that the plate boundary was not a transform boundary, but was instead a divergent boundary, at least near the Middle America Trench in what is now called the EL Gordo Graben. Implicit in this proposal was that the earthquake activity did not reflect plate motions but rather were the result of local stresses. Since 2002, several marine geophysical campaigns have been conducted in the area of the Rivera-Cocos plate boundary with the aim of resolving this debate. During the 2002 BART and FAMEX campaigns of the N/O L'ATALANTE, multibeam bathymetric and seafloor backscatter data were collected along the boundary. During the MARTIC04 and MARTIC05 campaigns of the B/O EL PUMA dense total field magnetic surveys were conducted covering the entire plate boundary. Lastly, the multibeam coverage obtained during the BART/FAMEX campaigns was extended northward during the MORTIC07 campaign of the B/O EL PUMA. In this talk we will present these new data (some of which have already been published) and discuss the constraints that these data impose on the nature of the Rivera-Cocos plate boundary.

  20. Tectonic mélange as fault rock of subduction plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Gaku; Yamaguchi, Asuka; Hojo, Megumi; Kitamura, Yujin; Kameda, Jun; Ujiie, Kohtaro; Hamada, Yohei; Hamahashi, Mari; Hina, Shoko

    2012-09-01

    An assemblage of quantitative data sets is examined to evaluate tectonic mélange as a plate boundary fault rocks in subduction zone. The research object is the latest Cretaceous Mugi mélange in the Shimanto Belt, southwest Japan. Systematic age younging from pelagic to terrigenous through hemipelagic sediments is well-documented even though original stratigraphy is disrupted. Systematic shear fabric consistent with ancient plate convergence is reconstructed. The mélange was formed at temperatures of ~ 130-200 °C by cataclastic comminution of sandstone layers accompanied by tensile cracking, and plastic deformation and the dehydration of clayey shale matrix, with subsequent peeling off and underplating of the oceanic basement. The temperature setting for the Mugi mélange indicates around the up-dip limit of the seismogenic zone, therefore includes various fault rocks suggestive of earthquake fault; pseudotachylyte, fluidized ultracataclasite with heating evidence, amorphous silica and so on. These suggest that fluid induced lubrication was dominated. Localized cataclastic shear, which is a candidate of small earthquake or very low frequency earthquake, is also recognized especially in sandstone blocks dominated portion in mélange. These observations are consistent with the mélange being a fault rock along the plate boundary that records various types of earthquakes in a subduction zone. The quantitative examination of the Mugi mélange suggests several criteria to define the tectonic mélange of the plate boundary fault in subduction zone from other mélanges in orogenic belt.

  1. Volcanic activity and great earthquakes at convergent plate margins.

    PubMed

    Carr, M J

    1977-08-12

    Volcanoes are unusually quiet for periods of a few years to a few decades prior to great shallow-thrust earthquakes. This is the most obvious part of an apparent pattern of volcanic activity related to the occurrence of great earthquakes at some convergent plate margins. PMID:17776268

  2. Boundary knot method: A meshless, exponential convergence, integration-free, and boundary-only RBF technique

    E-print Network

    an inherently meshless, exponential convergence, integration-free, boundary-only collocation techniques boundary knots are used. The efficiency and utility of this new technique are validated through a number1 Boundary knot method: A meshless, exponential convergence, integration-free, and boundary

  3. Convergent plate margin dynamics: New perspectives from structural geology, geophysics and geodynamic modelling

    E-print Network

    Rawlinson, Nick

    and discussions since the advent of plate tectonic theory. This paper provides a historical background: Convergent plate margin Subduction Collision Orogenesis Slab Plate tectonics Convergent plate margins occur when two adjoining tectonic plates come together to form either a subduction zone, where at least one

  4. Interseismic crustal deformation in the Taiwan plate boundary zone revealed by GPS observations, seismicity, and earthquake focal mechanisms

    E-print Network

    Simons, Mark

    The island of Taiwan is located in the plate boundary zone between the Eurasian (EUP) and Philippine Sea plates (PHP) and is bound by two subduction zones. In the north, the PHP subducts beneath the Ryukyu Arc., 1997). The plate convergence rate across the Island is about 80 mm/yr in a di- rection of N310°E (Seno

  5. GEM Plate Boundary Simulations for the Plate Boundary Observatory: A Program for Understanding the Physics

    E-print Network

    Kellogg, Louise H.

    motivated to construct a numerical simulation technology that will allow us to study earthquake physics via Earthscope NSF/GEO/EAR/MRE initiative, the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) plans to place more than through observations alone is complicated by our inability to study the problem in a manner familiar

  6. A new plate boundary in the Ionian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polonia, Alina; Torelli, Luigi; Artoni, Andrea; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Faccenna, Claudio; Ferranti, Luigi; Gasperini, Luca; Govers, Rob; Monaco, Carmelo; Neri, Giancarlo; Orecchio, Barbara; Rinus Wortel, M. J.

    2014-05-01

    The Calabrian Arc (CA) is a narrow and arcuate subduction system resulting from Africa/Eurasia plate convergence and slab rollback in the Tyrrhenian region. The very slow present-day plate convergence suggests a decrease in subduction efficiency, but underplating may still be active in the central CA where GPS data suggests an outward motion of Calabria relative to Apulia. Shortening in the accretionary wedge is taken up along the outer deformation front and out-of-sequence thrust faults (splay faults). Transtensive deformation accounts for margin segmentation along transfer tectonics systems bounding different margin segments. Transfer faults represent the shallow expression of deeply rooted processes at the slab edge. One of these structures is the NNW-SSE trending transtensive STEP (Slab Transfer Edge Propagator) fault system located East of the Malta Escarpment from the Alfeo seamount to the Etna volcano. Margin segmentation occurs along a second NW-SE trending crustal discontinuity delimiting two distinct lobes of the subduction complex close to the Messina Straits region. The Western Lobe (WL) of the subduction complex, offshore Sicily, is a down-dropped and very low tapered (about 1.5° ) wedge detaching on the base of the Messinian evaporites. The Eastern Lobe (EL), in front of Central Calabria, shows a more elevated accretionary wedge, steeper topographic slopes, higher deformation rates and a deeper basal detachment. High resolution tomographic images suggest a strong interplay between structural development and slab dynamics: the WL corresponds to areas where the slab is detached, while beneath the EL the slab is continuous. Newly acquired geophysical data (Urania cruise, October 2013), reveal that the deformation zone between the two lobes of the accretionary wedge displays fresh seafloor scarps and mud volcanoes suggesting it represents an active tectonic boundary and a deep fluid/mud conduit. We propose that this discontinuity is a new plate boundary segment in the Ionian Sea, connecting the compressive belt in northern Sicily to the Hellenic Arc system and dissecting the CA subduction complex. This deformation zone accommodates differential movements of the Calabrian and the Peloritan portions of CA and can explain the NW-SE extension observed in the straits of Messina as well as the relative motion between Calabria and NE Sicily. This reconstruction is in agreement with geodetic data and earthquake slip vectors observations which suggest the existence of a microplate in the central Mediterranean. The discontinuity between the two lobes would thus represent a major component of the southwestern (hitherto poorly constrained) boundary of this microplate. The motion of Africa relative to Eurasia would be accommodated along this structure by relative rotations between the different blocks resulting from African plate fragmentation.

  7. Development of transtensional and transpressive plate boundaries due to noncircular (cycloid) relative plate motion

    SciTech Connect

    Cronin, V.S. )

    1990-05-01

    The trace of a transform fault commonly is assumed to be circular and concentric with the finite relative motion of the plates adjacent to the fault. These assumptions have led to controversy as the transform fault label has been applied to the San Andreas fault in California because the San Andreas fault is neither circular nor concentric with the motion of the Pacific plate relative to the North American plate. The assumption of circular relative plate motion over a finite time interval is not generally valid. When finite relative plate motion is not circular, the length and orientation of a transform fault must change through time. The length and orientation of ridge-ridge transform faults in oceanic crust evolve through the migration, propagation, and abandonment of ridge segments. Transform faults that bound continental crust evolve differently than do transform faults along mid-ocean ridges because continental transform faults typically do not have ridges at both ends and because of the rheological differences between oceanic and continental crust. Along continent-continent transform faults in which the initial displacement is entirely strike slip, later displacements will be progressively more divergent or convergent (i.e., transtensive or transpressive). Transtension can result in the development of deep basins with high heat flow. Transpression can result in folding, reverse faulting, and decoupling of the crust from its lower crustal or mantle lithosphere in the region adjacent to the transform fault. Regardless of whether the transform boundary becomes transtensional or transpressional, the boundary evolves from a discrete transform fault to a broader, structurally complex accommodation zone (sensu lato).

  8. Convergent plate margin east of North Island, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Davey, F.J; Hampton, M.; Lewis, K.

    1986-07-01

    The Indian-Pacific plate boundary passes along the eastern margin of North Island, New Zealand, with the Pacific plate being thrust under the Indian plate to the west. The continental slope forming the Indian plate margin is broad with a well-formed series of trench slope basins and intervening ridges along the continental slope and shelf, subparallel to the margin, and continuing onto land. Multichannel seismic reflection data recorded across this margin show a thick (2.5-km) sedimentary section overlying oceanic basement in the deep-water part of the profile, and part of this sedimentary section is apparently being subducted under the accretionary prism. At the toe of the continental slope, nascent thrusts, often showing little apparent offset but a change in reflection amplitude, occur over a broad region. Well-defined trench slope basins show several episodes of basin formation and thrusting and are similar to structural interpretations for adjacent onshore basins. A bottom simulating reflector, which may delineate a gas-hydrate layer, can be traced over the midslope part of the profile. A major reflector, interpreted as the base of the accretionary prism, can be traced discontinuously to the coast where it coincides with the top of a zone of high seismicity, considered to mark the top of the subducted Pacific plate.

  9. Plate tectonics beyond plate boundaries: the role of ancient structures in intraplate orogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heron, Philip; Pysklywec, Russell; Stephenson, Randell

    2015-04-01

    The development of orogens that occur at a distance from plate boundaries (i.e., `intraplate' deformation) cannot be adequately explained through conventional plate tectonic theory. Intraplate deformation infers a more complex argument for lithospheric and mantle interaction than plate tectonic theory allows. As a result, the origins of intraplate orogenesis are enigmatic. One hypothesis is the amalgamation of continental material (i.e., micro-plates) leaves inherent scars on the crust and mantle lithosphere. Previous studies into continent-continent collisions identify a number of scenarios from accretionary tectonics that affect the crust and mantle (namely, the development of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability, lithospheric underplating, lithospheric delamination, and lithospheric subduction). Any of these processes may weaken the lithosphere allowing episodic reactivation of faults within continental interiors. Hence, continental convergence (i.e., shortening) at a time after continental collision may cause the already weakened crust and mantle lithosphere to produce intraplate deformation. In order to better understand the processes involved in deformation away from plate boundaries, we present suites of continental shortening models (using the high-resolution thermal-mechanical modelling code SOPALE) to identify the preferred style of deformation. We model ancient structures by applying weak subduction scarring, changing the rheological conditions, and modifying the thermal structure within the lithosphere. To highlight the role of surface processes on plate and lithosphere deformation, the effect of climate-driven erosion and deposition on the tectonic structure of intraplate deformation is also addressed. We explore the relevance of the models to previously studied regions of intraplate orogenesis, including the Pyrenees in Europe, the Laramide orogen in North America, Tien Shan orogen in Central Asia, and Central Australia. The findings of the simulations with regards to past and future North American intraplate deformation are also discussed. Our results indicate that there exists a number of tectonic environments that can be produced relating to continental accretion, and that specific observational constraints to the local area (e.g., geological, geophysical, geodetic) are required to be integrated directly into the analyses for better interpretation. The models shown here find that although rheological changes to the lithosphere can produce a range of deformation during continental convergence (i.e., crustal thickening, thinning, and folding), mantle weak zones from ancient subduction can generate more localized deformation and topography.

  10. A plate tectonic model for the Paleozoic and Mesozoic constrained by dynamic plate boundaries and restored

    E-print Network

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    A plate tectonic model for the Paleozoic and Mesozoic constrained by dynamic plate boundaries November 2001; accepted 15 November 2001 Abstract We developed a plate tectonic model for the Paleozoic rates and major tectonic and magmatic events. Plates were constructed through time by adding

  11. Prototypical Concepts and Misconceptions of Plate Tectonic Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibley, D. F.; Patino, L. C.

    2003-12-01

    Students of geology encounter many prototypical/exemplar concepts* that include representative, but not necessarily defining, features and characteristics. This study of students' prototypical representations of plate tectonic boundaries indicates that their representations are rich sources of information about their misconceptions about plate tectonics. After lectures in plate tectonics and mountain building, 353 students in a general education geology class were asked to draw a continent-continent convergent boundary. For this study, a correct answer is defined as having the major features in correct proportions as depicted in the plate boundary diagrams on the USGS web. Fifty-two percent of the drawings were either incorrect or incomplete such that they could not be interpreted. Only 48% were readily interpretable, and of these 22% drew the boundary correctly, showing a thickening of crust where two continents collide. Thirty-three percent drew the boundary showing concave slabs of continental crust as one might imagine two pieces of firm rubber pushed together on a rigid surface and 45% depicted mountains as one might imagine inverted ice cream cones on a rigid plank. Twenty-one senior class geology majors and graduate students were given the same assignment. Forty-eight percent rendered a correct drawing, whereas 38% drew the same ice cream cone on a plank type picture that 45% of the general education students drew. In a second class of 12 geology majors, only 1 student drew a cross section of a continent-ocean boundary similar to standard representation. Four of 12 drew mountains on the top of continental crust over a subduction zone but did not draw a compensating mass within the crust or lithosphere. Prototypical drawings provide more information about students' concepts than do most multiple-choice questions. For example, sixty-two percent of theses students who drew mountains similar to foam rubber pads pushed together on a desk or ice cream cones on a plank correctly answered a multiple-choice question that would appear to indicate a better understanding than the drawings reveal. Furthermore, 12 interviewed students made statements that could be interpreted to indicate that they understood the concept of mountain building at plate tectonic boundaries better than their drawings suggest. Incoherence of multiple-choice responses, verbal statements and drawings may be common in novice learners. If cognitive scientists are correct in their model of multiple types of mental representations for the same term, then the fact that novices may hold inconsistent representations is not surprising. The fact that students at various academic levels draw very similar prototypes that are incorrect is evidence that students have distinct and persistent prototype misconceptions. * Cognitive scientists define a prototypical/exemplar concept as a mental representation of the best examples or central tendencies of a term.

  12. Earthquakes, Plate Boundaries, and Depth Indiana Standard Indicators

    E-print Network

    Polly, David

    , volcanoes, trenches, and mountains. ES.1.24 ­ Understand and discuss continental drift, sea-floor spreading of the ocean and continental crust and the depth of earthquakes, and types of plate boundaries where or continental crust? · What is the explanation behind the earthquakes that do not occur at plate boundaries? #12

  13. Models for rupture mechanics of plate boundaries and crustal deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nur, A.

    1983-01-01

    The role of pull aparts and pushups in transcurrent systems, the rotation of faults and blocks within transcurrent fault systems, the role of accretion tectonics in plate boundary deformation, and power law creep behavior and the yielding at plate boundaries were investigated.

  14. UNIFORMLY CONVERGENT FINITE ELEMENT METHODS FOR SINGULARLY PERTURBED ELLIPTIC BOUNDARY

    E-print Network

    UNIFORMLY CONVERGENT FINITE ELEMENT METHODS FOR SINGULARLY PERTURBED ELLIPTIC BOUNDARY VALUE, 1997 Abstract-- We consider the bilinear finite element method on a Shishkin mesh for the singularly in L 2 ­norm. Numerical results confirm our theoretical analysis. Keywords-- Finite element methods

  15. Shock wave convergence in water with parabolic wall boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Yanuka, D.; Shafer, D.; Krasik, Ya.

    2015-04-28

    The convergence of shock waves in water, where the cross section of the boundaries between which the shock wave propagates is either straight or parabolic, was studied. The shock wave was generated by underwater electrical explosions of planar Cu wire arrays using a high-current generator with a peak output current of ?45?kA and rise time of ?80?ns. The boundaries of the walls between which the shock wave propagates were symmetric along the z axis, which is defined by the direction of the exploding wires. It was shown that with walls having a parabolic cross section, the shock waves converge faster and the pressure in the vicinity of the line of convergence, calculated by two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations coupled with the equations of state of water and copper, is also larger.

  16. Structures and kinematics in the northeastern Mediterranean: A study of an irregular plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempler, Ditza; Garfunkel, Zvi

    1994-06-01

    Extensional structures are prominent in the northeastern Mediterranean, a unique sector of the Africa-Eurasia plate convergence zone. To explain this paradoxical situation, we analyse here the young tectonics of this region by examining its structural elements and plate kinematics. Offshore multichannel seismic reflection profiles and onland geology show that the stuctural settings are different on the two sides of the northeastern Mediterranean triple junction (AFR-ARB-ANA). On the east, stuctures controlled by strike-slip and by compression coexist, whereas on the west compression is not very conspicuous. Here, deep basins separated by a partly submerged ridge are prominent. We interpret the ridge, which comprises the Kyrenia- Misis-Andirin Unit at its core, as a large flower structure which extends from southeastern Turkey to Cyprus; the Adana-Cilicia and the Iskenderun-Latakia-Mesaoria Basins on its flanks are interpreted as due to extension. This interpretation agrees with the relative motions between the Africa, Arabia, Eurasia and Anatolia plates in this region. Analysis of the local plate kinematics reveals that strike-slip predominates along the southern boundary of the Anatolia plate in this region, as a result of Anatolia's westward escape. East of the triple junction this motion is associated with comparable shortening transverse to the plate boundary, whereas west of the triple junction the motion transverse to the plate boundary varies between slight compression to extension, depending mainly on the local strike of the plate boundaries. These variations, calculated from regional data, correlate well with the observed structural changes along the northeastern Mediterranean sector of the plate convergence zone. The structural-kinematic analysis explains both the lateral changes in the deformation style and the existence of local extension in the northeastern Mediterranean.

  17. 3D Modeling of the transition from oblique lateral to normal convergence at the plate corner of Southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, A. D.; Koons, P. O.; Pavlis, T. L.; Chapman, J. B.; Upton, P.; Johnson, S. E.

    2006-12-01

    Plate boundary corners generate a complex architecture to accommodate the transition from oblique lateral accretion to normal convergence. Geologically recent (5-10 Ma) convergence of the Pacific-Yakutat-North America system has created an early-stage analog to corner convergence characteristic of other corner systems (i.e. Himalayan Eastern Syntaxis). Numerical and analog models have been developed to simulate the early stages of oblique terrane collision in a convergent corner environment. Preliminary 3D numerical models show corner convergence partitioned into a steep, narrow two-sided mountain wedge along the lateral accretion zone that changes to a wider zone of shortening bounded by inboard and outboard directed thrusts at the frontal accretion boundary. Contraction rates through the frontal accretion zone lessen grading into the strike slip lateral boundary where shear strain rate is intensified. Clockwise rotation of structures also occurs at the transition from shortening to oblique slip. This transition is a localized strain triplet which reflects the changing boundary conditions of the corner. Slickenside analysis yields strain information for multiple faults in the Samovar Hills region of SE Alaska. Sandbox analog model results show predominant clockwise rotation along the lateral accretion zone indicating dextral displacement and a larger zone of shortening along the convergent frontal accretion zone. Deformation across the frontal accretion zone wedge shifts from dextral convergence near the corner to the east, normal convergence in the middle, and sinistral convergence to the west. Spatial and temporal localization of deformation into the strain triplet at the corner is shown to be a function of changing rheological conditions such as changing base strength or inclusion of strain softening behavior. Further strain concentration along with thermal weakening of the brittle crust occurs with focused erosion leading to aneurysm behavior.

  18. Relating rapid plate-motion variations to plate-boundary forces in global coupled models of the mantle/lithosphere system: Effects of topography and friction (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunge, H.; Iaffaldano, G.

    2009-12-01

    Constraints on the plate tectonic force balance are fundamentally important but difficult to obtain, because mantle related driving forces and resisting plate boundary forces cannot easily be seperated. Here we compare the record of past plate motions with present-day plate motion models derived from space geodetic techniques which reveals a number of short-term variations in global plate velocities over the past 10 m.y. Such variations are a powerful probe into the nature and magnitude of plate boundary forces, because they are unlikely to originate from changes in mantle buoyancy forces which evolve on longer time scales. We exploit the constraints of the velocity record using a novel coupled modeling approach where global neo-tectonic simulations are combined with high-resolution mantle circulation models to arrive at simple global budgets of mantle, lithosphere and plate boundary forces. We focus on three plate boundary systems along the Nazca/South America plate margin, the Aleutian trench and the India/Australia plate boundary to show that gravitational spreading from high topography in the Andes and Tibet contributes substantially to the global plate tectonic force balance and that this contribution is sufficient to explain some 35% of recent velocity changes over the Earth’s surface, including the observed 30% convergence reduction between the Nazca/South America plates. Our models make a number of specific predictions such as significant lateral variations in plate coupling forces along a given margin revealed by trench parallel gravity and bathymetry anomalies and the occurrence of large earthquakes, as well as differences by as much as a factor of five from margin to margin. They also support the notion of a relatively young plate boundary separating the India and Australia plates, which has been postulated earlier. Importantly, we find that the modeled Nazca/South America convergence reduction explains recent spreading rate variations in the South Atlantic and South Pacific, which points to the importance of far field effects on the adjacent continents in explaining the spreading record of oceanic basins. Our numerical results demonstrate (a) that detailed budgets of forces acting upon plates can be obtained and (b) support the notion of strong forcing along weak plate boundaries

  19. The Plate Boundary Observatory Borehole Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasting, M.; Eakins, J.; Anderson, G.; Hodgkinson, K.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.; Smith, S.; Jackson, M.; Prescott, W.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the NSF-funded EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory, UNAVCO will install and operate 103 borehole seismic stations throughout the western United States. These stations continuously record three- component seismic data at 100 samples per second, using Geo-Space HS-1-LT 2-HZ geophones in a sonde developed by SONDI and Consultants (Duke University). Each seismic package is connected to an uphole Quanterra Q330 data logger and Marmot external buffer, from which UNAVCO retrieves data in real time. UNAVCO uses the Antelope software suite from Boulder Real-Time Technologies (BRTT) for all data collection and transfer, metadata generation and distribution, and monitoring of the network. The first stations were installed in summer 2005, with 19 stations installed by September 2006, and a total of 28 stations expected by December 2006. In a prime example of cooperation between the PBO and USArray components of EarthScope, the USArray Array Network Facility (ANF), operated by UC San Diego, handled data flow and network monitoring for the PBO seismic stations in the initial stages of network operations. We thank the ANF staff for their gracious assistance over the last several months. Data flow in real time from the remote stations to the UNAVCO Boulder Network Operations Center, from which UNAVCO provides station command and control; verification and distribution of metadata; and basic quality control for all data. From Boulder, data flow in real time to the IRIS DMC for final quality checks, archiving, and distribution. Historic data are available from June 2005 to the present, and are updated in real time with typical latencies of less than ten seconds. As of 1 September 2006, the PBO seismic network had returned 60 GB of raw data. Please visit http://pboweb.unavco.org for additional information on the PBO seismic network.

  20. Do variations in Arabian plate lithospheric structure control deformation in the Arabian-Eurasian convergence zone?

    E-print Network

    Stern, Robert J.

    to Red Sea rifting and the Afar hotspot. 1. Introduction The Arabian Plate is mostly continental crustDo variations in Arabian plate lithospheric structure control deformation in the Arabian- 4214, USA E-mail: rjstern@utdallas.edu Abstract. The Arabian plate has been converging with Eurasia

  1. Relating rapid plate-motion variations to plate-boundary forces in global coupled models of the mantle/lithosphere system: Effects of topography and friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iaffaldano, Giampiero; Bunge, Hans-Peter

    2009-09-01

    Recent high-resolution models of past plate motions and their comparison with plate motion models inferred from space geodetic techniques reveal a number of short-term variations in global plate velocities over the past 10 Myrs. Such variations serve as powerful probe into the nature and magnitude of plate boundary forces, because they are unlikely to originate from changes in mantle buoyancy forces, which evolve on longer time scales. Here we explore the constraints of the velocity record using a novel coupled modeling-approach of global neo-tectonic simulations combined with realistic plate driving forces obtained from mantle circulation models (MCMs) to arrive at simple global budgets of mantle, lithosphere and plate boundary forces. We focus on three plate boundary systems along the Nazca/South America plate margin, the Aleutian trench and the India/Australia plate boundary to show that gravitational spreading from high topography in the Andes and Tibet contributes substantially to the global plate tectonic force balance and that this contribution is sufficient to explain some 35% of recent velocity changes over the Earth's surface, including among others the observed 30% convergence reduction between the Nazca/South America plates. Our models make a number of specific predictions such as significant lateral variations in plate coupling forces along a given margin revealed by trench-parallel gravity and bathymetry anomalies and the occurrence of large earthquakes, as well as differences by as much as a factor of five from margin to margin. They also support the notion of a relatively young plate boundary separating the India and Australia plates, which has been previously suggested based on independent observations. Importantly, we find that the modeled Nazca/South America convergence reduction explains recent spreading-rate variations in the South Atlantic and South Pacific, which points to the importance of far field effects on the adjacent continents in explaining the spreading record of oceanic basins. Our numerical results demonstrate (a) that detailed budgets of forces acting upon plates can be obtained and (b) support the notion of strong forcing along weak plate boundaries.

  2. Plate boundaries in the Woodlark Basin and Solomon Sea Region, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodliffe, A. M.; Cameron, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Solomon Sea and Woodlark Basin region of eastern Papua New Guinea is a tectonically complex region between the obliquely converging Pacific and Australian plates. Despite numerous marine geophysical surveys in the region, the exact nature of the tectonic boundaries between the Solomon Sea and the Woodlark Basin remains controversial. Marine geophysical data collected in the last decade provides additional insight into this region and clearly defines the boundaries of the Solomon Sea, Trobriand, Woodlark, and Australian plates. Multibeam bathymetry data collected in 2004 along the Trobriand Trough, together with seismic profiles across the trough, show a prominent deformation front in the trench that defines the southern boundary of the Solomon Sea plate. Petrologic data from volcanoes to the south of this boundary indicate that they have a subduction affinity. Heat flow profiles to the south of the plate boundary show a clear subduction signature. At the eastern termination of the Trobriand Trough the plate boundary forms a triple junction with the NE-SW trending Nubaru strike-slip fault. To the NE this major fault separates the Solomon Sea plate from the Woodlark plate. The morphology of this fault and a CMT solution indicate that it is right-lateral. To the SW the Nubaru strike-slip fault passes to the south of the Trobriand Trough, forming the southern boundary of the Trobriand plate (with the Trobriand Trough as the northern boundary). Further west the trend of the strike slip fault becomes more ENE-WSW. A significant extension component is evident as the fault passes to the north of Egum Graben and meets the Woodlark Basin spreading system at the current rifting to seafloor spreading transition directly to the east of Moresby Seamount. The revised tectonic model for this region has important implications for tectonic reconstructions that include an active rifting to spreading transition and prominent core complexes. In the past, models have assumed a simple two-plate system. The inclusion of the Trobriand plate at the rifting to spreading transition will change estimates of extension that have assumed that the system can be described by a single Euler pole directly to the WSW.

  3. Long-distance multistep sediment transfer at convergent plate margins (Barbados, Lesser Antilles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limonta, Mara; Garzanti, Eduardo; Resentini, Alberto; Andò, Sergio; Boni, Maria; Bechstädt, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    We present a regional provenance study of the compositional variability and long distance multicyclic transport of terrigenous sediments along the convergent and transform plate boundaries of Central America, from the northern termination of the Andes to the Lesser Antilles arc-trench system. We focus on high-resolution bulk-petrography and heavy-mineral analyses of modern beach and fluvial sediments and Cenozoic sandstones of Barbados island, one of the places in the world where an active accretionary prism is subaerially exposed (Speed et al., 2012). The main source of siliciclastic sediment in the Barbados accretionary prism is off-scraped quartzose to feldspatho-litho-quartzose metasedimentaclastic turbidites, ultimately supplied from South America chiefly via the Orinoco fluvio-deltaic system. Modern sand on Barbados island is either quartzose with depleted heavy-mineral suites recycled from Cenozoic turbidites and including epidote, zircon, tourmaline, andalusite, garnet, staurolite and chloritoid, or calcareous and derived from Pleistocene coral reefs. The ubiquitous occurrence of clinopyroxene and hypersthene, associated with green-brown kaersutitic hornblende in the north or olivine in the south, points to reworking of ash-fall tephra erupted from andesitic (St. Lucia) and basaltic (St. Vincent) volcanic centers in the Lesser Antilles arc transported by the prevailing anti-trade winds in the upper troposphere. Modern sediments on Barbados island and those shed by other accretionary prisms such as the Indo- Burman Ranges and Andaman-Nicobar Ridge (Garzanti et al., 2013) define the distinctive mineralogical signature of Subduction Complex Provenance, which is invariably composite. Detritus recycled dominantly from accreted turbidites and oceanic mudrocks is mixed in various proportions with detritus from the adjacent volcanic arc or carbonate reefs widely developed at tropical latitudes. Ophiolitic detritus may be locally prominent. Quantitative provenance analysis is a basic tool in paleogeographic reconstructions when multicyclic sediment dispersal along and across convergent plate margins occur. Such analysis provides the link between faraway factories of detritus and depositional sinks, as well as clues on subduction geometry and the nature of associated growing orogenic belts, and even information on climate, atmospheric circulation and weathering intensity in source regions. REFERENCES Garzanti, E., Limonta, M., Resentini, A., Bandopadhyay, P.C., Najman, Y., Andò, S., Vezzoli, G., 2013. Sediment recycling at convergent plate margins (Indo-Burman Ranges and Andaman-Nicobar Ridge). Earth Sci. Rev., 123, 113-132. Speed, C. and Sedlock, R. 2012. Geology and geomorphology of Barbados. Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Pap., 491, 63 p.

  4. Iberian plate kinematics: A jumping plate boundary between Eurasia and Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Srivastava, S.P.; Schouten, Hans; Roest, W.R.; Klitgord, Kim D.; Kovacs, L.C.; Verhoef, J.; Macnab, R.

    1990-01-01

    THE rotation of Iberia and its relation to the formation of the Pyrenees has been difficult to decipher because of the lack of detailed sea-floor spreading data, although several models have been proposed1-7. Here we use detailed aeromagnetic measurements from the sea floor offshore of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland to show that Iberia moved as part of the African plate from late Cretaceous to mid-Eocene time, with a plate boundary extending westward from the Bay of Biscay. When motion along this boundary ceased, a boundary linking extension in the King's Trough to compression along the Pyrenees came into existence. Finally, since the late Oligocene, Iberia has been part of the Eurasian plate, with the boundary between Eurasia and Africa situated along the Azores-Gibraltar fracture zone.

  5. Constraining Late Cretaceous to mid Eocene plate boundaries in the southwest Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, K. J.; Williams, S.; Whittaker, J. M.; Müller, D.; Clarke, G. L.; Seton, M.; Flament, N. E.

    2013-12-01

    The southwest Pacific has undergone a complex tectonic history since the Late Cretaceous, involving multiple episodes of subduction, back-arc spreading and continental deformation. Starkly contrasting reconstructions have been proposed for this period, ranging from tectonic quiescence with no plate boundary between the Lord Howe Rise (LHR) and Pacific, to widespread subduction and back-arc spreading, and this disparity reflects sparse and ambiguous data. Placing further constraints on these reconstructions is crucial for a variety of applications, from global-scale geodynamic studies using plate circuits to basin-scale studies of paleogeographic evolution and vertical motions. Geologic and kinematic data from the southwest Pacific are reviewed to better constrain the tectonic history of the region from the Late Cretaceous to mid Eocene, including the timing and location of plate boundary activity. This facilitates better constraints on the time-dependent evolution of the southwest Pacific plate circuit so that motion between plate pairs is consistent with geologic data and known tectonic regimes. The southwest Pacific comprised three spreading ridges during this time: in the Southeast Indian Ocean, Tasman Sea and Amundsen Sea. However, at least one, and possibly two other plate boundaries also accommodated relative motions: in the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) and between the LHR and Pacific. Uncertainties in the timing and nature of plate boundaries prevent the construction of a robust reconstruction model and the implementation of a southwest Pacific plate circuit. Some previous plate models include continuous subduction east of the LHR throughout the Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic, while an alternative scenario involves the absence of plate boundaries between the LHR and Pacific until 45 Ma. Geologic observations suggests that subduction initiated to the east of New Caledonia at c. 55 Ma, including dyke emplacement and metamorphism in New Caledonia, and arc-type rocks dredged from the Tonga forearc. These geologic and kinematic data do not require a plate boundary between the LHR and Pacific from c. 84-55 Ma, in agreement with previous studies. A plate boundary may have existed before 55 Ma, however net convergence/divergence at this boundary would have been minor, with a possible strike-slip component. By combining geologic observations with a kinematic analysis, we propose that from 0-55 Ma an Antarctic plate circuit must be used in reconstructions, in which LHR-Pacific motion is unconstrained. From 55-74 Ma Antarctic or Australian circuits can be reconciled with regional geology when revised relative motion histories at the Australian-Antarctic ridge and in the WARS are adopted. A well-constrained Antarctic circuit predicts <50 km of strike-slip motion at a LHR-Pacific boundary. Alternatively, an Australian circuit assuming the LHR was part of the Pacific plate, predicts 100-150 km of extension in the WARS, that is orthogonal in the Ross Sea and oblique further east. Prior to 74 Ma neither plate circuit is preferable, as more data are needed to better constrain regional spreading histories.

  6. A diffuse plate boundary model for Indian Ocean tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiens, D. A.; Demets, C.; Gordon, R. G.; Stein, S.; Argus, D.

    1985-01-01

    It is suggested that motion along the virtually aseismic Owen fracture zone is negligible, so that Arabia and India are contained within a single Indo-Arabian plate divided from the Australian plate by a diffuse boundary. The boundary is a zone of concentrated seismicity and deformation commonly characterized as 'intraplate'. The rotation vector of Australia relative to Indo-Arabia is consistent with the seismologically observed 2 cm/yr of left-lateral strike-slip along the Ninetyeast Ridge, north-south compression in the Central Indian Ocean, and the north-south extension near Chagos.

  7. Dynamic behaviour of thin composite plates for different boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sprintu, Iuliana E-mail: rotaruconstantin@yahoo.com; Rotaru, Constantin E-mail: rotaruconstantin@yahoo.com

    2014-12-10

    In the context of composite materials technology, which is increasingly present in industry, this article covers a topic of great interest and theoretical and practical importance. Given the complex design of fiber-reinforced materials and their heterogeneous nature, mathematical modeling of the mechanical response under different external stresses is very difficult to address in the absence of simplifying assumptions. In most structural applications, composite structures can be idealized as beams, plates, or shells. The analysis is reduced from a three-dimensional elasticity problem to a oneor two-dimensional problem, based on certain simplifying assumptions that can be made because the structure is thin. This paper aims to validate a mathematical model illustrating how thin rectangular orthotropic plates respond to the actual load. Thus, from the theory of thin plates, new analytical solutions are proposed corresponding to orthotropic rectangular plates having different boundary conditions. The proposed analytical solutions are considered both for solving equation orthotropic rectangular plates and for modal analysis.

  8. A great earthquake rupture across a rapidly evolving three-plate boundary.

    PubMed

    Furlong, Kevin P; Lay, Thorne; Ammon, Charles J

    2009-04-10

    On 1 April 2007 a great, tsunamigenic earthquake (moment magnitude 8.1) ruptured the Solomon Islands subduction zone at the triple junction where the Australia and Solomon Sea-Woodlark Basin plates simultaneously underthrust the Pacific plate with different slip directions. The associated abrupt change in slip direction during the great earthquake drove convergent anelastic deformation of the upper Pacific plate, which generated localized uplift in the forearc above the subducting Simbo fault, potentially amplifying local tsunami amplitude. Elastic deformation during the seismic cycle appears to be primarily accommodated by the overriding Pacific forearc. This earthquake demonstrates the seismogenic potential of extremely young subducting oceanic lithosphere, the ability of ruptures to traverse substantial geologic boundaries, and the consequences of complex coseismic slip for uplift and tsunamigenesis. PMID:19359581

  9. Plate convergence west of Patagonia and the Antarctic Peninsula since 61 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eagles, Graeme; Scott, Benjamin G. C.

    2014-12-01

    A new plate kinematic model portrays plate motions immediately west and south of Drake Passage in the southeast Pacific Ocean. Overall intermediate-to-slow rate spreading generated oceanic lithosphere as the Phoenix plate diverged from the Antarctic plate. The model shows a history of Phoenix plate motion that is interpretable as having been affected by a northeast-increasing gradient in the slab pull force since chron 18 (39 Ma), during which time newer, less dense lithosphere was subducting in the southwest than in the northeast. The model allows first calculations of Phoenix-Farallon (Nazca) plate motion parameters in the south Pacific plate circuit. Using these parameters, it is possible to show that the simplest assumptions about the ridge's segmentation, length and migration are consistent with existing suggestions of its location from consideration of slab window-related volcanism at sites in South America around 50 and 20 Ma. The parameters thus define ridge locations that can be used to define which plates were subducting beneath South America and the Magallanes and Antarctic plates, and when. We consider the relationships between the plate convergence rate, obliquity and the history of magmatism on the Antarctic Peninsula and at the North Patagonian batholith, showing that magmatic pulses can be related to accelerations in the plate convergence rate. Between these settings, Phoenix-South American plate motion was almost parallel to the Fuegian trench. Here, magmatism in Paleocene to early Miocene times must be related to the presence of a slab subducted beneath the region by the less oblique collision further north. Later magmatism can be related to migration of the Phoenix-Farallon ridge and Phoenix-Farallon-Antarctic triple junction into the area south of the Fuegian margin, which brought it into slow low-obliquity convergence with first Farallon and then Antarctic plate lithosphere.

  10. Melt generation in the Earth's mantle at Convergent Plate Margins

    E-print Network

    Till, Christy B

    2011-01-01

    The five geologic studies presented in this thesis document how the recycling of tectonic plates at subduction zones has a profound effect on the melting behavior of the Earth's mantle. Two experimental studies (Chapters ...

  11. Linking mantle dynamics, plate tectonics and surface processes in the active plate boundary zones of eastern New Guinea (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, S.; Moucha, R.; Fitzgerald, P. G.; Hoke, G. D.; Bermudez, M. A.; Webb, L. E.; Braun, J.; Rowley, D. B.; Insel, N.; Abers, G. A.; Wallace, L. M.; Vervoort, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Eastern New Guinea lies within the rapidly obliquely converging Australian (AUS)- Pacific (PAC) plate boundary zone and is characterized by transient plate boundaries, rapidly rotating microplates and a globally significant geoid high. As the AUS plate moved northward in the Cenozoic, its leading edge has been a zone of subduction and arc accretion. The variety of tectonic settings in this region permits assessment of the complex interplay among mantle dynamics, plate tectonics, and surface processes. Importantly, the timescale of tectonic events (e.g., subduction, (U)HP exhumation, seafloor spreading) are within the valid bounds of mantle convection models. A record of changes in bathymetry and topography are preserved in high standing mountain belts, exhumed extensional gneiss domes and core complexes, uplifted coral terraces, and marine sedimentary basins. Global seismic tomography models indicate accumulation of subducted slabs beneath eastern New Guinea at the bottom of the upper mantle (i.e., <660km depth). Some of the deeply subducted material may indeed be buoyant subducted AUS continental margin (to depths of ~250-300 km), as well as subducted continental material that has reached the point of no return (i.e., > 250-300 km). Preliminary global-scale backward advected mantle convection models, driven by density inferred from joint seismic-geodynamic tomography models, exhibit large-scale flow associated with these subducted slab remnants and predict the timing and magnitude (up to 1500 m) of dynamic topography change (both subsidence and uplift) since the Oligocene. In this talk we will explore the effects of large-scale background mantle flow and plate tectonics on the evolution of topography and bathymetry in eastern New Guinea, and discuss possible mechanisms to explain basin subsidence and surface uplift in the region.

  12. Plate convergence, transcurrent faults and internal deformation adjacent to Southeast Asia and the western Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitch, T. J.

    1971-01-01

    A model for oblique convergence between plates of lithosphere is proposed in which at least a fraction of slip parallel to the plate margin results in transcurrent movements on a nearly vertical fault which is located on the continental side of a zone of plate consumption. In an extreme case of complete decoupling only the component of slip normal to the plate margin can be inferred from underthrusting. Recent movements in the western Sunda region provide the most convincing evidence for decoupling of slip, which in this region is thought to be oblique to the plate margin. A speculative model for convergence along the margins of the Philippine Sea is constructed from an inferred direction of oblique slip in the Philippine region. This model requires that the triple point formed by the junction of the Japanese and Izu-Bonin trenches and the Nankai trough migrate along the Sagami trough.

  13. Lithospheric boundaries and plate motions in the Cyprus area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papazachos, B. C.; Papaioannou, Ch. A.

    1999-07-01

    Accurate location of earthquakes recorded by seismographs and reliable fault plane solutions of strong recent earthquakes are used to define the plate boundaries and the pattern of plate motion in Cyprus and surrounding area. Spatial distribution of shallow ( h<60 km) and intermediate depth (60 km ? h ?130 km) earthquakes define a continuous boundary between the Eurasian and the African lithospheric plates in this area. This boundary is formed of two arcuate structures, the eastern and western, which have their concave side to the north and are connected by a NNE striking transform dextral fault, the Paphos Transform Fault (PTF), just west of Cyprus. The eastern structure consists of the Cyprean arc and its continuation to the Gulf of Adana, which then joins the Eastern Anatolian Fault. The western one is an arc-like structure which strikes in a northwest direction following the Florence rise and joins the Rhodes thrust fault. The African plate is slowly subducted under the Eurasian plate from south to north but in the Cyprean arc the Cyprean microplate overrides also the Levantine lithosphere in a SW direction. Some interesting tectonic similarities between the Cyprean and the Hellenic arcs are pointed out.

  14. Bolivar: Crustal Structure of the Caribbean-South America plate boundary at 70W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guedez, M. C.; Zelt, C. A.; Magnani, B. M.; Levander, A.

    2006-12-01

    The Caribbean-South America plate boundary is characterized by tectonic transpression with oblique convergence. The ~ 20 mm/yr eastward displacement of the Caribbean plate, with respect to a fixed South America causes the plate boundary to have a dominant right-lateral strike-slip component, accommodated by the San Sebastian-El Pilar fault system. To the west, relative plate motion is complicated by the northeastward tectonic escape of the Maracaibo block along the Bocono and Santa Marta strike-slip faults, and the shortening between North and South America. The convergence rate between the Maracaibo block and the Caribbean has been estimated to be ~ 2 mm/yr. The multidisciplinary BOLIVAR project seeks to understand the complex plate interaction of the Caribbean- South American diffuse plate boundary. We hypothesize that this may be a site of continental growth by island arc accretion of the Leeward Antilles onto South America. The active-seismic component of the project, completed in June 2004, concentrated along five main onshore-offshore profiles extending from the Caribbean basin to the front of the fold and thrust belts of Venezuela. Seismic refraction data were acquired as well as coincident multi-channel seismic (MCS) lines in the offshore sections. We present results from seismic reflection and wide-angle refraction data along a 450 km-long onshore- offshore north-south striking profile at 70 degrees west longitude. Refraction data were used to develop 2-D velocity models from independent and simultaneous traveltime inversion of first arrivals and PmP reflections from 40 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBS) and about ~ 80 land recorders. A coincident MCS profile was processed and interpreted independently. Offshore western Venezuela the Caribbean plate is anomalously thick ~ 15 km. The velocity model from wide-angle data is well correlated with the structures interpreted in the reflection data; in particular in the upper and middle crust of the Southern Caribbean Deformed Belt, the Falcon Basin and the Aruba Rise. High- velocity anomalies are spatially associated with the strike-slip Oca-Ancon fault in the region. Underthrusting of the Caribbean plate beneath the South America plate is inferred from the presence of low velocity sediments beneath the South Caribbean Deformed Belt over a distance of 75-100 km.

  15. Swath sonar mapping of Earth's submarine plate boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbotte, S. M.; Ferrini, V. L.; Celnick, M.; Nitsche, F. O.; Ryan, W. B. F.

    2014-12-01

    The recent loss of Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 in an area of the Indian Ocean where less than 5% of the seafloor is mapped with depth sounding data (Smith and Marks, EOS 2014) highlights the striking lack of detailed knowledge of the topography of the seabed for much of the worlds' oceans. Advances in swath sonar mapping technology over the past 30 years have led to dramatic improvements in our capability to map the seabed. However, the oceans are vast and only an estimated 10% of the seafloor has been mapped with these systems. Furthermore, the available coverage is highly heterogeneous and focused within areas of national strategic priority and community scientific interest. The major plate boundaries that encircle the globe, most of which are located in the submarine environment, have been a significant focus of marine geoscience research since the advent of swath sonar mapping. While the location of these plate boundaries are well defined from satellite-derived bathymetry, significant regions remain unmapped at the high-resolutions provided by swath sonars and that are needed to study active volcanic and tectonic plate boundary processes. Within the plate interiors, some fossil plate boundary zones, major hotspot volcanoes, and other volcanic provinces have been the focus of dedicated research programs. Away from these major tectonic structures, swath mapping coverage is limited to sparse ocean transit lines which often reveal previously unknown deep-sea channels and other little studied sedimentary structures not resolvable in existing low-resolution global compilations, highlighting the value of these data even in the tectonically quiet plate interiors. Here, we give an overview of multibeam swath sonar mapping of the major plate boundaries of the globe as extracted from public archives. Significant quantities of swath sonar data acquired from deep-sea regions are in restricted-access international archives. Open access to more of these data sets would enable global comparisons of plate boundary structures and processes and could facilitate a more coordinated approach to optimizing the future acquisition of these high-value data by the global research community.

  16. Numerical Study of Flat-Plate Boundary Layer Bypass Transition.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, Victor; Piomelli, Ugo; Choudhari, Meelan M.

    2004-11-01

    Previous numerical simulations of boundary-layer bypass transition due to free-stream-turbulence (FST) have focused primarily on the transition region itself, using an ad hoc inflow condition downstream of the plate leading edge. This approach involves significant assumptions regarding the spatial evolution of FST and its penetration into the boundary layer. Additionally, the effects of FST length-scale have largely been ignored, which can lead to incorrect decay rates over the boundary layer, making a quantitative comparison with experiments difficult. We present DNS of boundary-layer bypass transition, which addresses some of the above limitations by including the super-elliptic leading edge of the flat-plate model inside the computational domain. The FST is generated upstream of the plate, enabling the leading-edge/FST interaction region to be fully captured in the simulations. The FST also has the same decay rate as in the experiments of Roach and Brierlay (1992), facilitating a direct comparison with the experimental data.

  17. Tectonics of the Nazca-Antarctic plate boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson-Fontana, Sandra; Larson, Roger L.; Engeln, Joseph F.; Lundgren, Paul; Stein, Seth

    1987-01-01

    A new bathymetric chart of part of the Chile transform system is constructed, based mainly on an R/V Endeavor survey from 100 deg W to its intersection with the East Ridge of the Juan Fernandez microplate. A generally continuous lineated trend can be followed through the entire region, with the transform valley being relatively narrow and well-defined from 109 deg W to approximately 104 deg 30 min W. The fracture zone then widens to the east, with at least two probable en echelon offsets to the south at 104 deg and 102 deg W. Six new strike-slip mechanisms along the Chile Transform and one normal fault mechanism near the northern end of the Chile Rise, inverted together with other plate-motion data from the eastern portion of the boundary, produce a new best-fit Euler pole for the Nazca-Antarctic plate pair, providing tighter constraints on the relative plate motions.

  18. Imprints of weak lithospheric plate boundaries in the observed geoid.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrunin, Alexey G.; Kaban, Mikhail K.; Schmeling, Harro; Shahraki, Meysam

    2014-05-01

    The observed geoid is highly sensitive to both: density-viscosity variations within the Earth and lithosphere dynamics. While geoid undulations induced by the mantle dynamics is a subject of numerous studies, the effect of plate tectonics on the geoid and dynamic topography remains an open issue. In present study we investigate a joint effect of weak zones, dividing lithospheric plates, and lateral viscosity variations (LVV) in the whole mantle on the observed geoid. A new numerical technique is based on the substantially revised method introduced by Zhang and Christensen (1993) for solving the Navier-Stokes-Poisson equations in the spectral domain with strong LVV. Weak plate boundaries (WPB) are introduced based on the integrated global model of plate boundary deformations GSRM (Kreemer et al., 2003). We show that the effect of WPB on the geoid is significant and reaches -40 m to 70 m with RMS ~20 m. Maximal WPB-related anomalies are observed over large subduction zones in South America and the Southwestern Pacific in agreement with previous studies. The positive geoid anomaly in South America could be explained largely by a dynamic effect of decoupling of the Nazca and South American plates. Mid-ocean ridges are mostly characterized by negative changes of the geoid compared to the model without WPB. The amplitude of the effect depends on the viscosity contrasts across WPB until its value reaches the limit of 2.5-3 orders of magnitude. This value might be considered as the level at which plates are completely decoupled. The effect of WPB alone, exceeds the effect of LVV in the whole mantle and generally does not correlate with it. However, inclusion of LVV reduces the geoid perturbations due to WPB by about 10 m. Therefore, it is important to consider all these factors together. The geoid changes mainly result from changes of the dynamic topography, which are about -300 to +500 m. The obtained results show that including WPB may significantly improve the reliability of instantaneous global dynamic models. References Zhang, S., and U. Christensen (1993), Some effects of lateral viscosity variations on geoid and surface velocities induced by density anomalies in the mantle, Geophys. J. Int., 114(3), 531-547 Kreemer, C., W. E. Holt, and A. J. Haines (2003), An integrated global model of present-day plate motions and plate boundary deformation, Geophys. J. Int., 154(1), 8-34

  19. Defects and boundary layers in non-Euclidean plates

    E-print Network

    Gemmer, John

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the behaviour of non-Euclidean plates with constant negative Gaussian curvature using the F\\"oppl-von K\\'arm\\'an reduced theory of elasticity. Motivated by recent experimental results, we focus on annuli with a periodic profile. We prove rigorous upper and lower bounds for the elastic energy that scales like the thickness squared. We also investigate the scaling with thickness of boundary layers where the stretching energy is concentrated with decreasing thickness.

  20. Lower plate deformation structures along the Costa Rica erosive plate boundary - results from IODP Expedition 344 (CRISP 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandstätter, Jennifer; Kurz, Walter; Micheuz, Peter; Krenn, Kurt

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 344 offshore the Osa Peninsula in Costa Rica was to sample and quantify the material entering the seismogenic zone of the Costa Rican erosive subduction margin. Fundamental to this objective is an understanding of the nature of both the subducting Cocos plate crust and of the overriding Caribbean plate. The subducting Cocos plate is investigated trying to define its hydrologic system and thermal state. The forearc structures recorded by the sediment deposited on the forearc, instead, document periods of uplift and subsidence and provide important information about the process of tectonic erosion that characterizes the Costa Rica margin. Offshore the western margin of Costa Rica, the oceanic Cocos plate subducts under the Caribbean plate, forming the southern end of the Middle America Trench. Subduction parameters including the age, convergence rate, azimuth, obliquity, morphology, and slab dip all vary along strike. The age of the Cocos plate at the Middle America Trench decreases from 24 Ma offshore the Nicoya Peninsula to 15 Ma offshore the Osa Peninsula. Subduction rates vary from 70 mm/y offshore Guatemala to 90 mm/y offshore southern Costa Rica. Convergence obliquity across the trench varies from offshore Nicaragua, where it is as much as 25° oblique, to nearly orthogonal southeast of the Nicoya Peninsula. Passage of the Cocos plate over the Galapagos hotspot created the aseismic Cocos Ridge, an overthickened welt of oceanic crust. This ridge is ~25 km thick, greater than three times normal oceanic crustal thickness. During IODP Expedition 344, the incoming Cocos plate was drilled at sites U1381 and U1414. Site U1381 is located ~4.5 km seaward of the deformation front offshore the Osa Peninsula and Caño Island. It is located on a local basement high. Basement relief often focuses fluid flow, so data from this site are likely to document the vigor of fluid flow in this area. Site U1414 is located ~1 km seaward of the deformation front offshore the Osa Peninsula and Caño Island. Primary science goals at Site U1414 included characterization of the alteration state of the magmatic basement. Brittle structures within the incoming plate (sites U1380, U1414) are mineralized extensional fractures and shear fractures. The shear fractures mainly show a normal component of shear. Within the sedimentary sequence both types of fractures dip steeply (vertical to subvertical) and strike NNE-SSW. Deformation bands trend roughly ENE-WSW, sub-parallel to the trend of the Cocos ridge. Structures in the Cocos Ridge basalt mainly comprise mineralized veins at various orientations. A preferred orientation of strike directions was not observed. Some veins show straight boundaries, others are characterized by an irregular geometry characterized by brecciated wall rock clasts embedded within vein precipitates. The vein mineralization was analysed in detail by RAMAN spectroscopy. Precipitation conditions and fluid chemistry were analysed by fluid inclusions entrapped within vein minerals. Vein mineralizations mainly consist of carbonate (fibrous aragonite, calcite), chalcedony, and quartz. Vein mineralization is mainly characterized by zoned antitaxial growth of carbonate fibres including a suture along the central vein domains. Quartz is often characterized by fibre growth of crystals perpendicular to the vein boundaries, too. These zoned veins additinally have wall rock alteration seams consisting of clay minerals. The precipitation sequence basically indicates that fluid chemistry evolved from an CO2-rich towards a SiO2- rich fluid.

  1. Attractors for non-dissipative irrotational von Karman plates with boundary damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bociu, Lorena; Toundykov, Daniel

    Long-time behavior of solutions to a von Karman plate equation is considered. The system has an unrestricted first-order perturbation and a nonlinear damping acting through free boundary conditions only. This model differs from those previously considered (e.g. in the extensive treatise (Chueshov and Lasiecka, 2010 [11])) because the semi-flow may be of a non-gradient type: the unique continuation property is not known to hold, and there is no strict Lyapunov function on the natural finite-energy space. Consequently, global bounds on the energy, let alone the existence of an absorbing ball, cannot be a priori inferred. Moreover, the free boundary conditions are not recognized by weak solutions and some helpful estimates available for clamped, hinged or simply-supported plates cannot be invoked. It is shown that this non-monotone flow can converge to a global compact attractor with the help of viscous boundary damping and appropriately structured restoring forces acting only on the boundary or its collar.

  2. Defects and boundary layers in non-Euclidean plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemmer, J. A.; Venkataramani, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the behaviour of non-Euclidean plates with constant negative Gaussian curvature using the Föppl-von Kármán reduced theory of elasticity. Motivated by recent experimental results, we focus on annuli with a periodic profile. We prove rigorous upper and lower bounds for the elastic energy that scales like the thickness squared. In particular we show that are only two types of global minimizers—deformations that remain flat and saddle shaped deformations with isolated regions of stretching near the edge of the annulus. We also show that there exist local minimizers with a periodic profile that have additional boundary layers near their lines of inflection. These additional boundary layers are a new phenomenon in thin elastic sheets and are necessary to regularize jump discontinuities in the azimuthal curvature across lines of inflection. We rigorously derive scaling laws for the width of these boundary layers as a function of the thickness of the sheet.

  3. Formation of plate boundaries: The role of mantle volatilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seno, Tetsuzo; Kirby, Stephen H.

    2014-02-01

    In the early Earth, convection occurred with the accumulation of thick crust over a weak boundary layer downwelling into the mantle (Davies, G.F., 1992. On the emergence of plate tectonics. Geology 20, 963-966.). This would have transitioned to stagnant-lid convection as the mantle cooled (Solomatov, V.S., Moresi, L.-N., 1997. Three regimes of mantle convection with non-Newtonian viscosity and stagnant lid convection on the terrestrial planets. Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1907-1910.) or back to a magma ocean as the mantle heated (Sleep, N., 2000. Evolution of the mode of convection within terrestrial planets. J. Geophys. Res. 105(E7): 17563-17578). Because plate tectonics began operating on the Earth, subduction must have been initiated, thus avoiding these shifts. Based on an analogy with the continental crust subducted beneath Hindu Kush and Burma, we propose that the lithosphere was hydrated and/or carbonated by H2O-CO2 vapors released from magmas generated in upwelling plumes and subsequently volatilized during underthrusting, resulting in lubrication of the thrust above, and subduction of the lithosphere along with the overlying thick crust. Once subduction had been initiated, serpentinized forearc mantle may have formed in a wedge-shaped body above a dehydrating slab. In relict arcs, suture zones, or rifted margins, any agent that warms and dehydrates the wedge would weaken the region surrounding it, and form various types of plate boundaries depending on the operating tectonic stress. Thus, once subduction is initiated, formation of plate boundaries might be facilitated by a major fundamental process: weakening due to the release of pressurized water from the warming serpentinized forearc mantle.

  4. Active faulting south of the Himalayan Front: Establishing a new plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeats, Robert S.; Thakur, V. C.

    2008-06-01

    New tectonic uplifts south of the Salt Range Thrust and Himalayan Front Thrust (HFT) represent an outward step of the plate boundary from the principal tectonic displacement zone into the Indo-Gangetic Plain. In Pakistan, the Lilla Anticline deforms fine-grained overbank deposits of the Jhelum River floodplain 15 km south of the Salt Range. The anticline is overpressured in Eocambrian non-marine strata. In northwest India south of Dehra Dun, the Piedmont Fault (PF) lies 15 km south of the HFT. Coalescing fans derived from the Himalaya form a piedmont (Old Piedmont Zone) 15-20 km wide east of the Yamuna River. This zone is uplifted as much as 15-20 m near the PF, and bedding is tilted 5-7° northeast. Holocene thermoluminescence-optically-stimulated luminescence dates for sediments in the Old Piedmont Zone suggest that the uplift rate might be as high as several mm/a. The Old Piedmont Zone is traced northwest 200 km and southeast another 200 km to the Nepal border. These structures, analogous to protothrusts in subduction zones, indicate that the Himalayan plate boundary is not a single structure but a series of structures across strike, including reactivated parts of the Main Boundary Thrust north of the range front, the HFT sensu stricto, and stepout structures on the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Displacement rates on all these structures must be added to determine the local India-Himalaya convergence rate.

  5. Turbulent thermal boundary layer on a permeable flat plate

    SciTech Connect

    Vigdorovich, I. I.

    2007-06-15

    Scaling laws are established for the profiles of temperature, turbulent heat flux, rms temperature fluctuation, and wall heat transfer in the turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate with transpiration. In the case of blowing, the temperature distribution represented in scaling variables outside the viscous sublayer has a universal form known from experimental data for flows over impermeable flat plates. In the case of suction, the temperature distribution is described by a one-parameter family of curves. A universal law of heat transfer having the form of a generalized Reynolds analogy provides a basis for representation of the heat flux distributions corresponding to different Reynolds numbers and transpiration velocities in terms of a function of one variable. The results are obtained without invoking any special closure hypotheses.

  6. Measuring Transient Signals in Plate Boundary Faults Zones with Strainmeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkinson, Kathleen; Mencin, Dave; Phillips, David; Henderson, Brent; Gottlieb, Mike; Gallaher, Warren; Johnson, Wade; Pyatt, Chad; Van Boskirk, Elizabeth; Fox, Otina; Mattioli, Glen; Meertens, Chuck

    2014-05-01

    One of the fundamental goals the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) funded Earthscope program was to provide a high-quality, continuous geodetic data set that would allow the scientific community to study the evolution of plate boundary zones. Of particular importance was enabling investigation of the role aseismic transient deformation plays in the release of accumulated stress. For example, to allow the comparison of the amount of strain released through Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS) events to that released in subduction zone earthquakes or, provide the ability to geodetically illuminate the kinematics of fault creep in strike-slip fault zones. The ability to easily integrate these measurements with compatible geophysical data sets was also an essential objective. With goals such as these in mind NSF funded the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) to record the continuous deformation field across the western US Plate Boundary. PBO, built and operated by UNAVCO, now consists of over 1100 GPS stations, 76 co-located borehole strain and seismic sites, 6 long baseline strainmeters, Depending on the scientific questions being addressed sites may also have tiltmeter, meteorological, pore pressure and meteorological instrumentation. This presentation will focus on the transient deformation signals recorded by the PBO strainmeter network. PBO strainmeters, which excel in recording signals on the order of nanostrain over hours, have provided unprecedented temporal resolution of aseismic transients such as ETS events in the Cascadia subduction zone, creep signals along the central section of the San Andreas fault system and tsunami generated strain waves. UNAVCO is responsible not only for the ongoing operation of PBO but also the generation of data products associated with each instrument type. In this presentation we will highlight some of the transient signals these instruments have captured, outline the processing steps required to extract these signals data and describe the strainmeter data products produced by UNAVCO.

  7. Large-Scale Present-Day Plate Boundary Deformations in the Eastern Hemisphere Determined from VLBI Data: Implications for Plate Tectonics and Indian Ocean Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akilan, A.; Abdul Azeez, K. K.; Schuh, H.; Yuvraaj, N.

    2015-10-01

    The dynamics of the planet Earth are manifestations of diverse plate tectonic processes which have been occurring since the Archean period of the Earth's evolution and continue to deform the plate boundaries. Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) is an efficient space geodetic method that enables precise measurement of plate motion and associated deformations. We analyze here VLBI measurements made during a period of approximately three decades at five locations on the Eastern hemisphere of the globe, which are geographically distributed over five continents (plates) around the Indian Ocean. Computed rate of change of baseline length show the deformation pattern and its rate at the boundaries between the major tectonic plates constituting the Eastern hemisphere of the Earth. The African (Nubian) and Antarctic plates are moving apart at 13.5 mm/year, which is mostly attributed to spreading of the South West Indian Ridge. Similarly, spreading of 59.0 mm/year is observed for the South East Indian Ridge that separates the Antarctic and Australian plates. Shortening at the rate of 3.9 mm/year is estimated across the subduction boundary between Africa (Nubia) and Eurasia. Similar convergence is evident between the Australian and Sunda blocks (of the Eurasian plate). The associated deformation of -54.8 mm/year seems to be chiefly accommodated along the Banda arc system, where the Australian plate is subducting under the Sunda block. VLBI sites within the Eurasian plate, Wettzell in Germany, and Seshan on the South China block, are moving apart at 3.6 mm/year. This relative motion between locations on the same plate is interpreted as a result of the deformation process along a large strike-slip fault, which is identified as the Western boundary of the South China block. Expansion of the Indian Ocean, at +91.5 m2/year, is also estimated from the rate of deformation estimated within the five baselines studied here. From the Hurst exponent values, which are indicators of the future trend of time series data, we predict deceleration of the various tectonic processes occurring at present.

  8. On the Relationship between SST Gradients, Boundary Layer Winds, and Convergence over the Tropical Oceans

    E-print Network

    Bretherton, Christopher S.

    A linear mixed layer model that skillfully reproduces observed surface winds and convergence over the tropical oceans is used to examine the relative influence of boundary layer and free-tropospheric processes on the ...

  9. Uniformly convergent finite element methods for singularly perturbed elliptic boundary value problems: convectiondiffusion

    E-print Network

    Uniformly convergent finite element methods for singularly perturbed elliptic boundary value Abstract In this paper we consider the standard bilinear finite element method (FEM) and the corresponding-- Finite element methods, Singularly perturbed problems, Convection­diffusion. \\Lambda The research

  10. On the Relationship between SST Gradients, Boundary Layer Winds, and Convergence over the Tropical Oceans

    E-print Network

    Bretherton, Chris

    On the Relationship between SST Gradients, Boundary Layer Winds, and Convergence over the Tropical of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts CHRISTOPHER S. BRETHERTON Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University) ABSTRACT A linear mixed layer model that skillfully reproduces observed surface winds and convergence over

  11. Features on Venus generated by plate boundary processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, Dan; Ford, Peter G.; Johnson, Catherine; Parsons, Barry; Sandwell, David; Saunders, Stephen; Solomon, Sean C.

    1992-01-01

    Various observations suggest that there are processes on Venus that produce features similar to those associated with plate boundaries on earth. Synthetic aperture radar images of Venus, taken with a radar whose wavelength is 12.6 cm, are compared with GLORIA images of active plate boundaries, obtained with a sound source whose wavelength is 23 cm. Features similar to transform faults and to abyssal hills on slow and fast spreading ridges can be recognized within the Artemis region of Venus but are not clearly visible elsewhere. The composition of the basalts measured by the Venera 13 and 14 and the Vega 2 spacecraft corresponds to that expected from adiabatic decompression, like that which occurs beneath spreading ridges on earth. Structures that resemble trenches are widespread on Venus and show the same curvature and asymmetry as they do on earth. These observations suggest that the same simple geophysical models that have been so successfully used to understand the tectonics of earth can also be applied to Venus.

  12. Stress accumulation and release at complex transform plate boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Verdonck, D.; Furlong, K.P. )

    1992-10-01

    Finite element methods are used to model the dynamics of deformation along complex transform plate boundaries, specifically the San Andreas fault system, California. Effects of mantle rheology and fault geometry on the stress buildup and release are investigated. No prior knowledge of the earthquake cycle time or amount of fault slip is assumed that the results suggest that the San Andreas fault slips at low shear stress (about 15 MPa). Although the maximum stress on the fault is 15 MPa, models with an upper mantle shear zone deforming entirely by dislocation creep accumulate stresses that exceed 100 MPa, a stress level high enough to drive localized dynamic recrystallization and a shift in dominant deformation mechanism to diffusion creep. Models in which the mantle shear zone deform locally by diffusion creep reach a dynamic steady state where lithospheric shear stresses never exceed the specified fault stress anywhere in the model and indicate that the strength of the upper mantle is an important parameter in the dynamics of plate boundary deformation. 17 refs.

  13. Free Vibration Analysis of Kirchoff Plates with Damaged Boundaries by the Chebyshev Collocation Method

    E-print Network

    Butcher, Eric A.

    Free Vibration Analysis of Kirchoff Plates with Damaged Boundaries by the Chebyshev Collocation for the free vibration analysis of slender Kirchoff plates with both mixed and damaged boundaries of the natural vibration frequencies with respect to the severity of the damaged boundary. Specifically

  14. Tectonics of Artemis Chasma: A Venusian "plate" boundary.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. David; Grimm, Robert E.

    1995-10-01

    Artemis Chasma, an ˜2600-km-diameter arcuate trough located in southwestern Aphrodite Terra, Venus, has been the site of <250 km of regionally coherent, southeast-directed, lithospheric convergence and strike-slip displacement. This study examines the tectonics of the interior platform encircled by Artemis, the annulus of deformation coinciding with the trench, and the exterior region. A prominent northeast-trending interior deformation belt experienced phases of both shortening and extension that likely predate the formation of the chasma. Exterior tectonics are characterized by rift zones that are both younger and older than Artemis. The annulus displays substantial shortening on its southwest, south, and southeast margins, a transition to oblique convergence in the east annulus, and left-lateral strike-slip displacements on the northeast segment. Displacements of ˜50-250 km are inferred from distortion of a graben in the southeast fold-and-thrust belt and the left-lateral offset of an intersecting deformation belt at the northeast strike-slip boundary. The trench-outer rise system results from flexural processes, and is analogous to the topography at terrestrial subduction zones. These observations support limited southeast-vergent overthrusting of the entire interior plateau over the exterior plains. The tectonics of Artemis are not explained by an underlying mantle plume, as evidenced by the unidirectional—not radial—convergence and the greater age of the interior volcanism and tectonism relative to the annulus. However, early plume activity may have produced a block of thickened crust—now manifested by the interior plateau— which later served to localize deformation on its periphery, forming the annulus. The driving forces responsible for lithospheric underthrusing at Artemis Chasma are probably quite unlike the slab-pull mechanism that is favored for terrestrial subduction.

  15. Convergence of Manifolds and Metric Spaces with Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perales Aguilar, Raquel del Carmen Perales

    We study sequences of oriented Riemannian manifolds with boundary and, more generally, integral current spaces and metric spaces with boundary. We prove theorems demonstrating when the Gromov-Hausdorff [GH] and Sormani-Wenger Intrinsic Flat [SWIF] limits of sequences of such metric spaces agree. Thus in particular the limit spaces are countably Hn rectifiable spaces. From these theorems we derive compactness theorems for sequences of Riemannian manifolds with boundary where both the GH and SWIF limits agree. For sequences of Riemannian manifolds with boundary we only require nonnegative Ricci curvature, upper bounds on volume, noncollapsing conditions on the interior of the manifold and diameter controls on the level sets near the boundary. In addition we survey prior results of the author concerning the SWIF limits of manifolds with boundary, prior work of the author with Sormani concerning glued limits of metric spaces with boundary, prior work of the author with Li concerning GH and SWIF limits agreeing for Alexandrov spaces without boundary and work of Kodani, Anderson-Katsuda-Kurylev-Lassas-Taylor, Wong, and Knox concerning limits of Riemannian manifolds with boundary.

  16. The Plate Boundary Observatory: Community Focused Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matykiewicz, J.; Anderson, G.; Lee, E.; Hoyt, B.; Hodgkinson, K.; Persson, E.; Wright, J.; Torrez, D.; Jackson, M.

    2006-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), part of the NSF-funded EarthScope project, is designed to study the three-dimensional strain field resulting from deformation across the active boundary zone between the Pacific and North American plates in the western United States. To meet these goals, PBO will install 852 continuous GPS stations, 103 borehole strainmeter stations, 28 tiltmeters, and five laser strainmeters, as well as manage data for 209 previously existing continuous GPS stations. UNAVCO provides access to data products from these stations, as well as general information about the PBO project, via the PBO web site (http://pboweb.unavco.org). GPS and strainmeter data products can be found using a variety of channels, including map searches, text searches, and station specific data retrieval. In addition, the PBO construction status is available via multiple mapping interfaces, including custom web based map widgets and Google Earth. Additional construction details can be accessed from PBO operational pages and station specific home pages. The current state of health for the PBO network is available with the statistical snap-shot, full map interfaces, tabular web based reports, and automatic data mining and alerts. UNAVCO is currently working to enhance the community access to this information by developing a web service framework for the discovery of data products, interfacing with operational engineers, and exposing data services to third party participants. In addition, UNAVCO, through the PBO project, provides advanced data management and monitoring systems for use by the community in operating geodetic networks in the United States and beyond. We will demonstrate these systems during the AGU meeting, and we welcome inquiries from the community at any time.

  17. Initiation of deep convection along boundary layer convergence lines in a semitropical environment

    SciTech Connect

    Fankhauser, J.C.; Crook, N.A.; Tuttle, J.; Miller, L.J.; Wade, C.G.

    1995-02-01

    The initiation of deep convection through forcing along boundary layer convergence lines is examined using observations from the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification (CaPE) Experiment conducted in east-central Florida during the summer of 1991. The study is concerned with the evolution and interaction of two converging air masses that were initially separated by an intervening boundary layer characterized by neutral stability and horizontal convective rolls. As anticipated, major thunderstorms erupt when the east coast breeze eventually collides with thunderstorm outflows from the west, but unexpected convection takes place prior to their merger along a well-defined confluence zone associated with a persistent quasi-stationary roll vortex signature. In this study, complementary interactions between roll vortex convergence lines and the sea-breeze front are not sufficient to trigger deep convection. However, organized convergence along the eastward-spreading thunderstorm outflows did interact periodically with roll vortex convergence maxima to initiate a new series of new storms. Results from two-dimensional numerical model simulations replicate many of the observed boundary layer features. Surface heating produces circulations similar to sea-breeze frontal zones that appear near the coastlines and progress steadily toward each other as the interior boundary layer deepens. Vertical velocity maxima develop over the associated convergence zones, but weaker periodic maxima also occur within the interior air mass at intervals similar to the spacing of observed horizontal roll vortices.

  18. Coseismic slip resolution along a plate boundary megathrust: the Nankai Trough, southwest Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sagiya, Takeshi; Thatcher, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    Geodetic survey measurements are used to estimate the coseismic slip distribution in the 1944 Tonankai (Mw=8.1) and 1946 Nankaido (Mw=8.3) earthquakes and to assess quantitatively the degree to which this slip is resolved on the plate boundary megathrust. Data used include 798 angle changes from triangulation surveys, 328 leveling section differences, and 5 coseismic tidal gage offsets. Many of the nominally coseismic triangulation data span ?50 years, nearly half the earthquake cycle, and correction for interseismic deformation using post-1950 observations is applied. Microseismicity is used to define the configuration of the plate boundary interface and approximate it with a continuous, multisegment fault model. Because the onshore geodetic data have very limited resolving power for offshore fault segments, offshore coseismic slip was constrained by Satctke's [1993] estimation based on tsunami data. The majority of the coseismic slip occurs between 15 and 25 km depth. Although resolution declines toward the trench axis, it is sufficiently good to define two distinct high-slip regions, one off southeastern Shikoku Island (11 m maximum) and the other offshore of Kii Peninsula (3 m maximum). The slip magnitude off southeastern Shikoku, coupled with the plate convergence rate, would imply an recurrence interval of about 270 years, much-longer than the average repeat time of ?120 years for historical great earthquakes on the Nankai Trough. However, the maximum coseismic slip is sensitive to the assumed fault geometry, and slippage on trough-parallel splay faults could significantly decrease the maximum slip to about 6 m.

  19. Evolution of faulting and plate boundary deformation in the Southern Taranaki Basin, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, Cathal; Nicol, Andrew; Walsh, John J.; Seebeck, Hannu

    2015-05-01

    Faulting and folding in the Southern Taranaki Basin constrain the evolution of the New Zealand plate boundary since ~ 80 Ma. Sedimentary rocks up to 8 km thick record multiple phases of deformation which have been examined using 2D and 3D seismic reflection data, resulting in fault displacement-time curves and basin-wide isopach maps with temporal resolutions of 5-10 Myr and 1-4 Myr pre- and post-~ 23 Ma respectively. Three main phases of tectonic activity have been recognised; Late Cretaceous and Palaeocene extension (~ 80-55 Ma), mainly Oligocene and younger contraction and Plio-Pleistocene (~ 3.7-0 Ma) extension. Most of the largest faults (e.g., Cape Egmont Fault) accrued displacement during the Late Cretaceous and were reactivated one or more times during subsequent episodes of deformation. The oldest phase of extension occurred during Gondwana break-up and was ubiquitous throughout the basin. Contraction along the eastern boundary of the basin, associated with the onset of Hikurangi Margin subduction, commenced as early as Late Eocene. The zone of contraction widened and migrated westward during the Miocene with reverse faults and folds in westernmost parts of the basin formed in the Late Miocene (~ 7-5 Ma). Initiation and episodic widening of this zone of contraction may have been partly triggered by changes in the rate of plate convergence. Contraction is now mainly confined to the northern South Island and has been succeeded to the north by Plio-Pleistocene extension. The present day transition zone between extension in the north and contraction in the south is defined by a WNW-trending line across the basin. The extension-contraction transition migrated southward during the Late Miocene and Pliocene consistent with steepening of the subducting plate and associated southward movement of the southern termination of the Hikurangi subduction system.

  20. Paleomagnetic constraints on Cenozoic deformation along the northwest margin of the Pacific-Australian plate boundary zone through New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Gillian M.; Michalk, Daniel M.; Little, Timothy A.

    2012-02-01

    New Zealand straddles the boundary between the Australian and Pacific plates, a zone of oblique continental convergence and transform motion. The actively deforming region offers a unique opportunity to study the dynamics of deformation, including vertical-axis rotation of rigid blocks within a transcurrent plate boundary zone. We present and interpret paleomagnetic data from three new and three previously published sites from the NW part of the South Island (NW Nelson region), where sedimentary strata dated between 36 and 10 Ma overlie the crystalline Paleozoic basement assemblages of the Gondwana margin. Compared with reference directions from the Australian apparent polar wander path, none of the results provide evidence of post-Eocene vertical-axis rotation. This suggests that for the past 36 Myr NW Nelson has remained a strong, coherent block that has moved as a contiguous part of the Australian plate. This is in marked contrast to the strongly rotated nature of more outboard accreted terranes to the east. For example, the Hikurangi Margin in the North Island (NW of the Alpine Fault) and the Marlborough region in the NE of the South Island (SE of the Alpine Fault), have both undergone diverse clockwise rotations of up to 140° since the early Paleogene. The NW tip of the South Island seems to have acted as a rigid backstop relative to these more complex oroclinal deformations. We infer that, because of its relatively stiff bulk rheology, it has not been drawn into the distributed plate boundary rotational deformation associated with the New Zealand Orocline.

  1. Patterns of seismogenesis for giant plate-boundary earthquakes in island-arc-type subduction systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, S. H.

    2006-12-01

    The global record of giant earthquake occurrence in subduction zones during the instrumental and historical eras is woefully short; only about 16 events with magnitudes above 8.4 are reasonably well documented since 1700. We find no examples of giant (M > 8.4) interplate thrust events and/or wide-ranging tsunamis sourced in the classic island arcs with fast backarc spreading (Bonin, Marianas, Tonga-Kermadec, Vanuatu, and South Scotia). The Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 (SAE) ruptured a sector of the INDIA-BURMA subduction boundary and evidently had no known historical antecedents, suggesting that the return time may be many centuries to millennia and consistent with low convergence rates. Moreover, the persistence of rupture to the north in the weakly volcanic Nicobar/Andaman sector gives one pause to reflect on the assumption that island arcs, especially those with active back-arc spreading such as the Marianas, do not produce great interplate- thrust earthquakes. The Andaman/Nicobar subduction segment is an unusual island arc. Only two arc volcanoes occur between the convergent plate boundary west of the Andamans and the backarc ridge/transform system to the east. Backarc spreading in the Andaman/ Nicobar segment is unusual because the NNW spreading directions are nearly parallel to the trench/deformation-front as do the INDIA-BURMA plate motions across it. This geometry suggests that arc-normal extension, trench migration and associated slab normal motions may not mechanically decouple this subduction system. The Nicobar sector of the rupture for the 2004 event is roughly 200 km wide judging from the aftershock distribution; a distribution that persists to the east under the Nicobar Islands, suggesting that the plate-boundary dip is very shallow in that latitude range. If this is correct, then the down-dip limitation on seismogenic slip set by serpentinized forearc mantle (Hyndman et al., 2003) may not control rupture width as it apparently does for many island arcs with steeper slab dips. Finally, this subduction system receives a large sediment influx from the giant Irrawadi and Ganges River delta systems to the north that drain the active collisional mountain belts further north. High sediment influx and trench sediment acumulation are factors that are present in 12 of the 14 subduction zones that have hosted the giant interplate thrust earthquakes mentioned earlier. This influx appears to be important in the development of a subduction channel of granular material in the plate boundary that may enable ruptures to run to great lengths by smoothing out barriers to earthquake slip. Several island-arc subduction systems (the Manus, SW Ryukyu, W Aleutians, and possibly the South Shetlands systems) have attributes similar to the Nicobar/Andaman segment of the SAE rupture. Moreover, arc volcanic activity is weak or absent and convergence also tends to be slow in all of these island-arc systems. Research done in collaboration with the USGS Tsunami Source Working Group (Steve Kirby and Eric Geist (Co-Chairs) David Scholl, Roland von Huene, Rick Blakely, Ray Wells, and Willie Lee (Secretary))

  2. Viscoelastic Postseismic Rebound to Strike-Slip Earthquakes in Regions of Oblique Plate Convergence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Steven C.

    1999-01-01

    According to the slip partitioning concept, the trench parallel component of relative plate motion in regions of oblique convergence is accommodated by strike-slip faulting in the overriding continental lithosphere. The pattern of postseismic surface deformation due to viscoelastic flow in the lower crust and asthenosphere following a major earthquake on such a fault is modified from that predicted from the conventual elastic layer over viscoelastic halfspace model by the presence of the subducting slab. The predicted effects, such as a partial suppression of the postseismic velocities by 1 cm/yr or more immediately following a moderate to great earthquake, are potentially detectable using contemporary geodetic techniques.

  3. Average properties of compressible laminar boundary layer on flat plate with unsteady flight velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Franklin K; Ostrach, Simon

    1957-01-01

    The time-average characteristics of boundary layers over a flat plate in nearly quasi-steady flow are determined. The plate may be either insulated or isothermal. The time averages are found without specifying the plate velocity explicitly except that it is positive and has an average value.

  4. Free vibrations of thermally stressed orthotropic plates with various boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, C. D.; Greetham, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical investigation of the vibrations of thermally stressed orthotropic plates in the prebuckled region is presented. The investigation covers the broad class of trapezoidal plates with two opposite sides parallel. Each edge of the plate may be subjected to different uniform boundary conditions. variable thickness and arbitrary temperature distributions (analytical or experimental) for any desired combination of boundary conditions may be prescribed. Results obtained using this analysis are compared to experimental results obtained for isotropic plates with thermal stress, and to results contained in the literature for orthotropic plates without thermal stress. Good agreement exists for both sets of comparisons.

  5. Global uniformly convergent finite element methods for singularly perturbed elliptic boundary value problems

    E-print Network

    Global uniformly convergent finite element methods for singularly perturbed elliptic boundary value, 1998 Abstract-- In this paper, we develop a general higher­order finite element method for solv­ ing our theoretical analysis. Keywords-- Finite element methods, Singularly perturbed problems, Uniformly

  6. Subcrustal earthquakes in the plate boundary zone of New Zealand's South Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boese, C. M.; Stern, T. A.; Townend, J.; Sheehan, A. F.; Molnar, P. H.; Collins, J. A.; Karalliyadda, S.; Bourguignon, S.; Bannister, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    Sporadic, intermediate-depth earthquakes have been observed for ~40 years in the vicinity of the Alpine Fault, a 460 km-long transpressive fault forming the western boundary of the Southern Alps. The Alpine Fault represents the plate boundary between the Australian and Pacific Plates in New Zealand and links two subduction zones of opposite polarity in the North and South. Several earthquakes at depths of 59-85 km have been recorded by the Southern Alps Microearthquake Borehole Array (SAMBA) since its deployment in November 2008. Due to large numbers of impulsive phase arrivals, focal mechanisms were obtained for these events during routine processing. In 2009 and early 2010, several additional temporary seismometer networks were operating in the central Southern Alps (Alpine Fault Array ALFA, Deep Fault Drilling Project 2010 DFDP10) and the offshore region west of the South Island (Marine Observations of Anisotropy Near Aotearoa MOANA). To gain more insight about the cause and mechanism of these deep events, a comprehensive analysis has been performed incorporating data from all available instruments. Accurate hypocentres of 22 earthquakes (ML<4) and focal mechanisms of at least 14 events have been obtained. The focal mechanisms reveal that reverse faulting predominates at depth in the continental collision zone between the Pacific and Australian Plates. The intermediate-depth events occur below the Moho discontinuity, which has been mapped in detail using wide-angle reflection/refraction data obtained during the South Island Geophysical Transect (SIGHT) project in 1995/96. Although the cause for these subcrustal earthquakes is not yet clear, they have previously been interpreted to result from intra-continental subduction (Reyners 1987), high shear-strain gradients due to depressed geotherms and viscous deformation of mantle lithosphere (Kohler and Eberhart-Phillips 2003). On the basis of the locations and mechanisms obtained using SAMBA, we have argued that these events are caused due to high strain rates resulting from plate bending, but this is the subject of further investigations. Reyners, M., Subcrustal earthquakes in the central South Island, New Zealand, and the root of the Southern Alps, Geology, 15, 1168-1171, 1987. Kohler, M., and D. Eberhart-Phillips, Intermediate-depth earthquakes in a region of continental convergence: South Island, New Zealand, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 93 , 85, 2003.

  7. Investigating Possible Boundaries Between Convergence and Divergence Frederick Hartmann (frederick.hartmann@villanova.edu) and David Sprows

    E-print Network

    Hartmann, Frederick

    Investigating Possible Boundaries Between Convergence and Divergence Frederick Hartmann (frederick test for convergence and divergence of series. One of the first applications of the integral test is to show that the series 1 np converges for p > 1 and diverges for p 1 [Throughout this note, we assume

  8. Global Stabilization of the von K arm an Plate With Boundary Feedback Acting Via Bending Moments Only

    E-print Network

    for the von Karman plate in recent years, to our knowledge, no results deal with the boundary conditions (1 controllability and stabilization for the von Karman plate with higher-order boundary conditions Global Stabilization of the von K arm an Plate With Boundary Feedback Acting Via Bending Moments

  9. Overview on the Plate Boundaries Along the Western Mexican Pacific Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortera-Gutierrez, C. A.; Bandy, W. L.; Michaud, F.; Ortega Ramírez, J.

    2013-05-01

    The cinematic of the Pacific, Rivera and Cocos oceanic plates have a significant impact on the subduction process and seismic cycles occurring along the western Mexican Pacific margin of the North American and Caribbean plates. Sections of Pacific (PAC), Rivera (RIV), Cocos (COC), North American (NAM) and Caribbean (CAB) plate boundaries along the western margin of Mexico are not well constrained. From north to south: the transform-rift system at Gulf of California has been generally considered as part of PAC-NAM plate boundary. However results of the FAMEX cruise at 2002 evidenced that Tosco-Abreojos Fault System along the western margin of Baja California Peninsula is active. Should this tectonic structure be considered as a plate boundary? At the RIV plate northern corner (including Mazatlan Basin), the scatter seismicity recorded between Tamayo FZ and the Marias Islands restricts the characterization of the plate boundary between the RIV and NAM plates. Some authors have proposed that Tamayo FZ and Marias I. Escarpment are the RIV-NAM plate boundary. Recently other authors have called that RIV-NAM boundary is a geomorphology lineament that runs from a Rivera Rise transform at 23N to the northern end of Marias I. Escarpment. Even so this concept is not sustained with seismic activity. Further this thought would imply that the oceanic lithosphere of Mazatlan Basin would form part of NAM plate. Other thoughts are either that there is a diffuse RIV-NAM plate boundary to the north of the Maria Archipelago, or Middle America Subduction Zone is gradually extending northward of the Maria Is. While the plate boundary at SE corner of the RIV plate is neither well defined morphologically nor seismically constraint, offshore Colima Coast. Some authors have proposed that this zone is a diffuse plate boundary between RIV and COC plates, result of a NE-SW shear plate motion. Other authors have proposed that the RIV-COC boundary extends E-W from the El Gordo Graben (EGG) at the Middle American Trench (MAT) to northern tip of the East Pacific Rise (EPR). Results of recently multibeam and magnetic surveys indicate that this boundary is possible segmented as an echelon E-W structure, north of EGG. Clearly these hypotheses on the RIV-COC plate boundary show that its configuration is neither well seismic nor morphology constrained. To the south, the triple junction point of COC, NAM, and CAB plate boundaries is also another case where the boundaries are poorly constrained seismically and morphologically. Traditionally, the COC-NAM-CAB triple junction point has been positioned where the MAT trend bends by the Tehuantepec Ridge (TR) collision, but no offshore geophysical data sustain that NAM-CAB plate boundary extends to MAT-TR point. In the last decade, the Servicio Sismológico Nacional (SSN) has extended its seismic station network at the southern Mexican territory. From this data, the distribution of offshore earthquakes covers a broad marine zone in front the Chiapas and Guatemala coastline and does not show a defined earthquake concentration associated to the proposed offshore extension of the Polochic-Motogua Fault through Guatemala and Mapastepec Fault through Chiapas, Mexico.

  10. The transition from linear to diffuse plate boundary in the Azores-Gibraltar region: results from a thin-sheet model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Munt, Ivone; Fernàndez, Manel; Torne, Montse; Bird, Peter

    2001-10-01

    We use the thin-sheet plane-stress approach to study the present-day dynamic behavior of the plate boundary between Eurasia and Africa along the Azores-Gibraltar region. This plate boundary, which extends from the Azores triple junction to the Gibraltar strait, shows a tectonic regime that changes from transtension in the west to transpression in the east, with a strike-slip motion in its central segment. Seismological data reveal that the western and central segments are currently marked by a linear series of earthquakes indicating that the plate boundary is located in a narrow zone. In contrast, the eastern segment is not so well defined and deformation spreads over a much broader area. To apply the thin-sheet approach, we combined heat flow, elevation and crustal thickness data to calculate the steady-state geotherm and the total strength of the lithosphere. Several models with different fault friction coefficients and geometries at the eastern segment of the plate boundary were tested. Results are compared with the maximum compressive stress directions from the World Stress Map, and the calculated seismic strain rates and slip vectors from earthquake data. The best fitting models are consistent with the rotation pole of Argus et al. [D.F. Argus et al., J. Geophys. Res. 94 (1989) 5585-5602], and show that the rheological behavior of the plate boundary must necessarily change from the western and central segments to the eastern segment. The diffuse character of the plate boundary east of the Gorringe Bank is dominated by the transition from oceanic to continental lithosphere, the weakness of the Alboran domain, and the convergence between the African and the Eurasian plates. The displacement of the Alboran domain relative to the African plate may play a major role in stress propagation through the Iberian Peninsula and its Atlantic margin.

  11. Accelerated plate tectonics.

    PubMed

    Anderson, D L

    1975-03-21

    The concept of a stressed elastic lithospheric plate riding on a viscous asthenosphere is used to calculate the recurrence interval of great earthquakes at convergent plate boundaries, the separation of decoupling and lithospheric earthquakes, and the migration pattern of large earthquakes along an arc. It is proposed that plate motions accelerate after great decoupling earthquakes and that most of the observed plate motions occur during short periods of time, separated by periods of relative quiescence. PMID:17799689

  12. Impact of lower plate structure on upper plate deformation at the NW Sumatran convergent margin from seafloor morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graindorge, David; Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Sibuet, Jean-Claude; McNeill, Lisa; Henstock, Timothy J.; Dean, Simon; Gutscher, Marc-André; Dessa, Jean Xaver; Permana, Haryadi; Singh, Satish C.; Leau, Hélène; White, Nicolas; Carton, Hélène; Malod, Jacques André; Rangin, Claude; Aryawan, Ketut G.; Chaubey, Anil Kumar; Chauhan, Ajay; Galih, Dodi R.; Greenroyd, Christopher James; Laesanpura, Agus; Prihantono, Joko; Royle, Gillian; Shankar, Uma

    2008-11-01

    We present results from multibeam bathymetric data acquired during 2005 and 2006, in the region of maximum slip of the 26 Dec. 2004 earthquake (Mw 9.2). These data provide high-resolution images of seafloor morphology of the entire NW Sumatra forearc from the Sunda trench to the submarine volcanic arc just north of Sumatra. A slope gradient analysis of the combined dataset accurately highlights those portions of the seafloor shaped by active tectonic, depositional and/or erosional processes. The greatest slope gradients are located in the frontal 30 km of the forearc, at the toe of the accretionary wedge. This suggests that long-term deformation rates are highest here and that probably only minor amounts of slip are accommodated by other thrust faults further landward. Obvious N-S oriented lineaments observed on the incoming oceanic plate are aligned sub-parallel to the fracture zones associated with the Wharton fossil spreading center. Active strike-slip motion is suggested by recent deformation with up to 20-30 m of vertical offset. The intersection of these N-S elongated bathymetric scarps with the accretionary wedge partly controls the geometry of thrust anticlines and the location of erosional features (e.g. slide scars, canyons) at the wedge toe. Our interpretation suggests that these N-S lineaments have a significant impact on the oceanic plate, the toe of the wedge and further landward in the wedge. Finally, the bathymetric data indicate that folding at the front of the accretionary wedge occurs primarily along landward-vergent (seaward-dipping) thrusts, an unusual style in accretionary wedges worldwide. The N-S elongated lineaments locally act as boundaries between zones with predominant seaward versus landward vergence.

  13. Inter- and intra-plate deformation at North American plate boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beavan, John

    1986-01-01

    Alaska tectonics and earthquake hazard studies; Southern California tectonics (block rotation); spreading near the Salton Trough; California plate motion (fault zone kinematics); and Caribbean plate motion investigations are examined.

  14. Radiocarbon evidence for extensive plate-boundary rupture about 300 years ago at the Cascadia subduction zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, A.R.; Atwater, B.F.; Bobrowsky, P.T.; Bradley, L.-A.; Clague, J.J.; Carver, G.A.; Darienzo, M.E.; Grant, W.C.; Krueger, H.W.; Sparks, R.; Stafford, Thomas W., Jr.; Stuiver, M.

    1995-01-01

    THE Cascadia subduction zone, a region of converging tectonic plates along the Pacific coast of North America, has a geological history of very large plate-boundary earthquakes1,2, but no such earthquakes have struck this region since Euro-American settlement about 150 years ago. Geophysical estimates of the moment magnitudes (Mw) of the largest such earthquakes range from 8 (ref. 3).to 91/2 (ref. 4). Radiocarbon dating of earthquake-killed vegetation can set upper bounds on earthquake size by constraining the length of plate boundary that ruptured in individual earthquakes. Such dating has shown that the most recent rupture, or series of ruptures, extended at least 55 km along the Washington coast within a period of a few decades about 300 years ago5. Here we report 85 new 14C ages, which suggest that this most recent rupture (or series) extended at least 900 km between southern British Columbia and northern California. By comparing the 14C ages with written records of the past 150 years, we conclude that a single magnitude 9 earthquake, or a series of lesser earthquakes, ruptured most of the length of the Cascadia subduction zone between the late 1600s and early 1800s, and probably in the early 1700s.

  15. Recovering physical property information from subduction plate boundaries using 3D full-waveform seismic inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. E.; Morgan, J. V.; Warner, M.

    2013-12-01

    Our understanding of subduction margin seismogenesis has been revolutionised in the last couple of decades with the discovery that the size of the seismogenic zone may not be controlled simply by temperature and a broad spectrum of seismic behaviour exists from stick-slip to stable sliding. Laboratory and numerical experiments suggest that physical properties, particularly fluid pressure may play an important role in controlling the seismic behaviour of subduction margins. Although drilling can provide information on physical properties along subduction thrust faults at point locations at relatively shallow depths, correlations between physical properties and seismic velocity using rock physics relationships are required to resolve physical properties along the margin and down-dip. Therefore, high resolution seismic velocity models are key to recovering physical property information at subduction plate boundaries away from drill sites. 3D Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a technique pioneered by the oil industry to obtain high-resolution high-fidelity models of physical properties in the sub-surface. 3D FWI involves the inversion of low-frequency (>2 to <7 Hz), early arriving (principally transmitted) seismic data, to recover the macro (intermediate to long-wavelength) velocity structure. Although 2D FWI has been used to improve velocity models of subduction plate boundaries before, 3D FWI has not yet been attempted. 3D inversions have superior convergence and accuracy, as they sample the subsurface with multi-azimuth multiply-crossing wavefields. In this contribution we perform a suite of synthetic tests to investigate if 3D FWI could be used to better resolve physical property information along subduction margin plate boundaries using conventionally collected 3D seismic data. We base our analysis on the Muroto Basin area of the Nankai margin and investigate if the acquisition parameters and geometry of the subduction margin render 3D seismic data collected across this basin in 1999 suitable for future 3D FWI. We build a 3D model of the sub-surface based on an existing velocity model that was used to migrate these data (Tsuji et al. 2000, JGR). We then add a low P-wave velocity layer along the décollement, which is supported by ODP core data but does not feature in the current seismic velocity model, to test if it could be recovered using 3D FWI. We use the same acquisition parameters as in the 1999 seismic survey (including a 6 km long streamer) to generate a fully-elastic synthetic seismic dataset, added noise and inverted the windowed transmitted arrivals only. We also ran a suite of resolution tests across the model. The results show that 3D FWI of conventionally collected 3D seismic data across the Muroto Basin would be capable of resolving variations in P-wave velocity along the décollement of the order of half the seismic wavelength at the plate boundary. This is a significant improvement on conventional travel-time tomography which resolves to the Fresnel width. In this presentation we will also postulate on the optimal 3D FWI experiment design for the next generation of 3D seismic surveys across subduction margins as a guide for those embarking on new data collection.

  16. Distinct apical and basolateral mechanisms drive PCP-dependent convergent extension of the mouse neural plate

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Margot; Yen, Weiwei; Lu, Xiaowei; Sutherland, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Summary The mechanisms of tissue convergence and extension (CE) driving axial elongation in mammalian embryos, and in particular, the cellular behaviors underlying CE in the epithelial neural tissue, have not been identified. Here we show that mouse neural cells undergo mediolaterally biased cell intercalation and exhibit both apical boundary rearrangement and polarized basolateral protrusive activity. Planar polarization and coordination of these two cell behaviors is essential for neural CE, as shown by failure of mediolateral intercalation in embryos mutant for two proteins associated with planar cell polarity signaling: Vangl2 and Ptk7. Embryos with mutations in Ptk7 fail to polarize cell behaviors within the plane of the tissue, while Vangl2 mutant embryos maintain tissue polarity and basal protrusive activity, but are deficient in apical neighbor exchange. Neuroepithelial cells in both mutants fail to apically constrict, leading to craniorachischisis. These results reveal a cooperative mechanism for cell rearrangement during epithelial morphogenesis. PMID:24703875

  17. Inter- and intra-plate deformation at North American plate boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beavan, John; Gilbert, Lewis E.; Scholz, Chris

    1992-01-01

    A geodetic network which spans the region between San Francisco and Lake Tahoe has been measured 5 times completely with triangulation in 1880, 1922, 1929, 1943, 1963. A resurvey with the Global Positioning System (GPS) in 1991 allows the formation of 1 coseismic and 4 interseismic epochs. The data from this network provide a unique opportunity to examine the temporal and spatial evolution of the strain field associated with the 1906 San Francisco earthquake in particular and with the Pacific-North American plate boundary in general. Calculations of strain rate from the network data lead to the following conclusions. (1) There is no resolvable (greater than 0.05 microradians/yr) strain in between Sutter Buttes and the Sierra Nevada. (2) Throughout the time since the 1906 earthquake, a region extending at least as far east as the westernmost Great Valley has been undergoing deformation related to Pac:Nam interaction and the associated earthquake cycle. (3) In the time and space of overlap, our results agree with those from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) trilateration data. Both data sets indicate that strain must be accumulating to the east of Vaca. (4) The San Andreas discrepancy cannot be accommodated in the Great Valley at the 1 sigma level of our results. It is possible to absorb it in that region at the 2 sigma level. (5) Strain rate is elevated in the years following the earthquake and decays slowly with time. It is possible that the rate in the Coast Ranges increases until around 1950 and then decays. With the exception of one epoch, strain rate in the Coast Ranges is consistently fault parallel, shows no sign changes, and is consistent with monotonic strain accumulation.

  18. Topology of the ambient boundary and the convergence of causal curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Cotsakis, Spiros

    2015-08-01

    We discuss the topological nature of the boundary spacetime, the conformal infinity of the ambient cosmological metric. Due to the existence of a homothetic group, the bounding spacetime must be equipped not with the usual Euclidean metric topology but with the Zeeman fine topology. This then places severe constraints to the convergence of a sequence of causal curves and the extraction of a limit curve, and also to our ability to formulate conditions for singularity formation.

  19. Topology of the ambient boundary and the convergence of causal curves

    E-print Network

    Antoniadis, Ignatios

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the topological nature of the boundary spacetime, the conformal infinity of the ambient cosmological metric. Due to the existence of a homothetic group, the bounding spacetime must be equipped not with the usual Euclidean metric topology but with the Zeeman fine topology. This then places severe constraints to the convergence of a sequence of causal curves and the extraction of a limit curve, and also to our ability to formulate conditions for singularity formation.

  20. Effect of Pressure Gradients on Plate Response and Radiation in a Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frendi, Abdelkader

    1997-01-01

    Using the model developed by the author for zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers, results are obtained for adverse and favorable pressure gradients. It is shown that when a flexible plate is located in an adverse pressure gradient area, it vibrates more than if it were in a favorable pressure gradient one. Therefore the noise generated by the plate in an adverse pressure gradient is much greater than that due to the plate in a favorable pressure gradient. The effects of Reynolds number and boundary layer thickness are also analyzed and found to have the same effect in both adverse and favorable pressure gradient cases. Increasing the Reynolds number is found to increase the loading on the plate and therefore acoustic radiation. An increase in boundary layer thickness is found to decrease the level of the high frequencies and therefore the response and radiation at these frequencies. The results are in good qualitative agreement with experimental measurements.

  1. Role of Transtension in Rifting at the Pacific-North America Plate Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Transtensional plate motion can be accommodated either in a localized zone of transtensional rifting or over a broader region. Broader zones of deformation can be classified either as diffuse deformation or strain partitioning (one or more major strike-slip shear zones geographically offset from a region of a extensional faulting). The Pacific-North America plate boundary in southwestern North America was transtensional during much of its history and has exhibited the full range of these behaviors at different spatial scales and in different locations, as recorded by fault motions and paleomagnetic rotations. Here we focus on the northern Gulf of California part of the plate boundary (Upper and Lower Delfin basin segments), which has been in a zone of transtensional Pacific-North America plate boundary motion ever since the middle Miocene demise of adjacent Farallon-derived microplates. Prior to the middle Miocene, during the time of microplate activity, this sector of North America experienced basin-and-range normal faults (core complexes) in Sonora. However there is no evidence of continued extensional faulting nor of a Gulf-related topographic depression until after ca 12 Ma when a major ignimbrite (Tuff of San Felipe/ Ignimbrite of Hermosillo) was deposited across the entire region of the future Gulf of California rift in this sector. After 12 Ma, faults disrupted this marker bed in eastern Baja California and western Sonora, and some major NNW-striking right-lateral faults are inferred to have developed near the Sonoran coast causing offset of some of the volcanic facies. However, there are major tectonic rotations of the volcanic rocks in NE Baja California between 12 and 6 Ma, suggesting that the plate boundary motion was still occurring over a broad region. By contrast, after about 6 Ma, diminished rotations in latest Miocene and Pliocene volcanic rocks, as well as fault slip histories, show that plate boundary deformation became localized to a narrower transtensional zone of long offset strike-slip faults and intervening basins (the modern Gulf of California basin and transform fault system). Within and adjacent to this zone the fault patterns continued to evolve, with new plate boundary strike-slip faults breaking into previously intact blocks of continent. These new strike-slip faults were not accompanied by any widespread zones of tectonic rotation. This suggests that if widespread rotations are occurring, plate boundary transtension has not yet localized and the strike-slip faults are not yet accommodating most of the plate boundary slip. The cessation of widespread and significant vertical axis rotations could indicate strain localization and the increasing importance of throughgoing strike-slip faults (a precursor to fully oceanic rifting) along a transtensional plate boundary.

  2. Distributed Roughness Receptivity in a Flat Plate Boundary Layer 

    E-print Network

    Kuester, Matthew Scott

    2014-04-18

    Surface roughness can affect boundary layer transition by acting as a receptivity mechanism for transient growth. Several experiments have investigated transient growth created by discrete roughness elements; however, very few experiments have...

  3. Convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.

    2005-09-01

    Call for Papers: Convergence The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) invites submissions to a special issue on Convergence. Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and data, video and data, private-line and virtual private-line, fixed and mobile, and local and long-haul services. These trends have many consequences for consumers, vendors, and carriers. Faced with large volumes of low-margin data traffic mixed with traditional voice services, the need for capital conservation and operational efficiency drives carriers away from today's separate overlay networks for each service and towards "converged" platforms. For example, cable operators require transport of multiple services over both hybrid fiber coax (HFC) and DWDM transport technologies. Local carriers seek an economical architecture to deliver integrated services on optically enabled broadband-access networks. Services over wireless-access networks must coexist with those from wired networks. In each case, convergence of networks and services inspires an important set of questions and challenges, driven by the need for low cost, operational efficiency, service performance requirements, and optical transport technology options. This Feature Issue explores the various interpretations and implications of network convergence pertinent to optical networking. How does convergence affect the evolution of optical transport-layer and control approaches? Are the implied directions consistent with research vision for optical networks? Substantial challenges remain. Papers are solicited across the broad spectrum of interests. These include, but are not limited to: Architecture, design and performance of optical wide-area-network (WAN), metro, and access networks Integration strategies for multiservice transport platforms Access methods that bridge traditional and emerging services Network signaling and control methodologies All-optical packet routing and switching techniques To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON, indicating "Convergence feature" in the "Comments" field of the online submission form. For all other questions relating to this feature issue, please send an e-mail to jon@osa.org, subject line &q

  4. Convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.

    2005-04-01

    Call for Papers: Convergence The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) invites submissions to a special issue on Convergence. Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and data, video and data, private-line and virtual private-line, fixed and mobile, and local and long-haul services. These trends have many consequences for consumers, vendors, and carriers. Faced with large volumes of low-margin data traffic mixed with traditional voice services, the need for capital conservation and operational efficiency drives carriers away from today's separate overlay networks for each service and towards "converged" platforms. For example, cable operators require transport of multiple services over both hybrid fiber coax (HFC) and DWDM transport technologies. Local carriers seek an economical architecture to deliver integrated services on optically enabled broadband-access networks. Services over wireless-access networks must coexist with those from wired networks. In each case, convergence of networks and services inspires an important set of questions and challenges, driven by the need for low cost, operational efficiency, service performance requirements, and optical transport technology options. This Feature Issue explores the various interpretations and implications of network convergence pertinent to optical networking. How does convergence affect the evolution of optical transport-layer and control approaches? Are the implied directions consistent with research vision for optical networks? Substantial challenges remain. Papers are solicited across the broad spectrum of interests. These include, but are not limited to: Architecture, design and performance of optical wide-area-network (WAN), metro, and access networks Integration strategies for multiservice transport platforms Access methods that bridge traditional and emerging services Network signaling and control methodologies All-optical packet routing and switching techniques

  5. Convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.

    2005-05-01

    Call for Papers: Convergence The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) invites submissions to a special issue on Convergence. Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and data, video and data, private-line and virtual private-line, fixed and mobile, and local and long-haul services. These trends have many consequences for consumers, vendors, and carriers. Faced with large volumes of low-margin data traffic mixed with traditional voice services, the need for capital conservation and operational efficiency drives carriers away from today's separate overlay networks for each service and towards "converged" platforms. For example, cable operators require transport of multiple services over both hybrid fiber coax (HFC) and DWDM transport technologies. Local carriers seek an economical architecture to deliver integrated services on optically enabled broadband-access networks. Services over wireless-access networks must coexist with those from wired networks. In each case, convergence of networks and services inspires an important set of questions and challenges, driven by the need for low cost, operational efficiency, service performance requirements, and optical transport technology options. This Feature Issue explores the various interpretations and implications of network convergence pertinent to optical networking. How does convergence affect the evolution of optical transport-layer and control approaches? Are the implied directions consistent with research vision for optical networks? Substantial challenges remain. Papers are solicited across the broad spectrum of interests. These include, but are not limited to: Architecture, design and performance of optical wide-area-network (WAN), metro, and access networks Integration strategies for multiservice transport platforms Access methods that bridge traditional and emerging services Network signaling and control methodologies All-optical packet routing and switching techniques

  6. Convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.

    2005-06-01

    Call for Papers: Convergence The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) invites submissions to a special issue on Convergence. Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and data, video and data, private-line and virtual private-line, fixed and mobile, and local and long-haul services. These trends have many consequences for consumers, vendors, and carriers. Faced with large volumes of low-margin data traffic mixed with traditional voice services, the need for capital conservation and operational efficiency drives carriers away from today's separate overlay networks for each service and towards "converged" platforms. For example, cable operators require transport of multiple services over both hybrid fiber coax (HFC) and DWDM transport technologies. Local carriers seek an economical architecture to deliver integrated services on optically enabled broadband-access networks. Services over wireless-access networks must coexist with those from wired networks. In each case, convergence of networks and services inspires an important set of questions and challenges, driven by the need for low cost, operational efficiency, service performance requirements, and optical transport technology options. This Feature Issue explores the various interpretations and implications of network convergence pertinent to optical networking. How does convergence affect the evolution of optical transport-layer and control approaches? Are the implied directions consistent with research vision for optical networks? Substantial challenges remain. Papers are solicited across the broad spectrum of interests. These include, but are not limited to: Architecture, design and performance of optical wide-area-network (WAN), metro, and access networks Integration strategies for multiservice transport platforms Access methods that bridge traditional and emerging services Network signaling and control methodologies All-optical packet routing and switching techniques

  7. Convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.

    2005-08-01

    Call for Papers: Convergence The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) invites submissions to a special issue on Convergence. Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and data, video and data, private-line and virtual private-line, fixed and mobile, and local and long-haul services. These trends have many consequences for consumers, vendors, and carriers. Faced with large volumes of low-margin data traffic mixed with traditional voice services, the need for capital conservation and operational efficiency drives carriers away from today's separate overlay networks for each service and towards "converged" platforms. For example, cable operators require transport of multiple services over both hybrid fiber coax (HFC) and DWDM transport technologies. Local carriers seek an economical architecture to deliver integrated services on optically enabled broadband-access networks. Services over wireless-access networks must coexist with those from wired networks. In each case, convergence of networks and services inspires an important set of questions and challenges, driven by the need for low cost, operational efficiency, service performance requirements, and optical transport technology options. This Feature Issue explores the various interpretations and implications of network convergence pertinent to optical networking. How does convergence affect the evolution of optical transport-layer and control approaches? Are the implied directions consistent with research vision for optical networks? Substantial challenges remain. Papers are solicited across the broad spectrum of interests. These include, but are not limited to: Architecture, design and performance of optical wide-area-network (WAN), metro, and access networks Integration strategies for multiservice transport platforms Access methods that bridge traditional and emerging services Network signaling and control methodologies All-optical packet routing and switching techniques

  8. Convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.

    2005-01-01

    Call for Papers: Convergence

    Guest Editors: Thomas E. Darcie, University of Victoria Robert Doverspike, AT&T Martin Zirngibl, Lucent Technologies

    Coordinating Associate Editor: Steven K. Korotky, Lucent Technologies

    The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) invites submissions to a special issue on Convergence. Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and data, video and data, private-line and virtual private-line, fixed and mobile, and local and long-haul services. These trends have many consequences for consumers, vendors, and carriers. Faced with large volumes of low-margin data traffic mixed with traditional voice services, the need for capital conservation and operational efficiency drives carriers away from today's separate overlay networks for each service and towards "converged" platforms. For example, cable operators require transport of multiple services over both hybrid fiber coax (HFC) and DWDM transport technologies. Local carriers seek an economical architecture to deliver integrated services on optically enabled broadband-access networks. Services over wireless-access networks must coexist with those from wired networks. In each case, convergence of networks and services inspires an important set of questions and challenges, driven by the need for low cost, operational efficiency, service performance requirements, and optical transport technology options. This Feature Issue explores the various interpretations and implications of network convergence pertinent to optical networking. How does convergence affect the evolution of optical transport-layer and control approaches? Are the implied directions consistent with research vision for optical networks? Substantial challenges remain. Papers are solicited across the broad spectrum of interests. These include, but are not limited to:
    • Architecture, design and performance of optical wide-area-network (WAN), metro, and access networks
    • Integration strategies for multiservice transport platforms
    • Global isostatic geoid anomalies for plate and boundary layer models of the lithosphere

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Hager, B. H.

      1981-01-01

      Commonly used one dimensional geoid models predict that the isostatic geoid anomaly over old ocean basins for the boundary layer thermal model of the lithosphere is a factor of two greater than that for the plate model. Calculations presented, using the spherical analogues of the plate and boundary layer thermal models, show that for the actual global distribution of plate ages, one dimensional models are not accurate and a spherical, fully three dimensional treatment is necessary. The maximum difference in geoid heights predicted for the two models is only about two meters. The thermal structure of old lithosphere is unlikely to be resolvable using global geoid anomalies. Stripping the effects of plate aging and a hypothetical uniform, 35 km, isostatically-compensated continental crust from the observed geoid emphasizes that the largest-amplitude geoid anomaly is the geoid low of almost 120 m over West Antarctica, a factor of two greater than the low of 60 m over Ceylon.

    • Receptivity of Flat-Plate Boundary Layer in a Non-Uniform Free Stream (Vorticity Normal to the Plate)

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Kogan, M. N.; Ustinov, M. V.

      1997-01-01

      Work is devoted to study of free-stream vorticity normal to leading edge interaction with boundary layer over plate and resulting flow distortion influence on laminar-turbulent transition. In experiments made the wake behind the vertically stretched wire was used as a source of vortical disturbances and its effect on the boundary layer over the horizontally mounted plate with various leading edge shapes was investigated. The purpose of experiments was to check the predictions of theoretical works of M.E. Goldstein, et. al. This theory shows that small free-stream inhomogeneity interacting with leading edge produces considerable distortion of boundary layer flow. In general, results obtained confirms predictions of Goldstein's theory, i.e., the amplification of steady vortical disturbances in boundary layer caused by vortex lines stretching was observed. Experimental results fully coincide with predictions of theory for large Reynolds number, relatively sharp leading edge and small disturbances. For large enough disturbances the flow distortion caused by symmetric wake unexpectedly becomes antisymmetric in spanwise direction. If the leading edge is too blunt the maximal distortion takes place immediately at the nose and no further amplification was observed. All these conditions and results are beyond the scope of Goldstein's theory.

    • Evidence of left-lateral active motion at the North America-Caribbean plate boundary

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Leroy, S. D.; Ellouz, N.; Corbeau, J.; Rolandone, F.; Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.; Meyer, B.; Momplaisir, R.; Granja, J. L.; Battani, A.; Burov, E. B.; Clouard, V.; Deschamps, R.; Gorini, C.; Hamon, Y.; LE Pourhiet, L.; Loget, N.; Lucazeau, F.; Pillot, D.; Poort, J.; Tankoo, K.; Cuevas, J. L.; Alcaide, J.; Poix, C. J.; Mitton, S.; Rodriguez, Y.; Schmitz, J.; Munoz Martin, A.

      2014-12-01

      The North America-Caribbean plate boundary is one of the least-known among large plate boundaries. Although it was identified early on as an example of a strike-slip fault in the north of Hispaniola, its structure and rate of motion remains poorly constrained. We present the first direct evidence for active sinistral strike-slip motion along this fault, based on swath seafloor mapping of the northern Haiti area. There is evidence for ~16.5 km of apparent strike-slip motion along the mapped segment of the Septentrional fault zone off Cap Haitien town which is terminated to the east onland Dominican republic and in the west to southern Cuban margin. By evaluating these new constraints within the context of geodetic models of global plate motions, we estimate an activity of the fault since 2 Ma with an angular velocity for the Caribbean plate relative to the North America predicted 6-12 mmyr-1 sinistral motion along the Septentrional fault zone. This transform fault was initiated around 20 million years ago in its western segment and since 2 Ma in its eastern segment in response to a regional reorganization of plate velocities and directions, which induced a change in configuration of plate boundaries.

    • Highly Accurate Solutions of the Blasius and Falkner-Skan Boundary Layer Equations via Convergence Acceleration

      E-print Network

      B. D. Ganapol

      2010-06-19

      A new highly accurate algorithm for the solution of the Falkner-Skan equation of boundary layer theory is presented. The algorithm, based on a Maclaurin series representation, finds its coefficients from recurrence. In addition, Wynn-epsilon convergence acceleration and continuous analytical continuation enable an accurate evaluation. The most accurate skin friction coefficients (shooting angle) to date are presented along with comparisons to past and present values found in the literature. The algorithm, coded in FORTRAN, uses neither enhanced precision arithmetic beyond quadruple precision nor computer algebra to achieve results in a timely fashion. Key Words: Falkner-Skan flow; Blasius flow; Wynn-epsilon acceleration; Romberg acceleration; Continuous analytical continuation

    • Investigation of Perforated Convergent-divergent Diffusers with Initial Boundary Layer

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Weinstein, Maynard I

      1950-01-01

      An experimental investigation was made at Mach number 1.90 of the performance of a series of perforated convergent-divergent supersonic diffusers operating with initial boundary layer, which was induced and controlled by lengths of cylindrical inlets affixed to the diffusers. Supercritical mass-flow and peak total-pressure recoveries were decreased slightly by use of the longest inlets (4 inlet diameters in length). Combinations of cylindrical inlets, perforated diffusers, and subsonic diffuser were evaluated as simulated wind tunnels having second throats. Comparisons with noncontracted configurations of similar scale indicated conservatively computed power reductions of 25 percent.

    • Seismic Imaging of the Cascadia Plate Boundary with Four Source Array Configurations

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Fortin, W. F.; Holbrook, W.; Kent, G.; Keranen, K. M.; Trehu, A. M.; Johnson, H. P.; Everson, E. D.

      2012-12-01

      Imaging the plate boundary in the Cascadia region has great importance for understanding seismic hazards in the coastal margin of the Pacific Northwest. The Cascadia margin is a potential earthquake and tsunami threat to the many millions who live in the area, yet the location and shape of the subducting oceanic plate boundary remains poorly understood. This is due in large part to the plate boundary being relatively aseismic and difficult to constrain through passive-source seismic methods. In July 2012, the COAST project acquired 15 seismic transects of the Cascadia margin intended to image the plate boundary. Four of the seismic transects were acquired over the same location with different source arrays: 36 air guns towed at 9m depth, 18 air guns towed at 9m depth, 36 air guns towed at 15m depth, and 18 air guns towed at 15m depth. These changes were chosen to represent possible configurations for 2D and 3D seismic data acquisitions with emphasis on identifying deep Earth features lying below complicated folding sediments of the accretionary wedge. Thirty-six air guns represents the full volume of the R/V Marcus G. Langseth source used when collecting 2D seismic data, while eighteen represents the half volume that would typically be fired for a 3D survey. Nine meters and fifteen meters are common source depths but have very different outputs in the frequency domain due to the "ghost notch" created by acoustic reflection off the sea surface. Here we present four identically processed, pre-stack depth migrated images of the Cascadia plate boundary and an analysis of the benefits and drawbacks of each seismic acquisition parameter set. While expressions of the plate boundary exist in all data acquired, preliminary results indicate that a deeper tow depth, and its lower frequency source output, captures more continuous representations of the plate boundary. However, a more shallow tow depth increases the resolution of the overlying sediments and the plate boundary itself helping to better define its precise location and shape.

    • Boundary-layer transition on a plate subjected to simultaneous spanwise and chordwise pressure gradients

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Boldman, D. R.; Brinich, P. F.

      1974-01-01

      The boundary-layer transition on a short plate was studied by means of the china-clay visual technique. The plate model was mounted in a wind tunnel so that it was subjected to small simultaneous spanwise and chordwise pressure gradients. Results of the experimental study, which was performed at three subsonic velocities, indicated that the transition pattern was appreciably curved in the spanwise direction but quite smooth and well behaved. Reasonable comparisons between predictions of transition and experiment were obtained from two finite-difference two-dimensional boundary-layer calculation methods which incorporated transition models based on the concept of a transition intermittency factor.

    • Asymptotic theory for a wave packet in a boundary layer on a plate

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Ryzhov, O. S.; Savenkov, I. V.

      1987-10-01

      The paper is concerned with the propagation of a wave packet produced by a point source in a boundary layer on a flat plate. The fluid is assumed to be incompressible, and distances from the front edge of the plate are so large that the Reynolds number is assumed to approach infinity. The perturbed motion field is constructed on the basis of a linearized theory of a boundary layer with self-induced pressure using a series expansion in Laplace integrals with respect to time and a Fourier series expansion in two spatial variables. A method for calculating the inverse transforms is described.

    • Delamination growth of laminated circular plates under in-plane loads and movable boundary conditions

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Chen, Deliang; Dai, Liming

      2013-11-01

      An investigation is made on interlaminar delamination growth of composite laminated circular plates under in-plane loads and movable delamination boundary conditions. A four-dissociated-region model is developed on the basis of von-Karman plate theory. The model is geometrically nonlinear and the laminated circular plate considered is subjected to axisymmetrical delamination. The effects of transverse shear deformation and contact effect of the delamination on the laminated plates are taking into account in the development of the governing equations of the laminated circular pates with random axisymmetrical delamination. The formulas for describing the total energy release rate and its individual mode components along the delamination front are also derived with considerations of Griffith criterion for fracture. Based on the model established, the delamination growth is numerically studied; and the influences of the parameters such as delamination radii and depths, together with material properties of the plates on the energy release rate are analyzed in detail.

    • Upper boundary of the Pacific plate subducting beneath Hokkaido, Japan, estimated from ScSp phase

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Osada, Kinue; Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Yomogida, Kiyoshi; Suetsugu, Daisuke; Bina, Craig; Inoue, Toru; Wiens, Douglas; Jellinek, Mark

      2010-11-01

      Three-dimensional geometry of the upper boundary of the Pacific plate subducting beneath Hokkaido, Japan, was obtained using the ScSp phase: the phase converted from ScS (S wave reflected at the core-mantle boundary) to P wave at the plate boundary. Taking the advantage of a dense seismic network, "Hi-net", recently deployed across the Japanese islands, we applied several seismic array analyses to the recorded waveform data for a large nearby deep earthquake, in order to enhance very weak ScSp signals in the original records. At first, we set up five blocks for the region in plate dip directions. After aligning the travel times of ScS and stacking seismograms among stations in a given sub-block perpendicular to each dip direction, we searched for the optimal plate model (i.e., two-dimensional geometry of the upper boundary) for each block. The model was parameterized by seven depth grids, and seismograms were stacked based on the travel time of ScSp as a time lag of each sub-block, so that the optimal model would yield the maximum spectral energy of ScSp after stacking. This model parameter search was conducted, using ray tracings of ScSp with a reference velocity model and a non-linear inversion scheme (Neighbourhood Algorithm). The optimal model of each block was combined each other by cubic spline interpolation, in order to construct an overall three-dimensional geometry of the upper boundary of the plate. Next, we performed the frequency-wavenumber ( f- k) spectral analysis to refine the above result. Assuming each station as a reference point, we made beam output from records of its adjacent stations as a function of wavenumber vector ( kx, ky) and frequency. The peak of its power spectrum was considered to represent the wavenumber vector of ScSp, that is, azimuth of arrival and slowness, so that we can estimate the position and depth of the corresponding ScS- ScSp conversion. In the frequency range from 0.5 to 1.5 Hz, we could estimate the conversion points for 21 stations or hypothetical arrays, and revised the geometry of the upper boundary obtained by the non-linear stacking approach in the previous step. The final plate model was compared with the distribution of intraplate earthquakes in the Pacific plate. This comparison clearly reveals that the upper seismic zone merges with the lower from 150 to 200 km in depth, deviating systematically away from the upper boundary where the boundary is slightly bumped in a convex manner.

    • Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 94, No. 6, pp. 23802399, December 2004 Plate-Tectonic Analysis of Shallow Seismicity: Apparent Boundary Width,

      E-print Network

      Bird, Peter

      E Plate-Tectonic Analysis of Shallow Seismicity: Apparent Boundary Width, Beta, Corner Magnitude Abstract A new plate model is used to analyze the mean seismicities of seven types of plate boundary (CRB and continental13.7 ? 3.8 18.02.3 10.8 plate boundaries suggests that here all seismic gaps are dangerous unless

    • Geometrically nonlinear dynamic response of stiffened plates with moving boundary conditions

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Ma, NiuJing; Wang, RongHui; Han, Qiang; Lu, YiGang

      2014-08-01

      An approach is presented to investigate the nonlinear vibration of stiffened plates. A stiffened plate is divided into one plate and some stiffeners, with the plate considered to be geometrically nonlinear, and the stiffeners taken as Euler beams. Lagrange equation and modal superposition method are used to derive the dynamic equilibrium equations of the stiffened plate according to energy of the system. Besides, the effect caused by boundary movement is transformed into equivalent excitations. The first approximation solution of the non-resonance is obtained by means of the method of multiple scales. The primary parametric resonance and primary resonance of the stiffened plate are studied by using the same method. The accuracy of the method is validated by comparing the results with those of finite element analysis via ANSYS. Numerical examples for different stiffened plates are presented to discuss the steady response of the non-resonance and the amplitude-frequency relationship of the primary parametric resonance and primary resonance. In addition, the analysis on how the damping coefficients and the transverse excitations influence amplitude-frequency curves is also carried out. Some nonlinear vibration characteristics of stiffened plates are obtained, which are useful for engineering design.

  1. Discovering plate boundaries: Laboratory and classroom exercises using geodetic data to develop students' understanding of plate motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olds, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    To introduce the concept of plate boundaries, typical introductory geology exercises include students observing and plotting the location of earthquakes and volcanoes on a map to visually demarcate plate boundaries. Accompanying these exercises, students are often exposed to animations depicting the movement of Earth’s tectonic plates over time. Both of these teaching techniques are very useful for describing where the tectonics plates have been in the past, their shapes, and where the plates are now. With the integration of data from current geodetic techniques such as GPS, InSAR, LiDAR, students can learn that not only have the tectonic plates moved in the past, but they are moving, deforming, and changing shape right now. Additionally, GPS data can be visualized using time scales of days to weeks and on the scale of millimeters to centimeters per year. The familiar temporal and spatial scales of GPS data also help students understand that plate tectonics is a process that is happening in the present and can ease the transition to thinking about processes that are typically described using deep time, a very difficult concept for students to grasp. To provide a more robust learning environment, UNAVCO has been incorporating high-precision GPS data into free, place-based, data-rich learning modules for educators and students in introductory Earth science courses at secondary and undergraduate levels. These modules integrate new scientific discoveries related to crustal deformation and explore applications of GPS, LiDAR, and InSAR techniques to research. They also provide students with case studies highlighting the process of scientific discovery, providing context and meaning. Concurrent to these efforts, tools to visualize the inter-relationships of geophysical and geologic processes, structures, and measurements including high-precision GPS velocity data are an essential part of the learning materials. Among the suite of visualization tools that UNAVCO has made available, the Jules Verne Voyager (JVV) interactive map tools are available online and are very well received by educators in introductory Earth science courses. In response to requests for easily accessible and usable data, UNAVCO built the Data for Educators webpage, incorporating an embedded Google Map with GPS locations and providing current GPS time series plots and downloadable data from the Plate Boundary Observatory. To extend and update the datasets available to our community, UNAVCO has developed a GPS velocity viewer using Google Maps technology and provides a learning- focused KMZ combining geophysical data sets for Google-Earth. By combining near real-time geodetic data with modern visualization tools into inquiry-based learning resources, students are deepening their understanding about the active nature of plate margins and gain a solid foundation for learning future concepts. UNAVCO is a non-profit, membership-governed consortium funded by the National Science Foundation and NASA.

  2. Seismotectonics of plate boundaries. Final report, 1 November 1973-30 June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, J.; Brune, J.N.; Goodkind, J.; Wyatt, F.; Agnew, D.C.; Beaumont, C.

    1981-06-01

    Research on the seismotectonics of plate boundaries is summarized. Instrumental development and an observational program designed to study various aspects of the seismotectonics of southern California and the northern Gulf of California are described. A unique superconducting gravimeter was further developed and supported under this program for deployment and operation at several sites. Work on Earth tides is also discussed.

  3. Post-rifting stress relaxation at the divergent plate boundary in Northeast Iceland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foulger, G.R.; Jahn, C.-H.; Seeber, G.; Einarsson, P.; Julian, B.R.; Heki, K.

    1992-01-01

    Interaction of the elastic lithosphere with the underlying anelastic asthenosphere causes strain to propagate along the Earth's surface in a diffusion-like manner following tectonism at plate boundaries. This process transfers stress between adjacent tectonic segments and influences the temporal tectonic pattern along a plate boundary. Observations of such strain transients have been rare, and have hitherto been confined to strike-slip and underthrusting plate boundaries1. Here we report the observation of a strain transient at the divergent (spreading) plate boundary in Iceland. A Global Positioning System survey undertaken a decade after an episode of dyke intrusion accompanying several metres of crustal spreading reveals a spatially varying strain field with the expected diffusion-pulse shape and an amplitude three times greater than the 5.7 cm that would be expected from the average spreading rate2. A simple one-dimensional model with a thin elastic layer overlying a viscous layer fits the data well and yields a stress diffusivity of 1.1 ?? 0.3 m2 s-1. Combined with struc-tural information from magnetotelluric measurements, this implies a viscosity of 0.3-2 ?? 1019 Pa s - a value comparable to that derived for Iceland from post-glacial rebound23, but low compared with estimates for mantle viscosity obtained elsewhere3.

  4. Global Stabilization of a Dynamic von K arm an Plate With Nonlinear Boundary Feedback

    E-print Network

    Global Stabilization of a Dynamic von K arm an Plate With Nonlinear Boundary Feedback Mary Ann Horn We consider a fully nonlinear von Karman system with, in addition to the nonlinearity which appears consider the following von Karman system in the variables w(t;x) and (w(t;x)) with nonlinear feedback

  5. An investigation of the turbulence scale tensor in a flat-plate boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, R. D.; Donaldson, C. D.; Sandri, G.

    1979-01-01

    A differential equation for the scale tensor in turbulent flow is developed from basic considerations and applied to the flow of a constant-density fluid in the boundary layer on a flat plate. Results from preliminary runs of a computer implementation are discussed.

  6. a Lattice Boltzmann Study of the 2d Boundary Layer Created by AN Oscillating Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappietti, L.; Chopard, B.

    We study the applicability of the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to simulate the 2D laminar boundary layer induced by an oscillating flat plate. We also investigate the transition to the disturbed laminar regime that occurs with a rough oscillating plate. The simulations were performed in two cases: first with a fluid otherwise at rest and second in presence of superimposed current. The generation of coherent vortex structures and their evolution are commented. The accuracy of the method was checked by comparisons with the exact analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for the so-called Stokes' Second Problem. The comparisons show that LBM reproduces this time varying flow with first order accuracy. In the case of the wavy-plate, the results show that a mechanism of vortex-jet formations, low speed-streak and shear instability sustain a systems of stationary vortices outside the boundary layer. The vortex-jet takes place at the end of the decelerating phase whereas the boundary layer turns out to be laminar when the plate accelerates. In the presence of the superimposed current, the vortex-jet mechanism is still effective but the vortices outside the boundary layer are only present during part of the oscillating period. During the remaining part, the flow turns out to be laminar although a wave perturbation in the velocity field is present.

  7. What drives microplate motion and deformation in the northeastern Caribbean plate boundary region?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benthem, Steven; Govers, Rob; Wortel, Rinus

    2014-05-01

    The north Caribbean plate boundary zone is a broad deformation zone with several fault systems and tectonic blocks that move with different velocities. The indentation by the Bahamas Platform (the "Bahamas Collision") is generally invoked as a cause of this fragmentation. We propose that a second driver of deformation is the western edge of the south dipping Puerto Rico slab moving sideways with the North America plate. The westward motion of the slab edge results in a push on the Caribbean plate farther west. We refer to this second mechanism for deformation as "Slab Edge Push." The motion of the North America plate relative to the Caribbean plate causes both drivers to migrate from east to west. The Bahamas Collision and Slab Edge Push have been operating simultaneously since the Miocene. The question is the relative importance of the two mechanisms. We use mechanical finite element models that represent the two mechanisms from the late Oligocene (30 Ma) to the present. For the present, both models successfully reproduce observed deformation, implying that both models are viable. Back in time the Slab Edge Push mechanism better reproduces observations. Neither mechanism successfully reproduces the observed Miocene counterclockwise rotation of Puerto Rico. We use this rotation to tune a final model that includes fractional contributions of both mechanisms. We find that the Slab Edge Push was the dominant driver of deformation in the north Caribbean plate boundary zone since 30 Ma.

  8. The Northwestern (Maghreb) boundary of the Nubia (Africa) Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauffret, Alain

    2007-01-01

    A study of the present compressional deformation of the Northwestern (Maghreb) Nubia (Africa) margin is derived from the analysis of more than 20,000 km of seismic profiles. In the western part the compression is distributed in a large zone with on-land compression in Algeria, mainly strike-slip deformation on the Algerian margin and folds and strike-slip faulting in Eastern Spain. In the middle of the Algerian margin, around Algiers, the evidences of compression become more obvious. In this area a ridge trending N-S that is interpreted as a middle to late Miocene spreading center interacted with the transpressional margin that trends E-W. North of the location of the Boumerdes-Zemmouri earthquake the oceanic crust is deformed by blind thrusts up to 60 km from the coast. These thrusts are south dipping and with the northward dipping thrusts located onshore form a wedge that maybe a positive flower structure at a crustal scale related to the right-lateral transpression of the margin. In the eastern part of the Northwestern (Maghreb) Nubia (Africa) Deformed Belt, off eastern Algeria and Tunisia, the deformation is more intense but limited to the north by the continental slope. Large late Miocene Tortonian folds are cut by the Messinian erosional surface but the present deformation is also evident. It is suggested that the deformation with a double vergence may be followed up to the north of Sicily. After the docking (18 Ma) of the Kabylies to the Africa Plate, the crust has been thinned and the Algerian Basin opened during the middle-late Miocene with an E-W direction. From the late Miocene to the Present the margin has been rethickened by transpression and uplifted.

  9. Seismic Anisotropy Along the Eurasian-Arabian Plate Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandvol, E. A.; Skobeltsyn, G.; Turkelli, N.; Polat, G.; Yetirmishli, G.; Godoladze, T.; Mellors, R. J.; Gok, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Anatolian plateau and Caucasus are part of the orogenic belt that formed as the result of the closure of the Neo Tethys Ocean and the ensuing continental collision of Arabian and Eurasian plates. Multiple tomographic studies of both P and S wave velocities all show a broad low velocity zone beneath East Anatolian and North Iranian plateaus. The low velocity zone appears to range from the Moho to a depth 150 km, which suggests asthenospheric material underlying a very thin lithosphere of eastern Anatolia. This low velocity zone coincides with widespread Late Miocene - Quaternary calc-alkaline volcanic products of mantle origin. This very shallow asthenosphere strongly implies that any present day anisotropy is likely to reflect very recent mantle deformation. In order to image seismic anisotropy and improve understanding of the nature of mantle deformation in young continental collision zone we analyzed data from the IRIS station KIV and the regional seismic networks of Turkey, Azerbaijan and Georgia to determine shear wave splitting fast polarization directions and delay times in the region. Our results show that the fast polarization directions are quite uniformly parallel to NE-SW across the East Anatolian Plateau and the westernmost part of the Greater Caucasus. The observed delay times decrease northward with the shortest located in the western Greater Caucasus. However, to the east, the fast polarization direction rotates clockwise until it becomes parallel to the EW topographic? trend in the Lesser Caucasus where the delay times are the largest in the region. The situation becomes more complex north of the Lesser Caucasus, in the central and eastern parts of the Greater Caucasus, where the fast polarization directions shift abruptly to the NNE-SSW. Furthemore, we find relatively strong evidence of layered anisotropy using a new method we have developed to image multi-layered polarization anisotropy from teleseismic core phases such as SKS.

  10. Overriding plate structure of the Nicaragua convergent margin: Constraints on the limits of the seismogenic zone and the 1992 tsunami earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallarès, V.; Meléndez, A.; Prada, M.; Ranero, C. R.; McIntosh, K.; Grevemeyer, I.

    2012-04-01

    We present 2D P-wave velocity models of the Nicaragua convergent margin along two perpendicular wide-angle seismic profiles acquired in the rupture area of the 1992 tsunami earthquake. The models focus on the structure of the overriding plate and the geometry of the inter-plate boundary. In the trench-perpendicular profile, the basement shows increasing velocity reflecting a progressive decrease in the degree of rock fracturing of the igneous basement. Upper mantle-like velocities are obtained at a depth of ~10 km beneath the fore-arc Sandino basin, indicating that the mantle wedge is shallow and located close to the trench. A mismatch between the inter-plate reflector in the velocity models and along coincident multi-channel seismic profiles is best explained by a ~15% velocity anisotropy, suggesting locally-enhanced rock fracturing which is related with the presence of a prominent subducted seamount. The frontal part of the overriding plate is probably too fractured to store elastic energy, unless the presence of local asperities such as the subducted seamount makes it conditionally stable by locally increasing the normal stress. The downdip limit of the seismogenic zone occurs near the tip of the mantle wedge, indicating that it is probably controlled by the presence of a weak, serpentinized mantle wedge beneath the Sandino basin. The hypocenter of the 1992 main shock is not particularly shallow (20-22 km), but seismological data indicate that it triggered sub-events near the trench, the main of which coincides with the subducted seamount. We show that the slow propagation velocity and long duration of the 1992 earthquake could be explained by rupture propagating within the fractured basement rocks and not into the sediments.

  11. Tectonics of the Easter plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engeln, J. F.; Stein, S.

    1984-01-01

    A new model for the Easter plate is presented in which rift propagation has resulted in the formation of a rigid plate between the propagating and dying ridges. The distribution of earthquakes, eleven new focal mechanisms, and existing bathymetric and magnetic data are used to describe the tectonics of this area. Both the Easter-Nazca and Easter-Pacific Euler poles are sufficiently close to the Easter plate to cause rapid changes in rates and directions of motion along the boundaries. The east and west boundaries are propagating and dying ridges; the southwest boundary is a slow-spreading ridge and the northern boundary is a complex zone of convergent and transform motion. The Easter plate may reflect the tectonics of rift propagation on a large scale, where rigid plate tectonics requires boundary reorientation. Simple schematic models to illustrate the general features and processes which occur at plates resulting from large-scale rift propagation are used.

  12. A model of convergent plate margins based on the recent tectonics of Shikoku, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bischke, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    A viscoelastic finite element plate tectonic model is applied to displacement data for the island of Shikoku, Japan. The flow properties and geometry of the upper portions of the earth are assumed known from geophysical evidence, and the loading characteristics are determined from the model. The nature of the forces acting on the Philippine Sea plate, particularly in the vicinity of the Nankai trough, is determined. Seismic displacement data related to the 1946 Nankaido earthquake are modeled in terms of a thick elastic plate overlying a fluidlike substratum. The sequence of preseismic and seismic displacements can be explained in terms of two independent processes operating on elastic lithospheric plates: a strain accumulation process caused by vertical downward forces acting on or within the lithosphere in the vicinity of the trench, and a strain release process caused by plate failure along a preexisting zone on weakness. This is a restatement of Reid's elastic rebound theory in terms of elastic lithospheric plates.

  13. Seismic evidence for sharp lithosphere-asthenosphere boundaries of oceanic plates.

    PubMed

    Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Kumar, Prakash; Takei, Yasuko; Shinohara, Masanao; Kanazawa, Toshihiko; Araki, Eiichiro; Suyehiro, Kiyoshi

    2009-04-24

    The mobility of the lithosphere over a weaker asthenosphere constitutes the essential element of plate tectonics, and thus the understanding of the processes at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) is fundamental to understand how our planet works. It is especially so for oceanic plates because their relatively simple creation and evolution should enable easy elucidation of the LAB. Data from borehole broadband ocean bottom seismometers show that the LAB beneath the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates is sharp and age-dependent. The observed large shear wave velocity reduction at the LAB requires a partially molten asthenosphere consisting of horizontal melt-rich layers embedded in meltless mantle, which accounts for the large viscosity contrast at the LAB that facilitates horizontal plate motions. PMID:19390042

  14. Measurements of strain at plate boundaries using space based geodetic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robaudo, Stefano; Harrison, Christopher G. A.

    1993-01-01

    We have used the space based geodetic techniques of Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and VLBI to study strain along subduction and transform plate boundaries and have interpreted the results using a simple elastic dislocation model. Six stations located behind island arcs were analyzed as representative of subduction zones while 13 sites located on either side of the San Andreas fault were used for the transcurrent zones. The length deformation scale was then calculated for both tectonic margins by fitting the relative strain to an exponentially decreasing function of distance from the plate boundary. Results show that space-based data for the transcurrent boundary along the San Andreas fault help to define better the deformation length scale in the area while fitting nicely the elastic half-space earth model. For subduction type bonndaries the analysis indicates that there is no single scale length which uniquely describes the deformation. This is mainly due to the difference in subduction characteristics for the different areas.

  15. Receptivity of flat-plate boundary layer in a non-uniform free stream (vorticity normal to the plate)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogan, M. N.

    1994-01-01

    Recent progress in both the linear and nonlinear aspects of stability theory has highlighted the importance of the receptivity problem. One of the most unclear aspects of receptivity study is the receptivity of boundary-layer flow normal to vortical disturbances. Some experimental and theoretical results permit the proposition that quasi-steady outer-flow vortical disturbances may trigger by-pass transition. In present work such interaction is investigated for vorticity normal to a leading edge. The interest in these types of vortical disturbances arise from theoretical work, where it was shown that small sinusoidal variations of upstream velocity along the spanwise direction can produce significant variations in the boundary-layer profile. In the experimental part of this work, such non-uniform flow was created and the laminar-turbulent transition in this flow was investigated. The experiment was carried out in a low-turbulence direct-flow wind tunnel T-361 at the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI). The non-uniform flow was produced by laminar or turbulent wakes behind a wire placed normal to the plate upstream of the leading edge. The theoretical part of the work is devoted to studying the unstable disturbance evolution in a boundary layer with strongly non-uniform velocity profiles similar to that produced by outer-flow vorticity. Specifically, the Tollmien-Schlichting wave development in the boundary layer flow with spanwise variations of velocity is investigated.

  16. Accretionary margin of north-western Hispaniola: morphology, structure and development of part of the northern Caribbean plate boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dillon, William P.; Austin, James A., Jr.; Scanlon, K.M.; Terence, Edgar N.; Parson, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Broad-range side-scan sonar (GLORIA) images and single- and multi-channel seismic reflection profiles demonstrate that the margin of north-western Hispaniola has experienced compression as a consequence of oblique North American-Caribbean plate convergence. Two principal morphological or structural types of accretionary wedges are observed along this margin. The first type is characterized by a gently sloping (???4??) sea floor and generally margin-parallel linear sets of sea-floor ridges that gradually deepen towards the flat Hispaniola Basin floor to the north. The ridges are caused by an internal structure consisting of broad anticlines bounded by thrust faults that dip southwards beneath Hispaniola. Anticlines form at the base of the slope and are eventually sheared and underthrust beneath the slope. In contrast, the second type of accretionary wedge exhibits a steeper (???6-16??) sea-floor slope characterized by local slumping and a more abrupt morphological transition to the adjacent basin. The internal structure appears chaotic on seismic reflection profiles and probably consists of tight folds and closely spaced faults. We suggest that changes in sea-floor declivity and internal structure may result from variations in the dip or frictional resistance of the de??collement, or possibly from changes in the cohesive strength of the wedge sediments. The observed pattern of thickening of Hispaniola Basin turbidites towards the insular margin suggests differential southwards tilting of the Hispaniola Basin strata, probably in response to North America-Caribbean plate interactions since the Early Tertiary. Based upon indirect age control from adjacent parts of the northern caribbean plate boundary, we infer a Late Eocene to Early Miocene episode of transcurrent motion (i.e. little or no tilting), an Early Miocene to Late Pliocene period of oblique convergence (i.e. increased tilt) during which the accretionary wedge began to be constructed, and a Late Pliocene to Recent episode of increased convergence (i.e. twice the Miocene to Pliocene tilt), which has led to rapid uplift and erosion of sediment sources on the margin and on Hispaniola, generating a submarine fan at the base of the insular slope. ?? 1992.

  17. Late Cretaceous to mid Eocene plate boundaries in the southwest Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Kara J.; Dietmar Müller, R.; Whittaker, Joanne; Flament, Nicolas; Seton, Maria

    2013-04-01

    The late Cretaceous to mid Eocene history of the southwest and southernmost Pacific has been subject to starkly contrasting interpretations, ranging from relative tectonic quiescence with the Lord Howe Rise (LHR) being part of the Pacific plate to a dynamic subduction setting. In the first scenario the Tasman Sea would have formed as a consequence of divergence between the Pacific and Australian plates, whereas in the second scenario it would have formed as a marginal basin associated with subduction. The first scenario is supported by a number of arguments, including a lack of evidence for deformation and tectonic activity in New Zealand during this period and a geodynamic modelling inference, namely that the bend in the Hawaiian-Emperor chain can be better reproduced if the LHR is part of the Pacific plate. The second scenario is supported by regional plate kinematic models reconciling a variety of observations including back-arc basin formation and destruction through time and the history of arc-continent collisions. The primary problem with the first scenario is the use of a plate circuit that leaves relative motion between East and West Antarctica unconstrained, leading to an improbable history of periodic compression and extension. The main problem with the alternative scenario is a lack of sampled late Cretaceous volcanic arc rocks east of the LHR. We analysed available geological and geophysical data to constrain the locations of and movements along the plate boundaries in the southwest and southern Pacific from the late Cretaceous to mid Eocene, and assessed how Pacific plate motion is best quantified during this period. Geological and geophysical evidence suggests that a plate boundary separated the Pacific plate from the LHR. The distribution of lower mantle slab material that is imaged by seismic tomography beneath New Zealand is best explained if subduction occurred to the east of the LHR during the entire late Cretaceous to mid Eocene period. Rocks from ophiolitic nappes in the North Island of New Zealand, New Caledonia and Papua New Guinea show evidence of having formed in a back-arc basin during this period, consistent with a subduction zone near the LHR. Although New Zealand is commonly viewed as tectonically quiescent at this time, deformation at several locations to the east and west of the present-day Alpine Fault suggests that a plate boundary cut through Zealandia during Tasman Sea opening. As the LHR was not attached to the Pacific plate and subduction occurred to the east and north of the LHR we suggest that Pacific plate motion is best quantified using a plate circuit through East and West Antarctica, avoiding this zone of southwest Pacific subduction. Future work should focus on better constraining the location of and motion along the late Cretaceous-mid Eocene plate boundary through New Zealand to enable the use of a plate circuit via Australia.

  18. Plate-Tectonic Analysis of Shallow Seismicity: Apparent Boundary Width, beta-Value, Corner Magnitude, Coupled Lithosphere Thickness, and Coupling in 7 Tectonic Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, P.; Kagan, Y. Y.

    2003-12-01

    A new plate model [Bird, 2003, G3, 10.1029/2001GC000252] is used to analyze the mean seismicities of 7 types of plate boundary (CRB continental rift boundary, CTF continental transform fault, CCB continental convergent boundary, OSR oceanic spreading ridge, OTF oceanic transform fault, OCB oceanic convergent boundary, SUB subduction zone). We compare the plate-like (non-orogen) regions of model PB2002 with the CMT catalog to select apparent boundary half-widths, and then assign 95% of shallow earthquakes to one of these settings. A tapered Gutenberg-Richter model of the frequency/moment relation is fit to the subcatalog for each setting by maximum-likelihood. Best-fitting ? values range from 0.53 to 0.92, but all 95%-confidence ranges are consistent with a common value of 0.61-0.66. To better determine some corner magnitudes we expand the subcatalogs by: (1) inclusion of orogens; and (2) inclusion of years 1900-1975 from the catalog of Pacheco and Sykes [1992]. Combining both earthquake statistics and the plate-tectonic constraint on moment rate, corner magnitudes include: CRB 7.64-.26+.76, CTF 8.01-.21+.45, CCB 8.46-.39+.21, OCB 8.04-.22+.52, and SUB 9.58-.46+.48. Coupled lithosphere thicknesses are found to be: CRB 3.0-1.4+7.0 km; CTF 8.6-4.1+11 km; CCB 18-11+? km; OSR 0.13-0.09+.13 km for normal-faulting and 0.40-.21+? km for strike-slip; OTF 12-7.1+?, 1.6-0.5+1.4, and 1.5-0.6+1.2 km at low, medium, and high velocities; OCB 3.8-2.3+13.7 km, and SUB 18.0-10.8+? km. Generally high coupling of subduction and continental plate boundaries suggests that here all seismic gaps are dangerous unless proven to be creeping. Generally low coupling within oceanic lithosphere suggests a different model of isolated seismic asperities surrounded by large seismic gaps which may be permanent.

  19. Structure and lithology of the Japan Trench subduction plate boundary fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, James D.; Rowe, Christie D.; Ujiie, Kohtaro; Moore, J. Casey; Regalla, Christine; Remitti, Francesca; Toy, Virginia; Wolfson-Schwehr, Monica; Kameda, Jun; Bose, Santanu; Chester, Frederick M.

    2015-01-01

    The 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake ruptured to the trench with maximum coseismic slip located on the shallow portion of the plate boundary fault. To investigate the conditions and physical processes that promoted slip to the trench, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 343/343T sailed 1 year after the earthquake and drilled into the plate boundary ˜7 km landward of the trench, in the region of maximum slip. Core analyses show that the plate boundary décollement is localized onto an interval of smectite-rich, pelagic clay. Subsidiary structures are present in both the upper and lower plates, which define a fault zone ˜5-15m thick. Fault rocks recovered from within the clay-rich interval contain a pervasive scaly fabric defined by anastomosing, polished, and lineated surfaces with two predominant orientations. The scaly fabric is crosscut in several places by discrete contacts across which the scaly fabric is truncated and rotated, or different rocks are juxtaposed. These contacts are inferred to be faults. The plate boundary décollement therefore contains structures resulting from both distributed and localized deformation. We infer that the formation of both of these types of structures is controlled by the frictional properties of the clay: the distributed scaly fabric formed at low strain rates associated with velocity-strengthening frictional behavior, and the localized faults formed at high strain rates characterized by velocity-weakening behavior. The presence of multiple discrete faults resulting from seismic slip within the décollement suggests that rupture to the trench may be characteristic of this margin.

  20. Mid-Tertiary extension and broadening of the locus of Andean magmatic activity in southern South America caused by the reorganzation of subduction geometry due to the three-fold increase in late Oligocene trench-normal plate convergence rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, J.; Farmer, G. L.; Stern, C. R.

    2001-12-01

    A regionally widespread episode of late Oligocene to Miocene extension thinned the crust below the proto-Central Valley in south-central Chile and generated sedimentary basins west of, within and east of the Main Andean Cordillera. The locus of Andean magmatic activity associated with this episode of extension expanded both well to the west and also well to the east of its previous location in the Main Andean Cordillera, generating the Mid-Tertiary Coastal Magmatic Belt, which outcrops in Chile as far west as the Pacific coast, and the Meseta Somuncura, which outcrops in Argentina almost as far east as the Atlantic coast. The initiation of this episode of extension and basin formation, and the expansion of the locus of Andean magmatic activity, coincides closely to the beginning, in the late Oligocene (27+/-2 Ma), of the current period of both high convergence rate (>10 cm/yr) and less oblique convergence, which together resulted in an approximately three-fold increase in trench normal convergence rate between the Nazca and South American plates. Some of the igneous rocks associated with this episode are chemically similar to modern Andean arc magmas, but others have ocean island basalt chemical affinities with lower Ba/La (<19), La/Nb (<1.6) and initial 87Sr/86Sr rations (<0.7035), and higher ? Nd values (>+5). The latter formed by melting of mantle uncontaminated by components derived from the dehydration of subducted oceanic lithosphere, possibly due to upwelling of mantle asthenosphere through a slab-window developed in response to changes in subduction geometry and an episode of invigorated asthenospheric wedge circulation caused by the increase in convergences rates. Extension might have resulted from westward trench migration and slab-rollback of the subducting Nazca plate induced by these changes in subduction geometry and asthenospheric circulation patterns. Extension and associated magmatic activity continued during an approximately 10 million year period after this three-fold increase in trench normal convergence rates. In the mid to late Miocene a new equilibrium subduction geometry was established as indicated by the return of the locus of magmatic activity to the Main Andean Cordillera and the uplift and deformation of the sediments deposited in the late Oligocene to early Miocene extensional basins. Similar transient changes in subduction geometry and asthenospheric wedge circulation patterns may be important events in the long-term evolution of other convergent plate boundary arcs as a result of changes in plate convergent rate due to either global plate reorganization or local reorganization associated with ridge subduction.

  1. In-Flight Boundary-Layer Transition of a Large Flat Plate at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, D. W.; Frederick, M. A.; Tracy, R. R.; Matisheck, J. R.; Vanecek, N. D.

    2012-01-01

    A flight experiment was conducted to investigate the pressure distribution, local-flow conditions, and boundary-layer transition characteristics on a large flat plate in flight at supersonic speeds up to Mach 2.00. The tests used a NASA testbed aircraft with a bottom centerline mounted test fixture. The primary objective of the test was to characterize the local flow field in preparation for future tests of a high Reynolds number natural laminar flow test article. A second objective was to determine the boundary-layer transition characteristics on the flat plate and the effectiveness of using a simplified surface coating. Boundary-layer transition was captured in both analog and digital formats using an onboard infrared imaging system. Surface pressures were measured on the surface of the flat plate. Flow field measurements near the leading edge of the test fixture revealed the local flow characteristics including downwash, sidewash, and local Mach number. Results also indicated that the simplified surface coating did not provide sufficient insulation from the metallic structure, which likely had a substantial effect on boundary-layer transition compared with that of an adiabatic surface. Cold wall conditions were predominant during the acceleration to maximum Mach number, and warm wall conditions were evident during the subsequent deceleration.

  2. Paleomagnetic Quantification of Neogene Block Rotations within an Active Transtensional Plate Boundary, Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, J.; Umhoefer, P. J.; Pérez Venzor, J. A.; Bachtadse, V.

    2009-12-01

    Compared to oceanic plate boundaries which are generally narrow zones of deformation, continental plate boundaries appear as widespread areas with complex and poorly understood kinematics. Motion of crustal blocks within these “diffuse plate boundaries” causes rather small-scale lithospheric deformation within the boundary zone, while the main plates behave more rigid. Complex deformation patterns of interacting terranes separated by a variety of active faults are the consequence. To study the dynamic implications of boundary zone deformation, the southern part of the Baja California peninsula, Mexico (Baja) has been chosen as target for a detailed paleomagnetic study. In combination with geodetic measurements it is tried to characterize rigid block rotations and temporal changes in rotation rates. Up to now, little paleomagnetic work directed toward vertical axis rotations has been done in Baja California, despite its location in a major active transtensional zone. To address this problem, a total of 501 cores from 63 sites in the southern part of Baja - including sites on San José Island, San Francisco Island and Cerralvo Island - has been taken from volcanic and sedimentary rocks covering the last 25 million years in time. The analysis of paleomagnetic declinations and comparison to coeval data from North America and stable areas of Baja California allow evaluating the long-term kinematics of the region and the effects of oblique-rifting in the Gulf of California to the east. Nearly all sampled sites indicate vertical axis rotation up to 30-40 degrees with an average of about 20-25 degrees. Depending on the location these rotations have been either clockwise or counter-clockwise and are correlated with the opening of the Gulf of California and the translation of the Baja California peninsula to the North. Results of the paleomagnetic investigation are compared to geodetic data of the last few years in order to address the problem how strain is partitioned within a complex network of faults and how rates of rotation change with time.

  3. Plate boundary forces in the vicinity of Trinidad-the-transition from transpression to transtension in the Southern Caribbean plate boundary zones

    SciTech Connect

    Algar, S.T.; Pindell, J.L. )

    1993-02-01

    Deformation in the southern Caribbean plate boundary zones as recorded in the Northern Range of Trinidad initiated in the Oligocene with northward vergent gravity sliding of Northern Range sediments due to uplift and oversteepening of the previously passive margin by the eastward migration of the Caribbean flexural forebulge. Progressive east-southeast transvergence of the Caribbean Plate with respect to South America overthrust incorporated the Northern Range sediments into the Caribbean accretionary prism, thrusting them south-southeast to produce a Middle Miocene transpressive foreland fold and thrust belt in southern Trinidad. Late Miocene deformation within Trinidad was increasingly dominated by right-lateral strike-slop (RLSS) faulting, at the expense of transpressive compressional features. Right-stepping of RLSS motion initiated the Gulf of Paria and Caroni pull-apart basins, Since Early Pliocene these basins and other areas to the north of Trinidad have undergone north-south extension in addition to east-west trending RLSS. Such extension caused the northward withdrawal of Caribbean terranes from atop of the Northern Range, Resulting in rapid isostatically induced uplift (approximately 0.5 mmyr[sup -1]). This change in deformation style may relate to a hitherto unrecognized shift in the relative motion of the eastern Caribbean Plate with respect to South America: from east-southeast-directed transpression to east-northeast-directed transtension.

  4. Tectonic inversion in the Caribbean-South American plate boundary: GPS geodesy, seismology, and tectonics of the Mw 6.7 22 April 1997 Tobago earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, John C.; Geirsson, Halldor; Latchman, Joan L.; Shaw, Kenton; La Femina, Peter; Wdowinski, Shimon; Higgins, Machel; Churches, Christopher; Norabuena, Edmundo

    2015-06-01

    On 22 April 1997 the largest earthquake recorded in the Trinidad-Tobago segment of the Caribbean-South American plate boundary zone (Mw 6.7) ruptured a shallow (~9 km), ENE striking (~250° azimuth), shallowly dipping (~28°) dextral-normal fault ~10 km south of Tobago. In this study, we describe this earthquake and related foreshock and aftershock seismicity, derive coseismic offsets using GPS data, and model the fault plane and magnitude of slip for this earthquake. Coseismic slip estimated at our episodic GPS sites indicates movement of Tobago 135 ± 6 to 68 ± 6 mm NNE and subsidence of 7 ± 9 to 0 mm. This earthquake was anomalous and is of interest because (1) its large component of normal slip and ENE strike are unexpected given the active E-W dextral shearing across the Caribbean-South American plate boundary zone, (2) it ruptured a normal fault plane with a low (~28°) dip angle, and (3) it reactivated and inverted the preexisting Tobago terrrane-South America ocean-continent (thrust) boundary that formed during early Tertiary oblique plate convergence.

  5. Analysis of turbulent free-convection boundary layer on flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, E R G; Jackson, Thomas W

    1951-01-01

    With the use of Karman's integrated momentum equation for the boundary layer and data on the wall-shearing stress and heat transfer in forced-convection flow, a calculation was carried out for the flow and heat transfer in the turbulent free-convection boundary layer on a vertical flat plate. The calculation is for a fluid with a Prandtl number that is close to 1. A formula was derived for the heat-transfer coefficient that was in good agreement with experimental data in the range of Grashof numbers from 10sup10 to 10sup12. Because of the good agreement between the theoretical formula and the experimental data, the formula may be used to obtain data for high Grashof numbers. The calculation also yielded formulas for the maximum velocity in the boundary layer and for boundary-layer thickness.

  6. Control of boundary layer transition location and plate vibration in the presence of an external acoustic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, L.; Grosveld, F. W.

    1991-01-01

    The experiment is aimed at controlling the boundary layer transition location and the plate vibration when excited by a flow and an upstream sound source. Sound has been found to affect the flow at the leading edge and the response of a flexible plate in a boundary layer. Because the sound induces early transition, the panel vibration is acoustically coupled to the turbulent boundary layer by the upstream radiation. Localized surface heating at the leading edge delays the transition location downstream of the flexible plate. The response of the plate excited by a turbulent boundary layer (without sound) shows that the plate is forced to vibrate at different frequencies and with different amplitudes as the flow velocity changes indicating that the plate is driven by the convective waves of the boundary layer. The acoustic disturbances induced by the upstream sound dominate the response of the plate when the boundary layer is either turbulent or laminar. Active vibration control was used to reduce the sound induced displacement amplitude of the plate.

  7. Tectonic plate under a localized boundary stress: fitting of a zero-range solvable model

    E-print Network

    Petrova, L

    2008-01-01

    We suggest a method of fitting of a zero-range model of a tectonic plate under a boundary stress on the basis of comparison of the theoretical formulae for the corresponding eigenfunctions/eigenvalues with the results extraction under monitoring, in the remote zone, of non-random (regular) oscillations of the Earth with periods 0.2-6 hours, on the background seismic process, in case of low seismic activity. Observations of changes of the characteristics of the oscillations (frequency, amplitude and polarization) in course of time, together with the theoretical analysis of the fitted model, would enable us to localize the stressed zone on the boundary of the plate and estimate the risk of a powerful earthquake at the zone.

  8. Tectonic plate under a localized boundary stress: fitting of a zero-range solvable model

    E-print Network

    L. Petrova; B. Pavlov

    2008-01-18

    We suggest a method of fitting of a zero-range model of a tectonic plate under a boundary stress on the basis of comparison of the theoretical formulae for the corresponding eigenfunctions/eigenvalues with the results extraction under monitoring, in the remote zone, of non-random (regular) oscillations of the Earth with periods 0.2-6 hours, on the background seismic process, in case of low seismic activity. Observations of changes of the characteristics of the oscillations (frequency, amplitude and polarization) in course of time, together with the theoretical analysis of the fitted model, would enable us to localize the stressed zone on the boundary of the plate and estimate the risk of a powerful earthquake at the zone.

  9. Gradual unlocking of plate boundary controlled initiation of the 2014 Iquique earthquake.

    PubMed

    Schurr, Bernd; Asch, Günter; Hainzl, Sebastian; Bedford, Jonathan; Hoechner, Andreas; Palo, Mauro; Wang, Rongjiang; Moreno, Marcos; Bartsch, Mitja; Zhang, Yong; Oncken, Onno; Tilmann, Frederik; Dahm, Torsten; Victor, Pia; Barrientos, Sergio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre

    2014-08-21

    On 1 April 2014, Northern Chile was struck by a magnitude 8.1 earthquake following a protracted series of foreshocks. The Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile monitored the entire sequence of events, providing unprecedented resolution of the build-up to the main event and its rupture evolution. Here we show that the Iquique earthquake broke a central fraction of the so-called northern Chile seismic gap, the last major segment of the South American plate boundary that had not ruptured in the past century. Since July 2013 three seismic clusters, each lasting a few weeks, hit this part of the plate boundary with earthquakes of increasing peak magnitudes. Starting with the second cluster, geodetic observations show surface displacements that can be associated with slip on the plate interface. These seismic clusters and their slip transients occupied a part of the plate interface that was transitional between a fully locked and a creeping portion. Leading up to this earthquake, the b value of the foreshocks gradually decreased during the years before the earthquake, reversing its trend a few days before the Iquique earthquake. The mainshock finally nucleated at the northern end of the foreshock area, which skirted a locked patch, and ruptured mainly downdip towards higher locking. Peak slip was attained immediately downdip of the foreshock region and at the margin of the locked patch. We conclude that gradual weakening of the central part of the seismic gap accentuated by the foreshock activity in a zone of intermediate seismic coupling was instrumental in causing final failure, distinguishing the Iquique earthquake from most great earthquakes. Finally, only one-third of the gap was broken and the remaining locked segments now pose a significant, increased seismic hazard with the potential to host an earthquake with a magnitude of >8.5. PMID:25119049

  10. Unsteady Boundary-Layer Flow over Jerked Plate Moving in a Free Stream of Viscoelastic Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Mehmood, Ahmer; Ali, Asif; Saleem, Najma

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the unsteady boundary-layer flow of a viscoelastic non-Newtonian fluid over a flat surface. The plate is suddenly jerked to move with uniform velocity in a uniform stream of non-Newtonian fluid. Purely analytic solution to governing nonlinear equation is obtained. The solution is highly accurate and valid for all values of the dimensionless time 0 ? ? < ?. Flow properties of the viscoelastic fluid are discussed through graphs. PMID:24892060

  11. Raman scattering measurements within a flat plate boundary layer in an inductively coupled plasma wind tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Studer, Damien; Vervisch, Pierre

    2007-08-01

    High temperature air chemistry is a crucial issue concerning next reusable space vehicle thermal protection system. The aim of this paper is to measure N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} densities and characteristic temperatures thanks to spontaneous Raman scattering within the boundary layer of a stainless steel flat plate cooled down at 300 K. This shear-flow test configuration is considered as a nonequilibrium air plasma test case. Vibrational and rotational temperatures are determined by comparing experimental spectra with computed ones. The density calculation is performed using the ratio of first vibrational transition intensities for both cases with and without plasma at 38 hPa. Several sections were investigated between 15 and 40 mm from the leading edge. All these sections exhibit a classical boundary layer pattern. The rotational temperature is completely in equilibrium with the plate and reaches 2500 K at the outer edge of the boundary layer. On the contrary, the vibrational temperature drops to 1500 K near of the plate and is about 5000 K in the freestream. Molecular densities are smaller than expected at equilibrium, about 60% of the equilibrium value in the freestream for N{sub 2}.

  12. MHD Free Convective Boundary Layer Flow of a Nanofluid past a Flat Vertical Plate with Newtonian Heating Boundary Condition

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Mohammed J.; Khan, Waqar A.; Ismail, Ahmed I.

    2012-01-01

    Steady two dimensional MHD laminar free convective boundary layer flows of an electrically conducting Newtonian nanofluid over a solid stationary vertical plate in a quiescent fluid taking into account the Newtonian heating boundary condition is investigated numerically. A magnetic field can be used to control the motion of an electrically conducting fluid in micro/nano scale systems used for transportation of fluid. The transport equations along with the boundary conditions are first converted into dimensionless form and then using linear group of transformations, the similarity governing equations are developed. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. The effects of different controlling parameters, namely, Lewis number, Prandtl number, buoyancy ratio, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, magnetic field and Newtonian heating on the flow and heat transfer are investigated. The numerical results for the dimensionless axial velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically and discussed. It is found that the rate of heat and mass transfer increase as Newtonian heating parameter increases. The dimensionless velocity and temperature distributions increase with the increase of Newtonian heating parameter. The results of the reduced heat transfer rate is compared for convective heating boundary condition and found an excellent agreement. PMID:23166688

  13. MHD free convective boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a flat vertical plate with Newtonian heating boundary condition.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Mohammed J; Khan, Waqar A; Ismail, Ahmed I

    2012-01-01

    Steady two dimensional MHD laminar free convective boundary layer flows of an electrically conducting Newtonian nanofluid over a solid stationary vertical plate in a quiescent fluid taking into account the Newtonian heating boundary condition is investigated numerically. A magnetic field can be used to control the motion of an electrically conducting fluid in micro/nano scale systems used for transportation of fluid. The transport equations along with the boundary conditions are first converted into dimensionless form and then using linear group of transformations, the similarity governing equations are developed. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. The effects of different controlling parameters, namely, Lewis number, Prandtl number, buoyancy ratio, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, magnetic field and Newtonian heating on the flow and heat transfer are investigated. The numerical results for the dimensionless axial velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically and discussed. It is found that the rate of heat and mass transfer increase as Newtonian heating parameter increases. The dimensionless velocity and temperature distributions increase with the increase of Newtonian heating parameter. The results of the reduced heat transfer rate is compared for convective heating boundary condition and found an excellent agreement. PMID:23166688

  14. The Diffuse Plate boundary of Nubia and Iberia in the Western Mediterranean: Crustal deformation evidence for viscous coupling and fragmented lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palano, Mimmo; González, Pablo J.; Fernández, José

    2015-11-01

    A spatially dense GNSS-based crustal velocity field for the Iberian Peninsula and Northern Africa allows us to provide new insights into two main tectonic processes currently occurring in this area. In particular, we provide, for the first time, clear evidence for a large-scale clockwise rotation of the Iberian Peninsula with respect to stable Eurasia (Euler pole component: N42.612°, W1.833°, clockwise rotation rate of 0.07 deg/Myr). We favor the interpretation that this pattern reflects the quasi-continuous straining of the ductile lithosphere in some sectors of South and Western Iberia in response to viscous coupling of the NW Nubia and Iberian plate boundary in the Gulf of Cádiz. We furnish evidence for a fragmentation of the western Mediterranean basin into independent crustal tectonic blocks, which are delimited by inherited lithospheric shear structures. Among these blocks, an (oceanic-like western) Algerian one is currently transferring a significant fraction of the Nubia-Eurasia convergence rate into the Eastern Betics (SE Iberia) and likely causing the eastward motion of the Baleares Promontory. These processes can be mainly explained by spatially variable lithospheric plate forces imposed along the Nubia-Eurasia convergence boundary.

  15. Effect of plate permeability on nonlinear stability of the asymptotic suction boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedin, Hâkan; Cherubini, Stefania; Bottaro, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    The nonlinear stability of the asymptotic suction boundary layer is studied numerically, searching for finite-amplitude solutions that bifurcate from the laminar flow state. By changing the boundary conditions for disturbances at the plate from the classical no-slip condition to more physically sound ones, the stability characteristics of the flow may change radically, both for the linearized as well as the nonlinear problem. The wall boundary condition takes into account the permeability K ? of the plate; for very low permeability, it is acceptable to impose the classical boundary condition (K ?=0 ). This leads to a Reynolds number of approximately Rec=54 400 for the onset of linearly unstable waves, and close to Reg=3200 for the emergence of nonlinear solutions [F. A. Milinazzo and P. G. Saffman, J. Fluid Mech. 160, 281 (1985), 10.1017/S0022112085003482; J. H. M. Fransson, Ph.D. thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Sweden, 2003]. However, for larger values of the plate's permeability, the lower limit for the existence of linear and nonlinear solutions shifts to significantly lower Reynolds numbers. For the largest permeability studied here, the limit values of the Reynolds numbers reduce down to Rec=796 and Reg=294 . For all cases studied, the solutions bifurcate subcritically toward lower Re, and this leads to the conjecture that they may be involved in the very first stages of a transition scenario similar to the classical route of the Blasius boundary layer initiated by Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves. The stability of these nonlinear solutions is also investigated, showing a low-frequency main unstable mode whose growth rate decreases with increasing permeability and with the Reynolds number, following a power law Re-?, where the value of ? depends on the permeability coefficient K ?. The nonlinear dynamics of the flow in the vicinity of the computed finite-amplitude solutions is finally investigated by direct numerical simulations, providing a viable scenario for subcritical transition due to TS waves.

  16. Effect of plate permeability on nonlinear stability of the asymptotic suction boundary layer.

    PubMed

    Wedin, Håkan; Cherubini, Stefania; Bottaro, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    The nonlinear stability of the asymptotic suction boundary layer is studied numerically, searching for finite-amplitude solutions that bifurcate from the laminar flow state. By changing the boundary conditions for disturbances at the plate from the classical no-slip condition to more physically sound ones, the stability characteristics of the flow may change radically, both for the linearized as well as the nonlinear problem. The wall boundary condition takes into account the permeability K? of the plate; for very low permeability, it is acceptable to impose the classical boundary condition (K?=0). This leads to a Reynolds number of approximately Re(c)=54400 for the onset of linearly unstable waves, and close to Re(g)=3200 for the emergence of nonlinear solutions [F. A. Milinazzo and P. G. Saffman, J. Fluid Mech. 160, 281 (1985); J. H. M. Fransson, Ph.D. thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Sweden, 2003]. However, for larger values of the plate's permeability, the lower limit for the existence of linear and nonlinear solutions shifts to significantly lower Reynolds numbers. For the largest permeability studied here, the limit values of the Reynolds numbers reduce down to Re(c)=796 and Re(g)=294. For all cases studied, the solutions bifurcate subcritically toward lower Re, and this leads to the conjecture that they may be involved in the very first stages of a transition scenario similar to the classical route of the Blasius boundary layer initiated by Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves. The stability of these nonlinear solutions is also investigated, showing a low-frequency main unstable mode whose growth rate decreases with increasing permeability and with the Reynolds number, following a power law Re(-?), where the value of ? depends on the permeability coefficient K?. The nonlinear dynamics of the flow in the vicinity of the computed finite-amplitude solutions is finally investigated by direct numerical simulations, providing a viable scenario for subcritical transition due to TS waves. PMID:26274284

  17. In-Flight Boundary-Layer Transition on a Large Flat Plate at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Daniel W.; Fredericks, Michael Alan; Tracy, Richard R.; Matisheck, Jason R.; Vanecek, Neal D.

    2012-01-01

    A flight experiment was conducted to investigate the pressure distribution, local flow conditions, and boundary-layer transition characteristics on a large flat plate in flight at supersonic speeds up to Mach 2.0. The primary objective of the test was to characterize the local flow field in preparation for future tests of a high Reynolds number natural laminar flow test article. The tests used a F-15B testbed aircraft with a bottom centerline mounted test fixture. A second objective was to determine the boundary-layer transition characteristics on the flat plate and the effectiveness of using a simplified surface coating for future laminar flow flight tests employing infrared thermography. Boundary-layer transition was captured using an onboard infrared imaging system. The infrared imagery was captured in both analog and digital formats. Surface pressures were measured with electronically scanned pressure modules connected to 60 surface-mounted pressure orifices. The local flow field was measured with five 5-hole conical probes mounted near the leading edge of the test fixture. Flow field measurements revealed the local flow characteristics including downwash, sidewash, and local Mach number. Results also indicated that the simplified surface coating did not provide sufficient insulation from the metallic structure, which likely had a substantial effect on boundary-layer transition compared with that of an adiabatic surface. Cold wall conditions were predominant during the acceleration to maximum Mach number, and warm wall conditions were evident during the subsequent deceleration. The infrared imaging system was able to capture shock wave impingement on the surface of the flat plate in addition to indicating laminar-to-turbulent boundary-layer transition.

  18. Plate boundary deformation at the latitude of the Salton Trough - northern Gulf of California (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Along the Pacific-North America plate boundary zone, the segment including the southern San Andreas fault to Salton Trough and northern Gulf of California basins has been transtensional throughout its evolution, based on Pacific-North America displacement vectors calculated from the global plate circuit (900 × 20 km at N54°W since 20 Ma; 460 × 20 km at N48°W since 11 Ma). Nevertheless, active seismicity and focal mechanisms show a broad zone of plate boundary deformation within which the inferred stress regime varies locally (Yang & Hauksson 2013 GJI), and fault patterns in some regions suggest ongoing tectonic rotation. Similar behavior is inferred to have occurred in this zone over most of its history. Crustal structure in this region is constrained by surface geology, geophysical experiments (e.g., the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), USGS Imperial Valley 1979, PACE), and interdisciplinary marine and onland studies in Mexico (e.g., NARS-Baja, Cortes, and surveys by PEMEX). Magnetic data (e.g., EMAG-2) aids in the recognition of large-scale crustal provinces and fault boundaries in regions lacking detailed geophysical surveys. Consideration of existing constraints on crustal thickness and architecture, and fault and basin evolution suggests that to reconcile geological deformation with plate motion history, the following additional factors need to be taken into account. 1) Plate boundary displacement via interacting systems of rotating blocks, coeval with slip on steep strike slip faults, and possibly related to slip on low angle extensional faults (e.g, Axen & Fletcher 1998 IGR) may be typical prior to the onset of seafloor spreading. This fault style may have accommodated up to 150 km of plate motion in the Mexican Continental Borderland and north of the Vizcaino Peninsula, likely between 12 and 15 Ma, as well as explaining younger rotations adjacent to the Gulf of California and current deformation southwest of the Salton Sea. 2) Geophysical characteristics suggest that the zone of strike-slip faults related to past plate boundary deformation extends eastward into SW Arizona and beneath the Sonoran coastal plain. 3) 'New' crust and mantle lithosphere at the plate boundary, in the Salton Trough and the non-oceanic part of the northern Gulf of California, varies in seismic velocity structure and dimensions, both within and across extensional segments. Details of within-segment variations imaged by SSIP (e.g., Ma et al., and Han et al., this meeting) are attributed to active fault patterns and small scale variations in hydrothermal activity and magmatism superposed on a more uniform sedimentation. Differences between the Imperial Valley rift segment and the north Gulf of California segments may be due to more involvement of low angle normal faults in the marine basins in the south (Martin et al., 2013, Tectonics), as well as differences in lower crustal or mantle lithospheric flow from the adjacent continental regions.

  19. A structurally damped plate equation with Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denk, Robert; Schnaubelt, Roland

    2015-08-01

    We investigate sectoriality and maximal regularity in Lp-Lq-Sobolev spaces for the structurally damped plate equation with Dirichlet-Neumann (clamped) boundary conditions. We obtain unique solutions with optimal regularity for the inhomogeneous problem in the whole space, in the half-space, and in bounded domains of class C4. It turns out that the first-order system related to the scalar equation on Rn is sectorial only after a shift in the operator. On the half-space one has to include zero boundary conditions in the underlying function space in order to obtain sectoriality of the shifted operator and maximal regularity for the case of homogeneous boundary conditions. We further show that the semigroup solving the problem on bounded domains is exponentially stable.

  20. Extension and transtension in the plate boundary zone of the northeastern Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Speed, R.C. ); Larue, D.K. )

    1991-03-01

    The authors propose that the Caribbean (Ca)-North American (NA) plate boundary zone (pbz) from the Puerto Rico Trench to the Venezuelan Basin from Mona Canyon east has been in left-transtension over the last 15-20 ma. A boundary-normal component of extension occurs throughout the pbz and is a principal cause of the Puerto Rico Trench. Such extension is due to WNW velocity of NA-Ca and the northward pullaway of NA from its S-dipping slab, which is below Puerto Rico. Strike slip motion may be taken up among terranes in the pbz by rigid CCW rotation and by oblique slip at their boundaries. Rotation of the largest terrane, Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands (PRVI), has caused such major structures as the Muertos thrust and Anegada Passage. The model implies NA-Ca velocity estimated from Cayman transforms is more accurate than that from slip vectors from seisms in the NA slab.

  1. Boundary layer flow of air over water on a flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, John; Alving, Amy E.; Joseph, Daniel D.

    1993-01-01

    A non-similar boundary layer theory for air blowing over a water layer on a flat plate is formulated and studied as a two-fluid problem in which the position of the interface is unknown. The problem is considered at large Reynolds number (based on x), away from the leading edge. A simple non-similar analytic solution of the problem is derived for which the interface height is proportional to x(sub 1/4) and the water and air flow satisfy the Blasius boundary layer equations, with a linear profile in the water and a Blasius profile in the air. Numerical studies of the initial value problem suggests that this asymptotic, non-similar air-water boundary layer solution is a global attractor for all initial conditions.

  2. Geodynamic modeling of passive margin systems from tectonic reconstructions with deforming plate boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, S.; Flament, N.; Heine, C.; Hosseinpour Vazifehshenas, M.; Seton, M.; Gurnis, M.; Müller, R. D.

    2012-04-01

    The effect of mantle flow on surface topography has been the subject of considerable interest over the last few years. A common approach to the problem is to link plate tectonic reconstructions and global geodynamic models. An important limitation of this approach is that traditional plate tectonic reconstructions do not take the deformation of the lithosphere into account. We introduce quantitative models of surface plate kinematics that include areas of deforming continental crust. We present a series of global reconstructions including deforming plates in key areas, derived using tools developed within the open source plate modeling software GPlates. In traditional plate reconstructions, the continents are represented as rigid blocks that overlap in full-fit reconstructions. Models that use topological polygons avoid continental overlaps, but plate velocities are still derived on the basis of Euler poles for rigid blocks. To resolve these issues, we use a methodology that requires at minimum two inputs; (1) the relative motions of the rigid blocks within continents; (2) a definition of the regions in which continental crust deformed between these blocks. We use geological and geophysical data to interpret the landward limit of significant extension and crustal thinning along conjugate passive margins. These boundaries are used to construct polygons along both margins that define the extent of the stretched continental crust on either side of the rift. We derive individual motion histories for each point on the conjugate continent/ocean boundaries (COBs). Joined together, these COB points form the topological boundaries of deforming domains in which each vertex moves independently. The deforming domains represented by topological meshes extend forward in time as the major rigid plates drift apart. In our tectonic reconstruction with deforming plates, the timing and the intensity of continental extension is imposed by the progressive, diachronous breakup and initiation of seafloor spreading for each major margin system. The velocity field derived from the plate reconstructions is used as a time-dependent surface boundary condition in mantle convection models that include compositionally distinct crust and continental lithosphere embedded within the thermal lithosphere. In deforming areas, the velocity field is obtained by linearly interpolating velocities from adjacent non-deforming areas within GPlates. We computed forward global mantle flow models using 3D-spherical finite-element code CitcomS to simultaneously quantify the relative contributions of lithospheric stretching, thermal subsidence, and deep mantle flow to the subsidence of passive margins. Applied to the South Atlantic, the method reproduces the first-order asymmetry of the margins. In particular, the large subsidence of the Argentinian margin is due to the dynamic topography induced by ongoing subduction along the narrow southern portion of South America. This result illustrates the importance of dynamic topography to the total subsidence at passive margins.

  3. The effect of periodic unsteady wakes on boundary layer transition and heat transfer on a curved plate 

    E-print Network

    Wright, Lance Cole

    1996-01-01

    The effect of unsteady periodic wakes on heat transfer and boundary layer transition was investigated on a constant curvature heat transfer curved plate in a subsonic wind tunnel facility. The local heat transfer coefficient ...

  4. Seismotectonics of the Lwandle-Nubia plate boundary between South Africa and the Southwest Indian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartnady, Chris; Okal, Emile; Calais, Eric; Stamps, Sarah; Saria, Elifuraha

    2013-04-01

    The Lwandle (LW) plate shares a boundary with the Nubia (NU) plate, extending from a diffuse triple junction with the Rovuma plate in Southern Mozambique to a triple junction with the Antarctic plate along a segment of the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR). The LW-NU boundary terminates in the ~750 km-long, complex transform of the Andrew Bain Fracture Zone (ABFZ), but its exact locus is still unclear. Recent works locate it along the eastern boundary of the submarine Mozambique Ridge, parallel to the pre-existing, oceanic transform-fault fabric. However, an early concept of the LW block ('ambiguous region' of Hartnady, 1990, Fig. 2) indicates a more westerly trajectory in the north that includes parts of South Africa, with a southerly extension across old oceanic crust of the submarine Natal Valley and Transkei Basin. This proposed boundary is marked by several, aligned epicentres of moderate to strong earthquakes (1941, 1942, 1956, 1969, 1972, 1975, 1981 and 1989). Our re-examination of seismographic records from the 1975 'intraplate' earthquake (-37.62°N, 30.98°E, mb5.0), in the oceanic crust of the distal Transkei Basin, shows a thrust-faulting focal mechanism along a nodal plane striking N272°E. The largest (ML4.2) of a series of three small earthquakes in the Natal Valley in 2009, close to a zone of recent seafloor deformation mapped in 1992, has similar first-motion patterns at Southern African seismograph stations. When the 1975 slip-vector result (N173°E) is combined with a normal-faulting slip vector (N078°E) from a 1986 onland earthquake (-30.53°N, 28.84°E, mb5.0) near the Lesotho-KZN border, and both are incorporated into the wider data-set previously used to solve for East African Rift kinematics, they produce a LW-NU rotation pole that is located south of Africa, near the Agulhas Plateau, and approximately 950 km from the Natal Valley deformation zone. The modeled low rate of right-lateral, LW-NU slip (~0.50-0.75 mm/yr) across this LW-NU boundary segment suggests that the 1972, 1981 and nearby 2009 earthquakes are instances of a 'long aftershock sequence' in the source zone of the 1850 'i-Nyikima' event, which was felt over a very wide region of the Eastern Cape Colony, and the adjacent territories of British Kaffraria and Pondoland. This remarkable historic shaking appears to have been caused by a great (Mw8.0+), oceanic event along a segment of the LW-NU boundary, resembling the 1942 SWIR event along the ABFZ and the recent (2012 March 11) North Indian Ocean events along the incipient boundary between the Indian and Australian plates. This new interpretation has implications for the re-assessment of seismic and submarine-landslide (tsunami) hazard along the SE continental margin of South Africa. Reference Hartnady CJH (1990). Seismicity and plate boundary evolution in southeastern Africa. S. Afr. J. Geol. 93, 473 484.

  5. The boundary between the Indian and Asian tectonic plates below Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Junmeng; Yuan, Xiaohui; Liu, Hongbing; Kumar, Prakash; Pei, Shunping; Kind, Rainer; Zhang, Zhongjie; Teng, Jiwen; Ding, Lin; Gao, Xing; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    The fate of the colliding Indian and Asian tectonic plates below the Tibetan high plateau may be visualized by, in addition to seismic tomography, mapping the deep seismic discontinuities, like the crust-mantle boundary (Moho), the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), or the discontinuities at 410 and 660 km depth. We herein present observations of seismic discontinuities with the P and S receiver function techniques beneath central and western Tibet along two new profiles and discuss the results in connection with results from earlier profiles, which did observe the LAB. The LAB of the Indian and Asian plates is well-imaged by several profiles and suggests a changing mode of India-Asia collision in the east-west direction. From eastern Himalayan syntaxis to the western edge of the Tarim Basin, the Indian lithosphere is underthrusting Tibet at an increasingly shallower angle and reaching progressively further to the north. A particular lithospheric region was formed in northern and eastern Tibet as a crush zone between the two colliding plates, the existence of which is marked by high temperature, low mantle seismic wavespeed (correlating with late arriving signals from the 410 discontinuity), poor Sn propagation, east and southeast oriented global positioning system displacements, and strikingly larger seismic (SKS) anisotropy. PMID:20534567

  6. The boundary between the Indian and Asian tectonic plates below Tibet.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junmeng; Yuan, Xiaohui; Liu, Hongbing; Kumar, Prakash; Pei, Shunping; Kind, Rainer; Zhang, Zhongjie; Teng, Jiwen; Ding, Lin; Gao, Xing; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Wei

    2010-06-22

    The fate of the colliding Indian and Asian tectonic plates below the Tibetan high plateau may be visualized by, in addition to seismic tomography, mapping the deep seismic discontinuities, like the crust-mantle boundary (Moho), the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), or the discontinuities at 410 and 660 km depth. We herein present observations of seismic discontinuities with the P and S receiver function techniques beneath central and western Tibet along two new profiles and discuss the results in connection with results from earlier profiles, which did observe the LAB. The LAB of the Indian and Asian plates is well-imaged by several profiles and suggests a changing mode of India-Asia collision in the east-west direction. From eastern Himalayan syntaxis to the western edge of the Tarim Basin, the Indian lithosphere is underthrusting Tibet at an increasingly shallower angle and reaching progressively further to the north. A particular lithospheric region was formed in northern and eastern Tibet as a crush zone between the two colliding plates, the existence of which is marked by high temperature, low mantle seismic wavespeed (correlating with late arriving signals from the 410 discontinuity), poor Sn propagation, east and southeast oriented global positioning system displacements, and strikingly larger seismic (SKS) anisotropy. PMID:20534567

  7. Effect of time-evolving age and convergence rate of the subducting plate on the Cenozoic adakites and boninites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoon-Mi; Lee, Changyeol

    2014-12-01

    Partial melting of subducting oceanic crust expressed as high-Mg volcanic rocks such as adakites and boninites has been actively studied for decades, and Lee and King (2010) reported that time-evolving subduction parameters such as the age and the subduction rate of the converging oceanic plate play important roles in transient partial melting of the subducting oceanic crust (e.g., Aleutians). However, few subduction model experiments have considered time-evolving subduction parameters, posing problems for studies of transient partial melting of subducting oceanic crust in many subduction zones. Therefore, we constructed two-dimensional kinematic-dynamic subduction models for the Izu-Bonin, Mariana, Northeast Japan, Kuril, Tonga, Java-Sunda, and Aleutian subduction zones that account for the last 50 Myr of their evolution. The models include the time-evolving age and convergence rate of the incoming oceanic plate, so the effect of time-evolving subduction parameters on transient partial melting of oceanic crust can be evaluated. Our model calculations revealed that adakites and boninites in the Izu-Bonin and Aleutian subduction zones resulted from transient partial melting of oceanic crust. However, the steady-state subduction model using current subduction parameters did not produce any partial melting of oceanic crust in the aforementioned subduction zones, indicating that time-evolving subduction parameters are crucial for modeling transient eruption of adakites and boninites. Our model calculations confirm that other geological processes such as forearc extension, back-arc opening, mantle plumes and ridge subduction are required for partial melting of the oceanic crust in the Mariana, Northeast Japan, Tonga, and southeastern Java-Sunda subduction zones.

  8. Separation in the mixed convection boundary-layer radial flow over a constant temperature horizontal plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Feria, R.; del Pino, C.; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A.

    2014-10-01

    The boundary-layer flow of a horizontal current emerging radially from a cylindrical vertical surface of radius r0 with a constant velocity over a heated horizontal wall at constant temperature is analyzed. The boundary-layer equations are made dimensionless with a radial characteristic length in which natural and forced convection become of the same order of magnitude, so that the Prandtl (Pr) number and Gr2/Re5 are the only nondimensional parameters governing the problem, where Gr and Re are the Grashof and Reynolds numbers based on r0, respectively. A similarity solution valid at the leading edge of the boundary-layer flow is obtained. It contains, as the first order correction to Blasius' thermal boundary layer solution, the effect of buoyancy, and as the second order correction the effect of the radial divergence of the flow. This solution is used to start the numerical integration of the equations to provide a criterion for when separation occurs. It is found that separation, based on the boundary layer model, occurs for Gr < B(Pr)Re5/2, where the Prandtl's number function B is characterized numerically and found to be almost constant. This separation location law is compared with experimental results for air flowing over a heated horizontal plate at constant temperature, finding a qualitative good agreement.

  9. Prehistoric earthquakes on the Caribbean-South American plate boundary, central range fault, Trinidad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prentice, C.S.; Weber, J.C.; Crosby, C.J.; Ragona, D.

    2010-01-01

    Recent geodetic studies suggest that the Central Range fault is the principal plate-boundary structure accommodating strike-slip motion between the Caribbean and South American plates. Our study shows that the fault forms a topographically prominent lineament in central Trinidad. Results from a paleoseismic investigation at a site where Holocene sediments have been deposited across the Central Range fault indicate that it ruptured the ground surface most recently between 2710 and 550 yr B.P. If the geodetic slip rate of 9-15 mm/yr is representative of Holocene slip rates, our paleoseismic data suggest that at least 4.9 m of potential slip may have accumulated on the fault and could be released during a future large earthquake (M > 7). ?? 2010 Geological Society of America.

  10. Prehistoric earthquakes on the Caribbean-South American plate boundary, central Range Fault, Trinidad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prentice, Carol S.; Crosby, Christopher J.; Weber, John C.; Ragona, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Recent geodetic studies suggest that the Central Range fault is the principal plate-boundary structure accommodating strike-slip motion between the Caribbean and South American plates. Our study shows that the fault forms a topographically prominent lineament in central Trinidad. Results from a paleoseismic investigation at a site where Holocene sediments have been deposited across the Central Range fault indicate that it ruptured the ground surface most recently between 2710 and 550 yr B.P. If the geodetic slip rate of 9–15 mm/yr is representative of Holocene slip rates, our paleoseismic data suggest that at least 4.9 m of potential slip may have accumulated on the fault and could be released during a future large earthquake (M > 7).

  11. The Northern Caribbean Plate Boundary Offshore Hispaniola: Strike-slip and Compressive Tectonic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbeau, J.; Rolandone, F.; Leroy, S. D.; Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.; Meyer, B.; Ellouz, N.

    2014-12-01

    The boundary between the Caribbean plate and the North American plate is transpressive due to the oblique collision between these two plates. The transpressive movement is partitioned and accommodated in the Hispaniola region along two left-lateral strike-slip structures surrounding a fold-and-thrust belt. New multibeam bathymetry data and multichannel seismic reflection profiles have been recently collected during the Haiti-SIS and Haiti-SIS 2 cruises, along part of the northern Caribbean plate boundary between Cuba, Jamaica and Hispaniola. From the north to the south, three types of deformations are observed. In the Windward Passage, the analysis of the data set reveals that the movement on the Oriente fault between Cuba and Hispaniola is purely left-lateral strike-slip according to the GPS measurements. In the Gonave basin, west of Hispaniola, the deformation is compressive. A series of folds is identified and moves toward the southwest. The Enriquillo-Plantain-Garden Fault (EPGF) is localized in the Jamaica Passage, between Jamaica and Hispaniola. The analysis of the data set reveals that the left-lateral EPGF recently intersects inherited basins from the eastern Cayman Trough margin. The study of the actual EPGF active trace shows that this fault moves with a pure strike-slip component, at least in its western part: the presence of a little push-up structure and a set of three en echelon folds is highlighting in the western part of the Jamaica Passage. The shortening rate in the inherited basins crossed by the EPGF increases from west to east (5.8% to 8.5%), indicating that a thrusting component is also accommodated around the EPGF.

  12. Plate Boundary Observatory Borehole Strainmeter Recordings Of The 29 September 2009 Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, D. B.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Borsa, A. A.; Mencin, D.; van Boskirk, E.; Jackson, M. E.

    2009-12-01

    On 29 September 2009 a M8.3 earthquake on the Australian-Pacific plate boundary generated a tsunami that caused widespread damage in Samoa, American Samoa, and Tonga. Peak to trough wave heights of 314 cm were recorded 250 km from the epicenter at Pago-Pago, American Samoa approximately 20 minutes after the event. NOAA’s West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center predicted the tsunami would arrive at Tofino, Vancouver Island, British Columbia, at 05:12 UTC, 30 September 2009. Tide gauges at Tofino recorded a 7.3 cm amplitude wave arriving at 05:45 UTC. As part of the Plate Boundary Observatory, UNAVCO has installed 74 borehole tensor strainmeters along the western United States for the purpose of recording short-term strain transients associated with plate boundary deformation. Two of these strainmeters, Ucluelet and Bamfield, are located on the west coast of Vancouver Island within a few hundred meters of the Pacific shore line. A third, Port Alberni, is located at the north-east end of Port Alberni Inlet, ~ 50 km inland. The strainmeters at Ucluelet and Bamfield recorded strain signals associated with the arriving tsunami at times consistent with arrival times recorded by tide gauges at Tofino and Bamfield, ~05:45 UTC. A much smaller signal is recorded about 10 minutes later at Port Alberni. The largest strain signals were recorded at Ucluelet between 06:19 and 06:24 UTC. For this study we document the arrival times, nature and frequency content of the tsunami signal as recorded by PBO strainmeters on Vancouver Island and compare these strain measurements against the crustal loading signature predicted by water height changes at nearby tide gauges.

  13. Plate Boundary Observatory Borehole Strainmeter Recordings Of The 29 September 2009 Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkinson, Kathleen; Mencin, David; Borsa, Adrian; Jackson, Mike

    2010-05-01

    On 29 September 2009 a M8.3 earthquake on the Australian-Pacific plate boundary generated a tsunami that caused widespread damage in Samoa, American Samoa, and Tonga. Peak to trough wave heights of 314 cm were recorded 250 km from the epicenter at Pago-Pago, American Samoa approximately 20 minutes after the event. NOAA's West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center predicted the tsunami would arrive at Tofino, Vancouver Island, British Columbia, at 05:12 UTC, 30 September 2009. The Plate Boundary Observatory has installed 74 borehole strainmeters along the western United States for the purpose of recording short-term strain transients associated with plate boundary deformation. Two of these strainmeters, Ucluelet and Bamfield, are located on the west coast of Vancouver Island within a few hundred meters of the shore. A third, Port Alberni, is located at the eastern end of Port Alberni Inlet, ~ 50 km inland. The Ucluelet and Bamfield strainmeters recorded signals associated with the arriving tsunami at times consistent with that recorded by tide gauges at Tofino and Bamfield, ~05:45 UTC. A much smaller signal was recorded about 24 minutes later at Port Alberni. The tsunami strain signals were below the detection level of PBO GPS on the Oregon coast and seismometers in the strainmeter boreholes. Strainmeters, or lower coast tiltmeters, could potentially, provide a reliable onshore detection of a tsunami. In this presentation we document the nature and frequency content of the tsunami signal as recorded by PBO strainmeters and compare these strain measurements against the crustal loading signature predicted by water height changes at nearby tide gauges

  14. Architectural Blueprint for Plate Boundary Observatories based on interoperable Data Management Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerschke, D. I.; Häner, R.; Schurr, B.; Oncken, O.; Wächter, J.

    2014-12-01

    Interoperable data management platforms play an increasing role in the advancement of knowledge and technology in many scientific disciplines. Through high quality services they support the establishment of efficient and innovative research environments. Well-designed research environments can facilitate the sustainable utilization, exchange, and re-use of scientific data and functionality by using standardized community models. Together with innovative 3D/4D visualization, these concepts provide added value in improving scientific knowledge-gain, even across the boundaries of disciplines. A project benefiting from the added value is the Integrated Plate boundary Observatory in Chile (IPOC). IPOC is a European-South American network to study earthquakes and deformation at the Chilean continental margin and to monitor the plate boundary system for capturing an anticipated great earthquake in a seismic gap. In contrast to conventional observatories that monitor individual signals only, IPOC captures a large range of different processes through various observation methods (e.g., seismographs, GPS, magneto-telluric sensors, creep-meter, accelerometer, InSAR). For IPOC a conceptual design has been devised that comprises an architectural blueprint for a data management platform based on common and standardized data models, protocols, and encodings as well as on an exclusive use of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) including visualization components. Following the principles of event-driven service-oriented architectures, the design enables novel processes by sharing and re-using functionality and information on the basis of innovative data mining and data fusion technologies. This platform can help to improve the understanding of the physical processes underlying plate deformations as well as the natural hazards induced by them. Through the use of standards, this blueprint can not only be facilitated for other plate observing systems (e.g., the European Plate Observing System EPOS), it also supports integrated approaches to include sensor networks that provide complementary processes for dynamic monitoring. Moreover, the integration of such observatories into superordinate research infrastructures (federation of virtual observatories) will be enabled.

  15. Fluid-mechanical Representation of Plate Boundaries - Trench-Ridge System -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaku, M.; Fukao, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Seismic tomography models have been used extensively to simulate mantle convection driven by density heterogeneity. Such simulation to date has been unsuccessful to reconcile itself with the most obvious convection-related phenomenon of plate motions. Here we present a theoretical framework for tomography-based convection modeling to include the plates as an integral part of the mantle convection. We model the lithosphere as a highly viscous, incompressible, Newtonian fluid layer and plate boundaries as faults across which tangential velocities are discontinuous. Fluid-mechanical expressions of such faults have their exact analogies in the seismic source representation theory and can be derived by referring to it. We test this idea against the simplest two-dimensional case with only trench and ridge as plate boundaries, and with only subducting slab as mass anomaly. We model ridge (trench) as the horizontal (vertical) tensile fault that comprises of a conjugate pair of 45-degree dip normal (reverse) faults extending over the entire thickness of the surface layer. The system comprises of three elementary convections, slab mass-driven convection, trench fault-driven convection and ridge fault-driven convection. Flow due to the slab excess mass imposes vertical tensile stress on trench, which is released by flow driven by trench faulting. This faulting converts efficiently the vertical tensile stress to the horizontal tensile stress, which can transmit to extreme distances through the surface viscous layer. This horizontal tensile stress is relieved by flow driven by ridge faulting. The three elementary convections are thus coupled through the stress minimum conditions at ridge and trench. The resultant coupled flow is very plate-like in the surface viscous layer. In this system the horizontal surface velocity depends little on the relative distance between the ridge and trench and depends mostly on the excess weight of the subducting slab. The horizontal speed can be compared to the actual plate velocities for a lithosphere-asthenosphere system with a viscosity ratio of more than 10**3. The system is operated on the whole in a state of minimal stress.

  16. Characterization of the Absolute Crystal Polarity across Twin Boundaries in Gallium Phosphide Using Convergent-Beam Electron Diffraction.

    PubMed

    Cohen; McKernan; Carter

    1999-05-01

    : The measurement of absolute crystal polarity is crucial to understanding the structural properties of many planar defects in compound semiconductors. Grain boundaries, including twin boundaries, in the sphalerite lattice are uniquely characterized by the crystallographic misorientation of individual grains and the direction of the crystal polarity in domains adjoining the grain boundary. To evaluate crystal polarity in gallium phosphide (GaP), asymmetrical interference contrast in convergent-beam electron-diffraction (CBED) patterns was used to ascertain the nature and direction of polar bonds. The direction of the asymmetry in the electron diffraction reflections was correlated with the crystal polarity of a sample with known polarity. The CBED technique was applied to determine the polar orientation of grains adjoining Sigma = 3 coherent and lateral twin boundaries in polycrystalline GaP. PMID:10383990

  17. Using GPS, tide gauge and altimetry data to constrain subduction parameters at the Vanuatu plate boundary.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballu, V.; Bouin, M.; Baillard, C.; Calmant, S.; Pelletier, B.; Crawford, W. C.; Kanas, T.; Garaebiti, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Vanuatu subduction zone, Southwest Pacific, combines several features that makes it a particularly useful place to study seismic cycles. The convergence rate is high - approximately 12 cm/yr - and the seismic cycle relatively short. Measurements of interseismic motions are helped by relatively high vertical rates, the close proximity of some islands to the plate interface and the existence of very shallow seamounts on either side of the plate interface. The Vanuatu archipelago is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire: the Australian plate subducts eastward beneath the North Fiji basin, on the western border of the Pacific Plate. High topographic features on the diving plate may contribute to locking of the plates, which can play a major role in the genesis of destructive earthquakes. GPS network points were installed in the early 1990s and the geodesy network has been densified through the years, enabling us to map interseismic horizontal and vertical deformation rates throughout the archipelago. More recently, 8 continuous GPS stations were installed, along with 3 continuous seafloor pressure gauges very near to the plate interface. We show results from GPS data collected from 1996 to 2011, that we re-processed and combined into the ITRF2008 reference frame, and altimetry and seafloor pressure data from 1999 to 2010. The GPS results show that vertical deformation rates vary both across and along the archipelago. We believe that these variations result from variable distance to the plate limit and variable locking parameters. In some areas, subsidence rates are close to one centimeter per year. In the Torres islands (at the northern end of the archipelago) where villagers face recurrent coastal flooding, we showed that this flooding is due more to ground motion than to rise in the absolute sea level, even though the sea-level rise rates are locally high and the islands uplift over the long term. In the Central area of Vanuatu, we augmented the on-land network with two offshore sites using absolute pressure gauges. The sites - Wusi and Sabine Banks - are installed beneath altimetry satellite tracks, Wusi Bank on the over-riding plate and Sabine Bank on the subducting plate. The difference in the pressure records between the sites shows that Wusi Bank subsides by 11 +/- 3 mm/yr with respect to Sabine Bank. We combined the water depths derived from the pressure measurements with altimetry-derived sea-surface heights to tie these heights to a global reference frame: Wusi Bank subsides and Sabine Bank's vertical motion is near zero. Using a 2D elastic model and a finite-element code, we used the gradient of vertical deformation between the coast and the Wusi Bank site to discriminate between possible locked zone geometries. The best simple approximation is a 25° dipping, 30 km long fully locked zone, indicating that stress is currently accumulating west of Santo, Central Vanuatu. The movement of Wusi Bank is a key factor in constraining the dip and length of the locked zone, demonstrating the importance of offshore geodesy measurements.

  18. Flow of a non-Newtonian fluids on a flat plate: I. boundary layer

    E-print Network

    Yao, Lun-Shin

    2007-01-01

    A modified power-law viscosity for non-Newtonian fluids based on actual measurements is proposed. This realistic model allows removal of the singularities at the leading edge of a flat-plate boundary-layer for either shear-thinning or shear-thickening fluids. Under this condition, the boundary-layer equations can be solved numerically by simple finite-difference methods that march downstream from the leading edge, as is usually done for Newtonian fluids. Nu-merical results are presented for the case of a shear-thinning fluid; applying the model to a shear-thickening fluid is straightforward. The effects of this new variable viscosity are explic-itly demonstrated by comparing plots of iso-lines of viscosity and shear-rate, the velocity dis-tribution, and the wall shear stress for non-Newtonian and Newtonian fluids.

  19. The memory of the accreting plate boundary and the continuity of fracture zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schouten, Hans; Klitgord, Kim D.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed aeromagnetic anomaly map of the Mesozoic seafloor-spreading lineations southwest of Bermuda reveals the dominant magnetic grain of the oceanic crust and the character of the accreting boundary at the time of crustal formation. The magnetic anomaly pattern is that of a series of elongate lobes perpendicular to the fracture zone (flowline) trends. The linear sets of magnetic anomaly peaks and troughs have narrow regions of reduced amplitude anomalies associated with the fracture zones. During the period of Mesozoic geomagnetic polarity reversals (when 1200 km of central North Atlantic seafloor formed), the Atlantic accreting boundary consisted of stationary, elongate, spreading center cells that maintained their independence even though sometimes only minor spatial offsets existed between cells. Normal oceanic crustal structure was formed in the spreading center cells, but structural anomalies and discontinuities characteristic of fracture zones were formed at their boundaries, which parallel flowlines of Mesozoic relative plate motion in the central North Atlantic. We suggest that the memory for a stationary pattern of independent spreading center cells resides in the young brittle lithosphere at the accreting boundary where the lithosphere is weakest; here, each spreading center cell independently goes through its cylce of stress buildup, stress release, and crustal accretion, after which its memory is refreshed. The temporal offset between the peaks of the accretionary activity that takes place within each cell may provide the mechanism for maintaining the independence of adjacent spreading center cells through times when no spatial offset between the cells exists.

  20. Flowfield measurements in a separated and reattached flat plate turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patrick, William P.

    1987-01-01

    The separation and reattachment of a large-scale, two-dimensional turbulent boundary layer at low subsonic speed on a flat plate has been studied experimentally. The separation bubble was 55 cm long and had a maximum bubble thickness, measured to the height of the mean dividing streamline, of 17 cm, which was twice the thickness of the inlet boundary layer. A combination of laser velocimetry, hot-wire anemometry, pneumatic probing techniques, and flow visualization were used as diagnostics. Principal findings were that an outer inviscid rotational flow was defined which essentially convected over the blockage associated with the inner, viscously dominated bubble recirculation region. A strong backflow region in which the flow moved upstream 100 percent of the time was measured near the test surface over the central 35 percent of the bubble. A laminar backflow boundary layer having pseudo-turbulent characteristics including a log-linear velocity profile was generated under the highly turbulent backflow. Velocity profile shapes in the reversed flow region matched a previously developed universal backflow profile at the upstream edge of the separation region but not in the steady backflow region downstream. A smoke flow visualization movie and hot-film measurements revealed low frequency nonperiodic flapping at reattachment. However, forward flow fraction data at reattachment and mean velocity profiles in the redeveloping boundary layer downstream of reattachment correlated with backward-facing step data when the axial dimension was scaled by the distance from the maximum bubble thickness to reattachment.

  1. Chemical and isotopic evidence of gas-influenced flow at a transform plate boundary: Monterey Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, J.B.; Orange, D.L.; Lorenson, T.D.; Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic compositions of pore fluids document upward flow through communities of vesicomyid clams in Monterey Bay, California. Within the clam communities, the sulfate reduction zone is only 10 cm thick, and Ca and Mg concentrations decrease to values as low as 2.2 mM and 34.5 mM, respectively, at depths less than 30 cm below the sediment-water interface. Less than 5 m outside the communities, the base of the sulfate reduction zone is deeper than the greatest penetration of the cores (-30 cm), and Ca and Mg exhibit only minor changes from seawater values. The sediment exhibits no significant variation in grain size, mineralogy, organic carbon, nitrogen, or carbonate content throughout the region. The composition of pore fluid within clam communities results from upward flow of altered fluid rather than different diagenetic reactions within and outside the communities. Isotopically light dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), with ??13C values ranging from -3.2 to -54.1???, could reflect carbon sources from either oxidized thermogenic methane and/or a mixture of oxidized microbial methane and solid organic carbon. The C1/(C2+C3) ratios (ranging from 34 to 1142) and the hydrogen and carbon isotopic compositions of methane (??D values of -109 to -156???; ??13C values of -30.6 to -86.6???) suggest that methane is primarily microbial but that a minor component could be thermally generated. Any thermogenic methane would have migrated from great depths, possibly >2 km. The presence of methane is likely to contribute to fluid flow by reducing the density of the fluids. Past fluid migration and venting are reflected by widespread carbonate mineralization at the sediment-water interface. This mineralization and the geographic distribution and proportions of microbial and thermogenic methane suggest that vent sites migrate when permeability is reduced during carbonate cementation. These results demonstrate that along with convergent and divergent plate boundaries, transform plate boundaries are characterized by fluid flow and that the flow may be widespread, occurring at sites away from fault zones.

  2. Seismicity and seismotectonics of the diffusive Iberian/African plate boundary: Horseshoe Abyssal Plain and Gorringe Bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevemeyer, Ingo; Lange, Dietrich; Matias, Luis

    2014-05-01

    In the area to the west of the Gibraltar Arc the plate boundary between Africa and Iberia is poorly defined. The deformation in the area is forced by the slow NW-SE convergence of 4 mm/yr between the oceanic domains of Iberia/Eurasia and Africa and is accommodated over a 200 km broad tectonically-active deformation zone. The region, however, is also characterized by large earthquakes and tsunamis, such as the 1969 Mw=7.9 Horseshoe Abyssal Plain earthquake and the November 1, 1755 Great Lisbon earthquake with an estimated magnitude of Mw~8.5. The exact location of the source of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake is still unknown. Recent work may suggest that the event occurred in the vicinity of the Horseshoe fault, an oblique thrust fault. However, estimates of tsunami arrival times suggested a source near the Gorringe Bank, a ~180 km-long and ~70 km-wide ridge that has a relieve of ~5000 m. Deep Sea Drilling (DSDP) and rock samples indicated that the bank is mainly composed of serpentinized peridotites with gabbroic intrusions, perhaps being created by overthrusting of the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain onto the Tagus Abyssal Plain in NW direction. Further, the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain is marked by the presence of compressive structures with a roughly NE-SW orientation and E-W trending, segmented, crustal-scale, strike slip faults that extend from the Gorringe Bank to the Gibraltar Arc in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz, which were called "South West Iberian Margin" or SWIM faults. The fault system may mark a developing Eurasia-Africa plate boundary. Two local seismic networks were operated in the area. First, a network of 14 ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) was operated between April and October 2012 in the vicinity of the Horseshoe fault between 10°W to 11°W, and 35°50'N to 36°10'N. From October 2013 to March 2014 a second network of 15 OBS monitored seismicity at the Gorringe Bank. Both networks benefitted from seismic stations operated in Portugal. The first network provided in the order of 100 locale earthquakes occurring with the network. Most earthquakes in the Horseshoe occurred at a depth of 40-60 km, either in oceanic or unroofed continental mantle. The large source depth of events observed in the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain supports the idea that large catastrophic earthquakes, like the Great Lisbon earthquake of 1755, may indeed occur in the area.

  3. Seismicity of the diffusive Iberian/African plate boundary at the eastern terminus of the Azores-Gibraltar Transform fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, D.; Grevemeyer, I.; Matias, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    The plate boundary at the eastern terminus of the Azores-Gibraltar transform fault between Africa and Iberia is poorly defined. The deformation in the area is forced by the slow NW-SE convergence of 4 mm/yr between the oceanic domains of Iberia/Eurasia and Africa and is accommodated over a 200 km broad tectonically-active deformation zone. The region, however, is also characterized by large earthquakes, such as the 1969 Mw=7.9 Horseshoe event and the November 1, 1755 Great Lisbon earthquake with an estimated magnitude of Mw~8.5. The exact location of the source of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake is still unknown. Recent work may suggest that the event occurred in the vicinity of the Horseshoe fault, an oblique thrust fault. However, estimates of tsunami arrival times suggested a source near the Gorringe Bank, a ~180 km-long and ~70 km-wide ridge that has a relieve of ~5000 m. Deep Sea Drilling (DSDP) and rock samples indicated that the bank is mainly composed of serpentinized peridotites with gabbroic intrusions, perhaps being created by overthrusting of the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain onto the Tagus Abyssal Plain in NW direction. Further, the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain is marked by the presence of compressive structures with a roughly NE-SW orientation and E-W trending, segmented, crustal-scale, strike slip faults that extend from the Gorringe Bank to the Gibraltar Arc in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz, which were called "South West Iberian Margin" or SWIM faults. The fault system may mark a developing Eurasia-Africa plate boundary. Two local seismic networks were operated in the area. First, a network of 14 ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) was operated between April and October 2012 in the vicinity of the Horseshoe fault between 10°W to 11°W, and 35°50'N to 36°10'N. From October 2013 to March 2014 a second network of 15 OBS monitored seismicity at the Gorringe Bank. Both networks benefitted from seismic stations operated in Portugal. The first network provided in the order of 100 locale earthquakes occurring with the network. Most earthquakes in the abyssal plain occurred at a depth of 40-60 km, either in oceanic or unroofed continental mantle. The large source depth of events in the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain supports the idea that large catastrophic earthquakes, like the Great Lisbon earthquake of 1755, may indeed occur in the area.

  4. Divergent plate boundaries and crustal spreading on Venus: Evidence from Aphrodite Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumpler, L. S.; Head, James W.

    1989-01-01

    The modes of lithospheric heat transfer and the tectonic styles may differ between Earth and Venus, depending on how the high surface temperature (700 K = 430 C), dense and opaque atmosphere (approx. 10 MPa = 100 bars), lack of water oceans, and the other known ways in which Venus differs from Earth, influence basic lithospheric processes, thermal gradient, upper mantle temperature, thermal and chemical evolution, and convection. A fundamental question is whether the lithosphere of Venus is horizontally stable, like the other terrestrial planets, or is mobile like that on Earth. The variety of characteristics, their integrated relationships, and their predictable behavior throughout Western Aphrodite Terra are similar to those features known to occur in association with the terrestrial seafloor at spreading centers and divergent plate boundaries. It is concluded that Western Aphrodite Terra represents the site of crustal spreading centers and divergent plate boundaries. The extent of similar characteristics and processes elsewhere on Venus outside of the 13,000 km long Western and Eastern Aphrodite Terra rise is unknown at the present, but their presence in other areas of the equatorial highlands, suggested from recent analysis, may be tested with forthcoming Magellan data.

  5. A satellite magnetic perspective of subduction zones, large igneous provinces, rifts, and diffuse plate boundary zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purucker, M. E.; Whaler, K. A.

    2008-12-01

    Large and intermediate-scale tectonic features such as subduction zones, large igneous provinces, rifts, and diffuse plate boundary zones are often seen to have a magnetic signature visible from the perspective of near-Earth magnetic field satellites such as CHAMP and Orsted. Why do these tectonic features have a magnetic signature, while others do not? A new model of the lithospheric field (MF-6, Maus et al., 2008) extending to spherical harmonic degree 120 (333 km wavelength) has been used to evaluate the magnetic state of the lithosphere under the assumption that the magnetization is either induced (with a seismic starting model), or remanent (with a minimum norm approach). Some of the features identified from these images include the Tethyan and NE Siberian diffuse plate boundary zones, the Red Sea rift, and Cretaceous rift basins developed on the West African shield. Almost without exception, subduction zones exhibit a magnetic signature, as do many large igneous provinces. In this talk we discuss some of the new insights this magnetic perspective provides, and speculate on the controls which determine whether tectonic features will be expressed magnetically.

  6. Mean profile of a high-Reynolds-number smooth-flat-plate turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, David R.; Oweis, Ghanem F.; Winkel, Eric S.; Cutbirth, James M.; Ceccio, Steven L.; Perlin, Marc

    2010-11-01

    Although smooth-flat-plate turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) have been studied for nearly a century, measurements at Reynolds numbers typical of marine & aerospace transportation systems are scarce. Experimental results at momentum-thickness Reynolds numbers (Re) up to 150,000 from the US Navy W.B. Morgan Large Cavitation Channel using a polished 12.9-m-long flat-plate test model at water flow speeds up to 20 m/s are presented. Mean velocity profiles were measured 10.7 m from the leading edge of the model over a wall-normal range from less than one wall unit to more than twice the nominal boundary layer thickness using particle-tracking and laser-Doppler velocimetry. Static pressure and average skin-friction were measured independently. A mild favorable pressure gradient led to a flow speed increase of 2.5% over the test surface. The measurements span a factor of three in Re and were fitted to within experimental uncertainty using one set of constants and modern empirical inner- and outer-profile forms based on traditional TBL asymptotics. The fitted profiles satisfy the von-Karman momentum integral to within 1%, and show distinct differences from equivalent zero pressure gradient results. [Supported by DARPA & ONR

  7. Active Wave Cancellation in a Transitional Flat-Plate Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izawa, Seiichiro; Sakai, Takeshi; Xiong, Ao-Kui; Fukunishi, Yu

    2004-11-01

    A semi-automatic feedback control system using an array of piezo-ceramic (PZT) actuators attached on a flat-plate surface is used to suppress the instability waves such as T-S waves and oblique waves in a flat-plate boundary layer. Target waves, T-S waves and oblique waves, are excited upstream by a combination of roughness elements on the plate surface (Scotch tapes) and an acoustic using a loud speaker. Six single hotwire probes are used to monitor the velocity fluctuations downstream. Based on the information, the phase and amplitude of a signal to operate each actuator is updated one by one, every time step. The adjustment continues until the waves are damped to a level below the criterion. The experimental results show that the control system can damp the two-dimensional T-S waves and the oblique waves of a fifteen-degree sweep angle, however the system is not capable of controlling the oblique waves of a thirty-degree sweep angle. The reason why the system has difficulty in controlling the oblique waves of large sweep angle is discussed.

  8. Young tectonics of a complex plate boundary zone: Indentation, rotation, and escape in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, W. K.; Ruppert, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    Convergence of thick crust of the Yakutat block with the southern margin of Alaska is widely recognized as a dominant influence on the tectonics of Alaska since at least late Miocene time. It is less clear how this convergence relates to the distribution, type, and orientation of geologic structures, and to the boundaries between the tectonic provinces that they define. We propose that convergence of Yakutat block includes two distinct components that influence deformation and topography in different ways: 1) The crust of the exposed, southern Yakutat block is too thick to subduct, which has caused the collisional St. Elias orogen. Detachment of the upper part of the mafic basement allows delamination and sinking of the remaining mafic crust and lithospheric mantle. The collisional orogen drives rigid counterclockwise rotation of the southern Alaska block south of the arcuate, right-lateral Denali fault. The western boundary of this block is a zone of distributed contraction in the western Alaska Range and Cook Inlet. 2) The northern part of the Yakutat block is thin enough to subduct but thick and buoyant enough to cause localized flat-slab subduction orthogonal to rotation of the southern Alaska block. Consequences include the gently antiformal Talkeetna Mountains that span the forearc basin, a gap in the magmatic arc, and a basement-involved fold-and-thrust belt in the northern Alaska Range. An arcuate oroclinal hinge from southern Alaska to the northeastern Brooks Range reflects indentation since at least Paleocene time. Traction above the subducted Yakutat block along the southern part of this hinge drives current indentation. North of the subducted Yakutat block, indentation is reflected by left-lateral block rotation that accommodates shortening between the Denali and Tintina faults and by contraction farther north along the northern edge of the arcuate northeastern Brooks Range. Western Alaska accommodates both northward indentation and westward convergence of the southern Alaska block by right-lateral block rotation and tectonic escape related to local left-lateral faults. Farther west, slow clockwise rigid rotation of the extensive Bering block accommodates escape and is separated from stable northwestern Alaska by a zone of extension. These tectonic provinces are defined by mapped structures and by the distribution and focal mechanisms of earthquakes. Structures are generally consistent with stress orientations determined from earthquakes, but local discrepancies between observed structures and those predicted from the stress determinations suggest that reactivation of older structures is important.

  9. Abbot Ice Shelf, structure of the Amundsen Sea continental margin and the southern boundary of the Bellingshausen Plate seaward of West Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Cochran, James R; Tinto, Kirsty J; Bell, Robin E

    2015-01-01

    Inversion of NASA Operation IceBridge airborne gravity over the Abbot Ice Shelf in West Antarctica for subice bathymetry defines an extensional terrain made up of east-west trending rift basins formed during the early stages of Antarctica/Zealandia rifting. Extension is minor, as rifting jumped north of Thurston Island early in the rifting process. The Amundsen Sea Embayment continental shelf west of the rifted terrain is underlain by a deeper, more extensive sedimentary basin also formed during rifting between Antarctica and Zealandia. A well-defined boundary zone separates the mildly extended Abbot extensional terrain from the deeper Amundsen Embayment shelf basin. The shelf basin has an extension factor, ?, of 1.5–1.7 with 80–100 km of extension occurring across an area now 250 km wide. Following this extension, rifting centered north of the present shelf edge and proceeded to continental rupture. Since then, the Amundsen Embayment continental shelf appears to have been tectonically quiescent and shaped by subsidence, sedimentation, and the advance and retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. The Bellingshausen Plate was located seaward of the Amundsen Sea margin prior to incorporation into the Antarctic Plate at about 62 Ma. During the latter part of its independent existence, Bellingshausen plate motion had a clockwise rotational component relative to Antarctica producing convergence across the north-south trending Bellingshausen Gravity Anomaly structure at 94°W and compressive deformation on the continental slope between 94°W and 102°W. Farther west, the relative motion was extensional along an east-west trending zone occupied by the Marie Byrd Seamounts. Key Points: Abbot Ice Shelf is underlain by E-W rift basins created at ?90 Ma Amundsen shelf shaped by subsidence, sedimentation, and passage of the ice sheet Bellingshausen plate boundary is located near the base of continental slope and rise PMID:26709352

  10. Large-Eddy Simulation of the Flat-plate Turbulent Boundary Layer at High Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Michio

    The near-wall, subgrid-scale (SGS) model [Chung and Pullin, "Large-eddy simulation and wall-modeling of turbulent channel flow'', J. Fluid Mech. 631, 281--309 (2009)] is used to perform large-eddy simulations (LES) of the incompressible developing, smooth-wall, flat-plate turbulent boundary layer. In this model, the stretched-vortex, SGS closure is utilized in conjunction with a tailored, near-wall model designed to incorporate anisotropic vorticity scales in the presence of the wall. The composite SGS-wall model is presently incorporated into a computer code suitable for the LES of developing flat-plate boundary layers. This is then used to study several aspects of zero- and adverse-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers. First, LES of the zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer are performed at Reynolds numbers Retheta based on the free-stream velocity and the momentum thickness in the range Retheta = 103-1012. Results include the inverse skin friction coefficient, 2/Cf , velocity profiles, the shape factor H, the Karman "constant", and the Coles wake factor as functions of Re theta. Comparisons with some direct numerical simulation (DNS) and experiment are made, including turbulent intensity data from atmospheric-layer measurements at Retheta = O (106). At extremely large Retheta , the empirical Coles-Fernholz relation for skin-friction coefficient provides a reasonable representation of the LES predictions. While the present LES methodology cannot of itself probe the structure of the near-wall region, the present results show turbulence intensities that scale on the wall-friction velocity and on the Clauser length scale over almost all of the outer boundary layer. It is argued that the LES is suggestive of the asymptotic, infinite Reynolds-number limit for the smooth-wall turbulent boundary layer and different ways in which this limit can be approached are discussed. The maximum Retheta of the present simulations appears to be limited by machine precision and it is speculated, but not demonstrated, that even larger Retheta could be achieved with quad- or higher-precision arithmetic. Second, the time series velocity signals obtained from LES within the logarithmic region of the zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer are used in combination with an empirical, predictive inner--outer wall model [Marusic et al., "Predictive model for wall-bounded turbulent flow'', Science 329, 193 (2010)] to calculate the statistics of the fluctuating streamwise velocity in the inner region of the zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer. Results, including spectra and moments up to fourth order, are compared with equivalent predictions using experimental time series, as well as with direct experimental measurements at Reynolds numbers Retau based on the friction velocity and the boundary layer thickness, Retau = 7,300, 13,600 and 19,000. LES combined with the wall model are then used to extend the inner-layer predictions to Reynolds numbers Retau = 62,000, 100,000 and 200,000 that lie within a gap in log(Retau) space between laboratory measurements and surface-layer, atmospheric experiments. The present results support a log-like increase in the near-wall peak of the streamwise turbulence intensities with Retau and also provide a means of extending LES results at large Reynolds numbers to the near-wall region of wall-bounded turbulent flows. Finally, we apply the wall model to LES of a turbulent boundary layer subject to an adverse pressure gradient. Computed statistics are found to be consistent with recent experiments and some Reynolds number similarity is observed over a range of two orders of magnitude.

  11. Thermochronology and tectonics of the Leeward Antilles: Evolution of the southern Caribbean Plate boundary zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van der Lelij, Roelant; Spikings, Richard A.; Kerr, Andrew C.; Kounov, Alexandre; Cosca, Michael; Chew, David; Villagomez, Diego

    2010-01-01

    Tectonic reconstructions of the Caribbean Plate are severely hampered by a paucity of geochronologic and exhumation constraints from anastomosed basement blocks along its southern margin. New U/Pb, 40Ar/39Ar, apatite fission track, and apatite (U-Th)/He data constrain quantitative thermal and exhumation histories, which have been used to propose a model for the tectonic evolution of the emergent parts of the Bonaire Block and the southern Caribbean Plate boundary zone. An east facing arc system intruded through an oceanic plateau during ~90 to ~87 Ma and crops out on Aruba. Subsequent structural displacements resulted in >80°C of cooling on Aruba during 70–60 Ma. In contrast, exhumation of the island arc sequence exposed on Bonaire occurred at 85–80 Ma and 55–45 Ma. Santonian exhumation on Bonaire occurred immediately subsequent to burial metamorphism and may have been driven by the collision of a west facing island arc with the Caribbean Plate. Island arc rocks intruded oceanic plateau rocks on Gran Roque at ~65 Ma and exhumed rapidly at 55–45 Ma. We attribute Maastrichtian-Danian exhumation on Aruba and early Eocene exhumation on Bonaire and Gran Roque to sequential diachronous accretion of their basement units to the South American Plate. Widespread unconformities indicate late Eocene subaerial exposure. Late Oligocene–early Miocene dextral transtension within the Bonaire Block drove subsidence and burial of crystalline basement rocks of the Leeward Antilles to ?1 km. Late Miocene–recent transpression caused inversion and ?1 km of exhumation, possibly as a result of the northward escape of the Maracaibo Block.

  12. Experimental study of boundary layer transition with elevated freestream turbulence on a heated flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, Ki-Hyeon; Reshotko, Eli

    1991-01-01

    A detailed investigation to document momentum and thermal development of boundary layers undergoing natural transition on a heated flat plate was performed. Experimental results of both overall and conditionally sampled characteristics of laminar, transitional, and low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers are presented. Measurements were acquired in a low-speed, closed-loop wind tunnel with a freestream velocity of 100 ft/s and zero pressure gradient over a range of freestream turbulence intensities (TI) from 0.4 to 6 percent. The distributions of skin friction, heat transfer rate and Reynolds shear stress were all consistent with previously published data. Reynolds analogy factors for R(sub theta) is less than 2300 were found to be well predicted by laminar and turbulent correlations which accounted for an unheated starting length. The measured laminar value of Reynolds analogy factor was as much as 53 percent higher than the Pr(sup -2/3). A small dependence of turbulent results on TI was observed. Conditional sampling performed in the transitional boundary layer indicated the existence of a near-wall drop in intermittency, pronounced at certain low intermittencies, which is consistent with the cross-sectional shape of turbulent spots observed by others. Non-turbulent intervals were observed to possess large magnitudes of near-wall unsteadiness and turbulent intervals had peak values as much as 50 percent higher than were measured at fully turbulent stations. Non-turbulent and turbulent profiles in transitional boundary layers cannot be simply treated as Blasius and fully turbulent profiles, respectively. The boundary layer spectra indicate predicted selective amplification of T-S waves for TI is approximately 0.4 percent. However, for TI is approximately 0.8 and 1.1 percent, T-S waves are localized very near the wall and do not play a dominant role in transition process.

  13. Tectonic lineaments in the cenozoic volcanics of southern Guatemala: Evidence for a broad continental plate boundary zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baltuck, M.; Dixon, T. H.

    1984-01-01

    The northern Caribbean plate boundary has been undergoing left lateral strike slip motion since middle Tertiary time. The western part of the boundary occurs in a complex tectonic zone in the continental crust of Guatemala and southernmost Mexico, along the Chixoy-Polochic, Motogua and possibly Jocotan-Chamelecon faults. Prominent lineaments visible in radar imagery in the Neogene volcanic belt of southern Guatemala and western El Salvador were mapped and interpreted to suggest southwest extensions of this already broad plate boundary zone. Because these extensions can be traced beneath Quaternary volcanic cover, it is thought that this newly mapped fault zone is active and is accommodating some of the strain related to motion between the North American and Caribbean plates. Onshore exposures of the Motoqua-Polochic fault systems are characterized by abundant, tectonically emplaced ultramafic rocks. A similar mode of emplacement for these off shore ultramafics, is suggested.

  14. Boundary Element Inverse Analysis with Regularization for Estimating Welding Residual Stress Distribution in Butt-Welded Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtake, Yasuhiro; Kubo, Shiro

    This paper deals with an inverse problem for estimating welding residual stresses in a butt-welded plate from measured data. In previous papers, a method of thermo-elastic boundary element inverse analysis was proposed to estimate the inherent strains in the butt-welded plate. It was found in the papers that the accuracy of the evaluated inherent strain in the butt-welded plate was low when the location of the measurement points was far from the welding line or the number of measurement points was small. This paper examines how the shape of the inherent strain distribution affects the accuracy of the estimated results. Trapezoidal and triangular inherent strain distributions were assumed in each analysis model of the butt-welded plate. Numerical simulations were conducted for those analysis models. In the simulations, measurement errors were included in stresses at measurement points. From all calculation results, it was found that the inherent strains in the butt-welded plate were evaluated in high accuracy from a few measured data by using Tikhonov's regularization regardless of the shape of the inherent strain distribution. The residual stresses in the whole butt-welded plate were calculated from the evaluated inherent strains. Accordingly, it became clear that the proposed boundary element inverse analysis with Tikhonov's regularization was useful in evaluating the residual stresses in the butt-welded plate.

  15. Logistical Support for the Installation of the Plate Boundary Observatory GPS and Borehole Strainmeter Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurnik, C.; Austin, K.; Coyle, B.; Dittmann, T.; Feaux, K.; Friesen, B.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.; Pauk, B.; Walls, C.

    2007-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), part of the NSF-funded EarthScope project, is designed to study the three- dimensional strain field resulting from deformation across the active boundary zone between the Pacific and North American plates in the western United States. To meet these goals, UNAVCO will install 880 continuous GPS stations, 103 borehole strainmeter stations, 28 tiltmeters, and five laser strainmeters by October 2008. Such a broad network presents significant logisitical challenges, including moving supplies, equipment, and personnel around 6 million square kilometers, and this requires accurate tracking and careful planning. The PBO logistics chain includes the PBO headquarters at UNAVCO in Boulder, Colorado and five regional offices in the continental United States and Alaska, served by dozens of suppliers spread across the globe. These offices are responsible for building and maintaining sites in their region. Most equipment and supplies first arrive in Boulder, where they are tagged and entered into a UNAVCO-wide equipment database, assembled and quality checked as necessary, and sent on to the appropriate regional office. Larger items which are costly to store and ship from Boulder, such as batteries or long sections of stainless steel pipe and bar required for monuments, are shipped directly from the supplier to each region as needed. These supplies and equipment are also tracked through the ordering, delivery, installation, and maintenance cycle via Earned Value Management techniques which allow us to meet NSF and other Federal procurement rules. Early prototypes and assembly configurations aid the development of material and supply budgets. A thorough understanding of Federal procurement rules at project start up is critical as the project moves forward.

  16. A unified GPS-based earthquake catalog for the Sumatran plate boundary between 2002 and 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lujia; Hill, Emma M.; Banerjee, Paramesh; Hermawan, Iwan; Tsang, Louisa L. H.; Natawidjaja, Danny H.; Suwargadi, Bambang W.; Sieh, Kerry

    2015-05-01

    We have compiled the first self-consistent GPS-based earthquake catalog for the Sumatran plate boundary. Using continuous daily position time series from the Sumatran GPS Array (SuGAr), we document 30 earthquakes which occurred within or outside the SuGAr network from August 2002 through the end of 2013, and we provide estimates of both vertical and horizontal coseismic offsets associated with 1 M9.2, 3 M8, 6 M7, 19 M6, and 1 M5.9 earthquakes, as well as postseismic decay amplitudes and times associated with 9 M > 7 earthquakes and 1 M6.7 earthquake. For most of the previously studied earthquakes, our geodetic catalog provides more complete coseismic displacements than those published, showing consistent patterns of motion across a large range of distances. For many of the moderate to large earthquakes, we publish their coseismic displacements for the first time, providing new constraints on their locations and slip distributions. For the postseismic time series, we have tackled the challenge of separating the signals for individual events from the overlapping effects of many other earthquakes. As a result, we have obtained either new or much longer time series than previously published. Based on our long time series, we find logarithmic decay times ranging from several days to more than 20 years, and sometimes a second decay time is needed, suggesting that when studying large to great Sumatran earthquakes, we need to consider multiple postseismic mechanisms. Our geodetic catalog provides rich spatial and temporal Sumatran earthquake cycle information for future studies of the physics and dynamics of the Sumatran plate boundary.

  17. Recording Plate Boundary Deformation Processes Around The San Jacinto Fault, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkinson, K.; Mencin, D.; Borsa, A.; Fox, O.; Walls, C.; Van Boskirk, E.

    2012-04-01

    The San Jacinto Fault is one of the major faults which form the San Andreas Fault System in southern California. The fault, which lies to the west of the San Andreas, is one of the most active in the region. While strain rates are higher along the San Andreas, 23-37 mm/yr compared to 12-22 mm/yr along the San Jacinto, there have been 11 earthquakes of M6 and greater along the San Jacinto in the past 150 years while there have been none of this magnitude on the San Andreas in this region. UNAVCO has installed an array of geodetic and seismic instruments along the San Jacinto as part of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO). The network includes 25 GPS stations within 20 km of the surface trace with a concentration of borehole instrumentation in the Anza region where there are nine boreholes sites. Most of the borehole sites contain a GTSM21 4-component strainmeter, a Sonde-2 seismometer, a MEMS accelerometer and a pore pressure sensor. Thus, the array has the capability to capture plate boundary deformation processes with periods of milliseconds (seismic) to decades (GPS). On July 7th 2010 a M5.4 earthquake occurred on the Coyote Creek segment of the fault. The event was preceded by a M4.9 earthquake in the same area four weeks earlier and four earthquakes of M5 and greater within a 20 km radius of the epicenter in the past 50 years. In this study we will present the signals recorded by the different instrument types for the July 7th 2010 event and will compare the coseismic displacements recorded by the GPS and strainmeters with the displacement field predicted by Okada [1992]. All data recorded as part of the PBO observatory are publically available from the UNAVCO, the IRIS Data Management Center and the Northern California Earthquake Data Center.

  18. Data Access and Web Services at the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matykiewicz, J.; Anderson, G.; Henderson, D.; Hodgkinson, K.; Hoyt, B.; Lee, E.; Persson, E.; Torrez, D.; Smith, J.; Wright, J.; Jackson, M.

    2007-12-01

    The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) at UNAVCO, Inc., part of the NSF-funded EarthScope project, is designed to study the three-dimensional strain field resulting from deformation across the active boundary zone between the Pacific and North American plates in the western United States. To meet these goals, PBO will install 880 continuous GPS stations, 103 borehole strainmeter stations, and five laser strainmeters, as well as manage data for 209 previously existing continuous GPS stations and one previously existing laser strainmeter. UNAVCO provides access to data products from these stations, as well as general information about the PBO project, via the PBO web site (http://pboweb.unavco.org). GPS and strainmeter data products can be found using a variety of access methods, incuding map searches, text searches, and station specific data retrieval. In addition, the PBO construction status is available via multiple mapping interfaces, including custom web based map widgets and Google Earth. Additional construction details can be accessed from PBO operational pages and station specific home pages. The current state of health for the PBO network is available with the statistical snap-shot, full map interfaces, tabular web based reports, and automatic data mining and alerts. UNAVCO is currently working to enhance the community access to this information by developing a web service framework for the discovery of data products, interfacing with operational engineers, and exposing data services to third party participants. In addition, UNAVCO, through the PBO project, provides advanced data management and monitoring systems for use by the community in operating geodetic networks in the United States and beyond. We will demonstrate these systems during the AGU meeting, and we welcome inquiries from the community at any time.

  19. Tsunami effects at Korean Nuclear Power Plant Sites by Plate Boundary Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sobeom; Hyun, Seung Gyu; Bae, Jae Seok; Kim, Gun Hyeong; Yoon, Sung Bum

    2015-04-01

    Great earthquakes have occurred at the Nankai Trough due to the subduction of the Philippine Sea plate beneath Honshu, Japan. The 1707 Hoei tsunami associated with the Mw 8.7 earthquake, in particular, was the largest event generated in this area. The Nankai Trough is one of the most earthquake-prone area near Japan. And the tsunami affected to Korea according to a Korean historic literature. In this study, new hypothetical plate boundary earthquakes (Mw 9.6) ruptured simultaneously from the Nankai Trough to the Ryukyu Trench (NTRT) are proposed and applied to evaluate the tsunami effects at the Nuclear Power Plant Sites in Korea. In order to make reasonable tsunami sources the asperity model is adapted. The numerical model using the modified leap-frog finite difference scheme is employed to simulate the propagation of tsunami generated at NTRT. This numerical model considering the dispersion effect and inundation of tsunami is then employed to estimate the maximum tsunami heights. Predicted results will be used to make the measures against unexpected tsunami attacks.

  20. Summary of the stratigraphy and structural elements related to plate convergence of the Quetta-Muslim Bagh-Sibi region, Balochistan, west-central Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maldonado, Florian; Mengal, Jan M.; Khan, Shahid H.; Warwick, Peter D.

    2011-01-01

    The four major faults that bound the structural terrane are the Frontal (F), Ghazaband-Zhob (GZ), Gwal-Bagh (GB), and Chaman (C) faults. Four major periods of deformation are recognized: (1) emplacement of ophiolitic rocks onto the continental margin of the India plate; (2) convergence of the India-Eurasia plates; (3) deposition of Tertiary-Quaternary molasse units followed by major folding and thrusting, and formation of strike-slip faults; and (4) deposition of Pleistocene molasse units with subsequent folding, thrusting, and strike-slip motion that continues to the present.

  1. Compressibility effect in two-phase flow and its application to flow metering with orifice plate and convergent-divergent nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Pascal, H.

    1983-12-01

    The effect of solution gas on the 2-phase flow behavior through an orifice plate and a convergent- divergent nozzle has been investigated with regard to the flow metering of compressible 2-phase mixtures. A proper thermodynamics approach to consider more accurately the compressibility effect in an accelerated 2-phase flow, in particular that through an orifice and Laval's nozzle in the presence of the solution gas, has been developed. From this approach an equation of state of mixture was derived and used in determining the orifice equation. An analysis of flow behavior has been performed and several illustrative plots were presented in order to evaluate the gas solubility effect in the flow metering with an orifice plate or a convergent-divergent nozzle. A delimitation between critical and noncritical flow has been established in terms of measured parameters and a relationship between the critical pressure and gas-liquid mass ratio was shown.

  2. Influence of shear heating on microstructurally defined plate boundary shear zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, John P.

    2015-10-01

    In plate-boundary scale ductile shear zones defined by microstructural weakening, shear heating may lead to a temperature increase over 5 m.y. of up to 80 °C just below the brittle ductile transition, up to 120 °C just below the Moho, and to thermal boundary zones tens of km wide on either side of the shear zone. Where rock strength is highest, shear zones are narrow (?1 km), and thermal gradients within the shear zone itself are low, so there is no tendency for increased localization. Heating results in thermal weakening, but this is partly offset by grain growth related to the decrease in stress. In shear zones of the order of 10 km width, shear stress, strain rate, and hence heat generation are lower, and thermal gradients are insufficient to cause additional strain localization. Temperature increases in the mid-crust are of the order of 10 °C, insufficient to cause partial melting or an increase in metamorphic grade. In the upper mantle, shear zones may be 50 km or more wide, and the temperature increase is less than 20 °C in 5 m.y., but temperature differences between center and margin may enhance the strain rate at the center by up to 18%.

  3. Mechanisms of Strain Localization: Implications for Lithospheric Strength and the Structure of Plate-Boundary Shear Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Deformation mechanism switches caused by grain-size reduction are a likely principal cause of strain localization, assisted by development of crystallographic preferred orientation, interconnected weak-phase layering, phase changes, and on longer time-scales, shear heating. Grain-size reduction results in a marked increase in the rate of grain-size sensitive creep mechanisms, which include grain-boundary diffusion creep, pressure solution, diffusion- or dislocation-accommodated grain-boundary sliding, and dislocation creep in which grain-boundary migration is the main recovery mechanism (DRX creep). In polyphase systems, grain-boundary sliding plus grain-boundary diffusion may allow the development of a well-mixed fine-grained aggregate, in which the grain size is controlled by the phase showing the greatest degree of grain-size reduction by dynamic recrystallization. The resulting fine-grained mixture resists grain growth, and may be up to three orders of magnitude weaker than the undeformed rock. Microstructural weakening requires a minimum level of stress to produce the required deformation. This buffers the stress, even when there is a velocity boundary condition to the system, along a plate boundary, for example. Shear zones therefore evolve at constant stress, and the cumulative width w of a plate boundary shear zone is a function of the strength of the undeformed rock, the imposed velocity difference, and the rheology of the shear zone material. This allows a first order prediction of w as a function of depth in the lithosphere.

  4. North American plate dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Randall M.; Reding, Lynn M.

    1991-01-01

    Deformation within the North American plate in response to various tectonic processes is modeled using an elastic finite element analysis. The tectonic processes considered in the modeling include ridge forces associated with the normal thermal evolution of oceanic lithosphere, shear and normal stresses transmitted across transforms, normal stresses transmitted across convergent boundaries, stresses due to horizontal density contrasts within the continent, and shear tractions applied along the base of the plate. Model stresses are calculated with respect to a lithostatic reference stress state. Shear stresses transmitted across transform boundaries along the San Andreas and Caribbean are small, of the order of 5-10 MPa. Also, compressive stresses of the order of 5-10 MPa transmitted across the major transforms improve the fit to the data. Compressive stresses across convergent margins along the Aleutians and the Middle America trench are important.

  5. Block kinematics of the PacificNorth America plate boundary in the southwestern United States from inversion of GPS,

    E-print Network

    McCaffrey, Robert

    Block kinematics of the Pacific­­North America plate boundary in the southwestern United States, and earthquake-derived fault slip vector azimuths are inverted for block angular velocities, creep on block-bounding faults, permanent strain rates within the blocks, and the rotations of 11 published GPS velocity fields

  6. S-wave splitting in the offshore South Island, New Zealand: Insights into plate-boundary deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karalliyadda, S. C.; Savage, M. K.; Sheehan, A.; Collins, J.; Zietlow, D.; Shelley, A.

    2015-09-01

    Local and regional S-wave splitting in the offshore South Island of the New Zealand plate-boundary zone provides constraints on the spatial and depth extent of the anisotropic structure with an enhanced resolution relative to land-based and SKS studies. The combined analysis of offshore and land measurements using splitting tomography suggests plate-boundary shear dominates in the central and northern South Island. The width of this shear zone in the central South Island is about 200 km, but is complicated by stress-controlled anisotropy at shallow levels. In northern South Island, a broader (>200 km) zone of plate-boundary parallel anisotropy is associated with the transitional faulting between the Alpine fault and Hikurangi subduction and the Hikurangi subduction zone itself. These results suggest S-phases of deep events (˜90 km) in the central South Island are sensitive to plate-boundary derived NE-SW aligned anisotropic media in the upper-lithosphere, supporting a "thin viscous sheet" deformation model.

  7. Double-sided onshoreoffshore seismic imaging of a plate boundary: ``super-gathers'' across South Island, New Zealand

    E-print Network

    Okaya, David

    Double-sided onshore­offshore seismic imaging of a plate boundary: ``super-gathers'' across South 8 August 2001 Abstract Onshore­offshore seismic refraction profiling allows for the determination and narrow landmasses have the unique geometry of allowing for double-sided onshore­offshore experiments

  8. Effect of unsteady wake passing frequency on boundary layer transition on the concave surface of a curved plate 

    E-print Network

    Read, Robert Kevin

    1997-01-01

    frequencies. The periodic unsteady flow is generated utilizing an unsteady flow research facility with a rotating cascade of rods positioned upstream of the curved plate. The inlet velocity is measured using a X-wire hot-film probe while the unsteady boundary...

  9. Real feature of seismicity around Palau trench region, western Pacific: Is Palau trench aseismic silent plate boundary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Y.; Shito, A.; Tanaka, S.; Suetsugu, D.

    2012-12-01

    Palau islands locate around plate converging zone in the western Pacific region. In the east off the Palau islands, obvious trench topography is developed whose bathymetry reaches about 6000 meters. Palau trench locates at the west side of Yap trench. However tectonic activity is quite different in the both trenches. Yap trench has active seismic activity associate with subduction process. Plate motion model shows clear convergent relative motion between Pacific plate and Philippine Sea plate at Yap trench. On the other hand, Palau trench doesn't have active seismicity according to ISC catalogue. In ten years in 2000's, only three small earthquakes are reported in ISC catalogue. Historically any great earthquake also is not reported. Recent plate motion model shows very low convergent motion at Palau trench though developed trench structure. Our group operates broadband seismic station at Palau (station code: PALU) for about 15 years. In our instant monitoring, local earthquakes sometime are recognized. We operated additional stations in Palau islands for six months to detect local earthquake and to locate hypocenters. Our objective of the research is evaluation of real seismicity of Palau region and final major interest is to understand tectonic activity of Palau trench. We install minimum network for hypocenter locating in Koror and Babeldaob islands, Palau that its array dimension is about 20 km. We use broadband seismographs and high resolution data loggers with GPS clock and solar power generators. We succeeded continuous recording without any troubles and clips of mass position. By careful motoring, we pick up greater than 70 local earthquakes in only six months. And we also tried to read the P and S wave arrival times. We succeeded to locate 27 hypocenters. The number of seismic events is much higher than initial estimation. The hypocenters locate east coast side of Palau islands where is trench side. The overview of distribution is parallel to trench. Estimated depth is distributed from 20 to 30 km. The determination is inaccurate and sparse distributed, but simple seismograms mean that these are not shallow crustal event. P and S wave amplitude analysis says that dip-slip type fault mechanism is dominant. This seismic activity may be strongly related with subduction process. These earthquakes are magnitude of 2 to 3. Seismicity of Palau area is much higher than initial estimation based on earthquake catalogue. These results mean that Palau trench has latent active seismic process and suggest that the trench may have convergent plate process than general understanding.

  10. REFERENCES CITED Bird, Peter, 2003, An updated digital model of plate boundaries: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, v. 4, no. 3, 52 p., available only online at

    E-print Network

    Miller, Scott

    Earth: The story of plate tectonics: Reston, Va., U.S. Geological Survey General Interest Publication, Effect of recent revisions to the geomagnetic reversal time scale on estimates of current plate motionsREFERENCES CITED Bird, Peter, 2003, An updated digital model of plate boundaries: Geochemistry

  11. The August and October, 2008 earthquake swarms on the Explorer/Pacific plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czoski, P. A.; Trehu, A. M.; Williams, M. C.; Dziak, R. P.; Embley, R. W.

    2011-12-01

    In August and October of 2008, earthquake swarms occurred on the Explorer/Pacific plate boundary. The August swarm lasted for approximately 4 days. Seventy-five earthquakes were reported by the Canadian National Seismograph Nework (CNSN), with the largest having a magnitude of 5.9. The U.S. Navy's Sound Surveillance System (SOSUS) hydrophones reported 148 earthquakes. Over 250 earthquakes were recorded on the Central Oregon Locked Zone Array (COLZA), a temporary array of 15 ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) and hydrophones. The October swarm lasted about 2 days with only one reported CNSN magnitude 4.4 earthquake. This event was also observed with the COLZA network. SOSUS reported 119 earthquakes over the course of two days. In this poster, we use the COLZA T-phase data to better understand the tectonic significance of these swarms. T-phases are generated by earthquakes and converted to acoustic energy at the seafloor. We used the ANSS magnitudes to calibrate an empirical magnitude scale for maximum amplitudes handpicked from the COLZA T-phase observations. This enabled us to lower the magnitude threshold to 2.8. A b-value of 0.78 was obtained for the August swarm suggesting that it may be a tectonic event rather then a magmatic one. Focal mechanisms reported by the Harvard CMT catalog for 3 of the largest events also support strike-slip motion. The reported SOSUS hypocenter locations indicate a linear NE/SW trend west of and parallel to the Explorer Ridge while the ANSS locations are very scattered but suggest a northwest/southeast trend in line with but east of the Dellwood-Revere transform fault. To obtain better-constrained locations, we plan to relocate the events and COLZA T-phase data using cross-correlation techniques developed to locate seismic tremor. We expect the COLZA data will allow us to determine whether activity was primarily focused along the Explorer Ridge axis, along the Dellwood-Revere transform, or within the plate. This investigation could provide us with new insight into the evolution and possible fragmentation of the Explorer Plate.

  12. The interpretation of crustal dynamics data in terms of plate motions and regional deformation near plate boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.

    1987-01-01

    The nature and dynamics of time-dependent deformation along major seismic zones including the influence of irregularities in fault geometry on the earthquake cycle, and the processes contributing to the state of stress and rates of strain in plate interior regions were studied. The principle findings of the research are discussed.

  13. Receiver Functions Imaging of the Moho and LAB in the Southern Caribbean plate boundary and Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masy, J.; Levander, A.; Niu, F.

    2011-12-01

    We have made teleseismic Ps and Sp receiver functions from data recorded from 2003 to 2009 by the permanent national seismic network of Venezuela, the BOLIVAR (Broadband Onshore-offshore Lithospheric Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region) and WAVE (Western Array for Venezuela) experiments. The receiver functions show rapid variations in Moho and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) depths both across and along the southern Caribbean plate boundary region. We used a total of 69 events with Mw > 6 occurring at epicentral distances from 30° to 90° for the Ps receiver functions, and 43 events with Mw > 5.7 from 55° to 85° to make Sp receiver functions. For CCP stacking we constructed a 3D velocity model from numerous active source profiles (Schmitz et al., 2001; Bezada et al., 2007; Clark et al., 2008; Guedez, 2008; Magnani et al., 2009), from finite-frequency P wave upper mantle tomography model of Bezada et al., (2010) and the Rayleigh wave tomography model of Miller et al., (2009). The Moho ranges in depth from ~25 km beneath the Caribbean Large Igneous Provinces to ~55 km beneath the Mérida Andes in western Venezuela. These results are consistent with previous receiver functions studies (Niu et al., 2007) and the available active source profiles. Beneath the Maracaibo Block in northwestern Venezuela, we observe a strong positive signal at 40 to 60 km depth dipping ~6° towards the continent. We interpret this as the Moho of the Caribbean slab subducting beneath northernmost South America from the west. Beneath northern Colombia and northwestern Venezuela the top of this slab has been previously inferred from intermediate depth seismicity (Malavé and Suarez, 1995), which indicates a slab dipping between 20° - 30° beneath Lake Maracaibo. Our results could indicate that the slab is tearing beneath Lake Maracaibo as suggested previously by Masy et al. (2011). The deeper (> 100 km depth) part of the slab has been imaged using P-wave tomography (Bezada et al, 2010). Like others we attribute the uplift of the Mérida Andes to flat Caribbean slab subduction (for example Kellogg and Bonini, 1982). In central Venezuela beneath the Cordillera de la Costa we observe a positive signal shallower than the Moho at <30 km depth beneath the entire range. We interpret this as a detachment surface beneath Caribbean & arc terranes thrust onto the SA margin (Bezada et al., 2010). The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath the Mérida Andes is shallow, ~65km depth, and parallels the range. In the plate boundary region under the Cordillera de la Costa the lithosphere is also thin, ~65km, beneath the Cariaco basin the lithosphere thickens to 85 km. In the far east under Serranía del Interior the lithosphere is ~75 km. Cratonic lithosphere thickness varies from 85 to 100 km.

  14. Contrasting styles of (U)HP rock exhumation along the Cenozoic Adria-Europe plate boundary (Western Alps, Calabria, Corsica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malusà, Marco G.; Faccenna, Claudio; Baldwin, Suzanne L.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Rossetti, Federico; Balestrieri, Maria Laura; Danišík, Martin; Ellero, Alessandro; Ottria, Giuseppe; Piromallo, Claudia

    2015-06-01

    Since the first discovery of ultrahigh pressure (UHP) rocks 30 years ago in the Western Alps, the mechanisms for exhumation of (U)HP terranes worldwide are still debated. In the western Mediterranean, the presently accepted model of synconvergent exhumation (e.g., the channel-flow model) is in conflict with parts of the geologic record. We synthesize regional geologic data and present alternative exhumation mechanisms that consider the role of divergence within subduction zones. These mechanisms, i.e., (i) the motion of the upper plate away from the trench and (ii) the rollback of the lower plate, are discussed in detail with particular reference to the Cenozoic Adria-Europe plate boundary, and along three different transects (Western Alps, Calabria-Sardinia, and Corsica-Northern Apennines). In the Western Alps, (U)HP rocks were exhumed from the greatest depth at the rear of the accretionary wedge during motion of the upper plate away from the trench. Exhumation was extremely fast, and associated with very low geothermal gradients. In Calabria, HP rocks were exhumed from shallower depths and at lower rates during rollback of the Adriatic plate, with repeated exhumation pulses progressively younging toward the foreland. Both mechanisms were active to create boundary divergence along the Corsica-Northern Apennines transect, where European southeastward subduction was progressively replaced along strike by Adriatic northwestward subduction. The tectonic scenario depicted for the Western Alps trench during Eocene exhumation of (U)HP rocks correlates well with present-day eastern Papua New Guinea, which is presented as a modern analog of the Paleogene Adria-Europe plate boundary.

  15. Sinuous breakdown in a flat plate boundary layer exposed to free-stream turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mans, J.; de Lange, H. C.; van Steenhoven, A. A.

    2007-08-01

    In a flat plate boundary layer, perturbed with streaks, breakdown occurs due to a secondary instability acting on the streaks. An experimental study using a water channel with static turbulence grid revealed the presence of a sinuous secondary instability mode in the bypass transition process. Five sinuous instabilities are investigated in detail in the horizontal plane. The streamwise length scale of the sinuous instability is around 40?300* and the spanwise scale equals around ?300*. Four main features are found in the underlying streak configuration and developing streak-streak interactions. Firstly, all instabilities arise in a streak configuration where two low-speed streaks are located at a small spanwise distance from each other. Patches of low-speed fluid (forming a discontinuity in the streak pattern) are present in the high-speed streaks surrounding the unstable low-speed streak. As a consequence of the streak-streak interactions at the discontinuities, vortices arise in a staggered configuration. Finally, the vortices develop into three-dimensional structures after which the flow falls apart into smaller three-dimensional flow regions.

  16. Effect of two-scale roughness on boundary layer transition over a heated flat plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinson, Mark William

    Roughness can have a significant impact on turbine performance through increased profile losses from aerodynamic drag and increased internal blade cooling requirements resulting from external heat transfer enhancement. Transitional flow boundary layers have been shown to exist over turbine blades for various operating conditions. Although the turbine blade roughness is nonuniform and three-dimensional, not much work has been done to determine the multi-scale effect of variations in roughness on boundary layer transition. An experimental study was conducted using flow over a heated flat plate with two different levels (or scales) of roughness placed on the surface. Since turbine blade measurements indicate that the leading-edge is the roughest area, the first roughness scale was larger than the second. To test geometric dependency, the leading-edge roughness took the form of a sandpaper strip, a single cylinder, or a rectangular strip, and the downstream surface was either smooth or covered with sandpaper. Under conditions of low free-stream turbulence (0.5--0.9%) and zero pressure-gradient, boundary layer and surface heat transfer measurements were made to determine the structure of the transition process, and spectral and wavelet analyses of the data were conducted. Roughness levels as small as k+ < 0.6, although considered aerodynamically smooth, were shown to significantly hasten the onset of transition. The intermittency function obtained from the concentrated breakdown model followed the rough-wall intermittency data reasonably well. The growth of disturbances during transition over rough surfaces was observed to be spectrally broader than the Tolhnien-Schlichting frequency range. The step-change between the two roughness scales was discovered to be the dominant contributor to transition onset as a result of step-induced separation and corresponding vortex dynamics, which were verified through spectral analysis. During transition, distributed roughness was shown to reduce the growth of velocity fluctuation through faster development of turbulent dissipation, and wallward transport of momentum was significantly enhanced without a corresponding increase in thermal transport.

  17. Kinematics of the New Zealand plate boundary: Relative motion by GPS across networks of 1000 km and 50 km spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meertens, Charles M.; Rocken, Christian; Perin, Barbara; Walcott, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The NASA/DOSE 'Kinematics of the New Zealand Plate Boundary' experiment is a four-year cooperative Global Positioning System (GPS) experiment involving 6 universities and institutions in New Zealand and the United States. The investigation covers two scales, the first on the scale of plates (approximately 1000 km) and the second is on the scale of the plate boundary zone (approximately 50 km). In the first portion of the experiment, phase A, the objective is to make direct measurements of tectonic plate motion between the Australian and Pacific plates using GPS in order to determine the Euler vector of this plate pair. The phase A portion of this experiment was initiated in December 1992 with the first-epoch baseline measurements on the large scale network. The network will be resurveyed two years later to obtain velocities. The stations which were observed for phase A are shown and listed. Additional regional stations which will be used for this study are listed and are part of either CIGNET or other global tracking networks. The phase A portion of the experiment is primarily the responsibility of the UNAVCO investigators. Therefore, this report concentrates on phase A. The first year of NASA funding for phase A included only support for the field work. Processing and analysis will take place with the second year of funding. The second part of the experiemnt measured relative motion between the Australian and Pacific plates across the pate boundary zone between Hokitika and Christchurch on the South Island of New Zealand. The extent and rate of deformation will be determined by comparisons with historical, conventional surveys and by repeated GPS measurements to be made in two years. This activity was the emphasis of the LDGO portion of the study. An ancillary experiment, phase C, concentrated on plate boundary deformation in the vicinity of Wellington and was done as part of training during the early portion of the field campaign. Details of the objectives of the field investigations are given in the appendix. An overview of the 1992 GPS field program is also given in the appendix.

  18. Implementation of a python version of a scaled boundary finite element method for plate bending analysis

    E-print Network

    Chen, Lingfeng, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    Common finite element programs for plate bending analysis are complicated and limited by the common plate theories. Such programs are usually not user-friendly for designers to implement. Lately, Hou Man et al. from the ...

  19. The interpretation of crustal dynamics data in terms of plate motions and regional deformation near plate boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.

    1987-01-01

    The focus of the research was in two broad areas during the most recent 6 month period: the nature and dynamics of time-dependent deformation along major seismic zones, including the influence of irregularities in fault geometry on the earthquake cycles, and the processes contributing to the state of stress and rates of strain in plate interior regions. The principal findings of the research to date are described.

  20. Abbot Ice Shelf, structure of the Amundsen Sea continental margin and the southern boundary of the Bellingshausen Plate seaward of West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, James R.; Tinto, Kirsty J.; Bell, Robin E.

    2015-05-01

    Inversion of NASA Operation IceBridge airborne gravity over the Abbot Ice Shelf in West Antarctica for subice bathymetry defines an extensional terrain made up of east-west trending rift basins formed during the early stages of Antarctica/Zealandia rifting. Extension is minor, as rifting jumped north of Thurston Island early in the rifting process. The Amundsen Sea Embayment continental shelf west of the rifted terrain is underlain by a deeper, more extensive sedimentary basin also formed during rifting between Antarctica and Zealandia. A well-defined boundary zone separates the mildly extended Abbot extensional terrain from the deeper Amundsen Embayment shelf basin. The shelf basin has an extension factor, ?, of 1.5-1.7 with 80-100 km of extension occurring across an area now 250 km wide. Following this extension, rifting centered north of the present shelf edge and proceeded to continental rupture. Since then, the Amundsen Embayment continental shelf appears to have been tectonically quiescent and shaped by subsidence, sedimentation, and the advance and retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. The Bellingshausen Plate was located seaward of the Amundsen Sea margin prior to incorporation into the Antarctic Plate at about 62 Ma. During the latter part of its independent existence, Bellingshausen plate motion had a clockwise rotational component relative to Antarctica producing convergence across the north-south trending Bellingshausen Gravity Anomaly structure at 94°W and compressive deformation on the continental slope between 94°W and 102°W. Farther west, the relative motion was extensional along an east-west trending zone occupied by the Marie Byrd Seamounts. The copyright line for this article was changed on 5 JUN 2015 after original online publication.

  1. Development of an Auto-Convergent Free-Boundary Axisymmetric Equilibrium Solver

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.; Menard, J.

    2006-01-01

    The calculation of the magnetic flux given an assumed value for the current profile in axisymmetric toroidal plasmas is essential in studying the effects of various magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities upon controlled fusion. To this end, an iterative, modular algorithm coupled with a fast, direct elliptic solver for the Grad-Shafranov equation has been used to reconstruct the desired free-boundary equilibrium solution. This free-boundary Grad-Shafranov (FBGS) equilibrium algorithm is modified with the application of the von Hagenow method for determining the flux on the computational boundary, greatly reducing the time cost from O(N3) to O(N2 ln N) machine operations as compared to current Green’s function methods. The inherent variance in implementing the von Hagenow method gives a mean error bound of 0.1 percent with respect to the normal Green’s method. The improvements will allow the grid resolution to be increased efficiently and automatically to reduce the maximum Grad-Shafranov error to values needed for accurate stability calculations on a more effective time scale.

  2. Stress triggering of the great Indian Ocean strike-slip earthquakes in a diffuse plate boundary zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Kelly; Bürgmann, Roland

    2012-11-01

    On April 11, 2012, two great magnitude 8+ earthquakes occurred within a two-hour period off the west coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia, in the broadly distributed India-Australia plate boundary zone. The magnitude 8.6 mainshock holds the distinction of being both the largest instrumentally recorded strike-slip earthquake and the largest earthquake away from a recognized plate boundary fault. The mainshock involved sequential ruptures of multiple fault planes oriented nearly perpendicular to each other. The adjacent 2004 megathrust earthquake statically loaded the northern Wharton Basin oceanic lithosphere on both of the 2012 mainshock fault plane orientations, and greatly enhanced the rate of earthquake activity in the region for a year. Viscoelastic relaxation of the asthenosphere following the 2004 and 2005 megathrust earthquakes continued to positively stress the offshore region, correlating with the locations of later strike-slip earthquakes, including two magnitude 7+ and the 2012 magnitude 8+ earthquakes.

  3. Monitoring the northern Chile megathrust with the Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurr, Bernd; Asch, Günter; Cailleau, Beatrice; Diaz, Guillermo Chong; Barrientos, Sergio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Oncken, Onno

    2010-05-01

    The oceanic Nazca plate subducts beneath the continental South American plate by recurrent rupture of large segments of its interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all sizeable segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.5 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the south and north broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake intruded into the southern part of the seismic gap in 2007 between Antofagasto and Tocopilla. This makes northern Chile a unique natural laboratory to observe a subduction megathrust at various stages of its seismic cycle. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (France), and the GFZ German research Centre for Geosciences (Germany). Currently we are operating 17 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. Continuous GPS, tilt, creep, climate and magnetotellurics measurements are complementing the seismological part. A majority of the sites provide data near real-time. We will present results of seismic monitoring including analysis of the 2007 M7.7 Tocopilla earthquake sequence that was recorded during the installation stage of the observatory. We relocated the mainshock and about a one thousand aftershocks during the following week using waveform cross-correlation and the double-difference algorithm. Aftershocks reveal that rupture during this earthquake was confined to the deeper part (35 - 55 km depth) of the seismogenic coupling zone, except near the Mejillones peninsula that marks rupture termination in the south. Here earthquake activity reaches to depths of 20 km and even shallower, possibly indicating upper plate activation. The sequence also features an M 6.8 earthquake that broke the oceanic slab on an almost vertical plane at the down-dip end of the megathrust rupture. Confrontation with the aftershock distribution of the 1995 M 8.0 Antofagasta earthquake on the adjoining southern segment reveals an intriguing mirror symmetry with an axis crossing the Mejillones peninsula, emphasizing the penisula's significance as a segment boundary. Since then activity inside the remaining seismic gap to the north picked up with three earthquakes exceeding magnitude 6, maybe heralding the next great rupture.

  4. Receptivity of Flat-Plate Boundary Layer in a Non-Uniform Free Stream (Vorticity Normal to the Plate)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogan, M. N.; Shumilkin, V. G.; Ustinov, M. V.; Zhigulev, S. V.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of low speed leading edge boundary layer receptivity to free-stream vorticity produced by upstream wires normal to the leading edge are discussed. Data include parametric variations in leading edge configuration and details of the incident disturbance field including single and multiple wakes. The induced disturbance amplitude increases with increases in the leading edge diameter and wake interactions. Measurements agree with the theory of M. E. Goldstein.

  5. The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) High-rate Real-time Cascadia network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, M. E.; Austin, K. E.; Borsa, A. A.; Eriksson, S. C.; Feaux, K.; Williams, T. B.

    2009-12-01

    As part of the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), NSF is investing in onshore-offshore instrumentation to support studies of the Cascadia margin. EarthScope's Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) will upgrade all 232 of its GPS stations in the Pacific Northwest to high-rate sampling and real-time telemetry and provide streaming data from this network to the public for scientific research, education, and hazard monitoring. This effort expands UNAVCO’s real-time GPS operations beyond its current pilot project of 100 stations to include a comprehensive regional network that spans the states of Washington and Oregon, and extends south into California to the Mendocino triple junction. By blanketing the Pacific Northwest with real-time GPS coverage, the NSF is hoping to create a natural laboratory in an area of great scientific interest and high geophysical hazard in order to spur new volcano and earthquake research opportunities. Streaming high-rate data in real-time will enable researchers to routinely analyze for strong ground motion monitoring and earthquake hazards mitigation. For stations with collocated meteorological instruments, met data will be streamed as well, opening the possibility for combined GPS/met processing in real time by the atmospheric community. Finally, the new funding also expands opportunities for research using high-rate GPS data from a large-aperture network, since 1 Hz streams will be permanently archived and freely available via FTP. PBO will provide 1Hz-streaming data in BINEX, RTCM2.3 and RTCM 3.0 formats via the NTrip protocol, from servers located at UNAVCO headquarters in Boulder, CO. Data latency will vary according to the telemetry deployed at each station, but is expected to range from 0.5~2.0 seconds given recent improvements in PBO's real-time streaming capabilities.

  6. The Future of the Plate Boundary Observatory in the GAGE Facility and beyond 2018

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, G. S.; Bendick, R. O.; Foster, J. H.; Freymueller, J. T.; La Femina, P. C.; Miller, M. M.; Rowan, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and Earthscope (GAGE) Facility, which operates the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), builds on UNAVCO's strong record of facilitating research and education in the geosciences and geodesy-related engineering fields. Precise positions and velocities for the PBO's ~1100 continuous GPS stations and other PBO data products are used to address a wide range of scientific and technical issues across North America. A large US and international community of scientists, surveyors, and civil engineers access PBO data streams, software, and other on-line resources daily. In a global society that is increasingly technology-dependent, consistently risk-averse, and often natural resource-limited, communities require geodetic research, education, and infrastructure to make informed decisions about living on a dynamic planet. The western U.S. and Alaska, where over 95% of the PBO sensor assets are located, have recorded significant geophysical events like earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunami. UNAVCO community science provides first-order constraints on geophysical processes to support hazards mapping and zoning, and form the basis for earthquake and tsunami early warning applications currently under development. The future of PBO was discussed at a NSF-sponsored three-day workshop held in September 2014 in Breckenridge, CO. Over 40 invited participants and community members, including representatives from interested stakeholder groups, UNAVCO staff, and members of the PBO Working Group and Geodetic Infrastructure Advisory Committee participated in workshop, which included retrospective and prospective plenary presentations and breakout sessions focusing on specific scientific themes. We will present some of the findings of that workshop in order to continue a dialogue about policies and resources for long-term earth observing networks. How PBO fits into the recently released U.S. National Plan for Civil Earth Observations will also be discussed.

  7. The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory Akutan Alaskan Volcano Tiltmeter Installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauk, B. A.; Gallaher, W.; Dittmann, T.; Smith, S.

    2007-12-01

    During August of 2007, the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) successfully installed four Applied Geomechanics Lily Self Leveling Borehole Tiltmeters on Akutan Volcano, in the central Aleutian islands of Alaska. All four stations were collocated with existing PBO Global Positioning Systems (GPS) stations installed on the volcano in 2005. The tiltmeters will aid researchers in detecting and measuring flank deformation associated with future magmatic intrusions of the volcano. All four of the tiltmeters were installed by PBO field crews with helicopter support provided by JL Aviation and logistical support from the Trident Seafood Corporation, the City of Akutan, and the Akutan Corporation. Lack of roads and drivable trails on the remote volcanic island required that all drilling equipment be transported to each site from the village of Akutan by slinging gear beneath the helicopter and with internal loads. Each tiltmeter hole was drilled to a depth of approximately 30 feet with a portable hydraulic/pneumatic drill rig. The hole was then cased with splined 2.75 inch PVC. The PVC casing was cemented in place with grout and the tiltmeters were installed and packed with fine grain sand to stabilize the tiltmeters inside the casing. The existing PBO NetRS GPS receivers were configured to collect the tiltmeter data through a spare receiver serial port at one sample per minute and 1 hour files. Data from the GPS receivers and tiltmeters is telemetered directly or through a repeater radio to a base station located in the village of Akutan that transmits the data using satellite based communications to connect to the internet and to the UNAVCO Facility data archive where it is made freely available to the public.

  8. A new approach to study rotational deformation near plate boundaries by combining paleomagnetism and geodetic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsburg, N.; Granot, R.; Hamiel, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Vertical axis rotations are a significant component of crustal deformation and provide important constraints on the tectonic history of plate boundaries. Geodetic measurements can be used to calculate present-day rotations whereas paleomagnetic measurements can be used for calculating finite long-term (millions of years) rotations. Here we present a new approach for integrating both datasets through mechanical modeling that links these time scales. We test this approach in northern Israel, a region where a tectonic triple junction lies at the intersection between two deformation zones: (1) The Dead Sea Fault, and (2) The Carmel-Gilboa Fault System. We examined the distribution of crustal deformation and rotation rates near these two major fault zones. First, rotation rates were calculated from current interseismic global positioning system (GPS) measurements that were recorded during 12 years. We analyzed the GPS velocities using a 3D dislocation slip model that takes into account motion on major active faults in the study area. This model was then modified to account for the total deformation of the crust during several seismic cycles. Rotations from the mechanical modeling were compared against finite rotations determined based on primary magnetic remanence directions from 30 Neogenic basaltic sites. Paleomagnetic results indicate significant (>20º) rotations near the edges of fault segments. These results disagree with interseismic rotations calculated from the GPS measurements; however they are in general agreement with the vertical axis rotations obtained from the mechanical model. The comparison to the modified model suggests that the tectonic setting of the Carmel-Gilboa Fault system was fairly stable during the last ~10 Myr. Furthermore, the new suggested method for comparing interseismic recent deformation with long-term deformation provides important new insights on the timing, magnitude and style of deformation near major faults.

  9. The interpretation of crustal dynamics data in terms of plate motions and regional deformation near plate boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.

    1991-01-01

    During our participation in the NASA Crustal Dynamics Project under NASA contract NAS-27339 and grant NAG5-814 for the period 1982-1991, we published or submitted for publication 30 research papers and 52 abstracts of presentations at scientific meetings. In addition, five M.I.T. Ph.D. students (Eric Bergman, Steven Bratt, Dan Davis, Jeanne Sauber, Anne Sheehan) were supported wholly or in part by this project during their thesis research. Highlights of our research progress during this period include the following: application of geodetic data to determine rates of strain in the Mojave block and in central California and to clarify the relation of such strain to the San Andreas fault and Pacific-North American plate motions; application of geodetic data to infer post seismic deformation associated with large earthquakes in the Imperial Valley, Hebgen Lake, Argentina, and Chile; determination of the state of stress in oceanic lithosphere from a systematic study of the centroid depths and source mechanisms of oceanic intraplate earthquakes; development of models for the state of stress in young oceanic regions arising from the differential cooling of the lithosphere; determination of the depth extent and rupture characteristics of oceanic transform earthquakes; improved determination of earthquake slip vectors in the Gulf of California, an important data set for the estimation of Pacific-North American plate motions; development of models for the state of stress and mechanics of fold-and-thrust belts and accretionary wedges; development of procedures to invert geoid height, residual bathymetry, and differential body wave travel time residuals for lateral variations in the characteristic temperature and bulk composition of the oceanic upper mantle; and initial GPS measurements of crustal deformation associated with the Imperial-Cerro Prieto fault system in southern California and northern Mexico. Full descriptions of the research conducted on these topics may be found in the Semi-Annual status Reports submitted regularly to NASA over the course of this project and in the publications listed.

  10. MHD Forced Convective Laminar Boundary Layer Flow from a Convectively Heated Moving Vertical Plate with Radiation and Transpiration Effect

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Md. Jashim; Khan, Waqar A.; Ismail, A. I. Md.

    2013-01-01

    A two-dimensional steady forced convective flow of a Newtonian fluid past a convectively heated permeable vertically moving plate in the presence of a variable magnetic field and radiation effect has been investigated numerically. The plate moves either in assisting or opposing direction to the free stream. The plate and free stream velocities are considered to be proportional to whilst the magnetic field and mass transfer velocity are taken to be proportional to where is the distance along the plate from the leading edge of the plate. Instead of using existing similarity transformations, we use a linear group of transformations to transform the governing equations into similarity equations with relevant boundary conditions. Numerical solutions of the similarity equations are presented to show the effects of the controlling parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles as well as on the friction factor, rate of heat and mass transfer. It is found that the rate of heat transfer elevates with the mass transfer velocity, convective heat transfer, Prandtl number, velocity ratio and the magnetic field parameters. It is also found that the rate of mass transfer enhances with the mass transfer velocity, velocity ratio, power law index and the Schmidt number, whilst it suppresses with the magnetic field parameter. Our results are compared with the results existing in the open literature. The comparisons are satisfactory. PMID:23741295

  11. Rayleigh wave tomography beneath the oceanic and continental margin of the North-America and Pacific plate boundary.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathnayaka, S.; Escobar, L., Sr.; Weeraratne, D. S.; Kohler, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The inception of the San Andreas fault, a transform plate boundary system, is the result of subduction of the EPR spreading center, rifting of the Borderland in the Miocene and subsequent plate rotation that is ongoing today. To address the lack of offshore data at this plate boundary, we use Rayleigh waves recorded by a marine seismic array of 34 ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) to tomographically image phase velocities beneath the oceanic and continental margin of the North America-Pacific plate boundary. The OBSs were deployed as part of the ALBACORE project offshore southern California on 18-32 Ma seafloor. The marine seismic array recorded data from August 2010 to 2011 and are combined with 82 land stations from the CISN network. We analyze ~100 teleseismic events at distances ranging from 30° to 120° for Mw ? 5.9, filtered at periods between 16 and 78 s. Strong structural gradients are present across this plate margin; therefore, we perform amplitude corrections for OBS stations that account for velocity variations in water, sediment layer, crustal thickness, marine fossil layers and lithospheric thickness as a function of seafloor age. We use a surface wave inversion that considers a two plane wave method and perform a grid search for inversion parameters. Our results indicate that averaged phase velocities are 1.3% lower than previous studies for the seafloor age bin 20-52 Ma. Phase velocities at lithospheric depths are 5% higher in the oceanic mantle compared to the continental mantle indicating compositional and structural differences due to formation history in the two tectonic environments. Anisotropy in the offshore region of our study is consistent with Pacific plate motion, N 78.5? W, except for periods longer than 40 s in the Borderland where anisotropy demonstrates N-S alignment. The Borderland, a transitional region between the continental and oceanic plate margin where rotation of the transverse ranges involved rifting and extension, shows unique velocity and anisotropic structure compared to the land and deep seafloor regions.

  12. The turbulent boundary layer on a porous plate: An experimental study of the heat transfer behavior with adverse pressure gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, B. F.; Kays, W. M.; Moffat, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the heat transfer behavior of the near equilibrium transpired turbulent boundary layer with adverse pressure gradient has been carried out. Stanton numbers were measured by an energy balance on electrically heated plates that form the bottom wall of the wind tunnel. Two adverse pressure gradients were studied. Two types of transpiration boundary conditions were investigated. The concept of an equilibrium thermal boundary layer was introduced. It was found that Stanton number as a function of enthalpy thickness Reynolds number is essentially unaffected by adverse pressure gradient with no transpiration. Shear stress, heat flux, and turbulent Prandtl number profiles were computed from mean temperature and velocity profiles. It was concluded that the turbulent Prandtl number is greater than unity in near the wall and decreases continuously to approximately 0.5 at the free stream.

  13. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 98, NO. B4, PAGES 6607-6622, APRIL 10, 1993 TomographicImage of the Mid-Atlantic Plate Boundary

    E-print Network

    Bjarnason, Ingi

    Image of the Mid-Atlantic Plate Boundary in Southwestern Iceland INGI TH. BJARNASON1 AND WILLIAM MENKE Lamont to be determined for 1050 crustal P wave rays and 180 wide-angle reflections. The large amplitudesof the wide

  14. Active Pacific North America Plate boundary tectonics as evidenced by seismicity in the oceanic lithosphere offshore Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauksson, Egill; Kanamori, Hiroo; Stock, Joann; Cormier, Marie-Helene; Legg, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Pacific Ocean crust west of southwest North America was formed by Cenozoic seafloor spreading between the large Pacific Plate and smaller microplates. The eastern limit of this seafloor, the continent-ocean boundary, is the fossil trench along which the microplates subducted and were mostly destroyed in Miocene time. The Pacific-North America Plate boundary motion today is concentrated on continental fault systems well to the east, and this region of oceanic crust is generally thought to be within the rigid Pacific Plate. Yet, the 2012 December 14 Mw 6.3 earthquake that occurred about 275 km west of Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico, is evidence for continued tectonism in this oceanic part of the Pacific Plate. The preferred main shock centroid depth of 20 km was located close to the bottom of the seismogenic thickness of the young oceanic lithosphere. The focal mechanism, derived from both teleseismic P-wave inversion and W-phase analysis of the main shock waveforms, and the 12 aftershocks of M ˜3-4 are consistent with normal faulting on northeast striking nodal planes, which align with surface mapped extensional tectonic trends such as volcanic features in the region. Previous Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements on offshore islands in the California Continental Borderland had detected some distributed Pacific and North America relative plate motion strain that could extend into the epicentral region. The release of this lithospheric strain along existing zones of weakness is a more likely cause of this seismicity than current thermal contraction of the oceanic lithosphere or volcanism. The main shock caused weak to moderate ground shaking in the coastal zones of southern California, USA, and Baja California, Mexico, but the tsunami was negligible.

  15. The Plate Boundary Observatory Borehole Strainmeter Program: Overview of Data Analysis and Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkinson, K.; Anderson, G.; Hasting, M.; Hoyt, B.; Jackson, M.; Lee, E.; Matykiewicz, J.; Mencin, D.; Persson, E.; Smith, S.; Torrez, D.; Wright, J.

    2006-12-01

    The PBO borehole strainmeter network is now the largest in the US with 19 strainmeters installed along the Western US Plate Boundary: 14 in the Pacific North West and 5 in Anza, Southern California. With five drilling crews operating though October 2006 the network should grow to 28 strainmeters by December 2006. The areas include Parkfield and Mt St. Helens, PBO's first strainmeter installation in a volcanic region. PBO strainmeter sites are multi-instrumented. Seismic, pore pressure, atmospheric pressure, rainfall and temperature data are measured at almost all sites. Tiltmeters will also be installed at some sites. The strainmeters record at 20-sps, 1-sps and 10-minute interval and are downloaded hourly. The 1-sps data are sent to the NCEDC and IRIS DMC within a few minutes of being retrieved from the strainmeter. The data are archived in SEED format and can be viewed and analyzed with any SEED handling software. PBO's Borehole Strainmeter Analysis Center (BSMAC) in Socorro, NM, produces processed strain data every 10 to 14 days. The data are stored in XML format giving the user the option to use PBO edits or to work with unedited data. The XML file contains time series corrections for the atmospheric pressure, the Earth tides and borehole effects. Every 3 months the data are reviewed and the borehole trends and tidal signal are re- estimated to form the best possible processed data set. PBO reviewed the quality of the data collected by the first 8 strainmeters in a workshop in January 2006. The group discussed coring, examined the borehole trends, tidal signal, and a PSD analysis of data from each strainmeter. A second workshop, focusing on data analysis and in-situ calibration, will take place in October 2006. The UNAVCO strainmeter web page (http://pboweb.unavco.org) provides links to the raw and processed data and is a source for information on data formats, links to software and instrument documentation. An XML log file for each strainmeter provides a history of firmware upgrades and details anything that might affect data quality. A homepage has been developed for each strainmeter where plots of strain and state-of-health data can be viewed. UNAVCO has provided training in processing strainmeter data both at the BSMAC and through short courses. In June 2006 UNAVCO hosted the joint GPS and Strainmeter Short course where the topics of data analysis, calibration, hydrological signals and noise models where taught using PBO data. The next UNAVCO strainmeter course is planned for summer 2007.

  16. Plate Boundary Observatory Southwest Region Network Operations, Expansion and Communications Hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, D.; Walls, C. P.; Basset, A.; Turner, R.; Lawrence, S.; Feaux, K.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Southwest Region of the Plate Boundary Observatory manages 480 continuously operating GPS stations located principally along the transform system of the San Andreas fault, Eastern California Shear Zone and the northern Baja peninsula. In the past year, network uptime averaged 98% with greater than 99% data acquisition. In an effort to modernize the network, we have started to replace Trimble NETRS receivers with GNSS capable NETR9 receivers. Currently, we have 431 NetRS receivers deployed in the region, and 48 NetR9 receivers. In addition, 82 stations (17%) stream 1 Hz data over the VRS3Net typically with <0.5 second latency and an average completeness of >92%. Based on their typical data download rates, approximately 252 (53%) of all stations are capable of streaming 1 Hz, but have not yet been added to the real time network because of lack of resources. In the immediate aftermath of the M8.2 Chile earthquake in April 2014, high rate data downloads from the entire SW network had a success rate of 95% and 71% for 1 Hz and 5 Hz data downloads respectively. We have continued to upgrade critical radio networks, including the San Francisco Bay Area, Anza Borrego, and Santa Barbara networks. These efforts are ongoing, but they have already significantly improved data download rates and dependability. We are also converting cell modem to radio communications whenever possible for increased reliability and cost savings. In December 2013 the 13-station Edison network expansion was completed through cost recovery contracts. These stations span coastal southern California in Orange, San Diego and Los Angeles counties including a hybrid site on the Elly oil platform. The primary purpose of the stations is to aid in the seismic source characterization of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station and assess the strain field associated with the Oceanside Blind Thrust and Newport Inglewood fault. The new stations fill a gap between SCIGN and PBO. Three sites have WXT520 Vaisala metpacks and twelve stations stream 1Hz data via VRS3Net. UNAVCO and SCRIPPS are working in collaboration to augment a subset of stations with low-cost strong-motion sensors along the San Andreas and San Jacinto faults. To date twelve PBO stations have been upgraded with MEMS accelerometer packages.

  17. The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) High-rate Real-time Cascadia network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, K. E.; Borsa, A. A.; Feaux, K.; Jackson, M. E.; Williams, T. B.

    2010-12-01

    As part of the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), NSF is investing in onshore-offshore instrumentation to support studies of the Cascadia margin. EarthScope's Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) is upgrading 232 of its GPS stations in the Pacific Northwest to high-rate sampling and real-time telemetry and providing streaming data from this network to the public for scientific research, education, and hazard monitoring. This effort expands UNAVCO’s real-time GPS operations beyond its original pilot project of 100 stations to include a comprehensive regional network that spans the states of Washington and Oregon, and extends south into California to the Mendocino triple junction. By blanketing the Pacific Northwest with real-time GPS coverage, the NSF is hoping to create a natural laboratory in an area of great scientific interest and high geophysical hazard in order to spur new volcano and earthquake research opportunities. Streaming high-rate data in real-time will enable researchers to routinely analyze for strong ground motion monitoring and earthquake hazards mitigation. At stations with collocated meteorological instruments, met data is being streamed as well, opening the possibility for combined GPS/met processing in real time by the atmospheric community. Funding for field upgrades provide for the installation of 3G capable modems or high speed data radios, as well as for updating the power at each location. Finally, the new funding also expands opportunities for research using high-rate GPS data from a large-aperture network, since 1 Hz streams will be permanently archived and freely available via FTP. PBO deployed new data distribution software in June 2010, to which stations being added soon after field upgrades have been completed. PBO is currently providing 1Hz-streaming data in BINEX, RTCM2.3 and RTCM 3.0 formats via the NTrip protocol, from servers located at UNAVCO headquarters in Boulder, CO. Data latency varies according to the telemetry deployed at each station, but typically ranges from 0.5~2.0 seconds given recent improvements in PBO's real-time streaming capabilities and advances in the communications infrastructure.

  18. 2011 Operations and Maintenance Activities in the East Region of UNAVCO's Plate Boundary Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, T.; Feaux, K.; Kasmer, D.; Jenkins, F.; Mencin, D.

    2011-12-01

    2011 marked Year 3 of Operations and Maintenance of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO). In the East Region of PBO, it was a year characterized by several major projects as well as scheduled ongoing maintenance activities. The most significant major project was a USGS/ARRA funded communications upgrade in Yellowstone National Park. This upgrade consisted of bringing 8 existing PBO stations within the Yellowstone volcanic region to near real-time communications. This work will be completed on time and in collaboration with the National Park Service. The upgrade promises to provide much faster latency for invaluable data being recorded for one of the most geodetically critical regions of the current PBO network. Another significant ongoing project in the East Region has been supporting the community that continues to use PBO data. In particular, support of Kristine Larson (Univ of CO) both in installing webcams at PBO sites for monitoring snow depth as well as supporting vegetative surveys at current PBO sites. Similarly, the East Region responded promptly to the community with requests for data quality issues that are station hardware related, including replacing GPS antennae and receivers. With regards to ongoing operations and maintenance projects, reasons for site visits in 2011 were dominated by two significant situations: battery replacement and CDMA modem swaps. 83 site visits were required as part of the Operations and Maintenance strategic battery plan of 5 year battery replacements. This proved to be a considerable challenge due to the scale and geography of the scheduled replacements- the sites were spread throughout the entire network, east to west and north to south. 20 station visits were required due to a Verizon upgrade of the older Alltel network purchased by Verizon. These stations are predominantly in the Rocky Mountain region, but often times had limited access to due weather. Overall, despite record snowfalls throughout the west, state of health in the East Region was consistently over 95% operational; a testament to past network-hardening and current vigilance and hard work. The east region looks forward to a successful 2012 campaign.

  19. The Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory Alaska Region an Overview of Network Operation, Maintenance and Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enders, M.; Boyce, E. S.; Bierma, R.; Walker, K.; Feaux, K.

    2011-12-01

    UNAVCO has now completed its third year of operation of the 138 continuous GPS stations, 12 tiltmeters and 31 communications relays that comprise the Alaska Region of the Earthscope Plate Boundary Observatory. Working in Alaska has been challenging due to the extreme environmental conditions encountered and logistics difficulties. Despite these challenges we have been able to complete each summer field season with network operation at 95% or better. Throughout the last three years we have analyzed both our successes and failures to improve the quality of our network and better serve the scientific community. Additionally, we continue to evaluate and deploy new technologies to improve station reliability and add to the data set available from our stations. 2011 was a busy year for the Alaska engineering team and some highlights from last year's maintenance season include the following. This spring we completed testing and deployment of the first Inmarsat BGAN satellite terminal for data telemetry at AC60 Shemya Island. Shemya Island is at the far western end of the Aleutian Islands and is one of the most remote and difficult to access stations in the PBO AK network. Until the installation of the BGAN, this station was offline with no data telemetry for almost one year. Since the installation of the BGAN in early April 2011 dataflow has been uninterrupted. This year we also completed the first deployments of Stardot NetCamSC webcams in the PBO Network. Currently, these are installed and operational at six GPS stations in Alaska, with plans to install several more next season in Alaska. Images from these cameras can be found at the station homepages linked to from the UNAVCO website. In addition to the hard work put in by PBO engineers this year, it is important that we recognize the contributions of our partners. In particular the Alaska Volcano Observatory, the Alaska Earthquake Information Center and others who have provided us with valuable engineering assistance and data telemetry in several locations. With their help we have reduced the number of stations that require manual data download to six in the entire Alaska network getting us closer to our goal of 100% auto data archival for the Alaska network.

  20. Evolving seismogenic plate boundary megathrust and mega-splay faults in subduction zone (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, G.; Hamahashi, M.; Fukuchi, R.; Yamaguchi, A.; Kameda, J.; Kitamura, Y.; Hashimoto, Y.; Hamada, Y.; Saito, S.; Kawasaki, R.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the fault mechanism and its relationship to the sesimo-tsunamigenesis is a key of the scientific targets of subduction zone and therefore NantroSEIZE project of IODP and future new drilling project of International Ocean Discovery Program keeps focusing on that. Mega-splay fault branched from plate boundary megathrust in subduction zone is located around the border between outer and inner wedges and is considered to cause great earthquake and tsunami such as 1960 Alaska earthquake, 1944 and 1946 Nankai-Tonankai earthquakes, and 2004 Sumatra earthquakes. Seismic reflection studies for the mega-splay fault in 2D and 3D in the Nankai forearc present the reflector with negative or positive polarities with various amplitudes and suggest complicated petrophysical properties and condition of the fault and its surroundings. The Nankai mega-splay fault at a depth of ~5km is going to be drilled and cored by NantroSEIZE experiments and is expected for great progress of understanding of the fault mechanics. Before drilling the really targeted seismogenic fault, we are conducting many exercises of geophysical and geological observations. The core-log-seismic integrated exercise for the exhumed mega-splay fault by drilling was operated for the Nobeoka thrust in the Shimanto Belt, Kyushu, Japan. The Nobeoka thrust was once buried in the depth >~10km and suffered maximum temperature >~300 dgree C. As the core recovery is ~99%, perfect correlation between the core and logging data is possible. Thickness of the fault zone is >200 m with a ~50 cm thick central fault core dividing the phyllitic hanging wall and the footwall of broken-melange like cataclasite. A-few-meter-thick discrete damage zones with fault cores are recognized by difference in physical properties and visual deformation textures at several horizons in the fault zone. Host rocks for those damaged zones are completely lithified cataclasites with abundant mineral veins, which record the older and deeper deformation in the maximum depth >10km. Temperature difference between the hanging wall and footwall suggests the displacement along the Nobeoka thrust is >10km, which is almost similar to the mega-splay fault in the Nankai Trough. Geological and physical properties of the Nobeoka thrust suggest an evolving process of the seismogenic mega-splay fault associated with seismogenic up-thrust of the inner wedge of the accretionary prism.

  1. GPS Installation Progress in the Northern California Region of the Plate Boundary Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyle, B.; Basset, A.; Williams, T.; Enders, M.; Rogers, J.; Mann, D.; Feaux, K.

    2006-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) is the geodetic component of the NSF funded EarthScope Project. The final PBO GPS network will comprise 852 continuously operating GPS stations installed throughout the Western US and Alaska. There are 435 Stations planned for California with 229 of these in Northern California (NCA). This poster will present a progress report and highlights of GPS installations in NCA over the past year. At the end of the second year of the project (10/2006), PBO NCA installed 68 GPS stations. In the third year of the project we installed 56 stations for a total of 124. This total comprises 60% of the along the active transform margin, 15% of the sites on volcanoes and calderas and 44% of the sites covering the extensional regime of the Basin and Range. We have submitted permit applications for all but 40 of the remaining stations proposed for NCA and expect to have these completed in the next few months. A particularly important metric for planning our schedules is the time lag between reconnaissance and permit accepted. This time lag has varied from 1 day to over a year. Our average over the first two years was 192 days from reconnaissance to installation. Other highlights include completing station installations along the Maacama Fault Zone and onshore of the Mendocino Triple Junction. Data from these stations are available from the UNAVCO archive. As part of our operations and maintenance activities we are developing a catalog of the effects of fences, trees and other near-field objects on GPS data quality. We hope to have 190 Stations built by the end of Sept 2007. In order to accomplish this goal, we are working to finalize our reconnaissance and permitting activities for stations located in National Forests and National Parks, installations we expect to complete by September 2007. We expect to be finished with all our reconnaissance activities by spring 2007 after which crews will focus solely on installations and the transition to operations and maintenance mode in 2008.

  2. North America-Pacific plate boundary, an elastic-plastic megashear - Evidence from very long baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Steven N.

    1988-01-01

    Data obtained by Mark III VLBI measurements of radio signals from permanent and mobile VLBI sites for 5.5 years of observations, starting in October 1982, were used to derive a picture of the earth crust deformation near the North America-Pacific plate boundary. The data, which included the vector positions of the VLBI sites and their rate of change, were used for comparison with a number of lithospheric deformation models based upon the concept that the motions of points near the North America-Pacific plate boundary are a linear combination of North America and Pacific velocities. The best of these models were found to fit 95 percent of the variance in 139 VLBI length and transverse velocity observations. Instantaneous shear deformation associated with plate tectonics is apparently developing in a zone 450 km wide paralleling the San Andreas Fault; some of this deformation will be recovered through elastic rebound, while the rest will be permanently set through plastic processes. Because the VLBI data have not been collected for a significant fraction of the earthquake cycle, they cannot discriminate between elastic and plastic behaviors.

  3. Selective control of neuronal cluster size at the forebrain/midbrain boundary by signaling from the prechordal plate.

    PubMed

    Tallafuss, Alexandra; Adolf, Birgit; Bally-Cuif, Laure

    2003-08-01

    Within the vertebrate embryonic neural plate, the first neuronal clusters often differentiate at the border of patterning identities. Whether the information inherent in the intersection of patterning identities alone controls all aspects of neuronal cluster development (location, identity, and size) is unknown. Here, we focus on the cluster of the medial longitudinal fascicle (nMLF) and posterior commissure (nPC), located at the forebrain/midbrain (fore/mid) boundary, to address this issue. We first identify expression of the transcription factor Six3 as a common and distinct molecular signature of nMLF and nPC neurons in zebrafish, and we use this marker to monitor mechanisms controlling the location and number of nMLF/nPC neurons. We demonstrate that six3 expression is induced at the fore/mid boundary in pax2.1/no-isthmus and smoothened/slow muscle omitted mutants, where identities adjacent to the six3 cluster are altered; however, in these mutants, the subpopulation of six3-positive cells located within the mispatterned territory is reduced. These results show that induction of the six3 cluster is triggered by the information derived from the intersection in patterning identities alone, whereas correct cluster size depends, in a modular manner, on the identities themselves. The size of the six3 cluster is also controlled independently of neural tube patterning: we demonstrate that the prechordal plate (PCP) is impaired in mixer/bonnie and clyde mutants and that this phenotype secondarily results in an increased production of six3-positive cells at the fore/mid boundary, without correlatively affecting patterning in this area. Thus, a signaling process originating from the PCP distinguishes between neural patterning and the control of six3 cluster size at the fore/mid junction in vivo. Together, our results suggest that a combination of patterning-related and -unrelated mechanisms specifically controls the size of individual early neuronal clusters within the anterior neural plate. PMID:12889061

  4. BOLIVAR: Crustal Structure Across the Caribbean-South American Plate Boundary at 70W: Results from Refraction and Reflection Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guedez, M. C.; Zelt, C. A.; Magnani, M. B.; Levander, A.; Christeson, G. L.; Sawyer, D. S.

    2005-12-01

    The active-seismic component of the BOLIVAR project (Broadband Ocean and Land Investigations of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region) was completed in June 2004. Among the goals of BOLIVAR is to study the structure of the South America-Caribbean plate boundary as a site of likely continental growth by island arc accretion of the Leeward Antilles arc to the South American continent. In the west end of the Venezuelan basin the complex motion across the plate boundary is poorly understood. Other studies have concluded that the Caribbean Plate is subducting beneath the South American Plate and the Leeward Antilles arc is being accreted to older continental crust. Complicating this picture, the Maracaibo block is being displaced northward along the Bocono and Santa Marta strike-slip faults, while the Oca fault is a paleo-strand of the large right-lateral strike-slip system of the plate boundary. We present results of analyses of refraction and reflection seismic data along a 450 km long onshore-offshore profile at 70oW, extending from 10oN to 14.3oN. The refraction data include 40 Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS) and 348 Reftek Texan land seismometers that recorded the R/V Ewing airgun shots. The land stations also recorded two large landshots to provide reversed refraction coverage onshore. A 2-D velocity model obtained from travel time inversion of first arrivals shows that the Caribbean crust is anomalously thick, typical of oceanic plateau, ~ 15-20 km. Low velocity sediments, on the Caribbean oceanic plateau, are observed subducting beneath the South-Caribbean deformed belt over a distance of 75-100 km. We also observe low velocities associated with the Paraguana/Falcon basin extending from onshore to offshore depths of 3 km. We observe localized high compressional velocities spatially associated with the Oca fault. Similar high velocity bodies are observed on other BOLIVAR transects (see Avé Lallemant et al., this session). A migrated stack of the marine reflection data will also be presented.

  5. Experimental study of skin friction drag reduction on superhydrophobic flat plates in high Reynolds number boundary layer flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljallis, Elias; Sarshar, Mohammad Amin; Datla, Raju; Sikka, Vinod; Jones, Andrew; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we report the measurement of skin friction drag on superhydrophobic-coated flat plates in high Reynolds (Re) number boundary layer flows, using a high-speed towing tank system. Aluminum flat plates with a large area (4 feet × 2 feet, 3/8 in. thick) and sharpened leading/trailing edges (1 in. long) were prepared as a boundary layer flow model. Spray coating of hydrophobic nanoparticles was applied to make two different types of superhydrophobic coatings: one with low contact angle and high contact angle hysteresis, and the other with high contact angle and low contact angle hysteresis. Skin friction drag of the superhydrophobic plates was measured in the flow speed up to 30 ft/s to cover transition and turbulent flow regimes (105 < ReL < 107), and was compared to that of an uncoated bare aluminum plate. A significant drag reduction was observed on the superhydrophobic plate with high contact angle and low contact angle hysteresis up to ˜30% in transition regime (105 < ReL < 106), which is attributed to the shear-reducing air layer entrapped on the superhydrophobic surface. However, in fully turbulence regime (106 < ReL < 107), an increase of drag was observed, which is ascribed to the morphology of the surface air layer and its depletion by high shear flow. The texture of superhydrophobic coatings led to form a rugged morphology of the entrapped air layer, which would behave like microscale roughness to the liquid flow and offset the drag-reducing effects in the turbulent flow. Moreover, when the superhydrophobic coating became wet due to the removal of air by high shear at the boundary, it would amplify the surface roughness of solid wall and increase the drag in the turbulent flow. The results illustrate that drag reduction is not solely dependent on the superhydrophobicity of a surface (e.g., contact angle and air fraction), but the morphology and stability of the surface air layer are also critical for the effective drag reduction using superhydrophobic surfaces, especially in high Re number turbulent flow regimes.

  6. Plate motion

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, R.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The motion of tectonic plates on the earth is characterized in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics addressed include the NUVEL-1 global model of current plate motions, diffuse plate boundaries and the oceanic lithosphere, the relation between plate motions and distributed deformations, accelerations and the steadiness of plate motions, the distribution of current Pacific-North America motion across western North America and its margin, plate reconstructions and their uncertainties, hotspots, and plate dynamics. A comprehensive bibliography is provided. 126 refs.

  7. Consolidation patterns during initiation and evolution of a plate-boundary decollement zone: northern Barbados accretionary prism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, J.C.; Klaus, A.; Bangs, N.L.; Bekins, B.; Bucker, C.J.; Bruckmann, W.; Erickson, S.N.; Hansen, O.; Horton, T.; Ireland, P.; Major, C.O.; Moore, G.F.; Peacock, S.; Saito, S.; Screaton, E.J.; Shimeld, J.W.; Stauffer, P.H.; Taymaz, T.; Teas, P.A.; Tokunaga, T.

    1998-01-01

    Borehole logs from the northern Barbados accretionary prism show that the plate-boundary decollement initiates in a low-density radiolarian claystone. With continued thrusting, the decollement zone consolidates, but in a patchy manner. The logs calibrate a three-dimensional seismic reflection image of the decollement zone and indicate which portions are of low density and enriched in fluid, and which portions have consolidated. The seismic image demonstrates that an underconsolidated patch of the decollement zone connects to a fluid-rich conduit extending down the decollement surface. Fluid migration up this conduit probably supports the open pore structure in the underconsolidated patch.

  8. Kinematics to dynamics in the New Zealand Plate boundary zone: implications for the strength of the lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Simon

    2015-05-01

    New Zealand straddles the boundary between the Australian and Pacific Plate. Cenozoic relative plate motion has resulted in a complex pattern of faulting and block rotation in a zone of continental lithosphere up to 250 km wide. I investigate the implications of the short-term kinematics for the strength of the deforming lithosphere. I use a compilation of seismic reflection/refraction studies and high quality receiver function analyses to determine both the regional structure of the crust, which ranges from 20 to 50 km thick, and fields of buoyancy stress (or GPE per unit volume). Deformation over thousands of years is quantified in terms of velocity and strain rate fields, based on an inversion of neotectonic fault slip and palaeomagnetic data, in the context of the short-term relative plate motions. Forces on the subduction megathrust, as well as deviatoric stresses in the behind subduction region, are calculated from simple 2-D force balances across the Hikurangi Margin, given negligible deviatoric stresses at the along-strike transition between backarc extension and compression. Average megathrust shear stresses are in the range 6-15 MPa, and average lithospheric stresses <20 MPa in the overriding plate. The regional lithospheric strength of the plate boundary zone, assuming a viscous rheology (Newtonian or power law), is determined from an inversion of the field of gradients of buoyancy stress (averaged over either the top 25 km of the crust, or 100-km-thick lithosphere) and strain rate, using the thin sheet stress balance equations, calibrated with the subduction force balance analysis. Effective viscosities for the deforming lithosphere and/or crust are in the range 0.1-5 × 1021 Pa s, with marked weakening in zones of high strain rate, and an abrupt transition to viscosities >1022 Pa s at the margins of the rigid plates. If lateral variations in effective viscosity are only due to non-Newtonian behaviour, these data indicate a bulk power law rheology, with exponent n in the range 2-6. Average lithospheric or crustal deviatoric stresses <30 MPa. Such low driving stresses for the deforming crust are likely to be the result of a combination of pore fluid pressures much greater than hydrostatic (?40 per cent lithostatic) and low coefficients of friction (?0.6) on crustal faults.

  9. The Dauki Thrust Fault and the Shillong Anticline: An incipient plate boundary in NE India?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, E. K.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.; Akhter, S. H.; Mondal, D.; Lenhart, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Shillong Massif is a regional contractional structure developing across the Assam sliver of the Indian plate near the Eastern Syntaxis between the Himalaya and Burma arcs. Faulting associated with the Shillong Massif is a major source of earthquake hazard. The massif is a composite basement-cored asymmetric anticline and is 100km wide, >350km long and 1.8km high. The high relief southern limb preserves a Cretaceous-Paleocene passive margin sequence despite extreme rainfall while the gentler northern limb is devoid of sedimentary cover. This asymmetry suggests southward growth of the structure. The Dauki fault along the south limb builds this relief. From the south-verging structure, we infer a regional deeply-rooted north-dipping blind thrust fault. It strikes E-W and obliquely intersects the NE-SW margin of India, thus displaying three segments: Western, within continental India; Central, along the former passive margin; and Eastern, overridden by the west-verging Burma accretion system. We present findings from recent geologic fieldwork on the western and central segments. The broadly warped erosional surface of the massif defines a single anticline in the central segment, east of the intersection with the hinge zone of the continental margin buried by the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta. The south limb of the anticline forms a steep topographic front, but is even steeper structurally as defined by the Cretaceous-Eocene cover. Below it, Sylhet Trap Basalts intrude and cover Precambrian basement. Dikes, presumably parallel to the rifted margin, are also parallel to the front, suggesting thrust reactivation of rift-related faults. Less competent Neogene clastics are preserved only near the base of the mountain front. Drag folds in these rocks suggest north-vergence and a roof thrust above a blind thrust wedge floored by the Dauki thrust fault. West of the hinge zone, the contractional structure penetrates the Indian continent and bifurcates. After branching into the Dapsi Fault, the Dauki Fault continues westward as the erosion-deposition boundary combined with a belt of N-S shortening. The Dapsi thrust fault strikes WNW across the Shillong massif and dips NNE. It is mostly blind below a topographically expressed fold involving basement and passive-margin cover. Recent fieldwork has shown that the fault is better exposed in the west, where eventually Archean basement juxtaposes folded and steeply dipping fluvial sediment. Both Dauki and Dapsi faults probably continue beyond the Brahmaputra River, where extreme fluvial processes mask them. The area between the two faults is a gentle southward monocline with little or no shortening. Thus uplift of this area stems from slip on the Dauki thrust fault, not from pervasive shortening. The Burma foldbelt overrides the Shillong Plateau and is warped but continuous across the eastern segment of the Dauki fault. The Haflong-Naga thrust front north of the Dauki merges with the fold-thrust belt in the Sylhet basin to the south, despite >150km of differential advance due to much greater advance of the accretionary prism in the basin. Where the Dauki and Haflong-Naga thrusts cross, the thrust fronts are nearly parallel and opposite vergence. We trace a Dauki-related topographic front eastward across the Burma Range. This and other evidence suggest that the Dauki Fault continues below the foldbelt.

  10. Secular and annual hydrologic effects from the Plate Boundary Observatory GPS network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meertens, C. M.; Wahr, J. M.; Borsa, A. A.; Jackson, M. E.; Herring, T.

    2009-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) GPS network is providing accurate and spatially coherent vertical signals that can be interpreted in terms of hydrological loading and poroelastic effects from both natural and anthropogenic changes in water storage. Data used for this analysis are the precise coordinate time series produced on a daily basis by PBO Analysis Centers at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and at Central Washington University and combined by the Analysis Center Coordinator at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. These products, as well as derived velocity solutions, are made freely available from the UNAVCO Data Center in Boulder. Analysis of secular trends and annual variations in the time series was made using the analysis software of Langbein, 2008. Spatial variations in the amplitude and phase of the annual vertical component of motion allow for identification of anthropogenic effects due to water pumping, irrigation, and reservoir lake variations, and of outliers due to instrumental or other local site effects. Vertical annual signals of 8-10 mm peak-to-peak amplitude are evident at stations in the mountains of northern and central California and the Pacific Northwest. The peak annual uplift is in October and is correlated to hydrological loading effects. Mountainous areas appear to be responding elastically to the load of the water contained in surface soil, fractures, and snow. Vertical signals are highest when the water load is at a minimum. The vertical elastic hydrologic loading signal was modeled using the 0.25 degree community NOAH land-surface model (LSM) and generally fits the observed GPS signal. Addition comparisons will be made using the Mosaic LSM and the NOAA “Leaky Bucket” hydrologic model. In contrast to mountain stations that are installed principally in bedrock, stations in the valleys of California are installed in sediments. Observations from these stations show greater spatial variability ranging from almost no detectable annual signal to very large, 20-30 mm, vertical amplitudes that reach a maximum in March. Vertical signals in the valleys are the result of poroelastic effects induced by groundwater variations caused by pumping for irrigation or other purposes and are highest when groundwater is at maximum recharge level. Secular trends in the vertical time series show 1-3 mm/yr of subsidence across the western U.S. In areas of groundwater pumping the rates are up to several cm/yr showing subsidence as pumping exceeds annual recharge over a multi-year time period. In the mountainous areas where hydrologic loading is evident in the annual signals, secular trends show uplift of 1-3 mm/yr possibly due to regional drought and decreased overall water volumes that result in less load and vertical uplift. Overall, these results illustrate the potential of using GPS data to constrain hydrological models. In return, accurate hydrologic loading models will be needed to better measure and detect vertical tectonic motions at the mm-level.

  11. Crustal structure of a transform plate boundary: San Francisco Bay and the central California continental margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holbrook, W.S.; Brocher, T.M.; ten Brink, U.S.; Hole, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Wide-angle seismic data collected during the Bay Area Seismic Imaging Experiment provide new glimpses of the deep structure of the San Francisco Bay Area Block and across the offshore continental margin. San Francisco Bay is underlain by a veneer (<300 m) of sediments, beneath which P wave velocities increase rapidly from 5.2 km/s to 6.0 km/s at 7 km depth, consistent with rocks of the Franciscan subduction assemblage. The base of the Franciscan at-15-18 km depth is marked by a strong wide-angle reflector, beneath which lies an 8- to 10-km-thick lower crust with an average velocity of 6.75??0.15 km/s. The lower crust of the Bay Area Block may be oceanic in origin, but its structure and reflectivity indicate that it has been modified by shearing and/or magmatic intrusion. Wide-angle reflections define two layers within the lower crust, with velocities of 6.4-6.6 km/s and 6.9-7.3 km/s. Prominent subhorizontal reflectivity observed at near-vertical incidence resides principally in the lowermost layer, the top of which corresponds to the "6-s reflector" of Brocher et al. [1994]. Rheological modeling suggests that the lower crust beneath the 6-s reflector is the weakest part of the lithosphere; the horizontal shear zone suggested by Furlong et al. [1989] to link the San Andreas and Hayward/Calaveras fault systems may actually be a broad zone of shear deformation occupying the lowermost crust. A transect across the continental margin from the paleotrench to the Hayward fault shows a deep crustal structure that is more complex than previously realized. Strong lateral variability in seismic velocity and wide-angle reflectivity suggests that crustal composition changes across major transcurrent fault systems. Pacific oceanic crust extends 40-50 km landward of the paleotrench but, contrary to prior models, probably does not continue beneath the Salinian Block, a Cretaceous arc complex that lies west of the San Andreas fault in the Bay Area. The thickness (10 km) and high lower-crustal velocity of Pacific oceanic crust suggest that it was underplated by magmatism associated with the nearby Pioneer seamount. The Salinian Block consists of a 15-km-thick layer of velocity 6.0-6.2 km/s overlying a 5-km-thick, high-velocity (7.0 km/s) lower crust that may be oceanic crust, Cretaceous arc-derived lower crust, or a magmatically underplated layer. The strong structural variability across the margin attests to the activity of strike-slip faulting prior to and during development of the transcurrent Pacific/North American plate boundary around 29 Ma. Copyright 1996 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Plate Boundary Observatory Infrastructure and Data Products in Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, S. C.; Barbour, K.; Lee, E.

    2005-12-01

    As one of three major components of NSF's EarthScope program, the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) encourages the integration of research and education. Informing various communities about the current work of PBO and the scientific discoveries related to the use of this instrumentation has contributed to the success of PBO during the first two years of the EarthScope project. UNAVCO(PBO), IRIS (USArray), and the EarthScope project office work together to integrate Education and Outreach (E&O) opportunities into a program that is greater than the sum of its parts and yet maintains the identity of each organization. Building and maintaining the PBO website, documenting and archiving activities of PBO, providing short courses for professional development of scientists using EarthScope data, and developing higher level data products with an appropriate educational framework are a few of the activities that provide both challenges and opportunities. The internet, particularly the World Wide Web, has become the primary tool for disseminating information to various audiences. The primary goals of the PBO website are to provide current information on the progress of GPS and Strainmeter facility construction; to provide access to different levels of data products; and to facilitate networking with and among scientists. Challenges for the PBO website include publishing current stories on installation projects while coordinating with field engineers on a regular basis; providing near to real time updates and maintaining quality assurance processes; and defining personnel requirements for a maintaining a dynamic website. Currently, archived photographs, web diaries, and numerous web highlights document PBO's success and provide a visual record of PBO's accomplishments and behind-the-scene activities over the last two years. The community charged PBO with increasing the number of scientists using its data. UNAVCO does this by providing short courses for professional development of young scientists and more established scientists broadening their research interests. In addition, collecting, manipulating, and aggregating real scientific data for classroom use is a current priority in science education. Educators want their students to use these data to draw conclusions following the logical processes characteristic of the scientific endeavor. Hence, PBO is a natural source of data for use in the classroom. Staff and community members are designing higher level data products for a variety of audiences in formal education (students and instructors in middle/high school, community colleges, undergraduate science majors and students in general science education, graduate students) and in informal education (museums, park information centers, science centers, and media. PBO is working on a chapter for the Earth Exploration Toolbox (http://serc.carleton.edu/eet/) for undergraduate general science education, and the Jules Verne Voyager will include a user-friendly interface and associated educational materials. Evaluation of the effectiveness of this entire program and of individual projects and products is a major undertaking. The multitude of tasks, integration of these tasks into a coherent program, and identification of resources for evaluation are both opportunities and challenges in helping build a program with measurable impact.

  13. PBO Nucleus Project Status: Integration of 209 Existing GPS Stations into the Plate Boundary Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume, F.; Meertens, C.; Anderson, G.; Eriksson, S.; Boyce, E.

    2007-12-01

    Tectonic and earthquake research in the US has experienced a quiet revolution over the last decade precipitated by the recognition that slow-motion faulting events can both trigger and be triggered by regular earthquakes. Transient motion has now been found in essentially all tectonic environments, and the detection and analysis of such events is the first-order science target of the EarthScope Project. Because of this and a host of other fundamental tectonics questions that can be answered only with long-duration geodetic time series, the incipient 1100-station EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network has been designed to leverage 445 existing continuous GPS stations whose measurements extend back over a decade. The irreplaceable recording history of these stations will accelerate EarthScope scientific return by providing the highest possible resolution. This resolution will be used to detect and understand transients, to determine the three-dimensional velocity field (particularly vertical motion), and to improve measurement precision by understanding the complex noise sources inherent in GPS. The PBO Nucleus project supports the operation, maintenance and hardware upgrades of a subset of the six western U.S. geodetic networks until they are subsumed by PBO. Uninterrupted data flow from these stations will effectively double the time-series length of PBO over the expected life of EarthScope, and has created, for the first time, a single GPS-based geodetic network in the US. The other existing sites remain in operation under support from non-NSF sources (e.g. the USGS), and EarthScope continues to benefit from their continued operation On the grounds of relevance to EarthScope science goals, geographic distribution and data quality, 209 of the 432 existing stations were selected as the nucleus upon which to build PBO. Conversion of these stations to a PBO-compatible mode of operation was begun under previous funding, and as a result data now flow directly to PBO archives and processing centers while maintenance, operations, and meta-data requirements are continue to be upgraded to PBO standards. At the end of this project all 209 stations will be fully incorporated into PBO, meeting all standards for new PBO construction including data communications and land use permits. Funds for operation of these stations have been included in planned budgets for PBO after the construction phase ends and PBO begins an operational phase in 2008. At this time work on the project is apporixmately 80% complete, with over 90% of the stations having been upgraded. The data from these stations serve a much larger audience than just the few people who work to keep them operating. This project is now collecting the data that will be used by the next generation of solid-earth researchers for at least two decades. Educational modules are being developed by a team of researchers, educators, and curriculum development professionals, and are being disseminated through regional and national workshops. An interactive website provides the newest developments in tectonics research to K-16 classrooms.

  14. PBO Nucleus Project Status: Integration of 209 Existing GPS Stations into the Plate Boundary Observatory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume, F.; Prescott, W.; Anderson, G.; Eriksson, S.; Feldl, N.

    2006-12-01

    Tectonic and earthquake research in the US has experienced a quiet revolution over the last decade precipitated by the recognition that slow-motion faulting events can both trigger and be triggered by regular earthquakes. Transient motion has now been found in essentially all tectonic environments, and the detection and analysis of such events is the first-order science target of the EarthScope Project. Because of this and a host of other fundamental tectonics questions that can be answered only with long-duration geodetic time series, the incipient 1400-station EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network has been designed to leverage 432 existing continuous GPS stations whose measurements extend back over a decade. The irreplaceable recording history of these stations is accelerating EarthScope scientific return by providing the highest possible resolution. This resolution will be used to detect and understand transients, to determine the three-dimensional velocity field (particularly vertical motion), and to improve measurement precision by understanding the complex noise sources inherent in GPS. The PBO Nucleus project supports the operation, maintenance and hardware upgrades of a subset of the six western U.S. geodetic networks until they are subsumed by PBO. Uninterrupted data flow from these stations will effectively double the time-series length of PBO over the expected life of EarthScope, and has created, for the first time, a single GPS-based geodetic network in the US. The other existing sites remain in operation under support from non-NSF sources (e.g. the USGS), and EarthScope continues to benefit from their continued operation. On the grounds of relevance to EarthScope science goals, geographic distribution and data quality, 209 of the 432 existing stations were selected as the nucleus upon which to build PBO. Conversion of these stations to a PBO-compatible mode of operation was begun under previous funding, and as a result data now flow directly to PBO archives and processing centers while maintenance, operations, and meta-data requirements are continuing to be upgraded to PBO standards. At the end of this project all 209 stations will be fully incorporated into PBO, meeting all standards for new PBO construction including data communications and land use permits. Funds for operation of these stations have been included in planned budgets for PBO after the construction phase ends and PBO begins an operational phase in 2008. To date approximately 150 of the 209 stations have been completely upgraded, and data flow from all stations is incorporated into the PBO data analysis flow. The community has only begun to understand the pervasive effects of transient creep, and its societal consequences remained largely unexplored. For example, one open question is whether slow faulting pervasively moderates earthquake nucleation. The existence of slow earthquakes will impact seismic hazards estimation, since these transients are now known to `absorb' a significant component of total slip in some regions and trigger earthquakes in others. The data from these stations serve a much larger audience than just the few people who work to keep them operating. This project is now collecting the data that will be used by the next generation of solid-earth researchers for at least two decades. Educational modules are being developed by a team of researchers, educators, and curriculum development professionals, and are being disseminated through regional and national workshops. An interactive website provides the newest developments in tectonics research to K-16 classrooms.

  15. EarthScope: Cyberinfrastructure to access Plate Boundary Observatory data products and services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meertens, C. M.; Mattioli, G. S.; Miller, M.; Boler, F. M.; Crosby, C. J.; Mencin, D.; Phillips, D. A.; Snett, L.

    2013-12-01

    The wealth of data from geodetic observing systems, especially the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), presents major data management challenges. The challenges are driven by ingenious new uses of Global Positioning System (GPS) data, demands for higher-rate, lower latency data, the need for continued access and long term preservation of archival data, the expansion of data users into other science, engineering and commercial arenas, and the growth of enhanced products that expand the utility of the data. To meet these challenges, UNAVCO has established a comprehensive suite of data services encompassing sensor network data operations, data product generation (through the activities of partners at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Central Washington University, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, and the University of California, San Diego - UCSD), data management, access and archiving, and advanced cyberinfrastructure. PBO sensor systems include 1,100 continuously operating GPS stations, 79 borehole geophysical sites (with a combination of strainmeters, tiltmeters, seismometers, pore pressure gauges, and meteorological sensors), and 6 long baseline strainmeters. Imaging data acquired for EarthScope include large volumes of satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and airborne LiDAR data. Core data products such as daily GPS position time series and derived crustal motion velocities have been augmented with real-time data streams and positions calculated every second from 367 PBO stations. Higher rate (5 Hz) data files are available for applications such as GPS seismology. Efforts are underway with UCSD to integrate GPS and accelerometers at a subset of PBO sites to increase the reliability and capability of the observations. These observations have utility for research and hazards mitigation. Ingenious methods of GPS data analysis, developed by the University of Colorado and the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, measure snow depth, near surface soil moisture, and vegetation. Along with atmospheric water vapor estimates, these products are expanding the utility of the data into atmospheric, environmental, ecological and soil sciences. Another new PBO product, hydrologic loading models derived from the NASA Global Land Data Assimilation System, is available for correcting GPS time series and hydrologic studies. To facilitate discovery and access of these extensive, diverse, and distributed data collections, UNAVCO has led collaborative efforts to develop web services and federated query capabilities for GPS, LiDAR and SAR. These services form the foundations for global integration projects such as EarthCube, GEO Geohazard Supersites and Natural Laboratories, and COOPEUS. In order to further curation and enhance access and processing capabilities, UNAVCO is exploring cloud computing and storage with UCSD and Amazon that will increase capacity over the next five years. Finally, with the rich set of data and services offered from PBO comes the need to help users better understand data techniques, observations, and quality. To serve this need, UNAVCO is enhancing online resources and, with its community partners, will continue to develop technical short courses and workshops.

  16. EarthScope's Plate Boundary Observatory as the Mother of Invention (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blewitt, G.; Hammond, W. C.; Kreemer, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) component of EarthScope includes a network of over 1,100 permanent, continuously operating GPS stations. After 5 years of site selection, permitting, and construction, the network was completed in 2008. Having such an unprecedented number of high quality stations in western North America has enabled us to image geology in action, as it happens, such as contemporary uplift of the Sierra Nevada, and block rotation in the Walker Lane. Yet, when PBO was in its planning stages, questions were raised as to whether GPS analysis could keep up with the flood of data, while producing results with the highest achievable accuracy. The general consensus was that the challenge would be met by a combination of innovative data processing methods together with the inevitable progress in computer speed and capacity. Various innovations made by the geodetic community over the last decade have enabled massive operational processing of GPS data with high accuracy. For example, now in 2013, the Nevada Geodetic Laboratory operationally produces position time series and quality assurance data from all ~7,000 GPS geodetic stations in the world that make data publicly available. Of these stations, 4,000 have daily time series updated the next day, and 2,000 have 5-minute time series updated within 1-2 hours of real time. The RMS precision of daily positions for well-sited stations are at the level of 1-2 mm horizontal, and 3-6 mm vertical in the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). For 5-minute positions, the precision is at the level of 6-12 mm horizontal, and 15-30 mm vertical. Here we review some of the innovations that have made all of this possible, which were in part driven by challenges presented by EarthScope. First of all, at the data processing level, much creative effort went into making computer processing time scale linearly with the number of GPS stations. The Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique invented in 1997 has been significantly enhanced recently by techniques to resolve integer-cycle ambiguities in the GPS carrier phase data for single stations. PPP with ambiguity resolution now delivers positioning as precise as full-network processing using differenced data, but with processing time that scales linearly with the number of stations. PPP depends critically on accurate GPS orbit and clock modeling and estimation, which in turn depends on the International GNSS Service (IGS) and its ~500-station global network. IGS products have continued to improve over the last decade as a result of innovation in observable modeling, such as the introduction of antenna calibrations, and new satellite force models. At the foundation of this interconnected geodetic system is the ITRF, which depends critically on the synergy of various space-based geodetic techniques, and the IERS Conventions, which ensure accurate models and overall consistency between analysis centers. This 'global geodetic observing system' is monumental in scale, and involves the hard operational work, research and development of the global geodetic community. Indeed, it is the improvements of this system by the innovations of the geodetic community that has enabled EarthScope to meet its scientific requirements.

  17. Late Mesozoic- Cenozoic plate boundaries in the North Atlantic – Arctic: Quantitative reconstructions using Hellinger criterion in GPlates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Carmen; Watson, Robin; Cirbus, Juraj

    2015-04-01

    Cretaceous extension that resulted in the formation of several sedimentary basins along the North American and western and southwestern Greenland margin was followed by seafloor spreading in the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. Controversy regarding the timing of the oldest oceanic crust in these basins spanned more than 25 years and it is still not resolved due to the complexity of the margins and non-uniqueness of potential field data interpretation. Here we revisit the geophysical data (in particular the magnetic and gravity data) available for the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay in order to identify the age of oceanic crust and infer new parameters that can be used for quantitative kinematic reconstructions. We identify chrons 20 to 29 for the central part of the basin. For the crust formed near the extinct spreading ridge we have modelled chrons 19 to 15 assuming an ultraslow spreading rate. Oceanic crust older than chron 29 is uncertain and may be part of a transitional crust that possibly contains other type of crust or exhumed mantle. The new magnetic anomaly identifications were inverted using the Hellinger (1981) criterion of fit. In this method the magnetic data are regarded as points on two conjugate isochrons consisting of great circle segments. This method has been extensively used for kinematic reconstructions since Royer and Chang (1991) first implemented it for quantitative plate tectonics, and is now available as a new interactive tool in the open-source software GPlates (www.gplates.org). The GPlates Hellinger tool lets the user interactively generate a best-fit rotation pole to a series of segmented magnetic picks. The fitting and determination of uncertainties are based on the FORTRAN program hellinger1 (Chang, 1988; Hellinger, 1981; Hanna and Chang, 1990); Royer and Chang, 1991). Input data can be viewed and adjusted both tabularly and graphically, and the best fit can be viewed and tested on the GPlates globe. The new set of rotations and their uncertainties are combined with a regional model and used to infer the plate boundaries during the formation of Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. Challenges for establishing the continuation of these plate boundaries the Arctic domain are also discussed. References Chang, T. (1988), Estimating the relative rotation of two tectonic plates from boundary crossings, J. Am. Stat. Assoc., 83, 1178-1183. Hellinger, S. J. (1981), The uncertainties of finite rotations in plate tectonics, J Geophys Res, 86, 9312-9318. Hanna, M.S and T. Chang (1990), On graphically representing the confidence region for an unknown rotation in three dimensions. Computers & Geosciences 16 (2), 163-194. Royer, J. Y., and T. Chang (1991), Evidence for Relative Motions between the Indian and Australian Plates during the Last 20 My from Plate Tectonic Reconstructions - Implications for the Deformation of the Indo-Australian Plate, J Geophys Res, 96(B7), 11779-11802.

  18. Free Vibration Analysis of Patch Repaired Plates with a Through Crack by p-Convergent Layerwise Element

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jae S.; Yang, Seung H.; Woo, Kwang S.

    2014-01-01

    The high-order layerwise element models have been used for damaged plates and shells in the presence of singularities such as crack, cutout, and delamination. In this study, the extension of a proposed finite element model has been tested for free vibration analysis of composite laminated systems. For the elements, three-dimensional displacement fields can be captured by layer-by-layer representation. For the elements, higher-order shape functions are derived by combination of one- and two-dimensional shape functions based on higher-order Lobatto shape functions, not using pure higher-order three-dimensional shape functions. The present model can relieve difficulty of aspect ratios in modeling very thin thickness of bonding layer. For verification of the model, natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes are calculated and then compared with reference values for uncracked and cracked plates. Also, the vibration characteristics of one-sided patch repaired plates with a through internal crack are investigated with respect to variation of crack length, size and thickness of patch, and shear modulus of adhesive, respectively. PMID:25215321

  19. Free vibration analysis of patch repaired plates with a through crack by p-convergent layerwise element.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jae S; Yang, Seung H; Woo, Kwang S

    2014-01-01

    The high-order layerwise element models have been used for damaged plates and shells in the presence of singularities such as crack, cutout, and delamination. In this study, the extension of a proposed finite element model has been tested for free vibration analysis of composite laminated systems. For the elements, three-dimensional displacement fields can be captured by layer-by-layer representation. For the elements, higher-order shape functions are derived by combination of one- and two-dimensional shape functions based on higher-order Lobatto shape functions, not using pure higher-order three-dimensional shape functions. The present model can relieve difficulty of aspect ratios in modeling very thin thickness of bonding layer. For verification of the model, natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes are calculated and then compared with reference values for uncracked and cracked plates. Also, the vibration characteristics of one-sided patch repaired plates with a through internal crack are investigated with respect to variation of crack length, size and thickness of patch, and shear modulus of adhesive, respectively. PMID:25215321

  20. Volcanism in response to plate flexure.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Naoto; Takahashi, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Junji; Abe, Natsue; Ingle, Stephanie P; Kaneoka, Ichiro; Hirata, Takafumi; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Ishii, Teruaki; Ogawa, Yujiro; Machida, Shiki; Suyehiro, Kiyoshi

    2006-09-01

    Volcanism on Earth is known to occur in three tectonic settings: divergent plate boundaries (such as mid-ocean ridges), convergent plate boundaries (such as island arcs), and hot spots. We report volcanism on the 135 million-year-old Pacific Plate not belonging to any of these categories. Small alkalic volcanoes form from small percent melts and originate in the asthenosphere, as implied by their trace element geochemistry and noble gas isotopic compositions. We propose that these small volcanoes erupt along lithospheric fractures in response to plate flexure during subduction. Minor extents of asthenospheric melting and the volcanoes' tectonic alignment and age progression in the direction opposite to that of plate motion provide evidence for the presence of a small percent melt in the asthenosphere. PMID:16873612

  1. Seismicity of the Indo-Australian/Solomon Sea Plate boundary in the Southeast Papua region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripper, I. D.

    1982-08-01

    Seismicity and earthquake focal mechanism plots of the Southeast Papua and Woodlark Basin region for the period January 1960 to May 1979 show that: (a) the West Woodlark Basin spreading centre extends from the deep West Woodlark Basin, through Dawson Strait into Goodenough Bay, Southeast Papua; (b) a southeast seismic trend in the West Woodlark Basin is associated with a left-lateral transform fault, but a gap exists between this zone and the seismic East Woodlark Basin spreading centre; (c) Southeast Papua Seismicity divides into a shallow earthquake zone in which the earthquakes occur mainly in the northeast side of the Owen Stanley Range, and an intermediate depth southwest dipping Benioff zone which extends almost from Mt. Lamington to Goroka. The Benioff zone indicates the presence of a southwest dipping slab of Solomon Sea Plate beneath the Indo-Australian Plate in the Southeast Papua and Ramu-Markham Valley region. This subduction zone has collided with the New Britain subduction zone of the Solomon Sea Plate along the Ramu-Markham Valley. The Solomon Sea Plate is now hanging suspended in the form of an arch beneath Ramu-Markham Valley, inhibiting further subduction beneath Southeast Papua.

  2. Discovering Plate Boundaries in Data-Integrated Environments: Preservice Teachers' Conceptualization and Implementation of Scientific Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sezen-Barrie, Asli; Moore, Joel; Roig, Cara E.

    2015-01-01

    Drawn from the norms and rules of their fields, scientists use variety of practices, such as asking questions and arguing based on evidence, to engage in research that will contribute to our understanding of Earth and beyond. In this study, we explore how preservice teachers' learn to teach scientific practices while teaching plate tectonic…

  3. STRUCTURAL MODEL OF THE PANAMA - NORTH ANDES PLATE BOUNDARY ZONE FROM REMOTE SENSING, GEOLOGIC MAPPING AND SEISMIC TOMOGRAPHY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, O.; Vargas, G.; Montes, L. A.; Molano, J. C.; Kammer, A.; Briceño, L. A.; Vargas-Jimenez, C. A.

    2009-12-01

    To advance in the understanding of the tectonic setting of the Panama - North Andres plate boundary zone, an integrated research project is being carried out, including remote sensing, field geology, gravity and magnetic surveys and passive seismic tomography. This program includes the geologic interpretation of C band -RADARSAT, X-band TERRASAR and L-band ALOS PALSAR images with fieldwork verification. The Panama microplate is characterized by intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks or cretaceous and tertiary ages, respectively, while the North Andes is formed by a thick sedimentary sequence of tertiary age. Thick quaternary deposits of the Atrato river and the Gulf of Uraba are covering the plate boundary zone. A seismological network with 25 triaxial broadband stations has been implemented to monitor the seismic activity since January 2009 to present. The registered seismic events have been processed including the determination of first arrival of P and S waves and their wave attenuation, Regional stress and strain estimates and seismic anisotropy are being calculated. Three structural trends are identified: a) NE structures associated with main regional faults b) EW and NE structures associated with secondary regional faults and c) local structures and lineaments associated with major fractures. Mud volcanoes were detected in the northeastern part of the basin. Some of them aligned with NW and EW structures.

  4. The Plate Boundary Observatory Cascadia Network: Development and Installation of a Large Scale Real-time GPS Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, K. E.; Blume, F.; Berglund, H. T.; Feaux, K.; Gallaher, W. W.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Mattioli, G. S.; Mencin, D.

    2014-12-01

    The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), through a NSF-ARRA supplement, has enhanced the geophysical infrastructure in in the Pacific Northwest by upgrading a total of 282 Plate Boundary Observatory GPS stations to allow the collection and distribution of high-rate (1 Hz), low-latency (<1 s) data streams (RT-GPS). These upgraded stations supplemented the original 100 RT-GPS stations in the PBO GPS network. The addition of the new RT-GPS sites in Cascadia should spur new volcano and earthquake research opportunities in an area of great scientific interest and high geophysical hazard. Streaming RT-GPS data will enable researchers to detect and investigate strong ground motion during large geophysical events, including a possible plate-interface earthquake, which has implications for earthquake hazard mitigation. A Mw 6.9 earthquake occurred on March 10, 2014, off the coast of northern California. As a response, UNAVCO downloaded high-rate GPS data from Plate Boundary Observatory stations within 500 km of the epicenter of the event, providing a good test of network performance.In addition to the 282 stations upgraded to real-time, 22 new meteorological instruments were added to existing PBO stations. Extensive testing of BGAN satellite communications systems has been conducted to support the Cascadia RT-GPS upgrades and the installation of three BGAN satellite fail over systems along the Cascadia margin will allow for the continuation of data flow in the event of a loss of primary communications during in a large geophysical event or other interruptions in commercial cellular networks. In summary, with these additional upgrades in the Cascadia region, the PBO RT-GPS network will increase to 420 stations. Upgrades to the UNAVCO data infrastructure included evaluation and purchase of the Trimble Pivot Platform, servers, and additional hardware for archiving the high rate data, as well as testing and implementation of GLONASS and Trimble RTX positioning on the receivers. UNAVCO staff is working closely with the UNAVCO community to develop data standards, protocols, and a science plan for the use of RT-GPS data.

  5. The Plate Boundary Observatory Cascadia Network: Development and Installation of a Large Scale Real-time GPS Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, K. E.; Blume, F.; Berglund, H. T.; Dittman, T.; Feaux, K.; Gallaher, W. W.; Mattioli, G. S.; Mencin, D.; Walls, C. P.

    2013-12-01

    The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), through a NSF-ARRA supplement, has enhanced the geophysical infrastructure in in the Pacific Northwest by upgrading 232 Plate Boundary Observatory GPS stations to allow the collection and distribution of high-rate (1 Hz), low-latency (<1 s) data streams (RT-GPS). These upgraded stations supplemented the original 100 RT-GPS stations in the PBO GPS network. The addition of the new RT-GPS sites in the Pacific Northwest should spur new volcano and earthquake research opportunities in an area of great scientific interest and high geophysical hazard. Streaming RT-GPS data will enable researchers to detect and investigate strong ground motion during large geophysical events, including a possible plate-interface earthquake, which has implications for earthquake hazard mitigation. A total of 282 PBO stations were upgraded and added to the UNAVCO real-time GPS system, along with addition of 22 new meteorological instruments to existing PBO stations. Extensive testing of BGAN satellite communications systems has been conducted to support the Cascadia RT-GPS upgrades and the installation of three BGAN satellite fail over systems along the Cascadia margin will allow for the continuation of data flow in the event of a loss of primary communications during in a large geophysical event or other interruptions in commercial cellular networks. In summary, with these additional upgrades in the Cascadia region, the PBO RT-GPS network will increase to 420 stations. Upgrades to UNAVCO's data infrastructure included evaluation and purchase of the Trimble Pivot Platform, servers, and additional hardware for archiving the high rate data. UNAVCO staff is working closely with the UNAVCO community to develop data standards, protocols, and a science plan for the use of RT-GPS data.

  6. The boundary layers of an unsteady separated stagnation-point flow of a viscous incompressible fluid over a moving plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dholey, S.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we have investigated the boundary layer analysis of an unsteady separated stagnation-point (USSP) flow of an incompressible viscous fluid over a flat plate, moving in its own plane with a given speed {{u}0}(t). The effects of the accelerating parameter a and unsteadiness parameter ? on the flow characteristics are explored numerically. Our analysis, based on the similarity solution of the boundary layer equations, indicates that the governing ordinary differential equation, which is non-linear in nature, has either a unique solution, dual solutions or multiple solutions under a negative unsteadiness parameter ? with a given value of a. Whatever the number of solutions may be, these solutions are of two types: one is the attached flow solution (AFS) and the other is the reverse flow solution (RFS). A novel result which emerges from our analysis is the relationship between a and ?. This relationship essentially gives us the conditions needed for the solutions that exhibit flow separation (where (a+? )\\lt 0) and those conditions that exhibit only flow reattachment (where (a+? )\\gt 0). Another noteworthy result which arises from the present analysis is the existing number of non-zero stagnation-points inside the flow for the given values of a and ?. It is found that this number is exactly two when the velocity gradient at the wall is positive; otherwise this number will only be one. For a stationary plate ({{u}0}(t)=0), this USSP flow is found to be separated for all values of a and ? in both cases of AFS and RFS. Finally, we have also established that in the case of AFS flow over a stationary plate, no stagnation-point exists inside the flow, even though the flow becomes separated for all values of a and ?.

  7. Along-strike variation of strain partition modes: a case study in a regime of oblique plate convergence (External Betics, northern branch of the Gibraltar Arc)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanyá, Juan Carlos; Crespo-Blanc, Ana; Díaz-Azpiroz, Manuel; Expósito, Inmaculada; Torcal, Federico; Vicente, Pérez; Booth-Rea, Guillermo

    2010-05-01

    The Betic and Rif chains shape the northern and southern branches of the Gibraltar Arc in the westernmost Mediterranean. During the last 25 Ma, the Gibraltar Arc evolved in a kinematic setting of NNW-SSE to NW-SE convergence between Europe and Africa combined with a relative westward arc migration. Accordingly, at a first glance, the northern branch of the Gibraltar Arc as a whole could be considered as a dextral transpressive zone. Nevertheless, within the Betics, significant variations of structural associations can be observed, in terms of areal distribution and timing, which denotes that strain partition occurred. In particular, this is the case for its external wedge. Indeed, from west to east (from Gibraltar to Granada areas), three main structural domains can be identified: a) The external wedge situated in the closest part of the Arc, the Western Gibraltar Arc, is characterized by outward radial arc-perpendicular shortening (folds and thrusts, with a W to NW dominant vergence) and coeval arc-parallel stretching. This latter is accomplished by normal fault systems striking nearly orthogonal to the main orogenic trend, conjugate strike-slip fault systems and distributed minor structures. This deformation is coetaneous with back-arc extension in the inner zone of the Gibraltar Arc system, the Alboran Domain. Nevertheless, most of the recognized extensional fault systems in central and western parts of the external wedge are due to arc-parallel stretching instead of back-arc extension. Pliocene (mainly open folds and normal faults) to recent deformation (assessed from earthquake data) seems to follow a similar pattern. b) The "recess" zone, which links the Western Gibraltar Arc and the NE-SW to ENE-WSW trending central Betics, corresponds to the area where the structural trend line pattern of the external wedge is concave-to-the foreland. One of its most conspicuous features is situated along the boundary with the Betics internal zone (the Alboran Domain). It consists of a highly partitioned, E-W directed, dextral transpressive shear zone, built up by a set of an echelon NE-SW trending relieves, in turn affected by an array of NW-SE oriented normal conjugate faults. Numerical kinematic models suggest that their extrusion was nearly vertical and controlled by the pure shear component, as the simple shear component was mostly localized at the shear zone walls. Coeval extension is predicted by the model. This situation is still active, as earthquake focal solution data from this region indicate that dextral strike-slip earthquakes (NW-SE trending) are dominant, although they coexist with a complex network of thrust and normal fault earthquakes. c) In the central Betics, NE-SW to ENE-WSW trending, shortening in the external wedge was accommodated by folding and thrusting. The variation of the trend line pattern between the central zone and the "recess" zone has been reproduced through analogue experiments of a rigid, concave indenter (the Alboran Domain) pushing-from-behind a sand pack floored by silicone (the Triassic evaporites). The main shortening occurred earlier than in the Western Gibraltar Arc. In this zone, extensional faulting accommodating arc-parallel stretching is nearly absent and large-scale strike-slip faults striking parallel to the main structural trend line developed. The analysis of the variation of along strike strain partition modes in the northern branch of the Gibraltar Arc shows that several structural domains can be characterized within its external wedge, which indicates strong horizontal and vertical decoupling at upper crustal levels. Although situated in a regime of oblique plate convergence as a whole, strain partition modes indicate that only the E-W directed segment of the "recess" zone of the Gibraltar Arc external wedge and part of the Central Betics have structural associations that reveal a transpressive character. Acknowledgements: This study was supported by projects CGL2009-11384, RNM 3713, RNM 215 and CONSOLIDER-INGENIO2010-CSD2006-00041.

  8. Continental Subduction and Subduction Initiation Leading to Extensional Exhumation of Ultra-High Pressure Rocks During Ongoing Plate Convergence in Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, W. R.; Petersen, K. D.

    2014-12-01

    Subduction of continental rocks is necessary to produce ultra-high pressure (UHP) rocks but the mechanism bringing them to the surface is disputed. A major question is whether this involves fairly small diapirs of crust that move up through the mantle or it involves an entire subducted plate that undergoes coherent 'reverse subduction' (sometimes called 'eduction'). Both mechanisms have been invoked to explain the only known region of on-going exhumation of UHP rocks, on the D'Entrecasteaux Islands of Papua New Guinea. Ductile flow fabrics in the island rocks have been used to argue for a diapiric model while constraints on the plate kinematics of the region require relatively large (>100 km) amounts of recent (>6 Myr) extension, supporting eduction as a primary mechanism. A self-consistent thermo-mechanical model of continental subduction shows that eduction can be accompanied by some ductile flow within the crust. Also we show, that subduction and stacking of continental crust can cause a subduction zone to lock up and lead to subduction initiation elsewhere. When this happens the region of earlier continental subduction can reverse direction causing exhumation of rocks from depth of ~100 km followed by localized extension and plate spreading. This can occur even if a region is in overall convergence. Applied to New Guinea our results are consistent with earlier suggestions that extension of the Woodlark Basin was caused by the initiation of the New Britain Trench, as indicated on the attached figure. We suggest that this subduction initiation event triggered eduction that led to exposure of the D'Entrcasteaux Islands and exhumation of the UHP rocks there. Our numerical results are broadly consistent with the recently refined seismic structure of the region around the islands. The model implies that the present-day basement of the ~70 km wide Goodenough Bay, south of the islands, was subducted then exhumed. This can be tested by drilling.

  9. A review of structural patterns and melting processes in the Archean craton of West Greenland: Evidence for crustal growth at convergent plate margins as opposed to non-uniformitarian models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polat, Ali; Wang, Lu; Appel, Peter W. U.

    2015-11-01

    The Archean craton of West Greenland consists of many fault-bounded Eoarchean to Neoarchean tectonic terranes (crustal blocks). These tectonic terranes are composed mainly of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) gneisses, granitic gneisses, metavolcanic-dominated supracrustal belts, layered anorthositic complexes, and late- to post-tectonic granites. Rock assemblages and geochemical signatures in these terranes suggest that they represent fragments of dismembered oceanic island arcs, consisting mainly of TTG plutons, tholeiitic to calc-alkaline basalts, boninites, picrites, and cumulate layers of ultramafic rocks, gabbros, leucogabbros and anorthosites, with minor sedimentary rocks. The structural characteristics of the terrane boundaries are consistent with the assembly of these island arcs through modern style of horizontal tectonics, suggesting that the Archean craton of West Greenland grew at convergent plate margins. Several supracrustal belts that occur at or near the terrane boundaries are interpreted as relict accretionary prisms. The terranes display fold and thrust structures and contain numerous 10 cm to 20 m wide bifurcating, ductile shear zones that are characterized by a variety of structures including transposed and redistributed isoclinal folds. Geometrically these structures are similar to those occurring on regional scales, suggesting that the Archean craton of West Greenland can be interpreted as a continental scale accretionary complex, such as the Paleozoic Altaids. Melting of metavolcanic rocks during tectonic thickening in the arcs played an important role in the generation of TTGs. Non-uniformitarian models proposed for the origin of Archean terranes have no analogs in the geologic record and are inconsistent with structural, lithological, petrological and geochemical data collected from Archean terranes over the last four decades. The style of deformation and generation of felsic rocks on outcrop scales in the Archean craton of West Greenland and the Mesozoic Sulu orogenic belt of eastern China are similar, consistent with the formation of Archean continental crust by subduction zone processes.

  10. Hydromagnetic natural convection flow between vertical parallel plates with time-periodic boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adesanya, S. O.; Oluwadare, E. O.; Falade, J. A.; Makinde, O. D.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the free convective flow of magnetohydrodynamic fluid through a channel with time periodic boundary condition is investigated by taking the effects of Joule dissipation into consideration. Based on simplifying assumptions, the coupled governing equations are reduced to a set of nonlinear boundary valued problem. Approximate solutions are obtained by using semi-analytical Adomian decomposition method. The effect of pertinent parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature distribution, Nusselt number and skin friction are presented graphically and discussed. The result of the computation shows that an increase in the magnetic field intensity has significant influence on the fluid flow.

  11. Turbulent Friction in the Boundary Layer of a Flat Plate in a Two-Dimensional Compressible Flow at High Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankl, F.; Voishel, V.

    1943-01-01

    In the present report an investigation is made on a flat plate in a two-dimensional compressible flow of the effect of compressibility and heating on the turbulent frictional drag coefficient in the boundary layer of an airfoil or wing radiator. The analysis is based on the Prandtl-Karman theory of the turbulent boundary later and the Stodola-Crocco, theorem on the linear relation between the total energy of the flow and its velocity. Formulas are obtained for the velocity distribution and the frictional drag law in a turbulent boundary later with the compressibility effect and heat transfer taken into account. It is found that with increase of compressibility and temperature at full retardation of the flow (the temperature when the velocity of the flow at a given point is reduced to zero in case of an adiabatic process in the gas) at a constant R (sub x), the frictional drag coefficient C (sub f) decreased, both of these factors acting in the same sense.

  12. Transients in Pacific/North American Plate Boundary Deformation: Synthesis and Modeling of GPS and Borehole Strain Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.; Frey, H. V. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This is the Final Technical Report on research conducted between 1 June 1997 and 14 September 2001 entitled "Transients in Pacific/North American plate boundary deformation: Synthesis and modeling of GPS and borehole strain observations." As the project title implies, our effort involved a geodetic study of strain transients, i.e., temporal variations in deformation rates, that occur within plate boundary zones and their relationship to earthquakes and plate motions. Important transients occur during and following large earthquakes, and there are also strain transients not apparently associated with earthquakes. A particularly intriguing class of transients, for which there is a modest but growing list of examples, are preseismic anomalies. Such earthquake precursors, if further documented and understood, would have obvious importance for earthquake hazard mitigation. Because the timescales for these diverse transients range over at least 6 orders of magnitude (minutes to years), no single geodetic technique is optimum. We therefore undertook a systematic synthesis of Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) and borehole strainmeter data in three areas in California where there are adequate numbers of both types of instruments (or their equivalent): the San Francisco Bay region (within the Bay Area Regional Deformation network), southern California (within the Southern California Integrated GPS Network), and Parkfield (where a two-color laser system provides a proxy for continuous GPS measurements). An integral component of our study was the elucidation of the physical mechanisms by which such transients occur and propagate. We therefore initiated the development of multiple forward models, using two independent approaches. In the first, we explored the response to specified earthquake slip in viscoelastic models that incorporated failure criteria and the geometry of major faults in California. In the second approach, we examined the dynamical response of a complex rheological medium to the application of a far-field stress imposed by plate motions. The forward models were used both to gain insight into the range of strain transients to be expected under different assumed mechanical conditions and to develop representations for strain fields that allow GPS, borehole, and other strain data to be combined in a self-consistent, yet well-determined, manner. The models also provided a basis for hypothesis testing, by which data from a strain transient well characterized by GPS and borehole observations were utilized to distinguish among competing candidates for the causative physical mechanism and the governing physical characteristics. During the three years of this project, continued to a fourth year through a no-cost extension of the grant, we published 14 papers and presented or co-authored 37 papers at national scientific meetings.

  13. Characterization of noise amplifiers with global singular modes: the case of the leading-edge flat-plate boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipp, Denis; Marquet, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    This article deals with the linear dynamics of a transitional boundary layer subject to two-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting instabilities. We consider a flat plate including the leading edge, characterized by a Reynolds number based on the length of the plate equal to Re = 6 × 105, inducing a displacement thickness-based Reynolds number of 1,332 at the end of the plate. The global linearized Navier-Stokes equations only display stable eigenvalues, and the associated eigen-vectors are known to poorly represent the dynamics of such open flows. Therefore, we resort to an input-output approach by considering the singular value decomposition of the global resolvent. We then obtain a series of singular values, an associated orthonormal basis representing the forcing (the so-called optimal forcings) as well as an orthonormal basis representing the response (the so-called optimal responses). The objective of this paper is to analyze these spatial structures and to closely relate their spatial downstream evolution to the Orr and Tollmien-Schlichting mechanisms. Analysis of the spatio-frequential diagrams shows that the optimal forcings and responses are respectively localized, for all frequencies, near the upstream neutral point (branch I) and the downstream neutral point (branch II). It is also shown that the spatial growth of the dominant optimal response favorably compares with the e N method in regions where the dominant optimal forcing is small. Moreover, thanks to an energetic input-output approach, it is shown that this spatial growth is solely due to intrinsic amplifying mechanisms related to the Orr and Tollmien-Schlichting mechanisms, while the spatial growth due to the externally supplied power by the dominant optimal forcing is negligible even in regions where the dominant optimal forcing is strong. The energetic input-output approach also yields a general method to assess the strength of the instability in amplifier flows. It is based on a ratio comparing two quantities of same physical dimension, the mean-fluctuating kinetic energy flux of the dominant optimal response across some boundary and the supplied mean external power by the dominant optimal forcing. For the present boundary-layer flow, we have computed this amplification parameter for each frequency and discussed the results with respect to the Orr and Tollmien-Schlichting mechanisms.

  14. Hypersonic Laminar Boundary Layer Velocimetry with Discrete Roughness on a Flat Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bathel, Brett; Danehy, Paul M.; Inman, Jennifer A.; Watkins, A. Neal; Jones, Stephen B.; Lipford, William E.; Goodman, Kyle Z.; Ivey, Christopher B.; Goyne, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    Laminar boundary layer velocity measurements are made on a 10-degree half-angle wedge in a Mach 10 flow. Two types of discrete boundary layer trips were used to perturb the boundary layer gas. The first was a 2-mm tall, 4-mm diameter cylindrical trip. The second was a scaled version of the Orbiter Boundary Layer Transition (BLT) Detailed Test Objective (DTO) trip. Both 1-mm and 2.5-mm tall BLT DTO trips were tested. Additionally, side-view and plan-view axial boundary layer velocity measurements were made in the absence of these tripping devices. The free-stream unit Reynolds numbers tested for the cylindrical trips were 1.7x10(exp 6)/m and 3.3x10(exp 6)/m. The free-stream unit Reynolds number tested for the BLT DTO trips was 1.7x10(exp 6)/m. The angle of attack was kept at approximately 5-degrees for most of the tests resulting in a Mach number of approximately 8.3. These combinations of unit Reynolds numbers and angle of attack resulted in laminar flowfields. To study the precision of the measurement technique, the angle of attack was varied during one run. Nitric-oxide (NO) molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV) was used to obtain averaged axial velocity values and associated uncertainties. These uncertainties are as low as 20 m/s. An interline, progressive scan CCD camera was used to obtain separate images of the initial reference and shifted NO molecules that had been tagged by the laser. The CCD configuration allowed for sub-microsecond sequential acquisition of both images. The maximum planar spatial resolution achieved for the side-view velocity measurements was 0.07-mm in the wall-normal direction by 1.45-mm in the streamwise direction with a spatial depth of 0.5-mm. For the plan-view measurements, the maximum planar spatial resolution in the spanwise and streamwise directions was 0.69-mm by 1.28-mm, respectively, with a spatial depth of 0.5-mm. Temperature sensitive paint (TSP) measurements are provided to compliment the velocity data and to provide further insight into the behavior of the boundary layers. The experiments were performed at the NASA Langley Research Center 31-Inch Mach 10 Air tunnel.

  15. Wide-angle seismic constraints on the evolution of the deep San Andreas plate boundary by Mendocino triple junction migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hole, J.A.; Beaudoin, B.C.; Henstock, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Recent wide-angle seismic observations that constrain the existence and structure of a mafic layer in the lower crust place strong constraints on the evolution of the San Andreas plate boundary system in northern and central California. Northward migration of the Mendocino Triple Junction and the subducted Juan de Fuca lithospheric slab creates a gap under the continent in the new strike-slip system. This gap must be filled by either asthenospheric upwelling or a northward migrating slab attached to the Pacific plate. Both processes emplace a mafic layer, either magmatic underplating or oceanic crust, beneath the California Coast Ranges. A slab of oceanic lithosphere attached to the Pacific plate is inconsistent with the seismic observation that the strike-slip faults cut through the mafic layer to the mantle, detaching the layer from the Pacific plate. The layer could only be attached to the Pacific plate if large vertical offsets and other complex structures observed beneath several strike-slip faults are original oceanic structures that are not caused by the faults. Otherwise, if oceanic slabs exist beneath California, they do not migrate north to fill the growing slab gap. The extreme heat pulse created by asthenospheric upwelling is inconsistent with several constraints from the seismic data, including a shallower depth to the slab gap than is predicted by heat flow models, seismic velocity and structure that are inconsistent with melting or metamorphism of the overlying silicic crust, and a high seismic velocity in the upper mantle. Yet either the Pacific slab model or the asthenospheric upwelling model must be correct. While the mafic material in the lower crust could have been emplaced prior to triple junction migration, the deeper slab gap must still be filled. A preexisting mafic layer does not reduce the inconsistencies of the Pacific slab model. Such material could, however, compensate for the decrease in mafic magma that would be produced if asthenospheric upwelling occurred at a lower temperature. These low temperatures, however, may be inconsistent with asthenospheric rheology.

  16. Crustal Buoyancies Dominate over Plate Boundary Effects in the U.S. Basin and Range: The Requirement of Weak Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, E. C.; Holt, W. E.; Flesch, L. M.; Haines, A. J.

    2008-12-01

    We model the long-term dynamics of the seismogenic layer within the plate boundary zone of western North America, where the relevant time scale is 105 -- 106 years. We utilize a forward dynamic modeling approach, where the body force distributions, inferred lateral variations in effective viscosity, power-law behavior, and the known far-field velocity boundary conditions are defined. Body forces are the differences in gravity potential energy per unit area (GPE), calculated by performing depth integration of vertical stress from the surface down to a common depth reference (20 km below sea level). In our treatment of the seismogenic layer, depth-integrated viscosities are proportional to the assumed long-term friction on faults (expected deviatoric stress at fault failure) and inversely proportional to the long-term strain rates (the known fault slip rates). The velocity boundary conditions are defined using PA-NA, CO-NA, RI-NA, and JF-NA plate motion estimates. Self-consistent dynamic strain rate tensor solutions to the force-balance equations were solved for and scored with kinematic strain rate tensor and velocity fields of western North America, obtained from a large set of highly detailed Quaternary fault observations (e.g., United States Geologic Survey Quaternary fault and fold data base of the United States). We use fault data from present-day to 750 ka to investigate models using a range of long-term fault friction coefficients from 0.02 -- 1.0 under hydrostatic pore pressure conditions. Evaluation of fitness of the dynamic solutions to deformation indicators is achieved using two different measures. In one measure, the forward dynamic strain rate tensor styles are scored by misfit to the kinematic strain rate tensor styles inferred from Kostrov summation of Quaternary fault observations. In a second measure, the dynamic model velocity fields are scored via reduced chi-square misfit with the long-term kinematic model velocity field defined by Quaternary fault observations. Models constructed with low fault friction coefficients (? < 0.20) achieve a vastly superior fit to Quaternary fault observations than do models with intermediate or high fault friction coefficients. Successful models require a weak and distributed fault fabric in which the deviatoric stresses associated with internal crustal buoyancies in the Basin and Range Province dominate over deviatoric stresses associated with velocity boundary conditions. The deformation field in western North America therefore suggests and supports the premise of a sufficiently dense fabric of faults that possess low long-term friction coefficients of 0.10--0.20.

  17. Double Diffusive Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Mixed Convective Slip Flow along a Radiating Moving Vertical Flat Plate with Convective Boundary Condition

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi, Mohammad M.; Kavyani, Neda; Abelman, Shirley; Uddin, Mohammed J.; Freidoonimehr, Navid

    2014-01-01

    In this study combined heat and mass transfer by mixed convective flow along a moving vertical flat plate with hydrodynamic slip and thermal convective boundary condition is investigated. Using similarity variables, the governing nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The transformed equations are then solved using a semi-numerical/analytical method called the differential transform method and results are compared with numerical results. Close agreement is found between the present method and the numerical method. Effects of the controlling parameters, including convective heat transfer, magnetic field, buoyancy ratio, hydrodynamic slip, mixed convective, Prandtl number and Schmidt number are investigated on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. In addition effects of different parameters on the skin friction factor, , local Nusselt number, , and local Sherwood number are shown and explained through tables. PMID:25343360

  18. Fluctuating pressures measured beneath a high-temperature, turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate at Mach number of 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrott, Tony L.; Jones, Michael G.; Albertson, Cindy W.

    1989-01-01

    Fluctuating pressures were measured beneath a Mach 5, turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate with an array of piezoresistive sensors. The data were obtained with a digital signal acquisition system during a test run of 4 seconds. Data sampling rate was such that frequency analysis up to 62.5 kHz could be performed. To assess in situ frequency response of the sensors, a specially designed waveguide calibration system was employed to measure transfer functions of all sensors and related instrumentation. Pressure time histories were approximated well by a Gaussian prohibiting distribution. Pressure spectra were very repeatable over the array span of 76 mm. Total rms pressures ranged from 0.0017 to 0.0046 of the freestream dynamic pressure. Streamwise, space-time correlations exhibited expected decaying behavior of a turbulence generated pressure field. Average convection speed was 0.87 of freestream velocity. The trendless behavior with sensor separation indicated possible systematic errors.

  19. Double diffusive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convective slip flow along a radiating moving vertical flat plate with convective boundary condition.

    PubMed

    Rashidi, Mohammad M; Kavyani, Neda; Abelman, Shirley; Uddin, Mohammed J; Freidoonimehr, Navid

    2014-01-01

    In this study combined heat and mass transfer by mixed convective flow along a moving vertical flat plate with hydrodynamic slip and thermal convective boundary condition is investigated. Using similarity variables, the governing nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The transformed equations are then solved using a semi-numerical/analytical method called the differential transform method and results are compared with numerical results. Close agreement is found between the present method and the numerical method. Effects of the controlling parameters, including convective heat transfer, magnetic field, buoyancy ratio, hydrodynamic slip, mixed convective, Prandtl number and Schmidt number are investigated on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. In addition effects of different parameters on the skin friction factor, [Formula: see text], local Nusselt number, [Formula: see text], and local Sherwood number [Formula: see text] are shown and explained through tables. PMID:25343360

  20. Mixed convection boundary layer flow over a moving vertical flat plate in an external fluid flow with viscous dissipation effect.

    PubMed

    Bachok, Norfifah; Ishak, Anuar; Pop, Ioan

    2013-01-01

    The steady boundary layer flow of a viscous and incompressible fluid over a moving vertical flat plate in an external moving fluid with viscous dissipation is theoretically investigated. Using appropriate similarity variables, the governing system of partial differential equations is transformed into a system of ordinary (similarity) differential equations, which is then solved numerically using a Maple software. Results for the skin friction or shear stress coefficient, local Nusselt number, velocity and temperature profiles are presented for different values of the governing parameters. It is found that the set of the similarity equations has unique solutions, dual solutions or no solutions, depending on the values of the mixed convection parameter, the velocity ratio parameter and the Eckert number. The Eckert number significantly affects the surface shear stress as well as the heat transfer rate at the surface. PMID:23577156

  1. Computational Study of a Plate Mounted Finite Cylinder: Aspect Ratio and Boundary Layer Thickness Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummer, Christopher J.

    The integration of protrusions on aircraft, whether they are antennas or sensor turrets, can impact both aircraft safety and performance. The protrusions vary in size and shape and where they are placed on the aircraft can greatly affect the flow around the structure. This work utilizes the power and adaptability of modern computational methods to analyze finite cylinders of various aspect ratios subjected to incoming flow of varying boundary layer thickness. The geometry and flow conditions for the analysis match a wind tunnel test completed by the University of Cincinnati in 2005. This flow is challenging to model computationally because the flow is largely separated and influenced by both ends of the cylinder. The four cylinders analyzed, labeled by their diameter and height in inches, are D2H5, D4H2, D4H5, and D4H10. These four cylinders were subjected to cross-flows with two different boundary layer thicknesses for a total of eight cases. The boundary layer thicknesses were 1.5" and 6.0". This work compared the computational results with both the wind tunnel results and with available literature. The results compared favorably with both and captured all primary flow features for this class of flows. Furthermore, the impacts of cylinder aspect ratio and boundary layer thickness were evident in the results. The lower the aspect ratio of the cylinder, the more the flow from the free-end dominates the wake. Higher aspect ratio cylinders can be divided into regions with juncture flow near the wall, Karman style shedding near the middle and free-end effects near the tip. This work also identifies a transitional cylinder aspect ratio where the flow transitions from segregated regions to being dominated by the free-end downwash. This work shows that modern computational methods are capable of modelling the complex flow about a finite cylinder and can provide valuable insight to aid in protrusion design and integration.

  2. Multiple major faults at the Japan Trench: Chemostratigraphy of the plate boundary at IODP Exp. 343: JFAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinowitz, Hannah S.; Savage, Heather M.; Plank, Terry; Polissar, Pratigya J.; Kirkpatrick, James D.; Rowe, Christie D.

    2015-08-01

    We determine the trace element stratigraphy of Site C0019, drilled during the Japan Fast Trench Drilling Project (JFAST) International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 343, to illuminate the structure of the plate boundary following the Tohoku-Oki earthquake of 2011. The stratigraphic units at the JFAST site are compared to undeformed Western Pacific sediments from two reference sites (Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1149 and Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 436). The trace element fingerprints in these reference sedimentary units can be correlated to individual JFAST samples. At the JFAST site, we find that the accretionary wedge and downgoing plate sediments in the core are composed primarily of Holocene to Eocene sediments. There are several age reversals and gaps within the sequence, consistent with multiple faults in the bottom 15 m of the JFAST core. Our results point to several candidate faults that could have slipped during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, in addition to the pelagic clay layer that has been proposed as the main décollement fault.

  3. Zero shear viscosity limit and boundary layer for the Navier-Stokes equations of compressible fluids between two horizontal parallel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wenshu; Qin, Xulong; Qu, Chengyuan

    2015-06-01

    We consider an initial-boundary problem for the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations of compressible fluids between two horizontal parallel plates, where heat conductivity ? may depend on both density ? and temperature ? such that ?(?, ?) ? ?1 ? constant > 0, ??, ? > 0. We prove the global existence of strong solutions for large data and justify the zero shear viscosity limit as the shear viscosity ? goes to zero. Moreover, we establish the value ?? with any ? ? (0, 1/2) for the boundary layer thickness.

  4. Hydrodynamic and hydroelastic analyses of a plate excited by the turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciappi, E.; Magionesi, F.; de Rosa, S.; Franco, F.

    2009-02-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the characterisation of wall-pressure fluctuations for surface ships is of great interest not only for military applications but also for civil marine vehicles. A ship model towed in a towing tank is used to perform pressure and structural measurements at high Reynolds numbers. This facility provides ideal flow conditions because background turbulence and noise are almost absent. Free surface effects are naturally included in the analysis, although in the particular section chosen for the present study do not have significant consequences on pressure spectra. Scaling laws for the power spectral density are identified providing the possibility to estimate pressure spectra for different flow conditions and in particular for full-scale applications. The range of validity of some theoretical models for the cross-spectral density representation is analysed by direct comparison with experimental data of wall-pressure fluctuations measured in streamwise and spanwise direction. In a second phase, an indirect validation is performed by comparing the measured vibrational response of an elastic plate inserted in the catamaran hull with that obtained numerically using, as a forcing function, the modelled pressure load. In general, marine structures are able to accept energy mainly from the sub-convective components of the pressure field because the typical bending wavenumber values are usually lower than the convective one; thus, a model that gives an accurate description of the phenomenon at low wavenumbers is needed. In this work, it is shown that the use of the Chase model for the description of the pressure field provides a satisfactory agreement between the numerical and the experimental response of the hull plate. These experimental data, although acquired at model scale, represent a significant test case also for the real ship problem.

  5. Evolutionary process of Beppu Bay in central Kyushu, Japan: a quantitative study of the basin-forming process controlled by plate convergence modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Yasuto; Kusumoto, Shigekazu; Takemura, Keiji

    2014-12-01

    This integrated tectonic study reveals the basin-forming and deforming processes on an active margin. Southwest Japan (SWJ) is an island arc under the influence of oblique subduction of the Philippine Sea plate, which has provoked dextral slips on the arc-bisecting Median Tectonic Line (MTL). Plio-/Pleistocene sediments in Beppu Bay, a tectonic depression at the westernmost portion of the MTL, are categorized into lower (5 ~ 0.7 Ma), upper (0.7 ~ 0.3 Ma), and an auxiliary uppermost (0.3 Ma ~ present) unit in ascending order. Detailed seismic interpretation demonstrates that major structures in the deep interior of the basin are an older half-graben under a strong N-S extensional regime and a younger pull-apart sag that developed in a right-stepping part of the MTL as a result of late Quaternary-enhanced strike-slip rates on the fault. Sediments within the pull-apart have been deformed by later inversion events as a contraction phase arose. Conspicuous deformation of the hanging wall of the low-angle detachment of the basin was successfully reproduced by numerical modeling. Based on a discrete element method, this suggests that structural differences in the deformed sedimentary layers are caused by differences in the dip angles of the faults. Remarkable temporal changes in tectonic regimes around Beppu Bay and other areas of SWJ are probably related to transient modes of convergence, including the migration of the Euler pole, of the Philippine Sea plate since ca. 6 Ma.

  6. Magmatism at the Eurasian-North American modern plate boundary: Constraints from alkaline volcanism in the Chersky Belt (Yakutia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschegg, Cornelius; Bizimis, Michael; Schneider, David; Akinin, Vyacheslav V.; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2011-07-01

    The Chersky seismic belt (NE-Russia) forms the modern plate boundary of the Eurasian-North American continental plate. The geodynamic evolution of this continent-continent setting is highly complex and remains a matter of debate, as the extent and influence of the Mid-Arctic Ocean spreading center on the North Asian continent since the Eocene remains unclear. The progression from a tensional stress regime to a modern day transpressional one in the Chersky seismic belt, makes the understanding even more complicated. The alkaline volcanism that has erupted along the Chersky range from Eocene through to the Recent can provide constraints on the geodynamic evolution of this continental boundary, however, the source and petrogenetic evolution of these volcanic rocks and their initiating mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied basanites of the central Chersky belt, which are thought to represent the first alkaline volcanic activity in the area, after initial opening of the Arctic Ocean basin. We present mineral and bulk rock geochemical data as well as Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopes of the alkaline suite of rocks combined with new precise K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating, and discuss an integrated tectono-magmatic model for the Chersky belt. Our findings show that the basanites were generated from a homogeneous asthenospheric mantle reservoir with an EM-1 isotopic flavor, under relatively ‘dry' conditions at segregation depths around 110 km and temperatures of ~ 1500 °C. Trace element and isotope systematics combined with mantle potential temperature estimates offer no confirmation of magmatism related to subduction or plume activity. Mineral geochemical and petrographical observations together with bulk geochemical evidence indicate a rapid ascent of melts and high cooling rates after emplacement in the continental crust. Our preferred model is that volcanism was triggered by extension and thinning of the lithosphere combined with adiabatic upwelling of the underlying mantle at 37 Ma. This suggests that at that time, rift tectonics in the Mid-Arctic Ocean most likely had also affected the North-Asian continent, causing volcanic activity in the Chersky belt, before the regional geodynamic regime changed from a tensional to compressional. Our conclusions contribute not only to the understanding of volcanism in the Chersky seismic belt (NE-Russia) but also to general aspects of plate dynamics between the Eurasian and North American continent.

  7. Magmatism at the Eurasian–North American modern plate boundary: Constraints from alkaline volcanism in the Chersky Belt (Yakutia)

    PubMed Central

    Tschegg, Cornelius; Bizimis, Michael; Schneider, David; Akinin, Vyacheslav V.; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2011-01-01

    The Chersky seismic belt (NE-Russia) forms the modern plate boundary of the Eurasian?North American continental plate. The geodynamic evolution of this continent?continent setting is highly complex and remains a matter of debate, as the extent and influence of the Mid-Arctic Ocean spreading center on the North Asian continent since the Eocene remains unclear. The progression from a tensional stress regime to a modern day transpressional one in the Chersky seismic belt, makes the understanding even more complicated. The alkaline volcanism that has erupted along the Chersky range from Eocene through to the Recent can provide constraints on the geodynamic evolution of this continental boundary, however, the source and petrogenetic evolution of these volcanic rocks and their initiating mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied basanites of the central Chersky belt, which are thought to represent the first alkaline volcanic activity in the area, after initial opening of the Arctic Ocean basin. We present mineral and bulk rock geochemical data as well as Sr–Nd–Pb–Hf isotopes of the alkaline suite of rocks combined with new precise K–Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating, and discuss an integrated tectono-magmatic model for the Chersky belt. Our findings show that the basanites were generated from a homogeneous asthenospheric mantle reservoir with an EM-1 isotopic flavor, under relatively ‘dry’ conditions at segregation depths around 110 km and temperatures of ~ 1500 °C. Trace element and isotope systematics combined with mantle potential temperature estimates offer no confirmation of magmatism related to subduction or plume activity. Mineral geochemical and petrographical observations together with bulk geochemical evidence indicate a rapid ascent of melts and high cooling rates after emplacement in the continental crust. Our preferred model is that volcanism was triggered by extension and thinning of the lithosphere combined with adiabatic upwelling of the underlying mantle at 37 Ma. This suggests that at that time, rift tectonics in the Mid-Arctic Ocean most likely had also affected the North-Asian continent, causing volcanic activity in the Chersky belt, before the regional geodynamic regime changed from a tensional to compressional. Our conclusions contribute not only to the understanding of volcanism in the Chersky seismic belt (NE-Russia) but also to general aspects of plate dynamics between the Eurasian and North American continent. PMID:26523071

  8. Plate Boundary Observatory Strainmeter Recordings of The M6.0 August 24, 2014 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkinson, Kathleen; Mencin, David; Phillips, David; Mattioli, Glen; Meertens, Charles

    2015-04-01

    The 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa earthquake nucleated at 11 km depth near the West Napa fault, one of a complex system of sub-parallel major right lateral faults north of San Francisco that together accommodate much of the relative motion between the Pacific and North American tectonic plates. The South Napa event was the largest to have shaken the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) in almost 25 years. A major goal of the NSF-funded EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), installed and maintained by UNAVCO, was to enable researchers to study the interaction between the faults that form a plate boundary zone, and in particular, to investigate the role that aseismic transients contribute to strain accumulation and release. To realize this goal, PBO includes borehole tensor strainmeters (BSMs) installed in several targeted regions, including on to the north and east of San Francisco. Two PBO BSMs have been operating in the SFBA since 2008: B057, north of San Francisco and 30 km from the epicenter, and B054, 3 km from the Hayward Fault and 40 km from the epicenter. We find the coseismic strains recorded by B057 are close to those predicted using elastic half-space dislocation theory and the seismically determined focal mechanism, while a more complicated variable slip model may be required for observations from B054. Months after the event, B057 continued to record a significant postseismic signal. In this presentation we document the coseismic signals recorded by the PBO BSMs and characterize the temporal behavior of the postseismic signal at B057. The PBO network includes over 1100 GPS, 75 BSMs, 79 seismometers and arrays of tiltmeters, pore pressure sensors and meteorological instrumentation. UNAVCO generates an Earthscope Level 2 processed strain time-series combined into areal and shear strains for the PBO BSM network; the raw data are available from the IRIS DMC in mSEED format. For events of interest, such as the South Napa earthquake, UNAVCO generates a 1-sps processed strain time series that also includes tilt data, pore pressure and high-rate meteorological measurements if available. Site information, data quality measurements, current strain plots and strain time-series for all PBO strain instruments can be obtained from the UNAVCO PBO web page (http://www.unavco.org/data/strain-seismic/strain-seismic.html).

  9. Effects of Periodic Unsteady Wake Flow and Pressure Gradient on Boundary Layer Transition Along the Concave Surface of a Curved Plate. Part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schobeiri, M. T.; Radke, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    Boundary layer transition and development on a turbomachinery blade is subjected to highly periodic unsteady turbulent flow, pressure gradient in longitudinal as well as lateral direction, and surface curvature. To study the effects of periodic unsteady wakes on the concave surface of a turbine blade, a curved plate was utilized. On the concave surface of this plate, detailed experimental investigations were carried out under zero and negative pressure gradient. The measurements were performed in an unsteady flow research facility using a rotating cascade of rods positioned upstream of the curved plate. Boundary layer measurements using a hot-wire probe were analyzed by the ensemble-averaging technique. The results presented in the temporal-spatial domain display the transition and further development of the boundary layer, specifically the ensemble-averaged velocity and turbulence intensity. As the results show, the turbulent patches generated by the wakes have different leading and trailing edge velocities and merge with the boundary layer resulting in a strong deformation and generation of a high turbulence intensity core. After the turbulent patch has totally penetrated into the boundary layer, pronounced becalmed regions were formed behind the turbulent patch and were extended far beyond the point they would occur in the corresponding undisturbed steady boundary layer.

  10. Development of second-mode instability in a Mach 6 flat plate boundary layer with two-dimensional roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Qing; Zhu, Yiding; Chen, Xi; Lee, Cunbiao

    2015-06-01

    Particle image velocimetry, PCB pressure sensors, and planar Rayleigh scattering are combined to study the development of second-mode instability in a Mach 6 flow over a flat plate with two-dimensional roughness. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first time that the instantaneous velocity fields and flow structures of the second-mode instability waves passing through the roughness are shown experimentally. A two-dimensional transverse wall blowing is used to generate second-mode instability in the boundary layer and seeding tracer particles. The two-dimensional roughness is located upstream of the synchronization point between mode S and mode F. The experimental results showed that the amplitude of the second-mode instability will be greatly increased upstream of the roughness. Then it damps and recovers quickly in the vicinity downstream of the roughness. Further downstream, it acts as no-roughness case, which confirms Fong's numerical results [K. D. Fong, X. W. Wang, and X. L. Zhong, "Numerical simulation of roughness effect on the stability of a hypersonic boundary layer," Comput. Fluids 96, 350 (2014)]. It also has been observed that the strength of the amplification and damping effect depends on the height of the roughness.

  11. Deformation across the Pacific-North America plate boundary near San Francisco, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prescott, W.H.; Savage, J.C.; Svarc, J.L.; Manaker, D.

    2001-01-01

    We have detected a narrow zone of compression between the Coast Ranges and the Great Valley, and we have estimated slip rates for the San Andreas, Rodgers Creek, and Green Valley faults just north of San Francisco. These results are based on an analysis of campaign and continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) data collected between 1992 and 2000 in central California. The zone of compression between the Coast Ranges and the Great Valley is 25 km wide. The observations clearly show 3.8??1.5 mm yr-1 of shortening over this narrow zone. The strike slip components are best fit by a model with 20.8??1.9 mm yr-1 slip on the San Andreas fault, 10.3??2.6 mm yr-1 on the Rodgers Creek fault, and 8.1??2.1 mm yr-1 on the Green Valley fault. The Pacific-Sierra Nevada-Great Valley motion totals 39.2??3.8 mm yr-1 across a zone that is 120 km wide (at the latitude of San Francisco). Standard deviations are one ??. The geodetic results suggest a higher than geologic rate for the Green Valley fault. The geodetic results also suggest an inconsistency between geologic estimates of the San Andreas rate and seismologic estimates of the depth of locking on the San Andreas fault. The only convergence observed is in the narrow zone along the border between the Great Valley and the Coast Ranges.

  12. Low heat flow inferred from >4Gyr zircons suggests Hadean plate boundary interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Michelle; Harrison, T. Mark; Manning, Craig E.

    2008-11-01

    The first ~600 million years of Earth history (the `Hadean' eon) remain poorly understood, largely because there is no rock record dating from that era. Detrital Hadean igneous zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia, however, can potentially provide insights into the conditions extant on our planet at that time. Results of geochemical investigations using these ancient grains have been interpreted to suggest the presence of a hydrosphere and continental crust before 4Gyr. An underexploited characteristic of the >4Gyr zircons is their diverse assemblage of mineral inclusions. Here we present an examination of over 400 Hadean zircons from Jack Hills, which shows that some inclusion assemblages are conducive to thermobarometry. Our thermobarometric analyses of 4.02-4.19-Gyr-old inclusion-bearing zircons constrain their magmatic formation conditions to about 700°C and 7kbar. This result implies a near-surface heat flow of ~75mWm-2, about three to five times lower than estimates of Hadean global heat flow. As the only site of magmatism on modern Earth that is characterized by heat flow of about one-quarter of the global average is above subduction zones, we suggest that the magmas from which the Jack Hills Hadean zircons crystallized were formed largely in an underthrust environment, perhaps similar to modern convergent margins.

  13. Tectonic Emplacement of the Ophiolitic Mélange in the West Junggar, NW China: Comment on the Plate Boundary Significance of Ophiolitic Mélange Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, G.; Xu, Y.; Xiao, L.; Chen, C.

    2014-12-01

    Many ophiolitic mélanges distribute in the West Junggar, NW China. They are fault-contacted with Carboniferous turbidites with mostly NE trend and some NS trend with ages mostly Ordovician-Silurian and some Late Devonian. The boundary faults and the foliation inside the mélanges are of high-angle or nearly vertical. The NE trend ophiolitic mélange belts were structurally emplaced into the Carboniferous strata mainly by dextral transpressive deformation, but the NS trend ophiolitic mélange belts mainly by lateral extrusion deformation or pure shearing, suggesting a uniform stress field of nearly EW compression controlled the emplacements. The tectonic relationship between the ophiolitic mélanges and the Carboniferous turbidites imply that the ophiolitic mélanges are the main components of the basement of the Carboniferous strata. The geophysical data also reveal that high gravity, high magnetic and medium resistivity exist under the Carboniferous strata, matching well to the distribution of the ophiolitic mélanges on the surface. The neodymium model ages (TDM) of widely distributed Late Carboniferous-Permian granites are mostly between 0.352-0.923Ga and concentrate in 0.45-0.6Ga with positive eNd(t) mostly between 5~10, suggesting the Early Paleozoic rocks as the main magma source, consistent with the age of the ophiolitic mélanges, also coinciding with the conclusion of the ophiolitic mélanges as the basement of the Carboniferous strata. The Carboniferous turbidites primarily formed in residual basin. Early Permian terrestrial coarse molasses deposits unconformitily cover on the Carboniferous turbidites, suggesting the residual basin closed in Late Carboniferous. The accretionary complex or residual oceanic crust emplaced into the overlying Carboniferous turbidites through the dextral transpression or lateral extrusion due to EW convergent when the residual basin closed. The tectonic juxtaposition relationship between the ophiolitic mélanges and the younger lateral strata with same stratigraphic system suggests that the ophiolitic mélange belts do not separate different tectonic palaeogeographic or stratigraphic divisions. The traditional understanding of the ophiolitic mélange belt as plate or terrane boundary should be carefully to apply to the West Jungar.

  14. The transition from linear to diuse plate boundary in the Azores^Gibraltar region: results from a thin-sheet model

    E-print Network

    Bird, Peter

    a Institute of Earth Sciences `J. Almera', C.S.I.C., Sole¨ Sabar|¨s s/n, 08028 Barcelona, Spain b Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567, USA Received 27 February of the plate boundary east of the Gorringe Bank is dominated by the transition from oceanic to continental

  15. Numerical Study of Three-dimensional Spatial Instability of a Supersonic Flat Plate Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio; Bayliss, A.; Krishnan, R.

    1989-01-01

    The behavior of spatially growing three-dimensional waves in a supersonic boundary layer was studied numerically by solving the complete Navier-Stokes equations. Satisfactory comparison with linear parallel and non-parallel stability theories, and experiment are obtained when a small amplitude inflow disturbance is used. The three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are solved by a finite difference method which is fourth-order and second-order accurate in the convection and viscous terms respectively, and second-order accurate in time. Spanwise periodicity is assumed. The inflow disturbance is composed of eigenfunctions from linear stability theory. By increasing the amplitude of the inflow disturbance, nonlinear effects in the form of a relaxation type oscillation of the time signal of rho(u) are observed.

  16. The Fairway-Aotea Basin and the New Caledonia Trough, witnesses of the Pacific-Australian plate boundary evolution : from mid-Cretaceous cessation of subduction to Eocene subduction renewal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collot, J.; Geli, L. B.; Lafoy, Y.; Sutherland, R.; Herzer, R. H.; Roest, W. R.

    2009-12-01

    The geodynamical history of the SW Pacific is controlled since the Mesozoic by the evolution of peri-Pacific subduction zones, in a trench retreat by slab roll-back process, which successively occurred along the Eastern Gondwana margin. In this context, most basins which formed after 45 Ma reached a stage of seafloor spreading, have recorded the inversions of the earth's magnetic field and present typical oceanic crust morphologies. By contrast, the New Caledonia and Fairway basins, which are narrower and present thick sedimentary covers have a less known and more controversial origin. Based on a regional geological synthesis and on interpretation of multichannel seismic reflection and refraction data, combined with drill hole data off New Zealand and a compilation of regional potential data, we distinguish 2 phases of the evolution of the Fairway-Aotea Basin (FAB) and the New Caledonia Trough (NCT), which reflect the evolution of the Gondwana-Pacific plate boundary: Phase 1: Mid Cretaceous formation of the FAB in a continental intra- or back- arc position of the Pacific-Gondwana subduction system. The formation of this shallow basin reflects the onset of continental breakup of the Eastern Gondwana margin during Cenomanian which was most probably caused by a dynamic change of the subduction zone through a « verticalization » of the slab. This event may be the result of the 99 Ma kinematic plate reorganization which probably led to subduction cessation along the Gondwana-Pacific plate boundary. A tectonic escape mechanism, in relation with the locking of the subduction zone by the Hikurangi Plateau, could also be responsible of the trench retreat leading to backarc extension. Phase 2: Regional Eocene-Oligocene uplift followed by rapid subsidence (3-4 km) of the system « Lord Howe Rise - FAB - Norfolk Ridge ». The structural style of this deformation leads us to suggest that detachment of the lower crust is the cause of subsidence. We therefore propose a model in which the system, initially shallow during Cretaceous (phase 1), would have greatly subsided during Eocene-Oligocene, giving birth to the NCT, as the renewal of the Australia-Pacific convergent plate boundary took place. This renewal of convergence at 45 Ma would have driven the lithosphere of the system to thicken (uplift), leading to a root instability and to its detachment in the mantle (subsidence). Superposed on these two main phases, some local effects, controlled by the geometry of the plate boundary, also appear. Particularly, latest late Eocene local deformation of the Northern NCB is documented, synchronously with the New Caledonian obduction. This asymmetrical deformation which lasted less than a few million years led to the uplift of the Fairway Ridge and the subsidence of the Eastern margin of the basin along NC’s western coast (10 km vertical amplitude). We suggest that as the oceanic crust of the South Loyalty Basin was being obducted onto the Norfolk Ridge at 37 Ma, the NCB subsided under the effect of the overloading and underthrusted to accommodate the compressional deformation as a foreland flexural basin.

  17. Jet-boundary and Plan-form Corrections for Partial-Span Models with Reflection-Plane, End-Plate, or No End-Plate in a Closed Circular Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivells, James C; Deters, Owen J

    1946-01-01

    A method is presented for determining the jet-boundary and plan-form corrections necessary for application to test data for a partial-span model with a reflection plane, an end plate, or no end plate in a closed circular wind tunnel. Examples are worked out for a partial-span model with each of the three end conditions in the Langley 19-foot pressure tunnel and the corrections are applied to measured values of lift, drag, pitching-moment, rolling-moment, and yawing-moment coefficients.

  18. Direct Numerical Simulations of Boundary Layer Transition on a Flat Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, Man Mohan

    1997-01-01

    In recent years the techniques of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have been used to compute flows associated with geometrically complex configurations. However, success in terms of accuracy and reliability has been limited to cases where the effects of turbulence and transition could be modeled in a straightforward manner. Even in simple flows, the accurate computation of skin friction and heat transfer using existing turbulence models has proved to be a difficult task, one that has required extensive fine-tuning of the turbulence models used. In more complex flows (for example, in turbomachinery flows in which vortices and wakes impinge on airfoil surfaces causing periodic transitions from laminar to turbulent flow) the development of a model that accounts for all scales of turbulence and predicts the onset of transition is an extremely difficult task. Fortunately, current trends in computing suggest that it may be possible to perform direct simulations of turbulence and transition at moderate Reynolds numbers in some complex cases in the near future. This presentation will focus on direct simulations of transition and turbulence using high-order accurate finite-difference methods. The advantage of the finite-difference approach over spectral methods is that complex geometries can be treated in a straightforward manner. Additionally, finite-difference techniques are the prevailing methods in existing application codes. An application of accurate finite-difference methods to direct simulations of transition and turbulence in a spatially evolving boundary layer subjected to high levels of freestream turbulence will be presented.

  19. Direct Numerical Simulations of Boundary Layer Transition on a Flat Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, Man Mohan

    1998-01-01

    In recent years the techniques of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) have been used to compute flows associated with geometrically complex configurations. However, success in terms of accuracy and reliability has been limited to cases where the effects of turbulence and transition could be modeled in a straightforward manner. Even in simple flows, the accurate computation of skin friction and heat transfer using existing turbulence models has proved to be a difficult task, one that has required extensive fine-tuning of the turbulence models used. In more complex flows (for example, in turbomachinery flows in which vortices and wakes impinge on airfoil surfaces causing periodic transitions from laminar to turbulent flow) the development of a model that accounts for all scales of turbulence and predicts the onset of transition is an extremely difficult task. Fortunately, current trends in computing suggest that it may be possible to perform direct simulations of turbulence and transition at moderate Reynolds numbers in some complex cases in the near future. This presentation will focus on direct simulations of transition and turbulence using high-order accurate finite-difference methods. The advantage of the finite-difference approach over spectral methods is that complex geometries can be treated in a straightforward manner. Additionally, finite-difference techniques are the prevailing methods in existing application codes. An application of high-order-accurate finite-difference methods to direct simulations of transition and turbulence in a spatially evolving boundary layer subjected to high levels of freestream turbulence will be presented.

  20. Crustal deformation in the Taiwan plate boundary zone revealed by GPS observations, seismicity, and earthquake focal mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Y.; Yu, S.; Simons, M.; Kuo, L.; Chen, H.

    2008-12-01

    We use GPS-derived surface velocities, seismicity, as well as estimates of earthquake focal mechanisms from the time period before the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake to evaluate spatial variations of surface strain rate and crustal stress regime in the Taiwan plate boundary zone. We estimate strain rates with a new but simple approach that solves for surface velocity on a rectangular grid while accounting for the distance between observations and each grid node and the impact of a spatially variable density of observations. This approach provides stable and interpretable strain-rate estimates. In addition, we perform a stress tensor inversion using earthquake focal mechanisms determined by P waves first-motion polarities. Our estimates of the principal orientations of two-dimensional surface strain rate tensor generally agree with the inferred orientations of the stress axes. This agreement suggests that large scale variation of stress orientations from the surface to the seismogenic crust is insignificant and the predicted faulting style is consistent with stress buildup during the interseismic period. We find that the geometric configuration of the Chinese continental margin alone can not fully explain the distribution of maximum contraction and compressive axes in Taiwan. Distribution of seismicity and focal mechanisms before and after the Chi-Chi mainshock suggest that the maximum principal stress axis is vertically-oriented in the Central Range; in contrast to the horizontal maximum principal stress axis in western Taiwan and the Longitudinal Valley. Extension in the Central Range reflects the consequence of exhumation and crustal thickening; while that in the southern Central Range may result from eastward subduction of the South China Sea block underneath the Philippine Sea Plate.

  1. Effects of Mach Number, Leading-Edge Bluntness, and Sweep on Boundary-Layer Transition on a Flat Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jillie, Don W.; Hopkins, Edward J.

    1961-01-01

    The effects of leading-edge bluntness and sweep on boundary-layer transition on flat plate models were investigated at Mach numbers of 2.00, 2.50, 3.00, and 4.00. The effect of sweep on transition was also determined on a flat plate model equipped with an elliptical nose at a Mach number of 0.27. Models used for the supersonic investigation had leading-edge radii varying from 0.0005 to 0.040 inch. The free-stream unit Reynolds number was held constant at 15 million per foot for the supersonic tests and the angle of attack was 0 deg. Surface flow conditions were determined by visual observation and recorded photographically. The sublimation technique was used to indicate transition, and the fluorescent-oil technique was used to indicate flow separation. Measured Mach number and sweep effects on transition are compared with those predicted from shock-loss considerations as described in NACA Rep. 1312. For the models with the blunter leading edges, the transition Reynolds number (based on free-stream flow conditions) was approximately doubled by an increase in Mach number from 2.50 to 4.00; and nearly the same result was predicted from shock-loss considerations. At all super- sonic Mach numbers, increases in sweep reduced the transition Reynolds number and the amount of reduction increased with increases in bluntness. The shock-loss method considerably underestimated- the sweep effects, possibly because of the existence of crossflow instability associated with swept wings. At a Mach number of 0.27, no reduction in the transition Reynolds number with sweep was measured (as would be expected with no shock loss) until the sweep angle was attained where crossflow instability appeared.

  2. Observing active deformation of volcanoes in North America: Geodetic data from the Plate Boundary Observatory and associated networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puskas, C. M.; Phillips, D. A.; Mattioli, G. S.; Meertens, C. M.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Crosby, C. J.; Enders, M.; Feaux, K.; Mencin, D.; Baker, S.; Lisowski, M.; Smith, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), operated by UNAVCO, records deformation of the geologically diverse North America western plate boundary, with subnetworks of instruments concentrated at selected active and potentially active volcanoes. These sensors record deformation and earthquakes and allow monitoring agencies and researchers to analyze changes in ground motion and seismicity. The intraplate volcanoes at Yellowstone and Long Valley are characterized by uplift/subsidence cycles, high seismicity, and hydrothermal activity but there have been no historic eruptions at either volcano. PBO maintains dense GPS networks of 20-25 stations at each of these volcanoes, with an additional 5 boreholes at Yellowstone containing tensor strainmeters, short-period seismometers, and borehole tiltmeters. Subduction zone volcanoes in the Aleutian Arc have had multiple historic eruptions, and PBO maintains equipment at Augustine (8 GPS), Akutan (8 GPS, 4 tiltmeters), and Unimak Island (14 GPS, 8 tiltmeters). The Unimak stations are at the active Westdahl and Shishaldin edifices and the nearby, inactive Isanotski volcano. In the Cascade Arc, PBO maintains networks at Mount St. Helens (15 GPS, 4 borehole strainmeters and seismometers, 8 borehole tiltmeters), Shasta (7 GPS, 1 borehole strainmeter and seismometer), and Lassen Peak (8 GPS). Data from many of these stations in the Pacific Northwest and California are also provided as realtime streams of raw and processed data. Real-time GPS data, along with high-rate GPS data, will be an important new resource for detecting and studying future rapid volcanic deformation events and earthquakes. UNAVCO works closely with the USGS Volcano Hazards Program, archiving data from USGS GPS stations in Alaska, Cascadia, and Long Valley. The PBO and USGS networks combined provide more comprehensive coverage than PBO alone, particularly of the Cascade Arc, where the USGS maintains a multiple instruments near each volcano. Ground-based instruments are supplemented by remote sensing data sets. UNAVCO supports the acquisition of InSAR and LiDAR imaging data, with archiving and distribution of these data provided by UNAVCO and partner institutions. We provide descriptions and access information for geodetic data from the PBO volcano subnetworks and their applications to monitoring for scientific and public safety objectives. We also present notable examples of activity recorded by these instruments, including the 2004-2010 accelerated uplift episode at the Yellowstone caldera and the 2006 Augustine eruption.

  3. Strain accumulation controls failure of a plate boundary zone: Linking deformation of the Central Andes and lithosphere mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oncken, O.; Boutelier, D.; Dresen, G.; Schemmann, K.

    2012-12-01

    We make use of observations on orogenic strain accumulation and deformation partitioning in the Central Andes to explore the backarc strength evolution at the lithospheric scale. In plan view, the Altiplano-Puna plateaux experienced rapid initial increase of surface area undergoing active deformation during the Cenozoic. Beyond the maximum lateral extent reached around 10-15 Ma (40-50% of entire proto-Andes undergoing deformation) at 10-20% total strain, rapid localization initiated at the eastern flank of the Altiplano (Inter- and Subandean thrust belt) but not at the Puna latitude. Localization was associated with a significant increase in bulk shortening rate. Average fault slip rates equally increased by an order of magnitude following a protracted period of stable average rates. Estimates of strength evolution based on force balance calculations and critical wedge analysis suggest significant backarc weakening driving this change after the Middle Miocene. Strain accumulation led to localization and weakening with development of a detachment propagating through crust and upper mantle. We find that lithosphere-scale failure resulting from strain weakening beyond a critical strain threshold (c. 20%) and fault coalescence with formation of a weak detachment in shales (effective coefficient of friction < 0.1) plays a key role in the evolution of the Andes. Strain-related lithosphere weakening appears to dominate over the impact of external forcing mechanisms, such as variations of plate convergence, mantle-assisted processes, or erosion. Comparison of these orogen-scale observations with experimental rock rheology indicates substantial similarity of deformation behavior with similar weakening thresholds across a wide range of scales.

  4. Inverse methods-based estimation of plate coupling in a plate motion model governed by mantle flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnaswamy, V.; Stadler, G.; Gurnis, M.

    2013-12-01

    Plate motion is primarily controlled by buoyancy (slab pull) which occurs at convergent plate margins where oceanic plates undergo deformation near the seismogenic zone. Yielding within subducting plates, lateral variations in viscosity, and the strength of seismic coupling between plate margins likely have an important control on plate motion. Here, we wish to infer the inter-plate coupling for different subduction zones, and develop a method for inferring it as a PDE-constrained optimization problem, where the cost functional is the misfit in plate velocities and is constrained by the nonlinear Stokes equation. The inverse models have well resolved slabs, plates, and plate margins in addition to a power law rheology with yielding in the upper mantle. Additionally, a Newton method is used to solve the nonlinear Stokes equation with viscosity bounds. We infer plate boundary strength using an inexact Gauss-Newton method with line search for backtracking. Each inverse model is applied to two simple 2-D scenarios (each with three subduction zones), one with back-arc spreading and one without. For each case we examine the sensitivity of the inversion to the amount of surface velocity used: 1) full surface velocity data and 2) surface velocity data simplified using a single scalar average (2-D equivalent to an Euler pole) for each plate. We can recover plate boundary strength in each case, even in the presence of highly nonlinear flow with extreme variations in viscosity. Additionally, we ascribe an uncertainty in each plate's velocity and perform an uncertainty quantification (UQ) through the Hessian of the misfit in plate velocities. We find that as plate boundaries become strongly coupled, the uncertainty in the inferred plate boundary strength decreases. For very weak, uncoupled subduction zones, the uncertainty of inferred plate margin strength increases since there is little sensitivity between plate margin strength and plate velocity. This result is significant because it implies we can infer which plate boundaries are more coupled (seismically) for a realistic dynamic model of plates and mantle flow.

  5. Convergence of shock waves generated by underwater electrical explosion of cylindrical wire arrays between different boundary geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanuka, D.; Kozlov, M.; Zinowits, H. E.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2015-10-01

    The results of experiments and numerical simulations of a shock wave propagating between either conical or parabolic bounding walls are presented. The shock wave was generated by a microsecond timescale underwater electrical explosion of a cylindrical wire array supplied by a current pulse having an amplitude of ˜230 kA and a rise time of ˜1 ?s. It is shown that with the same energy density deposition into the exploding wire array, the shock wave converges faster between parabolic walls, and as a result, the pressure in the vicinity of convergence is ˜2.3 times higher than in the case of conical walls. The results obtained are compared to those of earlier experiments [Antonov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 124104 (2013)] with explosions of spherical wire arrays. It is shown that at a distance of ˜400 ?m from the implosion origin the pressure obtained in the current experiments is higher than for the case of spherical wire arrays.

  6. Cratonic platform and foredeep response to plate margin convergence: Devonian through Mississippian subsidence history in western Montana and east-central Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Dorobek, S.L.; Reid, S.K. ); Elrich, M. ); Bond, G.C. ); Kominz, M.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Devonian and Mississippian sedimentary rocks of western Montana and east-central Idaho were deposited on a cratonic platform that faced a northern extension of the Antler foredeep. Subsidence analyses of this sequence and isopach maps illustrate regional patterns of subsidence related to convergence along the western North American plate margin. Tectonic stresses affected deposition on platform areas which were hundreds of kilometers inboard from the ancient continental margin. Wavelengths of paleostructural elements, tectonic inversion of these structures (i.e., transition of a paleohigh into a depocenter), and time scales involved in the inversion process cannot be attributed solely to flexure or to vertical displacements by in-plane stresses but suggest reactivation of Precambrian structural trends. Late Devonian (Frasnian) platform sedimentation began during a brief interval of increased subsidence across western Montana. This interval of increased platform subsidence is greater than a Late Devonian eustatic sea level rise (determined from subsidence analyses of Devonian strata from stable cratonic areas) and suggests some tectonic event must have influenced subsidence in Montana. Thin uppermost Devonian Strata contain numerous unconformities that may be related to flexure of the platform plus eustatic sea level fluctuations. Rapid subsidence across Montana during the Early Mississippian (Kinderhookian) resulted in a condensed platform sequence, which is overlain by deep water shaly carbonates. Rapid subsidence continued into the Osagean then slowed, allowing progradation of carbonate platform facies across Montana. A regional karst surface on top of the Meramecian platform coincides with conglomerate deposition and increased subsidence rates in the foredeep; unconformity durations on the platform also increase to the east.

  7. Plio-Quaternary paleostresses in the Atlantic passive margin of the Moroccan Meseta: Influence of the Central Rif escape tectonics related to Eurasian-African plate convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabli, Ahmed; Chalouan, Ahmed; Akil, Mostapha; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús; Ruano, Patricia; Sanz de Galdeano, Carlos; López-Garrido, Angel Carlos; Marín-Lechado, Carlos; Pedrera, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    The Atlantic Moroccan Meseta margin is affected by far field recent tectonic stresses. The basement belongs to the variscan orogen and was deformed by hercynian folding and metamorphism followed by a post-Permian erosional stage, producing the flat paleorelief of the region. Tabular Mesozoic and Mio-Plio-Quaternary deposits locally cover the Meseta, which has undergone recent uplift, while north of Rabat the subsidence continues in the Gharb basin, constituting the foreland basin of the Rif Cordillera. The Plio-Quaternary sedimentary cover of the Moroccan Meseta, mainly formed by aeolian and marine terraces deposits, is affected by brittle deformations (joints and small-scale faults) that evidence that this region - considered up to date as stable - is affected by the far field stresses. Striated faults are recognized in the oldest Plio-Quaternary deposits and show strike-slip and normal kinematics, while joints affect up to the most recent sediments. Paleostress may be sorted into extensional, only affecting Rabat sector, and three main compressive groups deforming whole the region: (1) ENE-WSW to ESE-WNW compression; (2) NNW-SSE to NE-SW compression and (3) NNE-SSW compression. These stresses can be attributed mainly to the NW-SE oriented Eurasian-African plate convergence in the western Mediterranean and the escape toward the SW of the Rif Cordillera. Local paleostress deviations may be related to basement fault reactivation. These new results reveal the tectonic instability during Plio-Quaternary of the Moroccan Meseta margin in contrast to the standard passive margins, generally considered stable.

  8. New insights into North America-Pacific plate boundary deformation from Lake Tahoe, Salton Sea and Southern Baja California

    E-print Network

    Brothers, Daniel Stephen

    2009-01-01

    to the Pacifi c Plate: Tectonics, v. 8, p. 99-115. Stock,c North America plate tectonics of the Neogene southwesternplate motion partitioning and the transition to seafl oor spreading in the Gulf of California: Tectonics,

  9. Configuration of geological domains and geodynamic evolution of the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary off SW Iberia revisited based on seismic velocity and density models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Loriente, Sara; Sallarès, Valentí; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Bartolome, Rafael; Ranero, César

    2015-04-01

    We present a new classification of geological (basement) domains at the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary offshore SW Iberia, together with a regional geodynamic reconstruction spanning from the Mesozoic extension to the Neogene-to-present-day convergence. It is based on seismic velocity and density models along two regional wide-angle seismic transects, one running NW-SE from the Tagus to the Seine abyssal plains, and the other running N-S from S Portugal to the Seine Abyssal Plain, combined with previously available information. The seismic velocity and density structure at the Seine Abyssal Plain and the internal Gulf of Cadiz indicates the presence of a highly heterogeneous oceanic crust, similar to that described in ultra-slow spreading centers, whereas in the Horseshoe and Tagus abyssal plains, the basement structure resembles that of exhumed mantle sections identified in the Northern Atlantic margin. The integration of all this new information allows defining the presence of three oceanic domains off SW Iberia: (1) the Seine Abyssal Plain domain, generated during the first stages of slow seafloor spreading in the NE segment of the Central Atlantic (Early Jurassic); (2) the Gulf of Cadiz domain, made of oceanic crust generated in the Alpine-Tethys spreading system between Iberia and Africa, which was coeval with the formation of the Seine Abyssal Plain domain and lasted up to the North Atlantic continental break-up (Late Jurassic); and (3) the Gorringe Bank domain, mainly made of rocks exhumed from the mantle with little synchronous magmatism, which formed during the first stages of North Atlantic opening (Early Cretaceous). Our models suggest that the Seine Abyssal Plain and Gulf of Cadiz domains are separated by the Lineament South strike-slip fault, whereas the Gulf of Cadiz and Gorringe Bank domains appear to be limited by a deep thrust fault located at the center of the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain, which coincides with the seismicity cluster nucleated in the middle of the plain that shows moment tensor solutions of reverse faulting at depths of 40-60 km. The formation and evolution of these three domains during the Mesozoic is key to understand the sequence of events that occurred during the first stages of opening of the Northern Atlantic and its connection and interplay with the Western Mediterranean basin.

  10. Modulation of mantle plumes and heat flow at the core mantle boundary by plate-scale flow: results from laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonnermann, Helge M.; Jellinek, A. Mark; Richards, Mark A.; Manga, Michael

    2004-09-01

    We report results from analog laboratory experiments, in which a large-scale flow is imposed upon natural convection from a hot boundary layer at the base of a large tank of corn syrup. The experiments show that the subdivision of the convective flow into four regions provides a reasonable conceptual framework for interpreting the effects of large-scale flow on plumes. Region I includes the area of the hot thermal boundary layer (TBL) that is thinned by the large-scale flow, thereby suppressing plumes. Region II encompasses the critically unstable boundary layer where plumes form. Region III is the area above the boundary layer that is devoid of plumes. Region IV comprises the area of hot upwelling and plume conduits. Quantitative analysis of our experiments results in a scaling law for heat flux from the hot boundary and for the spatial extent of plume suppression. When applied to the Earth's core-mantle boundary (CMB), our results suggest that large-scale mantle flow, due to sinking lithospheric plates, can locally thin the TBL and suppress plume formation over large fractions of the CMB. Approximately 30% of heat flow from the core may be due to increased heat flux from plate-scale flow. Furthermore, CMB heat flux is non-uniformly distributed along the CMB, with large areas where heat flux is increased on average by a factor of 2. As a consequence, the convective flow pattern in the outer core may be affected by CMB heat-flux heterogeneity and sensitive to changes in plate-scale mantle flow. Because of plume suppression and 'focusing' of hot mantle from the CMB into zones of upwelling flow, plume conduits (hotspots) are expected to be spatially associated with lower-mantle regions of low seismic velocities, inferred as hot upwelling mantle flow.

  11. Using high-resolution aeromagnetic survey to map tectonic elements of plate boundaries: An example from the Dead Sea Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Zoubi, A. S.; ten Brink, U. S.; Rybakov, M.; Rotstein, Y.

    2004-12-01

    The Dead Sea Fault (DSF) is a transform plate boundary between the African and the Arabian plates. The 200-km-long DSF segment between the Gulf of Aqaba/Elat and the Dead Sea, which has the morphology of a rift valley, shows little seismic activity, and its surface trace is only intermittently visible. High-resolution magnetic data were collected in October 2003 aboard a Jordanian military helicopter flying at an altitude of 100 m over the southern 120-km-long section of this fault segment. The survey was part of a US-AID Middle Eastern Regional Cooperation project between Jordanian, Israeli, Palestinian, and American scientists. Data were collected along rift-perpendicular lines spaced 300 m apart, requiring frequent crossings between Israeli and Jordanian air spaces. The data were gridded at 75 m interval following resolution tests, reduced to pole, and incorporated into a GIS together with elevation, geology, and gravity maps to facilitate interpretation. The main findings of the magnetic survey are the absence of magnetic anomalies crossing the rift valley, and the presence of a rift-parallel regional lineament corresponding to the active trace of the DSF. The lineament extends NNE as an almost continuous trace from Elat, Israel, to the eastern side of the valley 5 km north of Rahmeh. Jordan. Another fault trace located 2-3 km to the west may overlap and continue NNE through Gebel A-Risha, and into the central Arava/Araba valley, where it is visible on the surface. Alternatively, the two traces may be connected. If an offset between the two traces exists, it may be small enough to allow an earthquake rupture to propagate across the offset, and generate an earthquake with a moment magnitude of up to 7.5. Traces of buried faults in the central Arava/Araba valley that were previously active in the DSF system, are visible as abrupt terminations of an area of short wavelength magnetic anomalies. These anomalies probably represent shallow subsurface magmatic intrusions. The closest exposed intrusion is dated at 20.7 Ma, shortly before the development of the DSF. Other anomalies can be traced at the edges of our survey area and are likely related to Precambrian outcrops along the rift shoulders. Comparison of the magnetic and the sparser land-gravity data shows the same general azimuth of the magnetic lineament and of the segmented fault system as derived from the gravity and a surprisingly good coincidence between local gravity and magnetic anomalies over the Timna pull-apart basin, owing perhaps to the sensitivity of the high-resolution magnetic data to the thickness of the sedimentary cover.

  12. Nonlinear radiation heat transfer effects in the natural convective boundary layer flow of nanofluid past a vertical plate: a numerical study.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Meraj; Mushtaq, Ammar; Hayat, Tasawar; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    The problem of natural convective boundary layer flow of nanofluid past a vertical plate is discussed in the presence of nonlinear radiative heat flux. The effects of magnetic field, Joule heating and viscous dissipation are also taken into consideration. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations via similarity transformations and then solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. The results reveal an existence of point of inflection for the temperature distribution for sufficiently large wall to ambient temperature ratio. Temperature and thermal boundary layer thickness increase as Brownian motion and thermophoretic effects intensify. Moreover temperature increases and heat transfer from the plate decreases with an increase in the radiation parameter. PMID:25251242

  13. Nonlinear Radiation Heat Transfer Effects in the Natural Convective Boundary Layer Flow of Nanofluid Past a Vertical Plate: A Numerical Study

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Meraj; Mushtaq, Ammar; Hayat, Tasawar; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    The problem of natural convective boundary layer flow of nanofluid past a vertical plate is discussed in the presence of nonlinear radiative heat flux. The effects of magnetic field, Joule heating and viscous dissipation are also taken into consideration. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations via similarity transformations and then solved numerically using the Runge–Kutta fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. The results reveal an existence of point of inflection for the temperature distribution for sufficiently large wall to ambient temperature ratio. Temperature and thermal boundary layer thickness increase as Brownian motion and thermophoretic effects intensify. Moreover temperature increases and heat transfer from the plate decreases with an increase in the radiation parameter. PMID:25251242

  14. Features of phonon transport in silicon rods and thin plates in the boundary scattering regime. The effect of phonon focusing at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuleyev, I. I.; Kuleyev, I. G.; Bakharev, S. M.; Inyushkin, A. V.

    2013-05-01

    The effect of phonon focusing on the phonon relaxation characteristics in the boundary scattering regime is studied in cubic crystals. The phonon relaxation times due to diffusive scattering at boundaries are calculated for rod-shaped samples and thin plates of finite lengths having uniform rectangular cross-sections. It is shown that relaxation times can be represented by piecewise smooth functions for different intervals of angles defined by the relation between components of the phonon group velocity and geometrical parameters of samples. Thermal conductivity and phonon free paths have been calculated for silicon samples with different orientation of the temperature gradient and side faces in the anisotropic continuum model. Anisotropies of thermal conductivity and phonon free paths for silicon change strongly with the width-to-thickness (aspect) ratio in the range from 1 to 1000, demonstrating steep dependence on the orientation of temperature gradient and the wide face of thin plates with high values of aspect ratio.

  15. Plane elasto-plastic analysis of v-notched plate under bending by boundary integral equation method. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rzasnicki, W.

    1973-01-01

    A method of solution is presented, which, when applied to the elasto-plastic analysis of plates having a v-notch on one edge and subjected to pure bending, will produce stress and strain fields in much greater detail than presently available. Application of the boundary integral equation method results in two coupled Fredholm-type integral equations, subject to prescribed boundary conditions. These equations are replaced by a system of simultaneous algebraic equations and solved by a successive approximation method employing Prandtl-Reuss incremental plasticity relations. The method is first applied to number of elasto-static problems and the results compared with available solutions. Good agreement is obtained in all cases. The elasto-plastic analysis provides detailed stress and strain distributions for several cases of plates with various notch angles and notch depths. A strain hardening material is assumed and both plane strain and plane stress conditions are considered.

  16. Geologic observations of the northern boundary of the Caribbean plate across central America as seen by Seasat and SIR-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebillard, P.; Dixon, T.; Farr, T.

    1982-01-01

    The radar data analyzed here extend from the Amatique Bay (Golfo de Honduras) in the northeast to the Pacific Ocean (Puenta Remedios) in the southwest. Space Shuttle Imaging Radar (SIR-A) data-take 18 overlaps the principal part of the Seasat mosaic. SIR-A data make possible more observations over the Central American Cordillera, where strong layover limited the amount of information obtained by Seasat. The radar coverage delineates the principal strike-slip faults of the region (Cuilco-Chixoy-Polochic, Motagua and Jocotan), which have acted as the Caribbean-Americas plate boundary. It also demarcates volcanic terranes related to subduction of the Cocos Plate under the Caribbean Plate. Within pumice fields of the Tertiary volcanic belt, the use of two Seasat look directions (rev 759 and rev 1211), in conjunction with SIR-A data, makes possible some rock discrimination.

  17. Investigating crustal deformation associated with the North America-Pacific plate boundary in southern California with GPS geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinler, Joshua C.

    The three largest earthquakes in the last 25 years in southern California occurred on faults located adjacent to the southern San Andreas fault, with the M7.3 1992 Landers and M7.1 1999 Hector Mine earthquakes occurring in the eastern California shear zone (ECSZ) in the Mojave Desert, and the M7.2 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake occurring along the Laguna Salada fault in northern Baja California, Mexico. The locations of these events near to but not along the southern San Andreas fault (SSAF) is unusual in that the last major event on the SSAF occurred more than 300 years ago, with an estimated recurrence interval of 215 +/- 25 years. The focus of this dissertation is to address the present-day deformation field along the North America-Pacific plate boundary in southern California and northern Baja California, through the analysis of GPS data, and elastic block and viscoelastic earthquake models to determine fault slip rates and rheological properties of the lithosphere in the plate boundary zone. We accomplish this in three separate studies. The first study looks at how strain is partitioned northwards along-strike from the southern San Andreas fault near the Salton Sea. We find that estimates for slip-rates on the southern San Andreas decrease from ~23 mm/yr in the south to ~8 mm/yr as the fault passes through San Gorgonio Pass to the northwest, while ~13-18 mm/yr of slip is partitioned onto NW-SE trending faults of the ECSZ where the Landers and Hector Mine earthquakes occurred. This speaks directly to San Andreas earthquake hazards, as a reduction in the slip rate would require greater time between events to build up enough slip deficit in order to generate a large magnitude earthquake. The second study focuses on inferring the rheological structure beneath the Salton Trough region. This is accomplished through analysis of postseismic deformation observed using a set of the GPS data collected before and after the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake. By determining the slip-rates on each of the major crustal faults prior to the earthquake, we are able to model the pre-earthquake velocity field for comparison with velocities measured using sites constructed post-earthquake. We then determine how individual site velocities have changed in the 3 years following the earthquake, with implications for the rate at which the lower crust and upper mantle viscously relax through time. We find that the viscosity of the lower crust is at least an order of magnitude higher than that of the uppermost mantle, and hypothesize that this is due to mafic material emplaced at the base of the crust as the spreading center developed beneath the Salton Trough since about 6 Ma. The final study investigates crustal deformation and fault slip rates for faults in the northern Mojave and southern Walker Lane regions of the ECSZ. Previous geodetic studies estimated slip-rates roughly double those inferred via geological dating methods in this region for NW striking strike-slip faults, but significantly smaller than geologic estimates for the Garlock fault. Through construction of a detailed elastic block model, which selects only active fault structures, and applying a new, dense GPS velocity field in this region, we are able to estimate slip-rates for the strike-slip faults in the ECSZ that are much closer to those reported from geology.

  18. Missing western half of the Pacific Plate: Geochemical nature of the Izanagi-Pacific Ridge interaction with a stationary boundary between the Indian and Pacific mantles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Takashi; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Senda, Ryoko; Vaglarov, Bogdan S.; Chang, Qing; Takahashi, Toshiro; Hirahara, Yuka; Hauff, Folkmar; Hayasaka, Yasutaka; Sano, Sakae; Shimoda, Gen; Ishizuka, Osamu; Kawabata, Hiroshi; Hirano, Naoto; Machida, Shiki; Ishii, Teruaki; Tani, Kenichiro; Yoshida, Takeyoshi

    2015-09-01

    The source mantle of the basaltic ocean crust on the western half of the Pacific Plate was examined using Pb-Nd-Hf isotopes. The results showed that the subducted Izanagi-Pacific Ridge (IPR) formed from both Pacific (180-˜80 Ma) and Indian (˜80-70 Ma) mantles. The western Pacific Plate becomes younger westward and is thought to have formed from the IPR. The ridge was subducted along the Kurile-Japan-Nankai-Ryukyu (KJNR) Trench at 60-55 Ma and leading edge of the Pacific Plate is currently stagnated in the mantle transition zone. Conversely, the entire eastern half of the Pacific Plate, formed from isotopically distinct Pacific mantle along the East Pacific Rise and the Juan de Fuca Ridge, largely remains on the seafloor. The subducted IPR is inaccessible; therefore, questions regarding which mantle might be responsible for the formation of the western half of the Pacific Plate remain controversial. Knowing the source of the IPR basalts provides insight into the Indian-Pacific mantle boundary before the Cenozoic. Isotopic compositions of the basalts from borehole cores (165-130 Ma) in the western Pacific show that the surface oceanic crust is of Pacific mantle origin. However, the accreted ocean floor basalts (˜80-70 Ma) in the accretionary prism along the KJNR Trench have Indian mantle signatures. This indicates the younger western Pacific Plate of IPR origin formed partly from Indian mantle and that the Indian-Pacific mantle boundary has been stationary in the western Pacific at least since the Cretaceous.

  19. Frictional properties of incoming pelagic sediments at the Japan Trench: implications for large slip at a shallow plate boundary during the 2011 Tohoku earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawai, Michiyo; Hirose, Takehiro; Kameda, Jun

    2014-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) produced a very large slip on the shallow part of a megathrust fault that resulted in destructive tsunamis. Although multiple causes of such large slip at shallow depths are to be expected, the frictional property of sediments around the fault, particularly at coseismic slip velocities, may significantly contribute to large slip along such faults. We have thus investigated the frictional properties of incoming pelagic sediments that will subduct along the plate boundary fault at the Tohoku subduction zone, in order to understand the rupture processes that can cause large slip in the shallow parts of subduction zones. Our experimental results on clayey sediment at the base of the sedimentary section on the Pacific Plate yield a low friction coefficient of <0.2 over a wide range of slip velocities (0.25 mm/s to 1.3 m/s), and extremely low fracture energy during slip weakening, as compared with previous experiments of disaggregated sediments under coseismic slip conditions. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 343 confirmed that the clay-rich sediment investigated here is identical to those in the plate boundary fault zone, which ruptured and generated the Tohoku earthquake. The present results suggest that smectite-rich pelagic sediment not only accommodates cumulative plate motion over interseismic periods but also energetically facilitates the propagation of earthquake rupture towards the shallow part of the Tohoku subduction zone.

  20. Slip rate and earthquake recurrence along the central Septentrional fault, North American-Caribbean plate boundary, Dominican Republic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prentice, C.S.; Mann, P.; Pena, L.R.; Burr, G.

    2003-01-01

    The Septentrional fault zone (SFZ) is the major North American-Caribbean, strike-slip, plate boundary fault at the longitude of eastern Hispaniola. The SFZ traverses the densely populated Cibao Valley of the Dominican Republic, forming a prominent scarp in alluvium. Our studies at four sites along the central SFZ are aimed at quantifying the late Quaternary behavior of this structure to better understand the seismic hazard it represents for the northeastern Caribbean. Our investigations of excavations at sites near Rio Cenovi show that the most recent ground-rupturing earthquake along this fault in the north central Dominican Republic occurred between A.D. 1040 and A.D. 1230, and involved a minimum of ???4 m of left-lateral slip and 2.3 m of normal dip slip at that site. Our studies of offset stream terraces at two locations, Rio Juan Lopez and Rio Licey, provide late Holocene slip rate estimates of 6-9 mm/yr and a maximum of 11-12 mm/yr, respectively, across the Septentrional fault. Combining these results gives a best estimate of 6-12 mm/yr for the slip rate across the SFZ. Three excavations, two near Tenares and one at the Rio Licey site, yielded evidence for the occurrence of earlier prehistoric earthquakes. Dates of strata associated with the penultimate event suggest that it occurred post-A.D. 30, giving a recurrence interval of 800-1200 years. These studies indicate that the SFZ has likely accumulated elastic strain sufficient to generate a major earthquake during the more than 800 years since it last slipped and should be considered likely to produce a destructive future earthquake.

  1. Friction properties of the plate boundary megathrust beneath the frontal wedge near the Japan Trench: an inference from topographic variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koge, Hiroaki; Fujiwara, Toshiya; Kodaira, Shuichi; Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Kameda, Jun; Kitamura, Yujin; Hamahashi, Mari; Fukuchi, Rina; Yamaguchi, Asuka; Hamada, Yohei; Ashi, Juichiro; Kimura, Gaku

    2014-12-01

    The 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw 9.0) produced a fault rupture that extended to the toe of the Japan Trench. The deformation and frictional properties beneath the forearc are keys that can help to elucidate this unusual event. In the present study, to investigate the frictional properties of the shallow part of the plate boundary, we applied the critically tapered Coulomb wedge theory to the Japan Trench and obtained the effective coefficient of basal friction and Hubbert-Rubey pore fluid pressure ratio (?) of the wedge beneath the lower slope. We extracted the surface slope angle and décollement dip angle (which are the necessary topographic parameters for applying the critical taper theory) from seismic reflection and refraction survey data at 12 sites in the frontal wedges of the Japan Trench. We found that the angle between the décollement and back-stop interface generally decreases toward the north. The measured taper angle and inferred effective friction coefficient were remarkably high at three locations. The southernmost area, which had the highest coefficient of basal friction, coincides with the area where the seamount is colliding offshore of Fukushima. The second area with a high effective coefficient of basal friction coincides with the maximum slip location during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. The area of the 2011 earthquake rupture was topographically unique from other forearc regions in the Japan Trench. The strain energy accumulation near the trench axis may have proceeded because of the relatively high friction, and later this caused a large slip and collapse of the wedge. The location off Sanriku, where there are neither seamount collisions nor rupture propagation, also has a high coefficient of basal friction. The characteristics of the taper angle, effective coefficient of basal friction, and pore fluid pressure ratio along the Japan Trench presented herein may contribute to the understanding of the relationship between the geometry of the prism and the potential for generating seismo-tsunamigenic slips.

  2. Monsoon speeds up Indian plate motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iaffaldano, G.; Husson, L.; Bunge, H.

    2010-12-01

    Short-term plate motion variations on the order of a few Myrs are a powerful probe into the nature of plate boundary forces, as mantle-related buoyancies evolve on longer time-scales. New reconstructions of the ocean-floor spreading record reveal an increasing number of such variations, but the dynamic mechanisms producing them are still unclear. Here we show quantitatively that climate changes may impact the short-term evolution of plate motions by linking explicitly the observed counter-clockwise rotation of the Indian plate since ~10 Ma to increased erosion and reduced elevation along the eastern Himalayas, due to temporal variations in monsoon intensity. By assimilating observations into empirical relations for the competing contributions of erosion and mountain building, we estimate the first-order decrease in elevation along the eastern Himalayas since initial strengthening of the monsoon. Furthermore, we show with global geodynamic models of the coupled mantle/lithosphere system that the inferred reduction in elevation is consistent with the Indian plate motion record over the same period of time, and that lowered gravitational potential energy in the eastern Himalayas following stronger erosion is a key factor to foster plate convergence in this region. Our study implicates lateral variations in plate coupling and their temporal changes as an efficient source to induce an unusual form of plate motion where the Euler pole falls within its associated plate.

  3. Monsoon speeds up Indian plate motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iaffaldano, Giampiero; Husson, Laurent; Bunge, Hans-Peter

    2011-04-01

    Short-term plate motion variations on the order of a few Myr are a powerful probe into the nature of plate boundary forces, as mantle-related buoyancies evolve on longer time-scales. New reconstructions of the ocean-floor spreading record reveal an increasing number of such variations, but the dynamic mechanisms producing them are still unclear. Here we show quantitatively that climate changes may impact the short-term evolution of plate motion by linking explicitly the observed counter-clockwise rotation of the Indian plate since ~ 10 Ma to increased erosion and reduced elevation along the eastern Himalayas, due to temporal variations in monsoon intensity. By assimilating observations into empirical relations for the competing contributions of erosion and mountain building, we estimate the first-order decrease in elevation along the eastern Himalayas since initial strengthening of the monsoon. Furthermore, we show with global geodynamic models of the coupled mantle/lithosphere system that the inferred reduction in elevation is consistent with the Indian plate motion record over the same period of time, and that lowered gravitational potential energy in the eastern Himalayas following stronger erosion is a key factor to foster plate convergence in this region. Our study implicates lateral variations in plate coupling and their temporal changes as an efficient source to induce an uncommon form of plate motion where the Euler pole falls within its associated plate.

  4. Earthquakes and Plate Boundaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Paul; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Contains the contents of the Student Investigation booklet of a Crustal Evolution Education Project (CEEP) instructional modules on earthquakes. Includes objectives, procedures, illustrations, worksheets, and summary questions. (MA)

  5. Toward understanding the post-collisional evolution of an orogen influenced by convergence at adjacent plate margins: Late Cretaceous-Tertiary thermotectonic history of the Apuseni Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merten, S.; Matenco, L.; Foeken, J. P. T.; Andriessen, P. A. M.

    2011-12-01

    The relationship between syn- to post-collisional orogenic shortening and stresses transmitted from other neighboring plate boundaries is important for understanding the kinematics of mountain belts, but has received little attention so far. The Apuseni Mountains are an example of an orogen in the interference zone between two other subduction systems located in the external Carpathians and Dinarides. This interference is demonstrated by the results of a combined thermochronological and structural field study that quantifies the post-collisional latest Cretaceous-Tertiary evolution. The exhumation history derived from apatite fission track and (U-Th)/He thermochronology indicates that the present-day topography of the Apuseni Mountains originates mainly from latest Cretaceous times, modified by two tectonic pulses during the Paleogene. The latter are suggested by cooling ages clustering around ˜45 Ma and ˜30 Ma and the associated shortening recorded along deep-seated fault systems. Paleogene exhumation pulses are similar in magnitude (˜3.5 km) and are coeval with the final collisional phases recorded in the Dinarides and with part of the Carpathian rotation around the Moesian promontory. These newly quantified Paleogene exhumation and shortening pulses contradict the general view of tectonic quiescence, subsidence and overall sedimentation for this time interval. The Miocene collapse of the Pannonian Basin did not induce significant regional exhumation along the western Apuseni flank, nor did the subsequent Carpathian collision. This is surprising in the overall context of Pannonian Basin formation and its subsequent inversion, in which the Apuseni Mountains were previously interpreted as being significantly uplifted in both deformation stages.

  6. Petrology and age of volcanic-arc rocks from the continental margin of the Bering Sea: implications for Early Eocene relocation of plate boundaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, A.S.; Pickthorn, L.-B.G.; Vallier, T.L.; Marlow, M. S.

    1989-01-01

    Eocene volcanic flow and dike rocks from the Beringian margin have arc characteristics, implying a convergent history for this region during the early Tertiary. Chemical and mineralogical compositions are similar to those of modern Aleutian-arc lavas. They also resemble volcanic-arc compositions from western mainland Alaska, although greater chemical diversity and a stronger continental influence are observed in the Alaskan mainland rocks. Early Eocene ages of 54.4-50.2 Ma for the Beringian samples are well constrained by conventional K-Ar ages of nine plagioclase separates and by concordant 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating and total-fusion experiments. A concordant U-Pb zircon age of 53 Ma for the quartz-diorite dike is in good agreement with the K-Ar data. Plate motion studies of the North Pacific Ocean indicate more northerly directed subduction prior to the Tertiary and a continuous belt of arc-type volcanism extending from Siberia, along the Beringian margin, into mainland Alaska. Around 56 Ma (chron 25-24), subduction changed to a more westerly direction and subduction-related volcanism ceased for most of mainland Alaska. The increasingly oblique angle of convergence should have ended subduction along the Beringian margin as well. However, consistent ages of 54-50 Ma indicate a final pulse in arc-type magmatism during this period of plate adjustment. -from Authors

  7. Analytical Solutions To Boundary Value Problem Of Free Vibration Of Sandwich Thin Circular Plates With Discrete Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?ur, K. K.; Jaroszewicz, J.; Dragun, ?.

    2015-08-01

    In the paper the influence function and the method of partial discretization in free axisymmetric vibration analysis of multilayered circular plates of constant and linearly variable thickness were presented. The effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia for the core as well as the facings were neglected. An analytical investigation based on the classical plate theory was made for the multilayered plate which satisfies Soko?owski's condition. Discretization of mass and replacing stiffness of a fixed circular plate were presented. Formulas of influence matrix and Bernstein-Kieropian's estimators for different steps of discretization were defined. The influence of variable distribution of parameters on the value of double estimators of natural basic and higher frequency of a sandwich circular plate was investigated.

  8. In-Situ Observations of Earthquake-Driven Fluid Pulses within the Japan Trench Plate Boundary Fault Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, P. M.; Brodsky, E. E.

    2014-12-01

    Fault valving and transient fluid flow has long been suspected to be an important process in the earthquake cycle, but has not previously been captured by direct measurements during an episode. In particular, earthquakes are thought to drive fluids in fault zones, but again, evidence has been limited to the geologic record. Here we report on the signature of fluid pumping events inside the Tohoku Fault associated with individual earthquakes. As part of the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST), a sub-seafloor temperature observatory was installed across the plate boundary fault zone that ruptured during the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake. The observatory consisted of 55 autonomous temperature sensing dataloggers extending up to 820 m below sea floor at a water depth of ~7 km. The temporary deployment recorded data from July 2012 through April 2013. In addition to measuring the frictional heat signal from the megathrust earthquake, the high-resolution temperature time series data reveal spatially coherent temperature transients following regional earthquakes. Temperature increases vertically upwards from a fracture zone and decreases downwards, which is consistent with the expected signature of a pulse entering the annulus from the fracture zone. The anomalies are a few hundredths of degree Celsius and occur repeatedly at depths that are independently interpreted to have higher fracture permeability. High-pass filtered data are spatially correlated in areas disturbed by transient fluid advection. Fluid pulses occur in response to over a dozen local earthquakes, including a Mw 5.4 on 14 October 2012, a Mw 5.5 on 11 November 2012, and a doublet of two very local Mw 7.2 intraplate earthquakes on 7 December 2012, along with its associated aftershocks. There does not appear to be a response to large far-field earthquakes such as the 28 October 2012 Mw 7.8 Haida Gwaii or 6 February 2013 Mw 8.0 Santa Cruz Islands earthquakes. These measurements provide the first in situ documentation of seismic pumping at fractured regions of the fault damage zone. Near fault measurements such as these may provide insight into drivers of earthquake occurrence. The redistribution of fluid pressures within fault zones, such as observed here in response to earthquakes, is a potential mechanism that may be involved in earthquake triggering.

  9. UNAVCO Enhanced data products for the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory, COCONet, and other regional networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puskas, C. M.; Phillips, D. A.; Mattioli, G. S.; Meertens, C. M.; Herring, T.; Murray, M. H.; Melbourne, T. I.; Boler, F. M.; Blewitt, G.; Larson, K. M.; Feaux, K.; Braun, J. J.; Small, E. E.

    2012-12-01

    As part of an initiative to improve data services and support new research in the geodetic community, UNAVCO and its partners are expanding our supported data products and releasing new visualization tools. The enhanced data products, primarily associated with the UNAVCO-managed EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) and COCONet project, have open access and are archived at UNAVCO. UNAVCO manages community data services for a range of geodetic systems: GPS, borehole strainmeters, laser strainmeters, tiltmeters, pore pressure sensors, and geodetic imaging (InSAR, LIDAR, and terrestrial laser scanning). As part of the expansion, UNAVCO will incorporate data products submitted or downloaded from outside agencies. We focus here on the GPS products, which will include improved geodetic coverage in the western U.S. and expanded coverage in North America, access to new station quality parameters, information on site hydrologic conditions, and hydrologic loading models. Existing, open-access GPS stations from other networks are being incorporated into current 1112-station PBO processing stream to obtain station position time series and velocities for an additional 500+ stations. The primary data sources will be the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN), the Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center (SOPAC), and the National Geodetic Survey's Continuously Operating Reference (NGS CORS) network. These additional stations will comprise a backbone network across continental North America to better resolve the surface velocity field in central and eastern U.S. and Canada, regions not presently covered by PBO. The expanded geographic coverage will address possible tectonic signals on a continental scale and will improve resolution of intraplate seismic zones and glacial-isostatic adjustments. The large data set will also have non-tectonic applications such as hydrologic studies, reference frame determination, and atmospheric studies. Station quality parameters will be made available through a new seamless archive. Site soil moisture, snowpack, and vegetation will be released through the PBO H20 data portal, while regional and seasonal hydrologic loads will be modeled to determine the contribution of soil moisture and snow load variations to local deformation. The enhanced data products will be presented here, along with data processing, archiving, availability, and examples.

  10. Constraints on fault slip rates of the southern California plate boundary from GPS velocity and stress inversions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Becker, T.W.; Hardebeck, J.L.; Anderson, G.

    2005-01-01

    We use Global Positioning System (GPS) velocities and stress orientations inferred from seismicity to invert for the distribution of slip on faults in the southern California plate-boundary region. Of particular interest is how long-term slip rates are partitioned between the Indio segment of the San Andreas fault (SAF), the San Jacinto fault (SJF) and the San Bernardino segment of the SAE We use two new sets of constraints to address this problem. The first is geodetic velocities from the Southern California Earthquake Center's (SCEC) Crustal Motion Map (version 3 by Shen et al.), which includes significantly more data than previous models. The second is a regional model of stress-field orientations at seismogenic depths, as determined from earthquake focal mechanisms. While GPS data have been used in similar studies before, this is the first application of stress-field observations to this problem. We construct a simplified model of the southern California fault system, and estimate the interseismic surface velocities using a backslip approach with purely elastic strain accumulation, following Meade et al. In addition, we model the stress orientations at seismogenic depths, assuming that crustal stress results from the loading of active faults. The geodetically derived stressing rates are found to be aligned with the stress orientations from seismicity. We therefore proceed to invert simultaneously GPS and stress observations for slip rates of the faults in our network. We find that the regional patterns of crustal deformation as imaged by both data sets can be explained by our model, and that joint inversions lead to better constrained slip rates. In our preferred model, the SJF accommodates ???15 mm yr-1 and the Indio segment of the SAF ???23 mm yr-1 of right-lateral motion, accompanied by a low slip rate on the San Bernardino segment of the SAF 'Anomalous' fault segments such as around the 1992 Mw = 7.3 Landers surface rupture can be detected. There, observed stresses deviate strongly from the long-term loading as predicted by our simple model. Evaluation of model misfits together with information from palaeoseismology may provide further insights into the time dependence of strain accumulation along the San Andreas system. ?? 2004 RAS.

  11. Seismic Tomography of the Southern California Plate Boundary Region from Noise-Based Rayleigh and Love Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zigone, Dimitri; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Campillo, Michel; Roux, Philippe

    2015-05-01

    We use cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise between pairs of 158 broadband and short-period sensors to investigate velocity structure over the top 5-10 km of the crust in the Southern California plate boundary region around the San Jacinto Fault Zone (SJFZ). From the 9-component correlation tensors associated with all station pairs we derive dispersion curves of Rayleigh and Love wave group velocities. The dispersion results are inverted first for Rayleigh and Love waves group velocity maps on a 1.5 × 1.5 km2 grid that includes portions of the SJFZ, the San Andreas Fault (SAF), and the Elsinore fault. We then invert these maps to 3D shear wave velocities in the top ~7 km of the crust. The distributions of the Rayleigh and Love group velocities exhibit 2? azimuthal anisotropy with fast directions parallel to the main faults and rotations in complex areas. The reconstructed 3D shear velocity model reveals complex shallow structures correlated with the main geological units, and strong velocity contrasts across various fault sections along with low-velocity damage zones and basins. The SJFZ is marked by a clear velocity contrast with higher V s values on the NE block for the section SE of the San Jacinto basin and a reversed contrast across the section between the San Jacinto basin and the SAF. Velocity contrasts are also observed along the southern parts on the SAF and the Elsinore fault, with a faster southwest block in both cases. The region around the Salton Trough is associated with a significant low-velocity zone. Strong velocity reductions following flower-shape with depth are observed extensively around both the SJFZ and the SAF, and are especially prominent in areas of geometrical complexity. In particular, the area between the SJFZ and the SAF is associated with an extensive low-velocity zone correlated with diffuse seismicity at depth, and a similar pattern including correlation with deep diffuse seismicity is observed on a smaller scale in the trifurcation area of the SJFZ. These results augment local earthquake tomography images that have low resolution in the top few km of the crust, and provide important constraints for studies concerned with behavior of earthquake ruptures, generation of rock damage, and seismic shaking hazard in the region.

  12. Convergent crater circulations on Mars: Influence on the surface pressure cycle and the depth of the convective boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, Daniel; Barnes, Jeffrey R.

    2015-09-01

    Modeling of slope flow circulations in idealized axisymmetric craters is used to understand (1) the large surface pressure amplitude observed in Gale Crater by the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station and (2) the shallow convective boundary layer (CBL) suggested by Curiosity imagery. Air temperatures vary within craters with greater amplitudes than outside them, becoming warmer/colder during day/night. This crater circulation effect is most significant over the depth of the crater (key parameter). Within the idealized craters, a surface pressure cycle develops (in the real atmosphere it is enhanced). Partially caused by thermal expansion, a "surge" of mass away from the craters develops during daytime. Over crater floors, the CBL depth is inhibited by a capping inversion from the adiabatic warming of widespread daytime subsidence. For a variety of craters (radius, depth, and with or without a central mound), the results are very similar. In real-atmosphere simulations over canyons or large basins, similar circulations are seen.

  13. GPS and seismological constraints on active tectonics and arc-continent collision in Papua New Guinea: Implications for mechanics of microplate rotations in a plate boundary zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Laura M.; Stevens, Colleen; Silver, Eli; McCaffrey, Rob; Loratung, Wesley; Hasiata, Suvenia; Stanaway, Richard; Curley, Robert; Rosa, Robert; Taugaloidi, Jones

    2004-05-01

    The island of New Guinea is located within the deforming zone between the Pacific and Australian plates that converge obliquely at ˜110 mm/yr. New Guinea has been fragmented into a complex array of microplates, some of which rotate rapidly about nearby vertical axes. We present velocities from a network of 38 Global Positioning System (GPS) sites spanning much of the nation of Papua New Guinea (PNG). The GPS-derived velocities are used to explain the kinematics of major tectonic blocks in the region and the nature of strain accumulation on major faults in PNG. We simultaneously invert GPS velocities, earthquake slip vectors on faults, and transform orientations in the Woodlark Basin for the poles of rotation of the tectonic blocks and the degree of elastic strain accumulation on faults in the region. The data are best explained by six distinct tectonic blocks: the Australian, Pacific, South Bismarck, North Bismarck, and Woodlark plates and a previously unrecognized New Guinea Highlands Block. Significant portions of the Ramu-Markham Fault appear to be locked, which has implications for seismic hazard determination in the Markham Valley region. We also propose that rapid clockwise rotation of the South Bismarck plate is controlled by edge forces initiated by the collision between the Finisterre arc and the New Guinea Highlands.

  14. 3-D simulation of temporal change in tectonic deformation pattern and evolution of the plate boundary around the Kanto Region of Japan due to the collision of the Izu-Bonin Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashima, A.; Sato, T.; Ito, T.; Miyauchi, T.; Furuya, H.; Tsumura, N.; Kameo, K.; Yamamoto, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Kanto region of Japan is in a highly complex tectonic setting with four plates interacting with each other: beneath Kanto, situated on the Eurasian and North American plates, the Philippine sea plate subducts and the Pacific plate further descends beneath the North American and Philippine sea plates, forming the unique trench-trench-trench triple junction on the earth. In addition, the Izu-Bonin (Ogasawara) arc on the Philippine sea plate is colliding with the Japan islands, which is considered to be a significant effect on the tectonics of Kanto. To reveal the present crustal structure and the present internal stress fields in such a complex tectonic setting, it is essential to comprehend them through the long-term tectonic evolution process. In this study, we estimate the temporal change in tectonic deformation pattern along with the geometry of the plate boundary around Kanto by numerical simulation with a kinematic plate subduction model based on the elastic dislocation theory. This model is based on the idea that mechanical interaction between plates can rationally be represented by the increase of the displacement discontinuity (dislocation) across plate interfaces. Given the 3-D geometry of plate interfaces, the distribution of slip rate vectors for simple plate subduction can be obtained directly from relative plate velocities. In collision zones, the plate with arc crust cannot easily descend because of its buoyancy. This can be represented by giving slip-rate deficit. When crustal deformation occurs, it also causes change in geometry of the plate boundary itself. This geometry change sensitively affects mechanical interaction at the plate boundary. Then the renewed plate-to-plete interaction alters crustal deformation rates. This feedback system has a large effect on collision zones. Indeed, the plate boundary around the Izu peninsula, the northernmost end of the Izu-Bonin arc, intends landward as large as 100 km. Iterating this effect sequentially backward in time, we numerically simulated the evolution of the deformation rates in Kanto. The result shows uplifts in the Akaishi and the Kanto ranges ahead of the Izu-Bonin arc and subsidence in the center of the Kanto plane. This result is consistent with the topography, the free-air gravity anomaly and the height of paleo-shorelines in this area.

  15. Numerical solutions of the Von Karman equations for a thin plate

    SciTech Connect

    Da Silva, P.P.; Krauth, W.

    1997-04-01

    In this paper, we present an algorithm for the solution of the von Karman equations of elasticity theory and related problems. Our method of successive reconditioning is able to avoid convergence problems at any ratio of the nonlinear stretching and the pure bending energies. We illustrate the power of the method by numerical calculations of pinched or compressed plates subject to fixed boundaries.

  16. Vertical tectonics at a continental crust-oceanic plateau plate boundary zone: Fission track thermochronology of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villagómez, Diego; Spikings, Richard; Mora, AndréS.; GuzmáN, Georgina; Ojeda, GermáN.; CortéS, Elizabeth; van der Lelij, Roelant

    2011-08-01

    The topographically prominent Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta forms part of a faulted block of continental crust located along the northern boundary of the South American Plate, hosts the highest elevation in the world (˜5.75 km) whose local base is at sea level, and juxtaposes oceanic plateau rocks of the Caribbean Plate. Quantification of the amount and timing of exhumation constrains interpretations of the history of the plate boundary, and the driving forces of rock uplift along the active margin. The Sierra Nevada Province of the southernmost Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta exhumed at elevated rates (?0.2 Km/My) during 65-58 Ma in response to the collision of the Caribbean Plateau with northwestern South America. A second pulse of exhumation (?0.32 Km/My) during 50-40 Ma was driven by underthrusting of the Caribbean Plate beneath northern South America. Subsequent exhumation at 40-25 Ma (?0.15 Km/My) is recorded proximal to the Santa Marta-Bucaramanga Fault. More northerly regions of the Sierra Nevada Province exhumed rapidly during 26-29 Ma (˜0.7 Km/My). Further northward, the Santa Marta Province exhumed at elevated rates during 30-25 Ma and 25-16 Ma. The highest exhumation rates within the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta progressed toward the northwest via the propagation of NW verging thrusts. Exhumation is not recorded after ˜16 Ma, which is unexpected given the high elevation and high erosive power of the climate, implying that rock and surface uplift that gave rise to the current topography was very recent (i.e., ?1 Ma?), and there has been insufficient time to expose the fossil apatite partial annealing zone.

  17. Kinematic modeling of fault slip rates using new geodetic velocities from a transect across the Pacific-North America plate boundary through the San Bernardino Mountains, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGill, Sally F.; Spinler, Joshua C.; McGill, John D.; Bennett, Richard A.; Floyd, Michael A.; Fryxell, Joan E.; Funning, Gareth J.

    2015-04-01

    Campaign GPS data collected from 2002 to 2014 result in 41 new site velocities from the San Bernardino Mountains and vicinity. We combined these velocities with 93 continuous GPS velocities and 216 published velocities to obtain a velocity profile across the Pacific-North America plate boundary through the San Bernardino Mountains. We modeled the plate boundary-parallel, horizontal deformation with 5-14 parallel and one obliquely oriented screw dislocations within an elastic half-space. Our rate for the San Bernardino strand of the San Andreas Fault (6.5 ± 3.6 mm/yr) is consistent with recently published latest Quaternary rates at the 95% confidence level and is slower than our rate for the San Jacinto Fault (14.1 ± 2.9 mm/yr). Our modeled rate for all faults of the Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ) combined (15.7 ± 2.9 mm/yr) is faster than the summed latest Quaternary rates for these faults, even when an estimate of permanent, off-fault deformation is included. The rate discrepancy is concentrated on faults near the 1992 Landers and 1999 Hector Mine earthquakes; the geodetic and geologic rates agree within uncertainties for other faults within the ECSZ. Coupled with the observation that postearthquake deformation is faster than the pre-1992 deformation, this suggests that the ECSZ geodetic-geologic rate discrepancy is directly related to the timing and location of these earthquakes and is likely the result of viscoelastic deformation in the mantle that varies over the timescale of an earthquake cycle, rather than a redistribution of plate boundary slip at a timescale of multiple earthquake cycles or longer.

  18. Large-scale right-slip displacement on the East San Francisco Bay Region fault system, California: Implications for location of late Miocene to Pliocene Pacific plate boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, R.J.; Sliter, W.V.; Sorg, D.H.; Russell, P.C.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.

    1996-01-01

    A belt of northwardly younging Neogene and Quaternary volcanic rocks and hydrothermal vein systems, together with a distinctive Cretaceous terrane of the Franciscan Complex (the Permanente terrane), exhibits about 160 to 170 km of cumulative dextral offset across faults of the East San Francisco Bay Region (ESFBR) fault system. The offset hydrothermal veins and volcanic rocks range in age from .01 Ma at the northwest end to about 17.6 Ma at the southeast end. In the fault block between the San Andreas and ESFBR fault systems, where volcanic rocks are scarce, hydrothermal vein system ages clearly indicate that the northward younging thermal overprint affected these rocks beginning about 18 Ma. The age progression of these volcanic rocks and hydrothermal vein systems is consistent with previously proposed models that relate northward propagation of the San Andreas transform to the opening of an asthenospheric window beneath the North American plate margin in the wake of subducting lithosphere. The similarity in the amount of offset of the Permanente terrane across the ESFBR fault system to that derived by restoring continuity in the northward younging age progression of volcanic rocks and hydrothermal veins suggests a model in which 80-110 km of offset are taken up 8 to 6 Ma on a fault aligned with the Bloomfield-Tolay-Franklin-Concord-Sunol-Calaveras faults. An additional 50-70 km of cumulative slip are taken up ??? 6 Ma by the Rogers Creek-Hayward and Concord-Franklin-Sunol-Calaveras faults. An alternative model in which the Permanente terrane is offset about 80 km by pre-Miocene faults does not adequately restore the distribution of 8-12 Ma volcanic rocks and hydrothermal veins to a single northwardly younging age trend. If 80-110 km of slip was taken up by the ESFBR fault system between 8 and 6 Ma, dextral slip rates were 40-55 mm/yr. Such high rates might occur if the ESFBR fault system rather than the San Andreas fault acted as the transform margin at this time. Major transpression across the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates at about 3 to 5 Ma would have resulted in the transfer of significant slip back to the San Francisco Peninsula segment of the San Andreas fault. Since that time, the ESFBR fault system has continued to slip at rates of 11-14 mm/yr. If this interpretation is valid, the ESFBR fault system was the Pacific-North American plate boundary between 8 and 6 Ma, and this boundary has migrated both eastward and westward with time, in response to changing plate margin geometry and plate motions.

  19. BOLIVAR: Crustal structure of the Caribbean-South America plate boundary between 60W and 70W from wide-angle seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelt, C. A.; Christeson, G. L.; Magnani, M. B.; Clark, S. A.; Guedez, M. C.; Bezada, M.; Levander, A.; Schmitz, M.

    2007-12-01

    We present the results from five wide-angle seismic profiles collected onshore and offshore Venezuela in 2004 as part of the Broadband Ocean Land Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region project (BOLIVAR). The study area is the diffuse plate boundary between South America (SA) and the SE Caribbean plate (CAR) covering roughly 1000 km by 500 km. Over the past 55 My the Leeward Antilles island arc that borders the CAR plate has been colliding obliquely with the SA continent resulting in a collision front that has migrated from west to east. The five wide-angle profiles sample different stages of the time-transgressive margin from west to east, each crossing the margin roughly perpendicularly. The main purpose of this presentation is to contrast and compare the crustal velocity structure along these profiles to better understand the tectonic processes that are responsible for the evolution and present-day configuration of the plate boundary. Each of the wide-angle profiles is about 500 km in length and includes both onshore and offshore shots and receivers, except the easternmost profile, which is entirely offshore. The dense wide-angle data were modeled in the same way along each profile using a two-step, layer-stripping approach: (1) the first-arrival times were tomographically inverted for a smooth velocity model, and (2) the lower crust, Moho, and uppermost mantle were determined by simultaneous inversion of the PmP refection and Pn refraction phases while keeping the upper and middle crust from the first step fixed. The five models show tremendous lateral heterogeneity, as they cross features such as normal oceanic crust, oceanic plateau crust, an accretionary wedge, active and remnant island arcs, forearc and foreland basins, a major strike-slip system, a fold and thrust belt, and the edge of cratonic continental crust. Two of the main contributions of the wide-angle models to the BOLIVAR project, and the focus of this presentation, are the Moho structure, which is generally not imaged in the coincident reflection data (see Magnani et al., this session), and the 1-D velocity structure of the tectonic units that make up the diffuse plate boundary. The first-order results are (1) a general smoothing and flattening of Moho topography from the youngest to oldest parts of the margin (east to west), suggesting a "relaxation" of the Moho, (2) an offset in the Moho roughly beneath the strike-slip fault system, more pronounced in the east, suggesting that the deformation is not confined to the crust, and (3) high crustal velocities at all depths within the island arc.

  20. PBO Nucleus Project Summary: The Successful Integration of 209 Existing GPS Sions in the Plate Boundary Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume, F.; Miller, M.; Boyce, E.; Borsa, A.; Eriksson, S.

    2008-12-01

    Tectonic and earthquake research in the US has experienced a quiet revolution over the last decade precipitated by the recognition that slow-motion faulting events can both trigger and be triggered by regular earthquakes. Transient motion has now been found in essentially all tectonic environments, and the detection and analysis of such events is the first-order science target of the EarthScope Project. Because of this and a host of other fundamental tectonics questions that can be answered only with long-duration geodetic time series, the 1100-station EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network was designed to leverage 445 existing continuous GPS stations whose measurements extend back over a decade. The irreplaceable recording history of these stations will accelerate EarthScope scientific return by providing the highest possible resolution. This resolution will be used to detect and understand transients, to determine the three-dimensional velocity field (particularly vertical motion), and to improve measurement precision by understanding the complex noise sources inherent in GPS. The PBO Nucleus project supports the operation, maintenance and hardware upgrades of a subset of the six western U.S. geodetic networks until they are subsumed by PBO. Uninterrupted data flow from these stations will effectively double the time-series length of PBO over the expected life of EarthScope, and has created, for the first time, a single GPS-based geodetic network in the US. The other existing sites remain in operation under support from non-NSF sources (e.g. the USGS), and EarthScope continues to benefit from their continued operation On the grounds of relevance to EarthScope science goals, geographic distribution and data quality, 209 of the 432 existing stations were selected as the nucleus upon which to build PBO. Conversion of these stations to a PBO-compatible mode of operation was begun under previous funding, and as a result data now flow directly to PBO archives and processing centers while maintenance, operations, and meta-data requirements are continue to be upgraded to PBO standards. At the end of this project all 209 stations have been fully incorporated into PBO, meeting all standards for new PBO construction including data communications and land use permits. Funds for operation of these stations have been included in approved budgets for PBO's Operations and Maintenance phase. The data from these stations serve a much larger audience than just the few people who work to keep them operating. This project is now collecting the data that will be used by the next generation of solid-earth researchers for at least two decades. Educational modules are being developed by a team of researchers, educators, and curriculum development professionals, and are being disseminated through regional and national workshops. An interactive website provides the newest developments in tectonics research to K-16 classrooms. class="ab'>

  1. Introducing tectonically and thermo-mechanically realistic lithosphere in the models of plume head -lithosphere interactions (PLI) including intra-continental plate boundaries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillou-Frottier, L.; Burov, E.; Cloetingh, S.

    2007-12-01

    Plume-Lithosphere Interactions (PLI) in continets have complex topographic and magmatic signatures and are often identified near boundaries between younger plates (e.g., orogenic) and older stable plates (e.g., cratons), which represent important geometrical, thermal and rheological barriers that interact with the emplacement of the plume head (e.g., Archean West Africa, East Africa, Pannonian - Carpathian system). The observable PLI signatures are conditioned by plume dynamics but also by complex rheology and structure of continental lithosphere. We address this problem by considering a new free-surface thermo-mechanical numerical model of PLI with two stratified elasto-viscous-plastic (EVP) continental plates of contrasting age, thickness and structure. The results show that: (1) surface deformation is poly-harmonic and contains smaller wavelengths (50-500 km) than that associated with the plume head (>1000 km). (2) below intra-plate boundaries, plume head flattening is asymmetric, it is blocked from one side by the cold vertical boundary of the older plate, which leads to mechanical decoupling of crust from mantle lithosphere, and to localized faulting at the cratonic margin; (2) the return flow from the plume head results in sub-vertical down-thrusting (delamination) of the lithosphere at the margin, producing sharp vertical cold boundary down to the 400 km depth; (3) plume head flattening and migration towards the younger plate results in concurrent surface extension above the centre of the plume and in compression (pushing), down-thrusting and magmatic events at the cratonic margin (down-thrusting is also produced at the opposite border of the younger plate); these processes may result in continental growth at the "craton side"; (4) topographic signatures of PLI show basin-scale uplifts and subsidences preferentially located at cratonic margins. Negative Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in the lithosphere above the plume head provide a mechanism for crustal delamination. In case of several cratonic blocks, the combined effect of subsidence and lithospheric thinning at cratons edges, while plume head material is being stocked in between the cratons, favours major magmatic events at cratonic margins. Numerous field evidence (West Africa, Western Australia) underline the trapping effect of cratonic margins for formation of (e.g.) orogenic gold deposits, which require particular extreme P-T conditions. Location of gemstones deposits is also associated with cratonic margins, as demonstrated by the Tanzanian Ruby belt. Their formation depend on particularly fast isothermal deepening processes, which can be reproduced by slab-like instabilities induced by plume head-cratonic margin interaction. On the other hand, absence of magmatic events should not be interpreted as evidence for the absence of plume: at surface, these events may not necessary have unambiguous deep geochemical signatures, as the hot source plume material stalls below Moho and forms a long-lasting (10 to 100 Myr) sub-Moho reservoir. This should induce strong crustal melting that may overprint deeper signatures since crustal melts are generated at much lower temperatures than mantle, and produce light low-viscous rapidly ascending magmas. Drip-like down- sagging of the lithospheric mantle and metamorphic lower crustal material inside the plume head may contaminate the latter and also alter the geochemical signature of related magmas.

  2. Monsoon speeds up Indian plate motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iaffaldano, Giampiero; Husson, Laurent; Bunge, Hans-Peter

    2010-05-01

    Short-term plate motion variations on the order of a few Myrs are a powerful probe into the nature of plate boundary forces, as mantle-related buoyancies evolve on longer time-scales. New reconstructions of the ocean-floor spreading record reveal an increasing number of such variations, but the dynamic mechanisms producing them are still unclear. Here we show that climate changes may impact the short-term evolution of plate motion by linking the observed counter-clockwise rotation of the Indian plate since 10 Ma explicitly to increased erosion and reduced elevation along the eastern Himalayas, due to temporal variations in monsoon intensity. By assimilating observations into empirical relations for the competing contributions of erosion and mountain building, we estimate the first-order decrease in elevation along the eastern Himalayas since initial strenghtening of the monsoon. We show moreover with global geodynamic models of the coupled mantle/lithosphere system that the inferred reduction in elevation is consistent with the Indian plate motion record over the same period of time, and that lowered gravitational potential energy in the eastern Himalayas following stronger erosion is a key factor to foster plate convergence in this region. Our study implicates lateral variations in plate coupling and their temporal changes as an efficient source to induce an unusual form of plate motion where the Euler pole falls close to its associated plate. Importantly, we find less agreement between modelled and observed plate motions if we assume a larger Indo-Australian plate, supporting the notion that India and Australia were separate tectonic units prior to monsoon intensification.

  3. Mechanisms of convergence and extension by cell intercalation.

    PubMed

    Keller, R; Davidson, L; Edlund, A; Elul, T; Ezin, M; Shook, D; Skoglund, P

    2000-07-29

    The cells of many embryonic tissues actively narrow in one dimension (convergence) and lengthen in the perpendicular dimension (extension). Convergence and extension are ubiquitous and important tissue movements in metazoan morphogenesis. In vertebrates, the dorsal axial and paraxial mesodermal tissues, the notochordal and somitic mesoderm, converge and extend. In amphibians as well as a number of other organisms where these movements appear, they occur by mediolateral cell intercalation, the rearrangement of cells along the mediolateral axis to produce an array that is narrower in this axis and longer in the anteroposterior axis. In amphibians, mesodermal cell intercalation is driven by bipolar, mediolaterally directed protrusive activity, which appears to exert traction on adjacent cells and pulls the cells between one another. In addition, the notochordal-somitic boundary functions in convergence and extension by 'capturing' notochordal cells as they contact the boundary, thus elongating the boundary. The prospective neural tissue also actively converges and extends parallel with the mesoderm. In contrast to the mesoderm, cell intercalation in the neural plate normally occurs by monopolar protrusive activity directed medially, towards the midline notoplate-floor-plate region. In contrast, the notoplate-floor-plate region appears to converge and extend by adhering to and being towed by or perhaps migrating on the underlying notochord. Converging and extending mesoderm stiffens by a factor of three or four and exerts up to 0.6 microN force. Therefore, active, force-producing convergent extension, the mechanism of cell intercalation, requires a mechanism to actively pull cells between one another while maintaining a tissue stiffness sufficient to push with a substantial force. Based on the evidence thus far, a cell-cell traction model of intercalation is described. The essential elements of such a morphogenic machine appear to be (i) bipolar, mediolaterally orientated or monopolar, medially directed protrusive activity; (ii) this protrusive activity results in mediolaterally orientated or medially directed traction of cells on one another; (iii) tractive protrusions are confined to the ends of the cells; (iv) a mechanically stable cell cortex over the bulk of the cell body which serves as a movable substratum for the orientated or directed cell traction. The implications of this model for cell adhesion, regulation of cell motility and cell polarity, and cell and tissue biomechanics are discussed. PMID:11128984

  4. Mechanisms of convergence and extension by cell intercalation.

    PubMed Central

    Keller, R; Davidson, L; Edlund, A; Elul, T; Ezin, M; Shook, D; Skoglund, P

    2000-01-01

    The cells of many embryonic tissues actively narrow in one dimension (convergence) and lengthen in the perpendicular dimension (extension). Convergence and extension are ubiquitous and important tissue movements in metazoan morphogenesis. In vertebrates, the dorsal axial and paraxial mesodermal tissues, the notochordal and somitic mesoderm, converge and extend. In amphibians as well as a number of other organisms where these movements appear, they occur by mediolateral cell intercalation, the rearrangement of cells along the mediolateral axis to produce an array that is narrower in this axis and longer in the anteroposterior axis. In amphibians, mesodermal cell intercalation is driven by bipolar, mediolaterally directed protrusive activity, which appears to exert traction on adjacent cells and pulls the cells between one another. In addition, the notochordal-somitic boundary functions in convergence and extension by 'capturing' notochordal cells as they contact the boundary, thus elongating the boundary. The prospective neural tissue also actively converges and extends parallel with the mesoderm. In contrast to the mesoderm, cell intercalation in the neural plate normally occurs by monopolar protrusive activity directed medially, towards the midline notoplate-floor-plate region. In contrast, the notoplate-floor-plate region appears to converge and extend by adhering to and being towed by or perhaps migrating on the underlying notochord. Converging and extending mesoderm stiffens by a factor of three or four and exerts up to 0.6 microN force. Therefore, active, force-producing convergent extension, the mechanism of cell intercalation, requires a mechanism to actively pull cells between one another while maintaining a tissue stiffness sufficient to push with a substantial force. Based on the evidence thus far, a cell-cell traction model of intercalation is described. The essential elements of such a morphogenic machine appear to be (i) bipolar, mediolaterally orientated or monopolar, medially directed protrusive activity; (ii) this protrusive activity results in mediolaterally orientated or medially directed traction of cells on one another; (iii) tractive protrusions are confined to the ends of the cells; (iv) a mechanically stable cell cortex over the bulk of the cell body which serves as a movable substratum for the orientated or directed cell traction. The implications of this model for cell adhesion, regulation of cell motility and cell polarity, and cell and tissue biomechanics are discussed. PMID:11128984

  5. Inception of the eastern California shear zone and evolution of the PacificNorth American plate boundary: From kinematics

    E-print Network

    Liu, Mian

    Click Here for Full Article Inception of the eastern California shear zone and evolution, yet up to 25% of the relative plate motion is now accommodated by the eastern California shear zone and the ECSZ across the Mojave Desert. These results indicate causative relationship between the SAF

  6. A study by numerical methods of stability theory for a flat plate boundary layer of growing thickness 

    E-print Network

    Barry, Michael David John

    1970-01-01

    The research, which is described in the following chapters is designed to continue the studies made by Jordinson into the behaviour of small disturbances of constant frequency in the Blasius boundary layer over a flat ...

  7. Effect of inherited structures on strike-slip plate boundaries: insight from analogue modelling of the central Levant Fracture System, Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghalayini, Ramadan; Daniel, Jean-Marc; Homberg, Catherine; Nader, Fadi

    2015-04-01

    Analogue sandbox modeling is a tool to simulate deformation style and structural evolution of sedimentary basins. The initial goal is to test what is the effect of inherited and crustal structures on the propagation, evolution, and final geometry of major strike-slip faults at the boundary between two tectonic plates. For this purpose, we have undertaken a series of analogue models to validate and reproduce the structures of the Levant Fracture System, a major NNE-SSW sinistral strike-slip fault forming the boundary between the Arabian and African plates. Onshore observations and recent high quality 3D seismic data in the Levant Basin offshore Lebanon demonstrated that Mesozoic ENE striking normal faults were reactivated into dextral strike-slip faults during the Late Miocene till present day activity of the plate boundary which shows a major restraining bend in Lebanon with a ~ 30°clockwise rotation in its trend. Experimental parameters consisted of a silicone layer at the base simulating the ductile crust, overlain by intercalated quartz sand and glass sand layers. Pre-existing structures were simulated by creating a graben in the silicone below the sand at an oblique (>60°) angle to the main throughgoing strike-slip fault. The latter contains a small stepover at depth to create transpression during sinistral strike-slip movement and consequently result in mountain building similarly to modern day Lebanon. Strike-slip movement and compression were regulated by steady-speed computer-controlled engines and the model was scanned using a CT-scanner continuously while deforming to have a final 4D model of the system. Results showed that existing normal faults were reactivated into dextral strike-slip faults as the sinistral movement between the two plates accumulated. Notably, the resulting restraining bend is asymmetric and segmented into two different compartments with differing geometries. One compartment shows a box fold anticline, while the second shows an asymmetric anticline. Thus, analogue modeling has validated observation in seismic data and onshore geology whereby Mount Lebanon and adjacent folds exhibit similar compartmentalization and geometric dissimilarities along the Levant Fracture System. We suggest that the presence of inherited structures will affect to a certain extent the geometry of restraining bends and control the evolution of large strike-slip faults passing through.

  8. Simple methods for determining the virtual origin of turbulent boundary layers in hypersonic flow on sharp-edged flat plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    Two methods for determining the virtual origin of turbulent boundary layers in hypersonic flow are evaluated. The results of the analyses are restricted to wind-tunnel models having sharp-edged surfaces with zero or small pressure gradients. Virtual origin and skin friction estimates from these two methods are compared with values from a base method for which the virtual origin is calculated from the measured momentum thickness at a station downstream of boundary layer transition.

  9. Upper mantle deformation in the western US determined from seismic anisotropy; 2: Western North American plate boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Ozalaybey, S.; Savage, M.K. . Seismological Lab.); Silver, P.G. )

    1993-04-01

    The western margin of the North American plate includes subduction, transform faulting and a migrating triple junction. The authors have measured polarization azimuths ([phi]) and delay-times ([delta]t) of split shear waves. Stations located close to the northern end of the San Andreas fault, near the San Francisco Bay area yielded well-constrained but azimuthally varying splitting parameters. These can be explained by a model consisting of two anisotropic layers: an upper layer with fast direction parallel to the strike of the San Andreas fault and a lower layer with E-W fast direction. Both layers have average delay-times of 1[+-]0.3 s. The authors have found that an east-west fast feature is also present beneath stations in the Sierra-Nevada, the Mojave Desert and the Los Angeles area. These latter measurements do not require more than one layer. The E-W fast layer diminishes near the southern edge of the Gorda plate. The authors interpret their measurements as caused by single or double layers of homogeneously, transversely anisotropic material with horizontal symmetry axes due to strain-induced preferred orientation of olivine in the upper mantle. They suggest that the fault-parallel fast layer is the result of finite strain associated with the transform plate motion between the North American and Pacific plates. The deeper layer with E-W fast direction can not be associated with known surface tectonic features. One possible mechanisms for this E-W fast feature is that it may be related to the passage of the trailing edge of the Farallon plate as the slab migrated northward beneath central California. The shear associated with the different motion between the slab and the asthenosphere may cause mineral alignment leading to shear-wave splitting.

  10. Distribution and mechanism of Neogene to present-day vertical axis rotations, Pacific-Australian Plate Boundary Zone, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Timothy A.; Roberts, Andrew P.

    1997-01-01

    Remarkably little knowledge exists about mechanisms of vertical axis rotation in continental crust. Steeply dipping basement rocks in South Island, New Zealand, provide an opportunity to map the distribution of rotations across the Pacific-Australian plate boundary zone, and to delineate boundaries of rotated blocks in unusual detail. We synthesize new structural data with new and existing paleomagnetic data, with geodetic data, and with patterns of Neogene-Quaternary faulting in the strike-slip Marlborough fault system. For the past 20 m.y., vertical axis rotations have been hinged about two crustal-scale boundaries near the east coast. The NE hinge accommodated ˜50° of early-middle Miocene clockwise rotation, which caused deformation of the eastern ends of the Alpine-Wairau and Clarence strike-slip faults. The SW hinge has accommodated a further 30°-50° of finite clockwise rotation since ˜4 Ma and deflects active fault traces. The locus of rotation has shifted southwestward astride a subduction margin that is lengthening in that direction. Rotating rocks are pinned to the south against a locked collision zone where the continental Chatham Rise impinges against the margin. Slip on inland strike-slip faults is transformed seaward across a zone of fault termination into rigid body rotation of a large continental block that has been thrust eastward over the downgoing subducted slab of the Pacific plate. The rotation mechanism is a "migrating hinge," which resembles a flexed telephone book. Strike-slip faults are translated through a brecciated hinge region that does not coincide with a fixed material line in the rock.

  11. Along-strike variations in seismic structure of the locked-sliding transition on the plate boundary beneath the southern part of Kii Peninsula, southwestern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurashimo, E.; Iidaka, T.; Iwasaki, T.; Saiga, A.; Umeyama, E.; Tsumura, N.; Sakai, S.; Hirata, N.

    2013-12-01

    The Nankai trough region, where the Philippine Sea Plate (PHS) subducts beneath the SW Japan arc, is a well-known seismogenic zone of interplate earthquakes. A narrow zone of nonvolcanic tremor has been found in the SW Japan fore-arc, along strike of the arc (Obara, 2002). The epicentral distribution of tremor corresponds to the locked-sliding transition estimated from thermal and deformation models (Hyndman et al., 1995). The spatial distribution of the tremor is not homogeneous in a narrow belt but is spatially clustered. Obara [2002] suggested fluids as a source for tremor because of the long duration and the mobility of the tremor activity. The behavior of fluids at the plate interface is a key factor in understanding fault slip processes. Seismic reflection characteristics and seismic velocity variations can provide important information on the fluid-related heterogeneity of structure around plate interface. However, little is known about the deeper part of the plate boundary, especially the transition zone on the subducting plate. To reveal the seismic structure of the transition zone, we conducted passive and active seismic experiments in the southern part of Kii Peninsula, SW Japan. Sixty 3-component portable seismographs were installed on a 60-km-long line (SM-line) nearly perpendicular to the direction of the subduction of the PHS with approximately 1 km spacing. To improve accuracy of hypocenter locations, we additionally deployed six 3-component seismic stations around the survey line. Waveforms were continuously recorded during a five-month period from December, 2009. In October of 2010, a deep seismic profiling was also conducted. 290 seismometers were deployed on the SM-line with about 200 m spacing, on which five explosives shots were fired as controlled seismic sources. Arrival times of local earthquakes and explosive shots were used in a joint inversion for earthquake locations and 3-D Vp and Vp/Vs structures, using the iterative damped least-squares algorithm, simul2000 (Thurber and Eberhart-Phillips, 1999). To obtain the detailed structure image of the transition zone on the subducting plate, the explosive shot data recorded on the SM-line were processed using the seismic reflection technique. Seismic reflection image shows the lateral variation of the reflectivity along the top of the PHS. A clear reflection band is present where the clustered tremors occurred. The depth section of Vp/Vs structure shows the lateral variation of the Vp/Vs values along the top of the PHS. Clustered tremors are located in and around the high Vp/Vs zone. These results suggest the occurrence of the tremors may be associated with fluids dehydrated from the subducted oceanic lithosphere.

  12. A revised estimate of Pacific-North America motion and implications for Western North America plate boundary zone tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demets, Charles; Gordon, Richard G.; Stein, Seth; Argus, Donald F.

    1987-01-01

    Marine magnetic profiles from the Gulf of Californa are studied in order to revise the estimate of Pacific-North America motion. It is found that since 3 Ma spreading has averaged 48 mm/yr, consistent with a new global plate motion model derived without any data. The present data suggest that strike-slip motion on faults west of the San Andreas is less than previously thought, reducing the San Andreas discrepancy with geodetic, seismological, and other geologic observations.

  13. Plate boundary behaviour, recent uplift, and seismic hazard along the Central Alpine Fault near the Whataroa River, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pascale, G. P.; Davies, T. R.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding plate boundary behaviour is a major objective in seismotectonics to better understand and mitigate seismic hazards. Field- and light detection and ranging (lidar)-derived topographic mapping, geological characterisation, and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of on-fault sediments were used to better constrain rangefront deformation of the Southern Alps at the Alpine Fault near the Whataroa River. The Alpine Fault, which forms the plate boundary in the South Island of New Zealand, is thought to rupture in large to great earthquakes (most recently in 1717 AD). Here the fault is dextral-reverse, although primarily strike-slip with clear fault traces cutting across older surfaces of varying elevations and ages. Deformational bulges are observed along these traces that are likely thrust-bounded. A terrace of Whataroa River sediments on the hanging wall of the fault approximately ~ 55-75 m (when considering uncertainties) above the floodplain of the Whataroa. OSL ages for hanging wall sediments of ~ 11 ka in this terrace, ~ 2.8 ka for Whataroa River terrace deposits in a deformational bulge, and ~ 11.1 ka for a rangefront-derived fan and aggradation along the rangefront and Holocene hanging wall uplift rates of ~6.0 + or - 1 mm/yr at the fault. These Whataroa River-sourced terrace deposits suggest that the adjacent bounding faults are steeply-dipping, with no geometries in the shallow subsurface that would tend to cause rotation and tilting. Because GPS-derived "interseismic" vertical uplift rates are < 1 mm/yr here, the majority of rock uplift at the rangefront happens during episodic major Alpine Fault earthquakes. Additionally, our recent data on fault behaviour based on mapping and field measurements indicate that the fault may not exhibit characteristic rupture behaviour. We suggest instead 'bimodal behavior' where the AF exhibits both 'partial' (rupture length <300 km; moment magnitude, Mw, 6.5 to 7.8) and 'full' (rupture length ?300 km; Mw ? 7.9) ruptures. This further questions the validity of the characteristic earthquake model for seismic hazard assessments. Finally, we present a appraisal of the active South Westland Fault Zone, including new outcrop mapping that demonstrates other important sources of seismic hazard exist near this plate boundary.

  14. Nonlinear dynamic response of laminated composite plates subjected to pulse loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, A. K.; Pandey, Ramesh; Shukla, K. K.

    2011-11-01

    An analytical solution methodology for the non-linear dynamic displacement response of laminated composite plates subjected to different types of pulse loading is presented. The mathematical formulation is based on third-order shear deformation plate theory and von-Karman non-linear kinematics. Fast-converging finite double Chebyshev series is employed for evaluating the displacement response. Houbolt time marching scheme is used for temporal discretization and quadratic extrapolation technique is used for linearization. The effects of magnitude and duration of the pulse load, boundary conditions and plate parameters on the central displacement and bending moment responses are studied.

  15. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2007, Nazca Plate and South America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rhea, Susan; Hayes, Gavin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Furlong, Kevin P.; Tarr, Arthur C.; Benz, Harley

    2010-01-01

    The South American arc extends over 7,000 km, from the Chilean triple junction offshore of southern Chile to its intersection with the Panama fracture zone, offshore the southern coast of Panama in Central America. It marks the plate boundary between the subducting Nazca plate and the South America plate, where the oceanic crust and lithosphere of the Nazca plate begin their decent into the mantle beneath South America. The convergence associated with this subduction process is responsible for the uplift of the Andes Mountains, and for the active volcanic chain present along much of this deformation front. Relative to a fixed South America plate the Nazca plate moves slightly north of eastwards at a rate varying from approximately 80 mm/yr in the south to approximately 70mm/yr in the north.

  16. Heat Transfer Analysis for Stationary Boundary Layer Slip Flow of a Power-Law Fluid in a Darcy Porous Medium with Plate Suction/Injection

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Asim; Ali, Yasir; Aziz, Taha; Siddique, J. I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the slip effects on the boundary layer flow and heat transfer characteristics of a power-law fluid past a porous flat plate embedded in the Darcy type porous medium. The nonlinear coupled system of partial differential equations governing the flow and heat transfer of a power-law fluid is transformed into a system of nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations by applying a suitable similarity transformation. The resulting system of ordinary differential equations is solved numerically using Matlab bvp4c solver. Numerical results are presented in the form of graphs and the effects of the power-law index, velocity and thermal slip parameters, permeability parameter, suction/injection parameter on the velocity and temperature profiles are examined. PMID:26407162

  17. Enigma of earthquakes at ridge-transform-fault plate boundaries - Distribution of non-double couple parameter of Harvard CMT solutions. [Centroid Moment Tensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kawakatsu, Hitoshi )

    1991-06-01

    The distribution of the non-double couple parameter of shallow earthquakes reported in the Harvard CMT catalogue shows systematic characteristics depending on the epicentral locations and types of fault mechanisms. The authors suggest that they can be explained by the presence of subevents with different double couple mechanisms in a single rupture sequence. The earthquakes at the ridge-transform-fault plate boundaries show a particularly interesting pattern. It is suggested that two types of faulting expected in the area (i.e., normal faults at ridges and strike slip faults at transform-faults) tend to occur almost simultaneously, although this hypothesis needs to be delineated by careful analyses using bodywave waveforms.

  18. Physical analysis and second-order modelling of an unsteady turbulent flow - The oscillating boundary layer on a flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ha Minh, H.; Viegas, J. R.; Rubesin, M. W.; Spalart, P.; Vandromme, D. D.

    1989-01-01

    The turbulent boundary layer under a freestream whose velocity varies sinusoidally in time around a zero mean is computed using two second order turbulence closure models. The time or phase dependent behavior of the Reynolds stresses are analyzed and results are compared to those of a previous SPALART-BALDWIN direct simulation. Comparisons show that the second order modeling is quite satisfactory for almost all phase angles, except in the relaminarization period where the computations lead to a relatively high wall shear stress.

  19. Drought-induced uplift in the western United States as observed by the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory GPS network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsa, A. A.; Agnew, D. C.; Cayan, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    The western United States (WUS) has been experiencing severe drought since 2013. The solid earth response to the accompanying loss of surface and near-surface water mass should be a broad region of uplift. We use seasonally-adjusted time series from continuously operating GPS stations in the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory and several smaller networks to measure this uplift, which reaches 15 mm in the California Coastal Ranges and Sierra Nevada and has a median value of 4 mm over the entire WUS. The pattern of mass loss due to the drought, which we recover from an inversion of uplift observations, ranges up to 50 cm of water equivalent and is consistent with observed decreases in precipitation and streamflow. We estimate the total deficit to be 240 Gt, equivalent to a uniform 10 cm layer of water over the entire region, or the magnitude of the current annual mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet. In the WUS, interannual changes in crustal loading are driven by changes in cool-season precipitation, which cause variations in surface water, snowpack, soil moisture, and groundwater. The results here demonstrate that the existing network of continuous GPS stations can be used to recover loading changes due to both wet and dry climate patterns. This suggests a new role for GPS networks such as that of the Plate Boundary Observatory. The exceptional stability of the GPS monumentation means that this network is also capable of monitoring the long-term effects of regional climate change. Surface displacement observations from GPS have the potential to expand the capabilities of the current hydrological observing network for monitoring current and future hydrological changes, with obvious social and economic benefits.

  20. When Boundary Layers Collide: Plumes v. Subduction Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moresi, L. N.; Betts, P. G.; Miller, M. S.; Willis, D.; O'Driscoll, L.

    2014-12-01

    Many subduction zones retreat while hotspots remain sufficiently stable in the mantle to provide an approximate reference frame. As a consequence, the mantle can be thought of as an unusual convecting system which self-organises to promote frequent collisions of downgoing material with upwellings. We present three 3D numerical models of subduction where buoyant material from a plume head and an associated ocean-island chain or plateau produce flat slab subduction and deformation of the over-riding plate. We observe transient instabilities of the convergent margin including: contorted trench geometry; trench migration parallel with the plate margin; folding of the subducting slab and orocline development at the convergent margin; and transfer of the plateau to the overriding plate. The presence of plume material beneath the oceanic plateau causes flat subduction above the plume, resulting in a "bowed" shaped subducting slab. In the absence of a plateau at the surface, the slab can remain uncoupled from the over-riding plate during very shallow subduction and hence there is very little shortening at the surface or advance of the plate boundary. In plateau-only models, plateau accretion at the edge of the overriding plate results in trench migration around the edge of the plateau before subduction re-establishes directly behind the trailing edge of the plateau. The plateau shortens during accretion and some plateau material subducts. In a plateau-plus-plume model, accretion is associated with rapid trench advance as the flat slab drives the plateau into the margin. This indentation stops once a new convergent boundary forms close to the original trench location. A slab window formed beneath the accreted plateau allows plume material to flow from beneath the subducting plate to the underside of the overriding plate. In all of these models the subduction zone maintains a relatively stable configuration away from the buoyancy anomalies within the downgoing plate. The models provide a dynamic context for plateau and plume accretion in accretionary orogenic systems.

  1. Investigation of the separated region ahead of three-dimensional protuberances on plates and cones in hypersonic flows with laminar boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, C. S.; Singh, T.; Reddy, K. P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Heat transfer rate and pressure measurements were made upstream of surface protuberances on a flat plate and a sharp cone subjected to hypersonic flow in a conventional shock tunnel. Heat flux was measured using platinum thin-film sensors deposited on macor substrate and the pressure measurements were made using fast acting piezoelectric sensors. A distinctive hot spot with highest heat flux was obtained near the foot of the protuberance due to heavy vortex activity in the recirculating region. Schlieren flow visualization was used to capture the shock structures and the separation distance ahead of the protrusions was quantitatively measured for varying protuberance heights. A computational analysis was conducted on the flat plate model using commercial computational fluid dynamics software and the obtained trends of heat flux and pressure were compared with the experimental observation. Experiments were also conducted by physically disturbing the laminar boundary layer to check its effect on the magnitude of the hot spot heat flux. In addition to air, argon was also used as test gas so that the Reynolds number can be varied.

  2. The Convergence Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolodzy, Janet; Grant, August E.; DeMars, Tony R.; Wilkinson, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of the Internet, social media, and digital technologies in the twenty-first century accelerated an evolution in journalism and communication that fit under the broad term of convergence. That evolution changed the relationship between news producers and consumers. It broke down the geographical boundaries in defining our communities,…

  3. Upper plate contraction north of the migrating Mendocino triple junction northern California: Implications for partitioning of strain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCrory, P.A.

    2000-01-01

    Geologic measurement of permanent contraction across the Cascadia subduction margin constrains one component of the tectonic deformation along the convergent plate boundary, the component critical for the seismic hazard assessment of crustal faults. A comprehensive survey of active faults in onshore subduction margin rocks at the southern end of the Cascadia subduction zone indicates that these thrust faults accommodate ??10 mm/yr of convergence oriented 020??-045??. Seismotectonic models of subduction zones typically assign this upper plate strain to the estimate of aseismic slip on the megathrust. Geodetic models include this permanent crustal strain within estimates of elastic strain accumulation on the megathrust. Both types of models underestimate the seismic hazard associated with crustal faults. Subtracting the observed contraction from the plate convergence rate (40-50 mm/yr; directed 040??-055??) leaves 30-40 mm/yr of convergence to be partitioned between slip on the megathrust, contraction within the southern Juan de Fuca plate, and crustal contraction outside the subduction complex rocks. This simple estimate of slip partitioning neglects the discrepancy between the plate convergence and contraction directions in the vicinity of the Mendocino triple junction. The San Andreas and Cascadia limbs of the Mendocino triple junction are not collinear. The eastern edge of the broad San Andreas boundary is ??85 km east of the Cascadia subduction boundary, and across this zone the Pacific plate converges directly with the North America plate. The skewed orientation of crustal structures just north of the leading edge of the Pacific plate suggests that they are deforming in a hybrid stress field resulting from both Juan de Fuca-North America motion and Pacific-North America motion. The composite convergence direction (50 mm/yr: directed 023??) is consistent with the compressive stress axis (020??) inferred from focal mechanisms of crustal earthquakes in the Humboldt region. Deformation in such a hybrid stress field implies that the crustal faults are being loaded from two major tectonic sources. The slip on crustal faults north of the Mendocino triple junction may consume 4-5 mm/yr of Pacific-Humboldt convergence. The remaining 17-18 mm/yr of convergence may be consumed as distributed shortening expressed in the high rates of uplift in the Cape Mendocino region or as northward translation of the continental margin, north of the triple junction.

  4. Refined Views of Strike-slip Fault Zones, Seismicity, and State of Stress Associated With the Pacific-North America Plate Boundary in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauksson, E.; Nicholson, C.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Shearer, P. M.; Sandwell, D. T.; Yang, W.

    2013-12-01

    The mostly strike-slip plate boundary in southern California is expressed as a system of late Quaternary faults or principal slip zones (PSZs), with numerous adjacent smaller slip surfaces. It is complex, even after large cumulative displacements, and consists of major fault systems with multi-stranded, non-planar fault geometry, including some in close proximity to each other. There are also secondary cross faults and low-angle detachments that interact with the PSZs accommodating main plate boundary motion. The loading of plate-tectonic strain causes the largest earthquakes along PSZs, moderate-sized events in their immediate vicinity, and small earthquakes across the whole region. We apply relocated earthquake and refined focal mechanism (1981-2013) catalogs, as well as other geophysical datasets to provide refined views of the 3D fault geometry of these active fault systems. To determine properties of individual fault zones, we measure the Euclidian distance from every hypocenter to the nearest PSZ. In addition, we assign crustal geophysical parameters such as heat flow value and shear or dilatation strain rates to each epicenter. We investigate seismogenic thickness and fault zone width as well as earthquake source processes. We find that the seismicity rate is a function of location, with the rate dying off exponentially with distance from the PSZ. About 80% of small earthquakes are located within 5 km of a PSZ. For small earthquakes, stress drops increase in size with distance away from the PSZs. The magnitude distribution near the PSZs suggests that large earthquakes are more common close to PSZs, and they are more likely to occur at greater depth than small earthquakes. In contrast, small quakes can occur at any geographical location. An optimal combination of heat flow and strain rate is required to concentrate the strain along rheologically weak fault zones, which accommodate the crustal deformation processes, causing seismicity. The regional trend of the focal mechanism-derived SHmax is almost bimodal, trending almost north along the San Andreas system, and to the north-northeast on either side. The transition zones from one state of stress to the other is sharp, following a trend from Yucca Valley to Imperial Valley to the east, and the western edge of the Peninsular Ranges to the west. Other local scale heterogeneities in the SHmax trend include NNW trends along the San Andreas fault near Cajon Pass, Tejon Pass, and the Cucapah Range. The regional variations in the SHmax trends are very similar to the pattern of GPS-measured maximum shortening axes of the surface strain rate tensor field, although the GPS strain field tends to be smoother and appears also to reflect some of the deformation in the upper mantle.

  5. The turbulent boundary layer on a porous plate - Experimental heat transfer with uniform blowing and suction, with moderately strong acceleration.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thielbahr, W. H.; Kays, W. M.; Moffat, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental data are presented for heat transfer to the turbulent boundary layer subjected to transpiration and acceleration at constant values of the acceleration parameter K of approximately .00000145. This is a moderately strong acceleration, but not so strong as to result in laminarization of the boundary layer. The results for transpiration fractions F of -0.002, 0.0, and +0.0058 are presented in detail in tabular form, and in graphs of Stanton number versus enthalpy thickness Reynolds number. In addition, temperature profiles at several stations are presented. Stanton number results for F = -0.004, +0.002, and +0.004 are also presented, but in graphical form only. The data were obtained using air as both the free-stream and the transpired fluid, at relatively low velocities, and with temperature differences sufficiently low so that the influence of temperature-dependent fluid properties is minimal. All data were obtained with the surface maintained at a temperature invariant in the direction of flow.

  6. A New Estimate for Total Offset on the Southern San Andreas Fault: Implications for Cumulative Plate Boundary Shear in the Northern Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darin, M. H.; Dorsey, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    Development of a consistent and balanced tectonic reconstruction for the late Cenozoic San Andreas fault (SAF) in southern California has been hindered for decades by incompatible estimates of total dextral offset based on different geologic cross-fault markers. The older estimate of 240-270 km is based on offset fluvial conglomerates of the middle Miocene Mint Canyon and Caliente Formations west of the SAF from their presumed source area in the northern Chocolate Mountains NE of the SAF (Ehlig et al., 1975; Ehlert, 2003). The second widely cited offset marker is a distinctive Triassic megaporphyritic monzogranite that has been offset 160 ± 10 km between Liebre Mountain west of the SAF and the San Bernadino Mountains (Matti and Morton, 1993). In this analysis we use existing paleocurrent data and late Miocene clockwise rotation in the eastern Transverse Ranges (ETR) to re-assess the orientation of the piercing line used in the 240 km-correlation, and present a palinspastic reconstruction that satisfies all existing geologic constraints. Our reconstruction of the Mint Canyon piercing line reduces the original estimate of 240-270 km to 195 ± 15 km of cumulative right-lateral slip on the southern SAF (sensu stricto), which is consistent with other published estimates of 185 ± 20 km based on correlative basement terranes in the Salton Trough region. Our estimate of ~195 km is consistent with the lower estimate of ~160 km on the Mojave segment because transform-parallel extension along the southwestern boundary of the ETR during transrotation produces ~25-40 km of displacement that does not affect offset markers of the Liebre/San Bernadino correlation located northwest of the ETR rotating domain. Reconciliation of these disparate estimates places an important new constraint on the total plate boundary shear that is likely accommodated in the adjacent northern Gulf of California. Global plate circuit models require ~650 km of cumulative Pacific-North America (PAC-NAM) relative plate motion since ~12 Ma (Atwater and Stock, 1998). We propose that the continental component of PAC-NAM shear is accommodated by: (1) 195 ± 15 km on the southern SAF (this study); (2) 12 ± 2 km on the Whittier-Elsinore fault; (3) 75 ± 20 km of cumulative shear across the central Mojave in the eastern California shear zone; (4) 30 ± 4 km of post-13 Ma slip on the Stateline fault; and (5) 47 ± 18 km of NW-directed translation produced by north-south shortening. Together, these components sum to 359 ± 31 km of net dextral displacement on the SAF system (sensu lato) in southern California since ca. 12 Ma, or ~300 km less than what is required by the global plate circuit. This suggests that the continental component of post-12 Ma PAC-NAM transform motion can be no more than ~390 km in the adjacent northern Gulf of California, substantially less than the 450 km of shear proposed in some models. We suggest that the remaining ~270-300 km of NW-directed relative plate motion is accommodated by a small component of late Miocene extension and roughly 225 km of slip on the offshore borderland fault system west of Baja California.

  7. The Terceira Rift as Hyper-Slow, Hotspot-Dominated Oblique Spreading Axis: A Comparison With Other Slow-Spreading Plate Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, P. R.; Jung, W.

    2003-12-01

    We suggest the 550km long Terceira Rift (Azores Plateau) is the world­_s slowest-spreading (hyper-slow, 4mm/a plate separation; 2.3-3.8mm/a perpendicular to oblique axial segments) organized accreting plate boundary. In its slightly sinuous (ca. 300km radius of curvature) axial trace, its oblique spreading angles (ca. 40° -65° ), and in frequency and first motions of earthquakes, the TR resembles better-known ultra- or super- slow spreading ridges (e.g., Gakkel and Southwest Indian ridges). Interpreted simply as volcanically unfilled rift valley segments, the inter-island basins (e.g., the 3200m deep Hirondelle Basin) are slightly wider (30-60 km), but not significantly deeper (1000-2200 m) than the Mid-Atlantic Ridge median valley (20-28mm/a; 10° N-53° N). However, along-axis segmentation wavelengths (ca. 100km) are double those along the central MAR, but make TR comparable to the ultra-slow (15-16 mm/a) Southwest Indian and Gakkel (7-13 mm/a) ridges. If this segmentation wavelength reflects Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, the viscosity contrast between the overlying axial lithosphere and the partial melt zones is about an order of magnitude greater at ca. 4-16 mm/a than at 20-30 mm/a. The Terceira Rift differs dramatically from ultra-slow ridges only in the large amplitude of along-strike topography (2000-4000m; 4200m totalvariation) owing perhaps to a copious melt flux from the Azores hotspot, combined with a spreading-rate-determined greater axial flexural strength and plate thickness, and slower export of volcanics from the rift axis. The probable TR youth (ca. 1 Ma, requiring less than 4km new oceanic crust) indicates lack of steady-state spreading conditions, which may explain the published gravity evidence against TR spreading. Absolute plate motions support the creation of the Azores Plateau by successive NE jumps of the rift axis to maintain its position over a fixed hotspot.

  8. The Terceira Rift as hyper-slow, hotspot-dominated oblique spreading axis: A comparison with other slow-spreading plate boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, P. R.; Jung, W. Y.

    2004-01-01

    We suggest the 550 km long Terceira Rift (TR, Azores Plateau) is the world's slowest-spreading (hyper-slow, 4 mm/a plate separation; 2.3-3.8 mm/a perpendicular to oblique axial segments) organized accreting plate boundary. In its slightly sinuous (ca. 300 km radius of curvature) axial trace, its oblique spreading angles (ca. 40°-65°), and in frequency and first motions of earthquakes, the TR resembles better-known 'ultra-' or 'super-' slow spreading ridges (e.g. Gakkel and Southwest Indian ridges). Interpreted simply as volcanically 'unfilled' rift valley segments, the inter-island basins (e.g. the 3200 m deep Hirondelle Basin) are slightly wider (30-60 km), but not significantly deeper (1000-2200 m) than the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) median valley (20-28 mm/a; 10°N-53°N). However, along-axis segmentation wavelengths (ca. 100 km) are double those along the central MAR, but make TR comparable to the 'ultra-slow' (15-16 mm/a) Southwest Indian and Gakkel (7-13 mm/a) ridges. If this segmentation wavelength reflects Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, the viscosity contrast between the overlying axial lithosphere and the partial melt zones is about an order of magnitude greater at ca. 4-16 mm/a than at 20-30 mm/a. The TR differs dramatically from ultra-slow ridges only in the large amplitude of along-strike topography (2000-4000 m; 4200 m total variation) owing perhaps to a copious melt flux from the Azores 'hotspot', combined with a spreading-rate-determined greater axial flexural strength and plate thickness, and slower export of volcanics from the rift axis. The probable TR youth (ca. 1 Ma?, requiring less than 4 km new oceanic crust) suggests lack of steady-state spreading conditions, which may explain the published gravity evidence against TR spreading. Absolute plate motions support the creation of the Azores Plateau by successive NE jumps of the rift axis to maintain its position over a fixed 'hotspot'.

  9. Testing for an Absence of Regional Shortening (or Extension) Across the Caribbean - South American Plate Boundary Zone (PBZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altimira, A.; Bird, D.

    2005-12-01

    Rotations among North American (NOAM), African, South American (SOAM) and Caribbean (CARIB) Plates for the past 60 My indicate dominant right-lateral transform motion and perhaps either shortening or extension across the CARIB-SOAM PBZ. Our testable model indicates that: From 60-45 Ma SOAM moved southward ca.200 km with respect to NOAM as CARIB squeezed into the Atlantic forcing the Yucatan and Grenada basins to open. Since 45 Ma CARIB has moved only east carrying fragments of the Caribbean Great Arc that had struck the west coast of SOAM at ca.70 Ma and shearing the passive margin of SOAM in a ca.250 km wide right-lateral transform PBZ between the thick continental lithosphere of SOAM and the thick oceanic plateau lithosphere of CARIB. Pull-aparts in the PBZ include the Falcon, Cariaco and Gulf of Paria basins and flower structure thrust belts include, the Serrania del Interior, Villa de Cura, Araya-Paria peninsula and the Northern Range of Trinidad. These thrust belts generated the loads that formed the East Venezuelan 150 km wide foreland basin. This model requires that: (1) all igneous and high P/T metamorphic ages in the thrust belts of Venezuela were acquired at or before ca. 70 Ma when the Great Arc of the Caribbean struck the west coast of SOAM; (2) Younger igneous ages in the northern part of the PBZ represent fragments of the southern end of the Lesser Antillean arc dragged into the PBZ as the arc slid by; and (3) Deformation in the PBZ began no earlier than the local time of passage of the southern end of the Lesser Antillean arc except in the Gulf of Paria region where halokinesis began earlier. Collision of the Panama arc (ca.7Ma) caused shortening on the west coast of SOAM and 70 km of northward escape of the triangular Maracaibo prism bounded by the Bocono and Santa Marta strike-slip faults and by a deep lithospheric-scale thrust. Restoring the Maracaibo prism aligns the Cuisa and Oca faults with the CARIB-SOAM east-west trending PBZ.

  10. Constraints on subducting plate strength within the Kermadec trench

    E-print Network

    Billen, Magali I; Gurnis, M

    2005-01-01

    parallel to the plate boundary, namely the trench. Second,plate boundaries as faults simultaneously reproduce not only the steep trenchplate boundaries (Table 6.1 in [Watts, 2001]). Within the Kermadec trench

  11. The ancestral cascades arc: Cenozoic evolution of the central Sierra Nevada (California) and the birth of the new plate boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busby, C.J.; Hagan, J.C.; Putirka, K.; Pluhar, C.J.; Gans, P.B.; Wagner, D.L.; Rood, D.; DeOreo, S.B.; Skilling, I.

    2008-01-01

    We integrate new stratigraphic, structural, geochemical, geochronological, and magnetostratigraphic data on Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the central Sierra Nevada to arrive at closely inter-related new models for: (1) the paleogeography of the ancestral Cascades arc, (2) the stratigraphic record of uplift events in the Sierra Nevada, (3) the tectonic controls on volcanic styles and compositions in the arc, and (4) the birth of a new plate margin. Previous workers have assumed that the ancestral Cascades arc consisted of stratovolcanoes, similar to the modern Cascades arc, but we suggest that the arc was composed largely of numerous, very small centers, where magmas frequently leaked up strands of the Sierran frontal fault zone. These small centers erupted to produce andesite lava domes that collapsed to produce block-and-ash flows, which were reworked into paleocanyons as volcanic debris flows and streamflow deposits. Where intrusions rose up through water-saturated paleocanyon fill, they formed peperite complexes that were commonly destabilized to form debris flows. Paleocanyons that were cut into Cretaceous bedrock and filled with Oligocene to late Miocene strata not only provide a stratigraphic record of the ancestral Cascades arc volcanism, but also deep unconformities within them record tectonic events. Preliminary correlation of newly mapped unconformities and new geochronological, magnetostratigraphic, and structural data allow us to propose three episodes of Cenozoic uplift that may correspond to (1) early Miocene onset of arc magmatism (ca. 15 Ma), (2) middle Miocene onset of Basin and Range faulting (ca. 10 Ma), and (3) late Miocene arrival of the triple junction (ca. 6 Ma), perhaps coinciding with a second episode of rapid extension on the range front. Oligocene ignimbrites, which erupted from calderas in central Nevada and filled Sierran paleocanyons, were deeply eroded during the early Miocene uplift event. The middle Miocene event is recorded by growth faulting and landslides in hanging-wall basins of normal faults. Cessation of andesite volcanism closely followed the late Miocene uplift event. We show that the onset of Basin and Range faulting coincided both spatially and temporally with eruption of distinctive, very widespread, high-K lava flows and ignimbrites from the Little Walker center (Stanislaus Group). Preliminary magnetostratigraphic work on high-K lava flows (Table Mountain Latite, 10.2 Ma) combined with new 40Ar/39Ar age data allow regional-scale correlation of individual flows and estimates of minimum (28,000 yr) and maximum (230,000 yr) time spans for eruption of the lowermost latite series. This work also verifies the existence of reversed-polarity cryptochron, C5n.2n-1 at ca. 10.2 Ma, which was previously known only from seafloor magnetic anomalies. High-K volcanism continued with eruption of the three members of the Eureka Valley Tuff (9.3-9.15 Ma). In contrast with previous workers in the southern Sierra, who interpret high-K volcanism as a signal of Sierran root delamination, or input of subduction-related fluids, we propose an alternative model for K2O-rich volcanism. A regional comparison of central Sierran volcanic rocks reveals their K2O levels to be intermediate between Lassen to the north (low in K2O) and ultrapotassic volcanics in the southern Sierra. We propose that this shift reflects higher pressures of fractional crystallization to the south, controlled by a southward increase in the thickness of the granitic crust. At high pressures, basaltic magmas precipitate clinopyroxene (over olivine and plagioclase) at their liquidus; experiments and mass-balance calculations show that clinopyroxene fractionation buffers SiO 2 to low values while allowing K2O to increase. A thick crust to the south would also explain the sparse volcanic cover in the southern Sierra compared to the extensive volcanic cover to the north.

  12. Rapid Plate Motion Variations Through Geological Time: Observations Serving Geodynamic Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iaffaldano, Giampiero; Bunge, Hans-Peter

    2015-05-01

    Past and current plate motions are increasingly well mapped from high-temporal-resolution paleomagnetic and geodetic studies, revealing rapid variations that occur on short timescales relative to the time it takes for the large-scale structure associated with mantle buoyancy to evolve. The rates of change of plate velocities hold key information on the geodynamic, tectonic, and Earth's surface processes that may have caused them. Rapid plate motion changes thus provide us with a unique opportunity to quantify the forcing associated with these processes. Important mechanisms capable of inducing such rapid changes include evolving plate boundary forces, for example, those associated with slab sinking or orogeny along convergent margins, as well as temporal variations in pressure-driven flow within the asthenosphere that link plate velocity variations explicitly to changes in dynamic topography. Here, we focus on (a) findings from recent kinematic observations and (b) the quantitative framework that allows their geodynamic interpretation.

  13. The Campaign GPS Component of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO): New Tools, New Strategies and New Opportunities to Support EarthScope Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, D. A.; Greenberg, J.; Sklar, J.; Meertens, C. M.; Andreatta, V.; Feaux, K.

    2004-12-01

    The UNAVCO Facility is charged with implementing the campaign GPS component of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) to support EarthScope investigators through a pool of approximately one hundred mobile GPS systems. In contrast to the PBO continuous GPS network, the PBO campaign systems are designed for temporary deployments with periods ranging from several minutes to several months per site. This allows researchers to conduct spatially and temporally focused investigations into a wide range of phenomena, including volcano monitoring, post-seismic deformation monitoring, and ground control for airborne LIDAR surveys. A standard PBO campaign system consists of a Topcon GB-1000 dual-frequency GPS receiver, a Topcon PG-A1 compact GPS antenna, an 18 Ah battery, cabling, a portable and waterproof Pelican case enclosure, and a Tech 2000 GPS antenna mast or tripod and tribrach. Available ancillary equipment includes solar panels, additional batteries, enclosures and mounting hardware. Communications equipment such as radio modems and cellular modems are also available to allow remote data retrieval during longer term deployments. We present an overview of the PBO campaign equipment available to investigators, technical specifications of the system, examples of current and planned EarthScope research projects utilizing the campaign equipment, and a hands-on demonstration of a PBO campaign system.

  14. Origin of the oceanic basalt basement of the Solomon Islands arc and its relationship to the Ontong Java Plateau-insights from Cenozoic plate motion models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Cenozoic global plate motion models based on a hotspot reference frame may provide a useful framework for analyzing the tectonic evolution of the Solomon Islands convergent margin. A postulated late Miocene collision of the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) with a NE-facing arc is consistent with the predicted path of the OJP across the Pacific Basin and its Miocene arrival at the trench. Late-stage igneous activity (65-30 Ma) predicted for the OJP as it rode over the Samoan hotspot occurred in correlative stratigraphic sections on Malaita, the supposed accreted flake of OJP in the Solomon Islands arc. Convergence similar to the present velocities between Australia and the Pacific plates was characteristic of the last 43 million years. Prior to 43 Ma Pacific-Australia plate motions were divergent, seemingly at odds with geologic evidence for early Tertiary convergence, particularly in Papua New Guinea. A postulated South Pacific plate may have existed between Australia and the Pacific plate and would have allowed implied northward subduction along the northeastern Australia plate boundary that lasted into the early Eocene. Subsequent reorganization of plate motions in the middle Eocene correlates with middle Eocene marginal basin formation along ridges oblique to the main plate boundary. Cessation of spreading on the Pacific-South Pacific Ridge and its subsequent subduction beneath Asia followed the change in Pacific plate motion at 43 Ma. A trapped remnant of the extinct, NW-trending ridge may still lie beneath the western Philippine Sea. The terminal deformation, metamorphism and ophiolite obduction in the Eocene orogen of the southwest Pacific also correlates with the major change in Pacific plate motion at 43 Ma and the subsequent compression of the dying Eocene arc against outlying continental and oceanic crustal blocks of the Australian plate. The Solomon Islands oceanic basement may represent juxtaposition of oceanic plateaus of the Australian plate beneath overthrust, dismembered ophiolite derived from adjacent marginal basin crust. ?? 1989.

  15. Uplift of continental crustal blocks adjacent to the Rancheria Basin-Guasare area: the effects of Maastrichtian-Paleocene collision along the southern Caribbean plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayona, G.; Montes, C.; Jaramillo, C.; Ojeda, G.; Cardona, A.; Pardo, A.; Lamus, F.

    2007-05-01

    In the Rancheria basin (RB) and Guasare area (GA), Maastrichtian-Paleocene synorogenic strata overlie the Aptian-Campanian carbonate platform. Nowadays, RB is bounded to the west by metamorphic-and-igneous cored Santa Marta massif, where Upper Cretaceous strata overlie unconformably pre-Cretaceous rocks. The eastern boundary of the RB is the Perija range that includes volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks of Jurassic and Cretaceous age in the hanging-wall of a NW-verging, low-angle dipping thrust belt. The GA is on the eastern foothills of the Perija range and corresponds to the western boundary of the Maracaibo basin. Strata architecture, seismic reflectors, gravity, provenance, and paleocurrent analyses carried out in those basins constrain the timing and style of uplift of Santa Marta massif and Perija range, which are linked with tectonism along the southern Caribbean plate. Maastrichtian-Paleocene strata thicken eastward up to 2.2 km in the RB, and this succession includes (in stratigraphic order): foram-rich calcareous mudstone, oyster-pelecypod rich carbonate-siliciclastic strata, coal- bearing mudstones and feldspar-lithic-rich fluvial sandstones. Internal disconformities and truncations of seismic reflectors are identified to the west of the RB, but there are not major thrust faults at this part of the basin to explain such unconformities and truncations. In Early Paleocene, carbonates developed better to the west of the RB, whereas mixed carbonate-siliciclastic deposition continued toward the east of the RB. In early Late Paleocene, influx of terrigenous material (key grains=metamorphic, microcline and garnet fragments) derived from the Santa Marta massif increased to the west, but to the east of the RB and GA carbonate-siliciclastic and carbonate deposition continued, respectively. In mid-Late Paleocene, diachronous eastward advance of paralic/deltaic environments, tropical humid climate, and high subsidence rates favored production and preservation of peat in RB and GA. In the late Late Paleocene, inversion along a buried graben system under the Perija range explain supply toward RB and GA of micritic, volcanic, and sedimentary rock fragments, and the record of a thinner Upper Paleocene strata in the GA than in the RB. Tectonic subsidence in the RB was mainly related to pivoting of the Santa Marta massif as result of collision of the Maracaibo continental sub-plate with the southern margin of the Caribbean oceanic plate. This model explains the generation of accommodation space in the RB without faulting, denudation of upper crustal material of the Santa Marta massif, early capture of terrigenous detritus in the RB that favored carbonate deposition in the GA, the mechanism of initial inversion of the Perija range, and the present positive gravity anomaly under the Santa Marta massif.

  16. Global Plate Velocities from the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Kristine M.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Philipsen, Steven

    1997-01-01

    We have analyzed 204 days of Global Positioning System (GPS) data from the global GPS network spanning January 1991 through March 1996. On the basis of these GPS coordinate solutions, we have estimated velocities for 38 sites, mostly located on the interiors of the Africa, Antarctica, Australia, Eurasia, Nazca, North America, Pacific, and South America plates. The uncertainties of the horizontal velocity components range from 1.2 to 5.0 mm/yr. With the exception of sites on the Pacific and Nazca plates, the GPS velocities agree with absolute plate model predictions within 95% confidence. For most of the sites in North America, Antarctica, and Eurasia, the agreement is better than 2 mm/yr. We find no persuasive evidence for significant vertical motions (less than 3 standard deviations), except at four sites. Three of these four were sites constrained to geodetic reference frame velocities. The GPS velocities were then used to estimate angular velocities for eight tectonic plates. Absolute angular velocities derived from the GPS data agree with the no net rotation (NNR) NUVEL-1A model within 95% confidence except for the Pacific plate. Our pole of rotation for the Pacific plate lies 11.5 deg west of the NNR NUVEL-1A pole, with an angular speed 10% faster. Our relative angular velocities agree with NUVEL-1A except for some involving the Pacific plate. While our Pacific-North America angular velocity differs significantly from NUVEL-1A, our model and NUVEL-1A predict very small differences in relative motion along the Pacific-North America plate boundary itself. Our Pacific-Australia and Pacific- Eurasia angular velocities are significantly faster than NUVEL-1A, predicting more rapid convergence at these two plate boundaries. Along the East Pacific Pise, our Pacific-Nazca angular velocity agrees in both rate and azimuth with NUVFL-1A.

  17. The low frequency axisymmetric modal sound radiation efficiency of an elastically supported annular plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rdzanek, Wojciech P.; Rdzanek, Witold J.; Szemela, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the sound radiation efficiency of a vibrating, thin, elastically supported annular plate embedded into a flat rigid baffle. The free axisymmetric time harmonic vibrations have been considered for a single mode. It has been assumed that the influence of the air column above the plate on the plate's vibrations is negligible. First, the sound radiation efficiency has been formulated as an integral. Further, rigorous mathematical manipulations have been carried out based on the theory of summation of multiple expansion series containing the hypergeometric functions. As a result, the formulations have been expressed as some fast convergent expansion series containing only the Bessel and Struve functions of integer order and the spherical Bessel functions. The presented formulations of sound radiation efficiency of an elastically supported annular plate are useful for numerical calculations within the low frequency range what is important for practical reasons. The formulations are valid for axisymmetric boundary conditions and they enable changing the values of boundary stiffness constants. Consequently, the analysis of influence of the plate's edge attachment on the sound radiation efficiency has been performed. The limiting transitions have also been performed from formulations valid for the elastically supported annular plates to the formulations valid for annular plates with classical boundary conditions (clamped, simply supported and free) at one edge or at both edges.

  18. Dynamics and stress field of the Eurasian plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warners-Ruckstuhl, Karin; Govers, Rob; Wortel, Rinus

    2013-04-01

    We address the connection between forces on the Eurasian plate, the plate's motion and the intraplate stress field. Resistive forces along convergent plate boundaries have a major impact on surface deformation, most visibly at collisional plate boundaries. Although quantification of these forces is key to understanding the evolution and present state of mountain belts, they remain highly uncertain due to the complexity of plate boundary structures and rheologies. In this study we analyse the forces along the southern boundary of the Eurasian plate, presently the most prominent suture zone on Earth, resulting from the closure of the Neo-Tethys ocean. We address the dynamics of the Eurasian plate as a whole. This enables us to base our analysis on mechanical equilibrium of a tectonic plate and to evaluate the force distribution along the Tethyan boundary as part of an internally consistent set of forces driving and deforming Eurasia. We evaluate force distributions obeying this mechanical law on the basis of their ability to reproduce observed stress orientations. We incorporate tractions from convective mantle flow modelling in a lithospheric model in which edge and lithospheric body forces are modelled explicitly and compute resulting stresses in a homogeneous elastic thin shell. Our investigation is structured according to two research objectives, pursued in a corresponding step-wise approach: (1) a detailed understanding of the sensitivity of Eurasia's stress field to the distribution of all acting forces; and (2) a quantification of collision-related forces along the southern boundary of Eurasia, including their relation to observed plate boundary structure, in particular plateau height. Intraplate stress observations as compiled in the World Stress Map project are used to constrain the distribution of forces acting on Eurasia. Eurasia's stress field turns out to be sensitive to the distribution of collision forces on the plate's southern margin and, to a lesser extent, to lithospheric density structure and normal pressure from mantle flow. Stress observations require collision forces on the India-Eurasia boundary of 7.2 - 10.5 T N/m and on the Arabia-Eurasia boundary of 1.3 - 2.3 T N/m. Implication of mechanical equilibrium of the plate is that forces on the contacts with the African and Australian plates amount to 1.0 - 2.1 and 0 - 0.8 T N/m, respectively. The inferred collision forces are part of the best-fitting overall set of forces acting on the Eurasian plate, satisfying constraints from basic mechanics, absolute plate motion and stress field. We use our results to assess the validity of the classical view that the mean elevation of an orogenic plateau can be taken as a measure of the magnitude of the compressive (in this case: collision-related) forces involved. We find that for both the Tibetan and the Iranian plateau, two plateaus with significantly different average elevations, the horizontal force derived from the excess gravitational potential energy (collapse force) is in balance with the collision force, thus confirming the hypothesis of balanced topography.

  19. Convergence Insufficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... work is required. Is convergence insufficiency treatment always successful? Occasionally, a patient will not respond to therapy. ... increased near work demands. If treatment had been successful previously, an additional course of treatment tends be ...

  20. Vibration of arbitrarily-shaped triangular plates with elastically restrained edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. F.; Li, W. L.

    2015-11-01

    A solution method is proposed for the vibration analysis of arbitrarily-shaped triangular plates with elastically restrained edges. An arbitrarily-shaped triangular plate is first mapped into a right-angled isosceles triangular plate and subsequently "stretched" to form a square plate by padding to it another (right-angled isosceles triangular) plate of near-zero thickness. The displacement function is then expressed as a two-dimensional Fourier cosine series supplemented by several one-dimensional series introduced to improve the convergence and accuracy of the displacement solution. Regardless of the shapes and boundary conditions of the triangular plate, the final stiffness and mass matrices can always be calculated analytically which makes the current solution method highly efficient in implementations. Numerical examples are presented to verify the applicability of the proposed method to triangular plates of different shapes, and, perhaps more importantly, different boundary conditions. The current method can be easily extended to plates with heterogeneous material properties, variable thickness, non-uniform elastic restraints, etc.

  1. Watching the world sweat: Development and utilization of an in-situ conductivity sensor for monitoring chloride dynamics in high temperature hydrothermal fluids at divergent plate boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Benjamin Isaac

    The magmatic upwelling that drives plate tectonic motion at divergent plate boundaries also heats seawater circulating within the Earth's crust. The seawater undergoes physical and chemical changes beneath the surface and the resulting buoyant hydrothermal fluid ascends to the seafloor where it is comes out of structures called hydrothermal vents. One subsurface process of particular interest is phase separation, which is the transformation of a homogenous fluid into two phases, each with properties different from the original fluid. Phase separation is the dominant control on chloride in hydrothermal systems and chloride controls the distribution of all other chemical species. Thus, the measurement of chloride in hydrothermal fluids gives insight into extreme subsurface processes that are inherently difficult to probe. Since these processes evolve with time, measurements must be taken on a continuous basis. The research presented herein discusses the development and utilization of an instrument capable of continuously monitoring the hot salty solutions that flow out of hydrothermal pores in the Earth's crust. Instruments were deployed at two different mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal systems. An array of instruments was deployed on the Juan de Fuca Ridge at the Main Endeavour Field 12-15 months after a magmatic intrusion. Tidal changes and non-tidal changes on timescales of minutes to hours were observed. Chloride data were also used to infer subsurface mixing between two non-seawater fluids at depths below the seafloor between 486 and 695 meters. Another instrument was deployed at Bio 9' vent at 9°50'N on the East Pacific Rise in the immediate vicinity of seismometers monitoring earthquake activity. The hydrothermal response to intense seismicity was observed on two separate occasions. On the basis of these observations, conditions of subsurface phase separation were estimated at pressures between 269 and 288 bars and temperatures between 369.7 and 403.5°C. Recurrent chloride spikes were also observed, with magnitudes up to 720 mmol/kg and durations up to 7 minutes. At both study sites, data indicate the influence of subsurface fluids with chloride concentrations greater than seawater. These observations may help resolve the apparent chloride deficit indicated by venting of chloride-depleted fluids over decadal timescales.

  2. Casimir effect for parallel plates in de Sitter spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Elizalde, E.; Saharian, A. A.; Vardanyan, T. A.

    2010-06-15

    The Wightman function and the vacuum expectation values of the field squared and of the energy-momentum tensor are obtained, for a massive scalar field with an arbitrary curvature coupling parameter, in the region between two infinite parallel plates, on the background of de Sitter spacetime. The field is prepared in the Bunch-Davies vacuum state and is constrained to satisfy Robin boundary conditions on the plates. For the calculation, a mode-summation method is used, supplemented with a variant of the generalized Abel-Plana formula. This allows one to explicitly extract the contributions to the expectation values, which come from each single boundary, and to expand the second-plate-induced part in terms of exponentially convergent integrals. Several limiting cases of interest are then studied. Moreover, the Casimir forces acting on the plates are evaluated, and it is shown that the curvature of the background spacetime decisively influences the behavior of these forces at separations larger than the curvature scale of de Sitter spacetime. In terms of the curvature coupling parameter and the mass of the field, two very different regimes are realized, which exhibit monotonic and oscillatory behavior of the vacuum expectation values, respectively. The decay of the Casimir force at large plate separation is shown to be power law (monotonic or oscillating), with independence of the value of the field mass.

  3. The competing roles of Zagros orogeny and Tethys slab-break-off in slowing down Arabia/Eurasia convergence since ~5 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austermann, J.; Iaffaldano, G.; Bunge, H.

    2012-04-01

    Large topographic belts along convergent margins have been recognized to slow down the kinematics of subduction over geologically short time-periods (i.e. few Myr), because their associated gravitational spreading provides significant resistive forces within the framework of plate tectonics. However, it is unclear if short term variations in convergent plate motion may also be induced by changes within the convecting mantle, for example in periods of so-called slab-break-off. The record of past and present-day plate kinematics provides important constraints on the dynamics of the lithosphere, because plate-motion changes must reflect temporal changes in the underlying balance of driving and resisting forces. Here we focus on the convergence between the Arabian and Eurasian plates, across the Zagros mountain belt. Relative motion across this plate boundary is reconstructed since 12 Ma from published paleomagnetic and geodetic data, and features a slowdown of ~30% which was probably accommodated in the last 5 Myr. We employ global dynamic models of the mantle/lithosphere system in a simple inverse fashion to test whether orogeny in the Zagros is sufficient to induce the observed slowdown. Specifically, we use constraints from the geologic record of shortening to infer a topographic uplift history since 5 Ma that would be compatible in an optimal sense with the observed plate kinematics. A possible Tethys slab-break-off in the recent past - as suggested based on the history of magmatism in the Zagros - and its influence on the dynamics of convergence is also taken into account by introducing a numerical procedure for estimating the associated change in negative buoyancy upon the Arabian plate. Our results indicate that orogenic uplift of the Zagros is the key controlling factor for the convergence decrease since 5 Ma.

  4. Plate Boundary Observatory East Region Update and Status: Supporting New Science Through Enhanced Telemetry, Monument Evaluation, and Continued Operations and Maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, S. T.

    2012-12-01

    The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) - East Region consists of 280 continuously operating GPS sites in a region that extends from the western border of California to the East Coast of the U.S. We present a number of highlights from the operations and maintenance (O&M) of the network in FY2012. One goal for 2012 was to replace poorly performing stations and another was to fill in some of the gaps in the eastern region of PBO. Accordingly, new GPS sites were installed at several locations across the mid-west, including in Wisconsin and South Dakota. CAYU, a GPS station at Cayuga College, New York also was incorporated into the PBO data flow to replace the poorly performing PBO station, LOZ1. UNAVCO now manages over 20 PBO GPS stations east of the Rocky Mountains, including 2 GPS stations installed in November 2011 as part of an NSF-funded RAPID project to the study of the post-rupture crustal relaxation resulting from the M5.8 Mineral, VA earthquake. PBO engineers also are constructing two additional monuments at five existing PBO sites to compare the performance of different monument types in different geological and tectonic settings. In addition, PBO engineers are upgrading GPS stations in Colorado and New Mexico, which comprise the semi-permanent Rio Grande Rift GPS network, and which have been downloaded manually for over 6 years, to cellular data communications. Lastly, engineers from the PBO-East region continued to support special projects from EarthScope-funded PIs, including Dr. Kristine Larson, who is advancing the use of GPS multipath observations to estimate snow depth (PBO H20) and vegetation growth. In summary, the PBO East Region sub-network state of health remained consistently above 97% throughout 2012, a testament to network hardening completed during the last three years of PBO O&M.

  5. A fast method to solve incompressible boundary layer interaction problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldman, A. E. P.; Dijkstra, D.

    1981-06-01

    The mutual influence of pressure and displacement thickness is recognized by simultaneously updating both these quantities as the boundary layer is marched. A survey of hierarchical and nonhierarchical solutions is presented. The iteration technique was implemented in a full boundary layer approach and a triple-deck formulation. Results were calculated for the flat plate trailing edge interaction problem, for backward and forward facing steps and for the Carter/Wornom trough. In all cases fast convergence is obtained. Separation, reattachment, dividing streamline and skin friction are found to be virtually identical.

  6. Lithospheric dynamics near plate boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.

    1992-01-01

    The progress report on research conducted between 15 Mar. - 14 Sep. 1992 is presented. The focus of the research during the first grant year has been on several problems broadly related to the nature and dynamics of time-dependent deformation and stress along major seismic zones, with an emphasis on western North America but with additional work on seismic zones in oceanic lithosphere as well. The principal findings of our research to date are described in the accompanying papers and abstract. Topics covered include: (1) Global Positioning System measurements of deformations associated with the 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake: evidence for conjugate faulting; (2) Global Positioning System measurements of strain accumulation across the Imperial Valley, California: 1986-1989; (3) present-day crustal deformation in the Salton Trough, southern California; (4) oceanic transform earthquakes with unusual mechanisms or locations: relation to fault geometry and state of stress in the lithosphere; and (5) crustal strain and the 1992 Mojave Desert earthquakes.

  7. Plate bending at subduction zones: Consequences for the direction of plate motions

    E-print Network

    between plate bending and various sources of friction at plate boundaries and in the interior toward the trench, especially when the downgoing plate has a distribution of ages [10], and hencePlate bending at subduction zones: Consequences for the direction of plate motions Bruce A. Buffett

  8. Pliocene eclogite exhumation at plate tectonic rates in eastern Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Suzanne L; Monteleone, Brian D; Webb, Laura E; Fitzgerald, Paul G; Grove, Marty; Hill, E June

    2004-09-16

    As lithospheric plates are subducted, rocks are metamorphosed under high-pressure and ultrahigh-pressure conditions to produce eclogites and eclogite facies metamorphic rocks. Because chemical equilibrium is rarely fully achieved, eclogites may preserve in their distinctive mineral assemblages and textures a record of the pressures, temperatures and deformation the rock was subjected to during subduction and subsequent exhumation. Radioactive parent-daughter isotopic variations within minerals reveal the timing of these events. Here we present in situ zircon U/Pb ion microprobe data that dates the timing of eclogite facies metamorphism in eastern Papua New Guinea at 4.3 +/- 0.4 Myr ago, making this the youngest documented eclogite exposed at the Earth's surface. Eclogite exhumation from depths of approximately 75 km was extremely rapid and occurred at plate tectonic rates (cm yr(-1)). The eclogite was exhumed within a portion of the obliquely convergent Australian-Pacific plate boundary zone, in an extending region located west of the Woodlark basin sea floor spreading centre. Such rapid exhumation (> 1 cm yr(-1)) of high-pressure and, we infer, ultrahigh-pressure rocks is facilitated by extension within transient plate boundary zones associated with rapid oblique plate convergence. PMID:15372021

  9. Component mode synthesis and large deflection vibration of complex structures. Volume 2: Single-mode large deflection vibrations of beams and plates using finite element method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Chuh

    1987-01-01

    A finite element method is presented for the large amplitude vibrations of complex structures that can be modelled with beam and rectangular plate elements subjected to harmonic excitation. Both inplane deformation and inertia are considered in the formulation. Derivation of the harmonic force and nonlinear stiffness matrices for a beam and a rectangular plate element are presented. Solution procedures and convergence characteristics of the finite element method are described. Nonlinear response to uniform and concentrated harmonic loadings and improved nonlinear free vibration results are presented for beams and rectangular plates of various boundary conditions.

  10. A exact solution is presented for the cylindrical bending vibration of simply supported function-ally graded plates. Displacement functions that identically satisfy boundary conditions are used to

    E-print Network

    Vel, Senthil

    ABSTRACT A exact solution is presented for the cylindrical bending vibration of simply supported-to-thickness ratios. Keywords: Functionally graded material; thick plate; cylindrical bending; vibration. INTRODUCTION for the Cylindrical Bending Vibration of Functionally Graded Plates S. S. VEL AND R. C. BATRA Proceedings

  11. The Flow Field over Blunted Flat Plates and its Effect on Turbulent Boundary-Layer Growth and Heat Transfer at a Mach Number of 4.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenderland, Thorval; Nielsen, Helmer L.; Fohrman, Melvin J.

    1961-01-01

    Surface pressures, impact and static pressure distributions in the flow field over the plate, and local heating rates were measured on a flat plate with various leading-edge diameters. The tests were conducted at a Mach number of 4.7 and a free-stream Reynolds number of 3.8 x 10(exp 6) per foot.

  12. Cylinder kernel expansion of Casimir energy with a Robin boundary 

    E-print Network

    Liu, Zhonghai

    2006-10-30

    We compute the Casimir energy of a massless scalar field obeying the Robin boundary condition on one plate and the Dirichlet boundary condition on another plate for two parallel plates with a separation of alpha. The ...

  13. Earthquake Production by Subduction Zones is Not Linear in Relative Plate Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, P.; Kagan, Y. Y.; Jackson, D. D.; Schoenberg, F. P.; Werner, M. J.

    2007-12-01

    The ratio of \\{long-term-average seismic moment production per unit length of plate boundary\\} to \\{relative plate velocity\\} is determined by the "coupled thickness" of seismogenic lithosphere, and also by elastic moduli and geometric factors that are fairly well known. It is generally assumed that coupled thickness is constant within a given class of plate boundary, such as Bird's [2003, G3]: CCB Continental Convergent Boundary, CRB Continental Rift Boundary, CTF Continental Transform Fault, OCB Oceanic Convergent Boundary, OSR Oceanic Spreading Ridge, OTF Oceanic Transform Fault, or SUB Subduction zone. However, Bird et al. [2002, Geodyn. Ser.] and Bird & Kagan [2004, BSSA] found two exceptions: OSR and OTF both have greater coupled thickness at low relative plate velocities. We test for variation of coupled thickness with relative plate velocity in each of the 7 classes of plate boundary. We use shallow (<70 km) earthquakes from the Harvard CMT catalog, 1982.01.01-2007.03.31, above magnitude MW threshold of 5.51 or 5.66. In order to reduce the influence of aftershock swarms, we estimate the probability of independence of each earthquake according to the likelihood stochastic declustering method of Kagan & Jackson [1991; GJI] and use this as a weight. We use the algorithm of Bird & Kagan [2004, BSSA] to assign 95% of shallow earthquakes to plate boundary steps and plate boundary classes, rejecting all earthquakes that fall into one of the 13 orogens of Bird [2003, G3]. We order the plate-boundary steps outside orogens in each class by relative plate velocity according to the PB2002 model of Bird [2003]. Then, we plot cumulative earthquake count as a function of cumulative model tectonic moment (assuming constant coupled thickness and other parameters within each plate boundary class). The null hypothesis is a linear relation; we use 2 measures (Kolmogorov-Smirnov, and Cramer-von Mises) to quantify departures from this line. We use 10,000 simulations of each class with random Poissonian seismicity in each plate boundary step (with expectations based on the tectonic model) to assess the significance of the measures obtained. Subduction zones have velocity-dependent coupled thickness: P < 0.001 for the null hypothesis. Subduction zones with relative plate velocity <67 mm/a (which would comprise 35% of the model tectonic moment rate, in the null hypothesis) actually produce only 20% of the global subduction zone earthquakes (outside orogens), and thus have a coupled thickness about half that of faster subduction zones (if corner magnitude and spectral slope are constant). This result contradicts the uniform coupling of subduction zones inferred by Kreemer et al. [2002, Geodyn. Ser.]; the difference may be due to their exclusion of several slow subduction zones including Aegean, Cascadia, New Zealand, Caribbean, and South Shetland. Continental CCBs show a similarly strong relation (P < 0.001), with an increase in coupled thickness when velocity exceeds 25 mm/a. OSRs show coupled thickness declining with velocity, as in previous studies. OTFs and OCBs give complex results with significant variations (P < 0.01; P < 0.05) that are not easy to interpret. For CRBs and CTFs we do not reject the null hypothesis of constant coupled thickness.

  14. Numerical Boundary Condition Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Topics include numerical procedures for treating inflow and outflow boundaries, steady and unsteady discontinuous surfaces, far field boundaries, and multiblock grids. In addition, the effects of numerical boundary approximations on stability, accuracy, and convergence rate of the numerical solution are discussed.

  15. Seafloor Volcanic and Structural Features Adjacent to the 90deg 50'N Transform - Galapagos Spreading Center: Clues for Understanding Plate Boundary Kinematics and Lithospheric Melting Processes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornari, D. J.; Soule, S.; Harpp, K. S.; Mittelstaedt, E. L.; Geist, D.; Kurz, M. D.; R/v Melville Mv1007 Cruise Scientific Party

    2010-12-01

    High-resolution EM122 multibeam and MR-1 sidescan sonar data collected over a wide area of seafloor west and east of the 90deg 50’N transform along the Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC) reveal seafloor morpho-structural fabric created along this intermediate spreading plate boundary. In concert with geochemical and geophysical data collected during the cruise, these data will be used to help unravel the kinematics of hotspot-ridge interactions in the northern Galapagos. West of the transform, the seafloor is dominated by three prominent NW-SE trending seamount lineaments, each ~20-30 km wide, including the prominent Wolf-Darwin Lineament (WDL) as well as two other smaller volcanic chains east of the WDL, which are oriented along intermediate trends that become more subparallel to the N-S trend of the transform from west to east. This suggests a possible strong controlling influence of the transform on the orientation of lithospheric fractures involved in supplying magmas to the volcanic centers. Interestingly, each seamount lineament west of the transform appears to have nascent volcanoes nucleating immediately south of the GSC axis at locations that mark along-axis discontinuities of the spreading center, suggesting ridge-related magmatic focusing is also influencing crustal generation on the Nazca plate in this region. The tectonized terrain associated with the transform is 60 km wide, whereas the transform valley is only 20 km wide. The northern 40 km of the transform has a well-defined linear shear zone and bounding faults. The southern 50 km of the transform are characterized by a wide zone of extensive oblique shear structures that trend NW-SE. Within this zone are numerous small volcanic cones and ridges that decorate the margins and axis of the transform domain. The structural evolution of the transform appears to be undergoing a transition along its length with intra-transform volcanism in the south and more normal shear in the north, however the tectonic imprint of the oblique structures is observed along nearly all of the length of the transform out to 15-20 km from the margins of the transform valley. Terrain east of the transform is markedly different in morphological character and structural elements. A series of five, generally E-W ridges, some of which display clear volcanic constructional terrain, extend from the eastern margin of the oblique fabric associated with the transform domain. Some of these E-W features are linked by N-S structures, creating a general patchwork pattern of seafloor that is unlike any we have observed at well-mapped ridge-transform intersections at fast and intermediate spreading mid-ocean ridges. The terrain bears some similarities to structures developed at microplates. We also note that this region lies at the southwestern extremity of the Cocos Ridge, an aseismic ridge that has undergone a complex history of volcanic and tectonic construction associated with hotspot magmatism and ridge jumps.

  16. Why does continental convergence stop

    SciTech Connect

    Hynes, A.

    1985-01-01

    Convergence between India and Asia slowed at 45 Ma when they collided, but continues today. This requires that substantial proportions of the Indian and/or Asian lithospheric mantle are still being subducted. The resulting slab-pull is probably comparable with that from complete lithospheric slabs and may promote continued continental convergence even after collision. Since descending lithospheric slabs are present at all collision zones at the time of collision such continued convergence may be general after continental collisions. It may cease only when there is a major (global) plate reorganization which results in new forces on the convergent continents that may counteract the slab-pull. These inferences may be tested on the late Paleozoic collision between Gondwanaland and Laurasia. This is generally considered to have been complete by mid-Permian time (250 Ma). However, this may be only the time of docking of Gondwanaland with North America, not that of the cessation of convergence. Paleomagnetic polar-wander paths for the Gondwanide continents exhibit consistently greater latitudinal shifts from 250 Ma to 200 Ma than those of Laurasia when corrected for post-Triassic drift, suggesting that convergence continued through late Permian well into the Triassic. It may have been accommodated by crustal thickening under what is now the US Coastal Plain, or by strike-slip faulting. Convergence may have ceased only when Pangea began to fragment again, in which case the cause for its cessation may be related to the cause of continental fragmentation.

  17. EarthScope's Plate Boundary Observatory in Alaska: Building on Existing Infrastructure to Provide a Platform for Integrated Research and Hazard-monitoring Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, E. S.; Bierma, R. M.; Willoughby, H.; Feaux, K.; Mattioli, G. S.; Enders, M.; Busby, R. W.

    2014-12-01

    EarthScope's geodetic component in Alaska, the UNAVCO-operated Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network, includes 139 continuous GPS sites and 41 supporting telemetry relays. These are spread across a vast area, from northern AK to the Aleutians. Forty-five of these stations were installed or have been upgraded in cooperation with various partner agencies and currently provide data collection and transmission for more than one group. Leveraging existing infrastructure normally has multiple benefits, such as easier permitting requirements and costs savings through reduced overall construction and maintenance expenses. At some sites, PBO-AK power and communications systems have additional capacity beyond that which is needed for reliable acquisition of GPS data. Where permits allow, such stations could serve as platforms for additional instrumentation or real-time observing needs. With the expansion of the Transportable Array (TA) into Alaska, there is increased interest to leverage existing EarthScope resources for station co-location and telemetry integration. Because of the complexity and difficulty of long-term O&M at PBO sites, however, actual integration of GPS and seismic equipment must be considered on a case-by-case basis. UNAVCO currently operates two integrated GPS/seismic stations in collaboration with the Alaska Earthquake Center, and three with the Alaska Volcano Observatory. By the end of 2014, PBO and TA plan to install another four integrated and/or co-located geodetic and seismic systems. While three of these are designed around existing PBO stations, one will be a completely new TA installation, providing PBO with an opportunity to expand geodetic data collection in Alaska within the limited operations and maintenance phase of the project. We will present some of the design considerations, outcomes, and lessons learned from past and ongoing projects to integrate seismometers and other instrumentation at PBO-Alaska stations. Developing the PBO network as a platform for ongoing research and hazard monitoring equipment may also continue to serve the needs of the research community and the public beyond the sun-setting and completion of EarthScope science plan in 2018.

  18. Multiple sulfur isotope systematics of Icelandic geothermal fluids and the source and reactions of sulfur in volcanic geothermal systems at divergent plate boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefánsson, Andri; Keller, Nicole S.; Robin, Jóhann Gunnarsson; Ono, Shuhei

    2015-09-01

    Multiple sulfur isotope systematics of geothermal fluids at Krafla, Northeast Iceland, were studied in order to determine the source and reactions of sulfur in this system, as an example of a geothermal system hosted on a divergent plate boundary. Fluid temperatures ranged from 192 to 437 °C, and the fluids have low Cl concentration between ?10 and ?150 ppm, with liquid water and vapor being present in the reservoir. Dissolved sulfide (S-II) and sulfate (SVI) predominated in the water phase with trace concentrations of thiosulfate (S2O32-) whereas sulfide (S-II) was the only species observed in the vapor phase. The reconstructed sulfur isotope ratios of the reservoir fluids based on samples collected at surface from two-phase and vapor only well discharges indicated that ?34S and ?33S of sulfide in the reservoir fluid ranged from -1.5 to +1.1‰ and -0.001 to -0.017‰, respectively, whereas ?34S and ?33S of sulfate were significantly different and ranged from +3.4 to +13.4‰ and 0.000 to -0.036‰, respectively. Depressurization boiling upon fluid ascent coupled with progressive fluid-rock interaction and sulfide mineral (pyrite) formation results in the liquid phase becoming progressively isotopically lighter with respect to both ?34S and ?33S. In contrast, H2S in the vapor phase and pyrite become isotopically heavier. The observed ?33S and ?34S systematics for geothermal fluids at Krafla suggest that the source of sulfide in the reservoir fluids is the basaltic magma, either through degassing or upon dissolution of unaltered basalts. At high temperatures, insignificant SO4 was observed in the fluids but below ?230 °C significant concentrations of SO4 were observed, the source inferred to be H2S oxidation. The two key factors controlling the multiple sulfur isotope systematics of geothermal fluids are: (1) the isotopic composition of the source material and (2) the isotope fractionation associated with aqueous and vapor speciation and how these change as a function of processes occurring in the system, including boiling, oxidation and fluid-rock interaction.

  19. The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) Cascadia High-rate Real-time GPS Network - Network Completion to Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, K.; Borsa, A. A.; Feaux, K.; Williams, T. B.; Jackson, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), NSF is investing in onshore-offshore instrumentation to support geophysical studies of the Cascadia margin. EarthScope's Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) is contributing to this objective by upgrading 232 of its GPS stations in the Pacific Northwest to high-rate sampling and real-time telemetry to provide streaming data from this large-aperture network to the public. By blanketing the Pacific Northwest with real-time GPS coverage, the NSF is creating a natural laboratory in an area of great scientific interest and high geophysical hazard in order to spur new volcano and earthquake research opportunities. Streaming high-rate GPS data in real-time will enable researchers to routinely analyze for strong ground motion monitoring and earthquake hazards mitigation. As of this fall, all of the 232 proposed Cascadia stations have been equipped with 3G capable modems or high-speed data radios, as well as updated power systems. These stations have been added to PBO's real time network, which is currently providing 1Hz-streaming data from 290 stations in BINEX, RTCM2.3 and RTCM 3.0 formats via the NTrip protocol from servers located at UNAVCO headquarters in Boulder, CO to 385 active connections. All 1Hz streams are also archived and available via FTP. Selected stations have been added to the casters prior to fieldwork in order to provide a baseline data set used to demonstrate improvements in latencies and completeness after upgrades. PBO has also been collecting data with the Trimble VRS3Net software for latency comparisons between various cell carriers and radio network configurations. From the field to the end user, average latencies from cell carriers range from 0.2s to 1.5s, while radio networks range from 0.1s to 2.0s. Analysis of this data allows PBO to implement adjustments to the network that will optimize station and data delivery performance.

  20. Crustal strain accumulation on Southern Basin and Range Province faults modulated by distant plate boundary earthquakes? Evidence from geodesy, seismic imaging, and paleoseismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, R. A.; Shirzaei, M.; Broermann, J.; Spinler, J. C.; Holland, A. A.; Pearthree, P.

    2014-12-01

    GPS in Arizona reveals a change in the pattern of crustal strain accumulation in 2010 and based on viscoelastic modeling appears to be associated with the distant M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah (EMC) earthquake in Baja California, Mexico. GPS data collected between 1999 and 2009 near the Santa Rita normal fault in SE Arizona reveal a narrow zone of crustal deformation coincident with the fault trace, delineated by W-NW facing Pleistocene fault scarps of heights 1 to 7 m. The apparent deformation zone is also seen in a preliminary InSAR interferogram. Total motion across the zone inferred using an elastic block model constrained by the pre-2010 GPS measurements is ~1 mm/yr in a sense consistent with normal fault motion. However, continuous GPS measurements throughout Arizona reveal pronounced changes in crustal velocity following the EMC earthquake, such that the relative motion across the Santa Rita fault post-2010 is negligible. Paleoseismic evidence indicates that mapped Santa Rita fault scarps were formed by two or more large magnitude (M6.7 to M7.6) surface rupturing normal-faulting earthquakes 60 to 100 kyrs ago. Seismic refraction and reflection data constrained by deep (~800 m) well log data provide evidence of progressive, possibly intermittent, displacement on the fault through time. The rate of strain accumulation observed geodetically prior to 2010, if constant over the past 60 to 100 kyrs, would imply an untenable minimum slip rate deficit of 60 to 100 m since the most recent earthquake. One explanation for the available geodetic, seismic, and paleoseismic evidence is that strain accumulation is modulated by viscoelastic relaxation associated with frequent large magnitude earthquakes in the Salton Trough region, episodically inhibiting the accumulation of elastic strain required to generate large earthquakes on the Santa Rita and possibly other faults in the Southern Basin and Range. An important question is thus for how long the postseismic velocity changes will persist relative to the recurrence interval of large Salton Trough earthquakes. Understanding the influence of far-field postseismic deformation on the southern Arizona strain rate field could have implications for other regions of diffuse intracontinental deformation in proximity to frequently rupturing large magnitude plate boundary faults.

  1. PLATE KINEMATICS (Copyright 2010, David T. Sandwell)

    E-print Network

    Sandwell, David T.

    , Cambridge University Press, 1990, Chapter 2) Plate Motions on a Flat Earth Plate tectonic theory describes-fault-fault (R-F-F), and ridge- trench-trench (R-T-T). Each type of plate boundary has rules about relative1 PLATE KINEMATICS (Copyright 2010, David T. Sandwell) (Reference - The Solid Earth, C.M.R. Fowler

  2. Paleomagnetism of a Late Cretaceous island arc complex from South Sakhalin, East Asia: Convergent boundaries far away from the Asian continental margin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazhenov, Mikhail L.; Zharov, Alexander E.; Levashova, Natalia M.; Kodama, Kazuto; Bragin, Nikita Y.; Fedorov, Peter I.; Bragina, Lyubov'g.; Lyapunov, Sergey M.

    2001-09-01

    The Hokkaido-Sakhalin fold system stretches for ˜1500 km along the eastern coast of Asia and consists of several N-S trending tectonic belts. Studies in South Sakhalin show that the northern part of the Tonino-Aniva Peninsula (Ozersk unit) is a counterpart of the Tokoro belt on Hokkaido, Japan. In the eastern part of the Ozersk unit, 195 hand samples were sampled at 20 sites from Campanian-Maastrichtian tuffaceous siltstones and sandstones of the Chayka Formation of island arc affinity. Stepwise thermal demagnetization isolates a postfolding low- to intermediate-temperature component (B) of normal polarity. A high-temperature component (A) is isolated from about half the samples. Because of strong overlap of unblocking temperature spectra of these two components in other samples, direct observations and remagnetization circles were combined for calculation of site-mean directions. Component A is mostly of reversed polarity; a few samples of normal polarity are found at three sites. The presence of two polarities with approximately antipodal directions and the positive fold test imply a prefolding, and most probably primary, origin of component A. A formation-mean inclination of 45.0°±6.4° calculated with the aid of inclination-only statistics corresponds to a latitude of 26.6°±5.2°N. A similar inclination is derived from a late Cretaceous island arc complex from the Tokoro belt on Hokkaido. Since both mean inclinations are ˜30° lower than the coeval Eurasian reference value, a large-scale northward transport of the entire Tokoro island arc is inferred. We exclude the possibility of displacement with the Kula plate and coast-parallel transport; instead, intra-oceanic motion with the Pacific plate and docking at the Eurasian margin at circa 30 Ma are inferred. Combined paleomagnetic data from the Tokoro belt, the Nemuro belt and Kamchatka region imply that a system of intra-oceanic island arcs existed in the northwest Pacific in Late Cretaceous time.

  3. Revealing the architecture of the upper boundary of the Philippine Sea Plate beneath the northern tip of the Izu-Tanzawa Collision Zone, Central Japan, using later-phase of P waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuri, Y.; Tsumura, N.

    2010-12-01

    In Izu-Tanzawa Collision Zone (ITCZ), Izu arc collides with Japan arc due to subduction of the Philippine Sea plate (PHP). Recent studies by Kikuchi (2008) and Arai et al. (2009) have revealed that the upper boundary of PHP has a complex geometry in this area. High seismicity near the top boundary of PHP is reported in the front (northern) edge of the ITCZ, which is the transition zone from collision to subduction of PHP, whereas an aseismic zone is located on the western part of the high seismicity region. This spatial variation of seismicity is probably related to the shape of PHP caused by the difference between collisional vs. subductive movements. To better correlate the spatial distribution of seismicity and the plate configuration, we attempt to find a discontinuous surface near the upper boundary of PHP using later phases of P waves. We used seismic-waveform data from the website of Hi-net seismic network. In the high seismicity region, clear later phases of P waves (X phases) are observed in vertical component seismograms recorded at the stations above the high seismicity region. The X phases arrive 0.5s to 2.0s after P arrivals. Time difference between P and X arrivals (X-P times) increases with distances between the plate boundary and the hypocenters. Similarly, X-P times increase as the distances from the northwestern edge of the high seismicity region to the hypocenters increase. These observations suggest two possibilities for the origin of the X phases: (1) a converted wave at the upper boundary of PHP or (2) a reflected wave from the edge of the high seismicity region. First we searched a suitable plane for which calculated X-P times can match the observed X-P times, by assuming the X phases are converted waves. We found that two converted planes located at different depths would best explain all observed X-P times simultaneously; the depth of the estimated plane in the western side of the high seismicity zone is deeper than that of the eastern side. Next, we determined reflection points for which the observed X-P times can fit: estimated reflection points were concentrated in the northwestern edge of the high seismicity region. In either case, generation points of X phases are located near the top boundary of PHP and it would be expected that the detailed structure near the top boundary of the PHP could be clarified using these later phases. Acknowledgement: We thank the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention of Japan for providing the Hi-net data.

  4. Inter-seismic deformation and plate coupling along the Andaman micro-plate margin: geodetic constraints using 1996-2004 GPS data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earnest, A.; Puchakayala, J.; Rajendran, C. C. P.; Rajendran, K.

    2014-12-01

    Oblique convergence of the Andaman microplate with the Sunda margin results in permanent deformation within the overriding plate and had generated giant plate-boundary ruptures like the 2004 Mw 9.3 Sumatra- Andaman earthquake. Inter-seismic upper plate deformation of this part of the subduction zone remains poorly constrained due to lack of availability of spatially well distributed data. Through this study we are reanalyzing the available GPS geodetic data sets collected by various agencies over different times between 1996-2004 to constrain the pre-earthquake convergence values using a consistent reference frame to determine the crustal deformation in the Andaman Nicobar region, to infer strain rates in the overriding plate, how Andaman microplate was moving relative to Indian plate and what was the extent of plate locking. We will also discuss the details on spatial and temporal variations of convergence rates and variations in plate coupling. To quantify the change in coupling, we calculated the interseismic surface deformation using Okada's formulation, in which locked faults are modelled as dislocations in a halfspace. We defined the subduction zone geometry as three elastically deforming blocks (India, Andaman fore-arc, and Sunda) separated by two faults: the West Andaman Fault and the Sumatra-Andaman megathrust. The bennioff-zone dip and orientation is re-defined using the recently relocated epicentral solutions with higher accuracy and from the slip-distribution models constrained from the various co-seismic geodetic offsets reported from the near-field and far-field GPS sites . The rigid-body motion of each block is specified by a pole of rotation. We modelled the variation in coupling by specifying for each node and integrating the slip deficit over the fault surfaces. The West Andaman Fault is modeled as a vertical strike- lip fault, locked to a depth of ~20 km, with a dextral slip.

  5. Seismogenic faults along the major suture of the plate boundary deduced by dislocation modeling of coseismic displacements of the 1951 M7.3 Hualien Taitung earthquake sequence in eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Ling-Ho; Chen, Yue-Gau; Wu, Yih-Min; Shyu, J. Bruce H.; Kuo, Yu-Ting; Lin, Yu-Nong Nina

    2008-05-01

    Research at plate boundaries generally focuses on the kinematics of plate motions, the genesis of large earthquake, and natural resources. However, often the present state of knowledge is still insufficient to reveal the details of such dynamic systems. To define in more detail the dynamics of, a major plate boundary fault the Coastal Range Fault, eastern Taiwan, we use seismologic and geodetic data to unravel its subsurface geometry and relevant fault behavior. By recomputing the archive triangulation datasets (1917-1978), and using a dislocation algorithm, we determine that it consists of three segments. Our model results are consistent with the observation of the 1951 M7.3 Hualien-Taitung earthquake sequence: that the southern two segments are both oblique-slip faults with significant thrust components, while the northern segment is a pure strike-slip fault. According to our model each segment has the potential to produce an earthquake larger than M7. However, based on GPS observations and seismic records, slip on the southern segment may take the form of aseismic creep and multiple moderate earthquakes, rather than large events with long recurrence interval as occur on the two more northerly segments. With regard to the central segment, the epicenter distribution of catalogued earthquakes occurring after 1951 reveals the presence of a seismic gap, indicating that slip on this segment is predominantly coseismic, with a correspondingly higher potential for large earthquakes in the future.

  6. Moment release budget at oblique convergence margin as revealed by the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, M.; Sato, T.

    2007-08-01

    Based on the model of oblique convergence, we predicted the slip rate on the megathrust plate boundary in the western Sunda arc and compared it with the slip distribution of the 2004 Mw 9.0 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. The slip directions on the megathrust plate boundary, which are necessary for predicting the slip rate, were determined using the fault plane solutions of medium-sized earthquakes occurring for the last 30 years in the 2004 rupture zone. At long wavelengths the predicted slip rate correlates well with the latitudinal variation of the coseismic slip, suggesting that kinematics described by the model of oblique convergence operated over a long interseismic period and that the seismic coupling coefficient has been generally uniform along the strike of the rupture zone. Using the data for the same period of time, we estimated the total seismic moment released by the earthquakes on the Sumatra fault and its submarine continuation located on the backarc side of the Nicobar and Andaman islands. The ratio of the observed seismic moment to the seismic moment predicted from the model of oblique convergence is small. The residual may either be stored for generation of future earthquakes or was taken up by the fault creep at shallow depths.

  7. Plate-mantle coupling from post-Pangea plate kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahirovic, Sabin; Dietmar Müller, R.; Seton, Maria; Flament, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    Convection in the Earth's mantle that involves plates at the surfaces gives rise to plate velocities that vary through time and depend on the balance of plate boundary forces, with the present-day providing a snapshot of this ongoing process. However, present-day plate velocities do not capture plate behaviour over geologically representative timeframes and thus cannot be used to evaluate factors limiting plate velocities. Previous studies investigated the effects of continental keels on plate speeds by either using the present-day snapshot or a limited number of reconstructed plate configurations, often leading to conflicting results. For example, an early assumption was that continental keels (especially cratons) were unlikely to impede fast plate motions because India's velocity approached ~20 cm/yr in the Eocene prior to the collision with Eurasia. We employ a modern plate reconstruction approach with evolving global topological plate boundaries for the post-Pangea timeframe (since 200 Ma) to evaluate factors controlling plate velocities. Plate boundary configurations and plate velocities are extracted from the open-source and cross-platform plate reconstruction package GPlates (www.gplates.org) at 1 Myr intervals. For each plate, at each timestep, the area of continental and cratonic lithosphere is calculated to evaluate the effect on plate velocities. Our results support that oceanic plates tend to be 2-3 times faster than plates with large portion of continental plate area, consistent with predictions of numerical models of mantle convection. The fastest plates (~8.5 cm/yr RMS) are dominated by oceanic plate area and high subducting portion of plate perimeter, while the slowest plates (~2.6-2.8 cm/yr RMS) are dominated by continental plate area and bounded by transforms and mid-oceanic ridge segments. Importantly, increasing cratonic fractions (both Proterozoic and Archean lithosphere) significantly impede plate velocities, suggesting that deep continental keels impinge on asthenospheric flow to increase shear traction, thus anchoring the plate in the more viscous mantle transition zone. However, plates with significant cratonic fragments exhibit short-lived (~10 Myr) accelerations, such as the rapid motion of the Indian plate that is correlated with plume head arrivals as recorded by large igneous province (LIPs) emplacement, highlighting the necessity to analyse plate velocities over long geological timeframes. By evaluating factors controlling plate velocities in the post-Pangea timeframe, simple principles can be applied to highlight potential plate velocity artefacts for Paleozoic and earlier times for which no hotspot tracks, nor in-situ seafloor spreading histories, are preserved. Based on the post-Pangea timeframe, a principle that can be applied to pre-Pangea times is that plates with less than ~50% continental area can reach RMS velocities of ~20 cm/yr, while plates with more than 50% continental fraction do not exceed RMS velocities of ~10 cm/yr. Similarly, plates with large portions of continental or cratonic area with RMS velocities exceeding ~15 cm/yr for more than ~10 Myr should be flagged as potential artefacts requiring further justification of plate driving forces in such scenarios.

  8. Seismic tomography constraints on reconstructing the Philippine Sea Plate and its margin 

    E-print Network

    Handayani, Lina

    2005-02-17

    The Philippine Sea Plate has been surrounded by subduction zones throughout Cenozoic time due to the convergence of the Eurasian, Pacific and Indian-Australian plates. Existing Philippine Sea Plate reconstructions have ...

  9. Subduction Drive of Plate Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, W. B.

    2003-12-01

    Don Anderson emphasizes that plate tectonics is self-organizing and is driven by subduction, which rights the density inversion generated as oceanic lithosphere forms by cooling of asthenosphere from the top. The following synthesis owes much to many discussions with him. Hinge rollback is the key to kinematics, and, like the rest of actual plate behavior, is incompatible with bottom-up convection drive. Subduction hinges (which are under, not in front of, thin leading parts of arcs and overriding plates) roll back into subducting plates. The Pacific shrinks because bounding hinges roll back into it. Colliding arcs, increasing arc curvatures, back-arc spreading, and advance of small arcs into large plates also require rollback. Forearcs of overriding plates commonly bear basins which preclude shortening of thin plate fronts throughout periods recorded by basin strata (100 Ma for Cretaceous and Paleogene California). This requires subequal rates of advance and rollback, and control of both by subduction. Convergence rate is equal to rates of rollback and advance in many systems but is greater in others. Plate-related circulation probably is closed above 650 km. Despite the popularity of concepts of plumes from, and subduction into, lower mantle, there is no convincing evidence for, and much evidence against, penetration of the 650 in either direction. That barrier not only has a crossing-inhibiting negative Clapeyron slope but also is a compositional boundary between fractionated (not "primitive"), sluggish lower mantle and fertile, mobile upper mantle. Slabs sink more steeply than they dip. Slabs older than about 60 Ma when their subduction began sink to, and lie down on and depress, the 650-km discontinuity, and are overpassed, whereas younger slabs become neutrally buoyant in mid-upper mantle, into which they are mixed as they too are overpassed. Broadside-sinking old slabs push all upper mantle, from base of oceanic lithosphere down to the 650, back under shrinking oceans, forcing rapid Pacific spreading. Slabs suck forward overriding arcs and continental lithosphere, plus most subjacent mantle above the transition zone. Changes in sizes of oceans result primarily from transfer of oceanic lithosphere, so backarcs and expanding oceans spread only slowly. Lithosphere parked in, or displaced from, the transition zone, or mixed into mid-upper mantle, is ultimately recycled, and regional variations in age of that submerged lithosphere may account for some regional contrasts in MORB. Plate motions make no kinematic sense in either the "hotspot" reference frame (HS; the notion of fixed plumes is easily disproved) or the no-net-rotation frame (NNR) In both, for example, many hinges roll forward, impossible with gravity drive. Subduction-drive predictions are fulfilled, and paleomagnetic data are satisfied (as they are not in HS and NNR), in the alternative framework of propulsionless Antarctica fixed relative to sluggish lower mantle. Passive ridges migrate away from Antarctica on all sides, and migration of these and other ridges permits tapping fresh asthenosphere. (HS and NNR tend to fix ridges). Ridge migration and spreading rates accord with subduction drive. All trenches roll back when allowance is made for back-arc spreading and intracontinental deformation. Africa rotates slowly toward subduction systems in the NE, instead of moving rapidly E as in HS and NNR. Stable NW Eurasia is nearly stationary, instead of also moving rapidly, and S and E Eurasian deformation relates to subduction and rollback. The Americas move Pacificward at almost the full spreading rates of passive ridges behind them. Lithosphere has a slow net westward drift. Reference: W.B. Hamilton, An alternative Earth, GSA Today, in press.

  10. A model for the motion of the Philippine Sea plate consistent with NUVEL-1 and geological data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seno, Tetsuzo; Stein, Seth; Gripp, Alice E.

    1993-01-01

    We investigate angular velocity vectors of the Philippine Sea (PH) plate relative to the adjacent major plates, Eurasia (EU) and Pacific (PA), and the smaller Caroline (CR) plate. Earthquake slip vector data along the Philippine Sea plate are inverted, subject to the constraint that EU-PA motion equals that predicted by the global relative plate model NUVEL-1. The resulting solution fails to satisfy geological constraints along the Caroline-Pacific boundary: convergence along the Mussau Trench and divergence along the Sorol Trough. We then seek solutions satisfying both the CR-PA boundary conditions and the Philippine Sea slip vector data, by adjusting the PA-PH and EU-PH best fitting poles within their error ellipses. We also consider northern Honshu to be part of the North American plate and impose the constraint that the Philippine Sea plate subducts beneath northern Honshu along the Sagmi Trough in a NNW-NW direction. Of the solutions satisfying these conditions, we select the best EU-PH as 48.2 deg N, 157.0 deg E, 1.09 deg/my, corresponding to a pole far from Japan and south of Kamchatka, and PA-PH, 1.2 deg N, 134.2 deg E, 1.00 deg/my. Predicted NA-PH and EU-PH convergence rates in central Honshu are consistent with estimated seismic slip rates. Previous estimates of the EU-PH pole close to central Honshu are inconsistent with extension within the Bonin backarc implied by earthquake slip vectors and NNW-NW convergence of the Bonin forearc at the Sagami Trough.

  11. Plate tectonics and crustal deformation around the Japanese Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, Manabu; Jackson, David D.

    1993-01-01

    We analyze over a century of geodetic data to study crustal deformation and plate motion around the Japanese Islands, using the block-fault model for crustal deformation developed by Matsu'ura et al. (1986). We model the area including the Japanese Islands with 19 crustal blocks and 104 faults based on the distribution of active faults and seismicity. Geodetic data are used to obtain block motions and average slip rates of faults. This geodetic model predicts that the Pacific plate moves N deg 69 +/- 2 deg W at about 80 +/- 3 mm/yr relative to the Eurasian plate which is much lower than that predicted in geologic models. Substantial aseismic slip occurs on the subduction boundaries. The block containing the Izu Peninsula may be separated from the rigid part of the Philippine Sea plate. The faults on the coast of Japan Sea and the western part of the Median Tectonic Line have slip rates exceeding 4 mm/yr, while the Fossa Magna does not play an important role in the tectonics of the central Japan. The geodetic model requires the division of northeastern Japan, contrary to the hypothesis that northeastern Japan is a part of the North American plate. Owing to rapid convergence, the seismic risk in the Nankai trough may be larger than that of the Tokai gap.

  12. Inner-layer intensities for the flat-plate turbulent boundary layer combining a predictive wall-model with large-eddy simulations

    E-print Network

    Marusic, Ivan

    -wall interactions Phys. Fluids 24, 103304 (2012) Convection and reaction in a diffusive boundary layer in a porous and heat-mass transfer in turbulent boundary layer flow of a nanofluid Phys. Fluids 24, 092003 (2012 in log (Re ) space between laboratory measurements and surface-layer, atmospheric experiments

  13. Cretaceous evolution of the Adria-Europe plate boundary: succession of events recorded in granites and enclaves of the Moslava?ka Gora (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrinec, Zorica; Balen, Dražen

    2014-05-01

    Complex Cretaceous S-type granitoid pluton, geotectonically related to an active continental margin, makes a central part of the Moslava?ka Gora (MG) crystalline and hosts two groups of enclaves. Cognate enclaves, genetically related to the granitoid host rocks, comprise different types of microgranular enclaves, tourmaline nodules, K-feldspar megacrysts and other inhomogenities found inside the two-mica granitoids. All of these enclaves provide evidence of the petrogenetic processes that took place inside the MG Cretaceous magmatic system. On the other hand, foreign enclaves, mostly xenoliths of metapelitic and metabasic rocks, hold information about the metamorphic events that preceded or were contemporaneous with the intrusion and solidification of the igneous body. Based on the age data gathered by earlier researchers of the MG crystalline and P-T data extracted from the study of Cretacoeus granitoids and their enclaves, it was possible to characterize multiple episodes of Cretaceous igneous and metamorphic evolution of the MG. Intrusion of the mantle-related mafic magma at pressures ~8 kbar and temperatures ~920 °C has been regarded as the oldest Cretaceous magmatic pulse (~110-90 Ma) recorded in the MG crystalline complex, leaving behind local occurrences of gabbroic rocks. Its relation to the medium-pressure metamorphic event recorded in amphibole-bearing xenoliths reaching ~8 kbar and max. ~800 °C has not been elucidated so far. It was followed by a younger LP-HT event (100-90 Ma), recorded in a sequence of partial melting reactions in the metapelitic rocks reaching granulite facies conditions (2-5 kbar, ~720-790 °C). Such melt-producing reactions documented in the km-sized metapelitic xenoliths point to the nature and extent of processes in the metapelitic source rocks that contributed to the overall production of the granitic magma in this setting. All of the aforementioned events preceded the Late Cretaceous intrusion of the central granitoid body and oscillations of igneous activity recored in the products of mixing and hybridization between granitoids and more mafic magmas (MME enclaves) and the onset of immiscibility (tourmaline nodules) nad the intrusion of leucogranites. According to our data, all of these pulses occurred in a low-pressure crustal setting (<3 kbar, 660-770 °C). Late Cretaceous peak of igneous activity in the MG system was accompanied by a second LP-HT metamorphic event (<2 kbar, <650 °C) that has been recorded in all MG crystalline lithologies and is correlated with the crystallization and cooling of the crystalline complex, following the intrusion of the central granitoid body. Fluids released by its crystallization led to fluid-assisted melting reactions in cm- to m-sized metapelitic enclaves, recording the interaction of granitoid host with the encapsulated fragments of metapelitic rocks and their role in the granite petrogenesis at Moslava?ka Gora. Data gathered by the study of different types of enclaves from the Moslava?ka Gora granitoid rocks are mutually consistent and reflect the complexity of Cretaceous evolution of a small and geotectonically still enigmatic crystalline fragment at the Adria-Europe plate boundary. This approach opens new perspectives for future research of the processes that took place in the mobile zone on the southeastern margins of Mesozoic Europe.

  14. Cretaceous to present kinematics of the Indian, African and Seychelles plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eagles, Graeme; Hoang, Ha H.

    2014-01-01

    An iterative inverse model of seafloor spreading data from the Mascarene and Madagascar basins and the flanks of the Carlsberg Ridge describes a continuous history of Indian-African Plate divergence since 84 Ma. Visual-fit modelling of conjugate magnetic anomaly data from near the Seychelles platform and Laxmi Ridge documents rapid rotation of a Seychelles Plate about a nearby Euler pole in Palaeocene times. As the Euler pole migrated during this rotation, the Amirante Trench on the western side of the plate accommodated first convergence and later divergence with the African Plate. The unusual present-day morphology of the Amirante Trench and neighbouring Amirante Banks can be related to crustal thickening by thrusting and folding during the convergent phase and the subsequent development of a spreading centre with a median valley during the divergent phase. The model fits FZ trends in the north Arabian and east Somali basins, suggesting that they formed in India-Africa Plate divergence. Seafloor fabric in and between the basins shows that they initially hosted a segmented spreading ridge that accommodated slow plate divergence until 71-69 Ma, and that upon arrival of the Deccan-Réunion plume and an increase to faster plate divergence rates in the period 69-65 Ma, segments of the ridge lengthened and propagated. Ridge propagation into the Indian continental margin led first to the formation of the Laxmi Basin, which accompanied extensive volcanism onshore at the Deccan Traps and offshore at the Saurashtra High and Somnath Ridge. A second propagation episode initiated the ancestral Carlsberg Ridge at which Seychelles-India and India-Africa Plate motions were accommodated. With the completion of this propagation, the plate boundaries in the Mascarene Basin were abandoned. Seafloor spreading between this time and the present has been accommodated solely at the Carlsberg Ridge.

  15. Subduction of the Caribbean Plate and Basement Uplifts in the Overriding South American Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, J. N.; Bonini, W. E.

    1982-06-01

    The new tectonic interpretations presented in this paper are based on geologic field mapping and gravity data supplemented by well logs, seismic profiles, and radiometric and earthquake data. The present Caribbean-South American plate boundary is the South Caribbean marginal fault, where subduction is indicated by folding and thrusting in the deformed belt and a seismic zone that dips 30° to the southeast and terminates 200 km below the Maracaibo Basin. The Caribbean-South American convergence rate is estimated as 1.9 ± 0.3 cm/yr on the basis of the 390-km length of the seismic zone and a thermal equilibration time of 10 m.y. The Caribbean-South American convergence has produced a northwest-southeast maximum principal stress direction ?1 in the overriding South American plate. The mean ?1 direction for the Maracaibo-Santa Marta block is 310° ± 10° based on earthquake focal mechanism determinations, and structural and gravity data. On the overriding South American plate, basement blocks have been uplifted 7-12 km in the last 10 m.y. to form the Venezuelan Andes, Sierra de Perija, and the Colombian Santa Marta massif. Crystalline basement of the Venezuelan Andes has been thrust to the northwest over Tertiary sediments on a fault dipping about 25° and extending to the mantle. In the Sierra de Perija, Mesozoic sediments have been thrust 16-26 km to the northwest over Tertiary sandstones along the Cerrejon fault. A thrust fault dipping 15° ± 10° to the southeast is consistent with field mapping, and gravity and density data. The Santa Marta massif has been uplifted 12 km in the last 10 m.y. by northwest thrusting over sediments. The basement block overthrusts of the Perijas, Venezuelan Andes, and the Santa Marta massif are Pliocene-Pleistocene analogs for Laramide orogenic structures in the middle and southern Rocky Mountains of the United States. The nonmagmatic basement block uplifts along low-angle thrust faults reveal horizontal compression in the overriding plate over 500 km from the convergent margin. Present-day east northeast-west southwest (080°) compression is indicated by earthquake focal mechanisms and strike slip motion on the Bocono fault. These earthquakes are intraplate deformation associated with east-west (080°) Nazca-South American convergence.

  16. Caribbean plate interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, M. )

    1993-02-01

    Vector analysis of plate motions, derived from studies of Atlantic magnetic lineations and fracture zone trends, indicates the following relative movements between the Caribbean, North American, and South American Plates. (1) During Early Jurassic to Early Cretaceous, the North American Plate moved 1900 km westward and 900 km northward relative to the South American Plate. A broad zone including the Caribbean region, i.e., the zone between the North and South America Plates, was a site of left-lateral shear and north-south extension. (2) During Early Cretaceous to Late Cretaceous, the North American Mate moved an additional 1200 km westward relative to South America across this zone. (3) During Late Cretaceous to the end of the Eocene, the North American Plate moved 200 km westward and 400 km northward relative to the South American Plate. (4) From the end of the Eocene to near the end of the Miocene, North America converged on South America some 200 km and moved 100 km eastward relative to it. Through the Mesozoic and earliest Tertiary history of the Caribbean, the region was a shear zone within which left-lateral displacement exceeded 3000 km and north-south extension exceeded 1300 km. In regard to time, 80% of the history of the Caribbean region is one of north-south extension and left-lateral shear. In terms of space, 97% of the shear is left-lateral and the ratio of divergence versus convergence is 7 to 1. Thus, characterizing the Caribbean region, and the Atlantic to its east, as a zone of north-south extension and left-lateral shear, is a fair generalization.

  17. Geophysical study of the structure and processes of the continental convergence zones: Alpine-Himalayan Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toksoez, M. N.

    1981-01-01

    The seismic wave velocity structure in the crust and upper mantle region beneath the Tibetan plateau was studied in detail. Also, a preliminary study of the uppermost mantle P wave velocity beneath Iran and Turkey was carried out, and the results are compared with those for the Tibetan plateau. These two studies compose the bulk of the efforts on the observational aspects of continental collision zones in addition to satellite derived dat