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Sample records for convergent plate boundary

  1. Composite transform-convergent plate boundaries: description and discussion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan, H.F.; Coleman, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    The leading edge of the overriding plate at an obliquely convergent boundary is commonly sliced by a system of strike-slip faults. This fault system is often structurally complex, and may show correspondingly uneven strain effects, with great vertical and translational shifts of the component blocks of the fault system. The stress pattern and strain effects vary along the length of the system and change through time. These margins are considered to be composite transform-convergent (CTC) plate boundaries. Examples are given of structures formed along three CTC boundaries: the Aleutian Ridge, the Solomon Islands, and the Philippines. The dynamism of the fault system along a CTC boundary can enhance vertical tectonism and basin formation. This concept provides a framework for the evaluation of petroleum resources related to basin formation, and mineral exploration related to igneous activity associated with transtensional processes. ?? 1992.

  2. The proximity of hotspots to convergent and divergent plate boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Stuart A.; Olson, Peter L.

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of four different hotspot distributions, ranging from Morgan's (1972) original list of 19 to Vogt's (1981) list of 117 reveals that the hotspots are preferentially located near divergent plate boundaries. The probability of this proximity occurring by chance alone is quite remote, less than 0.01 for all four hotspot distributions. The same analysis also reveals that the hotspots are preferentially excluded from regions near convergent plate boundaries. The probability of this exclusion occurring by chance alone is 0.1 or less for three out of the four distributions examined. We interpret this behavior as being a consequence of the effects of large scale convective circulation on ascending mantle plumes. Mantle thermal plumes, the most probable source of hotspots, arise from instabilities in a basal thermal boundary layer. Plumes are suppressed from regions beneath convergent boundaries by descending flow and are entrained into the upwelling flow beneath spreading centers. Plate-scale convective circulation driven by subduction may also advect mantle thermal plumes toward spreading centers.

  3. The proximity of hotspots to convergent and divergent plate boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, S.A.; Olson, P.L. )

    1989-05-01

    An analysis of four different hotspot distributions, ranging from Morgan's (1972) original list of 19 to Vogt's (1981) list of 117 reveals that the hotspots are preferentially located near divergent plate boundaries. The probability of this proximity occurring by chance alone is quite remote, less than 0.01 for all four hotspots distributions. The same analysis also reveals that the hotspots are preferentially excluded from regions near convergent plate boundaries. The probability of this exclusion occurring by chance alone is 0.1 or less for three out of the four distributions examined. The authors interpret this behavior as being a consequence of the effects of large scale convective circulation on ascending mantle plumes. Mantle thermal plumes, the most probable source of hotspots, arise from instabilities in a basal thermal boundary layer. Plumes are suppressed from regions beneath convergent boundaries by descending flow and are entrained into the upwelling flow beneath spreading centers. Plate-scale convective driven by subduction may also advect mantle thermal plumes toward spreading centers.

  4. Convergent Plate Boundary Processes in the Archean: Evidence from Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polat, A.

    2014-12-01

    The structural, magmatic and metamorphic characteristics of Archean greenstone belts and associated TTG (tonalite, trondhjemite and granodiorite) gneisses in southern West Greenland are comparable to those of Phanerozoic convergent plate margins, suggesting that Archean continents grew mainly at subduction zones. These greenstone belts are composed mainly of tectonically juxtaposed fragments of oceanic crust including mafic to ultramafic rocks, with minor sedimentary rocks. Volcanic rocks in the greenstone belts are characterized mainly by island arc tholeiitic basalts, picrites, and boninites. The style of deformation and geometry of folds in 10 cm to 5 m wide shear zones are comparable to those occur on 1 to 50 km scale in the greenstone belts and TTG gneisses, suggesting that compressional tectonic processes operating at convergent plate boundaries were the driving force of Archean crustal accretion and growth. Field observations and trace element data suggest that Archean continental crust grew through accretion of mainly island arcs and melting of metamorphosed mafic rocks (amphibolites) in thickened arcs during multiple tectonothermal events. Fold patterns on cm to km scale are consistent with at least three phases of deformation and multiple melting events generating TTG melts that intruded mainly along shear zones in accretionary prism and magmatic arcs. It is suggested that Archean TTGs were produced by three main processes: (1) melting of thickened oceanic island arcs; (2) melting of subducted oceanic crust; and (3) differentiation of basaltic melts originating from metasomatized sub-arc mantle wedge peridotites.

  5. The behavior of a convergent plate boundary - Crustal deformation in the South Kanto district, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, C. H.; Kato, T.

    1978-01-01

    The northwesternmost part of the Sagami trough, a part of the Philippine Sea-Eurasian plate boundary, was ruptured during the great South Kanto earthquake in 1923. Very extensive and frequent geodetic measurements of crustal deformation have been made in the South Kanto district since the 1890's, and these constitute the most complete data set on crustal movements in the world. These data were reanalyzed and interpreted and according to our interpretation indicate the following sequence of events. The coseismic movements were due to oblique thrust and right lateral slip of about 8 m on a fault outcropping at the base of the Sagami trough. This was followed by postseismic deformation resulting from reversed afterslip of 20-60 cm that occurred at an exponentially decaying rate in time. The interseismic deformation is produced by steady subduction at a rate of about 1.8 cm/yr. During subduction the top 10-15 km of the plate boundary is apparently locked, while deeper parts slip aseismically at an irregular rate. No significant precursory deformation was observed. The recurrence time for 1923 type earthquakes is 200-300 years. The Boso and Miura peninsulas are broken into a series of fault-bound blocks that move semi-independently of the surrounding region. The subduction zone itself, where it is exposed on land, is shown to be a wide zone encompassing several faults that are active at different times.

  6. Dynamics of convergent plate boundaries: Insights from subduction-related serpentinite melanges from the northern edge of the Caribbean plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Casco, A.

    2012-04-01

    Subduction-related rock complexes, many of them tectonic melanges, occur in the Central America-Caribbean-Andean belt. I review the lithology and P-T-t paths of HP rocks and offer interpretations and generalizations on the thermal estate of the subducting plate(s), the melange forming events, and the exhumation history of rock complexes formed in the northern branch of the Caribbean subduction zone (Cuba and nearby Guatemala and Dominican Republic; ca. 3000 km apart). These complexes contain high pressure rocks formed and exhumed at the convergent (Pacific-Atlantic) leading edge of the Caribbean plate during ca. 100 Ma (early Cretaceous-Oligocene), attesting for long lasting oceanic -followed by continental- subduction/accretion in the region. Lithologic data indicate a complex melange-forming process. In most cases, the HP rocks represent subducted MOR-related lithologies occurring as tectonic blocks within serpentinite-matrix melanges interpreted as exhumed fragments of the subduction channel(s). Most of these melanges, however, contain fragments of arc/forearc-related non metamorphic and metamorphic (low-P and high-P) sedimentary and igneous rocks. While the HP blocks of arc/forearc material indicate subduction erosion at depth, the interpretation of the LP and non-metamorphic blocks is not straight forward. Indeed, tectonic blocks of HP metamafic rocks are surrounded by antigorite-serpentinite which, in turn, is surrounded by a low-P, low-T (chrysotile-lizardite) serpentinite that makes much of the mélange. These relations indicate that the melanges represent, in fact, tectonic stacks of shallow low-T forearc serpentinite that incorporate tectonic blocks/slices of the subduction-channel (high-P, high-T serpentinite and HP metamafic blocks) and of the arc/forearc crust (low-P and non-metamorphic blocks). This picture is similar to that of HP continental margin-derived tectonic stacks containing exotic slices of antigoritite-serpentine melanges (with blocks of MORB-derived eclogite) incorporated late in the convergent history when oceanic subduction was completed. Hence, incorporation of tectonic slices of the subduction channel into the shallow (low-P, low-T) melanges and subducted/accreted continental margins occur when collision-related dynamics imposed by subduction of buoyant continental or oceanic lithosphere affected the plate margin. Aqueous fluid, sourced from both subducted sediment and metamafic/ultramafic material, was available in large quantity in the subduction environment, as indicated by massive antigoritite, rinds of metasomatic rocks around included HP metamafic rocks, retrogressed eclogite, jadeitite and hydrothermal veins within antigoritite. Such a vigorous hydrology (fluid-flow) deep in the subduction environment point to the development of wide subduction channels and explain the abundance of accreted blocks. It can also explain the scarcity of large scale (>km) slices of the subducted oceanic lithosphere in the belt, for these are likely the result of focalized distribution of deformation occurring when forearc peridotite is barely hydrated (Agard et al., Long-term coupling along the subduction plate interface: Insights from exhumed rocks and models. This session, EGU 2012). Alternatively, these large tectonic slices may have been formed by the collision dynamics caused by late-stage subduction/accretion of the continental margin (or buoyant -thick- oceanic crust). Except maturation (cooling) of the subduction zone with time at orogenic belt-scale, no other simple generalization can be reached on the thermal state of the subducting plate and the exhumation process of the subduction channel. P-T-t paths of HP rocks indicate that slab fragments ranging from cold to hot coexisted during relatively short time intervals (ca. 10 Myr), and some fragments of the subduction channel were exhumed shortly after formation while others lasted several tens of Myr to arrive to the near-surface forearc/accretionary environment. A rather variable thermal state and dynamic history of the subduction environme

  7. Focal Mechanisms at the convergent plate boundary in Southern Aegean, Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshou, Alexandra; Papadimitriou, Eleftheria; Drakatos, George; Evangelidis, Christos; Karakostas, Vasilios; Vallianatos, Filippos; Makropoulos, Konstantinos

    2014-05-01

    Greece is characterized by high seismicity, mainly due to the collision between the European and the African lithospheric plates and the dextral strike slip motion along the North Anatolia Fault zone and North Aegean Trough. The subduction of the Eastern Mediterranean oceanic plate along the Hellenic Arc under the Aegean microplate along with the accompanied roll back of the descending slab is considered the main tectonic feature of the region (Papazachos and Comninakis 1971; Makropoulos and Burton 1984; Papazachos et al. 2000a, b). The divergent motion between the Aegean block and mainland Europe is indicated by an extension zone in the northern Aegean, with Crete and Aegean diverging from mainland Europe at a rate of about 3.5 cm yr-1 with Africa moving northward relative to Europe at a rate of about 1 cm yr-1 (Dewey et al., 1989; Papazachos et al., 1998; Mc-Clusky et al., 2000; Reilinger et al., 2006). In this tectonically complicated area diverge types of deformation are manifested, in addition to the dominant subduction processes. Aiming to shed more light in the seismotectonic properties and faulting seismological data from the Hellenic Unified Seismological Network (HUSN) were selected and analyzed for determining focal mechanisms using the method of moment tensor inversion, additional to the ones being available from the routine moment tensor solutions and several publications. Thus, 31 new fault plane solutions for events with magnitude M>4.0, are presented in this study, by using the software of Ammon (Randall et al., 1995). For this scope the data from at least 4 stations were used with an adequate azimuthal coverage and with an epicentral distance not more than 350 km. The preparation of the data includes the deconvolution of instruments response, then the velocity was integrated to displacement and finally the horizontal components were rotated to radial and transverse. Following, the signal was inverted using the reflectivity method of Kennett (1983) as implemented by Randall (1994) in order to determine Green's functions. Initially, iterative inversions were performed considering a crude depth interval of 5 km and the relative misfit functions were computed. In a second stage, inversions were performed considering a finer depth interval of 1-2 km around the depth where the lowest misfit was exhibited. During the analysis different velocity models were used (Karagianni et al., 2005; Novotny et al., 2001; Papazachos et al., 1997). This research has been funded by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek national resources under the framework of the "THALES Program: SEISMO FEAR HELLARC" project of the "Education & Lifelong Learning" Operational Programme.

  8. Links between crustal melting, plate boundary forces, and syn-convergent exhumation in the Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulcahy, S. R.; Roeske, S.; McClelland, W.; Jourdan, F.; Renne, P. R.; Vervoort, J. D.; Vujovich, G. I.

    2011-12-01

    Transitions from convergence to extension during an orogenic cycle result from the dynamic interaction between plate bounding forces, the thermal and rheologic evolution of the lithosphere, and contrasts in gravitational potential energy within an orogen. The presence of melt in the middle and lower crust, in particular, exerts a profound effect on the rheology of orogenic belts and in facilitating a change from convergence to extension and orogenic collapse. Determining whether or not melting was as an effective driving mechanism of extension within a given orogen requires accurately constraining the timing and duration of melting in the crust with respect to plate convergence, crustal thickening, and lithospheric extension. The Sierras Pampeanas of northwest Argentina record the transition from a Cambrian convergent margin to an Ordovician collisional orogen with the accretion of the allochthonous Precordillera terrane. Regional convergence associated with Famatina arc magmatism initiated as a result of east dipping subduction by ˜515-495 Ma and the majority of arc magmatism occurred from ˜485 to 465 Ma. Initial collision of the Precordillera terrane with the Famatina arc margin began by ~470 Ma and the terrane had fully collided by the Late Ordovician (˜458-449 Ma). Syn-convergent extension within the Sierra de Pie de Palo initiated at middle to lower crustal depths at ~436 Ma and continued through ~417 Ma. We present new U-Pb zircon and sphene, Lu-Hf garnet, and 40Ar/39Ar amphibole and mica ages and thermobarometry from lower crustal granulite facies migmatites of the Loma de Las Charcas. These data, coupled with existing regional isotopic ages and one-dimensional thermal modeling, suggest that: 1) regional peak granulite facies metamorphism occurred at ~465 Ma with near isothermal temperatures of ~850° C from ~5-12 kb within the Famatina arc; 2) Ordovician melts remained at temperatures above their solidus for 20-30 million years following peak granulite facies metamorphism, throughout a time period marked by regional oblique convergence; and 3) the onset of syn-convergent extension occurred after regional migmatites cooled beneath their solidus, and was synchronous with the establishment of a new plate margin to the west of the Precordillera terrane at ~436 Ma. The presence of large volumes of melt throughout the middle and lower crust was insufficient to drive extension during regional convergence and terrane accretion. Exhumation was likely the result of a change in the plate bounding forces.

  9. From arc-continent collision to continuous convergence, clues from Paleogene conglomerates along the southern Caribbean-South America plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, A.; Montes, C.; Ayala, C.; Bustamante, C.; Hoyos, N.; Montenegro, O.; Ojeda, C.; Niño, H.; Ramirez, V.; Valencia, V.; Rincón, D.; Vervoort, J.; Zapata, S.

    2012-12-01

    A Paleogene conglomeratic-sandy succession preserves the complex record of arc-continent collision, orogen collapse and basin opening, followed by inversion related to renewed oblique convergence. This record is unique because both arc and continental margin are now severely fragmented and only partially exposed along the southern Caribbean-South American boundary in northern Colombia. We studied these clastic sequences in the San Jacinto deformed belt using an integrated provenance study that includes conglomerate clast counting, geochemistry and U-Pb and Hf isotopic analysis in magmatic clasts, together with sandstone petrography, heavy mineral analysis and detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology. The record of events extracted from these coarse clastic rocks includes the formation and approach of an allochthonous Upper Cretaceous intra-oceanic arc active from 88 Ma until 73 Ma. This arc collides against the upper Paleozoic to Triassic continental margin after 73 Ma, but before late Paleocene times. Poorly exposed remnants of serpentinized peridotites and middle pressure metamorphic detritus are related to closure of an intervening oceanic basin between the continent and the colliding arc. This orogen was emerged in late Maastrichtian-early Paleocene, and then collapsed as recorded by the thick upper Paleocene and younger succession of the San Jacinto deformed belt where the coarse clastics, subject of this study, are exposed. Orogenic collapse may have been the result of subduction zone flip, with incipient subduction of the buoyant Caribbean Plate under South America.

  10. The Role of Serpentinites at Convergent Plate Boundaries: Using New Discoveries to Facilitate the Learning of Major Earth Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, J. G.

    2010-12-01

    A benefit of integrating a vital educational enterprise into a cutting-edge funded research initiative is the ability to bring new scientific discoveries quickly into the classroom without being bound to the textbook publication cycle. A key objective the MARGINS Data in the Classroom project was to facilitate the discovery-to-the-classroom transition of knowledge through the development of Web-deliverable, modular MARGINS “Mini-Lessons”. Some 34 Mini-Lessons are available for classroom use at http://serc.carleton.edu/margins/collection.html, and the development of new Mini-Lessons is a listed Education/Outreach priority of the successor GeoPRISMS Program. An important discovery that arose from the MARGINS Subduction Factory Initiative was the recognition that serpentinites - metamorphically hydrated products of ultramafic rocks rich in serpentine group minerals - are significant constituents of both the mantle wedge and downgoing plate. Serpentines are interesting mineralogically because of their distinctive physical properties, habits and appearance; and for their close affinities with olivine and Mg-rich pyroxenes. Given that serpentines primarily form through the hydration of olivine or Mg-rich pyroxenes, serpentinites constitute a reservoir of subduction-related H2O and entrained trace species in modified mantle rocks of the wedge or slab. As well, serpentine group minerals are interesting rheologically because, as sheet silicates, they can behave in a plastic fashion in rocks that are undergoing deformation, and can thus flow along faults in response to deforming stresses, or be easily entrained in fault rock assemblages along a subduction thrust. Two different MARGINS Mini-Lessons address the issue of serpentinite in subduction zone settings, focusing primarily on the observed occurrences of serpentinite seamounts in the forearc regions of the Mariana subduction system, a MARGINS Subduction Factory Focus Site, and their geochemical and geodynamic implications (e.g., Savov et al 2007); and also on the geophysical inferences of DeShon and Schwartz (2004) and Syracuse et al (2006) as to the presence of abundant serpentinite in different parts of the MARGINS Central American subduction system Focus Site. The Mini-Lesson seeks to lead students through the arguments made in these very recent papers, both through an analysis of the presented data, and through GeoMapApp examinations of bathymetric and geochemical datasets that students can access independently. The instructional approach is one of guided inquiry, with learning goals focused on a deeper understanding of the subduction process through examining its geochemical and geodynamic implications, as well as providing students with experience in the critical reading of the scientific literature and the extraction of useful information from technical papers.

  11. Uplift of Zagros Mountains slows plate convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-05-01

    Research has indicated that mountain ranges can slow down the convergence between two tectonic plates on timescales as short as a few million years, as the growing mountains provide enough tectonic force to impact plate motions. Focusing on the convergence of the Arabian and Eurasian plates at the Zagros mountain range, which runs across Iran and Iraq, Austermann and Iaffaldano reconstructed the relative motion of the plates using published paleomagnetic data covering the past 13 million years, as well as current geodetic measurements. They show that the convergence of the two plates has decreased by about 30% over the past 5 million years. Looking at the geological record to infer past topography and using a computer model of the mantle-lithosphere system, the authors examined whether the recent uplift across the Zagros Mountains could have caused the observed slowdown. They also considered several other geological events that might have influenced the convergence rate, but the authors were able to rule those out as dominant controls. The authors conclude that the uplift across the Zagros Mountains in the past 5 million years did indeed play a key role in slowing down the convergence between the Eurasian and Arabian plates. (Tectonics, doi:10.1002/tect.20027, 2013)

  12. An updated digital model of plate boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Peter

    2003-03-01

    A global set of present plate boundaries on the Earth is presented in digital form. Most come from sources in the literature. A few boundaries are newly interpreted from topography, volcanism, and/or seismicity, taking into account relative plate velocities from magnetic anomalies, moment tensor solutions, and/or geodesy. In addition to the 14 large plates whose motion was described by the NUVEL-1A poles (Africa, Antarctica, Arabia, Australia, Caribbean, Cocos, Eurasia, India, Juan de Fuca, Nazca, North America, Pacific, Philippine Sea, South America), model PB2002 includes 38 small plates (Okhotsk, Amur, Yangtze, Okinawa, Sunda, Burma, Molucca Sea, Banda Sea, Timor, Birds Head, Maoke, Caroline, Mariana, North Bismarck, Manus, South Bismarck, Solomon Sea, Woodlark, New Hebrides, Conway Reef, Balmoral Reef, Futuna, Niuafo'ou, Tonga, Kermadec, Rivera, Galapagos, Easter, Juan Fernandez, Panama, North Andes, Altiplano, Shetland, Scotia, Sandwich, Aegean Sea, Anatolia, Somalia), for a total of 52 plates. No attempt is made to divide the Alps-Persia-Tibet mountain belt, the Philippine Islands, the Peruvian Andes, the Sierras Pampeanas, or the California-Nevada zone of dextral transtension into plates; instead, they are designated as "orogens" in which this plate model is not expected to be accurate. The cumulative-number/area distribution for this model follows a power law for plates with areas between 0.002 and 1 steradian. Departure from this scaling at the small-plate end suggests that future work is very likely to define more very small plates within the orogens. The model is presented in four digital files: a set of plate boundary segments; a set of plate outlines; a set of outlines of the orogens; and a table of characteristics of each digitization step along plate boundaries, including estimated relative velocity vector and classification into one of 7 types (continental convergence zone, continental transform fault, continental rift, oceanic spreading ridge, oceanic transform fault, oceanic convergent boundary, subduction zone). Total length, mean velocity, and total rate of area production/destruction are computed for each class; the global rate of area production and destruction is 0.108 m2/s, which is higher than in previous models because of the incorporation of back-arc spreading.

  13. Effective strength of incoming sediments and its implications for plate boundary propagation: Nankai and Costa Rica as type examples of accreting vs. erosive convergent margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopf, Achim

    2013-11-01

    The location of the seaward tip of a subduction thrust controls material transfer at convergent plate margins, and hence global mass balances. At approximately half of those margins, the material of the subducting plate is completely underthrust so that no accretion or even subduction erosion takes place. Along the remaining margins, material is scraped off the subducting plate and added to the upper plate by frontal accretion. We here examine the physical properties of subducting sediments off Costa Rica and Nankai, type examples for an erosional and an accretionary margin, to investigate which parameters control the level where the frontal thrust cuts into the incoming sediment pile. A series of rotary-shear experiments to measure the frictional strength of the various lithologies entering the two subduction zones were carried out. Results include the following findings: (1) At Costa Rica, clay-rich strata at the top of the incoming succession have the lowest strength (μres = 0.19) while underlying calcareous ooze, chalk and diatomite are strong (up to μres = 0.43; μpeak = 0.56). Hence the entire sediment package is underthrust. (2) Off Japan, clay-rich deposits within the lower Shikoku Basin inventory are weakest (μres = 0.13-0.19) and favour the frontal proto-thrust to migrate into one particular horizon between sandy, competent turbidites below and ash-bearing mud above. (3) Taking in situ data and earlier geotechnical testing into account, it is suggested that mineralogical composition rather than pore-pressure defines the position of the frontal thrust, which locates in the weakest, clay mineral-rich (up to 85 wt.%) materials. (4) Smectite, the dominant clay mineral phase at either margin, shows rate strengthening and stable sliding in the frontal 50 km of the subduction thrust (0.0001-0.1 mm/s, 0.5-25 MPa effective normal stress). (5) Progressive illitization of smectite cannot explain seismogenesis, because illite-rich samples also show velocity strengthening at the conditions tested.

  14. The seismotectonics of plate boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, J.; Brune, J. N.; Goodkind, J.; Wyatt, F.; Agnew, D. C.; Beaumont, C.

    1981-01-01

    Research on the seismotectonics of plate boundaries is summarized. Instrumental development and an observational program designed to study various aspects of the seismotectonics of southern California and the northern Gulf of California are described. A unique superconducting gravimeter was further developed and supported under this program for deployment and operation at several sites. Work on Earth tides is also discussed.

  15. Convergent plate margin dynamics: New perspectives from structural geology, geophysics and geodynamic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellart, W. P.; Rawlinson, N.

    2010-03-01

    Convergent plate margins occur when two adjoining tectonic plates come together to form either a subduction zone, where at least one of the converging plates is oceanic and plunges beneath the other into the mantle, or a collision zone, where two continents or a continent and a magmatic arc collide. Convergent plate margins are arguably the most complicated and dynamic plate boundaries on Earth and have been the subject of many investigations and discussions since the advent of plate tectonic theory. This paper provides a historical background and a review of the development of geological and geodynamic theories on convergent plate margins. Furthermore, it discusses some of the recent advances that have been made in the fields of structural geology, geophysics and geodynamics, which are fundamental to our understanding of this phenomenon. These include: (1) the finding that plates and plate boundaries move at comparable velocities across the globe; (2) the emerging consensus that subducted slabs are between two to three orders of magnitude stronger than the ambient upper mantle; (3) the importance of lateral slab edges, slab tearing and toroidal mantle flow patterns for the evolution of subduction zones; and (4) clear evidence from mantle tomography that slabs can penetrate into the lower mantle. Still, many first-order problems regarding the geodynamic processes that operate at convergent margins remain to be solved. These include subduction zone initiation and the time of inception of plate tectonics, and with it convergent plate margins, on Earth. Fundamental problems in orogenesis include the mechanism that initiated Andean mountain building at the South American subduction zone, the potential episodicity of mountain building with multiple cycles of shortening and extension, and the principal driving force behind the construction of massive mountain belts such as the Himalayas-Tibet and the Andes. Fundamental questions in subduction dynamics regard the partitioning of subduction into a trench and plate component, and the distribution of energy dissipation in the system. In seismic imaging, challenges include improving resolution at mid to lower mantle depth in order to properly understand the fate of slabs, and better constraining the 3-D flow-related anisotropic structure in the surrounding mantle. Future insights into such fundamental problems and into the regional and global dynamics of convergent plate margins will likely be obtained from integrating spatio-temporal data, structural geological data, geophysical data and plate kinematic data into plate tectonic reconstructions and three-dimensional geodynamic models of progressive deformation.

  16. Plate stability by boundary element method

    SciTech Connect

    Elzein, A.; Brebbia, C.A.; Orszag, S.A.

    1991-12-31

    As indicated by the title, this publication is devoted to the application of the Boundary Element Method (BEM) to the analysis of elastic plastes subjected to inplane forces. Three classes of plate problems associated with the buckling phenomenon are considered, viz: The state of plane stress, buckling of plates caused by edge loads, and moderately large deflections of slightly warped plates. The first (introductory) chapter gives an historical background and the behavior, theory, and analyses of plates. Chapter 2 briefly comments on the phenomenon of buckling and clearly presents the universal expressions and equations of the linear and nonlinear theories established by Kirchhoff for thin plates. A prominent place is assigned to the airy plane-stress function introduced into the nonlinear flexural theory of plates by A Foeppl and Th von Karman.

  17. The Rivera-Cocos Plate Boundary Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandy, W. L.; Mortera-Gutierrez, C. A.; Michaud, F.; Ortega Ramírez, J.

    2013-05-01

    The nature of the boundary between the Rivera and Cocos plates has long been controversial. Early studies (predominantly earthquake studies) suggested that it was a NE oriented left lateral transform boundary. With the collection of multi-beam bathymetric data during the SEAMAT cruise of the N/O Jean Charcot in 1987 it became clear that this early proposal was not entirely correct as no clear transform morphology was observed. Shortly after the SEAMAT campaign, three main proposals emerged to explain this lack of transform morphology. The first two proposals favored the results of earthquake studies over the new multibeam data. The first proposed that the boundary is indeed a left-lateral transform boundary, you just cannot see it. In other words, it was a diffuse boundary and the resolution of the multi-beam data was not sufficient to reveal the associated deformation. The second proposal was that it was an east-west oriented, dextral transform, the proposal being based on the results of an earthquake directivity analysis. The third proposal favored the morphologic data over the earthquake data and proposed that the plate boundary was not a transform boundary, but was instead a divergent boundary, at least near the Middle America Trench in what is now called the EL Gordo Graben. Implicit in this proposal was that the earthquake activity did not reflect plate motions but rather were the result of local stresses. Since 2002, several marine geophysical campaigns have been conducted in the area of the Rivera-Cocos plate boundary with the aim of resolving this debate. During the 2002 BART and FAMEX campaigns of the N/O L'ATALANTE, multibeam bathymetric and seafloor backscatter data were collected along the boundary. During the MARTIC04 and MARTIC05 campaigns of the B/O EL PUMA dense total field magnetic surveys were conducted covering the entire plate boundary. Lastly, the multibeam coverage obtained during the BART/FAMEX campaigns was extended northward during the MORTIC07 campaign of the B/O EL PUMA. In this talk we will present these new data (some of which have already been published) and discuss the constraints that these data impose on the nature of the Rivera-Cocos plate boundary.

  18. Shock wave convergence in water with parabolic wall boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanuka, D.; Shafer, D.; Krasik, Ya.

    2015-04-01

    The convergence of shock waves in water, where the cross section of the boundaries between which the shock wave propagates is either straight or parabolic, was studied. The shock wave was generated by underwater electrical explosions of planar Cu wire arrays using a high-current generator with a peak output current of ˜45 kA and rise time of ˜80 ns. The boundaries of the walls between which the shock wave propagates were symmetric along the z axis, which is defined by the direction of the exploding wires. It was shown that with walls having a parabolic cross section, the shock waves converge faster and the pressure in the vicinity of the line of convergence, calculated by two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations coupled with the equations of state of water and copper, is also larger.

  19. Shock wave convergence in water with parabolic wall boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Yanuka, D.; Shafer, D.; Krasik, Ya.

    2015-04-28

    The convergence of shock waves in water, where the cross section of the boundaries between which the shock wave propagates is either straight or parabolic, was studied. The shock wave was generated by underwater electrical explosions of planar Cu wire arrays using a high-current generator with a peak output current of ∼45 kA and rise time of ∼80 ns. The boundaries of the walls between which the shock wave propagates were symmetric along the z axis, which is defined by the direction of the exploding wires. It was shown that with walls having a parabolic cross section, the shock waves converge faster and the pressure in the vicinity of the line of convergence, calculated by two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations coupled with the equations of state of water and copper, is also larger.

  20. Plate boundary segmentation in the northeastern Caribbean from geodetic measurements and Neogene geological observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calais, Éric; Symithe, Steeve; Mercier de Lépinay, Bernard; Prépetit, Claude

    2016-01-01

    The Caribbean-North America plate boundary in the northeastern Caribbean shows a remarkable example of along-strike transition from plate boundary-normal subduction in the Lesser Antilles, oblique subduction with no strain partitioning in Puerto Rico, and oblique subduction/collision with strain partitioning further west in Hispaniola. We show that this segmentation is well marked in the interseismic strain, as measured using space geodetic data, and in the Neogene deformation regime, as derived from geological observations. Hence, interseismic segmentation, which reproduces the geological segmentation persistent over a long time interval, is inherited from the geological history and long-term properties of the plate boundary. This result is relevant to the assessment of seismic hazard at convergent plate boundaries, where geodetic measurements often show interseismic segmentation between fully-and partially-coupled plate interface regions.

  1. A new plate boundary in the Ionian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polonia, Alina; Torelli, Luigi; Artoni, Andrea; Bortoluzzi, Giovanni; Faccenna, Claudio; Ferranti, Luigi; Gasperini, Luca; Govers, Rob; Monaco, Carmelo; Neri, Giancarlo; Orecchio, Barbara; Rinus Wortel, M. J.

    2014-05-01

    The Calabrian Arc (CA) is a narrow and arcuate subduction system resulting from Africa/Eurasia plate convergence and slab rollback in the Tyrrhenian region. The very slow present-day plate convergence suggests a decrease in subduction efficiency, but underplating may still be active in the central CA where GPS data suggests an outward motion of Calabria relative to Apulia. Shortening in the accretionary wedge is taken up along the outer deformation front and out-of-sequence thrust faults (splay faults). Transtensive deformation accounts for margin segmentation along transfer tectonics systems bounding different margin segments. Transfer faults represent the shallow expression of deeply rooted processes at the slab edge. One of these structures is the NNW-SSE trending transtensive STEP (Slab Transfer Edge Propagator) fault system located East of the Malta Escarpment from the Alfeo seamount to the Etna volcano. Margin segmentation occurs along a second NW-SE trending crustal discontinuity delimiting two distinct lobes of the subduction complex close to the Messina Straits region. The Western Lobe (WL) of the subduction complex, offshore Sicily, is a down-dropped and very low tapered (about 1.5° ) wedge detaching on the base of the Messinian evaporites. The Eastern Lobe (EL), in front of Central Calabria, shows a more elevated accretionary wedge, steeper topographic slopes, higher deformation rates and a deeper basal detachment. High resolution tomographic images suggest a strong interplay between structural development and slab dynamics: the WL corresponds to areas where the slab is detached, while beneath the EL the slab is continuous. Newly acquired geophysical data (Urania cruise, October 2013), reveal that the deformation zone between the two lobes of the accretionary wedge displays fresh seafloor scarps and mud volcanoes suggesting it represents an active tectonic boundary and a deep fluid/mud conduit. We propose that this discontinuity is a new plate boundary segment in the Ionian Sea, connecting the compressive belt in northern Sicily to the Hellenic Arc system and dissecting the CA subduction complex. This deformation zone accommodates differential movements of the Calabrian and the Peloritan portions of CA and can explain the NW-SE extension observed in the straits of Messina as well as the relative motion between Calabria and NE Sicily. This reconstruction is in agreement with geodetic data and earthquake slip vectors observations which suggest the existence of a microplate in the central Mediterranean. The discontinuity between the two lobes would thus represent a major component of the southwestern (hitherto poorly constrained) boundary of this microplate. The motion of Africa relative to Eurasia would be accommodated along this structure by relative rotations between the different blocks resulting from African plate fragmentation.

  2. Development of transtensional and transpressive plate boundaries due to noncircular (cycloid) relative plate motion

    SciTech Connect

    Cronin, V.S. )

    1990-05-01

    The trace of a transform fault commonly is assumed to be circular and concentric with the finite relative motion of the plates adjacent to the fault. These assumptions have led to controversy as the transform fault label has been applied to the San Andreas fault in California because the San Andreas fault is neither circular nor concentric with the motion of the Pacific plate relative to the North American plate. The assumption of circular relative plate motion over a finite time interval is not generally valid. When finite relative plate motion is not circular, the length and orientation of a transform fault must change through time. The length and orientation of ridge-ridge transform faults in oceanic crust evolve through the migration, propagation, and abandonment of ridge segments. Transform faults that bound continental crust evolve differently than do transform faults along mid-ocean ridges because continental transform faults typically do not have ridges at both ends and because of the rheological differences between oceanic and continental crust. Along continent-continent transform faults in which the initial displacement is entirely strike slip, later displacements will be progressively more divergent or convergent (i.e., transtensive or transpressive). Transtension can result in the development of deep basins with high heat flow. Transpression can result in folding, reverse faulting, and decoupling of the crust from its lower crustal or mantle lithosphere in the region adjacent to the transform fault. Regardless of whether the transform boundary becomes transtensional or transpressional, the boundary evolves from a discrete transform fault to a broader, structurally complex accommodation zone (sensu lato).

  3. Plate tectonics beyond plate boundaries: the role of ancient structures in intraplate orogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heron, Philip; Pysklywec, Russell; Stephenson, Randell

    2015-04-01

    The development of orogens that occur at a distance from plate boundaries (i.e., `intraplate' deformation) cannot be adequately explained through conventional plate tectonic theory. Intraplate deformation infers a more complex argument for lithospheric and mantle interaction than plate tectonic theory allows. As a result, the origins of intraplate orogenesis are enigmatic. One hypothesis is the amalgamation of continental material (i.e., micro-plates) leaves inherent scars on the crust and mantle lithosphere. Previous studies into continent-continent collisions identify a number of scenarios from accretionary tectonics that affect the crust and mantle (namely, the development of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability, lithospheric underplating, lithospheric delamination, and lithospheric subduction). Any of these processes may weaken the lithosphere allowing episodic reactivation of faults within continental interiors. Hence, continental convergence (i.e., shortening) at a time after continental collision may cause the already weakened crust and mantle lithosphere to produce intraplate deformation. In order to better understand the processes involved in deformation away from plate boundaries, we present suites of continental shortening models (using the high-resolution thermal-mechanical modelling code SOPALE) to identify the preferred style of deformation. We model ancient structures by applying weak subduction scarring, changing the rheological conditions, and modifying the thermal structure within the lithosphere. To highlight the role of surface processes on plate and lithosphere deformation, the effect of climate-driven erosion and deposition on the tectonic structure of intraplate deformation is also addressed. We explore the relevance of the models to previously studied regions of intraplate orogenesis, including the Pyrenees in Europe, the Laramide orogen in North America, Tien Shan orogen in Central Asia, and Central Australia. The findings of the simulations with regards to past and future North American intraplate deformation are also discussed. Our results indicate that there exists a number of tectonic environments that can be produced relating to continental accretion, and that specific observational constraints to the local area (e.g., geological, geophysical, geodetic) are required to be integrated directly into the analyses for better interpretation. The models shown here find that although rheological changes to the lithosphere can produce a range of deformation during continental convergence (i.e., crustal thickening, thinning, and folding), mantle weak zones from ancient subduction can generate more localized deformation and topography.

  4. Submarine Volcanic Cones in the Central Aleutian Arc: Relationship to Arc Rifting and Oblique Plate Convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, J. R.; Greene, G.; Krutikov, L.; Vallier, T. L.

    2004-12-01

    Plate convergence along the 2200km Aleutian Arc varies from orthogonal at the Alaskan Peninsula to fully strike-slip on the west end of the arc. Deformation response of the upper plate to oblique convergence appears to accelerate markedly between Adak (177W) and Amchitka Pass (180W). On a regional scale, this deformation appears to be concentrated at the boundaries of crustal blocks, with clockwise rotation and westward translation [Geist et al., Tectonics 7, 327-341, 1988]. In the block rotation model, extensional rift structures develop between the blocks in arc-normal orientation. Summit basins develop at the northern, trailing edge of the blocks in arc-parallel orientation. These summit basins are located near or within the volcanic front. Thus structures in the upper plate driven by oblique convergence are predicted to interact with arc volcanism. We report on multibeam mapping in 2003-2004 and ROV Jason II dives in 2004. The data reveal locations and patterns of fault structures, volcanic cones, and lithologies in several locations critical to understanding the arc's response to oblique convergence. A large submarine volcano, named Amchixtam Chaxsxii in the Unangan language, was mapped next to Semisopochnoi Island. Additional small cones are identified on the flank of Tanaga Volcano, and near Bobrof Volcano on possible fault structures. The largest extensional `block boundary' is located at Amchitka Pass; in this area the seafloor is offset by a network of faults. Small volcanic cones are clustered at these faults. Some show signs of erosion and mass wasting; others, especially deeper ones, are intact. Surfaces are dominated by `a`a flows and spatter, and have light sediment cover and moderately fresh lavas. Our mapping focused on specific sites that were chosen to be representative, and suggests that (1) small, probably monogenetic cones are common; (2) the cones occur preferentially in areas of extensional faulting in the volcanic front; (3) these cones are present largely because of oblique convergence and arc deformation. Geochemical analyses will test their relationship to nearby subaerial arc volcanoes.

  5. 3D Modeling of the transition from oblique lateral to normal convergence at the plate corner of Southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, A. D.; Koons, P. O.; Pavlis, T. L.; Chapman, J. B.; Upton, P.; Johnson, S. E.

    2006-12-01

    Plate boundary corners generate a complex architecture to accommodate the transition from oblique lateral accretion to normal convergence. Geologically recent (5-10 Ma) convergence of the Pacific-Yakutat-North America system has created an early-stage analog to corner convergence characteristic of other corner systems (i.e. Himalayan Eastern Syntaxis). Numerical and analog models have been developed to simulate the early stages of oblique terrane collision in a convergent corner environment. Preliminary 3D numerical models show corner convergence partitioned into a steep, narrow two-sided mountain wedge along the lateral accretion zone that changes to a wider zone of shortening bounded by inboard and outboard directed thrusts at the frontal accretion boundary. Contraction rates through the frontal accretion zone lessen grading into the strike slip lateral boundary where shear strain rate is intensified. Clockwise rotation of structures also occurs at the transition from shortening to oblique slip. This transition is a localized strain triplet which reflects the changing boundary conditions of the corner. Slickenside analysis yields strain information for multiple faults in the Samovar Hills region of SE Alaska. Sandbox analog model results show predominant clockwise rotation along the lateral accretion zone indicating dextral displacement and a larger zone of shortening along the convergent frontal accretion zone. Deformation across the frontal accretion zone wedge shifts from dextral convergence near the corner to the east, normal convergence in the middle, and sinistral convergence to the west. Spatial and temporal localization of deformation into the strain triplet at the corner is shown to be a function of changing rheological conditions such as changing base strength or inclusion of strain softening behavior. Further strain concentration along with thermal weakening of the brittle crust occurs with focused erosion leading to aneurysm behavior.

  6. Crustal deformation and volcanism at active plate boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geirsson, Halldor

    Most of Earth's volcanoes are located near active tectonic plate boundaries, where the tectonic plates move relative to each other resulting in deformation. Likewise, subsurface magma movement and pressure changes in magmatic systems can cause measurable deformation of the Earth's surface. The study of the shape of Earth and therefore studies of surface deformation is called geodesy. Modern geodetic techniques allow precise measurements (˜1 mm accuracy) of deformation of tectonic and magmatic systems. Because of the spatial correlation between tectonic boundaries and volcanism, the tectonic and volcanic deformation signals can become intertwined. Thus it is often important to study both tectonic and volcanic deformation processes simultaneously, when one is trying to study one of the systems individually. In this thesis, I present research on crustal deformation and magmatic processes at active plate boundaries. The study areas cover divergent and transform plate boundaries in south Iceland and convergent and transform plate boundaries in Central America, specifically Nicaragua and El Salvador. The study is composed of four main chapters: two of the chapters focus on the magma plumbing system of Hekla volcano, Iceland and the plate boundary in south Iceland; one chapter focuses on shallow controls of explosive volcanism at Telica volcano, Nicaragua; and the fourth chapter focuses on co- and post-seismic deformation from a Mw = 7.3 earthquake which occurred offshore El Salvador in 2012. Hekla volcano is located at the intersection of a transform zone and a rift zone in Iceland and thus is affected by a combination of shear and extensional strains, in addition to co-seismic and co-rifting deformation. The inter-eruptive deformation signal from Hekla is subtle, as observed by a decade (2000-2010) of GPS data in south Iceland. A simultaneous inversion of this data for parameters describing the geometry and source characteristics of the magma chamber at Hekla, and geometry and secular rates across the plate boundary segments, reveals a deep magma chamber under Hekla and gives a geodetic estimate of the current location of the North-America Eurasian plate boundary in south Iceland. Different geometries were tested for Hekla's magma chamber: spherical, horizontally elongated ellipsoidal, and pipe-like magma chambers. The data could not reliably distinguish the actual geometry; however, all three models indicate magma accumulation near the Moho (˜20-25 km) under Hekla. The February -- March 2000 eruption of Hekla gave another opportunity to image the magmatic system. In Chapter 5, I used co-eruptive GPS and InSAR displacements, borehole strain, and tilt measurements to jointly invert for co-eruptive deformation associated with the 2000 eruption and found a depth of approximately 20 km for the magma chamber, in accordance with my previous results. Telica is a highly seismically active volcano in Nicaragua. The seismicity is mostly of shallow (<2 km deep) origin, and shows a high variability in terms of the number of seismic events per time unit. The highest rates exceed one earthquake per minute averaged over 24 hours, but overall trends in seismic activity, as observed since 1993, do not have an obvious correlation with eruptive activity. This variability causes difficulties for hazard monitoring of Telica. Telica erupted in a small (VEI 2) explosive eruption in 2011. Eruptions of this style and size seem to occur on decadal time scales at Telica. In Chapter 3, I used an extensive multidisciplinary data set consisting of seismic and GPS data, multivariate ash analysis, SO2 measurements, fumarole temperatures, and visual observations, to show that the eruption was essentially an amagmatic eruption of hydrothermally altered materials from the conduit, and that short-term sealing of hydrothermal pathways led to temporary pressure build-up, resulting in the explosions. No significant crustal deformation was detected before or during the eruption, in accordance with low (<2 km) plume heights and small (<105 m3) eruptive volumes. The primary signal observed in the 10-site continuous GPS geodetic network on and near Telica is shear on the Caribbean plate -- fore-arc plate boundary, which our measurements show crosses Telica. Thus, like at Hekla volcano, Iceland, it is important for volcano geodesy to consider the plate boundary deformation within volcanic arcs in geodetic studies of volcanoes. The August 27, 2012 Mw = 7.3 earthquake offshore El Salvador was the largest event to rupture this segment of the subduction interface for at least 95 years. The earthquake ruptured shallow (<20 km depth) parts of the subduction zone. Co-seismic deformation, as observed on land, was less than 2 cm, and was exceeded by post-seismic deformation within the first year after the earthquake, signifying low coupling on the subduction zone offshore El Salvador and Nicaragua.

  7. Prototypical Concepts and Misconceptions of Plate Tectonic Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibley, D. F.; Patino, L. C.

    2003-12-01

    Students of geology encounter many prototypical/exemplar concepts* that include representative, but not necessarily defining, features and characteristics. This study of students' prototypical representations of plate tectonic boundaries indicates that their representations are rich sources of information about their misconceptions about plate tectonics. After lectures in plate tectonics and mountain building, 353 students in a general education geology class were asked to draw a continent-continent convergent boundary. For this study, a correct answer is defined as having the major features in correct proportions as depicted in the plate boundary diagrams on the USGS web. Fifty-two percent of the drawings were either incorrect or incomplete such that they could not be interpreted. Only 48% were readily interpretable, and of these 22% drew the boundary correctly, showing a thickening of crust where two continents collide. Thirty-three percent drew the boundary showing concave slabs of continental crust as one might imagine two pieces of firm rubber pushed together on a rigid surface and 45% depicted mountains as one might imagine inverted ice cream cones on a rigid plank. Twenty-one senior class geology majors and graduate students were given the same assignment. Forty-eight percent rendered a correct drawing, whereas 38% drew the same ice cream cone on a plank type picture that 45% of the general education students drew. In a second class of 12 geology majors, only 1 student drew a cross section of a continent-ocean boundary similar to standard representation. Four of 12 drew mountains on the top of continental crust over a subduction zone but did not draw a compensating mass within the crust or lithosphere. Prototypical drawings provide more information about students' concepts than do most multiple-choice questions. For example, sixty-two percent of theses students who drew mountains similar to foam rubber pads pushed together on a desk or ice cream cones on a plank correctly answered a multiple-choice question that would appear to indicate a better understanding than the drawings reveal. Furthermore, 12 interviewed students made statements that could be interpreted to indicate that they understood the concept of mountain building at plate tectonic boundaries better than their drawings suggest. Incoherence of multiple-choice responses, verbal statements and drawings may be common in novice learners. If cognitive scientists are correct in their model of multiple types of mental representations for the same term, then the fact that novices may hold inconsistent representations is not surprising. The fact that students at various academic levels draw very similar prototypes that are incorrect is evidence that students have distinct and persistent prototype misconceptions. * Cognitive scientists define a prototypical/exemplar concept as a mental representation of the best examples or central tendencies of a term.

  8. West Pacific-type convergent boundaries: Role in the crust growth history of the Central-Asian orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarmolyuk, Vladimir V.; Kuzmin, Mikhail I.; Vorontsov, Alexander A.; Khomutova, Marina Yu.

    2013-01-01

    Convergent plate boundaries like that between the present western Pacific and eastern Asia constitute a special type related to subduction in provinces of mantle superplumes. The West Pacific-type convergent boundaries may reach thousands of kilometers across and consist of several structures that regularly grade one to another from ocean to continent: island arcs, marginal and back-arc basins, and continent-margin rifts with OIB volcanism. Convergent boundaries of the West Pacific type contributed to Phanerozoic crust growth in Central Asia as accretionary structures of the Central Asian orogen on the southern periphery of Siberia belonged to such a convergence zone. The lithosphere of Siberia interacted with hot mantle as the continent moved over the African superplume, or over the respective large low shear velocity province (LLSVP), from the Vendian to the Early Mesozoic. In the Late Cenozoic, Siberia left the African LLSV province and shifted to the Pacific LLSVP. The influence of the latter has controlled the structure and evolution of the convergent boundary in the western Pacific, namely, widespread within-plate magmatism in continental Asia in Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic time.

  9. Models for rupture mechanics of plate boundaries and crustal deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nur, A.

    1983-01-01

    The role of pull aparts and pushups in transcurrent systems, the rotation of faults and blocks within transcurrent fault systems, the role of accretion tectonics in plate boundary deformation, and power law creep behavior and the yielding at plate boundaries were investigated.

  10. Structures and kinematics in the northeastern Mediterranean: A study of an irregular plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempler, Ditza; Garfunkel, Zvi

    1994-06-01

    Extensional structures are prominent in the northeastern Mediterranean, a unique sector of the Africa-Eurasia plate convergence zone. To explain this paradoxical situation, we analyse here the young tectonics of this region by examining its structural elements and plate kinematics. Offshore multichannel seismic reflection profiles and onland geology show that the stuctural settings are different on the two sides of the northeastern Mediterranean triple junction (AFR-ARB-ANA). On the east, stuctures controlled by strike-slip and by compression coexist, whereas on the west compression is not very conspicuous. Here, deep basins separated by a partly submerged ridge are prominent. We interpret the ridge, which comprises the Kyrenia- Misis-Andirin Unit at its core, as a large flower structure which extends from southeastern Turkey to Cyprus; the Adana-Cilicia and the Iskenderun-Latakia-Mesaoria Basins on its flanks are interpreted as due to extension. This interpretation agrees with the relative motions between the Africa, Arabia, Eurasia and Anatolia plates in this region. Analysis of the local plate kinematics reveals that strike-slip predominates along the southern boundary of the Anatolia plate in this region, as a result of Anatolia's westward escape. East of the triple junction this motion is associated with comparable shortening transverse to the plate boundary, whereas west of the triple junction the motion transverse to the plate boundary varies between slight compression to extension, depending mainly on the local strike of the plate boundaries. These variations, calculated from regional data, correlate well with the observed structural changes along the northeastern Mediterranean sector of the plate convergence zone. The structural-kinematic analysis explains both the lateral changes in the deformation style and the existence of local extension in the northeastern Mediterranean.

  11. The Plate Boundary Observatory Borehole Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasting, M.; Eakins, J.; Anderson, G.; Hodgkinson, K.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.; Smith, S.; Jackson, M.; Prescott, W.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the NSF-funded EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory, UNAVCO will install and operate 103 borehole seismic stations throughout the western United States. These stations continuously record three- component seismic data at 100 samples per second, using Geo-Space HS-1-LT 2-HZ geophones in a sonde developed by SONDI and Consultants (Duke University). Each seismic package is connected to an uphole Quanterra Q330 data logger and Marmot external buffer, from which UNAVCO retrieves data in real time. UNAVCO uses the Antelope software suite from Boulder Real-Time Technologies (BRTT) for all data collection and transfer, metadata generation and distribution, and monitoring of the network. The first stations were installed in summer 2005, with 19 stations installed by September 2006, and a total of 28 stations expected by December 2006. In a prime example of cooperation between the PBO and USArray components of EarthScope, the USArray Array Network Facility (ANF), operated by UC San Diego, handled data flow and network monitoring for the PBO seismic stations in the initial stages of network operations. We thank the ANF staff for their gracious assistance over the last several months. Data flow in real time from the remote stations to the UNAVCO Boulder Network Operations Center, from which UNAVCO provides station command and control; verification and distribution of metadata; and basic quality control for all data. From Boulder, data flow in real time to the IRIS DMC for final quality checks, archiving, and distribution. Historic data are available from June 2005 to the present, and are updated in real time with typical latencies of less than ten seconds. As of 1 September 2006, the PBO seismic network had returned 60 GB of raw data. Please visit http://pboweb.unavco.org for additional information on the PBO seismic network.

  12. Simulating faults and plate boundaries with a transversely isotropic plasticity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharples, W.; Moresi, L. N.; Velic, M.; Jadamec, M. A.; May, D. A.

    2016-03-01

    In mantle convection simulations, dynamically evolving plate boundaries have, for the most part, been represented using an visco-plastic flow law. These systems develop fine-scale, localized, weak shear band structures which are reminiscent of faults but it is a significant challenge to resolve the large- and the emergent, small-scale-behavior. We address this issue of resolution by taking into account the observation that a rock element with embedded, planar, failure surfaces responds as a non-linear, transversely isotropic material with a weak orientation defined by the plane of the failure surface. This approach partly accounts for the large-scale behavior of fine-scale systems of shear bands which we are not in a position to resolve explicitly. We evaluate the capacity of this continuum approach to model plate boundaries, specifically in the context of subduction models where the plate boundary interface has often been represented as a planar discontinuity. We show that the inclusion of the transversely isotropic plasticity model for the plate boundary promotes asymmetric subduction from initiation. A realistic evolution of the plate boundary interface and associated stresses is crucial to understanding inter-plate coupling, convergent margin driven topography, and earthquakes.

  13. Study on plate silencer with general boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gongmin; Zhao, Xiaochen; Zhang, Wenping; Li, Shuaijun

    2014-09-01

    A plate silencer consists of an expansion chamber with two side-branch rigid cavities covered by plates. Previous studies showed that, in a duct, the introduction of simply supported or clamped plates into an air conveying system could achieve broadband quieting from low to medium frequencies. In this study, analytical formulation is extended to the plate silencer with general boundary conditions. A set of static beam functions, which are a combination of sine series and third-order polynomial, is employed as the trial functions of the plate vibration velocity. Greens function and Kirchhoff-Helmholtz integral are used to solve the sound radiation in the duct and the cavity, and then the vibration velocity of the plate is obtained. Having obtained the vibration velocity, the pressure perturbations induced by the plate oscillation and the transmission loss are found. Optimization is carried out in order to obtain the widest stopband. The transmission loss calculated by the analytical method agrees closely with the result of the finite element method simulation. Further studies with regard to the plate under several different classical boundary conditions based on the validated model show that a clamped-free plate silencer has the worst stopband. Attempts to release the boundary restriction of the plate are also made to study its effect on sound reflection. Results show that a softer end for a clamped-clamped plate silencer helps increase the optimal bandwidth, while the same treatment for simply supported plate silencer will result in performance degradation.

  14. Analysis of plate spin motion and its implications for strength of plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuyama, Takeshi; Iwamori, Hikaru

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we investigate the driving forces of plate motion, especially those of plate spin motion, that are related to the toroidal components of the global plate velocity field. In previous works, numerical simulations of mantle convection have been used to examine the extent to which toroidal velocity components are naturally generated on the surface, by varying key parameters, notably the rheological properties of plates and plate boundaries. Here, we take the reverse approach and perform analyses of observed plate motions, which show an increase in the toroidal/poloidal ratio at high degrees of spherical harmonic expansion, as well as a rapid change in the plate spin rate and the estimated driving stress around a critical plate size of approximately 1000 km. This quantitative relationship constrains the strength at plate boundaries to 3-75 MPa, which is consistent with several seismological observations, including those from the NE Japan arc associated with the 2011 Tohoku earthquake.

  15. Calibrated Plate Boundary Observatory Borehole Strainmeter Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkinson, K. M.; Mencin, D.; Borsa, A. A.; Fox, O.; Gallaher, W. W.; Gottlieb, M. H.; Henderson, D. B.; Johnson, W.; Pyatt, C.; Van Boskirk, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), funded by NSF as part of the Earthscope program and installed and maintained by UNAVCO, includes 75 borehole strainmeters (BSMs), which makes it one of the largest strainmeter arrays in the world. Co-located with seismometers, and embedded within the PBO continuous GPS network, the strainmeters expand the bandwidth of the Observatory enabling the capture of signals with periods of days to minutes. Six years after installation of the first strainmeter, over 70% of the network is in compression and over 85% of the instruments have a strong signal to noise ratio in the M2 tidal band. UNAVCO's BSM engineers ensure the network usually collects over 95% percent of possible data. UNAVCO makes the BSM Level 0 (raw) and Level 2 (processed) data products available to the community via the Northern California Earthquake Data Center (NCEDC), the IRIS DMC and UNAVCO's own web site. Processed BSM data includes gauge, areal, differential and tensor shear strains plus data edits and time series corrections for barometric pressure, earth tides, ocean load and borehole trends. Before strain data can be incorporated into a geophysical model with confidence, however, an instrument response must be found that relates the gauge measurements to the regional strains (i.e., an in-situ calibration is needed). In this presentation we describe the method UNAVCO will use to calibrate PBO strainmeters using earth tides as a reference signal and assuming an anisotropic instrument setting. The calibrated data will be released in a simple delimited ASCII format and will be included with the processed data set that is currently updated every 24 hours. In addition to the 5-minute Level 2 data set, UNAVCO will include the calibrated areal and shear strains at 1-sps for significant events anywhere in the world as part of its Special Event series. In order to meet Earthscope goals of data transparency and processing repeatability, the expanded processed data sets will include a summary of the calibration method, tidal observations, predictions upon which the calibrations are based and the strain matrix used to generate the areal and shear data. This presentation will also describe the new file naming convention that will allow the user to 1.) select a preferred calibration method for their data and 2.) allow UNAVCO the flexibility of including new methods of calibration in the future.

  16. Seismotectonics of the eastern Himalayan and indo-burman plate boundary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajay; Mitra, Supriyo; Suresh, G.

    2015-11-01

    The eastern Himalayan and Indo-Burman plate boundary systems are distinct from the rest of the India-Eurasia continental collision, due to oblique convergence across two orthogonal plate boundaries resulting in a zone of distributed deformation both within and away from the plate boundary. To understand the seismotectonics of this region, we model the source mechanism of 44 earthquakes using waveform inversion and combine them with source mechanism of 30 previously studied earthquakes. Depth distribution of these earthquakes reveal that the entire crust beneath northeast India is seismogenic. From spatial distribution and source mechanism it is evident that the N20°E convergence between India and Tibet is accommodated by N-S convergence and E-W subduction. The N-S convergence is accommodated through (a) shallow thrust earthquakes within the eastern Himalayan wedge, (b) lower crustal thrust earthquakes along the northern edge of Shillong Plateau, (c) lower crustal dextral strike-slip earthquakes in the Kopili fault zone, and (d) sinistral strike-slip earthquakes within the Bengal Basin crust. The E-W subduction results in shallow thrust earthquakes to intermediate depth strike-slip earthquakes and deep focus thrust earthquakes underneath the Indo-Burman convergence zone. Orientation of the fault plane and slip vectors point to downdip extension and along arc compression of the subducted Indian plate in response to slab pull forces and buckling at depth. Earthquake slip vectors are in good agreement with the GPS velocity vectors across northeast India and conforms to the clockwise rotating "microplates" model.

  17. Long-distance multistep sediment transfer at convergent plate margins (Barbados, Lesser Antilles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limonta, Mara; Garzanti, Eduardo; Resentini, Alberto; Andò, Sergio; Boni, Maria; Bechstädt, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    We present a regional provenance study of the compositional variability and long distance multicyclic transport of terrigenous sediments along the convergent and transform plate boundaries of Central America, from the northern termination of the Andes to the Lesser Antilles arc-trench system. We focus on high-resolution bulk-petrography and heavy-mineral analyses of modern beach and fluvial sediments and Cenozoic sandstones of Barbados island, one of the places in the world where an active accretionary prism is subaerially exposed (Speed et al., 2012). The main source of siliciclastic sediment in the Barbados accretionary prism is off-scraped quartzose to feldspatho-litho-quartzose metasedimentaclastic turbidites, ultimately supplied from South America chiefly via the Orinoco fluvio-deltaic system. Modern sand on Barbados island is either quartzose with depleted heavy-mineral suites recycled from Cenozoic turbidites and including epidote, zircon, tourmaline, andalusite, garnet, staurolite and chloritoid, or calcareous and derived from Pleistocene coral reefs. The ubiquitous occurrence of clinopyroxene and hypersthene, associated with green-brown kaersutitic hornblende in the north or olivine in the south, points to reworking of ash-fall tephra erupted from andesitic (St. Lucia) and basaltic (St. Vincent) volcanic centers in the Lesser Antilles arc transported by the prevailing anti-trade winds in the upper troposphere. Modern sediments on Barbados island and those shed by other accretionary prisms such as the Indo- Burman Ranges and Andaman-Nicobar Ridge (Garzanti et al., 2013) define the distinctive mineralogical signature of Subduction Complex Provenance, which is invariably composite. Detritus recycled dominantly from accreted turbidites and oceanic mudrocks is mixed in various proportions with detritus from the adjacent volcanic arc or carbonate reefs widely developed at tropical latitudes. Ophiolitic detritus may be locally prominent. Quantitative provenance analysis is a basic tool in paleogeographic reconstructions when multicyclic sediment dispersal along and across convergent plate margins occur. Such analysis provides the link between faraway factories of detritus and depositional sinks, as well as clues on subduction geometry and the nature of associated growing orogenic belts, and even information on climate, atmospheric circulation and weathering intensity in source regions. REFERENCES Garzanti, E., Limonta, M., Resentini, A., Bandopadhyay, P.C., Najman, Y., Andò, S., Vezzoli, G., 2013. Sediment recycling at convergent plate margins (Indo-Burman Ranges and Andaman-Nicobar Ridge). Earth Sci. Rev., 123, 113-132. Speed, C. and Sedlock, R. 2012. Geology and geomorphology of Barbados. Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Pap., 491, 63 p.

  18. Novel boundary element method for resolving plate bending problems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Song-ying; Wang, Le-qin; Jiao, Lei

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of the boundary contour method for resolving plate bending problems. The exploitation of the integrand divergence free property of the plate bending boundary integral equation based on the Kirchhoff hypothesis and a very useful application of Stokes' Theorem are presented to convert surface integrals on boundary elements to the computation of bending potential functions on the discretized boundary points, even for curved surface elements of arbitrary shape. Singularity and treatment of the discontinued corner point are not needed at all. The evaluation of the physics variant at internal points is also shown in this article. Numerical results are presented for some plate bending problems and compared against analytical and previous solutions. PMID:12958719

  19. Plate boundaries in the Woodlark Basin and Solomon Sea Region, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodliffe, A. M.; Cameron, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Solomon Sea and Woodlark Basin region of eastern Papua New Guinea is a tectonically complex region between the obliquely converging Pacific and Australian plates. Despite numerous marine geophysical surveys in the region, the exact nature of the tectonic boundaries between the Solomon Sea and the Woodlark Basin remains controversial. Marine geophysical data collected in the last decade provides additional insight into this region and clearly defines the boundaries of the Solomon Sea, Trobriand, Woodlark, and Australian plates. Multibeam bathymetry data collected in 2004 along the Trobriand Trough, together with seismic profiles across the trough, show a prominent deformation front in the trench that defines the southern boundary of the Solomon Sea plate. Petrologic data from volcanoes to the south of this boundary indicate that they have a subduction affinity. Heat flow profiles to the south of the plate boundary show a clear subduction signature. At the eastern termination of the Trobriand Trough the plate boundary forms a triple junction with the NE-SW trending Nubaru strike-slip fault. To the NE this major fault separates the Solomon Sea plate from the Woodlark plate. The morphology of this fault and a CMT solution indicate that it is right-lateral. To the SW the Nubaru strike-slip fault passes to the south of the Trobriand Trough, forming the southern boundary of the Trobriand plate (with the Trobriand Trough as the northern boundary). Further west the trend of the strike slip fault becomes more ENE-WSW. A significant extension component is evident as the fault passes to the north of Egum Graben and meets the Woodlark Basin spreading system at the current rifting to seafloor spreading transition directly to the east of Moresby Seamount. The revised tectonic model for this region has important implications for tectonic reconstructions that include an active rifting to spreading transition and prominent core complexes. In the past, models have assumed a simple two-plate system. The inclusion of the Trobriand plate at the rifting to spreading transition will change estimates of extension that have assumed that the system can be described by a single Euler pole directly to the WSW.

  20. Plate convergence west of Patagonia and the Antarctic Peninsula since 61 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eagles, Graeme; Scott, Benjamin G. C.

    2014-12-01

    A new plate kinematic model portrays plate motions immediately west and south of Drake Passage in the southeast Pacific Ocean. Overall intermediate-to-slow rate spreading generated oceanic lithosphere as the Phoenix plate diverged from the Antarctic plate. The model shows a history of Phoenix plate motion that is interpretable as having been affected by a northeast-increasing gradient in the slab pull force since chron 18 (39 Ma), during which time newer, less dense lithosphere was subducting in the southwest than in the northeast. The model allows first calculations of Phoenix-Farallon (Nazca) plate motion parameters in the south Pacific plate circuit. Using these parameters, it is possible to show that the simplest assumptions about the ridge's segmentation, length and migration are consistent with existing suggestions of its location from consideration of slab window-related volcanism at sites in South America around 50 and 20 Ma. The parameters thus define ridge locations that can be used to define which plates were subducting beneath South America and the Magallanes and Antarctic plates, and when. We consider the relationships between the plate convergence rate, obliquity and the history of magmatism on the Antarctic Peninsula and at the North Patagonian batholith, showing that magmatic pulses can be related to accelerations in the plate convergence rate. Between these settings, Phoenix-South American plate motion was almost parallel to the Fuegian trench. Here, magmatism in Paleocene to early Miocene times must be related to the presence of a slab subducted beneath the region by the less oblique collision further north. Later magmatism can be related to migration of the Phoenix-Farallon ridge and Phoenix-Farallon-Antarctic triple junction into the area south of the Fuegian margin, which brought it into slow low-obliquity convergence with first Farallon and then Antarctic plate lithosphere.

  1. Plate convergence, transcurrent faults and internal deformation adjacent to Southeast Asia and the western Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitch, T. J.

    1971-01-01

    A model for oblique convergence between plates of lithosphere is proposed in which at least a fraction of slip parallel to the plate margin results in transcurrent movements on a nearly vertical fault which is located on the continental side of a zone of plate consumption. In an extreme case of complete decoupling only the component of slip normal to the plate margin can be inferred from underthrusting. Recent movements in the western Sunda region provide the most convincing evidence for decoupling of slip, which in this region is thought to be oblique to the plate margin. A speculative model for convergence along the margins of the Philippine Sea is constructed from an inferred direction of oblique slip in the Philippine region. This model requires that the triple point formed by the junction of the Japanese and Izu-Bonin trenches and the Nankai trough migrate along the Sagami trough.

  2. A diffuse plate boundary model for Indian Ocean tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiens, D. A.; Demets, C.; Gordon, R. G.; Stein, S.; Argus, D.

    1985-01-01

    It is suggested that motion along the virtually aseismic Owen fracture zone is negligible, so that Arabia and India are contained within a single Indo-Arabian plate divided from the Australian plate by a diffuse boundary. The boundary is a zone of concentrated seismicity and deformation commonly characterized as 'intraplate'. The rotation vector of Australia relative to Indo-Arabia is consistent with the seismologically observed 2 cm/yr of left-lateral strike-slip along the Ninetyeast Ridge, north-south compression in the Central Indian Ocean, and the north-south extension near Chagos.

  3. Dynamic behaviour of thin composite plates for different boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Sprintu, Iuliana E-mail: rotaruconstantin@yahoo.com; Rotaru, Constantin E-mail: rotaruconstantin@yahoo.com

    2014-12-10

    In the context of composite materials technology, which is increasingly present in industry, this article covers a topic of great interest and theoretical and practical importance. Given the complex design of fiber-reinforced materials and their heterogeneous nature, mathematical modeling of the mechanical response under different external stresses is very difficult to address in the absence of simplifying assumptions. In most structural applications, composite structures can be idealized as beams, plates, or shells. The analysis is reduced from a three-dimensional elasticity problem to a oneor two-dimensional problem, based on certain simplifying assumptions that can be made because the structure is thin. This paper aims to validate a mathematical model illustrating how thin rectangular orthotropic plates respond to the actual load. Thus, from the theory of thin plates, new analytical solutions are proposed corresponding to orthotropic rectangular plates having different boundary conditions. The proposed analytical solutions are considered both for solving equation orthotropic rectangular plates and for modal analysis.

  4. Dynamic behaviour of thin composite plates for different boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprintu, Iuliana; Rotaru, Constantin

    2014-12-01

    In the context of composite materials technology, which is increasingly present in industry, this article covers a topic of great interest and theoretical and practical importance. Given the complex design of fiber-reinforced materials and their heterogeneous nature, mathematical modeling of the mechanical response under different external stresses is very difficult to address in the absence of simplifying assumptions. In most structural applications, composite structures can be idealized as beams, plates, or shells. The analysis is reduced from a three-dimensional elasticity problem to a oneor two-dimensional problem, based on certain simplifying assumptions that can be made because the structure is thin. This paper aims to validate a mathematical model illustrating how thin rectangular orthotropic plates respond to the actual load. Thus, from the theory of thin plates, new analytical solutions are proposed corresponding to orthotropic rectangular plates having different boundary conditions. The proposed analytical solutions are considered both for solving equation orthotropic rectangular plates and for modal analysis.

  5. Iberian plate kinematics: A jumping plate boundary between Eurasia and Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Srivastava, S.P.; Schouten, Hans; Roest, W.R.; Klitgord, Kim D.; Kovacs, L.C.; Verhoef, J.; Macnab, R.

    1990-01-01

    THE rotation of Iberia and its relation to the formation of the Pyrenees has been difficult to decipher because of the lack of detailed sea-floor spreading data, although several models have been proposed1-7. Here we use detailed aeromagnetic measurements from the sea floor offshore of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland to show that Iberia moved as part of the African plate from late Cretaceous to mid-Eocene time, with a plate boundary extending westward from the Bay of Biscay. When motion along this boundary ceased, a boundary linking extension in the King's Trough to compression along the Pyrenees came into existence. Finally, since the late Oligocene, Iberia has been part of the Eurasian plate, with the boundary between Eurasia and Africa situated along the Azores-Gibraltar fracture zone.

  6. Fluid budgets at convergent plate margins: Implications for the extent and duration of fault-zone dilation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saffer, D.M.; Bekins, B.A.

    1999-01-01

    Faults at convergent plate boundaries are important conduits for fluid escape, and recent evidence suggests that fluid expulsion along them is both transient and heterogeneous. For the Nankai and Barbados convergent margins, we have used numerical models to investigate the long-term partitioning of expelled fluids between diffuse flow and flow along connected high-permeability fault conduits. For a simple case of spatial heterogeneity, we estimated the extent of high-permeability conduits necessary to maintain a balance between incoming and expelled fluids. For the case of transient expulsion, we constrained the duration of elevated permeability required to balance the fluid budgets. Comparison of modeled and observed geochemical profiles suggests that the initiation of connected flow conduits is delayed with respect to the time of accretion into each accretionary complex and may be related to burial below a critical depth, either where the overlying wedge is sufficiently thick to prevent fluid escape to the sea floor or where sediments behave brittlely.

  7. Constraining Late Cretaceous to mid Eocene plate boundaries in the southwest Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, K. J.; Williams, S.; Whittaker, J. M.; Müller, D.; Clarke, G. L.; Seton, M.; Flament, N. E.

    2013-12-01

    The southwest Pacific has undergone a complex tectonic history since the Late Cretaceous, involving multiple episodes of subduction, back-arc spreading and continental deformation. Starkly contrasting reconstructions have been proposed for this period, ranging from tectonic quiescence with no plate boundary between the Lord Howe Rise (LHR) and Pacific, to widespread subduction and back-arc spreading, and this disparity reflects sparse and ambiguous data. Placing further constraints on these reconstructions is crucial for a variety of applications, from global-scale geodynamic studies using plate circuits to basin-scale studies of paleogeographic evolution and vertical motions. Geologic and kinematic data from the southwest Pacific are reviewed to better constrain the tectonic history of the region from the Late Cretaceous to mid Eocene, including the timing and location of plate boundary activity. This facilitates better constraints on the time-dependent evolution of the southwest Pacific plate circuit so that motion between plate pairs is consistent with geologic data and known tectonic regimes. The southwest Pacific comprised three spreading ridges during this time: in the Southeast Indian Ocean, Tasman Sea and Amundsen Sea. However, at least one, and possibly two other plate boundaries also accommodated relative motions: in the West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) and between the LHR and Pacific. Uncertainties in the timing and nature of plate boundaries prevent the construction of a robust reconstruction model and the implementation of a southwest Pacific plate circuit. Some previous plate models include continuous subduction east of the LHR throughout the Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic, while an alternative scenario involves the absence of plate boundaries between the LHR and Pacific until 45 Ma. Geologic observations suggests that subduction initiated to the east of New Caledonia at c. 55 Ma, including dyke emplacement and metamorphism in New Caledonia, and arc-type rocks dredged from the Tonga forearc. These geologic and kinematic data do not require a plate boundary between the LHR and Pacific from c. 84-55 Ma, in agreement with previous studies. A plate boundary may have existed before 55 Ma, however net convergence/divergence at this boundary would have been minor, with a possible strike-slip component. By combining geologic observations with a kinematic analysis, we propose that from 0-55 Ma an Antarctic plate circuit must be used in reconstructions, in which LHR-Pacific motion is unconstrained. From 55-74 Ma Antarctic or Australian circuits can be reconciled with regional geology when revised relative motion histories at the Australian-Antarctic ridge and in the WARS are adopted. A well-constrained Antarctic circuit predicts <50 km of strike-slip motion at a LHR-Pacific boundary. Alternatively, an Australian circuit assuming the LHR was part of the Pacific plate, predicts 100-150 km of extension in the WARS, that is orthogonal in the Ross Sea and oblique further east. Prior to 74 Ma neither plate circuit is preferable, as more data are needed to better constrain regional spreading histories.

  8. A great earthquake rupture across a rapidly evolving three-plate boundary.

    PubMed

    Furlong, Kevin P; Lay, Thorne; Ammon, Charles J

    2009-04-10

    On 1 April 2007 a great, tsunamigenic earthquake (moment magnitude 8.1) ruptured the Solomon Islands subduction zone at the triple junction where the Australia and Solomon Sea-Woodlark Basin plates simultaneously underthrust the Pacific plate with different slip directions. The associated abrupt change in slip direction during the great earthquake drove convergent anelastic deformation of the upper Pacific plate, which generated localized uplift in the forearc above the subducting Simbo fault, potentially amplifying local tsunami amplitude. Elastic deformation during the seismic cycle appears to be primarily accommodated by the overriding Pacific forearc. This earthquake demonstrates the seismogenic potential of extremely young subducting oceanic lithosphere, the ability of ruptures to traverse substantial geologic boundaries, and the consequences of complex coseismic slip for uplift and tsunamigenesis. PMID:19359581

  9. Lithospheric boundaries and plate motions in the Cyprus area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papazachos, B. C.; Papaioannou, Ch. A.

    1999-07-01

    Accurate location of earthquakes recorded by seismographs and reliable fault plane solutions of strong recent earthquakes are used to define the plate boundaries and the pattern of plate motion in Cyprus and surrounding area. Spatial distribution of shallow ( h<60 km) and intermediate depth (60 km ? h ?130 km) earthquakes define a continuous boundary between the Eurasian and the African lithospheric plates in this area. This boundary is formed of two arcuate structures, the eastern and western, which have their concave side to the north and are connected by a NNE striking transform dextral fault, the Paphos Transform Fault (PTF), just west of Cyprus. The eastern structure consists of the Cyprean arc and its continuation to the Gulf of Adana, which then joins the Eastern Anatolian Fault. The western one is an arc-like structure which strikes in a northwest direction following the Florence rise and joins the Rhodes thrust fault. The African plate is slowly subducted under the Eurasian plate from south to north but in the Cyprean arc the Cyprean microplate overrides also the Levantine lithosphere in a SW direction. Some interesting tectonic similarities between the Cyprean and the Hellenic arcs are pointed out.

  10. Swath sonar mapping of Earth's submarine plate boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbotte, S. M.; Ferrini, V. L.; Celnick, M.; Nitsche, F. O.; Ryan, W. B. F.

    2014-12-01

    The recent loss of Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 in an area of the Indian Ocean where less than 5% of the seafloor is mapped with depth sounding data (Smith and Marks, EOS 2014) highlights the striking lack of detailed knowledge of the topography of the seabed for much of the worlds' oceans. Advances in swath sonar mapping technology over the past 30 years have led to dramatic improvements in our capability to map the seabed. However, the oceans are vast and only an estimated 10% of the seafloor has been mapped with these systems. Furthermore, the available coverage is highly heterogeneous and focused within areas of national strategic priority and community scientific interest. The major plate boundaries that encircle the globe, most of which are located in the submarine environment, have been a significant focus of marine geoscience research since the advent of swath sonar mapping. While the location of these plate boundaries are well defined from satellite-derived bathymetry, significant regions remain unmapped at the high-resolutions provided by swath sonars and that are needed to study active volcanic and tectonic plate boundary processes. Within the plate interiors, some fossil plate boundary zones, major hotspot volcanoes, and other volcanic provinces have been the focus of dedicated research programs. Away from these major tectonic structures, swath mapping coverage is limited to sparse ocean transit lines which often reveal previously unknown deep-sea channels and other little studied sedimentary structures not resolvable in existing low-resolution global compilations, highlighting the value of these data even in the tectonically quiet plate interiors. Here, we give an overview of multibeam swath sonar mapping of the major plate boundaries of the globe as extracted from public archives. Significant quantities of swath sonar data acquired from deep-sea regions are in restricted-access international archives. Open access to more of these data sets would enable global comparisons of plate boundary structures and processes and could facilitate a more coordinated approach to optimizing the future acquisition of these high-value data by the global research community.

  11. Convergence of Manifolds and Metric Spaces with Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perales Aguilar, Raquel del Carmen Perales

    We study sequences of oriented Riemannian manifolds with boundary and, more generally, integral current spaces and metric spaces with boundary. We prove theorems demonstrating when the Gromov-Hausdorff [GH] and Sormani-Wenger Intrinsic Flat [SWIF] limits of sequences of such metric spaces agree. Thus in particular the limit spaces are countably Hn rectifiable spaces. From these theorems we derive compactness theorems for sequences of Riemannian manifolds with boundary where both the GH and SWIF limits agree. For sequences of Riemannian manifolds with boundary we only require nonnegative Ricci curvature, upper bounds on volume, noncollapsing conditions on the interior of the manifold and diameter controls on the level sets near the boundary. In addition we survey prior results of the author concerning the SWIF limits of manifolds with boundary, prior work of the author with Sormani concerning glued limits of metric spaces with boundary, prior work of the author with Li concerning GH and SWIF limits agreeing for Alexandrov spaces without boundary and work of Kodani, Anderson-Katsuda-Kurylev-Lassas-Taylor, Wong, and Knox concerning limits of Riemannian manifolds with boundary.

  12. A dual reciprocity boundary element solution method for the free vibration analysis of fluid-coupled Kirchhoff plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uğurlu, B.

    2015-03-01

    A boundary element solution method is proposed for linear vibration analysis of fluid-coupled thin plates. The method is based on replacing the associated biharmonic operator with two successive harmonic operators, leading to a coupled system of boundary integral equations with simpler properties: the fundamental solution has an elementary form, and complicated singularity removal techniques can be avoided. The fluid flow due to the plate motion is taken as a potential field, and its effect on the plate dynamics is incorporated into the analysis by invoking another boundary integral solution, described over the fluid-plate interface. The body terms in the plate boundary integral equations are considered by the dual reciprocity boundary element formulation. Three different radial basis functions are employed as interpolation functions, alone and augmented with polynomial and sine expansions, to represent the body terms. The performance of the method is investigated from several perspectives by adopting plates with different shapes and/or boundary conditions; excellent approximations are obtained in general: the convergence behavior is consistent, both dry and wet frequency parameters are predicted accurately, and the mode shapes are captured even with rough models. In some of the studied problems, however, deviated results are obtained for specific modes. Furthermore, it is observed that the performance of the method depends on the implemented DRM functions, and combining radial basis functions with global expansions does not yield noticeable improvements.

  13. Tracking the India-Arabia Transform Plate Boundary during Paleogene Times.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, M.; Huchon, P.; Chamot-Rooke, N. R. A.; Fournier, M.; Delescluse, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Zagros and Himalaya mountain belts are the most prominent reliefs built by continental collision. They respectively result from Arabia and India collision with Eurasia. Convergence motions at mountain belts induced most of plate reorganization events in the Indian Ocean during the Cenozoic. Although critical for paleogeographic reconstructions, the way relative motion between Arabia and India was accommodated prior to the formation of the Sheba ridge in the Gulf of Aden remains poorly understood. The India-Arabia plate-boundary belongs to the category of long-lived (~90-Ma) oceanic transform faults, thus providing a good case study to investigate the role of major kinematic events over the structural evolution of a long-lived transform system. A seismic dataset crossing the Owen Fracture Zone, the Owen Basin, and the Oman Margin was acquired to track the past locations of the India-Arabia plate boundary. We highlight the composite age of the Owen Basin basement, made of Paleocene oceanic crust drilled on its eastern part, and composed of pre-Maastrichtian continental crust overlaid by Early Paleocene ophiolites on its western side. A major transform fault system crossing the Owen Basin juxtaposed these two slivers of lithosphere of different ages, and controlled the uplift of marginal ridges along the Oman Margin. This transform system deactivated ~40 Ma ago, coeval with the onset of ultra-slow spreading at the Carlsberg Ridge. The transform boundary then jumped to the edge of the present-day Owen Ridge during the Late Eocene-Oligocene period, before seafloor spreading began at the Sheba Ridge. This migration of the plate boundary involved the transfer of a part of the Indian oceanic lithosphere accreted at the Carlsberg Ridge to the Arabian plate. The episode of plate transfer at the India-Arabia plate boundary during the Late Eocene-Oligocene interval is synchronous with a global plate reorganization event corresponding to geological events at the Zagros and Himalaya belts. The Owen Ridge uplifted later, in Late Miocene times, and is unrelated to any major migration of the India-Arabia boundary.

  14. Overriding plate structure of the Nicaragua convergent margin: Relationship to the seismogenic zone of the 1992 tsunami earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallarès, Valentí; Meléndez, Adrià; Prada, Manuel; Ranero, César R.; McIntosh, Kirk; Grevemeyer, Ingo

    2013-09-01

    We present 2-D seismic velocity models and coincident multichannel seismic reflection images of the overriding plate and the inter-plate boundary of the Nicaragua convergent margin along two wide-angle seismic profiles parallel and normal to the trench acquired in the rupture area of the 1992 tsunami earthquake. The trench-perpendicular profile runs over a seamount subducting under the margin slope, at the location where seismological observations predict large coseismic slip. Along this profile, the igneous basement shows increasing velocity both with depth and away from the trench, reflecting a progressive decrease in upper-plate rock degree of fracturing. Upper mantle-like velocities are obtained at ˜10 km depth beneath the fore-arc Sandino basin, indicating a shallow mantle wedge. A mismatch of the inter-plate reflector in the velocity models and along coincident multichannel seismic profiles under the slope is best explained by ˜15% velocity anisotropy, probably caused by subvertical open fractures that may be related to fluid paths feeding known seafloor seepage sites. The presence of a shallow, partially serpentinized mantle wedge, and the fracture-related anisotropy are supported by gravity analysis of velocity-derived density models. The downdip limit of inter-plate seismicity occurs near the tip of the inferred mantle wedge, suggesting that seismicity could be controlled by the presence of serpentinite group minerals at the fault gouge. Near the trench, the inferred local increase of normal stress produced by the subducting seamount in the plate boundary may have made this fault segment unstable during earthquake rupture, which could explain its tsunamigenic character.

  15. Boundary element method for 3-D cracks in a plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fares, N.; Li, V. C.

    1988-01-01

    Fundamental solutions which automatically satisfy boundary conditions at the interfaces of an elastic plate perfectly bonded to two elastic halfspaces are implemented in a three-dimensional BEM for crack problems. The BEM features a new integration scheme for highly singular kernels. The capability is achieved through a part analytic and part numerical integration procedure, such that the analytic part of the integration is similar for all slip/opening variations. Part-through elliptic cracks in an elastic plate with traction-free surfaces are analyzed and the SIF values along the crack front are found to compare favorably with the numerical SIF results of Raju and Newman (1979).

  16. Finite element modeling of stress in the Nazca plate - Driving forces and plate boundary earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    The state of stress within the Nazca plate due to plate driving forces and large plate boundary earthquakes has been analyzed by applying a finite element method using the wave front solution technique to models of the intraplate stress field in a single plate using a refined grid. Although only static elastic models have been explicitly calculated, certain limiting cases of an elastic plate over a viscous asthenosphere were also treated. A state of nearly east-west compression inferred from the source mechanism of thrust earthquakes in the interior of the plate requires ridge pushing forces. The net pulling force on the oceanic plate by the subducted slab has a maximum value comparable to pushing forces. The estimated horizontal deviatoric stress in intraplate regions, based on potential forces associated with the ridge, is on the order of a few hundred bars. The intraplate stress field in the region of the 1960 earthquake may change by a few tens of bars at most once the asthenosphere has relaxed, with changes on the order of one bar occurring at greater distances into the plate. The changes in the intraplate stress field are probably not noticeable unless the lithosphere is near failure.

  17. Tectonics of the Nazca-Antarctic plate boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson-Fontana, Sandra; Larson, Roger L.; Engeln, Joseph F.; Lundgren, Paul; Stein, Seth

    1987-01-01

    A new bathymetric chart of part of the Chile transform system is constructed, based mainly on an R/V Endeavor survey from 100 deg W to its intersection with the East Ridge of the Juan Fernandez microplate. A generally continuous lineated trend can be followed through the entire region, with the transform valley being relatively narrow and well-defined from 109 deg W to approximately 104 deg 30 min W. The fracture zone then widens to the east, with at least two probable en echelon offsets to the south at 104 deg and 102 deg W. Six new strike-slip mechanisms along the Chile Transform and one normal fault mechanism near the northern end of the Chile Rise, inverted together with other plate-motion data from the eastern portion of the boundary, produce a new best-fit Euler pole for the Nazca-Antarctic plate pair, providing tighter constraints on the relative plate motions.

  18. Sediment recycling at convergent plate margins (Indo-Burman Ranges and Andaman-Nicobar Ridge)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Limonta, Mara; Resentini, Alberto; Bandopadhyay, Pinaki C.; Najman, Yani; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni

    2013-08-01

    Subduction complexes large enough to be exposed subaerially and become significant sources of terrigenous detritus are formed by tectonic accretion above trenches choked with thick sections of remnant-ocean turbidites. They thus need to be connected along strike to a major collision zone, where huge volumes of orogenic detritus are produced and conveyed via a major fluvio-deltaic system to the deep sea. In this article we investigate sediment generation and recycling in the archetype of such settings, the eastern prolongation of the Himalayan collisional system. We illustrate the petrographic and heavy-mineral suites of modern sands produced all along the Indo-Burman-Andaman-Nicobar subduction complex, which includes accreted abyssal-plain sediments overthrust by ophiolites and unconformably overlain by volcaniclastic forearc strata. "Subduction Complex Provenance" is thus composite, and overwhelmingly consists of detritus recycled from largely turbiditic parent rocks (Recycled Clastic Provenance), with local supply from obducted ultramafic and mafic rocks of forearc lithosphere (Ophiolite Provenance) or recycled paleovolcanic to neovolcanic sources (Volcanic Arc Provenance). In order to specifically investigate the effect of recycling, we characterize the diverse detrital signatures of Cenozoic sandstones originally deposited during subsequent stages of "soft" and "hard" Himalayan collision and presently exposed from Bangladesh to the Andaman Islands, and discuss the reasons for compositional discrepancies between parent sandstones and their recycled daughter sands. Long-distance, multistep and multicyclic sediment transfer along and across convergent plate boundaries follows complex trajectories in space and time, which must be resolved whenever we want to obtain a reasonably faithful paleogeographic reconstruction for the recent and less recent geological past.

  19. Initiation of deep convection along boundary layer convergence lines in a semitropical environment

    SciTech Connect

    Fankhauser, J.C.; Crook, N.A.; Tuttle, J.; Miller, L.J.; Wade, C.G.

    1995-02-01

    The initiation of deep convection through forcing along boundary layer convergence lines is examined using observations from the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification (CaPE) Experiment conducted in east-central Florida during the summer of 1991. The study is concerned with the evolution and interaction of two converging air masses that were initially separated by an intervening boundary layer characterized by neutral stability and horizontal convective rolls. As anticipated, major thunderstorms erupt when the east coast breeze eventually collides with thunderstorm outflows from the west, but unexpected convection takes place prior to their merger along a well-defined confluence zone associated with a persistent quasi-stationary roll vortex signature. In this study, complementary interactions between roll vortex convergence lines and the sea-breeze front are not sufficient to trigger deep convection. However, organized convergence along the eastward-spreading thunderstorm outflows did interact periodically with roll vortex convergence maxima to initiate a new series of new storms. Results from two-dimensional numerical model simulations replicate many of the observed boundary layer features. Surface heating produces circulations similar to sea-breeze frontal zones that appear near the coastlines and progress steadily toward each other as the interior boundary layer deepens. Vertical velocity maxima develop over the associated convergence zones, but weaker periodic maxima also occur within the interior air mass at intervals similar to the spacing of observed horizontal roll vortices.

  20. Attractors for non-dissipative irrotational von Karman plates with boundary damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bociu, Lorena; Toundykov, Daniel

    Long-time behavior of solutions to a von Karman plate equation is considered. The system has an unrestricted first-order perturbation and a nonlinear damping acting through free boundary conditions only. This model differs from those previously considered (e.g. in the extensive treatise (Chueshov and Lasiecka, 2010 [11])) because the semi-flow may be of a non-gradient type: the unique continuation property is not known to hold, and there is no strict Lyapunov function on the natural finite-energy space. Consequently, global bounds on the energy, let alone the existence of an absorbing ball, cannot be a priori inferred. Moreover, the free boundary conditions are not recognized by weak solutions and some helpful estimates available for clamped, hinged or simply-supported plates cannot be invoked. It is shown that this non-monotone flow can converge to a global compact attractor with the help of viscous boundary damping and appropriately structured restoring forces acting only on the boundary or its collar.

  1. Defects and boundary layers in non-Euclidean plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemmer, J. A.; Venkataramani, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the behaviour of non-Euclidean plates with constant negative Gaussian curvature using the Föppl-von Kármán reduced theory of elasticity. Motivated by recent experimental results, we focus on annuli with a periodic profile. We prove rigorous upper and lower bounds for the elastic energy that scales like the thickness squared. In particular we show that are only two types of global minimizers—deformations that remain flat and saddle shaped deformations with isolated regions of stretching near the edge of the annulus. We also show that there exist local minimizers with a periodic profile that have additional boundary layers near their lines of inflection. These additional boundary layers are a new phenomenon in thin elastic sheets and are necessary to regularize jump discontinuities in the azimuthal curvature across lines of inflection. We rigorously derive scaling laws for the width of these boundary layers as a function of the thickness of the sheet.

  2. Seismicity patterns in the Himalayan plate boundary and identification of the areas of high seismic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khattri, K. M.; Tyagi, A. K.

    1983-07-01

    Space-time distribution of earthquakes along the Himalayan plate boundary has been investigated with a view to discerning fluctuations in seismicity rates associated with great earthquakes, the possibilities of epicentre migration and gaps in seismic activity. Data from 1800 to 1976 were considered. This study shows that all great earthquakes ( M ? 8.0) were preceded by seismically quiescent periods of at least 19 years. Furthermore, earthquake quiescence has also been recognised to follow the great earthquakes. Three possible trends of migration of epicentres of great earthquakes have been recognised: (1) The first trend starts from the 1905 Kangra earthquake, the epicentres of subsequent earthquakes migrating eastwards along the plate boundary. (2) The second trend of migration starts from the great Nepal earthquake of 1833 associated with eastward migration. (3) The third trend commences from the great Assam earthquake of 1897 and shows a westward migration of earthquake epicentres. The middle section of the Himalayan convergent plate boundary (80°E to 90°E), in general, displays a relatively low level of seismicity as compared to the adjacent sections. A remarkable decrease in seismicity following the year 1970 has been observed along a section of the Himalaya which lies to the east of the rupture zone of the great 1905 Kangra earthquake. Since 1970 the seismicity rate has also dropped in the region lying in between the rupture zones of the great Assam earthquakes of 1897 and 1950, as has earlier been reported by Khattri and Wyss (1978). Such decreases in the level of seismicity along active plate boundaries have been demonstrated to be indicative of building up of stresses leading to future great earthquakes (Mogi, 1969; McCann et al., 1979).

  3. Lower plate deformation structures along the Costa Rica erosive plate boundary - results from IODP Expedition 344 (CRISP 2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandstätter, Jennifer; Kurz, Walter; Micheuz, Peter; Krenn, Kurt

    2015-04-01

    The primary objective of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 344 offshore the Osa Peninsula in Costa Rica was to sample and quantify the material entering the seismogenic zone of the Costa Rican erosive subduction margin. Fundamental to this objective is an understanding of the nature of both the subducting Cocos plate crust and of the overriding Caribbean plate. The subducting Cocos plate is investigated trying to define its hydrologic system and thermal state. The forearc structures recorded by the sediment deposited on the forearc, instead, document periods of uplift and subsidence and provide important information about the process of tectonic erosion that characterizes the Costa Rica margin. Offshore the western margin of Costa Rica, the oceanic Cocos plate subducts under the Caribbean plate, forming the southern end of the Middle America Trench. Subduction parameters including the age, convergence rate, azimuth, obliquity, morphology, and slab dip all vary along strike. The age of the Cocos plate at the Middle America Trench decreases from 24 Ma offshore the Nicoya Peninsula to 15 Ma offshore the Osa Peninsula. Subduction rates vary from 70 mm/y offshore Guatemala to 90 mm/y offshore southern Costa Rica. Convergence obliquity across the trench varies from offshore Nicaragua, where it is as much as 25° oblique, to nearly orthogonal southeast of the Nicoya Peninsula. Passage of the Cocos plate over the Galapagos hotspot created the aseismic Cocos Ridge, an overthickened welt of oceanic crust. This ridge is ~25 km thick, greater than three times normal oceanic crustal thickness. During IODP Expedition 344, the incoming Cocos plate was drilled at sites U1381 and U1414. Site U1381 is located ~4.5 km seaward of the deformation front offshore the Osa Peninsula and Caño Island. It is located on a local basement high. Basement relief often focuses fluid flow, so data from this site are likely to document the vigor of fluid flow in this area. Site U1414 is located ~1 km seaward of the deformation front offshore the Osa Peninsula and Caño Island. Primary science goals at Site U1414 included characterization of the alteration state of the magmatic basement. Brittle structures within the incoming plate (sites U1380, U1414) are mineralized extensional fractures and shear fractures. The shear fractures mainly show a normal component of shear. Within the sedimentary sequence both types of fractures dip steeply (vertical to subvertical) and strike NNE-SSW. Deformation bands trend roughly ENE-WSW, sub-parallel to the trend of the Cocos ridge. Structures in the Cocos Ridge basalt mainly comprise mineralized veins at various orientations. A preferred orientation of strike directions was not observed. Some veins show straight boundaries, others are characterized by an irregular geometry characterized by brecciated wall rock clasts embedded within vein precipitates. The vein mineralization was analysed in detail by RAMAN spectroscopy. Precipitation conditions and fluid chemistry were analysed by fluid inclusions entrapped within vein minerals. Vein mineralizations mainly consist of carbonate (fibrous aragonite, calcite), chalcedony, and quartz. Vein mineralization is mainly characterized by zoned antitaxial growth of carbonate fibres including a suture along the central vein domains. Quartz is often characterized by fibre growth of crystals perpendicular to the vein boundaries, too. These zoned veins additinally have wall rock alteration seams consisting of clay minerals. The precipitation sequence basically indicates that fluid chemistry evolved from an CO2-rich towards a SiO2- rich fluid.

  4. Formation of plate boundaries: The role of mantle volatilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seno, Tetsuzo; Kirby, Stephen H.

    2014-02-01

    In the early Earth, convection occurred with the accumulation of thick crust over a weak boundary layer downwelling into the mantle (Davies, G.F., 1992. On the emergence of plate tectonics. Geology 20, 963-966.). This would have transitioned to stagnant-lid convection as the mantle cooled (Solomatov, V.S., Moresi, L.-N., 1997. Three regimes of mantle convection with non-Newtonian viscosity and stagnant lid convection on the terrestrial planets. Geophys. Res. Lett. 24, 1907-1910.) or back to a magma ocean as the mantle heated (Sleep, N., 2000. Evolution of the mode of convection within terrestrial planets. J. Geophys. Res. 105(E7): 17563-17578). Because plate tectonics began operating on the Earth, subduction must have been initiated, thus avoiding these shifts. Based on an analogy with the continental crust subducted beneath Hindu Kush and Burma, we propose that the lithosphere was hydrated and/or carbonated by H2O-CO2 vapors released from magmas generated in upwelling plumes and subsequently volatilized during underthrusting, resulting in lubrication of the thrust above, and subduction of the lithosphere along with the overlying thick crust. Once subduction had been initiated, serpentinized forearc mantle may have formed in a wedge-shaped body above a dehydrating slab. In relict arcs, suture zones, or rifted margins, any agent that warms and dehydrates the wedge would weaken the region surrounding it, and form various types of plate boundaries depending on the operating tectonic stress. Thus, once subduction is initiated, formation of plate boundaries might be facilitated by a major fundamental process: weakening due to the release of pressurized water from the warming serpentinized forearc mantle.

  5. Coupling, fluids and foreshocks - preparing megathrust ruptures at the Chilean plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oncken, O.; Moreno, M.; Schurr, B.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that geodetic locking at convergent plate boundaries is closely related to slip distribution of subsequent megathrust earthquakes. The nature of locking and its evolution towards rupture, however, remains a matter of debate. The international initiative IPOC (Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile; ipoc-network.org) addresses these goals at the Chilean margin. We explore geophysical and geodetic data collected in the decade before an event to identify the petrophysical state as well as change along the plate interface leading up to a megathrust event. Seismological data exhibit well defined changes of reflectivity and Vp/Vs ratio along the plate interface that released the M=8.8Maule earthquake of 2010. High Vp/Vs domains, interpreted as zones of elevated pore fluid pressure, spatially correlate with lower locking degree, and exhibit higher background seismicity as expected for partly creeping domains. In turn, unstable slip associated to a higher degree of locking is promoted in lower pore fluid pressure domains. We speculate that hydraulic loading during the terminal stage of a seismic cycle to close to lithostatic pore pressure with an equivalent reduction of effective strength may be as relevant for earthquake triggering as stress loading from long-term plate convergence. In contrast to the Maule earthquake, the Pisagua Mw=8.1 earthquake of 2014, while also rupturing a geodetically well-defined major asperity, was preceded by a protracted series of foreshocks. Since July 2013 three seismic clusters hit this part of the plate boundary with increasing magnitudes in a domain that was transitional between a fully locked and a creeping portion. Leading up to this earthquake the b-value of the foreshocks gradually dropped during the years prior to the earthquake, reversing its trend a few days before the Pisagua earthquake. We conclude that gradual weakening of the central part of the Northern Chile seismic gap accentuated by the foreshock activity in a zone of intermediate seismic coupling was instrumental in causing final failure. In spite of similar geodynamic conditions, processes leading up to the rupture were distinct for the Pisagua and the Maule earthquake suggesting a diversity of evolutionary paths towards megathrust rupture.

  6. Boundary force method for analyzing two-dimensional cracked plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Paul W.; Raju, Ivatury S.; Newman, James C., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Boundary Force Method (BFM) was formulated for the two-dimensional stress analysis of complex crack configurations. In this method, only the boundaries of the region of interest are modeled. The boundaries are divided into a finite number of straight-line segments, and at the center of each segment, concentrated forces and a moment are applied. This set of unknown forces and moments is calculated to satisfy the prescribed boundary conditions of the problem. The elasticity solution for the stress distribution due to concentrated forces and a moment applied at an arbitrary point in a cracked infinite plate are used as the fundamental solution. Thus, the crack need not be modeled as part of the boundary. The formulation of the BFM is described and the accuracy of the method is established by analyzing several crack configurations for which accepted stress-intensity factor solutions are known. The crack configurations investigated include mode I and mixed mode (mode I and II) problems. The results obtained are, in general, within + or - 0.5 percent of accurate numerical solutions. The versatility of the method is demonstrated through the analysis of complex crack configurations for which limited or no solutions are known.

  7. Turbulent thermal boundary layer on a permeable flat plate

    SciTech Connect

    Vigdorovich, I. I.

    2007-06-15

    Scaling laws are established for the profiles of temperature, turbulent heat flux, rms temperature fluctuation, and wall heat transfer in the turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate with transpiration. In the case of blowing, the temperature distribution represented in scaling variables outside the viscous sublayer has a universal form known from experimental data for flows over impermeable flat plates. In the case of suction, the temperature distribution is described by a one-parameter family of curves. A universal law of heat transfer having the form of a generalized Reynolds analogy provides a basis for representation of the heat flux distributions corresponding to different Reynolds numbers and transpiration velocities in terms of a function of one variable. The results are obtained without invoking any special closure hypotheses.

  8. Sub-slab mantle flow parallel to the Caribbean plate boundaries: Inferences from SKS splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piñero-Feliciangeli, L. T.; Kendall, J.-M.

    2008-12-01

    Upper-mantle deformation near the margins of the Caribbean plate is investigated using observations of shear-wave splitting in teleseismic and local shear phases. The Caribbean plate is almost stationary in the hot-spot reference frame and is wedged between the North America, South America, Nazca and Cocos plates; collisional belts and major shear zones encircle the plate. Data from seismic stations operated by IRIS, GEOSCOPE, the Venezuelan Seismological Network, and the British Geological Survey have provided nearly 2000 seismic records for analysis. Analysis of shear-wave splitting in teleseismic core phases (e.g., SKS) at stations reveals fast shear-wave polarisations that are conformal to the plate boundary, paralleling the major structural features. The magnitude of the splitting is in general quite large (1.2-2.1 s). In northern Venezuela, the magnitude of splitting increases towards the Caribbean-South American collisional front. Local shear phases from earthquakes up to 200 km deep beneath northeastern Venezuela show very small amounts of splitting (0.1-0.3 s). Analysis of the depth dependence in the magnitude of the splitting suggests that most of the upper-mantle wedge is isotropic and the splitting in the local phases is mostly accrued in the crust and uppermost mantle. In NE Venezuela fast shear-wave polarisations in both the local and teleseismic phases closely parallel the fault systems in the region, suggesting that the crust and mantle are coupled in this area. Stations on the Island of Montserrat and near Bucaramanga, Columbia, also show very small magnitudes in local S-wave splitting, but large amounts of SKS splitting. In general, the small magnitude of the local S-phase splitting suggests that the teleseismic phases accrue considerable splitting beneath the top of the slab. We interpret the bulk of the splitting in terms of sub-slab flow that is forced around the Caribbean plate due to the convergence of the surrounding plates.

  9. Measuring Transient Signals in Plate Boundary Faults Zones with Strainmeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkinson, Kathleen; Mencin, Dave; Phillips, David; Henderson, Brent; Gottlieb, Mike; Gallaher, Warren; Johnson, Wade; Pyatt, Chad; Van Boskirk, Elizabeth; Fox, Otina; Mattioli, Glen; Meertens, Chuck

    2014-05-01

    One of the fundamental goals the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) funded Earthscope program was to provide a high-quality, continuous geodetic data set that would allow the scientific community to study the evolution of plate boundary zones. Of particular importance was enabling investigation of the role aseismic transient deformation plays in the release of accumulated stress. For example, to allow the comparison of the amount of strain released through Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS) events to that released in subduction zone earthquakes or, provide the ability to geodetically illuminate the kinematics of fault creep in strike-slip fault zones. The ability to easily integrate these measurements with compatible geophysical data sets was also an essential objective. With goals such as these in mind NSF funded the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) to record the continuous deformation field across the western US Plate Boundary. PBO, built and operated by UNAVCO, now consists of over 1100 GPS stations, 76 co-located borehole strain and seismic sites, 6 long baseline strainmeters, Depending on the scientific questions being addressed sites may also have tiltmeter, meteorological, pore pressure and meteorological instrumentation. This presentation will focus on the transient deformation signals recorded by the PBO strainmeter network. PBO strainmeters, which excel in recording signals on the order of nanostrain over hours, have provided unprecedented temporal resolution of aseismic transients such as ETS events in the Cascadia subduction zone, creep signals along the central section of the San Andreas fault system and tsunami generated strain waves. UNAVCO is responsible not only for the ongoing operation of PBO but also the generation of data products associated with each instrument type. In this presentation we will highlight some of the transient signals these instruments have captured, outline the processing steps required to extract these signals data and describe the strainmeter data products produced by UNAVCO.

  10. Active faulting south of the Himalayan Front: Establishing a new plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeats, Robert S.; Thakur, V. C.

    2008-06-01

    New tectonic uplifts south of the Salt Range Thrust and Himalayan Front Thrust (HFT) represent an outward step of the plate boundary from the principal tectonic displacement zone into the Indo-Gangetic Plain. In Pakistan, the Lilla Anticline deforms fine-grained overbank deposits of the Jhelum River floodplain 15 km south of the Salt Range. The anticline is overpressured in Eocambrian non-marine strata. In northwest India south of Dehra Dun, the Piedmont Fault (PF) lies 15 km south of the HFT. Coalescing fans derived from the Himalaya form a piedmont (Old Piedmont Zone) 15-20 km wide east of the Yamuna River. This zone is uplifted as much as 15-20 m near the PF, and bedding is tilted 5-7° northeast. Holocene thermoluminescence-optically-stimulated luminescence dates for sediments in the Old Piedmont Zone suggest that the uplift rate might be as high as several mm/a. The Old Piedmont Zone is traced northwest 200 km and southeast another 200 km to the Nepal border. These structures, analogous to protothrusts in subduction zones, indicate that the Himalayan plate boundary is not a single structure but a series of structures across strike, including reactivated parts of the Main Boundary Thrust north of the range front, the HFT sensu stricto, and stepout structures on the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Displacement rates on all these structures must be added to determine the local India-Himalaya convergence rate.

  11. Long Paleoseismic Records at Plate Boundaries: Clustering, Segmentation, Supercycles and More (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfinger, C.

    2010-12-01

    Long paleoseismic records from plate boundary earthquake series afford uncommon opportunities to examine recurrence models, clustering, segmentation, interaction with other faults, and long term strain history. For example, the 10,000 year marine record in Cascadia suggests at least four seismic segments defined by correlation of turbidites along strike and compatible temporal links to onshore evidence. The linkage makes use of subsurface log correlation techniques, radiocarbon ages, and the similarity of records in isolated settings along the Cascadia margin. The temporal and spatial record reveals a pattern of decreasing recurrent time southward, from ~ 500-530 years in northern Cascadia, to ~ 240 years or less in southern Cascadia. The decrease in recurrence times southward is consistent with a southward tapering sediment supply, which in turn allows lower plate roughness to define segment boundaries. The temporal record also reveals clusters of 4-5 events, with gaps of 700-1200 years between clusters. These temporal clusters are supported by regional high-resolution seismic reflection records, and appear to extend to Late Pleistocene time, deeper than reachable with gravity and piston coring. Long temporal records also afford opportunities to test linkages between adjacent fault systems. Long turbidite records for Cascadia and the Northern San Andreas Fault suggest that these two faults have virtually the same average recurrence interval through the Holocene. The physical connection at the Mendocino Triple Junction may be augmented by a stress connection between the earthquake cycles of these two great faults. This connection is suggested by a close event by event temporal correlation. Finally, energy in plate boundary fault zones may have long term cycling involving many seismic cycles. Several lines of evidence, both direct and indirect suggest that the connection between interevent time and earthquake magnitude, and models predicated on this relationship, may be very weak. If a measure of earthquake magnitude can be inferred from a paleoseismic record, then recurrence models and long term-cycling can be explored. In Cascadia, coseismic energy may be modeled as proportional to the mass of turbidites triggered in seismic shaking. We infer that turbidite mass is a suitable proxy for energy release because of its consistency along strike at multiple sites. If turbidite mass (energy release) is plotted to balance plate convergence (energy gain) the result is a 10ka energy time series for Cascadia. The pattern reveals that the earthquake clusters apparent in the time series have variable behavior. Some events appear to release less, while others release more energy than available from plate convergence (slip deficit). Those that are larger may have borrowed stored energy from previous cycles. Cycle variations may explain mismatches between deformation models based on interevent times in the last 4600 years and coastal paleoseismic data.

  12. Stress accumulation and release at complex transform plate boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Verdonck, D.; Furlong, K.P. )

    1992-10-01

    Finite element methods are used to model the dynamics of deformation along complex transform plate boundaries, specifically the San Andreas fault system, California. Effects of mantle rheology and fault geometry on the stress buildup and release are investigated. No prior knowledge of the earthquake cycle time or amount of fault slip is assumed that the results suggest that the San Andreas fault slips at low shear stress (about 15 MPa). Although the maximum stress on the fault is 15 MPa, models with an upper mantle shear zone deforming entirely by dislocation creep accumulate stresses that exceed 100 MPa, a stress level high enough to drive localized dynamic recrystallization and a shift in dominant deformation mechanism to diffusion creep. Models in which the mantle shear zone deform locally by diffusion creep reach a dynamic steady state where lithospheric shear stresses never exceed the specified fault stress anywhere in the model and indicate that the strength of the upper mantle is an important parameter in the dynamics of plate boundary deformation. 17 refs.

  13. Features on Venus generated by plate boundary processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, Dan; Ford, Peter G.; Johnson, Catherine; Parsons, Barry; Sandwell, David; Saunders, Stephen; Solomon, Sean C.

    1992-01-01

    Various observations suggest that there are processes on Venus that produce features similar to those associated with plate boundaries on earth. Synthetic aperture radar images of Venus, taken with a radar whose wavelength is 12.6 cm, are compared with GLORIA images of active plate boundaries, obtained with a sound source whose wavelength is 23 cm. Features similar to transform faults and to abyssal hills on slow and fast spreading ridges can be recognized within the Artemis region of Venus but are not clearly visible elsewhere. The composition of the basalts measured by the Venera 13 and 14 and the Vega 2 spacecraft corresponds to that expected from adiabatic decompression, like that which occurs beneath spreading ridges on earth. Structures that resemble trenches are widespread on Venus and show the same curvature and asymmetry as they do on earth. These observations suggest that the same simple geophysical models that have been so successfully used to understand the tectonics of earth can also be applied to Venus.

  14. Convergence of spectral methods for hyperbolic initial-boundary value systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlieb, D.; Lustman, L.; Tadmor, E.

    1986-01-01

    A convergence proof for spectral approximations is presented for hyperbolic systems with initial and boundary conditions. The Chebyshev collocation is treated in detail, but the final result is readily applicable to other spectral methods, such as Legendre collocation or tau-methods.

  15. Large-Scale Present-Day Plate Boundary Deformations in the Eastern Hemisphere Determined from VLBI Data: Implications for Plate Tectonics and Indian Ocean Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akilan, A.; Abdul Azeez, K. K.; Schuh, H.; Yuvraaj, N.

    2015-10-01

    The dynamics of the planet Earth are manifestations of diverse plate tectonic processes which have been occurring since the Archean period of the Earth's evolution and continue to deform the plate boundaries. Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) is an efficient space geodetic method that enables precise measurement of plate motion and associated deformations. We analyze here VLBI measurements made during a period of approximately three decades at five locations on the Eastern hemisphere of the globe, which are geographically distributed over five continents (plates) around the Indian Ocean. Computed rate of change of baseline length show the deformation pattern and its rate at the boundaries between the major tectonic plates constituting the Eastern hemisphere of the Earth. The African (Nubian) and Antarctic plates are moving apart at 13.5 mm/year, which is mostly attributed to spreading of the South West Indian Ridge. Similarly, spreading of 59.0 mm/year is observed for the South East Indian Ridge that separates the Antarctic and Australian plates. Shortening at the rate of 3.9 mm/year is estimated across the subduction boundary between Africa (Nubia) and Eurasia. Similar convergence is evident between the Australian and Sunda blocks (of the Eurasian plate). The associated deformation of -54.8 mm/year seems to be chiefly accommodated along the Banda arc system, where the Australian plate is subducting under the Sunda block. VLBI sites within the Eurasian plate, Wettzell in Germany, and Seshan on the South China block, are moving apart at 3.6 mm/year. This relative motion between locations on the same plate is interpreted as a result of the deformation process along a large strike-slip fault, which is identified as the Western boundary of the South China block. Expansion of the Indian Ocean, at +91.5 m2/year, is also estimated from the rate of deformation estimated within the five baselines studied here. From the Hurst exponent values, which are indicators of the future trend of time series data, we predict deceleration of the various tectonic processes occurring at present.

  16. On the convergence of finite difference methods for weakly regular singular boundary value problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, R. K.; Singh, Arvind K.

    2007-08-01

    The second order finite difference methods M1 based on a non-uniform mesh and M2 based on an uniform mesh developed by Chawla and Katti [Finite difference methods and their convergence for a class of singular two point boundary value problems, Numer. Math. 39 (1982) 341-350] for weakly regular singular boundary value problems (p(x)y')'=f(x,y), 0boundary conditions y(0)=A, y(1)=B (A, B are finite constants) have been extended for general class of nonnegative functions p(x)=xb0g(x), 0[less-than-or-equals, slant]b0<1, and the boundary conditions y(0)=A, [alpha]y(1)+[beta]y'(1)=[gamma], or, y'(0)=0, [alpha]y(1)+[beta]y'(1)=[gamma]. The second order convergence of the methods have been established for general non-negative function p(x) and under quite general conditions on f(x,y). Both methods reduce to classical methods in the case b0=0 and g(x)=1 except for the method based on a uniform mesh with boundary condition y'(0)=0. Numerical examples for general nonnegative function p(x) illustrate the order of convergence of both methods.

  17. Seismotectonics and recent evolution of the Eurasia-North America Plate Boundary in Northeastern Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imaev, V. S.; Imaeva, L. P.; Kozmin, B. M.; Fujita, K. T.; Mackey, K. G.

    2009-04-01

    In contrast to oceanic plate boundaries which are usually well defined by earthquake locations and magnetic anomalies, the present and past kinematics of plate boundaries in the continents remains problematic in many settings. One particularly vexing such boundary is the one that separates Eurasia from North America in Northeast Russia. In the earliest plate models it was evident that the mid-Atlantic spreading ridge continues in the Arctic as the Gakkel ridge which then runs almost perpendicularly into the continental shelf of Russia in the Laptev sea. On the shelf, and further south on land, the narrow belt of seismicity that is found along the Gakkel ridge broadens into a diffuse swath of earthquakes which is in places more than 800 km wide and extends along the Chersky Range towards the coast of the Okhotsk sea and northern Kamchatka The fact that the Okhotsk sea is aseismic but is surrounded by seismic belts has to lead the interpretation that it is an independent microplate that lies between the Eurasian, North American, Pacific and Amur plates (Cook et al., 1986).Unravelling the kinematics of the Eurasia-Okhotsk-North America Plate boundaries has proven difficult. This is in part due to the paucity of geological and geophysical data from this remote region, and to the fact that the Eurasia-North America pole of rotation lies in close vicinity to the plate boundary itself. Cook et al. (1986), using earthquake slip vectors, placed the current pole of rotation near the Lena river delta, that is, in the area where Eurasia-North America plate boundary comes on shore ). As a consequence, spreading along the Gakkel ridge north of the pole of rotation, should change into convergence or strike-slip to the south depending on the orientation of the boundary. Making specific predictions for fault kinematics in the area has been hampered by the fact that different geophysical and geodetic data-sets have yielded different locations for the Eurasia-North America pole of rotation (Cook et al. 1986; Rowley and Lottes, 1988; De Mets, 1990; Imaev et al., 2000; Kogan et al., 2000). Focal mechanism solutions are predominantly left-lateral and thrust along the Chersky seismic belt, that is, the northern boundary of the Okhotsk plate and right-lateral along its western boundary leading Riegel et al.(1993) to the conclusion that the Okhotsk plate is being extruded to the south. Furthermore, it has been shown on the basis of North Atlantic magnetic and gravity data, that the position of the Eurasia-North America pole of rotation moved significantly over that last 60 my so that the portion of the plate boundary in Northeast Russia changed from predominantly convergent until the Late Cretaceous to divergent until the Early Eocene, followed by various degrees of transpression during the rest of the Cenozoic (Gaina et al., 2002).On the shelf of the Laptev Sea, the Gakkel Ridge gives way to four major continental rift branches with up to 10 km of sedimentary fill spanning from the Late Cretaceous to Recent (Drachev, 1999). Earthquakes are most numerous along the southern margin of the rift system in the Lena delta region and have normal and strike-slip focal mechanism solutions (Imaev et al., 2000). On land, several branches of the rift system overprint the northern termination of the Mesozoic Verkhoyansk fold-and-thrust belt and the accreted arc terranes which are found in its hinterland (Parfenov et al., 1995). Focal mechanism solutions in this area shift from extentional to the north to compressional and strike-slip to the south. The plate boundary continues to the southeast across the Omoloi depression and then follows the trend of major mountain ranges and intermontane basins in the area: the Chersky and Moma ranges and the Moma basin. The Chersky Range, which has the highest topographic elevations in Northeast Russia (3947 m), has a complex history of Mesozoic and Cenozoic deformation (Parfenov and Gaiduk, 2001). The highest peaks are underlain by late Jurassic granite batholiths. Late Oligocene-Miocene deposits along the middle Indigirka river are tightly folded and thrust faulted (Imaev et al, 2000). Fragments of an elevated Early Pleistocene erosion surface, which was deformed in the Middle Pleistocene, have also been recognized (Parfenov and Gaiduk, 2001) attesting to recent tectonism. Several northwest-trending active left-lateral strike-slip faults, which extend the length of the Chersky range and continue to the southeast, have been identified in satellite imagery and topographic maps, and can be traced in the gravity and magnetic fields also (Imaev et al., 1990, McClean et al., 2000) and by dislocations of recent geomorphic features. The most important one is the Ulakhan fault which extends for 1500 km and is thought to accommodate a major part of the displacement between North America and the Okhotsk plate (McClean et al, 2000). Several elongated Neogene basins exist along the Ulakhan and neighboring faults. Some of these are interpreted as pull-apart basins, while others are attributed to extension related to the Moma rift . The Bugchan basin is an example of a pull-apart which is filled with variably deformed Miocene-Pliocene deposits cut by NW-striking faults. Another example is the Pereprava basin located further south along the Omulevka river which contains steeply-dipping Middle to Late Miocene lake deposits .The largest depression along the Ulakhan fault is the Seimchan-Buyunda basin filled with Paleogene and Neogene rocks . To the southeast of the Seimchan-Buyunda basin the Ulakhan fault becomes less distinct within the Okhotsk-Chukotka volcanic belt (McClean et al., 2000), although Late Cenozoic alkali lavas found in the Viliga river region are believed to have been extruded along the southern extension of the Ulakhan fault (Leonova, V.V. et al., 2005).It is apparent in satellite images of the southeastern portion of the Ulakhan fault that stream beds are systematically offset to the left up to 24 km. Other important left-lateral faults in the region are the Iren'ya-In'alin fault which splays off the Ulakhan fault, and the Chay-Yureya fault which lies to the south in the Chersky Range and generated the 1971 Artyk event (M6.8), and the Darpir fault which links with the Ulakhan fault from the southeast.. The Moma basin is an elongated depression located north of the Chersky range. It is filled with Paleogene to Neogene deposits unconformably overlain by Pleistocene sediments. The nature of the basin-bounding faults is complex. Parfenov et al., (2001) state that listric normal faults separate the Moma basin from adjacent Chersky and Moma ranges, while Imaev et.al. (1990) portray the Moma basin as being bounded by high-angle reverse faults. Perhaps the confusion arises from the shifting nature of the plate boundary interaction due to changes in location of the Eurasia-North America pole of rotation through the Cenozoic, or alternatively the Moma basin is a transtensional feature associated with left lateral strike-slip along the plate boundary. Earthquakes in this region include strike-slip, overthrust, and normal fault solutions . It is also worth noting that in the Moma basin there are two alkali basalt cones (Balagan-Tas and Serdtse-Kamen') dated at 300 ka (Layer et al. 1993). This volcanic activity is probably related to extension, or transtension, across the plate boundary. In the northeast flank of the Moma Range there is a northeast-vergent fold and thrust belt which places Jurassic rocks over Neogene sediments of the Zyryanka basin. So,the nature of recent seismotectonical deformations and it places, shows difficult evolution this segment of intracontinental boundary.

  18. Viscoelastic Postseismic Rebound to Strike-Slip Earthquakes in Regions of Oblique Plate Convergence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Steven C.

    1999-01-01

    According to the slip partitioning concept, the trench parallel component of relative plate motion in regions of oblique convergence is accommodated by strike-slip faulting in the overriding continental lithosphere. The pattern of postseismic surface deformation due to viscoelastic flow in the lower crust and asthenosphere following a major earthquake on such a fault is modified from that predicted from the conventual elastic layer over viscoelastic halfspace model by the presence of the subducting slab. The predicted effects, such as a partial suppression of the postseismic velocities by 1 cm/yr or more immediately following a moderate to great earthquake, are potentially detectable using contemporary geodetic techniques.

  19. Physics-Based Predictive Simulation Models for Earthquake Generation at Plate Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsu'Ura, M.

    2002-12-01

    In the last decade there has been great progress in the physics of earthquake generation; that is, the introduction of laboratory-based fault constitutive laws as a basic equation governing earthquake rupture and the quantitative description of tectonic loading driven by plate motion. Incorporating a fault constitutive law into continuum mechanics, we can develop a physics-based_@simulation model for the entire earthquake generation process. For realistic simulation of earthquake generation, however, we need a very large, high-speed computer system. In Japan, fortunately, the Earth Simulator, which is a high performance, massively parallel-processing computer system with 10 TB memories and 40 TFLOPS peak speed, has been completed. The completion of the Earth Simulator and advance in numerical simulation methodology are bringing our vision within reach. In general, the earthquake generation cycle consists of tectonic loading due to relative plate motion, quasi-static rupture nucleation, dynamic rupture propagation and stop, and restoration of fault strength. The basic equations governing the entire earthquake generation cycle consists of an elastic/viscoelastic slip-response function that relates fault slip to shear stress change and a fault constitutive law that prescribes change in shear strength with fault slip and contact time. The shear stress and the shear strength are related with each other through the boundary conditions on the fault. The driving force of this system is observed relative plate motion. The system to describe the earthquake generation cycle is conceptually quite simple. The complexity in practical modelling mainly comes from complexity in structure of the real earth. Since 1998 our group have conducted the Crustal Activity Modelling Program (CAMP), which is one of the three main programs composing the Solid Earth Simulator project. The aim of CAMP is to develop a physics-based predictive simulation model for the entire earthquake generation cycles in and around Japan. The total simulation system is divided into three components: a crust-mantle structure model, a tectonic loading model and a dynamic rupture model. For a San Andreas type of plate boundaries we have already developed a standard model. In the case of convergent plate boundaries, although the basic equations governing the earthquake generation cycle are essentially the same as those in the case of transcurrent plate boundaries, the practical modelling is much more difficult, because of complexity in geometry of plate interfaces. For the present we have developed a 3-D standard structure model of plate interfaces in and around Japan, the viscoelastic slip-response functions for this structure model, and the slip- and time-dependent fault constitutive law with an inherent strength-restoration mechanism. Combining all these elements, we can construct a quasi-static tectonic loading model. For the dynamic rupture process, we have developed a simulation algorithm for rupture propagation on a 3-D curved fault surface by applying BIEM. In the last stage of CAMP the quasi-static loading model and the dynamic rupture model are connected with each other through a simulation platform on the Earth Simulator. Outputs of the simulation system are the crustal deformation, internal stress change and seismic wave radiation associated with the progress of seismic and/or aseismic slip on the plate interfaces. From comparison of these computed data and observed data, we can extract useful information to estimate the past slip history and the present stress state on the plate interfaces by using a technique of inversion analysis.

  20. Major earthquakes occur regularly on an isolated plate boundary fault.

    PubMed

    Berryman, Kelvin R; Cochran, Ursula A; Clark, Kate J; Biasi, Glenn P; Langridge, Robert M; Villamor, Pilar

    2012-06-29

    The scarcity of long geological records of major earthquakes, on different types of faults, makes testing hypotheses of regular versus random or clustered earthquake recurrence behavior difficult. We provide a fault-proximal major earthquake record spanning 8000 years on the strike-slip Alpine Fault in New Zealand. Cyclic stratigraphy at Hokuri Creek suggests that the fault ruptured to the surface 24 times, and event ages yield a 0.33 coefficient of variation in recurrence interval. We associate this near-regular earthquake recurrence with a geometrically simple strike-slip fault, with high slip rate, accommodating a high proportion of plate boundary motion that works in isolation from other faults. We propose that it is valid to apply time-dependent earthquake recurrence models for seismic hazard estimation to similar faults worldwide. PMID:22745426

  1. Convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.

    2005-09-01

    Call for Papers: Convergence The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) invites submissions to a special issue on Convergence. Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and data, video and data, private-line and virtual private-line, fixed and mobile, and local and long-haul services. These trends have many consequences for consumers, vendors, and carriers. Faced with large volumes of low-margin data traffic mixed with traditional voice services, the need for capital conservation and operational efficiency drives carriers away from today's separate overlay networks for each service and towards "converged" platforms. For example, cable operators require transport of multiple services over both hybrid fiber coax (HFC) and DWDM transport technologies. Local carriers seek an economical architecture to deliver integrated services on optically enabled broadband-access networks. Services over wireless-access networks must coexist with those from wired networks. In each case, convergence of networks and services inspires an important set of questions and challenges, driven by the need for low cost, operational efficiency, service performance requirements, and optical transport technology options. This Feature Issue explores the various interpretations and implications of network convergence pertinent to optical networking. How does convergence affect the evolution of optical transport-layer and control approaches? Are the implied directions consistent with research vision for optical networks? Substantial challenges remain. Papers are solicited across the broad spectrum of interests. These include, but are not limited to: Architecture, design and performance of optical wide-area-network (WAN), metro, and access networks Integration strategies for multiservice transport platforms Access methods that bridge traditional and emerging services Network signaling and control methodologies All-optical packet routing and switching techniques To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON, indicating "Convergence feature" in the "Comments" field of the online submission form. For all other questions relating to this feature issue, please send an e-mail to jon@osa.org, subject line &q

  2. Convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.

    2005-08-01

    Call for Papers: Convergence The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) invites submissions to a special issue on Convergence. Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and data, video and data, private-line and virtual private-line, fixed and mobile, and local and long-haul services. These trends have many consequences for consumers, vendors, and carriers. Faced with large volumes of low-margin data traffic mixed with traditional voice services, the need for capital conservation and operational efficiency drives carriers away from today's separate overlay networks for each service and towards "converged" platforms. For example, cable operators require transport of multiple services over both hybrid fiber coax (HFC) and DWDM transport technologies. Local carriers seek an economical architecture to deliver integrated services on optically enabled broadband-access networks. Services over wireless-access networks must coexist with those from wired networks. In each case, convergence of networks and services inspires an important set of questions and challenges, driven by the need for low cost, operational efficiency, service performance requirements, and optical transport technology options. This Feature Issue explores the various interpretations and implications of network convergence pertinent to optical networking. How does convergence affect the evolution of optical transport-layer and control approaches? Are the implied directions consistent with research vision for optical networks? Substantial challenges remain. Papers are solicited across the broad spectrum of interests. These include, but are not limited to: Architecture, design and performance of optical wide-area-network (WAN), metro, and access networks Integration strategies for multiservice transport platforms Access methods that bridge traditional and emerging services Network signaling and control methodologies All-optical packet routing and switching techniques

  3. Convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.

    2005-05-01

    Call for Papers: Convergence The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) invites submissions to a special issue on Convergence. Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and data, video and data, private-line and virtual private-line, fixed and mobile, and local and long-haul services. These trends have many consequences for consumers, vendors, and carriers. Faced with large volumes of low-margin data traffic mixed with traditional voice services, the need for capital conservation and operational efficiency drives carriers away from today's separate overlay networks for each service and towards "converged" platforms. For example, cable operators require transport of multiple services over both hybrid fiber coax (HFC) and DWDM transport technologies. Local carriers seek an economical architecture to deliver integrated services on optically enabled broadband-access networks. Services over wireless-access networks must coexist with those from wired networks. In each case, convergence of networks and services inspires an important set of questions and challenges, driven by the need for low cost, operational efficiency, service performance requirements, and optical transport technology options. This Feature Issue explores the various interpretations and implications of network convergence pertinent to optical networking. How does convergence affect the evolution of optical transport-layer and control approaches? Are the implied directions consistent with research vision for optical networks? Substantial challenges remain. Papers are solicited across the broad spectrum of interests. These include, but are not limited to: Architecture, design and performance of optical wide-area-network (WAN), metro, and access networks Integration strategies for multiservice transport platforms Access methods that bridge traditional and emerging services Network signaling and control methodologies All-optical packet routing and switching techniques

  4. Convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.

    2005-04-01

    Call for Papers: Convergence The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) invites submissions to a special issue on Convergence. Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and data, video and data, private-line and virtual private-line, fixed and mobile, and local and long-haul services. These trends have many consequences for consumers, vendors, and carriers. Faced with large volumes of low-margin data traffic mixed with traditional voice services, the need for capital conservation and operational efficiency drives carriers away from today's separate overlay networks for each service and towards "converged" platforms. For example, cable operators require transport of multiple services over both hybrid fiber coax (HFC) and DWDM transport technologies. Local carriers seek an economical architecture to deliver integrated services on optically enabled broadband-access networks. Services over wireless-access networks must coexist with those from wired networks. In each case, convergence of networks and services inspires an important set of questions and challenges, driven by the need for low cost, operational efficiency, service performance requirements, and optical transport technology options. This Feature Issue explores the various interpretations and implications of network convergence pertinent to optical networking. How does convergence affect the evolution of optical transport-layer and control approaches? Are the implied directions consistent with research vision for optical networks? Substantial challenges remain. Papers are solicited across the broad spectrum of interests. These include, but are not limited to: Architecture, design and performance of optical wide-area-network (WAN), metro, and access networks Integration strategies for multiservice transport platforms Access methods that bridge traditional and emerging services Network signaling and control methodologies All-optical packet routing and switching techniques

  5. Convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.

    2005-06-01

    Call for Papers: Convergence The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) invites submissions to a special issue on Convergence. Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and data, video and data, private-line and virtual private-line, fixed and mobile, and local and long-haul services. These trends have many consequences for consumers, vendors, and carriers. Faced with large volumes of low-margin data traffic mixed with traditional voice services, the need for capital conservation and operational efficiency drives carriers away from today's separate overlay networks for each service and towards "converged" platforms. For example, cable operators require transport of multiple services over both hybrid fiber coax (HFC) and DWDM transport technologies. Local carriers seek an economical architecture to deliver integrated services on optically enabled broadband-access networks. Services over wireless-access networks must coexist with those from wired networks. In each case, convergence of networks and services inspires an important set of questions and challenges, driven by the need for low cost, operational efficiency, service performance requirements, and optical transport technology options. This Feature Issue explores the various interpretations and implications of network convergence pertinent to optical networking. How does convergence affect the evolution of optical transport-layer and control approaches? Are the implied directions consistent with research vision for optical networks? Substantial challenges remain. Papers are solicited across the broad spectrum of interests. These include, but are not limited to: Architecture, design and performance of optical wide-area-network (WAN), metro, and access networks Integration strategies for multiservice transport platforms Access methods that bridge traditional and emerging services Network signaling and control methodologies All-optical packet routing and switching techniques

  6. Convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.

    2005-03-01

    Call for Papers: Convergence Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and data, video and data, private-line and virtual private-line, fixed and mobile, and local and long-haul services. These trends have many consequences for consumers, vendors, and carriers. Faced with large volumes of low-margin data traffic mixed with traditional voice services, the need for capital conservation and operational efficiency drives carriers away from today's separate overlay networks for each service and towards "converged" platforms. For example, cable operators require transport of multiple services over both hybrid fiber coax (HFC) and DWDM transport technologies. Local carriers seek an economical architecture to deliver integrated services on optically enabled broadband-access networks. Services over wireless-access networks must coexist with those from wired networks. In each case, convergence of networks and services inspires an important set of questions and challenges, driven by the need for low cost, operational efficiency, service performance requirements, and optical transport technology options. This Feature Issue explores the various interpretations and implications of network convergence pertinent to optical networking. How does convergence affect the evolution of optical transport-layer and control approaches? Are the implied directions consistent with research vision for optical networks? Substantial challenges remain. Papers are solicited across the broad spectrum of interests. These include, but are not limited to:

  7. Convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.

    2005-02-01

    Call for Papers: Convergence Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and data, video and data, private-line and virtual private-line, fixed and mobile, and local and long-haul services. These trends have many consequences for consumers, vendors, and carriers. Faced with large volumes of low-margin data traffic mixed with traditional voice services, the need for capital conservation and operational efficiency drives carriers away from today's separate overlay networks for each service and towards "converged" platforms. For example, cable operators require transport of multiple services over both hybrid fiber coax (HFC) and DWDM transport technologies. Local carriers seek an economical architecture to deliver integrated services on optically enabled broadband-access networks. Services over wireless-access networks must coexist with those from wired networks. In each case, convergence of networks and services inspires an important set of questions and challenges, driven by the need for low cost, operational efficiency, service performance requirements, and optical transport technology options. This Feature Issue explores the various interpretations and implications of network convergence pertinent to optical networking. How does convergence affect the evolution of optical transport-layer and control approaches? Are the implied directions consistent with research vision for optical networks? Substantial challenges remain. Papers are solicited across the broad spectrum of interests. These include, but are not limited to:

  8. Convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.

    2004-12-01

    Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and data, video and data, private-line and virtual private-line, fixed and mobile, and local and long-haul services. These trends have many consequences for consumers, vendors, and carriers. Faced with large volumes of low-margin data traffic mixed with traditional voice services, the need for capital conservation and operational efficiency drives carriers away from today's separate overlay networks for each service and towards "converged" platforms. For example, cable operators require transport of multiple services over both hybrid fiber coax (HFC) and DWDM transport technologies. Local carriers seek an economical architecture to deliver integrated services on optically enabled broadband-access networks. Services over wireless-access networks must coexist with those from wired networks. In each case, convergence of networks and services inspires an important set of questions and challenges, driven by the need for low cost, operational efficiency, service performance requirements, and optical transport technology options. This Feature Issue explores the various interpretations and implications of network convergence pertinent to optical networking. How does convergence affect the evolution of optical transport-layer and control approaches? Are the implied directions consistent with research vision for optical networks? Substantial challenges remain. Papers are solicited across the broad spectrum of interests. These include, but are not limited to:

    • Architecture, design and performance of optical wide-area-network (WAN), metro, and access networks
    • Integration strategies for multiservice transport platforms
    • Access methods that bridge traditional and emerging services
    • Network signaling and control methodologies
    • All-optical packet routing and switching techniques

    Manuscript Submission

    To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON, indicating "Convergence feature" in the "Comments" field of the online submission form. For all other questions relat

  9. Topology of the ambient boundary and the convergence of causal curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Cotsakis, Spiros

    2015-08-01

    We discuss the topological nature of the boundary spacetime, the conformal infinity of the ambient cosmological metric. Due to the existence of a homothetic group, the bounding spacetime must be equipped not with the usual Euclidean metric topology but with the Zeeman fine topology. This then places severe constraints to the convergence of a sequence of causal curves and the extraction of a limit curve, and also to our ability to formulate conditions for singularity formation.

  10. Evolution of faulting and plate boundary deformation in the Southern Taranaki Basin, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, Cathal; Nicol, Andrew; Walsh, John J.; Seebeck, Hannu

    2015-05-01

    Faulting and folding in the Southern Taranaki Basin constrain the evolution of the New Zealand plate boundary since ~ 80 Ma. Sedimentary rocks up to 8 km thick record multiple phases of deformation which have been examined using 2D and 3D seismic reflection data, resulting in fault displacement-time curves and basin-wide isopach maps with temporal resolutions of 5-10 Myr and 1-4 Myr pre- and post-~ 23 Ma respectively. Three main phases of tectonic activity have been recognised; Late Cretaceous and Palaeocene extension (~ 80-55 Ma), mainly Oligocene and younger contraction and Plio-Pleistocene (~ 3.7-0 Ma) extension. Most of the largest faults (e.g., Cape Egmont Fault) accrued displacement during the Late Cretaceous and were reactivated one or more times during subsequent episodes of deformation. The oldest phase of extension occurred during Gondwana break-up and was ubiquitous throughout the basin. Contraction along the eastern boundary of the basin, associated with the onset of Hikurangi Margin subduction, commenced as early as Late Eocene. The zone of contraction widened and migrated westward during the Miocene with reverse faults and folds in westernmost parts of the basin formed in the Late Miocene (~ 7-5 Ma). Initiation and episodic widening of this zone of contraction may have been partly triggered by changes in the rate of plate convergence. Contraction is now mainly confined to the northern South Island and has been succeeded to the north by Plio-Pleistocene extension. The present day transition zone between extension in the north and contraction in the south is defined by a WNW-trending line across the basin. The extension-contraction transition migrated southward during the Late Miocene and Pliocene consistent with steepening of the subducting plate and associated southward movement of the southern termination of the Hikurangi subduction system.

  11. Coseismic slip resolution along a plate boundary megathrust: the Nankai Trough, southwest Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sagiya, Takeshi; Thatcher, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    Geodetic survey measurements are used to estimate the coseismic slip distribution in the 1944 Tonankai (Mw=8.1) and 1946 Nankaido (Mw=8.3) earthquakes and to assess quantitatively the degree to which this slip is resolved on the plate boundary megathrust. Data used include 798 angle changes from triangulation surveys, 328 leveling section differences, and 5 coseismic tidal gage offsets. Many of the nominally coseismic triangulation data span ∼50 years, nearly half the earthquake cycle, and correction for interseismic deformation using post-1950 observations is applied. Microseismicity is used to define the configuration of the plate boundary interface and approximate it with a continuous, multisegment fault model. Because the onshore geodetic data have very limited resolving power for offshore fault segments, offshore coseismic slip was constrained by Satctke's [1993] estimation based on tsunami data. The majority of the coseismic slip occurs between 15 and 25 km depth. Although resolution declines toward the trench axis, it is sufficiently good to define two distinct high-slip regions, one off southeastern Shikoku Island (11 m maximum) and the other offshore of Kii Peninsula (3 m maximum). The slip magnitude off southeastern Shikoku, coupled with the plate convergence rate, would imply an recurrence interval of about 270 years, much-longer than the average repeat time of ∼120 years for historical great earthquakes on the Nankai Trough. However, the maximum coseismic slip is sensitive to the assumed fault geometry, and slippage on trough-parallel splay faults could significantly decrease the maximum slip to about 6 m.

  12. Patterns of seismogenesis for giant plate-boundary earthquakes in island-arc-type subduction systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, S. H.

    2006-12-01

    The global record of giant earthquake occurrence in subduction zones during the instrumental and historical eras is woefully short; only about 16 events with magnitudes above 8.4 are reasonably well documented since 1700. We find no examples of giant (M > 8.4) interplate thrust events and/or wide-ranging tsunamis sourced in the classic island arcs with fast backarc spreading (Bonin, Marianas, Tonga-Kermadec, Vanuatu, and South Scotia). The Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 (SAE) ruptured a sector of the INDIA-BURMA subduction boundary and evidently had no known historical antecedents, suggesting that the return time may be many centuries to millennia and consistent with low convergence rates. Moreover, the persistence of rupture to the north in the weakly volcanic Nicobar/Andaman sector gives one pause to reflect on the assumption that island arcs, especially those with active back-arc spreading such as the Marianas, do not produce great interplate- thrust earthquakes. The Andaman/Nicobar subduction segment is an unusual island arc. Only two arc volcanoes occur between the convergent plate boundary west of the Andamans and the backarc ridge/transform system to the east. Backarc spreading in the Andaman/ Nicobar segment is unusual because the NNW spreading directions are nearly parallel to the trench/deformation-front as do the INDIA-BURMA plate motions across it. This geometry suggests that arc-normal extension, trench migration and associated slab normal motions may not mechanically decouple this subduction system. The Nicobar sector of the rupture for the 2004 event is roughly 200 km wide judging from the aftershock distribution; a distribution that persists to the east under the Nicobar Islands, suggesting that the plate-boundary dip is very shallow in that latitude range. If this is correct, then the down-dip limitation on seismogenic slip set by serpentinized forearc mantle (Hyndman et al., 2003) may not control rupture width as it apparently does for many island arcs with steeper slab dips. Finally, this subduction system receives a large sediment influx from the giant Irrawadi and Ganges River delta systems to the north that drain the active collisional mountain belts further north. High sediment influx and trench sediment acumulation are factors that are present in 12 of the 14 subduction zones that have hosted the giant interplate thrust earthquakes mentioned earlier. This influx appears to be important in the development of a subduction channel of granular material in the plate boundary that may enable ruptures to run to great lengths by smoothing out barriers to earthquake slip. Several island-arc subduction systems (the Manus, SW Ryukyu, W Aleutians, and possibly the South Shetlands systems) have attributes similar to the Nicobar/Andaman segment of the SAE rupture. Moreover, arc volcanic activity is weak or absent and convergence also tends to be slow in all of these island-arc systems. Research done in collaboration with the USGS Tsunami Source Working Group (Steve Kirby and Eric Geist (Co-Chairs) David Scholl, Roland von Huene, Rick Blakely, Ray Wells, and Willie Lee (Secretary))

  13. Effect of Convergent and Divergent Boundaries on Flow Resistance through Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhanu Prakasham Reddy, N.; Krishnaiah, S.; Ramakrishna Reddy, M.

    2015-12-01

    An experimental investigation on the effect of convergent and divergent streamlines on the total energy loss in the porous medium and the effect on linear parameter, a, and non-linear parameter, b, for different ratios of radii of the test section was studied in a convergent and divergent permeameter. This paper presents the results of applying dimensional analysis to obtain a relationship between friction factor (fd) and Reynolds number (Rd) for flow in porous media with convergent and divergent boundaries, using pore size of the media (d) as characteristic length. Using friction factor (fd) and Reynolds number (Rd) relationship, theoretical curves, are developed and verified with the help of existing experimental data. In the present case, Mc Corquodale data of size 1.66 cm was used as media and water as fluid, to develop curves relating friction factor (fd) and Reynolds number (Rd) for different ratios of radii of the test section of convergent permeameter and divergent permeameter with the same convergent and divergent angle of 0.328 rad.

  14. Convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darcie, Thomas E.; Doverspike, Robert; Zirngibl, Martin; Korotky, Steven K.

    2005-01-01

    Call for Papers: Convergence

    Guest Editors: Thomas E. Darcie, University of Victoria Robert Doverspike, AT&T Martin Zirngibl, Lucent Technologies

    Coordinating Associate Editor: Steven K. Korotky, Lucent Technologies

    The Journal of Optical Networking (JON) invites submissions to a special issue on Convergence. Convergence has become a popular theme in telecommunications, one that has broad implications across all segments of the industry. Continual evolution of technology and applications continues to erase lines between traditionally separate lines of business, with dramatic consequences for vendors, service providers, and consumers. Spectacular advances in all layers of optical networking-leading to abundant, dynamic, cost-effective, and reliable wide-area and local-area connections-have been essential drivers of this evolution. As services and networks continue to evolve towards some notion of convergence, the continued role of optical networks must be explored. One vision of convergence renders all information in a common packet (especially IP) format. This vision is driven by the proliferation of data services. For example, time-division multiplexed (TDM) voice becomes VoIP. Analog cable-television signals become MPEG bits streamed to digital set-top boxes. T1 or OC-N private lines migrate to Ethernet virtual private networks (VPNs). All these packets coexist peacefully within a single packet-routing methodology built on an optical transport layer that combines the flexibility and cost of data networks with telecom-grade reliability. While this vision is appealing in its simplicity and shared widely, specifics of implementation raise many challenges and differences of opinion. For example, many seek to expand the role of Ethernet in these transport networks, while massive efforts are underway to make traditional TDM networks more data friendly within an evolved but backward-compatible SDH/SONET (synchronous digital hierarchy and synchronous optical network) multiplexing hierarchy. From this common underlying theme follow many specific instantiations. Examples include the convergence at the physical, logical, and operational levels of voice and data, video and data, private-line and virtual private-line, fixed and mobile, and local and long-haul services. These trends have many consequences for consumers, vendors, and carriers. Faced with large volumes of low-margin data traffic mixed with traditional voice services, the need for capital conservation and operational efficiency drives carriers away from today's separate overlay networks for each service and towards "converged" platforms. For example, cable operators require transport of multiple services over both hybrid fiber coax (HFC) and DWDM transport technologies. Local carriers seek an economical architecture to deliver integrated services on optically enabled broadband-access networks. Services over wireless-access networks must coexist with those from wired networks. In each case, convergence of networks and services inspires an important set of questions and challenges, driven by the need for low cost, operational efficiency, service performance requirements, and optical transport technology options. This Feature Issue explores the various interpretations and implications of network convergence pertinent to optical networking. How does convergence affect the evolution of optical transport-layer and control approaches? Are the implied directions consistent with research vision for optical networks? Substantial challenges remain. Papers are solicited across the broad spectrum of interests. These include, but are not limited to:
    • Architecture, design and performance of optical wide-area-network (WAN), metro, and access networks
    • Integration strategies for multiservice transport platforms
    • Access methods that bridge traditional and emerging services
    • Network signaling and control methodologies
    • All-optical packet routing and switching techniques

    Manuscript Submission

    To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON, indicating "Convergence feature" in the "Comments" field of the online submission form. For all other questions relating to this feature issue, please send an e-mail to jon@osa.org, subject line "Convergence." Additional information can be found on the JON website: http://www.osa-jon.org/submission/. Submission Deadline: 1 July 2005

  15. Obliquely convergent plate motion and its relation with forearc sliver movement, El Salvador volcanic arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikoff, B.; DeMets, C.; Garibaldi, N.; Hernandez, W.; Hernandez, D.

    2012-12-01

    The magmatic arc in El Salvador is interpreted to result from the subduction of the Cocos plate underneath the Caribbean plate along the Middle America trench. In addition, El Salvador contains a fore-arc sliver that moves 11 mm/yr westward relative to the back-arc. Well-defined strike-slip faults along the magmatic arc accommodate forearc sliver motion, but are offset at several locations by en echelon pull-apart step-overs with abundant normal faults. All basaltic-andesitic magmatic centers (San Miguel, San Vincente, San Salvador, Santa Ana) are located within these step-overs, while the two major rhyolitic calderas (Ilopango, Coatepeque) occur directly along the strike-slip faults. There are two puzzling aspects about the strike-slip tectonism. First, a silicic, shallow magma body that intrudes the San Miguel fault zone (part of the El Salvador fault system) was emplaced syn-tectonically (sigmoidal field and magnetic foliations, subhorizontally plunging magnetic lineations and dextral shear at the microscale). Within the dextrally sheared portion of the intrusion, an obsidian band with a 40Ar/39Ar age of 7.46 Ma indicates that dextral strike-slip tectonism in the Salvadoran arc has been an ongoing process for ~7.5 Ma. This casts significant doubt on whether Cocos ridge subduction (that started ~1 Ma ago) is the cause of the ongoing forearc movement. The potentially more significant problem is that the fore-arc sliver in El Salvador moves 11 mm/yr westward relative to the back-arc despite a nearly orthogonal angle of convergence (with a convergence rate of ~77 mm/yr) near El Salvador and absence of significant frictional coupling along the subduction interface. Further, GPS indicates that the Nicaraguan and Salvadoran forearcs define a semi-rigid sliver moving at nearly the same trench-parallel rates despite along-trench changes in the subduction angle. Consequently, it is tempting to attribute the movement of both forearc slivers to Cocos ridge subduction. However, as mentioned above, initiation of strike-slip movement during collision of the Cocos ridge appears incompatible with Miocene strike-slip deformation that occurs. These examples serve to highlight the difficulties in understanding forearc movement in obliquely convergent systems, even in relatively modern belts where the plate motions are well constrained.

  16. Crustal Deformation at the Arabian Plate-Boundary observed by InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonsson, S.; Cavalié, O.; Akoglu, A. M.; Wang, T.; Xu, W.; Feng, G.; Dutta, R.; Abdullin, A. K.

    2013-12-01

    The Arabian plate is bounded by a variety of active plate boundaries, with extension in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden to the south, compression in Turkey and Iran to the north, and transform faults to the west and to the east. Internally, however, the Arabian plate has been shown to be tectonically rather stable, despite evidence of recent volcanism and earthquake faulting. We use InSAR observations to study recent tectonic and volcanic activity at several locations at the Arabian plate boundary as well within the plate itself. The region near the triple junction between the Arabian, Eurasian, and Anatolian plates has often been the focus of studies on continental deformation behavior and interseismic deformation. Here we use large-scale InSAR data processing to map the deformation near the triple junction and find the deformation to be focused on major faults with little intra-plate deformation. The eastern part of the East Anatolian Fault appears to have a very shallow locking depth with limited fault-normal deformation. Several major earthquakes that have occurred in recent years on the Arabian plate boundary, including the 2011 magnitude 7.1 Van earthquake in eastern Turkey. It occurred as a result of convergence of the Arabian plate towards Eurasia and caused significant surface deformation that we have analyzed with multiple coseismic InSAR, GPS, and coastal uplift observations. We use high-resolution Cosmo-Skymed and TerraSAR-X data to derive 3D coseismic displacements from offsets alone, as some of the interferograms are almost completely incoherent. By identifying point-like targets within the images, we were able to derive accurate pixel offsets between SAR sub-images containing such targets, which we used to estimate the 3D coseismic displacements. The derived 3D displacement field helped in constraining the causative northward dipping thrust-fault. The Qadimah fault is a recently discovered fault located on the Red Sea coast north of Jeddah and under the King Abdullah Economic City, a planned $50 billion harbor city. The fault is a normal fault, parallel to the Red Sea, but it is unclear if the fault is still active and poses significant hazard to the new city. We use MERIS-corrected Envisat InSAR data to study the limited interseismic deformation across the fault and the results suggest that more investigations will be needed to assess the activity of the fault. Several volcanic events have taken place in the region during the past several years, including the 2007-8 Jebel at Tair island (Red Sea) eruption, the 2009 Harrat Lunayyir (western Saudi Arabia) magmatic intrusion, and the 2011-12 Zubair islands (Red Sea) eruption. All these three volcanic events were fed by dike intrusions whose geometry we constrain using the InSAR and optical data. The derived dike orientations provide information about extensional stress field in and around the Red Sea, although on Tair island the upper-most part of the feeder dike was controlled by local stresses within the volcanic edifice.

  17. North Venezuelan collisional crustal block: The boundary between the Caribbean and South American plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, M.; Rodriguez, I.

    1992-10-01

    The internal organization of the crust in the region between 66° and 70°W and 7° and 14°N (northern Venezuela and southern Caribbean areas) is reviewed according to a model in which a paleo-island-arc collides with and is obducted over the continental shelf. The model incorporates geological and physiographical constraints and was constructed to accommodate gravimetric and magnetic data. Earthquake foci were interpreted and integrated with the latter to describe the geodynamics of the plate boundary zone. The data are interpreted as indicating dynamic coupling of the Caribbean and South American plates through an interposed crustal block: the Bonaire Block. The northern limit of this crustal block is the South Caribbean Marginal Fault (estimated convergence rate of 0.7 cm/yr); the southern limit is the 100-km-wide north Venezuelan fault belt, centered about 40 km south of the central Venezuelan coastline (estimated right-lateral slip-rate of 1.5 cm/yr). The three-dimensional outline of the Bonaire Block is that of an inverted triangular prism, with an east-west axis and a vertical plane facing the Caribbean Mountains. Depth to the Moho are calculated as ranging from 38 km beneath the continent to 14 km beneath the Caribbean Sea.

  18. An integral equation formulation for the boundary-finite element model in eccentrically stiffened plate bending

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, H.R.; Duffield, R.C.; Lin, J.

    1996-10-01

    An integral equation formulation and a numerical procedure for a boundary-finite element technique are developed for the static analysis of a stiffened plate with eccentric stiffeners. This formulation employs the fundamental solution associated with unstiffened plate bending and plane stress problems. With this approach, the resulting integral equation not only contained integrals along the perimeter of the stiffened but additional integrals along the stiffeners and the interface between the plate and its stiffeners. Thus the domain of the plate has to be divided into zones between the stiffeners. Each zone is modeled by boundary elements and stiffeners by finite elements. In this paper, the boundary element solution procedures for plate bending and in-plane problems are presented. The zone technique which permits coupling of unstiffened plate boundary element with stiffener finite elements is presented as well. Numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach.

  19. Average properties of compressible laminar boundary layer on flat plate with unsteady flight velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Franklin K; Ostrach, Simon

    1957-01-01

    The time-average characteristics of boundary layers over a flat plate in nearly quasi-steady flow are determined. The plate may be either insulated or isothermal. The time averages are found without specifying the plate velocity explicitly except that it is positive and has an average value.

  20. Free vibrations of thermally stressed orthotropic plates with various boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, C. D.; Greetham, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical investigation of the vibrations of thermally stressed orthotropic plates in the prebuckled region is presented. The investigation covers the broad class of trapezoidal plates with two opposite sides parallel. Each edge of the plate may be subjected to different uniform boundary conditions. variable thickness and arbitrary temperature distributions (analytical or experimental) for any desired combination of boundary conditions may be prescribed. Results obtained using this analysis are compared to experimental results obtained for isotropic plates with thermal stress, and to results contained in the literature for orthotropic plates without thermal stress. Good agreement exists for both sets of comparisons.

  1. Flexural Vibration of Skew Plates Using Boundary Characteristic Orthogonal Polynomials in Two Variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, B.; Chakraverty, S.

    1994-06-01

    The first five frequencies have been determined for the transverse vibration of a rectangular or a skew plate under different boundary conditions by using boundary characteristic orthogonal polynomials in two variables. The given plate is first mapped into a square plate over which a set of orthonormal polynomials satisfying the essential boundary conditions is generated by using the Gram-Schmidt process. The Rayleigh-Ritz method is then used to determine the frequencies for all possible combination of the boundary conditions and with different skew angles. Comparison has been made with known results.

  2. Distinct apical and basolateral mechanisms drive PCP-dependent convergent extension of the mouse neural plate

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Margot; Yen, Weiwei; Lu, Xiaowei; Sutherland, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Summary The mechanisms of tissue convergence and extension (CE) driving axial elongation in mammalian embryos, and in particular, the cellular behaviors underlying CE in the epithelial neural tissue, have not been identified. Here we show that mouse neural cells undergo mediolaterally biased cell intercalation and exhibit both apical boundary rearrangement and polarized basolateral protrusive activity. Planar polarization and coordination of these two cell behaviors is essential for neural CE, as shown by failure of mediolateral intercalation in embryos mutant for two proteins associated with planar cell polarity signaling: Vangl2 and Ptk7. Embryos with mutations in Ptk7 fail to polarize cell behaviors within the plane of the tissue, while Vangl2 mutant embryos maintain tissue polarity and basal protrusive activity, but are deficient in apical neighbor exchange. Neuroepithelial cells in both mutants fail to apically constrict, leading to craniorachischisis. These results reveal a cooperative mechanism for cell rearrangement during epithelial morphogenesis. PMID:24703875

  3. Impact of lower plate structure on upper plate deformation at the NW Sumatran convergent margin from seafloor morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graindorge, David; Klingelhoefer, Frauke; Sibuet, Jean-Claude; McNeill, Lisa; Henstock, Timothy J.; Dean, Simon; Gutscher, Marc-André; Dessa, Jean Xaver; Permana, Haryadi; Singh, Satish C.; Leau, Hélène; White, Nicolas; Carton, Hélène; Malod, Jacques André; Rangin, Claude; Aryawan, Ketut G.; Chaubey, Anil Kumar; Chauhan, Ajay; Galih, Dodi R.; Greenroyd, Christopher James; Laesanpura, Agus; Prihantono, Joko; Royle, Gillian; Shankar, Uma

    2008-11-01

    We present results from multibeam bathymetric data acquired during 2005 and 2006, in the region of maximum slip of the 26 Dec. 2004 earthquake (Mw 9.2). These data provide high-resolution images of seafloor morphology of the entire NW Sumatra forearc from the Sunda trench to the submarine volcanic arc just north of Sumatra. A slope gradient analysis of the combined dataset accurately highlights those portions of the seafloor shaped by active tectonic, depositional and/or erosional processes. The greatest slope gradients are located in the frontal 30 km of the forearc, at the toe of the accretionary wedge. This suggests that long-term deformation rates are highest here and that probably only minor amounts of slip are accommodated by other thrust faults further landward. Obvious N-S oriented lineaments observed on the incoming oceanic plate are aligned sub-parallel to the fracture zones associated with the Wharton fossil spreading center. Active strike-slip motion is suggested by recent deformation with up to 20-30 m of vertical offset. The intersection of these N-S elongated bathymetric scarps with the accretionary wedge partly controls the geometry of thrust anticlines and the location of erosional features (e.g. slide scars, canyons) at the wedge toe. Our interpretation suggests that these N-S lineaments have a significant impact on the oceanic plate, the toe of the wedge and further landward in the wedge. Finally, the bathymetric data indicate that folding at the front of the accretionary wedge occurs primarily along landward-vergent (seaward-dipping) thrusts, an unusual style in accretionary wedges worldwide. The N-S elongated lineaments locally act as boundaries between zones with predominant seaward versus landward vergence.

  4. An EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, M.; Anderson, G.; Blume, F.; Walls, C.; Coyle, B.; Feaux, K.; Friesen, B.; Phillips, D.; Hafner, K.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.; Pauk, B.; Dittmann, T.

    2007-12-01

    UNAVCO is building and operating the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), part of the NSF-funded EarthScope project to understand the structure, dynamics, and evolution of the North American continent. When complete in October 2008, the 875 GPS, 103 strain and seismic, and 28 tiltmeters stations will comprise the largest integrated geodetic and seismic network in United States and the second largest in the world. Data from the PBO network will facilitate research into plate boundary deformation with unprecedented scope and detail. As of 1 September 2007, UNAVCO had completed 680 PBO GPS stations and had upgraded 89% of the planned PBO Nucleus stations. Highlights of the past year's work include the expansion of the Alaska subnetwork to 95 continuously-operating stations, including coverage of Akutan and Augustine volcanoes and reconnaissance for future installations on Unimak Island; the installation of nine new stations on Mt. St. Helens; and the arrival of 33 permits for station installations on BLM land in Nevada. The Augustine network provided critical data on magmatic and volcanic processes associated with the 2005-2006 volcanic crisis, and has expanded to a total of 11 stations. Please visit http://pboweb.unavco.org/?pageid=3 for further information on PBO GPS network construction activities. As of September 2007, 41 PBO borehole stations had been installed and three laser strainmeter stations were operating, with a total of 60 borehole stations and 4 laser strainmeters expected by October 2007. In response to direction from the EarthScope community, UNAVCO installed a dense network of six stations along the San Jacinto Fault near Anza, California; installed three of four planned borehole strainmeter stations on Mt. St. Helens; and has densified coverage of the Parkfield area. Please visit http://pboweb.unavco.org/?pageid=8 for more information on PBO strainmeter network construction progress. The combined PBO/Nucleus GPS network provides 350 GB of raw standard rate data, with special downloads of more than 250 GB of high-rate GPS data following large earthquakes in Russia, Tonga, and Peru, as well as for community requests. The standard rate GPS data are processed routinely to generate data products including station position time series, velocity vectors, and related information, and all data products are available from the UNAVCO Facility archive. The PBO seismic network seismic network has provided 201 GB of raw data, which are available via Antelope and Earthworm from PBO and via the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC); we provide data to seismic networks operated from Caltech, UCSD, UCSB, University of Washington, and the Pacific Geosciences Center in Sidney, BC. The PBO strainmeter network has provided 93 GB of raw data, available in both raw native format and SEED format from the Northern California Earthquake Data Center and the IRIS DMC, along with higher-level products such as cleaned strain time series and related information. Please visit http://pboweb.unavco.org/gps_data and http://pboweb.unavco.org/strain_data for more information on PBO GPS and strainmeter/seismic data products, respectively.

  5. Subcrustal earthquakes in the plate boundary zone of New Zealand's South Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boese, C. M.; Stern, T. A.; Townend, J.; Sheehan, A. F.; Molnar, P. H.; Collins, J. A.; Karalliyadda, S.; Bourguignon, S.; Bannister, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    Sporadic, intermediate-depth earthquakes have been observed for ~40 years in the vicinity of the Alpine Fault, a 460 km-long transpressive fault forming the western boundary of the Southern Alps. The Alpine Fault represents the plate boundary between the Australian and Pacific Plates in New Zealand and links two subduction zones of opposite polarity in the North and South. Several earthquakes at depths of 59-85 km have been recorded by the Southern Alps Microearthquake Borehole Array (SAMBA) since its deployment in November 2008. Due to large numbers of impulsive phase arrivals, focal mechanisms were obtained for these events during routine processing. In 2009 and early 2010, several additional temporary seismometer networks were operating in the central Southern Alps (Alpine Fault Array ALFA, Deep Fault Drilling Project 2010 DFDP10) and the offshore region west of the South Island (Marine Observations of Anisotropy Near Aotearoa MOANA). To gain more insight about the cause and mechanism of these deep events, a comprehensive analysis has been performed incorporating data from all available instruments. Accurate hypocentres of 22 earthquakes (ML<4) and focal mechanisms of at least 14 events have been obtained. The focal mechanisms reveal that reverse faulting predominates at depth in the continental collision zone between the Pacific and Australian Plates. The intermediate-depth events occur below the Moho discontinuity, which has been mapped in detail using wide-angle reflection/refraction data obtained during the South Island Geophysical Transect (SIGHT) project in 1995/96. Although the cause for these subcrustal earthquakes is not yet clear, they have previously been interpreted to result from intra-continental subduction (Reyners 1987), high shear-strain gradients due to depressed geotherms and viscous deformation of mantle lithosphere (Kohler and Eberhart-Phillips 2003). On the basis of the locations and mechanisms obtained using SAMBA, we have argued that these events are caused due to high strain rates resulting from plate bending, but this is the subject of further investigations. Reyners, M., Subcrustal earthquakes in the central South Island, New Zealand, and the root of the Southern Alps, Geology, 15, 1168-1171, 1987. Kohler, M., and D. Eberhart-Phillips, Intermediate-depth earthquakes in a region of continental convergence: South Island, New Zealand, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 93 , 85, 2003.

  6. Seismic investigation of the plate boundary beneath Mt. Fuji, the Izu collision zone, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H.; Iwasaki, T.; Ishiyama, T.; Abe, S.; Kato, N.

    2012-04-01

    The Philippine Sea plate (PHS) is being subducted beneath Honshu, associated with the buoyant subduction of the Izu-Bonin arc. In the Izu collision zone, the buoyant subduction and collision produced the complicated strain partitioning along the active faults. To evaluate the seismic hazards produced by these active faults, to reveal the strain budget is crucial. However, covered by thick volcanic products by Mt. Fuji, northwestern plate boundary of the Izu collision zone is poorly understood. We performed deep seismic reflection profiling across the flank of Mt. Fuji and Hakone volcanoes to reveal the boundary between Eurasia (EUR) and Philippine Sea plate. To obtain the seismic image through highly attenuative volcanic products, we used four vibroseis trucks and explosives (<50 kg). For recording, we used 780 channels along the 34 km long seismic line. To obtain high-resolution image of the shallow part of the fault, we performed shallow high-resolution seismic reflection profiling, using Mini-vib (IVI) and a 200 channels recording system. The shot and receiver intervals were 10 m. Velocity profile obtained by refraction tomography portrays the westward dipping thrusts beneath the eastern flank of Mt. Fuji. The frontal thrust can be traced down to 4 km in depth on the reflection profile. The high-resolution seismic section suggests that the thrust displaced the shallow sediments just below the Gotemba debris avalanche deposits dated 2.9 ka (Miyachi et al., 2004). Covered by the thick mudflow deposits, there are no morphotectonic evidences along the fault, suggesting that the final seismic event is older than 2.9 ka. At the northwestern part of the Izu collision zone, based on the lack of seismicity associated with down-going slab, some researchers were estimated the lack PHS-slab. Also, due to the lack of morphotectonic evidence, this boundary was thought to be completely locked. However, aseismic PHS slab was clearly demonstrated by wide-angle reflection down to 40 km in depth in the northwestern part of the Izu collision zone (Sato et al., 2006). The existence of active fault accords well with the existence of slab. Judging from the age of final seismic event, the slip-rate of this newly found fault is smaller than that of other PHS-EUR margin, suggesting that the main convergence of PHS and EUR may accommodate along other faults covered by volcanic products and the mid-crustal detachment in the crust of Izu peninsula.

  7. Analysis of turbulent free-convection boundary layer on flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, E R G; Jackson, Thomas W

    1950-01-01

    A calculation was made for the flow and heat transfer in the turbulent free-convection boundary layer on a vertical flat plate. Formulas for the heat-transfer coefficient, boundary layer thickness, and the maximum velocity in the boundary layer were obtained.

  8. Geodynamics of flat-slab subduction, sedimentary basin development, and hydrocarbon systems along the southern Alaska convergent plate margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finzel, Emily S.

    Combining field-based geologic studies and numerical modeling provides a robust tool for evaluating the geodynamics of convergent margins. Southern Alaska is arguably the most tectonically active part of the convergent margin of western North America. This conceptual approach has been used to interpret the modern basin dynamics, as well as key stages in the Cenozoic development of this region, including spreading-ridge and flat-slab subduction. New macrofossil, palynological, and lithostratigraphic data for the Bear Lake Formation in the Bristol Bay retroarc basin allow us to construct the first chronostratigraphic framework for this formation, and indicate deposition during Middle and Late Miocene time in a regional transgressive estuarine depositional system. In the Cook Inlet forearc basin, new detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, rare earth element geochemistry, and clast compositional data from middle Eocene-Pliocene strata demonstrate the importance of sediment sources located in the retroarc region and along strike within the basin. The Yakutat microplate has recently been reinterpreted to represent buoyant crust that is presently subducting at a shallow angle beneath southern Alaska. Integration of stratigraphic, geochronologic, and thermochronologic data indicate that in the flat-slab region, exhumation initiated ca. 43 Ma and migrated inboard, magmatism ceased at ca. 32 Ma, and deposition in sedimentary basins ended by ca. 23 Ma. Sedimentary basins positioned along the western and northern perimeter of the flat-slab region record enhanced subsidence and sediment delivery from the flat-slab region beginning in late Oligocene and middle Miocene time respectively. The discrete contributions of unique driving forces for lithospheric deformation in western Canada and Alaska have not been quantified in detail, so their relative role in influencing deformation has remained unresolved. Using finite element models, we calculate a continuous strain rate and velocity field that provides evidence that a wide zone of diffuse deformation defines the present-day boundaries between the North America, Pacific, and Bering plates in Alaska and western Canada. In southern Alaska, boundary forces related to flat-slab subduction of the Yakutat microplate are the dominant driver for lithospheric deformation, whereas in central and northern Alaska and inboard parts of western Canada, buoyancy forces and basal tractions may be the dominant contributors.

  9. Abbot Ice Shelf, the Amundsen Sea Continental Margin and the Southern Boundary of the Bellingshausen Plate Seaward of West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, J. R.; Tinto, K. J.; Bell, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Abbot Ice Shelf extends 450 km along the coast of West Antarctica between 103°W and 89°W and straddles the boundary between the Bellingshausen Sea continental margin, which overlies a former subduction zone, and Amundsen Sea rifted continental margin. Inversion of NASA Operation IceBridge airborne gravity data for sub-ice bathymetry shows that the western part of the ice shelf, as well as Cosgrove Ice Shelf to the south, are underlain by a series of east-west trending rift basins. The eastern boundary of the rifted terrain coincides with the eastern boundary of rifting between Antarctica and Zealandia and the rifts formed during the early stages of this rifting. Extension in these rifts is minor as rifting quickly jumped north of Thurston Island. The southern boundary of the Cosgrove Rift is aligned with the southern boundary of a sedimentary basin under the Amundsen Embayment continental shelf to the west, also formed by Antarctica-Zealandia rifting. The shelf basin has an extension factor, β, of 1.5 - 1.7 with 80 -100 km of extension occurring in an area now ~250 km wide. Following this extension early in the rifting process, rifting centered to the north of the present shelf edge and proceeded to continental rupture. Since then, the Amundsen Embayment continental shelf has been tectonically quiescent and has primarily been shaped though subsidence, sedimentation and the passage of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet back and forth across it. The former Bellingshausen Plate was located seaward of the Amundsen Sea margin prior to its incorporation into the Antarctic Plate at ~62 Ma. During the latter part of its existence, Bellingshausen plate motion had a clockwise rotational component relative to Antarctica producing convergence between the Bellingshausen and Antarctic plates east of 102°W. Seismic reflection and gravity data show that this convergence is expressed by an area of intensely deformed sediments beneath the continental slope from 102°W to 95°W and by incipient subduction beneath the Bellingshausen Gravity Anomaly on the western edge of a salient of the Antarctic plate near 94°W. West of 102°W, relative motion was extensional and occurred in a diffuse zone occupied by the Marie Byrd Seamounts that are dated at 65-56 Ma and extend 800 km along the continental margin near the base of the continental rise.

  10. Predicting earthquakes along the major plate tectonic boundaries in the Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1978-01-01

    In an article in the last issue of the Earthquake Information Bulletin ("Earthquakes and Plate Tectonics," by Henry Spall), we saw how 90 percent of the world's earthquakes occur at the margins of the Earth's major crustal plates. however, when we look at the distribution of earthquakes in detail, we see that a number of nearly aseismic regions, or seismic gaps, can be found along the present-day plate boundaries. Why is this? And can we regard these areas as being more likely to be the sites for future larger earthquakes than those segments of the plate boundaries that have ruptured recently. 

  11. Overview on the Plate Boundaries Along the Western Mexican Pacific Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortera-Gutierrez, C. A.; Bandy, W. L.; Michaud, F.; Ortega Ramírez, J.

    2013-05-01

    The cinematic of the Pacific, Rivera and Cocos oceanic plates have a significant impact on the subduction process and seismic cycles occurring along the western Mexican Pacific margin of the North American and Caribbean plates. Sections of Pacific (PAC), Rivera (RIV), Cocos (COC), North American (NAM) and Caribbean (CAB) plate boundaries along the western margin of Mexico are not well constrained. From north to south: the transform-rift system at Gulf of California has been generally considered as part of PAC-NAM plate boundary. However results of the FAMEX cruise at 2002 evidenced that Tosco-Abreojos Fault System along the western margin of Baja California Peninsula is active. Should this tectonic structure be considered as a plate boundary? At the RIV plate northern corner (including Mazatlan Basin), the scatter seismicity recorded between Tamayo FZ and the Marias Islands restricts the characterization of the plate boundary between the RIV and NAM plates. Some authors have proposed that Tamayo FZ and Marias I. Escarpment are the RIV-NAM plate boundary. Recently other authors have called that RIV-NAM boundary is a geomorphology lineament that runs from a Rivera Rise transform at 23N to the northern end of Marias I. Escarpment. Even so this concept is not sustained with seismic activity. Further this thought would imply that the oceanic lithosphere of Mazatlan Basin would form part of NAM plate. Other thoughts are either that there is a diffuse RIV-NAM plate boundary to the north of the Maria Archipelago, or Middle America Subduction Zone is gradually extending northward of the Maria Is. While the plate boundary at SE corner of the RIV plate is neither well defined morphologically nor seismically constraint, offshore Colima Coast. Some authors have proposed that this zone is a diffuse plate boundary between RIV and COC plates, result of a NE-SW shear plate motion. Other authors have proposed that the RIV-COC boundary extends E-W from the El Gordo Graben (EGG) at the Middle American Trench (MAT) to northern tip of the East Pacific Rise (EPR). Results of recently multibeam and magnetic surveys indicate that this boundary is possible segmented as an echelon E-W structure, north of EGG. Clearly these hypotheses on the RIV-COC plate boundary show that its configuration is neither well seismic nor morphology constrained. To the south, the triple junction point of COC, NAM, and CAB plate boundaries is also another case where the boundaries are poorly constrained seismically and morphologically. Traditionally, the COC-NAM-CAB triple junction point has been positioned where the MAT trend bends by the Tehuantepec Ridge (TR) collision, but no offshore geophysical data sustain that NAM-CAB plate boundary extends to MAT-TR point. In the last decade, the Servicio Sismológico Nacional (SSN) has extended its seismic station network at the southern Mexican territory. From this data, the distribution of offshore earthquakes covers a broad marine zone in front the Chiapas and Guatemala coastline and does not show a defined earthquake concentration associated to the proposed offshore extension of the Polochic-Motogua Fault through Guatemala and Mapastepec Fault through Chiapas, Mexico.

  12. Hydrological Effects in the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meertens, C.; Wahr, J.; Borsa, A.; Jackson, M.; Wahr, A.

    2008-12-01

    The dense network of 1,100 continuously operating GPS stations in the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) is providing high quality position time series. Data are processed by PBO Analysis Centers at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and at Central Washington University. The results are combined by the Analysis Center Coordinator at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and are made available from the UNAVCO Data Center in Boulder. Analysis software of Langbein, 2008, was used to estimate secular trends and annual variations in the time series. The results were interpreted in terms of hydrological loading and poroelastic effects, from both natural and anthropogenic changes in water storage. The effects of monument stability were also considered. The density of PBO observations allows for the identification of spatial patterns that appear coherent over relatively broad areas. Vertical annual signals of 8-10 mm peak-to-peak amplitude are evident at stations in the mountains of northern and central California and southern Oregon showing peak uplift in October and are correlated to hydrological loading. The vertical elastic loading signal, calculated from the 0.25 by 0.25 degree community Noah land-surface model, fits the annual signal well and appears also to model the secular trends, although the time duration of ~3 years is still limited. In contrast to mountainous regions, stations in the valleys of California show greater spatial variability ranging from stations with almost no detectable annual signal to stations with very large, 20-30 mm, amplitudes with peak uplift in March. The vertical signals are temporally correlated to ground-water variations caused by pumping for agricultural irrigation and likely are caused by poroelastic effects in the sediments rather than loading. Annual vertical signals in southern California, where not obviously influenced from localized ground-water fluctuations, are small with ~2 mm amplitude and may be due to unmodeled tropospheric effects on the GPS signal. Overall, the results illustrate the potential value of using dense GPS arrays to assess and improve hydrological modeling.

  13. BOLIVAR: the Caribbean-South America plate boundary between 60W and 71W as imaged by seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnani, M.; Mann, P.; Clark, S. A.; Escalona, A.; Zelt, C. A.; Christeson, G. L.; Levander, A.

    2007-12-01

    We present the results of ~6000km of marine multi-channel seismic (MCS) reflection data collected offshore Venezuela as part of the Broadband Ocean Land Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region project (BOLIVAR). The imaged area spans almost 12 degrees of longitude and 5 degrees of latitude and encompasses the diffuse plate boundary between South America (SA) and the SE Caribbean plate (CAR). This plate boundary has been evolving for at least the past 55My when the volcanic island arc that borders the CAR plate started colliding obliquely with the SA continent: the collision front has migrated from west to east. BOLIVAR MCS data show that the crustal architecture of the present plate boundary is dominated by the eastward motion of the Caribbean plate with respect to SA and is characterized by a complex combination of convergent and strike-slip tectonics. To the north, the reflection data image the South Caribbean Deformed Belt (SCDB) and the structures related to the thrusting of the CAR plate under the Leeward Antilles volcanic arc region. The data show that the CAR underthrusting continues as far east as the southern edge of the Aves ridge and detailed stratigraphic dating of the Venezuela basin and trench deposits suggests that the collision began in the Paleogene. The amount of shortening along the SCDB decreases toward the east, in part due to the geometry of plate motion vectors and in part as a result of the NNE escape of the Maracaibo block in western Venezuela. South of the SCDB the MCS profiles cross the Leeward Antilles island arc and Cenozoic sedimentary basins, revealing a complex history of Paleogene-Neogene multiphase extension, compression, and tectonic inversion, as well as the influence of the tectonic activity along the right-lateral El Pilar - San Sebastian fault system. East of the Bonaire basin the MCS data image the southern end of the Aves Ridge abandoned volcanic island arc and the southwestern termination of the Grenada basin, characterized here by middle Miocene inverted structures, likely related to the WNW-ESE transpression between CAR and SA. The easternmost MCS profile crosses the ongoing arc-continent collision of the Lesser Antilles arc with SA and the backarc (Grenada Basin) and forearc (Tobago Basin) basins as well as the suture between the Caribbean arc and the passive margin of the continental SA plate near eastern Trinidad.

  14. Inter- and intra-plate deformation at North American plate boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beavan, John

    1986-01-01

    Alaska tectonics and earthquake hazard studies; Southern California tectonics (block rotation); spreading near the Salton Trough; California plate motion (fault zone kinematics); and Caribbean plate motion investigations are examined.

  15. Seismogenic, electrically conductive, and fluid zones at continental plate boundaries in New Zealand, Himalaya, and California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiracek, George R.; Gonzalez, Victor M.; Grant Caldwell, T.; Wannamaker, Philip E.; Kilb, Debi

    We explore the idea that fluid occurrence below the seismogenic zone plays an active role in the rupture process by examining how fluids spatially relate to seismicity at three continental plate boundaries: South Island of New Zealand, the Himalaya, and San Andreas fault, USA. With this objective, we project earthquake hypocenters onto magnetotelluric (MT) electrical resistivity cross-sections. MT detection of conductive zones in the crust containing low fractions of fluids (<1%) requires an interconnected network of fluid-filled porosity facilitated by shearing, fracturing, and/or grainedge wetting. Mechanisms promoting fluid reservoirs in the ductile crust include: 1) stalling of upward propagating porosity waves, 2) tectonically induced neutral buoyancy, and 3) development of ductile shear zones. Distinct conductive horizons are detected at depth in the ductile crust in New Zealand and the Himalaya where the tectonic convergence is high. In the Parkfield segment of the San Andreas fault, where convergence is low, there is high conductivity in the ductile crust but it forms a sub-vertical corridor to the surface with no distinct top. The tops of sub-horizontal conductive zones are ˜20 km depth in New Zealand and ˜25-40 km in the Himalaya where the seismogenic crust extends only to 12 and 25 km depth, respectively. The deep conductive layer in New Zealand may have originated as a "water sill" facilitating water-weakening, localized deformation, and eventually becoming a water-rich, anisotropic, mylonized, ductile shear zone. Fluid exchange through the active Alpine fault may initiate or be initiated by fault rupture. Localized, unstable flow in deep fluidized zones detected by MT may trigger earthquakes above.

  16. Finite Element Modeling of Crustal Deformation in the North American Caribbean Plate Boundary Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundgren, P.; Russo, R.

    1995-01-01

    We have developed 2-dimensional spherical shell finite element models of elastic displacement in the North American-Caribbean (NA-Ca) plate boundary zone (PBZ) in order to quantify crust and fault motions in the PBZ.

  17. From transtension to transpression along the northern Caribbean plate boundary off Cuba: implications for the Recent motion of the Caribbean plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calais, Eric; de Lepinay, Bernard Mercier

    1991-02-01

    Marine geophysical surveys using Seabeam, single-channel seismic reflection, gravimetric and magnetic measurements have been conducted along a segment of the northern Caribbean transcurrent plate boundary (SEACARIB II cruise). The data allow a better definition of the geometry and the tectonic regime of this major strike-slip area. They support the following results: (1) Along the southern Cuban margin, the Oriente fault displays a discontinuous trace, mainly composed of dextral offset, "en echelon" segments. Some pull-apart basins are located between fault segments (Cabo Cruz basin, Chivirico and Baitiquiri basins). In the Windward Passage area, the plate boundary enters into the Tortue Channel and is not connected with the subduction front off northern Hispaniola. (2) The eastern part of the Oriente Deep and the Santiago Promontory are characterised by active compressional tectonics. They form the Santiago Deformed Belt, described here for the first time. This deformed belt can be divided longitudinally into three main segments, each one characterised by a particular tectonic style. Its development is related to a transpressional mechanism along the left-lateral Oriente strike-slip fault. Our observations suggest that a tectonic and kinematic reorganisation occurred recently in this area, probably in the Late Pliocene, which may be compared with the recent geological events recorded on land in the northern Caribbean domain. The precise knowledge of both geometry and structures along the Oriente strike-slip fault south of Cuba provides new constraints for the recent kinematic evolution along the northern Caribbean transcurrent plate boundary: it leads us to infer the existence of a convergence component associated with the slip component along the Oriente transform fault.

  18. Recovering physical property information from subduction plate boundaries using 3D full-waveform seismic inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. E.; Morgan, J. V.; Warner, M.

    2013-12-01

    Our understanding of subduction margin seismogenesis has been revolutionised in the last couple of decades with the discovery that the size of the seismogenic zone may not be controlled simply by temperature and a broad spectrum of seismic behaviour exists from stick-slip to stable sliding. Laboratory and numerical experiments suggest that physical properties, particularly fluid pressure may play an important role in controlling the seismic behaviour of subduction margins. Although drilling can provide information on physical properties along subduction thrust faults at point locations at relatively shallow depths, correlations between physical properties and seismic velocity using rock physics relationships are required to resolve physical properties along the margin and down-dip. Therefore, high resolution seismic velocity models are key to recovering physical property information at subduction plate boundaries away from drill sites. 3D Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a technique pioneered by the oil industry to obtain high-resolution high-fidelity models of physical properties in the sub-surface. 3D FWI involves the inversion of low-frequency (>2 to <7 Hz), early arriving (principally transmitted) seismic data, to recover the macro (intermediate to long-wavelength) velocity structure. Although 2D FWI has been used to improve velocity models of subduction plate boundaries before, 3D FWI has not yet been attempted. 3D inversions have superior convergence and accuracy, as they sample the subsurface with multi-azimuth multiply-crossing wavefields. In this contribution we perform a suite of synthetic tests to investigate if 3D FWI could be used to better resolve physical property information along subduction margin plate boundaries using conventionally collected 3D seismic data. We base our analysis on the Muroto Basin area of the Nankai margin and investigate if the acquisition parameters and geometry of the subduction margin render 3D seismic data collected across this basin in 1999 suitable for future 3D FWI. We build a 3D model of the sub-surface based on an existing velocity model that was used to migrate these data (Tsuji et al. 2000, JGR). We then add a low P-wave velocity layer along the décollement, which is supported by ODP core data but does not feature in the current seismic velocity model, to test if it could be recovered using 3D FWI. We use the same acquisition parameters as in the 1999 seismic survey (including a 6 km long streamer) to generate a fully-elastic synthetic seismic dataset, added noise and inverted the windowed transmitted arrivals only. We also ran a suite of resolution tests across the model. The results show that 3D FWI of conventionally collected 3D seismic data across the Muroto Basin would be capable of resolving variations in P-wave velocity along the décollement of the order of half the seismic wavelength at the plate boundary. This is a significant improvement on conventional travel-time tomography which resolves to the Fresnel width. In this presentation we will also postulate on the optimal 3D FWI experiment design for the next generation of 3D seismic surveys across subduction margins as a guide for those embarking on new data collection.

  19. Inter- and intra-plate deformation at North American plate boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beavan, John; Gilbert, Lewis E.; Scholz, Chris

    1992-01-01

    A geodetic network which spans the region between San Francisco and Lake Tahoe has been measured 5 times completely with triangulation in 1880, 1922, 1929, 1943, 1963. A resurvey with the Global Positioning System (GPS) in 1991 allows the formation of 1 coseismic and 4 interseismic epochs. The data from this network provide a unique opportunity to examine the temporal and spatial evolution of the strain field associated with the 1906 San Francisco earthquake in particular and with the Pacific-North American plate boundary in general. Calculations of strain rate from the network data lead to the following conclusions. (1) There is no resolvable (greater than 0.05 microradians/yr) strain in between Sutter Buttes and the Sierra Nevada. (2) Throughout the time since the 1906 earthquake, a region extending at least as far east as the westernmost Great Valley has been undergoing deformation related to Pac:Nam interaction and the associated earthquake cycle. (3) In the time and space of overlap, our results agree with those from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) trilateration data. Both data sets indicate that strain must be accumulating to the east of Vaca. (4) The San Andreas discrepancy cannot be accommodated in the Great Valley at the 1 sigma level of our results. It is possible to absorb it in that region at the 2 sigma level. (5) Strain rate is elevated in the years following the earthquake and decays slowly with time. It is possible that the rate in the Coast Ranges increases until around 1950 and then decays. With the exception of one epoch, strain rate in the Coast Ranges is consistently fault parallel, shows no sign changes, and is consistent with monotonic strain accumulation.

  20. Vibrations of infinite plates and the mean value vibrations of finite plates excited by turbulent boundary layer flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambric, Stephen; Hwang, Yun-Fan

    2002-05-01

    The vibration response of a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) excited flat plate is analyzed using a finite-element model and infinite plate theory. For the finite-element models, discretization sufficient to resolve the convective fluctuations in the flow excitation field is used for the study. Clamped boundary conditions are assumed for the finite-element models and analyses are conducted at a variety of flow speeds and structural loss factors. Two equivalent TBL wall pressure excitation models are applied to the plates: (1) a modified Corcos cross-spectrum model for the finite-element models, and (2) a wave-vector-frequency spectrum model (the Fourier transform of the modified Corcos cross spectra) for the infinite plate theory. The TBL wall pressure autospectrum is approximated using the model derived by Smolyakov and Tkachenko. The infinite plate predicts the mean value response of the finite plate very well for all speeds and loss factors considered, showing consistency with Skudrzyks mean value theory and its usefulness for generating sound and vibration estimates.

  1. Radiocarbon evidence for extensive plate-boundary rupture about 300 years ago at the Cascadia subduction zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, A.R.; Atwater, B.F.; Bobrowsky, P.T.; Bradley, L.-A.; Clague, J.J.; Carver, G.A.; Darienzo, M.E.; Grant, W.C.; Krueger, H.W.; Sparks, R.; Stafford, Thomas W., Jr.; Stuiver, M.

    1995-01-01

    THE Cascadia subduction zone, a region of converging tectonic plates along the Pacific coast of North America, has a geological history of very large plate-boundary earthquakes1,2, but no such earthquakes have struck this region since Euro-American settlement about 150 years ago. Geophysical estimates of the moment magnitudes (Mw) of the largest such earthquakes range from 8 (ref. 3).to 91/2 (ref. 4). Radiocarbon dating of earthquake-killed vegetation can set upper bounds on earthquake size by constraining the length of plate boundary that ruptured in individual earthquakes. Such dating has shown that the most recent rupture, or series of ruptures, extended at least 55 km along the Washington coast within a period of a few decades about 300 years ago5. Here we report 85 new 14C ages, which suggest that this most recent rupture (or series) extended at least 900 km between southern British Columbia and northern California. By comparing the 14C ages with written records of the past 150 years, we conclude that a single magnitude 9 earthquake, or a series of lesser earthquakes, ruptured most of the length of the Cascadia subduction zone between the late 1600s and early 1800s, and probably in the early 1700s.

  2. Geological process of the slow earthquakes -A hypothesis from an ancient plate boundary fault rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, Y.; Kimura, G.; Kawabata, K.

    2012-12-01

    We present an integrated model of the deformation along the subduction plate boundary from the trench to the seismogenic zone. Over years of field based research in the Shimanto Belt accretionary complex, southwest Japan, yielded breaking-through discoveries on plate boundary processes, for example, the first finding of pseudotachylyte in the accretionary prism (Ikesawa et al., 2003). Our aim here is to unveil the geological aspects of slow earthquakes and the related plate boundary processes. Studied tectonic mélanges in the Shimanto Belt are regarded as fossils of plate boundary fault zone in subduction zone. We traced material from different depths along subduction channel using samples from on-land outcrops and ocean drilling cores. As a result, a series of progressive deformation down to the down-dip limit of the seismogenic zone was revealed. Detailed geological survey and structural analyses enabled us to separate superimposed deformation events during subduction. Material involved in the plate boundary deformation is mainly an alternation of sand and mud. As they have different competency and are suffered by simple shear stress field, sandstones break apart in flowing mudstones. We distinguished several stages of these deformations in sandstones and recognized progress in the intensity of deformation with increment of underthrusting. It is also known that the studied Mugi mélange bears pseudotachylyte in its upper bounding fault. Our conclusion illustrates that the subduction channel around the depth of the seismogenic zone forms a thick plate boundary fault zone, where there is a clear segregation in deformation style: a fast and episodic slip at the upper boundary fault and a slow and continuous deformation within the zone. The former fast deformation corresponds to the plate boundary earthquakes and the latter to the slow earthquakes. We further examined numerically whether this plate boundary fault rock is capable of releasing seismic moment enough to fit the observed slow earthquakes. The shallow very low frequent earthquakes (VLFs) are chosen to be modeled and our estimation satisfies the natural data. We emphasize that the plate boundary is not a plane but a zone. Geological setting is a clue for differentiating slow and normal earthquakes. We propose to focus on the three-dimensional fault zone comprising numbers of microfaults as the source of slow earthquakes instead of planar plate boundary. Our results also make an impact on the study of seismic energy balance because we show a possibility to give an absolute value of them from geological approach, which could not have been achieved with seismology.

  3. Constraints on Lithospheric Rheology from Observations of Seamount-induced Deformation: From the Plate Interiors to Plate Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, S.; Watts, A. B.

    2010-12-01

    Mantle rheology at lithospheric conditions (i.e., temperature < 1200 oC) is important for understanding fundamental geodynamic problems including the dynamics of plate tectonics, subducted slabs, and lithosphere-mantle interaction. Laboratory studies suggest that the rheology at lithospheric conditions can be approximately divided into three different regimes: brittle or frictional sliding, semi-brittle, and plastic flow. However, geodetic, seismic, flexural and mantle dynamic studies of lithospheric deformation suggest that the rheology at plate boundaries may differ significantly from that in plate interiors, and particularly, that plate boundaries may be weakened greatly relative to plate interiors due to yielding and other non-linear effects. In this study, we seek to constrain lithospheric rheology in the plate interiors and at subduction plate boundaries, using observations of deformation at seamounts and oceanic islands caused by volcanic loading. Volcano-induced surface deformation depends critically on lithospheric rheology at the time of seamount and oceanic island emplacement and is not believed to change significantly with time. However, such deformation may change as seamounts and oceanic islands enter a subduction zone, depending on the rheological properties at subduction zones. In an earlier study [Watts and Zhong, 2000], we used the effective elastic thickness at intraplate seamounts inferred from the observations of deformation and gravity to determined effective activation energy of 120 KJ/mol for lithospheric mantle with Newtonian rheology. We have now expanded this study to incorporate non-Newtonian power-law and frictional sliding rheologies, and more importantly, to also include seamounts in subduction zone settings. Our new results suggest that activation energy is significantly smaller than most experimentally determined values for olivine at high temperatures, but may be consistent with more recent experimental results at lithospheric temperatures. We will also present results on modeling seamount-induced deformation in forearc-trench-outer rise regions and discuss their implications for the dynamics of subduction.

  4. Oblique collision and accretion of the Netherlands Leeward Antilles island arc: A structural analysis of the Caribbean-South American plate boundary zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beardsley, Amanda Gail

    2007-12-01

    The Netherlands Leeward Antilles volcanic island arc is an ideal natural laboratory to study the evolution of the Caribbean-South American plate boundary. The Leeward Antilles islands (Aruba, Curacao, and Bonaire) are located offshore western Venezuela, within the obliquely convergent diffuse plate boundary zone. Outcrop analysis, microthermometry, and 2D marine seismic reflection data provide evidence of three generations of regional deformation since the Late Cretaceous. Outcrop analysis of structural features, including faults, joints, and veins, characterizes the kinematic history of the islands. Fluid inclusion analysis of quartz and calcite veins coupled with apatite fission-track dating provides the island exhumation history. Finally, marine reflection seismic data processing and interpretation of newly acquired data elucidates offshore structures to integrate with our onshore results. The oldest regional deformation, resulting in both ductile (D1) and brittle (F 1) structures, is attributed to displacement partitioning along the arcuate Caribbean plate boundary. Associated crustal thinning initiated island exhumation, at a rate of 0.18 km/my, from a maximum burial depth of 6 km in the Late Cretaceous (˜89 Ma). Coeval with D1/F1 deformation and exhumation, stretching of the island arc resulted in extensive basin rifting that separated the island blocks. At ˜55 Ma, a change in the relative motion of the Caribbean plate altered plate boundary dynamics. Displacement along the right-lateral Caribbean transform fault and Oca - San Sebastian - El Pilar strike-slip fault system created a wrench tectonic regime within the diffuse plate boundary zone. A second generation of brittle structures (F2) developed while the islands were at a maximum burial depth of 2 km during the Paleocene/Eocene. Since ˜45 Ma, continued motion along the strike-slip fault systems and oblique plate convergence resulted in the youngest generation of structural features (F3). Regional tectonics control the ongoing steady-state exhumation of the islands at a rate of 0.04 km/my. Most recently, the northeast escape of the Maracaibo block also drives deformation within the diffuse plate boundary zone. Overall, the Caribbean-South American plate boundary geometry has evolved with diachronous deformation, from west to east, accompanied by 135° of clockwise block rotation during collision and accretion of the Leeward Antilles since the Late Cretaceous.

  5. Influence of boundary conditions and plate geometries on buckling optimization of symmetric laminate plates

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, H.T.

    1995-12-31

    The buckling resistance of symmetrically laminated plates with a given material system and subjected to uniaxial compression is maximized with respect to fiber orientations by using a sequential linear programming method together with a simple move-limit strategy. Significant influence of plate thicknesses, aspect ratios, central circular cutouts and end conditions on the optimal fiber orientations and the associated optimal buckling loads of symmetrically laminated plates has been shown through this investigation.

  6. Rapidly converging iterative schemes for volterra integral equations an application to problem in boundary-layer theory

    SciTech Connect

    Pandit, S.G.

    1994-12-31

    Iterative schemes converging monotonically and uniformly to the unique solution of nonlinear Volterra integral equation are developed, under various monotonicity and convexity (concavity) conditions on the kernel. The rate of convergence of the schemes is quadratic or higher, and hence rapid. An application to problem arising in connection with the boundary-layer flow past a half plane is given, and examples illustrating the results are presented.

  7. Effect of Pressure Gradients on Plate Response and Radiation in a Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frendi, Abdelkader

    1997-01-01

    Using the model developed by the author for zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers, results are obtained for adverse and favorable pressure gradients. It is shown that when a flexible plate is located in an adverse pressure gradient area, it vibrates more than if it were in a favorable pressure gradient one. Therefore the noise generated by the plate in an adverse pressure gradient is much greater than that due to the plate in a favorable pressure gradient. The effects of Reynolds number and boundary layer thickness are also analyzed and found to have the same effect in both adverse and favorable pressure gradient cases. Increasing the Reynolds number is found to increase the loading on the plate and therefore acoustic radiation. An increase in boundary layer thickness is found to decrease the level of the high frequencies and therefore the response and radiation at these frequencies. The results are in good qualitative agreement with experimental measurements.

  8. Role of Transtension in Rifting at the Pacific-North America Plate Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    Transtensional plate motion can be accommodated either in a localized zone of transtensional rifting or over a broader region. Broader zones of deformation can be classified either as diffuse deformation or strain partitioning (one or more major strike-slip shear zones geographically offset from a region of a extensional faulting). The Pacific-North America plate boundary in southwestern North America was transtensional during much of its history and has exhibited the full range of these behaviors at different spatial scales and in different locations, as recorded by fault motions and paleomagnetic rotations. Here we focus on the northern Gulf of California part of the plate boundary (Upper and Lower Delfin basin segments), which has been in a zone of transtensional Pacific-North America plate boundary motion ever since the middle Miocene demise of adjacent Farallon-derived microplates. Prior to the middle Miocene, during the time of microplate activity, this sector of North America experienced basin-and-range normal faults (core complexes) in Sonora. However there is no evidence of continued extensional faulting nor of a Gulf-related topographic depression until after ca 12 Ma when a major ignimbrite (Tuff of San Felipe/ Ignimbrite of Hermosillo) was deposited across the entire region of the future Gulf of California rift in this sector. After 12 Ma, faults disrupted this marker bed in eastern Baja California and western Sonora, and some major NNW-striking right-lateral faults are inferred to have developed near the Sonoran coast causing offset of some of the volcanic facies. However, there are major tectonic rotations of the volcanic rocks in NE Baja California between 12 and 6 Ma, suggesting that the plate boundary motion was still occurring over a broad region. By contrast, after about 6 Ma, diminished rotations in latest Miocene and Pliocene volcanic rocks, as well as fault slip histories, show that plate boundary deformation became localized to a narrower transtensional zone of long offset strike-slip faults and intervening basins (the modern Gulf of California basin and transform fault system). Within and adjacent to this zone the fault patterns continued to evolve, with new plate boundary strike-slip faults breaking into previously intact blocks of continent. These new strike-slip faults were not accompanied by any widespread zones of tectonic rotation. This suggests that if widespread rotations are occurring, plate boundary transtension has not yet localized and the strike-slip faults are not yet accommodating most of the plate boundary slip. The cessation of widespread and significant vertical axis rotations could indicate strain localization and the increasing importance of throughgoing strike-slip faults (a precursor to fully oceanic rifting) along a transtensional plate boundary.

  9. Converging shear rheometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Hyung M.; Mix, Adam W.; Giacomin, A. Jeffrey

    2014-05-01

    For highly viscous fluids that slip in parallel sliding plate rheometers, we want to use a slightly converging flow to suppress this wall slip. In this work, we first attack the steady shear flow of a highly viscous Newtonian fluid between two gently converging plates with no slip boundaries using the equation of motion in cylindrical coordinates, which yields no analytical solution. Then we treat the same problem using the lubrication approximation in Cartesian coordinates to yield exact, explicit solutions for dimensionless velocity, pressure and shear stress. This work deepens our understanding of a drag flow through a gently converging slit of arbitrary convergence angle. We also employ the corotational Maxwell model to explore the role of viscoelasticity in this converging shear flow. We then compare these analytical solutions to finite element calculations for both Newtonian and corotational Maxwell cases. A worked example for determining the Newtonian viscosity using a converging shear rheometer is also included. With this work, we provide the framework for exploring other constitutive equations or other boundary conditions in future work. Our results can also be used to design the linear bearings used for the parallel sliding plate rheometer (SPR). This work can also be used to evaluate the error in the shear stress that is caused by bearing misalignment and specify the parallelism tolerance for the linear bearings incorporated into a SPR.

  10. Boundary force method analyses of notched plates with cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.; Tan, P. W.; Raju, I. S.

    1988-01-01

    The boundary-force method developed by Tan (1985) and Tan et al. (1986) is extended to two-dimensional mixed boundary-value problems in fracture mechanics. The formulation is explained in detail, and results are presented in tables and graphs for sample problems involving an edge crack emanating from a semielliptical and a semicircular notch and an edge crack emanating from a V notch. The accuracy of the approach is demonstrated by comparisons with collocation solutions for an edge-clamped center-cracked tension specimen.

  11. The International Plate Boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC) in the northern Chile seismic gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurr, B.; Asch, A.; Sodoudi, F.; Manzanares, A.; Ritter, O.; Klotz, J.; Chong-Diaz, G.; Barrientos, S.; Villotte, J.-P.; Oncken, O.

    2009-04-01

    Fast convergence between the oceanic Nazca and the continental South American plate is accommodated by recurrent rupture of large segments of the two plates' interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and, for their sizes, most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.8 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the north and south broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake encroached the southern part of the gap in 2007. The IPOC project intends to investigate this segment of the Nazca-South American plate boundary, on which a strong to devastating earthquake is expected to occur within the next years, by monitoring at a variety of time-scales deformation, seismicity, and magnetotelluric fields in the subduction zone at the closing stages of the interseismic cycle before and possibly during occurrence of a big earthquake. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories in Northern Chile started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (Paris, France), and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany). Currently we are operating 14 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. To cope with the high resolution and dynamic of the sensors and data acquisition, site installation was accomplished with special care. At each station a cavern was blasted into the bedrock up to 5 meters deep to ensure stable conditions for measurements. Currently five stations are additionally recording continuously GPS signals, another five are also recording meteorological data, and another seven are equipped with Magneto-Telluric (MT) probes (fluxgate magnetometers and electrode lines). It is planned to extend the multi-parameter observation to as many stations as possible. So far ten of the stations are sending continuous data via satellite links (VSAT) to the GEOFON data host at the GFZ. We will be reporting first results on seismicity, transient deformation and MT from the first two years of recording.

  12. Analytical solutions to the fundamental frequency of arbitrary laminated plates under various boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yingqin; Hong, Ming; Liu, Yuan

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, as the composite laminated plates are widely used in engineering practice such as aerospace, marine and building engineering, the vibration problem of the composite laminated plates is becoming more and more important. Frequency, especially the fundamental frequency, has been considered as an important factor in vibration problem. In this paper, a calculation method of the fundamental frequency of arbitrary laminated plates under various boundary conditions is proposed. The vibration differential equation of the laminated plates is established at the beginning of this paper and the frequency formulae of specialty orthotropic laminated plates under various boundary conditions and antisymmetric angle-ply laminated plates with simply-supported edges are investigated. They are proved to be correct. Simple algorithm of the fundamental frequency for multilayer antisymmetric and arbitrary laminated plates under various boundary conditions is studied by a series of typical examples. From the perspective of coupling, when the number of laminated plates layers N > 8-10, some coupling influence on the fundamental frequency can be neglected. It is reasonable to use specialty orthotropic laminated plates with the same thickness but less layers to calculate the corresponding fundamental frequency of laminated plates. Several examples are conducted to prove correctness of this conclusion. At the end of this paper, the influence of the selected number of layers of specialty orthotropic laminates on the fundamental frequency is investigated. The accuracy and complexity are determined by the number of layers. It is necessary to use proper number of layers of special orthotropic laminates with the same thickness to simulate the fundamental frequency in different boundary conditions.

  13. A model of convergent plate margins based on the recent tectonics of Shikoku, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bischke, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    A viscoelastic finite element plate tectonic model is applied to displacement data for the island of Shikoku, Japan. The flow properties and geometry of the upper portions of the earth are assumed known from geophysical evidence, and the loading characteristics are determined from the model. The nature of the forces acting on the Philippine Sea plate, particularly in the vicinity of the Nankai trough, is determined. Seismic displacement data related to the 1946 Nankaido earthquake are modeled in terms of a thick elastic plate overlying a fluidlike substratum. The sequence of preseismic and seismic displacements can be explained in terms of two independent processes operating on elastic lithospheric plates: a strain accumulation process caused by vertical downward forces acting on or within the lithosphere in the vicinity of the trench, and a strain release process caused by plate failure along a preexisting zone on weakness. This is a restatement of Reid's elastic rebound theory in terms of elastic lithospheric plates.

  14. Global isostatic geoid anomalies for plate and boundary layer models of the lithosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, B. H.

    1981-01-01

    Commonly used one dimensional geoid models predict that the isostatic geoid anomaly over old ocean basins for the boundary layer thermal model of the lithosphere is a factor of two greater than that for the plate model. Calculations presented, using the spherical analogues of the plate and boundary layer thermal models, show that for the actual global distribution of plate ages, one dimensional models are not accurate and a spherical, fully three dimensional treatment is necessary. The maximum difference in geoid heights predicted for the two models is only about two meters. The thermal structure of old lithosphere is unlikely to be resolvable using global geoid anomalies. Stripping the effects of plate aging and a hypothetical uniform, 35 km, isostatically-compensated continental crust from the observed geoid emphasizes that the largest-amplitude geoid anomaly is the geoid low of almost 120 m over West Antarctica, a factor of two greater than the low of 60 m over Ceylon.

  15. Weak incident shock interactions with Mach 8 laminar boundary layers. [of flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, L. G., II; Johnson, C. B.

    1974-01-01

    Weak shock-wave interactions with boundary layers on a flat plate were investigated experimentally in Mach 8 variable-density tunnel for plate-length Reynolds numbers. The undisturbed boundary layers were laminar over the entire plate length. Pressure and heat-transfer distributions were obtained for wedge-generated incident shock waves that resulted in pressure rises ranging from 1.36 to 4.46 (both nonseparated and separated boundary-layer flows). The resulting heat-transfer amplifications ranged from 1.45 to 14. The distributions followed established trends for nonseparated flows, for incipient separation, and for laminar free-interaction pressure rises. The experimental results corroborated established trends for the extent of the pressure rise and for certain peak heat-transfer correlations.

  16. Receptivity of Flat-Plate Boundary Layer in a Non-Uniform Free Stream (Vorticity Normal to the Plate)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogan, M. N.; Ustinov, M. V.

    1997-01-01

    Work is devoted to study of free-stream vorticity normal to leading edge interaction with boundary layer over plate and resulting flow distortion influence on laminar-turbulent transition. In experiments made the wake behind the vertically stretched wire was used as a source of vortical disturbances and its effect on the boundary layer over the horizontally mounted plate with various leading edge shapes was investigated. The purpose of experiments was to check the predictions of theoretical works of M.E. Goldstein, et. al. This theory shows that small free-stream inhomogeneity interacting with leading edge produces considerable distortion of boundary layer flow. In general, results obtained confirms predictions of Goldstein's theory, i.e., the amplification of steady vortical disturbances in boundary layer caused by vortex lines stretching was observed. Experimental results fully coincide with predictions of theory for large Reynolds number, relatively sharp leading edge and small disturbances. For large enough disturbances the flow distortion caused by symmetric wake unexpectedly becomes antisymmetric in spanwise direction. If the leading edge is too blunt the maximal distortion takes place immediately at the nose and no further amplification was observed. All these conditions and results are beyond the scope of Goldstein's theory.

  17. Plate-tectonic boundary formation by grain-damage and pinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercovici, David

    2015-04-01

    Shear weakening in the lithosphere is an essential ingredient for understanding how and why plate tectonics is generated from mantle convection on terrestrial planets. I present continued work on a theoretical model for lithospheric shear-localization and plate generation through damage, grain evolution and Zener pinning in two-phase (polycrystalline) lithospheric rocks. Grain size evolves through the competition between coarsening, which drives grain-growth, with damage, which drives grain reduction. The interface between phases controls Zener pinning, which impedes grain growth. Damage to the interface enhances the Zener pinning effect, which then reduces grain-size, forcing the rheology into the grain-size-dependent diffusion creep regime. This process thus allows damage and rheological weakening to co-exist, providing a necessary shear-localizing feedback. Moreover, because pinning inhibits grain-growth it promotes shear-zone longevity and plate-boundary inheritance. This theory has been applied recently to the emergence of plate tectonics in the Archean by transient subduction and accumulation of plate boundaries over 1Gyr, as well as to rapid slab detachment and abrupt tectonic changes. New work explores the saturation of interface damage at low interface curvature (e.g., because it is associated with larger grains that take up more of the damage, and/or because interface area is reduced). This effect allows three possible equilibrium grain-sizes for a given stress; a small-grain-size high-shear state in diffusion creep, a large grain-size low shear state in dislocation creep, and an intermediate state (often near the deformation map phase-boundary). The low and high grain-size states are stable, while the intermediate one is unstable. This implies that a material deformed at a given stress can acquire two stable deformation regimes, a low- and high- shear state; these are indicative of plate-like flows, i.e, the coexistence of both slowly deforming plates and rapidly deforming plate boundaries.

  18. Strain accumulation along an oblique plate boundary: the Reykjanes Peninsula, southwest Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiding, M.; Árnadóttir, T.; Sturkell, E.; Geirsson, H.; Lund, B.

    2008-02-01

    We use annual GPS observations on the Reykjanes Peninsula (RP) from 2000 to 2006 to generate maps of surface velocities and strain rates across the active plate boundary. We find that the surface deformation on the RP is consistent with oblique plate boundary motion on a regional scale, although considerable temporal and spatial strain rate variations are observed within the plate boundary zone. A small, but consistent increase in eastward velocity is observed at several stations on the southern part of the peninsula, compared to the 1993-1998 time period. The 2000-2006 velocities can be modelled by approximating the plate boundary as a series of vertical dislocations with left-lateral motion and opening. For the RP plate boundary we estimate left-lateral motion 18+4-3 mmyr-1 and opening of 7+3-2 mmyr-1 below a locking depth of 7+1-2 km. The resulting deep motion of 20+4-3 mmyr-1 in the direction of N(100+8-6)°E agrees well with the predicted relative North America-Eurasia rate. We calculate the areal and shear strain rates using velocities from two periods: 1993-1998 and 2000-2006. The deep motion along the plate boundary results in left-lateral shear strain rates, which are perturbed by shallow deformation due to the 1994-1998 inflation and elevated seismicity in the Hengill-Hrómundartindur volcanic system, geothermal fluid extraction at the Svartsengi power plant, and possibly earthquake activity on the central part of the peninsula.

  19. Evidence of left-lateral active motion at the North America-Caribbean plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, S. D.; Ellouz, N.; Corbeau, J.; Rolandone, F.; Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.; Meyer, B.; Momplaisir, R.; Granja, J. L.; Battani, A.; Burov, E. B.; Clouard, V.; Deschamps, R.; Gorini, C.; Hamon, Y.; LE Pourhiet, L.; Loget, N.; Lucazeau, F.; Pillot, D.; Poort, J.; Tankoo, K.; Cuevas, J. L.; Alcaide, J.; Poix, C. J.; Mitton, S.; Rodriguez, Y.; Schmitz, J.; Munoz Martin, A.

    2014-12-01

    The North America-Caribbean plate boundary is one of the least-known among large plate boundaries. Although it was identified early on as an example of a strike-slip fault in the north of Hispaniola, its structure and rate of motion remains poorly constrained. We present the first direct evidence for active sinistral strike-slip motion along this fault, based on swath seafloor mapping of the northern Haiti area. There is evidence for ~16.5 km of apparent strike-slip motion along the mapped segment of the Septentrional fault zone off Cap Haitien town which is terminated to the east onland Dominican republic and in the west to southern Cuban margin. By evaluating these new constraints within the context of geodetic models of global plate motions, we estimate an activity of the fault since 2 Ma with an angular velocity for the Caribbean plate relative to the North America predicted 6-12 mmyr-1 sinistral motion along the Septentrional fault zone. This transform fault was initiated around 20 million years ago in its western segment and since 2 Ma in its eastern segment in response to a regional reorganization of plate velocities and directions, which induced a change in configuration of plate boundaries.

  20. Flat-plate drag measurements with vortex generators in turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, D. M.; Mehrotra, S. C.

    1983-01-01

    Direct drag measurements were obtained on a flat plate with a spanwise row of vortex generators near the leading edge, to produce an array of stream wise vortices within the approaching turbulent boundary layer. The object was to explore the possibility of modifying the large scale structure of the boundary layer through embedded longitudinal vortices with a view to obtaining a reduction in wall shear. Both obstacle and vane type vortex generators were tested at free stream velocities 40 ft/sec to 130 ft/sec corresponding to plate length Reynolds no. 0.3 million to 0.8 million with a nominal boundary layer thickness of approximately 0.6 in. at the leading edge. A few vortex generator configurations were tested both on and off the plate to measure the total drag as well as the plate drag alone. The obstacle type devices reduced the plate drag, indicating that the wake momentum defect predominated even in the presence of streamwise vortices. The vane type vortex generators however always increased the plate drag.

  1. What drives microplate motion and deformation in the northeastern Caribbean plate boundary region?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wortel, M. J.; Govers, R. M.; van Benthem, S.

    2013-12-01

    The north Caribbean plate boundary zone is a broad deformation zone with several fault systems and tectonic blocks that move with different velocities. The indentation by the Bahamas Platform (the "Bahamas collision") is generally invoked as a cause of this fragmentation. On the basis of upper mantle structure we propose that a second driver of deformation may be the western edge of the south-dipping slab along the northern Caribbean plate boundary; the westward motion of this slab edge results in a push on the Caribbean plate further west. We refer to this second mechanism for deformation as "Slab Edge Push". The motion of the North America plate relative to the Caribbean plate causes both drivers to migrate from east to west. Bahamas collision and Slab Edge Push have been operating simultaneously since the Miocene. The question is: What is the relative importance of the two mechanisms? We use mechanical finite element models that represent the two mechanisms from the Late Oligocene (30 Ma) to the Present. For the Present, both models successfully reproduce observed deformation, implying that both models are viable. Back in time the Slab Edge Push mechanism better reproduces observations. Neither mechanism successfully reproduces the observed Miocene counter-clockwise rotation of Puerto Rico. We use this rotation to tune a final model that includes fractional contributions of both mechanisms. We find that the Slab Edge Push was the dominant driver of deformation in the north Caribbean plate boundary zone since 30 Ma.

  2. Boundary-layer transition on a plate subjected to simultaneous spanwise and chordwise pressure gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boldman, D. R.; Brinich, P. F.

    1974-01-01

    The boundary-layer transition on a short plate was studied by means of the china-clay visual technique. The plate model was mounted in a wind tunnel so that it was subjected to small simultaneous spanwise and chordwise pressure gradients. Results of the experimental study, which was performed at three subsonic velocities, indicated that the transition pattern was appreciably curved in the spanwise direction but quite smooth and well behaved. Reasonable comparisons between predictions of transition and experiment were obtained from two finite-difference two-dimensional boundary-layer calculation methods which incorporated transition models based on the concept of a transition intermittency factor.

  3. Seismic Imaging of the Cascadia Plate Boundary with Four Source Array Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, W. F.; Holbrook, W.; Kent, G.; Keranen, K. M.; Trehu, A. M.; Johnson, H. P.; Everson, E. D.

    2012-12-01

    Imaging the plate boundary in the Cascadia region has great importance for understanding seismic hazards in the coastal margin of the Pacific Northwest. The Cascadia margin is a potential earthquake and tsunami threat to the many millions who live in the area, yet the location and shape of the subducting oceanic plate boundary remains poorly understood. This is due in large part to the plate boundary being relatively aseismic and difficult to constrain through passive-source seismic methods. In July 2012, the COAST project acquired 15 seismic transects of the Cascadia margin intended to image the plate boundary. Four of the seismic transects were acquired over the same location with different source arrays: 36 air guns towed at 9m depth, 18 air guns towed at 9m depth, 36 air guns towed at 15m depth, and 18 air guns towed at 15m depth. These changes were chosen to represent possible configurations for 2D and 3D seismic data acquisitions with emphasis on identifying deep Earth features lying below complicated folding sediments of the accretionary wedge. Thirty-six air guns represents the full volume of the R/V Marcus G. Langseth source used when collecting 2D seismic data, while eighteen represents the half volume that would typically be fired for a 3D survey. Nine meters and fifteen meters are common source depths but have very different outputs in the frequency domain due to the "ghost notch" created by acoustic reflection off the sea surface. Here we present four identically processed, pre-stack depth migrated images of the Cascadia plate boundary and an analysis of the benefits and drawbacks of each seismic acquisition parameter set. While expressions of the plate boundary exist in all data acquired, preliminary results indicate that a deeper tow depth, and its lower frequency source output, captures more continuous representations of the plate boundary. However, a more shallow tow depth increases the resolution of the overlying sediments and the plate boundary itself helping to better define its precise location and shape.

  4. Asymptotic theory for a wave packet in a boundary layer on a plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhov, O. S.; Savenkov, I. V.

    1987-10-01

    The paper is concerned with the propagation of a wave packet produced by a point source in a boundary layer on a flat plate. The fluid is assumed to be incompressible, and distances from the front edge of the plate are so large that the Reynolds number is assumed to approach infinity. The perturbed motion field is constructed on the basis of a linearized theory of a boundary layer with self-induced pressure using a series expansion in Laplace integrals with respect to time and a Fourier series expansion in two spatial variables. A method for calculating the inverse transforms is described.

  5. Continent-continent collision at the Pacific/Australian plate boundary: Lithospheric deformation, mountain building, and subsequent scientific endeavors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okaya, D. A.; Stern, T. A.; Davey, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    Continental collision occurs at strike-slip plate boundaries where transform motion and oblique convergence create processes of surficial mountain building and deformation within the deeper crust and lithospheric mantle. The Pacific/Australian transform plate boundary in South Island, New Zealand, is characterized by active oblique continent-continent collision with an associated Southern Alps orogen that exhibits both high exhumation rates and rapid strike-slip movement. Beginning in the 1990s, this system was the focus of a decade-long collaborative USA-New Zealand multi-disciplinary study to understand lithospheric structure and processes involved in this transpression. Funded primarily by the NSF Continental Dynamics program and the New Zealand Science Foundation, this project known as SIGHT (South Island Geophysical Transect) with its companion SAPSE (Southern Alps Passive Seismic Experiment) included the following disciplines that involved substantial field observation experiments: seismic reflection, explosion refraction, onshore-offshore wide-angle reflection/refraction, regional and teleseismic passive seismology, magnetotellurics, laboratory petrophysics, gravity, regional geological investigations, and rheological analyses. More than fifty scientists and students from both nations participated in the combined set of studies that have led to over forty-five journal publications, an AGU Monograph, and a dozen graduate theses. Primary results of the project indicate the Pacific-Australian strike-slip plate boundary (Alpine fault) is not vertical but is eastward dipping and rheologically weak based on diverse geophysical data. Most deformation is within the Pacific plate that hosts the Southern Alps orogen. High mantle seismic velocities vertically disposed beneath the orogen suggest Pacific and perhaps Australian mantle lithosphere contribute to a zone of plate-boundary-parallel distributed mantle shortening. The crustal root of the overlying Southern Alps is larger than needed to support surface topography, and is offset from its topographic high, consistent with dynamic thickening of the Pacific crust by the mantle thickening. Teleseismic shear wave splitting is evidence of a wide zone of distributed strain for the mantle portion of the plate boundary. The collective set of results from the South Island projects have led to a number of subsequent studies by various teams, based on follow-up questions, expanded observational expertise, and international collaborative alliances with in particular the New Zealand science community. These studies include a search for the full width of Pacific/Australian distributed mantle strain using marine OBS studies, the transition from strike-slip to plate boundary subduction to the north, the search and discovery of seismic tremor on the Alpine fault, and high resolution geophysical characterization of Alpine fault seismogenesis. The success of geophysically imaging a narrow island using both marine sides led different SIGHT scientists to carry out expanded efforts to study North Island subduction and separately Taiwan mountain building. These efforts benefited and were largely motivated from multi-disciplinary, multi-national collaborations as typically supported by the NSF Continental Dynamics program.

  6. Seismicity pattern: an indicator of source region of volcanism at convergent plate margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špi?ák, Aleš; Hanuš, Václav; Van?k, Ji?í

    2004-04-01

    The results of detailed investigation into the geometry of distribution of earthquakes around and below the volcanoes Korovin, Cleveland, Makushin, Yake-Dake, Oshima, Lewotobi, Fuego, Sangay, Nisyros and Montagne Pelée at convergent plate margins are presented. The ISC hypocentral determinations for the period 1964-1999, based on data of global seismic network and relocated by Engdahl, van der Hilst and Buland, have been used. The aim of this study has been to contribute to the solution of the problem of location of source regions of primary magma for calc-alkaline volcanoes spatially and genetically related to the process of subduction. Several specific features of seismicity pattern were revealed in this context. (i) A clear occurrence of the intermediate-depth aseismic gap (IDAG) in the Wadati-Benioff zone (WBZ) below all investigated active volcanoes. We interpret this part of the subducted slab, which does not contain any teleseismically recorded earthquake with magnitude greater than 4.0, as a partially melted domain of oceanic lithosphere and as a possible source of primary magma for calc-alkaline volcanoes. (ii) A set of earthquakes in the shape of a seismically active column (SAC) seems to exists in the continental wedge below volcanoes Korovin, Makushin and Sangay. The seismically active columns probably reach from the Earth surface down to the aseismic gap in the Wadati-Benioff zone. This points to the possibility that the upper mantle overlying the subducted slab does not contain large melted domains, displays an intense fracturing and is not likely to represent the site of magma generation. (iii) In the continental wedge below the volcanoes Cleveland, Fuego, Nisyros, Yake-Dake, Oshima and Lewotobi, shallow seismicity occurs down to the depth of 50 km. The domain without any earthquakes between the shallow seismically active column and the aseismic gap in the Wadati-Benioff zone in the depth range of 50-100 km does not exclude the melting of the mantle also above the slab. (iv) Any earthquake does not exist in the lithospheric wedge below the volcano Montagne Pelée. The source of primary magma could be located in the subducted slab as well as in the overlying mantle wedge. (v) Frequent aftershock sequences accompanying stronger earthquakes in the seismically active columns indicate high fracturing of the wedge below active volcanoes. (vi) The elongated shape of clusters of epicentres of earthquakes of seismically active columns, as well as stable parameters of the available fault plane solutions, seem to reflect the existence of dominant deeply rooted fracture zones below volcanoes. These facts also favour the location of primary magma in the subducting slab rather than in the overlying wedge. We suppose that melts advancing from the slab toward the Earth surface may trigger the observed earthquakes in the continental wedge that is critically pre-stressed by the process of subduction. However, for definitive conclusions it will be necessary to explain the occurrence of earthquake clusters below some volcanoes and the lack of seismicity below others, taking into account the uncertainty of focal depth determination from global seismological data in some regions.

  7. Delamination growth of laminated circular plates under in-plane loads and movable boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Deliang; Dai, Liming

    2013-11-01

    An investigation is made on interlaminar delamination growth of composite laminated circular plates under in-plane loads and movable delamination boundary conditions. A four-dissociated-region model is developed on the basis of von-Karman plate theory. The model is geometrically nonlinear and the laminated circular plate considered is subjected to axisymmetrical delamination. The effects of transverse shear deformation and contact effect of the delamination on the laminated plates are taking into account in the development of the governing equations of the laminated circular pates with random axisymmetrical delamination. The formulas for describing the total energy release rate and its individual mode components along the delamination front are also derived with considerations of Griffith criterion for fracture. Based on the model established, the delamination growth is numerically studied; and the influences of the parameters such as delamination radii and depths, together with material properties of the plates on the energy release rate are analyzed in detail.

  8. Overriding plate structure of the Nicaragua convergent margin: Constraints on the limits of the seismogenic zone and the 1992 tsunami earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallarès, V.; Meléndez, A.; Prada, M.; Ranero, C. R.; McIntosh, K.; Grevemeyer, I.

    2012-04-01

    We present 2D P-wave velocity models of the Nicaragua convergent margin along two perpendicular wide-angle seismic profiles acquired in the rupture area of the 1992 tsunami earthquake. The models focus on the structure of the overriding plate and the geometry of the inter-plate boundary. In the trench-perpendicular profile, the basement shows increasing velocity reflecting a progressive decrease in the degree of rock fracturing of the igneous basement. Upper mantle-like velocities are obtained at a depth of ~10 km beneath the fore-arc Sandino basin, indicating that the mantle wedge is shallow and located close to the trench. A mismatch between the inter-plate reflector in the velocity models and along coincident multi-channel seismic profiles is best explained by a ~15% velocity anisotropy, suggesting locally-enhanced rock fracturing which is related with the presence of a prominent subducted seamount. The frontal part of the overriding plate is probably too fractured to store elastic energy, unless the presence of local asperities such as the subducted seamount makes it conditionally stable by locally increasing the normal stress. The downdip limit of the seismogenic zone occurs near the tip of the mantle wedge, indicating that it is probably controlled by the presence of a weak, serpentinized mantle wedge beneath the Sandino basin. The hypocenter of the 1992 main shock is not particularly shallow (20-22 km), but seismological data indicate that it triggered sub-events near the trench, the main of which coincides with the subducted seamount. We show that the slow propagation velocity and long duration of the 1992 earthquake could be explained by rupture propagating within the fractured basement rocks and not into the sediments.

  9. The Northwestern (Maghreb) boundary of the Nubia (Africa) Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauffret, Alain

    2007-01-01

    A study of the present compressional deformation of the Northwestern (Maghreb) Nubia (Africa) margin is derived from the analysis of more than 20,000 km of seismic profiles. In the western part the compression is distributed in a large zone with on-land compression in Algeria, mainly strike-slip deformation on the Algerian margin and folds and strike-slip faulting in Eastern Spain. In the middle of the Algerian margin, around Algiers, the evidences of compression become more obvious. In this area a ridge trending N-S that is interpreted as a middle to late Miocene spreading center interacted with the transpressional margin that trends E-W. North of the location of the Boumerdes-Zemmouri earthquake the oceanic crust is deformed by blind thrusts up to 60 km from the coast. These thrusts are south dipping and with the northward dipping thrusts located onshore form a wedge that maybe a positive flower structure at a crustal scale related to the right-lateral transpression of the margin. In the eastern part of the Northwestern (Maghreb) Nubia (Africa) Deformed Belt, off eastern Algeria and Tunisia, the deformation is more intense but limited to the north by the continental slope. Large late Miocene Tortonian folds are cut by the Messinian erosional surface but the present deformation is also evident. It is suggested that the deformation with a double vergence may be followed up to the north of Sicily. After the docking (18 Ma) of the Kabylies to the Africa Plate, the crust has been thinned and the Algerian Basin opened during the middle-late Miocene with an E-W direction. From the late Miocene to the Present the margin has been rethickened by transpression and uplifted.

  10. Seismic Anisotropy Along the Eurasian-Arabian Plate Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandvol, E. A.; Skobeltsyn, G.; Turkelli, N.; Polat, G.; Yetirmishli, G.; Godoladze, T.; Mellors, R. J.; Gok, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Anatolian plateau and Caucasus are part of the orogenic belt that formed as the result of the closure of the Neo Tethys Ocean and the ensuing continental collision of Arabian and Eurasian plates. Multiple tomographic studies of both P and S wave velocities all show a broad low velocity zone beneath East Anatolian and North Iranian plateaus. The low velocity zone appears to range from the Moho to a depth 150 km, which suggests asthenospheric material underlying a very thin lithosphere of eastern Anatolia. This low velocity zone coincides with widespread Late Miocene - Quaternary calc-alkaline volcanic products of mantle origin. This very shallow asthenosphere strongly implies that any present day anisotropy is likely to reflect very recent mantle deformation. In order to image seismic anisotropy and improve understanding of the nature of mantle deformation in young continental collision zone we analyzed data from the IRIS station KIV and the regional seismic networks of Turkey, Azerbaijan and Georgia to determine shear wave splitting fast polarization directions and delay times in the region. Our results show that the fast polarization directions are quite uniformly parallel to NE-SW across the East Anatolian Plateau and the westernmost part of the Greater Caucasus. The observed delay times decrease northward with the shortest located in the western Greater Caucasus. However, to the east, the fast polarization direction rotates clockwise until it becomes parallel to the EW topographic? trend in the Lesser Caucasus where the delay times are the largest in the region. The situation becomes more complex north of the Lesser Caucasus, in the central and eastern parts of the Greater Caucasus, where the fast polarization directions shift abruptly to the NNE-SSW. Furthemore, we find relatively strong evidence of layered anisotropy using a new method we have developed to image multi-layered polarization anisotropy from teleseismic core phases such as SKS.

  11. Late Miocene to recent plate tectonic history of the southern Central America convergent margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morell, Kristin D.

    2015-10-01

    New plate reconstructions constrain the tectonic evolution of the subducting Cocos and Nazca plates across the southern Central American subduction zone from late Miocene to recent. Because of the strong relationships between lower and upper (Caribbean) plate dynamics along this margin, these constraints have wide-ranging implications for the timing and growth of upper plate deformation and volcanism in southern Central America. The reconstructions outline three important events in the Neogene history of this margin: (1) the coeval development of the Panama Triple Junction with the initiation of oblique subduction of the Nazca plate at ˜8.5 Ma; (2) the initiation of seamount and rough crust subduction beginning at ˜3-4 Ma; and (3) Cocos Ridge subduction from ˜2 to 3 Ma. A comparison of these events with independent geologic, geomorphic, volcanic, and stratigraphic data sets reveals that the timing, rates, and origin of subducting crust directly impacted the Neogene growth of upper plate deformation and volcanism in southern Central America. These analyses constrain the timing, geometry, and causes of a number of significant tectonic and volcanic processes, including rapid Plio-Quaternary arc-fore arc contraction due to Cocos Ridge subduction, the detachment of the Panama microplate at ˜1-3 Ma, and the late Miocene cessation of mantle-wedge-derived volcanism across ˜300 km of the subduction zone.

  12. An investigation of the turbulence scale tensor in a flat-plate boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, R. D.; Donaldson, C. D.; Sandri, G.

    1979-01-01

    A differential equation for the scale tensor in turbulent flow is developed from basic considerations and applied to the flow of a constant-density fluid in the boundary layer on a flat plate. Results from preliminary runs of a computer implementation are discussed.

  13. a Lattice Boltzmann Study of the 2d Boundary Layer Created by AN Oscillating Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappietti, L.; Chopard, B.

    We study the applicability of the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to simulate the 2D laminar boundary layer induced by an oscillating flat plate. We also investigate the transition to the disturbed laminar regime that occurs with a rough oscillating plate. The simulations were performed in two cases: first with a fluid otherwise at rest and second in presence of superimposed current. The generation of coherent vortex structures and their evolution are commented. The accuracy of the method was checked by comparisons with the exact analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for the so-called Stokes' Second Problem. The comparisons show that LBM reproduces this time varying flow with first order accuracy. In the case of the wavy-plate, the results show that a mechanism of vortex-jet formations, low speed-streak and shear instability sustain a systems of stationary vortices outside the boundary layer. The vortex-jet takes place at the end of the decelerating phase whereas the boundary layer turns out to be laminar when the plate accelerates. In the presence of the superimposed current, the vortex-jet mechanism is still effective but the vortices outside the boundary layer are only present during part of the oscillating period. During the remaining part, the flow turns out to be laminar although a wave perturbation in the velocity field is present.

  14. Post-rifting stress relaxation at the divergent plate boundary in Northeast Iceland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foulger, G.R.; Jahn, C.-H.; Seeber, G.; Einarsson, P.; Julian, B.R.; Heki, K.

    1992-01-01

    Interaction of the elastic lithosphere with the underlying anelastic asthenosphere causes strain to propagate along the Earth's surface in a diffusion-like manner following tectonism at plate boundaries. This process transfers stress between adjacent tectonic segments and influences the temporal tectonic pattern along a plate boundary. Observations of such strain transients have been rare, and have hitherto been confined to strike-slip and underthrusting plate boundaries1. Here we report the observation of a strain transient at the divergent (spreading) plate boundary in Iceland. A Global Positioning System survey undertaken a decade after an episode of dyke intrusion accompanying several metres of crustal spreading reveals a spatially varying strain field with the expected diffusion-pulse shape and an amplitude three times greater than the 5.7 cm that would be expected from the average spreading rate2. A simple one-dimensional model with a thin elastic layer overlying a viscous layer fits the data well and yields a stress diffusivity of 1.1 ?? 0.3 m2 s-1. Combined with struc-tural information from magnetotelluric measurements, this implies a viscosity of 0.3-2 ?? 1019 Pa s - a value comparable to that derived for Iceland from post-glacial rebound23, but low compared with estimates for mantle viscosity obtained elsewhere3.

  15. Seismotectonics of plate boundaries. Final report, 1 November 1973-30 June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, J.; Brune, J.N.; Goodkind, J.; Wyatt, F.; Agnew, D.C.; Beaumont, C.

    1981-06-01

    Research on the seismotectonics of plate boundaries is summarized. Instrumental development and an observational program designed to study various aspects of the seismotectonics of southern California and the northern Gulf of California are described. A unique superconducting gravimeter was further developed and supported under this program for deployment and operation at several sites. Work on Earth tides is also discussed.

  16. Geometrically nonlinear dynamic response of stiffened plates with moving boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, NiuJing; Wang, RongHui; Han, Qiang; Lu, YiGang

    2014-08-01

    An approach is presented to investigate the nonlinear vibration of stiffened plates. A stiffened plate is divided into one plate and some stiffeners, with the plate considered to be geometrically nonlinear, and the stiffeners taken as Euler beams. Lagrange equation and modal superposition method are used to derive the dynamic equilibrium equations of the stiffened plate according to energy of the system. Besides, the effect caused by boundary movement is transformed into equivalent excitations. The first approximation solution of the non-resonance is obtained by means of the method of multiple scales. The primary parametric resonance and primary resonance of the stiffened plate are studied by using the same method. The accuracy of the method is validated by comparing the results with those of finite element analysis via ANSYS. Numerical examples for different stiffened plates are presented to discuss the steady response of the non-resonance and the amplitude-frequency relationship of the primary parametric resonance and primary resonance. In addition, the analysis on how the damping coefficients and the transverse excitations influence amplitude-frequency curves is also carried out. Some nonlinear vibration characteristics of stiffened plates are obtained, which are useful for engineering design.

  17. Discovering plate boundaries: Laboratory and classroom exercises using geodetic data to develop students' understanding of plate motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olds, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    To introduce the concept of plate boundaries, typical introductory geology exercises include students observing and plotting the location of earthquakes and volcanoes on a map to visually demarcate plate boundaries. Accompanying these exercises, students are often exposed to animations depicting the movement of Earth’s tectonic plates over time. Both of these teaching techniques are very useful for describing where the tectonics plates have been in the past, their shapes, and where the plates are now. With the integration of data from current geodetic techniques such as GPS, InSAR, LiDAR, students can learn that not only have the tectonic plates moved in the past, but they are moving, deforming, and changing shape right now. Additionally, GPS data can be visualized using time scales of days to weeks and on the scale of millimeters to centimeters per year. The familiar temporal and spatial scales of GPS data also help students understand that plate tectonics is a process that is happening in the present and can ease the transition to thinking about processes that are typically described using deep time, a very difficult concept for students to grasp. To provide a more robust learning environment, UNAVCO has been incorporating high-precision GPS data into free, place-based, data-rich learning modules for educators and students in introductory Earth science courses at secondary and undergraduate levels. These modules integrate new scientific discoveries related to crustal deformation and explore applications of GPS, LiDAR, and InSAR techniques to research. They also provide students with case studies highlighting the process of scientific discovery, providing context and meaning. Concurrent to these efforts, tools to visualize the inter-relationships of geophysical and geologic processes, structures, and measurements including high-precision GPS velocity data are an essential part of the learning materials. Among the suite of visualization tools that UNAVCO has made available, the Jules Verne Voyager (JVV) interactive map tools are available online and are very well received by educators in introductory Earth science courses. In response to requests for easily accessible and usable data, UNAVCO built the Data for Educators webpage, incorporating an embedded Google Map with GPS locations and providing current GPS time series plots and downloadable data from the Plate Boundary Observatory. To extend and update the datasets available to our community, UNAVCO has developed a GPS velocity viewer using Google Maps technology and provides a learning- focused KMZ combining geophysical data sets for Google-Earth. By combining near real-time geodetic data with modern visualization tools into inquiry-based learning resources, students are deepening their understanding about the active nature of plate margins and gain a solid foundation for learning future concepts. UNAVCO is a non-profit, membership-governed consortium funded by the National Science Foundation and NASA.

  18. Scientific Advances from Paul Silver's Inspirational Leadership of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. M.; Calais, E.; Jackson, M. E.; Owen, S. E.; Segall, P.

    2009-12-01

    While major scientific endeavors and advances rely on the work and dedication of many, they are often made possible thanks to the passion and clear vision articulated by one or two leading scientists. Paul Silver was that leading visionary for EarthScope’s Plate Boundary Observatory. Paul Silver understood early on that the synergy of seismic and geodetic observations contained fundamental information on the coupled lithosphere-mantle system, the key to cracking the dynamics that underlies plate tectonics and continental deformation. This became a central theme of the Earthscope initiative, and Paul, a seismologist by training, became a tireless advocate for geodesy at all stages of the project - and for instrumentation over the broadest possible temporal bandwidth, from GPS geodesy to strainmeters. The presentation, given on behalf of UNAVCO and the UNAVCO community, will review and honor Paul's contributions to UNAVCO and the Plate Boundary Observatory science.

  19. What drives microplate motion and deformation in the northeastern Caribbean plate boundary region?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benthem, Steven; Govers, Rob; Wortel, Rinus

    2014-05-01

    The north Caribbean plate boundary zone is a broad deformation zone with several fault systems and tectonic blocks that move with different velocities. The indentation by the Bahamas Platform (the "Bahamas Collision") is generally invoked as a cause of this fragmentation. We propose that a second driver of deformation is the western edge of the south dipping Puerto Rico slab moving sideways with the North America plate. The westward motion of the slab edge results in a push on the Caribbean plate farther west. We refer to this second mechanism for deformation as "Slab Edge Push." The motion of the North America plate relative to the Caribbean plate causes both drivers to migrate from east to west. The Bahamas Collision and Slab Edge Push have been operating simultaneously since the Miocene. The question is the relative importance of the two mechanisms. We use mechanical finite element models that represent the two mechanisms from the late Oligocene (30 Ma) to the present. For the present, both models successfully reproduce observed deformation, implying that both models are viable. Back in time the Slab Edge Push mechanism better reproduces observations. Neither mechanism successfully reproduces the observed Miocene counterclockwise rotation of Puerto Rico. We use this rotation to tune a final model that includes fractional contributions of both mechanisms. We find that the Slab Edge Push was the dominant driver of deformation in the north Caribbean plate boundary zone since 30 Ma.

  20. Boundary layer flow and heat transfer past a moving plate with suction and injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishak, Anuar; Nazar, Roslinda; Pop, Ioan

    2014-06-01

    The behavior of an incompressible steady boundary layer flow past a permeable semi-infinite flat plate moving in a free stream is discussed in this paper. In addition to the mass transfer from the plate (suction or injection), the viscous dissipation term is also included into the energy equation. The solutions of the transformed ordinary differential equations are obtained numerically using an implicit finite-difference method. The numerical results are given for the velocity and temperature profiles as well as for the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number for various values of the suction/injection parameter ?, ratio of the wall velocity to the free stream velocity parameter ?, Prandtl number Pr and Eckert number Ec. It is found that suction increases the heat transfer by decreasing the thermal boundary layer thickness and the reverse happens for injection. Furthermore, it is also found that the boundary layer equations have non-unique (dual) solutions in some cases.

  1. Measurements of strain at plate boundaries using space based geodetic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robaudo, Stefano; Harrison, Christopher G. A.

    1993-01-01

    We have used the space based geodetic techniques of Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and VLBI to study strain along subduction and transform plate boundaries and have interpreted the results using a simple elastic dislocation model. Six stations located behind island arcs were analyzed as representative of subduction zones while 13 sites located on either side of the San Andreas fault were used for the transcurrent zones. The length deformation scale was then calculated for both tectonic margins by fitting the relative strain to an exponentially decreasing function of distance from the plate boundary. Results show that space-based data for the transcurrent boundary along the San Andreas fault help to define better the deformation length scale in the area while fitting nicely the elastic half-space earth model. For subduction type bonndaries the analysis indicates that there is no single scale length which uniquely describes the deformation. This is mainly due to the difference in subduction characteristics for the different areas.

  2. Accretionary margin of north-western Hispaniola: morphology, structure and development of part of the northern Caribbean plate boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dillon, William P.; Austin, James A., Jr.; Scanlon, K.M.; Terence, Edgar N.; Parson, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Broad-range side-scan sonar (GLORIA) images and single- and multi-channel seismic reflection profiles demonstrate that the margin of north-western Hispaniola has experienced compression as a consequence of oblique North American-Caribbean plate convergence. Two principal morphological or structural types of accretionary wedges are observed along this margin. The first type is characterized by a gently sloping (???4??) sea floor and generally margin-parallel linear sets of sea-floor ridges that gradually deepen towards the flat Hispaniola Basin floor to the north. The ridges are caused by an internal structure consisting of broad anticlines bounded by thrust faults that dip southwards beneath Hispaniola. Anticlines form at the base of the slope and are eventually sheared and underthrust beneath the slope. In contrast, the second type of accretionary wedge exhibits a steeper (???6-16??) sea-floor slope characterized by local slumping and a more abrupt morphological transition to the adjacent basin. The internal structure appears chaotic on seismic reflection profiles and probably consists of tight folds and closely spaced faults. We suggest that changes in sea-floor declivity and internal structure may result from variations in the dip or frictional resistance of the de??collement, or possibly from changes in the cohesive strength of the wedge sediments. The observed pattern of thickening of Hispaniola Basin turbidites towards the insular margin suggests differential southwards tilting of the Hispaniola Basin strata, probably in response to North America-Caribbean plate interactions since the Early Tertiary. Based upon indirect age control from adjacent parts of the northern caribbean plate boundary, we infer a Late Eocene to Early Miocene episode of transcurrent motion (i.e. little or no tilting), an Early Miocene to Late Pliocene period of oblique convergence (i.e. increased tilt) during which the accretionary wedge began to be constructed, and a Late Pliocene to Recent episode of increased convergence (i.e. twice the Miocene to Pliocene tilt), which has led to rapid uplift and erosion of sediment sources on the margin and on Hispaniola, generating a submarine fan at the base of the insular slope. ?? 1992.

  3. Receptivity of flat-plate boundary layer in a non-uniform free stream (vorticity normal to the plate)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogan, M. N.

    1994-01-01

    Recent progress in both the linear and nonlinear aspects of stability theory has highlighted the importance of the receptivity problem. One of the most unclear aspects of receptivity study is the receptivity of boundary-layer flow normal to vortical disturbances. Some experimental and theoretical results permit the proposition that quasi-steady outer-flow vortical disturbances may trigger by-pass transition. In present work such interaction is investigated for vorticity normal to a leading edge. The interest in these types of vortical disturbances arise from theoretical work, where it was shown that small sinusoidal variations of upstream velocity along the spanwise direction can produce significant variations in the boundary-layer profile. In the experimental part of this work, such non-uniform flow was created and the laminar-turbulent transition in this flow was investigated. The experiment was carried out in a low-turbulence direct-flow wind tunnel T-361 at the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI). The non-uniform flow was produced by laminar or turbulent wakes behind a wire placed normal to the plate upstream of the leading edge. The theoretical part of the work is devoted to studying the unstable disturbance evolution in a boundary layer with strongly non-uniform velocity profiles similar to that produced by outer-flow vorticity. Specifically, the Tollmien-Schlichting wave development in the boundary layer flow with spanwise variations of velocity is investigated.

  4. New Constraints On The Caribbean-South America Plate Boundary From S Wave Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landes, M.; Pavlis, G. L.

    2008-12-01

    BOLIVAR (Broadband Ocean-Land Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region) was aimed at investigating the interplay between the lithospheric and asthenospheric mantle of the Caribbean and South America plates. We estimate lithospheric thickness from application of the S wave receiver function technique. This reveals lithospheric thinning from 95-105 km depth underneath the Guyana Shield in southern Venezuela to 60-75 km underneath the Caribbean Sea. We observe a comparable thinning on the passive margin transition in eastern Venezuela. Towards the west, the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) shallows to 80 km depth along a NE-SW trending structure bordering the Venezuelan Andes. In addition, the base of the lithosphere beneath the Maracaibo block in NW Venezuela is seen gently dipping towards the southwest. The observed lithospheric structure is consistent with established strike-slip tectonics along the northern boundary of South America. However, we find no evidence for southward subduction of the Caribbean plate as previously suggested. Instead, the boundary is better viewed as the combined motion of three lithospheric blocks: (1) the Caribbean and associated subduction in the Antilles, (2) South America, and (3) the Maracaibo block. The relatively sharp discontinuity in LAB beneath northern Venezuela leads to the conclusion that the Caribbean-South America plate boundary is (1) a structure of lithospheric scale, and (2) a continuous strike-slip plate boundary extending from NE Colombia to Trinidad in NE Venezuela along the Oca-San Sebastian-El Pilar fault zone. This boundary is overprinted in the west by northward translation of the Maracaibo block over the Caribbean.

  5. Seismic evidence for sharp lithosphere-asthenosphere boundaries of oceanic plates.

    PubMed

    Kawakatsu, Hitoshi; Kumar, Prakash; Takei, Yasuko; Shinohara, Masanao; Kanazawa, Toshihiko; Araki, Eiichiro; Suyehiro, Kiyoshi

    2009-04-24

    The mobility of the lithosphere over a weaker asthenosphere constitutes the essential element of plate tectonics, and thus the understanding of the processes at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) is fundamental to understand how our planet works. It is especially so for oceanic plates because their relatively simple creation and evolution should enable easy elucidation of the LAB. Data from borehole broadband ocean bottom seismometers show that the LAB beneath the Pacific and Philippine Sea plates is sharp and age-dependent. The observed large shear wave velocity reduction at the LAB requires a partially molten asthenosphere consisting of horizontal melt-rich layers embedded in meltless mantle, which accounts for the large viscosity contrast at the LAB that facilitates horizontal plate motions. PMID:19390042

  6. Characterization of the Absolute Crystal Polarity across Twin Boundaries in Gallium Phosphide Using Convergent-Beam Electron Diffraction.

    PubMed

    Cohen; McKernan; Carter

    1999-05-01

    : The measurement of absolute crystal polarity is crucial to understanding the structural properties of many planar defects in compound semiconductors. Grain boundaries, including twin boundaries, in the sphalerite lattice are uniquely characterized by the crystallographic misorientation of individual grains and the direction of the crystal polarity in domains adjoining the grain boundary. To evaluate crystal polarity in gallium phosphide (GaP), asymmetrical interference contrast in convergent-beam electron-diffraction (CBED) patterns was used to ascertain the nature and direction of polar bonds. The direction of the asymmetry in the electron diffraction reflections was correlated with the crystal polarity of a sample with known polarity. The CBED technique was applied to determine the polar orientation of grains adjoining Sigma = 3 coherent and lateral twin boundaries in polycrystalline GaP. PMID:10383990

  7. Discovering Plate Boundaries Update: Builds Content Knowledge and Models Inquiry-based Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, D. S.; Pringle, M. S.; Henning, A. T.

    2009-12-01

    Discovering Plate Boundaries (DPB) is a jigsaw-structured classroom exercise in which students explore the fundamental datasets from which plate boundary processes were discovered. The exercise has been widely used in the past ten years as a classroom activity for students in fifth grade through high school, and for Earth Science major and general education courses in college. Perhaps more importantly, the exercise has been used extensively for professional development of in-service and pre-service K-12 science teachers, where it simultaneously builds content knowledge in plate boundary processes (including natural hazards), models an effective data-rich, inquiry-based pedagogy, and provides a set of lesson plans and materials which teachers can port directly into their own classroom (see Pringle, et al, this session for a specific example). DPB is based on 4 “specialty” data maps, 1) earthquake locations, 2) modern volcanic activity, 3) seafloor age, and 4) topography and bathymetry, plus a fifth map of (undifferentiated) plate boundary locations. The jigsaw is structured so that students are first split into one of the four “specialties,” then re-arranged into groups with each of the four specialties to describe the boundaries of a particular plate. We have taken the original DPB materials, used the latest digital data sets to update all the basic maps, and expanded the opportunities for further student and teacher learning. The earthquake maps now cover the recent period including the deadly Banda Aceh event. The topography/bathymetry map now has global coverage and uses ice-free elevations, which can, for example, extend to further inquiry about mantle viscosity and loading processes (why are significant portions of the bedrock surface of Greenland and Antarctica below sea level?). The volcanic activity map now differentiates volcano type and primary volcanic lithology, allowing a more elaborate understanding of volcanism at different plate boundaries. The volcanic activity map also now includes seafloor hydrothermal vents to extend the volcanic data set into the oceans. The new maps also more completely represent the polar regions, improving, for example, the students understanding of the ridge system running across the Arctic Sea. We have expanded the teacher’s guide to assist both novice and experienced teachers “see what an Earth Scientist sees” in the data. We have found repeatedly that the real strengths of the DPB activity are that (1) the course materials readily adapt to as well as appropriately challenge all levels of student abilities, leading to very natural differentiated levels of instruction, and (2) students of all levels develop a real ownership in their “plate tectonic” expertise.

  8. Late Cretaceous to mid Eocene plate boundaries in the southwest Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Kara J.; Dietmar Müller, R.; Whittaker, Joanne; Flament, Nicolas; Seton, Maria

    2013-04-01

    The late Cretaceous to mid Eocene history of the southwest and southernmost Pacific has been subject to starkly contrasting interpretations, ranging from relative tectonic quiescence with the Lord Howe Rise (LHR) being part of the Pacific plate to a dynamic subduction setting. In the first scenario the Tasman Sea would have formed as a consequence of divergence between the Pacific and Australian plates, whereas in the second scenario it would have formed as a marginal basin associated with subduction. The first scenario is supported by a number of arguments, including a lack of evidence for deformation and tectonic activity in New Zealand during this period and a geodynamic modelling inference, namely that the bend in the Hawaiian-Emperor chain can be better reproduced if the LHR is part of the Pacific plate. The second scenario is supported by regional plate kinematic models reconciling a variety of observations including back-arc basin formation and destruction through time and the history of arc-continent collisions. The primary problem with the first scenario is the use of a plate circuit that leaves relative motion between East and West Antarctica unconstrained, leading to an improbable history of periodic compression and extension. The main problem with the alternative scenario is a lack of sampled late Cretaceous volcanic arc rocks east of the LHR. We analysed available geological and geophysical data to constrain the locations of and movements along the plate boundaries in the southwest and southern Pacific from the late Cretaceous to mid Eocene, and assessed how Pacific plate motion is best quantified during this period. Geological and geophysical evidence suggests that a plate boundary separated the Pacific plate from the LHR. The distribution of lower mantle slab material that is imaged by seismic tomography beneath New Zealand is best explained if subduction occurred to the east of the LHR during the entire late Cretaceous to mid Eocene period. Rocks from ophiolitic nappes in the North Island of New Zealand, New Caledonia and Papua New Guinea show evidence of having formed in a back-arc basin during this period, consistent with a subduction zone near the LHR. Although New Zealand is commonly viewed as tectonically quiescent at this time, deformation at several locations to the east and west of the present-day Alpine Fault suggests that a plate boundary cut through Zealandia during Tasman Sea opening. As the LHR was not attached to the Pacific plate and subduction occurred to the east and north of the LHR we suggest that Pacific plate motion is best quantified using a plate circuit through East and West Antarctica, avoiding this zone of southwest Pacific subduction. Future work should focus on better constraining the location of and motion along the late Cretaceous-mid Eocene plate boundary through New Zealand to enable the use of a plate circuit via Australia.

  9. Boundary layer analysis of the ridge singularity in a thin plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobkovsky, Alexander E.

    1996-04-01

    Large deformations of thin elastic plates and shells present a formidable problem in continuum mechanics that is generally intractable except by numerical methods. Conventional approaches break down in the limit of small plate thickness due to the appearance of discontinuities in the solution that require a boundary layer treatment. We examine a simple case of a plate bent by forces exerted along its boundary so as to create a sharp crease in the limit of infinitely small thickness. We find a separable boundary layer solution of the von Kármán plate equations that is valid along the ridge line. We confirm a scaling argument [T. A. Witten and Hao Li, Europhys. Lett. 23, 51 (1993)] that the ridge possesses a characteristic radius of curvature R given by the thickness of the sheet h and the length of the ridge X, viz., R~h1/3X2/3. The elastic energy of the ridge scales as E~?(X/h)1/3, where ? is the bending modulus of the sheet. We determine the dependence of these quantities on the dihedral angle of the ridge ?-2?. For all angles R~?-4/3 and E~?7/3. The framework developed in this paper is suitable for the determination of other properties of ridges such as their interaction or behavior under various types of loading. We expect these results to have broad importance in describing forced crumpling of thin sheets.

  10. Structure and lithology of the Japan Trench subduction plate boundary fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, James D.; Rowe, Christie D.; Ujiie, Kohtaro; Moore, J. Casey; Regalla, Christine; Remitti, Francesca; Toy, Virginia; Wolfson-Schwehr, Monica; Kameda, Jun; Bose, Santanu; Chester, Frederick M.

    2015-01-01

    The 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake ruptured to the trench with maximum coseismic slip located on the shallow portion of the plate boundary fault. To investigate the conditions and physical processes that promoted slip to the trench, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 343/343T sailed 1 year after the earthquake and drilled into the plate boundary ˜7 km landward of the trench, in the region of maximum slip. Core analyses show that the plate boundary décollement is localized onto an interval of smectite-rich, pelagic clay. Subsidiary structures are present in both the upper and lower plates, which define a fault zone ˜5-15m thick. Fault rocks recovered from within the clay-rich interval contain a pervasive scaly fabric defined by anastomosing, polished, and lineated surfaces with two predominant orientations. The scaly fabric is crosscut in several places by discrete contacts across which the scaly fabric is truncated and rotated, or different rocks are juxtaposed. These contacts are inferred to be faults. The plate boundary décollement therefore contains structures resulting from both distributed and localized deformation. We infer that the formation of both of these types of structures is controlled by the frictional properties of the clay: the distributed scaly fabric formed at low strain rates associated with velocity-strengthening frictional behavior, and the localized faults formed at high strain rates characterized by velocity-weakening behavior. The presence of multiple discrete faults resulting from seismic slip within the décollement suggests that rupture to the trench may be characteristic of this margin.

  11. In-Flight Boundary-Layer Transition of a Large Flat Plate at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, D. W.; Frederick, M. A.; Tracy, R. R.; Matisheck, J. R.; Vanecek, N. D.

    2012-01-01

    A flight experiment was conducted to investigate the pressure distribution, local-flow conditions, and boundary-layer transition characteristics on a large flat plate in flight at supersonic speeds up to Mach 2.00. The tests used a NASA testbed aircraft with a bottom centerline mounted test fixture. The primary objective of the test was to characterize the local flow field in preparation for future tests of a high Reynolds number natural laminar flow test article. A second objective was to determine the boundary-layer transition characteristics on the flat plate and the effectiveness of using a simplified surface coating. Boundary-layer transition was captured in both analog and digital formats using an onboard infrared imaging system. Surface pressures were measured on the surface of the flat plate. Flow field measurements near the leading edge of the test fixture revealed the local flow characteristics including downwash, sidewash, and local Mach number. Results also indicated that the simplified surface coating did not provide sufficient insulation from the metallic structure, which likely had a substantial effect on boundary-layer transition compared with that of an adiabatic surface. Cold wall conditions were predominant during the acceleration to maximum Mach number, and warm wall conditions were evident during the subsequent deceleration.

  12. Plate-Tectonic Analysis of Shallow Seismicity: Apparent Boundary Width, beta-Value, Corner Magnitude, Coupled Lithosphere Thickness, and Coupling in 7 Tectonic Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, P.; Kagan, Y. Y.

    2003-12-01

    A new plate model [Bird, 2003, G3, 10.1029/2001GC000252] is used to analyze the mean seismicities of 7 types of plate boundary (CRB continental rift boundary, CTF continental transform fault, CCB continental convergent boundary, OSR oceanic spreading ridge, OTF oceanic transform fault, OCB oceanic convergent boundary, SUB subduction zone). We compare the plate-like (non-orogen) regions of model PB2002 with the CMT catalog to select apparent boundary half-widths, and then assign 95% of shallow earthquakes to one of these settings. A tapered Gutenberg-Richter model of the frequency/moment relation is fit to the subcatalog for each setting by maximum-likelihood. Best-fitting ? values range from 0.53 to 0.92, but all 95%-confidence ranges are consistent with a common value of 0.61-0.66. To better determine some corner magnitudes we expand the subcatalogs by: (1) inclusion of orogens; and (2) inclusion of years 1900-1975 from the catalog of Pacheco and Sykes [1992]. Combining both earthquake statistics and the plate-tectonic constraint on moment rate, corner magnitudes include: CRB 7.64-.26+.76, CTF 8.01-.21+.45, CCB 8.46-.39+.21, OCB 8.04-.22+.52, and SUB 9.58-.46+.48. Coupled lithosphere thicknesses are found to be: CRB 3.0-1.4+7.0 km; CTF 8.6-4.1+11 km; CCB 18-11+? km; OSR 0.13-0.09+.13 km for normal-faulting and 0.40-.21+? km for strike-slip; OTF 12-7.1+?, 1.6-0.5+1.4, and 1.5-0.6+1.2 km at low, medium, and high velocities; OCB 3.8-2.3+13.7 km, and SUB 18.0-10.8+? km. Generally high coupling of subduction and continental plate boundaries suggests that here all seismic gaps are dangerous unless proven to be creeping. Generally low coupling within oceanic lithosphere suggests a different model of isolated seismic asperities surrounded by large seismic gaps which may be permanent.

  13. Plate boundary forces in the vicinity of Trinidad-the-transition from transpression to transtension in the Southern Caribbean plate boundary zones

    SciTech Connect

    Algar, S.T.; Pindell, J.L. )

    1993-02-01

    Deformation in the southern Caribbean plate boundary zones as recorded in the Northern Range of Trinidad initiated in the Oligocene with northward vergent gravity sliding of Northern Range sediments due to uplift and oversteepening of the previously passive margin by the eastward migration of the Caribbean flexural forebulge. Progressive east-southeast transvergence of the Caribbean Plate with respect to South America overthrust incorporated the Northern Range sediments into the Caribbean accretionary prism, thrusting them south-southeast to produce a Middle Miocene transpressive foreland fold and thrust belt in southern Trinidad. Late Miocene deformation within Trinidad was increasingly dominated by right-lateral strike-slop (RLSS) faulting, at the expense of transpressive compressional features. Right-stepping of RLSS motion initiated the Gulf of Paria and Caroni pull-apart basins, Since Early Pliocene these basins and other areas to the north of Trinidad have undergone north-south extension in addition to east-west trending RLSS. Such extension caused the northward withdrawal of Caribbean terranes from atop of the Northern Range, Resulting in rapid isostatically induced uplift (approximately 0.5 mmyr[sup -1]). This change in deformation style may relate to a hitherto unrecognized shift in the relative motion of the eastern Caribbean Plate with respect to South America: from east-southeast-directed transpression to east-northeast-directed transtension.

  14. Crustal Structure of the Caribbean-South American Diffuse Plate Boundary: Subduction Zone Migration and Polarity Reversal Along BOLIVAR Profile 64W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, S. A.; Levander, A.; Magnani, M.; Zelt, C. A.; Sawyer, D. S.; Ave Lallemant, H. G.

    2005-12-01

    The BOLIVAR (Broadband Ocean-Land Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region) project is an NSF funded, collaborative seismic experiment in the southeast Caribbean region. The purpose of the project is to understand the diffuse plate boundary created by the oblique collision between the Caribbean and South American plates. Profile 64W of the BOLIVAR experiment, a 450 km-long, N-S transect onshore and offshore Venezuela located at ~64°W longitude, images the deep crustal structures formed by this collision. The active source components of profile 64W include 300 km of MCS reflection data, 33 coincident OBSs, and 344 land seismic stations which recorded 7500 offshore airgun shots and 2 explosive land shots. Results from the reflection and refraction seismic data along 64W show complex crustal structure across the entire span of the diffuse plate boundary. The onshore portion of 64W crosses the fold and thrust belt of the Serrania del Interior, which formed at ~16 Ma by collision of the Caribbean forearc with the northern South American passive margin. Underlying the Serrania del Interior is a south-vergent, remnant Lesser Antillean subduction zone. As this Lesser Antilles subduction impinged on continental crust, it caused a polarity reversal and jump offshore to the north. Convergence was initially localized in the closure and inversion of the Grenada Basin. However, subduction could not develop because of the ~20-km-thick crust of the Aves Ridge; instead, north-vergent subduction initiated further to the north, where ~12-km-thick Caribbean oceanic crust of the Venezuela Basin began to subduct beneath the Aves Ridge in the Pliocene (~4 Ma) and appears to continue subducting today. Between the remnant subduction zone and the modern one, the El Pilar and Coche dextral strike-slip faults accommodate most of the transform motion of the plate boundary. From the Serrania del Interior to the Aves Ridge, ~260 km of accreted orogenic float comprises the diffuse plate boundary.

  15. Analysis of turbulent free-convection boundary layer on flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckert, E R G; Jackson, Thomas W

    1951-01-01

    With the use of Karman's integrated momentum equation for the boundary layer and data on the wall-shearing stress and heat transfer in forced-convection flow, a calculation was carried out for the flow and heat transfer in the turbulent free-convection boundary layer on a vertical flat plate. The calculation is for a fluid with a Prandtl number that is close to 1. A formula was derived for the heat-transfer coefficient that was in good agreement with experimental data in the range of Grashof numbers from 10sup10 to 10sup12. Because of the good agreement between the theoretical formula and the experimental data, the formula may be used to obtain data for high Grashof numbers. The calculation also yielded formulas for the maximum velocity in the boundary layer and for boundary-layer thickness.

  16. MHD free convective boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a flat vertical plate with Newtonian heating boundary condition.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Mohammed J; Khan, Waqar A; Ismail, Ahmed I

    2012-01-01

    Steady two dimensional MHD laminar free convective boundary layer flows of an electrically conducting Newtonian nanofluid over a solid stationary vertical plate in a quiescent fluid taking into account the Newtonian heating boundary condition is investigated numerically. A magnetic field can be used to control the motion of an electrically conducting fluid in micro/nano scale systems used for transportation of fluid. The transport equations along with the boundary conditions are first converted into dimensionless form and then using linear group of transformations, the similarity governing equations are developed. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. The effects of different controlling parameters, namely, Lewis number, Prandtl number, buoyancy ratio, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, magnetic field and Newtonian heating on the flow and heat transfer are investigated. The numerical results for the dimensionless axial velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically and discussed. It is found that the rate of heat and mass transfer increase as Newtonian heating parameter increases. The dimensionless velocity and temperature distributions increase with the increase of Newtonian heating parameter. The results of the reduced heat transfer rate is compared for convective heating boundary condition and found an excellent agreement. PMID:23166688

  17. MHD Free Convective Boundary Layer Flow of a Nanofluid past a Flat Vertical Plate with Newtonian Heating Boundary Condition

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Mohammed J.; Khan, Waqar A.; Ismail, Ahmed I.

    2012-01-01

    Steady two dimensional MHD laminar free convective boundary layer flows of an electrically conducting Newtonian nanofluid over a solid stationary vertical plate in a quiescent fluid taking into account the Newtonian heating boundary condition is investigated numerically. A magnetic field can be used to control the motion of an electrically conducting fluid in micro/nano scale systems used for transportation of fluid. The transport equations along with the boundary conditions are first converted into dimensionless form and then using linear group of transformations, the similarity governing equations are developed. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. The effects of different controlling parameters, namely, Lewis number, Prandtl number, buoyancy ratio, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, magnetic field and Newtonian heating on the flow and heat transfer are investigated. The numerical results for the dimensionless axial velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically and discussed. It is found that the rate of heat and mass transfer increase as Newtonian heating parameter increases. The dimensionless velocity and temperature distributions increase with the increase of Newtonian heating parameter. The results of the reduced heat transfer rate is compared for convective heating boundary condition and found an excellent agreement. PMID:23166688

  18. Convergence results for pseudospectral approximations of hyperbolic systems by a penalty type boundary treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funaro, Daniele; Gottlieb, David

    1989-01-01

    A new method of imposing boundary conditions in the pseudospectral approximation of hyperbolic systems of equations is proposed. It is suggested to collocate the equations, not only at the inner grid points, but also at the boundary points and use the boundary conditions as penalty terms. In the pseudo-spectral Legrendre method with the new boundary treatment, a stability analysis for the case of a constant coefficient hyperbolic system is presented and error estimates are derived.

  19. A Chlorine-Centric Perspective on Fluid-Mediated Processes at Convergent Plate Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selverstone, J.

    2014-12-01

    The release and migration of metamorphic fluids from subducting slabs into overlying mantle is widely recognized as a major mechanism in producing arc geochemical signatures and returning fluid-mobile elements to earth's crust and surface environments. Although the magnitudes of many geochemical fluxes are well constrained, the processes whereby mass transfer occurs in different portions of the subduction system are less well known. Chlorine stable isotopes provide a new perspective on some of these processes: Cl is hydrophilic, but decarbonation reactions favor Cl retention in minerals. Cl also shows less isotopic fractionation than other fluid-sensitive systems and may thus preserve evidence of specific fluid sources and/or fluid mixing events. Detailed studies of sedimentary sequences show that individual beds are isotopically homogeneous but large heterogeneities in δ37Cl exist across beds on a cm to m scale and vary as a function of depositional environment. Compositionally correlative medium-, high-, and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic sequences in the Alps record decreases of 30-50% in Cl contents in the earliest stages of metamorphism, but little change thereafter. No statistically significant change in isotopic composition occurs during prograde metamorphism of individual horizons, and the same large degree of isotopic heterogeneity (up to 6‰) persists throughout the prograde devolatilization history of the rocks. Likewise, analysis of HP/UHP serpentinites and altered oceanic crust show that heterogeneous protolith compositions are preserved during transport to sub-arc depths, despite large-scale devolatilization. However, upward transport of rocks within the subduction channel results in highly localized interaction with isotopically distinct, Cl-bearing fluid packets. Overlying forearc wedge rocks also record heterogeneous and channelized interaction with distinct fluid components with different δ37Cl. Within-layer fluid compartmentalization during continuous devolatilization reactions must thus be reconciled with discontinuous, cross-layer fluid percolation out of the slab and into the wedge. The resulting implications of the chlorine data for recent mechanical models of slab-to-wedge fluid transport will be discussed.

  20. Dynamic Stability Optimization of Laminated Composite Plates under Combined Boundary Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafei, Erfan; Kabir, Mohammad Zaman

    2011-12-01

    Dynamic stability and design optimization of laminated simply supported plates under planar conservative boundary loads are investigated in current study. Examples can be found in internal connecting elements of spacecraft and aerospace structures subjected to edge axial and shear loads. Designation of such elements is function of layup configuration, plate aspect ratio, loading combinations, and layup thickness. An optimum design aims maximum stability load satisfying a predefined stable vibration frequency. The interaction between compound loading and layup angle parameter affects the order of merging vibration modes and may stabilize the dynamic response. Laminated plates are assumed to be angle-plies symmetric to mid-plane surface. Dynamic equilibrium PDE has been solved using kernel integral transformation for modal frequency values and eigenvalue-based orthogonal functions for critical stability loads. The dictating dynamic stability mode is shown to be controlled by geometric stiffness distributions of composite plates. Solution of presented design optimization problem has been done using analytical approach combined with interior penalty multiplier algorithm. The results are verified by FEA approach and stability zones of original and optimized plates are stated as final data. Presented method can help designers to stabilize the dynamic response of composite plates by selecting an optimized layup orientation and thickness for prescribed design circumstances.

  1. The nature of the plate interface and driving force of interseismic deformation in the New Zealand plate-boundary zone, revealed by the continuous GPS velocity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Simon; Smith, Euan

    2013-06-01

    New Zealand straddles the boundary between the Australian and Pacific plates. Cenozoic relative plate motion has resulted in a complex pattern of faulting and block rotation, with displacements on individual faults up to hundreds of kilometers. However, over periods of several years, GPS measurements show a remarkably smooth pattern of velocities. We show here using a new method of back slip analysis, that almost the entire plate-boundary continuous GPS velocity field can be predicted within measurement error from a simple model of elastic distortion due to deep slip on a single plate interface (megathrust in the Hikurangi and Putsegur subduction zones or fault through continental lithosphere beneath the Southern Alps) at the relative plate motion rates. This suggests that the main driving force of plate-boundary deformation is slip on the deeper moving part of the plate interface, without buried creep in localized shear zones beneath individual surface faults. The depth at which this deep slip terminates (locking point line) determines the width of deformation. Along the Hikurangi margin, there is also clockwise rotation of ~150 km long segment of the fore arc (Wairoa domain) at 4.5° ± 1 Ma, relative to the Australian Plate, about a pole in western North Island; model residuals in the velocity field are mainly a result of incomplete averaging of the cycle of slow slip events on the plate interface, downdip of the locking point.

  2. Alternate model of Chladni figures for the circular homogenous thin plate case with open boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trejo-Mandujano, H. A.; Mijares-Bernal, G.; Ordoñez-Casanova, E. G.

    2015-01-01

    The wave equation is a direct but a complex approach to solve analytically for the Chladni figures, mainly because of the complications that non-smooth and open boundary conditions impose. In this paper, we present an alternate solution model based on the principle of Huygens-Fresnel and on the ideas of Bohr for the hydrogen atom. The proposed model has been implemented numerically and compared, with good agreement, to our own experimental results for the case of a thin homogenous circular plate with open boundaries.

  3. World Stress Map Release 2005 - Stress orientations from single focal mechanisms at plate boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidbach, O.; Barth, A.; Müller, B.; Reinecker, J.; Sperner, B.; Tingay, M.

    2005-12-01

    The World Stress Map (WSM) is a global compilation of data about recent tectonic stresses from a wide range of indicators (e.g. focal mechanisms, borehole breakouts). It is a valuable tool for the solution of numerous of technological and scientific problems. The orientation of the stress field, for instance, is a primary control on subsurface fluid flow and thus WSM data can be used to improve petroleum production or the efficiency of geothermal power stations. In scientific context, information on the stress state is essential for seismic hazard assessment. The WSM database release 2005 contains more than 14,000 data sets all classified according to a unified quality ranking. Thus, the comparability of data from different types of measurement is guaranteed. The database as well as guidelines and software for plotting stress maps are available free of charge from our website www.world-stress-map.org. Users can create their own stress map including their own stress data almost instantly with the CASMO (Create A Stress Map Online) web tool. Alternatively, users can download the software CASMI (Create A Stress Map Interactively) free of charge and produce their own stress maps. In the WSM 2005 release we refined the definition of so-called Possible Plate Boundary Events (PBE) for stress data from single focal mechanisms (FMS) considering that the orientations of these earthquakes might be rather controlled by the geometry of the plate boundary than by the stress field orientation. In general, it is assumed that numerous randomly oriented faults are present in the crust, so that earthquakes occur on faults optimally oriented relative to the regional stress field. In such a setting the principal axes of the moment tensor (P, B, T) provide good approximations for the principal stress orientations (?_1, ?2, ?3). However, plate boundaries show a different mechanical behavior. They are characterized by faults with preferred orientations and presumably include major faults with a low coefficient of friction which can be easily reactivated. The related P-B-T axes might considerably deviate from ?_1-3 of the regional stress field. We investigate whether this deviation depends on the distance between the FMS and the closest plate boundary segment. We analyze all FMS of the WSM 2005 database release and found that FMS's have a higher potential for large deviations when they meet the following criteria: (1) The tectonic regime of the FMS reflects the plate boundary kinematics. (2) The event is located within a critical distance dcrit relative to its closest plate boundary segment. (3) The deviation between the strike of the nodal plane and the strike of the plate boundary is smaller than 30(°). The critical distances dcrit depends on the type of plate boundaries. We estimate them by means of a statistical analysis with dcrit being 45 km for continental transform faults, 80 km for oceanic transform faults, 70 km for oceanic spreading ridges, and 200 km for subduction zones. The three detection criteria are met by one third of the ~9000 FMS datasets which thus were marked by a PBE flag in the WSM database. Users should be aware that these data might considerably deviate from the regional stress field.

  4. Evidence for divergent plate-boundary characteristics and crustal spreading on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, James W., III; Crumpler, L. S.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed examination of the topography and morphology of western Aphrodite Terra reveals numerous features that are similar to terrestrial divergent plate-boundary characteristics. Individual domains between fracture-zone-like discontinuities contain a variety of bilaterally symmetrical topographic elements that suggest that topographic features have been created at rise crests, rifted and separated, and moved laterally to their present symmetrical positions. The topographic and morphologic similarities, together with strikingly similar mirror-image map patterns on both sides of the rise axis, suggest that western Aphrodite Terra shares the characteristics of oceanic divergent plate boundaries, and is the site of crustal spreading on Venus. Topographic profiles are consistent with spreading rates of the order of several centimeters per year.

  5. Evidence for divergent plate-boundary characteristics and crustal spreading on venus.

    PubMed

    Head, J W; Crumpler, L S

    1987-12-01

    Detailed examination of the topography and morphology of western Aphrodite Terra reveals numerous features that are similar to terrestrial divergent plate-boundary characteristics. Individual domains between fracturezone-like discontinuities contain a variety of bilaterally symmetrical topographic elements that suggest that topographic features have been created at rise crests, rifted and separated, and moved laterally to their present symmetrical positions. The topographic and morphologic similarities, together with strikingly similar mirror-image map patterns on both sides of the rise axis, suggest that western Aphrodite Terra shares the characteristics of oceanic divergent plate boundaries, and is the site of crustal spreading on Venus. Topographic profiles are consistent with spreading rates of the order of several centimeters per year. PMID:17800565

  6. Dike-induced contraction along oceanic and continental divergent plate boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trippanera, D.; Acocella, V.; Ruch, J.

    2014-10-01

    The axis of divergent plate boundaries shows extension fractures and normal faults at the surface. Here we present evidence of contraction along the axis of the oceanic ridge of Iceland and the continental Main Ethiopian Rift. Contraction is found at the base of the tilted hanging wall of dilational normal faults, balancing part of their extension. Our experiments suggest that these structures result from dike emplacement. Multiple dike injection induces subsidence above and uplift to the sides of the dikes; the transition in between is accommodated by reverse faults and subsequent peripheral inward dipping normal faults. Our results suggest that contraction is a direct product of magma emplacement along divergent plate boundaries, at various scales, marking a precise evolutionary stage and initiating part of the extensional structures (extension fractures and normal faults).

  7. Resistivity survey on the plate boundaries in the western Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland

    SciTech Connect

    Georgsson, L.S.

    1981-10-01

    A resistivity survey in the western Reykjanes Peninsula consisted of about 200 Schlumberger geoelectric soundings. It revealed a continuous east-west striking low resistivity zone which coincides fairly closely with the Reykjanes seismic zone that has been interpreted as plate boundaries. This low resistivity zone includes at least two but probably all three of the high temperature geothermal areas in the region. Study of correlation between resistivity, salinity and temperature seem to confirm that the low resistivity can only be explained by anomalously high heat flow. This indicates that exploitable geothermal energy may be found in the uppermost 1-2 km along the plate boundaries on the Reykjanes Peninsula even far away from surface manifestations; this may be of great economic significance in the future.

  8. Overriding plate structure of the Nicaragua convergent margin: Constraints on the limits of the seismogenic zone and the 1992 tsunami earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melendez, A.; Sallares, V.; Prada, M.; Ranero, C. R.; McIntosh, K. D.; Grevemeyer, I.

    2011-12-01

    We present two 2D seismic velocity models of the Nicaragua convergent erosional margin along perpendicular WAS profiles acquired in the rupture area of the 1992 tsunami earthquake. The models focus on the structure of the upper plate and the geometry of the plate boundary interface. In the trench-perpendicular profile (NIC20), the basement shows increasing velocity from top to bottom and from the trench towards the coast. In the absence of an accretionary wedge, the velocity gradient reflects a progressive decrease in the degree of rock fracturing of the Mesozoic igneous basement, from almost complete disaggregation at < 4 km from the trench to aseismic ridge-like crustal rocks at ~75 km, where the upper plate is ~20±0.5 km-thick. Upper mantle-like velocities are obtained at a depth of ~10 km beneath the ~5 km-thick Sandino basin, which means that the mantle wedge is shallow and extends up to ~90 km from the trench. The trench-parallel profile (NIC125) is similar in terms of velocity structure and depth of the inter-plate boundary (18±0.5 km). It displays a laterally-uniform structure, indicating that the NIC20 model is representative of the upper plate structure along the whole rupture area of the 1992 earthquake. A mismatch between the WAS inter-plate reflector and that imaged along coincident MCS profiles can be explained by a velocity anisotropy of 17±2%, probably related with locally-enhanced rock fracturing and fluid percolation. The updip limit of the seismogenic zone is difficult to define based on regional seismicity and aftershock distribution because the aftershocks nucleate up to the trench. The frontal part of the overriding plate is probably too fractured to store elastic energy, unless the presence of local asperities makes it conditionally stable. The downdip limit (~25 km depth), defined by an abrupt decrease in the number of aftershocks and by a gap in the regional seismicity, occurs near the tip of the mantle wedge, indicating that it is probably controlled by the presence of a serpentinized mantle wedge right beneath the Sandino basin. The hypocenter of the 1992 main shock is not particularly shallow (~21 km), but seismological data indicate that it triggered sub-events in the conditionally stable area. One of these sub-events occurred near the SE limit of the rupture zone, which is the area of maximum inferred co-seismic slip and seafloor displacement and the place where MCS data have revealed the presence of a subducted seamount. Given that sediments are absent on top of the subducting seamount, we hypothesize that the seismic rupture is controlled by the nature of the basement rocks. In this case the average rupture velocity of this sub-event would be 1.4-1.7 km/s, and the rigidity 9-14 GPa, consistent with estimations based on seismological data analysis. Thus, the slow propagation and long duration of the 1992 tsunami earthquake could be explained by rupture propagating within the fractured, conditionally stable part the crystalline basement and not into the sediments.

  9. Gradual unlocking of plate boundary controlled initiation of the 2014 Iquique earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurr, Bernd; Asch, Günter; Hainzl, Sebastian; Bedford, Jonathan; Hoechner, Andreas; Palo, Mauro; Wang, Rongjiang; Moreno, Marcos; Bartsch, Mitja; Zhang, Yong; Oncken, Onno; Tilmann, Frederik; Dahm, Torsten; Victor, Pia; Barrientos, Sergio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre

    2014-08-01

    On 1 April 2014, Northern Chile was struck by a magnitude 8.1 earthquake following a protracted series of foreshocks. The Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile monitored the entire sequence of events, providing unprecedented resolution of the build-up to the main event and its rupture evolution. Here we show that the Iquique earthquake broke a central fraction of the so-called northern Chile seismic gap, the last major segment of the South American plate boundary that had not ruptured in the past century. Since July 2013 three seismic clusters, each lasting a few weeks, hit this part of the plate boundary with earthquakes of increasing peak magnitudes. Starting with the second cluster, geodetic observations show surface displacements that can be associated with slip on the plate interface. These seismic clusters and their slip transients occupied a part of the plate interface that was transitional between a fully locked and a creeping portion. Leading up to this earthquake, the b value of the foreshocks gradually decreased during the years before the earthquake, reversing its trend a few days before the Iquique earthquake. The mainshock finally nucleated at the northern end of the foreshock area, which skirted a locked patch, and ruptured mainly downdip towards higher locking. Peak slip was attained immediately downdip of the foreshock region and at the margin of the locked patch. We conclude that gradual weakening of the central part of the seismic gap accentuated by the foreshock activity in a zone of intermediate seismic coupling was instrumental in causing final failure, distinguishing the Iquique earthquake from most great earthquakes. Finally, only one-third of the gap was broken and the remaining locked segments now pose a significant, increased seismic hazard with the potential to host an earthquake with a magnitude of >8.5.

  10. Gradual unlocking of plate boundary controlled initiation of the 2014 Iquique earthquake.

    PubMed

    Schurr, Bernd; Asch, Günter; Hainzl, Sebastian; Bedford, Jonathan; Hoechner, Andreas; Palo, Mauro; Wang, Rongjiang; Moreno, Marcos; Bartsch, Mitja; Zhang, Yong; Oncken, Onno; Tilmann, Frederik; Dahm, Torsten; Victor, Pia; Barrientos, Sergio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre

    2014-08-21

    On 1 April 2014, Northern Chile was struck by a magnitude 8.1 earthquake following a protracted series of foreshocks. The Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile monitored the entire sequence of events, providing unprecedented resolution of the build-up to the main event and its rupture evolution. Here we show that the Iquique earthquake broke a central fraction of the so-called northern Chile seismic gap, the last major segment of the South American plate boundary that had not ruptured in the past century. Since July 2013 three seismic clusters, each lasting a few weeks, hit this part of the plate boundary with earthquakes of increasing peak magnitudes. Starting with the second cluster, geodetic observations show surface displacements that can be associated with slip on the plate interface. These seismic clusters and their slip transients occupied a part of the plate interface that was transitional between a fully locked and a creeping portion. Leading up to this earthquake, the b value of the foreshocks gradually decreased during the years before the earthquake, reversing its trend a few days before the Iquique earthquake. The mainshock finally nucleated at the northern end of the foreshock area, which skirted a locked patch, and ruptured mainly downdip towards higher locking. Peak slip was attained immediately downdip of the foreshock region and at the margin of the locked patch. We conclude that gradual weakening of the central part of the seismic gap accentuated by the foreshock activity in a zone of intermediate seismic coupling was instrumental in causing final failure, distinguishing the Iquique earthquake from most great earthquakes. Finally, only one-third of the gap was broken and the remaining locked segments now pose a significant, increased seismic hazard with the potential to host an earthquake with a magnitude of >8.5. PMID:25119049

  11. Unsteady Boundary-Layer Flow over Jerked Plate Moving in a Free Stream of Viscoelastic Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Mehmood, Ahmer; Ali, Asif; Saleem, Najma

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the unsteady boundary-layer flow of a viscoelastic non-Newtonian fluid over a flat surface. The plate is suddenly jerked to move with uniform velocity in a uniform stream of non-Newtonian fluid. Purely analytic solution to governing nonlinear equation is obtained. The solution is highly accurate and valid for all values of the dimensionless time 0 ≤ τ < ∞. Flow properties of the viscoelastic fluid are discussed through graphs. PMID:24892060

  12. Plane Wave Diffraction by a Finite Plate with Impedance Boundary Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nawaz, Rab; Ayub, Muhammad; Javaid, Akmal

    2014-01-01

    In this study we have examined a plane wave diffraction problem by a finite plate having different impedance boundaries. The Fourier transforms were used to reduce the governing problem into simultaneous Wiener-Hopf equations which are then solved using the standard Wiener-Hopf procedure. Afterwards the separated and interacted fields were developed asymptotically by using inverse Fourier transform and the modified stationary phase method. Detailed graphical analysis was also made for various physical parameters we were interested in. PMID:24755624

  13. Control of boundary layer transition location and plate vibration in the presence of an external acoustic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, L.; Grosveld, F. W.

    1991-01-01

    The experiment is aimed at controlling the boundary layer transition location and the plate vibration when excited by a flow and an upstream sound source. Sound has been found to affect the flow at the leading edge and the response of a flexible plate in a boundary layer. Because the sound induces early transition, the panel vibration is acoustically coupled to the turbulent boundary layer by the upstream radiation. Localized surface heating at the leading edge delays the transition location downstream of the flexible plate. The response of the plate excited by a turbulent boundary layer (without sound) shows that the plate is forced to vibrate at different frequencies and with different amplitudes as the flow velocity changes indicating that the plate is driven by the convective waves of the boundary layer. The acoustic disturbances induced by the upstream sound dominate the response of the plate when the boundary layer is either turbulent or laminar. Active vibration control was used to reduce the sound induced displacement amplitude of the plate.

  14. Preservation of contrasting geothermal gradients across the Caribbean-North America plate boundary (Motagua Fault, Guatemala)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon-Labric, Thibaud; Brocard, Gilles Y.; Teyssier, Christian; Beek, Peter A.; Fellin, Maria Giuditta; Reiners, Peter W.; Authemayou, Christine

    2013-07-01

    Strike-slip plate boundaries juxtapose crustal blocks that may have different geodynamic origins and therefore different thermal structures. Thermo-kinematic modeling of this type of strike-slip plate boundary predicts an asymmetric signature in the low-temperature thermochronologic record across the fault. Age-elevation profiles of zircon (U-Th)/He ages across the Motagua Fault, a 500 km long segment of the transform boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates, document a sharp cooling age discontinuity across the fault. This discontinuity could be interpreted as a difference in denudation history on each side of the fault. However, a low-relief Miocene erosional surface extends across the fault; this surface has been uplifted and incised and provides a geomorphic argument against differential denudation across the fault. By integrating magmatic, volcanic, and heat flow data, age-elevation profiles, and thermo-kinematic modeling, we propose that large horizontal displacement along the Motagua Fault has offset a persistent geothermal asymmetry across the fault and explains both the age discontinuities and the age-elevation patterns. This study illustrates how thermochronology can be used to detect large strike-slip displacements and more generally opens new perspectives in understanding the impact of nonuniform thermal structures on thermochronologic results.

  15. Effect of plate permeability on nonlinear stability of the asymptotic suction boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedin, Hâkan; Cherubini, Stefania; Bottaro, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    The nonlinear stability of the asymptotic suction boundary layer is studied numerically, searching for finite-amplitude solutions that bifurcate from the laminar flow state. By changing the boundary conditions for disturbances at the plate from the classical no-slip condition to more physically sound ones, the stability characteristics of the flow may change radically, both for the linearized as well as the nonlinear problem. The wall boundary condition takes into account the permeability K ? of the plate; for very low permeability, it is acceptable to impose the classical boundary condition (K ?=0 ). This leads to a Reynolds number of approximately Rec=54 400 for the onset of linearly unstable waves, and close to Reg=3200 for the emergence of nonlinear solutions [F. A. Milinazzo and P. G. Saffman, J. Fluid Mech. 160, 281 (1985), 10.1017/S0022112085003482; J. H. M. Fransson, Ph.D. thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Sweden, 2003]. However, for larger values of the plate's permeability, the lower limit for the existence of linear and nonlinear solutions shifts to significantly lower Reynolds numbers. For the largest permeability studied here, the limit values of the Reynolds numbers reduce down to Rec=796 and Reg=294 . For all cases studied, the solutions bifurcate subcritically toward lower Re, and this leads to the conjecture that they may be involved in the very first stages of a transition scenario similar to the classical route of the Blasius boundary layer initiated by Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves. The stability of these nonlinear solutions is also investigated, showing a low-frequency main unstable mode whose growth rate decreases with increasing permeability and with the Reynolds number, following a power law Re-?, where the value of ? depends on the permeability coefficient K ?. The nonlinear dynamics of the flow in the vicinity of the computed finite-amplitude solutions is finally investigated by direct numerical simulations, providing a viable scenario for subcritical transition due to TS waves.

  16. In-Flight Boundary-Layer Transition on a Large Flat Plate at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Daniel W.; Fredericks, Michael Alan; Tracy, Richard R.; Matisheck, Jason R.; Vanecek, Neal D.

    2012-01-01

    A flight experiment was conducted to investigate the pressure distribution, local flow conditions, and boundary-layer transition characteristics on a large flat plate in flight at supersonic speeds up to Mach 2.0. The primary objective of the test was to characterize the local flow field in preparation for future tests of a high Reynolds number natural laminar flow test article. The tests used a F-15B testbed aircraft with a bottom centerline mounted test fixture. A second objective was to determine the boundary-layer transition characteristics on the flat plate and the effectiveness of using a simplified surface coating for future laminar flow flight tests employing infrared thermography. Boundary-layer transition was captured using an onboard infrared imaging system. The infrared imagery was captured in both analog and digital formats. Surface pressures were measured with electronically scanned pressure modules connected to 60 surface-mounted pressure orifices. The local flow field was measured with five 5-hole conical probes mounted near the leading edge of the test fixture. Flow field measurements revealed the local flow characteristics including downwash, sidewash, and local Mach number. Results also indicated that the simplified surface coating did not provide sufficient insulation from the metallic structure, which likely had a substantial effect on boundary-layer transition compared with that of an adiabatic surface. Cold wall conditions were predominant during the acceleration to maximum Mach number, and warm wall conditions were evident during the subsequent deceleration. The infrared imaging system was able to capture shock wave impingement on the surface of the flat plate in addition to indicating laminar-to-turbulent boundary-layer transition.

  17. Tectonics of the Easter plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engeln, J. F.; Stein, S.

    1984-01-01

    A new model for the Easter plate is presented in which rift propagation has resulted in the formation of a rigid plate between the propagating and dying ridges. The distribution of earthquakes, eleven new focal mechanisms, and existing bathymetric and magnetic data are used to describe the tectonics of this area. Both the Easter-Nazca and Easter-Pacific Euler poles are sufficiently close to the Easter plate to cause rapid changes in rates and directions of motion along the boundaries. The east and west boundaries are propagating and dying ridges; the southwest boundary is a slow-spreading ridge and the northern boundary is a complex zone of convergent and transform motion. The Easter plate may reflect the tectonics of rift propagation on a large scale, where rigid plate tectonics requires boundary reorientation. Simple schematic models to illustrate the general features and processes which occur at plates resulting from large-scale rift propagation are used.

  18. Field fluctuations near a conducting plate and Casimir-Polder forces in the presence of boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Spagnolo, S.; Passante, R.; Rizzuto, L.

    2006-06-15

    We consider vacuum fluctuations of the quantum electromagnetic field in the presence of an infinite and perfectly conducting plate. We evaluate how the change of vacuum fluctuations due to the plate modifies the Casimir-Polder potential between two atoms placed near the plate. We use two different methods to evaluate the Casimir-Polder potential in the presence of the plate. They also give insights on the role of boundary conditions in the Casimir-Polder interatomic potential, as well as indications for possible generalizations to more complicated boundary conditions.

  19. The Diffuse Plate boundary of Nubia and Iberia in the Western Mediterranean: Crustal deformation evidence for viscous coupling and fragmented lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palano, Mimmo; González, Pablo J.; Fernández, José

    2015-11-01

    A spatially dense GNSS-based crustal velocity field for the Iberian Peninsula and Northern Africa allows us to provide new insights into two main tectonic processes currently occurring in this area. In particular, we provide, for the first time, clear evidence for a large-scale clockwise rotation of the Iberian Peninsula with respect to stable Eurasia (Euler pole component: N42.612°, W1.833°, clockwise rotation rate of 0.07 deg/Myr). We favor the interpretation that this pattern reflects the quasi-continuous straining of the ductile lithosphere in some sectors of South and Western Iberia in response to viscous coupling of the NW Nubia and Iberian plate boundary in the Gulf of Cádiz. We furnish evidence for a fragmentation of the western Mediterranean basin into independent crustal tectonic blocks, which are delimited by inherited lithospheric shear structures. Among these blocks, an (oceanic-like western) Algerian one is currently transferring a significant fraction of the Nubia-Eurasia convergence rate into the Eastern Betics (SE Iberia) and likely causing the eastward motion of the Baleares Promontory. These processes can be mainly explained by spatially variable lithospheric plate forces imposed along the Nubia-Eurasia convergence boundary.

  20. What controls the shallow structure of divergent plate boundaries? Insights from field and modelling data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trippanera, Daniele; Acocella, Valerio; Ruch, Joel; Abebe, Bekele; Norini, Gianluca; Thordarson, Thor; Urbani, Stefano; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2014-05-01

    The interest in the role of magma in splitting plates at divergent plate boundaries through discrete rifting episodes has been re-invigorated. However, despite the renewed enthusiasm for this topic, the precise mechanism by which the magma affects the geometry, the kinematics, and the temporal evolution of a rift is still poorly understood. Here we address several of the related issues, focusing on the surface deformation along plate boundaries, and then comparing the observed deformation with the results of analogue models on dike intrusion. We investigated surface deformation at divergent plate boundaries via field surveys in the Neovolcanic Zone of Iceland and the Main Ethiopian Rift, with focus on: 1) single eruptive fissures (Laki and Eldgjá, South Iceland), 2) mature rifts where several diking events have occurred comparatively recently (i.e. Sveinagjá and Krafla in North Iceland and Fantale in Ethiopia) and 3) on fissure swarms where strike-slip component is also present (Vogar and Þingvellir swarms, Southwest Iceland). Systematic measurements of fault and extension-fracture geometries and kinematics were carried out, including the analysis of the morphology of the fault terminations as possible indicators of the propagation direction of the faults. In addition, we conducted measurements across the fossil Álftafjörður dyke swarm, of late Tertiary age, in East Iceland, exposed at a depth of about 1.2 km below the original surface of the rift zone within which the dikes were emplaced. We use this dataset to calculate the crustal dilation due to diking and faulting at depth at 1-2 km. Analogue models are used as a complementary tools to aid understanding of the geometry and the kinematics of dike-induced structures, under systematically varied boundary conditions (intrusion depth, number of dikes per unit length of profile, etc). Laser-scanner and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) techniques were used to quantify the surface deformation in the analogue models and to reconstruct the time evolution of the rift-zone development. The field and analogue results make it possible to provide a general model which considers the role of tectonics and magma (diking) in the development of the axial part of divergent plate boundaries.

  1. The October 28, 2012 Mw 7.8 Haida Gwaii underthrusting earthquake and tsunami: Slip partitioning along the Queen Charlotte Fault transpressional plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, Thorne; Ye, Lingling; Kanamori, Hiroo; Yamazaki, Yoshiki; Cheung, Kwok Fai; Kwong, Kevin; Koper, Keith D.

    2013-08-01

    The Pacific/North American plate boundary is undergoing predominantly right-lateral strike-slip motion along the Queen Charlotte and Fairweather transform faults. The Queen Charlotte Fault (QCF) hosted the largest historical earthquake in Canada, the 1949 MS 8.1 strike-slip earthquake, which ruptured from offshore northern Haida Gwaii several hundred kilometers northwestward. On January 5, 2013 an Mw 7.5 strike-slip faulting event occurred near the northern end of the 1949 rupture zone. Along central and southern Haida Gwaii the relative plate motion has ∼20% oblique convergence across the left-stepping plate boundary. There had been uncertainty in how the compressional component of plate motion is accommodated. The October 28, 2012 Mw 7.8 Haida Gwaii earthquake involved slightly (∼20°) oblique thrust faulting on a shallow (∼18.5°) northeast-dipping fault plane with strike (∼320°) parallel to the QCF, consistent with prior inferences of Pacific Plate underthrusting beneath Haida Gwaii. The rupture extended to shallow depth offshore of Moresby Island beneath a 25-30 km wide terrace of sediments that has accumulated in a wedge seaward of the QCF. The shallow thrusting caused seafloor uplift that generated substantial localized tsunami run-up and a modest far-field tsunami that spread across the northern Pacific, prompting a tsunami warning, beach closure, and coastal evacuation in Hawaii, although ultimately tide gauges showed less than 0.8 m of water level increase. The mainshock rupture appears to have spread with a ∼2.3 km/s rupture velocity over a length of ∼150 km, with slip averaging 3.3 m concentrated beneath the sedimentary wedge. The event was followed by a substantial aftershock sequence, in which almost all of the larger events involve distributed intraplate normal faulting extending ∼50 km oceanward from the QCF. The highly oblique slip partitioning in southern Haida Gwaii is distinctive in that the local plate boundary-parallel motion on the QCF may be accommodated either by infrequent large strike-slip ruptures or by aseismic creep, as seems to be the case for deeper oblique relative plate motion beneath Haida Gwaii, while the sedimentary terrace accumulates plate boundary-perpendicular compressional strain that releases in almost pure thrust faulting earthquakes, seaward of the QCF.

  2. A boundary element formulation for analysis of elastoplastic plates with geometrical nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waidemam, Leandro; Venturini, Wilson Sergio

    2010-03-01

    In this paper a new boundary element method formulation for elastoplastic analysis of plates with geometrical nonlinearities is presented. The von Mises criterion with linear isotropic hardening is considered to evaluate the plastic zone. Large deflections are assumed but within the context of small strain. To derive the boundary integral equations the von Kármán’s hypothesis is taken into account. An initial stress field is applied to correct the true stresses according to the adopted criterion. Isoparametric linear elements are used to approximate the boundary unknown values while triangular internal cells with linear shape function are adopted to evaluate the domain value influences. The nonlinear system of equations is solved by using an implicit scheme together with the consistent tangent operator derived along the paper. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and the validity of the proposed formulation.

  3. A structurally damped plate equation with Dirichlet-Neumann boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denk, Robert; Schnaubelt, Roland

    2015-08-01

    We investigate sectoriality and maximal regularity in Lp-Lq-Sobolev spaces for the structurally damped plate equation with Dirichlet-Neumann (clamped) boundary conditions. We obtain unique solutions with optimal regularity for the inhomogeneous problem in the whole space, in the half-space, and in bounded domains of class C4. It turns out that the first-order system related to the scalar equation on Rn is sectorial only after a shift in the operator. On the half-space one has to include zero boundary conditions in the underlying function space in order to obtain sectoriality of the shifted operator and maximal regularity for the case of homogeneous boundary conditions. We further show that the semigroup solving the problem on bounded domains is exponentially stable.

  4. Extension and transtension in the plate boundary zone of the northeastern Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Speed, R.C. ); Larue, D.K. )

    1991-03-01

    The authors propose that the Caribbean (Ca)-North American (NA) plate boundary zone (pbz) from the Puerto Rico Trench to the Venezuelan Basin from Mona Canyon east has been in left-transtension over the last 15-20 ma. A boundary-normal component of extension occurs throughout the pbz and is a principal cause of the Puerto Rico Trench. Such extension is due to WNW velocity of NA-Ca and the northward pullaway of NA from its S-dipping slab, which is below Puerto Rico. Strike slip motion may be taken up among terranes in the pbz by rigid CCW rotation and by oblique slip at their boundaries. Rotation of the largest terrane, Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands (PRVI), has caused such major structures as the Muertos thrust and Anegada Passage. The model implies NA-Ca velocity estimated from Cayman transforms is more accurate than that from slip vectors from seisms in the NA slab.

  5. Polynomial decay rate of a thermoelastic Mindlin-Timoshenko plate model with Dirichlet boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grobbelaar-Van Dalsen, Marié

    2015-02-01

    In this article, we are concerned with the polynomial stabilization of a two-dimensional thermoelastic Mindlin-Timoshenko plate model with no mechanical damping. The model is subject to Dirichlet boundary conditions on the elastic as well as the thermal variables. The work complements our earlier work in Grobbelaar-Van Dalsen (Z Angew Math Phys 64:1305-1325, 2013) on the polynomial stabilization of a Mindlin-Timoshenko model in a radially symmetric domain under Dirichlet boundary conditions on the displacement and thermal variables and free boundary conditions on the shear angle variables. In particular, our aim is to investigate the effect of the Dirichlet boundary conditions on all the variables on the polynomial decay rate of the model. By once more applying a frequency domain method in which we make critical use of an inequality for the trace of Sobolev functions on the boundary of a bounded, open connected set we show that the decay is slower than in the model considered in the cited work. A comparison of our result with our polynomial decay result for a magnetoelastic Mindlin-Timoshenko model subject to Dirichlet boundary conditions on the elastic variables in Grobbelaar-Van Dalsen (Z Angew Math Phys 63:1047-1065, 2012) also indicates a correlation between the robustness of the coupling between parabolic and hyperbolic dynamics and the polynomial decay rate in the two models.

  6. Plate boundary deformation at the latitude of the Salton Trough - northern Gulf of California (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Along the Pacific-North America plate boundary zone, the segment including the southern San Andreas fault to Salton Trough and northern Gulf of California basins has been transtensional throughout its evolution, based on Pacific-North America displacement vectors calculated from the global plate circuit (900 × 20 km at N54°W since 20 Ma; 460 × 20 km at N48°W since 11 Ma). Nevertheless, active seismicity and focal mechanisms show a broad zone of plate boundary deformation within which the inferred stress regime varies locally (Yang & Hauksson 2013 GJI), and fault patterns in some regions suggest ongoing tectonic rotation. Similar behavior is inferred to have occurred in this zone over most of its history. Crustal structure in this region is constrained by surface geology, geophysical experiments (e.g., the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP), USGS Imperial Valley 1979, PACE), and interdisciplinary marine and onland studies in Mexico (e.g., NARS-Baja, Cortes, and surveys by PEMEX). Magnetic data (e.g., EMAG-2) aids in the recognition of large-scale crustal provinces and fault boundaries in regions lacking detailed geophysical surveys. Consideration of existing constraints on crustal thickness and architecture, and fault and basin evolution suggests that to reconcile geological deformation with plate motion history, the following additional factors need to be taken into account. 1) Plate boundary displacement via interacting systems of rotating blocks, coeval with slip on steep strike slip faults, and possibly related to slip on low angle extensional faults (e.g, Axen & Fletcher 1998 IGR) may be typical prior to the onset of seafloor spreading. This fault style may have accommodated up to 150 km of plate motion in the Mexican Continental Borderland and north of the Vizcaino Peninsula, likely between 12 and 15 Ma, as well as explaining younger rotations adjacent to the Gulf of California and current deformation southwest of the Salton Sea. 2) Geophysical characteristics suggest that the zone of strike-slip faults related to past plate boundary deformation extends eastward into SW Arizona and beneath the Sonoran coastal plain. 3) 'New' crust and mantle lithosphere at the plate boundary, in the Salton Trough and the non-oceanic part of the northern Gulf of California, varies in seismic velocity structure and dimensions, both within and across extensional segments. Details of within-segment variations imaged by SSIP (e.g., Ma et al., and Han et al., this meeting) are attributed to active fault patterns and small scale variations in hydrothermal activity and magmatism superposed on a more uniform sedimentation. Differences between the Imperial Valley rift segment and the north Gulf of California segments may be due to more involvement of low angle normal faults in the marine basins in the south (Martin et al., 2013, Tectonics), as well as differences in lower crustal or mantle lithospheric flow from the adjacent continental regions.

  7. Evolution of the boundary between the Philippine Sea Plate and Australia: palaeomagnetic evidence from eastern Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Jason R.; Hall, Robert

    1995-12-01

    The boundary between the Philippine Sea and Australian plates is the left-lateral Sorong Fault system of eastern Indonesia. Until recently, modelling this boundary for the period before about 5 Ma was difficult; the Tertiary motion of the Philippine Sea Plate was uncertain and palaeomagnetic data from areas adjacent to the fault were lacking. Recent geological and palaeomagnetic studies of the area north of the Sorong Fault have elucidated the Tertiary motion history of the Philippine Sea Plate, providing a reference for examining movements within the fault system. We report new palaeomagnetic data from within the Sorong Fault Zone, from the islands of Taliabu and Obi. Taliabu is part of the Sula Platform and is considered to be derived from Australia. Pelagic limestones from the Upper Cretaceous Tanamu Formation of Taliabu yielded a direction of D = 329.1°, I = -34.9° implying counter-clockwise rotation and a formation latitude of 19 ± 5°S. Sula and Misool are postulated to be part of a single microcontinent which had a different Late Cretaceous-mid-Tertiary movement history from Australia. The Sula Platform was transported to its present position by movement along the Sorong Fault system in the Late Miocene. Obi includes rocks of Philippine Sea and Australian origin; all the new sites are in rocks of Philippine Sea Plate origin. Since the Early Neogene the Philippine Sea Plate, which includes all islands north of the Sorong Fault, has rotated 40° clockwise and moved 10-15° northwards. Philippine Sea Plate rocks within the Sorong Fault Zone record similar latitude shifts, but different rotations. In north Obi, the Upper Oligocene Anggai River Formation and the Middle Miocene Woi Formation record ˜ 60° and ˜ 30° counter-clockwise rotations, respectively. The sense of rotation is consistent with motion within a left-lateral fault system, with the Philippine Sea and Australian plates providing the shear couple. In contrast, the Woi Formation in southeast Obi records 15-20° clockwise rotation; this area is separated from the zone of counter-clockwise movement in north Obi by a strand of the Sorong Fault. Arc volcaniclastic rocks from the Upper Cretaceous Leleobasso Formation of northwest Obi have a primary magnetisation with a mean direction of D = 357.1°, I = -21.9°. These rocks formed at ˜ 11°N or ˜ 11°S, depending on the interpreted rotation history, and indicate a Pacific rather than Indian Ocean origin. A volcanic arc at the southern edge of the Philippine Sea Plate collided with eastern New Guinea at ˜ 25 Ma. The Philippine Sea-Australia plate boundary then changed from subduction to strike-slip, as the Philippine Sea Plate began its Neogene rotation, initiating the Sorong Fault system. We suggest that many of the arc fragments in the New Guinea orogenic belt originated in the southern Philippine Sea Plate arc which has subsequently been dismembered by strike-slip faulting.

  8. Distributed Plate Boundary Deformation Across the San Andreas Fault System, Central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyson, M.; Titus, S. J.; Demets, C.; Tikoff, B.

    2007-12-01

    Plate boundaries are now recognized as broad zones of complex deformation as opposed to narrow zones with discrete offsets. When assessing how plate boundary deformation is accommodated, both spatially and temporally, it is therefore crucial to understand the relative contribution of the discrete and distributed components of deformation. The creeping segment of the San Andreas fault is an ideal location to study the distribution of plate boundary deformation for several reasons. First, the geometry of the fault system in central California is relatively simple. Plate motion is dominated by slip along the relatively linear strike-slip San Andreas fault, but also includes lesser slip along the adjacent and parallel Hosgri-San Gregorio and Rinconada faults, as well as within the borderlands between the three fault strands. Second, the aseismic character of the San Andreas fault in this region allows for the application of modern geodetic techniques to assess creep rates along the fault and across the region. Third, geologic structures within the borderlands are relatively well-preserved allowing comparison between modern and ancient rates and styles of deformation. Continuous GPS stations, alignment arrays surveys, and other geodetic methods demonstrate that approximately 5 mm/yr of distributed slip is accumulated (on top of the fault slip rate) across a 70-100 km wide region centered on the San Andreas fault. New campaign GPS data also suggest 2-5 mm/yr of deformation in the borderlands. These rates depend on the magnitude of the coseismic and postseismic corrections that must be made to our GPS time series to compensate for the 2003 San Simeon and 2004 Parkfield earthquakes, which rupture faults outside, but near the edges of our GPS network. The off-fault deformation pattern can be compared to the style of permanent deformation recorded in the geologic record. Fold and thrust belts in the borderlands are better developed in the Tertiary sedimentary rocks west of the fault than in their Mesozoic counterparts on the east side of the fault. This combination of geodetic and geologic methods is a powerful way to better understand distributed plate boundary deformation that neither method could provide independently.

  9. How diking affects the longer-term structure and evolution of divergent plate boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trippanera, Daniele; Acocella, Valerio; Ruch, Joel; Rivalta, Eleonora

    2015-04-01

    Recurrent diking episodes along divergent plate boundaries, as at Dabbahu (2005, Afar) or at Bardarbunga (2014, Iceland) , highlight the possibility to have m-wide opening in a short time (days to weeks). This suggests a prominent role of magma enhancing transient plate separations. However, the role of diking on a longer term (> 102 years) and its influence on the structure and the evolution of a divergent plate boundary is still poorly investigated. Here we use field surveys along the oceanic Icelandic and continental Ethiopian plate boundaries, along five eruptive fissures and four rift segments. Field observations have also been integrated with analogue and numerical models of dike emplacement to better understand the effect of dike emplacement at depth and at the surface. Our results show that the dike-fed eruptive fissures are systematically associated with graben structures formed by inward dipping normal faults having throws up to 10 m and commonly propagating downward. Moreover, rift segments (i.e. mature rift zones), despite any asymmetry and repetition, are characterized by the same features as the eruptive fissures, the only difference lying in the larger size (higher fault throws, up to 40 m, and wider deformation zones). Analogue and numerical models of dike intrusion confirm that all the structural features observed along the rift segments may be dike-induced; these features include downward propagating normal faults bordering graben structures, contraction at the base of the hanging walls of the faults and upward propagating faults. Simple calculations based on the deeper structure of the eroded rift segments in eastern and western Iceland also suggest that all the fault slip in the active rift segments may result from diking. These results suggest that the overall deformation pattern of eruptive fissures and rift segments may be explained only by dike emplacement. In a magmatic rift, the regional tectonic stress may rarely be high enough to be released through regional faulting, suggesting that regional tectonics has negligible direct impact compared to diking in shaping the studied plate boundaries on the longer-term.

  10. GPS and tectonic evidence for a diffuse plate boundary at the Azores Triple Junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, F. O.; Catalão, J. C.; DeMets, C.; Costa, A. C. G.; Hildenbrand, A.

    2013-11-01

    We use GPS, bathymetric/structural, and seismic data to define the pattern of present deformation along the northern half of the Azores plateau, where the Nubia-Eurasia plate boundary terminates at the axis of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). New and existing campaign GPS velocities from the Azores islands reveal extension oblique to a series of en échelon volcanic ridges occupied by Terceira, S. Jorge, Pico, and Faial islands. In a frame of reference defined by 69 continuous GPS stations on the Eurasia plate, Terceira Island moves 2±1 mm/yr away from Eurasia, consistent with the island's location within the Terceira Rift and plate boundary structure. The volcanic ridges south of the Terceira Rift move toward WSW at progressively faster rates, reaching a maximum of 3.5±0.5 mm/yr (2-σ) for the Pico/Faial volcanic ridge. The hypothesis that the Terceira Rift accommodates all Nubia-Eurasia plate motion is rejected at high confidence level based on the motions of sites on S. Jorge Island just west of Terceira Rift. All of the islands move relative to the Nubia plate, with Pico Island exhibiting the slowest motion, only 1±0.5 mm/yr (2-σ). Detailed bathymetry from the interior of the hypothesized Azores microplate reveals faults that crosscut young MAR seafloor fabric. These observations and the GPS evidence for distributed deformation described above argue against the existence of a rigid or semi-rigid Azores microplate, and instead suggest that Nubia-Eurasia plate motion is accommodated by extension across a ˜140-km-wide zone east of the MAR axis, most likely bounded to the north by the northern shoulder of the Terceira Rift. The MAR spreading rate along the western end of the Azores deformation zone (˜38.5°N-39.5°N) is intermediate between the Eurasia-North America rate measured at 39.5°N and the Nubia-North America rate measured at 38.5°N, consistent with the joint conclusions that the Nubia-Eurasia boundary is broad where it intersects the MAR, and the Azores Triple Junction is diffuse rather than discrete.

  11. The boundary between the Indian and Asian tectonic plates below Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Junmeng; Yuan, Xiaohui; Liu, Hongbing; Kumar, Prakash; Pei, Shunping; Kind, Rainer; Zhang, Zhongjie; Teng, Jiwen; Ding, Lin; Gao, Xing; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    The fate of the colliding Indian and Asian tectonic plates below the Tibetan high plateau may be visualized by, in addition to seismic tomography, mapping the deep seismic discontinuities, like the crust-mantle boundary (Moho), the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), or the discontinuities at 410 and 660 km depth. We herein present observations of seismic discontinuities with the P and S receiver function techniques beneath central and western Tibet along two new profiles and discuss the results in connection with results from earlier profiles, which did observe the LAB. The LAB of the Indian and Asian plates is well-imaged by several profiles and suggests a changing mode of India-Asia collision in the east-west direction. From eastern Himalayan syntaxis to the western edge of the Tarim Basin, the Indian lithosphere is underthrusting Tibet at an increasingly shallower angle and reaching progressively further to the north. A particular lithospheric region was formed in northern and eastern Tibet as a crush zone between the two colliding plates, the existence of which is marked by high temperature, low mantle seismic wavespeed (correlating with late arriving signals from the 410 discontinuity), poor Sn propagation, east and southeast oriented global positioning system displacements, and strikingly larger seismic (SKS) anisotropy. PMID:20534567

  12. The boundary between the Indian and Asian tectonic plates below Tibet.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junmeng; Yuan, Xiaohui; Liu, Hongbing; Kumar, Prakash; Pei, Shunping; Kind, Rainer; Zhang, Zhongjie; Teng, Jiwen; Ding, Lin; Gao, Xing; Xu, Qiang; Wang, Wei

    2010-06-22

    The fate of the colliding Indian and Asian tectonic plates below the Tibetan high plateau may be visualized by, in addition to seismic tomography, mapping the deep seismic discontinuities, like the crust-mantle boundary (Moho), the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), or the discontinuities at 410 and 660 km depth. We herein present observations of seismic discontinuities with the P and S receiver function techniques beneath central and western Tibet along two new profiles and discuss the results in connection with results from earlier profiles, which did observe the LAB. The LAB of the Indian and Asian plates is well-imaged by several profiles and suggests a changing mode of India-Asia collision in the east-west direction. From eastern Himalayan syntaxis to the western edge of the Tarim Basin, the Indian lithosphere is underthrusting Tibet at an increasingly shallower angle and reaching progressively further to the north. A particular lithospheric region was formed in northern and eastern Tibet as a crush zone between the two colliding plates, the existence of which is marked by high temperature, low mantle seismic wavespeed (correlating with late arriving signals from the 410 discontinuity), poor Sn propagation, east and southeast oriented global positioning system displacements, and strikingly larger seismic (SKS) anisotropy. PMID:20534567

  13. Flat plate boundary layer transition induced by a controlled near-wall circular cylinder wake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-02-01

    The flat plate boundary layer transition induced by the wake of a circular cylinder close to the wall is experimentally investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and hydrogen bubble visualization techniques. The wake of the circular cylinder is controlled by a slot synthetic jet at the rear stagnation point of the circular cylinder. It is found that when the synthetic jet is actuated, the wake can be greatly modified. When the excitation frequency of the synthetic jet is set at the natural shedding frequency of the cylinder wake, the symmetrical shedding pattern can be observed. While the excitation frequency increases to be twice of the natural shedding frequency, the wake appears to be antisymmetrical again, but with the shedding frequency locked onto half of the excitation frequency. Flow visualizations show that spanwise secondary vortices can be induced in the near wall region by these large scale vortices in the wake. It is found that the secondary vortices destabilize into streamwise stretched ? vortices as they convect downstream. After the introduction of the synthetic jet, the destabilization process is promoted. By investigating the disturbance growth inside the boundary layer, it reveals that the synthetic jet can cause earlier initialization of the disturbance growth, thus promoting the transition process of the boundary layer. An explanation is provided that the low frequency components of the wake disturbances, which interact with the boundary layer, are enhanced by the introduction of the synthetic jet. Therefore, the destabilization of the secondary vortices is promoted, and disturbance growth in the boundary layer initiates earlier.

  14. Quasi-simultaneous interaction method for solving 2D boundary layer flows over plates and airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijleveld, H. A.; Veldman, A. E. P.

    2012-11-01

    This paper studies unsteady 2D boundary layer flows over dented plates and a NACA 0012 airfoil. An inviscid flow is assumed to exist outside the boundary layer and is solved iteratively with the boundary layer flow together with the interaction method until a matching solution is achieved. Hereto a quasi-simultaneous interaction method is applied, in which the integral boundary layer equations are solved together with an interaction-law equation. The interaction-law equation is an approximation of the external flow and based on thin-airfoil theory. It is an algebraic relation between the velocity and displacement thickness. The interaction-law equation ensures that the eigenvalues of the system of equations do not have a sign change and that no singularities occur. Three numerical schemes are used to solve the boundary layer flow with the interaction method. These are: a standard scheme, a splitting method and a characteristics solver. All schemes use a finite difference discretization. The three schemes yield comparable results for the simulations carried out. The standard scheme is deviating most from the splitting and characteristics solvers. The results show that the eigenvalues remain positive, even in separation. As expected, the addition of the interaction-law equation prevents a sign change of the eigenvalues. The quasi-simultaneous interaction scheme is applicable to the three numerical schemes tested.

  15. Laminar-Boundary-Layer Oscillations and Transition on a Flat Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubauer, G B; Skramstad, H K

    1948-01-01

    This is an account of an investigation in which oscillations were discovered in the laminar boundary layer along a flat plate. These oscillations were found during the course of an experiment in which transition from laminar to turbulent flow was being studied on the plate as the turbulence in the wind stream was being reduced to unusually low values by means of damping screens. The first part of the paper deals with experimental methods and apparatus, measurements of turbulence and sound, and studies of transition. A description is then given of the manner in which oscillations were discovered and how they were found to be related to transition, and then how controlled oscillations were produced and studied in detail.

  16. Paleoseismicity of the North American-Caribbean plate boundary (Septentrional fault), Dominican Republic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prentice, C.S.; Mann, P.; Taylor, F.W.; Burr, G.; Valastro, S.

    1993-01-01

    The Septentrional fault zone, the major North American-Caribbean plate-boundary fault in Hispaniola, is a likely source of large earthquakes in the Dominican Republic. An excavation into a Holocene alluvial fan deposited across the fault in the central Cibao Valley, Dominican Republic, provides evidence that it has been at least 430 yr and probably more than 740 yr since the last ground-rupturing earthquake along this segment of the fault. On the basis of these data and published estimates of the plate-tectonic slip rate, it is proposed that the Septentrional fault is a source of high seismic potential in the densely populated and rapidly developing Cibao Valley in the northern Dominican Republic. -Authors

  17. Prehistoric earthquakes on the Caribbean-South American plate boundary, central Range Fault, Trinidad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prentice, Carol S.; Crosby, Christopher J.; Weber, John C.; Ragona, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Recent geodetic studies suggest that the Central Range fault is the principal plate-boundary structure accommodating strike-slip motion between the Caribbean and South American plates. Our study shows that the fault forms a topographically prominent lineament in central Trinidad. Results from a paleoseismic investigation at a site where Holocene sediments have been deposited across the Central Range fault indicate that it ruptured the ground surface most recently between 2710 and 550 yr B.P. If the geodetic slip rate of 9–15 mm/yr is representative of Holocene slip rates, our paleoseismic data suggest that at least 4.9 m of potential slip may have accumulated on the fault and could be released during a future large earthquake (M > 7).

  18. Prehistoric earthquakes on the Caribbean-South American plate boundary, central range fault, Trinidad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prentice, C.S.; Weber, J.C.; Crosby, C.J.; Ragona, D.

    2010-01-01

    Recent geodetic studies suggest that the Central Range fault is the principal plate-boundary structure accommodating strike-slip motion between the Caribbean and South American plates. Our study shows that the fault forms a topographically prominent lineament in central Trinidad. Results from a paleoseismic investigation at a site where Holocene sediments have been deposited across the Central Range fault indicate that it ruptured the ground surface most recently between 2710 and 550 yr B.P. If the geodetic slip rate of 9-15 mm/yr is representative of Holocene slip rates, our paleoseismic data suggest that at least 4.9 m of potential slip may have accumulated on the fault and could be released during a future large earthquake (M > 7). ?? 2010 Geological Society of America.

  19. On the OLP prediction of the unstable modes of the flat plate turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadia, A. R.; Payne, F. R.

    1981-01-01

    The Orr et al. (OLP) stability analysis is reformulated to yield profiles from hot-wire velocity covariance data in the boundary layer of a flow over a flat plate. The proper orthogonal decomposition theorem (PODT) is used to maximize the mean square of the inner product of the velocity vector with a deterministic candidate vector function in Hilbert space. The OLP formulation couples the PODT for the eddy viscosity with a global extremum principle for the disturbance kinetic energy. Derivation of the governing equations is described analytically, as are the extraction of the mean velocity profile and the eddy viscosity. Finally, techniques for characterizing the dominant mode of the velocity field are introduced and applied to three-dimensional flow over a flat plate. Good agreement is found between the predictions, using laboratory data, and the measured energy and three-dimensional structures of the dominant eddies.

  20. Geodetic and tectonic analyses along an active plate boundary: The central Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortlieb, L.; Ruegg, J. C.; Angelier, J.; Colletta, B.; Kasser, M.; Lesage, P.

    1989-06-01

    The Gulf of California is traversed by the shear plate boundary between Pacific and North American plates and, because of several islands in its central part, offers the possibility of direct geodetic measurements of plate motion. A geodetic network of 150 km aperture, and comprising 11 stations, was measured in 1982 and 1986 by laser trilateration methods. The deformations deduced from the comparison of the two epochs indicate right-lateral shear strain covering the entire gulf rather than localized movements. In the eastern part of the network, between the axial islands and the Sonoran coast, significant right-lateral shear deformation occurs with a relative displacement of about 23 ± 12 cm over 4 years. In the northwestern region (Canal de Ballenas) a right-lateral displacement of about 17 ± 4 cm is observed, whereas in the southwestern part of the network (Canal Sal-si-Puedes), the deformation remains very weak. This suggests that south of the Canal de Ballenas the plate boundary is locked. A tectonic analysis of Neogene and Quaternary faults in Baja California, Sonora, and the central islands of the gulf, permitted the reconstruction of the stress pattern evolution of this area. These data also indicate the predominance of right-lateral motion on a NW-SE trending zone within a regional framework characterized by an approximately N-S compression and an E-W extension. The geodetic results are discussed in comparison with the neotectonic analysis and the seismic data available in the area. The data suggest a broad strain accumulation zone covering the totality of the central Gulf of California. A NW-SE relative velocity of about 8 ± 3 cm/yr is found between the two sides of the gulf during the 1982-1986 interval.

  1. The Northern Caribbean Plate Boundary Offshore Hispaniola: Strike-slip and Compressive Tectonic Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbeau, J.; Rolandone, F.; Leroy, S. D.; Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.; Meyer, B.; Ellouz, N.

    2014-12-01

    The boundary between the Caribbean plate and the North American plate is transpressive due to the oblique collision between these two plates. The transpressive movement is partitioned and accommodated in the Hispaniola region along two left-lateral strike-slip structures surrounding a fold-and-thrust belt. New multibeam bathymetry data and multichannel seismic reflection profiles have been recently collected during the Haiti-SIS and Haiti-SIS 2 cruises, along part of the northern Caribbean plate boundary between Cuba, Jamaica and Hispaniola. From the north to the south, three types of deformations are observed. In the Windward Passage, the analysis of the data set reveals that the movement on the Oriente fault between Cuba and Hispaniola is purely left-lateral strike-slip according to the GPS measurements. In the Gonave basin, west of Hispaniola, the deformation is compressive. A series of folds is identified and moves toward the southwest. The Enriquillo-Plantain-Garden Fault (EPGF) is localized in the Jamaica Passage, between Jamaica and Hispaniola. The analysis of the data set reveals that the left-lateral EPGF recently intersects inherited basins from the eastern Cayman Trough margin. The study of the actual EPGF active trace shows that this fault moves with a pure strike-slip component, at least in its western part: the presence of a little push-up structure and a set of three en echelon folds is highlighting in the western part of the Jamaica Passage. The shortening rate in the inherited basins crossed by the EPGF increases from west to east (5.8% to 8.5%), indicating that a thrusting component is also accommodated around the EPGF.

  2. Architectural Blueprint for Plate Boundary Observatories based on interoperable Data Management Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerschke, D. I.; Häner, R.; Schurr, B.; Oncken, O.; Wächter, J.

    2014-12-01

    Interoperable data management platforms play an increasing role in the advancement of knowledge and technology in many scientific disciplines. Through high quality services they support the establishment of efficient and innovative research environments. Well-designed research environments can facilitate the sustainable utilization, exchange, and re-use of scientific data and functionality by using standardized community models. Together with innovative 3D/4D visualization, these concepts provide added value in improving scientific knowledge-gain, even across the boundaries of disciplines. A project benefiting from the added value is the Integrated Plate boundary Observatory in Chile (IPOC). IPOC is a European-South American network to study earthquakes and deformation at the Chilean continental margin and to monitor the plate boundary system for capturing an anticipated great earthquake in a seismic gap. In contrast to conventional observatories that monitor individual signals only, IPOC captures a large range of different processes through various observation methods (e.g., seismographs, GPS, magneto-telluric sensors, creep-meter, accelerometer, InSAR). For IPOC a conceptual design has been devised that comprises an architectural blueprint for a data management platform based on common and standardized data models, protocols, and encodings as well as on an exclusive use of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) including visualization components. Following the principles of event-driven service-oriented architectures, the design enables novel processes by sharing and re-using functionality and information on the basis of innovative data mining and data fusion technologies. This platform can help to improve the understanding of the physical processes underlying plate deformations as well as the natural hazards induced by them. Through the use of standards, this blueprint can not only be facilitated for other plate observing systems (e.g., the European Plate Observing System EPOS), it also supports integrated approaches to include sensor networks that provide complementary processes for dynamic monitoring. Moreover, the integration of such observatories into superordinate research infrastructures (federation of virtual observatories) will be enabled.

  3. Evolution of southern Caribbean plate boundary, vicinity of Trinidad and Tobago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Paul; Burke, Kevin

    1989-01-01

    The tectonic evolution of the southeastern corner of the Caribbean is examined, using field data from the El Pilar fault zone of Trinidad and offshore seismic data. It is found that the dominant process in the region's tectonic evolution is strike-slip motion on at least five major fault systems in a 250-km wide east-west-trending plate-boundary zone extending from Grenada in the north to the Orinoco River in the south. The geological effects of this evolution over the past 30 m y are described.

  4. Fluid-mechanical Representation of Plate Boundaries - Trench-Ridge System -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaku, M.; Fukao, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Seismic tomography models have been used extensively to simulate mantle convection driven by density heterogeneity. Such simulation to date has been unsuccessful to reconcile itself with the most obvious convection-related phenomenon of plate motions. Here we present a theoretical framework for tomography-based convection modeling to include the plates as an integral part of the mantle convection. We model the lithosphere as a highly viscous, incompressible, Newtonian fluid layer and plate boundaries as faults across which tangential velocities are discontinuous. Fluid-mechanical expressions of such faults have their exact analogies in the seismic source representation theory and can be derived by referring to it. We test this idea against the simplest two-dimensional case with only trench and ridge as plate boundaries, and with only subducting slab as mass anomaly. We model ridge (trench) as the horizontal (vertical) tensile fault that comprises of a conjugate pair of 45-degree dip normal (reverse) faults extending over the entire thickness of the surface layer. The system comprises of three elementary convections, slab mass-driven convection, trench fault-driven convection and ridge fault-driven convection. Flow due to the slab excess mass imposes vertical tensile stress on trench, which is released by flow driven by trench faulting. This faulting converts efficiently the vertical tensile stress to the horizontal tensile stress, which can transmit to extreme distances through the surface viscous layer. This horizontal tensile stress is relieved by flow driven by ridge faulting. The three elementary convections are thus coupled through the stress minimum conditions at ridge and trench. The resultant coupled flow is very plate-like in the surface viscous layer. In this system the horizontal surface velocity depends little on the relative distance between the ridge and trench and depends mostly on the excess weight of the subducting slab. The horizontal speed can be compared to the actual plate velocities for a lithosphere-asthenosphere system with a viscosity ratio of more than 10**3. The system is operated on the whole in a state of minimal stress.

  5. Using GPS, tide gauge and altimetry data to constrain subduction parameters at the Vanuatu plate boundary.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballu, V.; Bouin, M.; Baillard, C.; Calmant, S.; Pelletier, B.; Crawford, W. C.; Kanas, T.; Garaebiti, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Vanuatu subduction zone, Southwest Pacific, combines several features that makes it a particularly useful place to study seismic cycles. The convergence rate is high - approximately 12 cm/yr - and the seismic cycle relatively short. Measurements of interseismic motions are helped by relatively high vertical rates, the close proximity of some islands to the plate interface and the existence of very shallow seamounts on either side of the plate interface. The Vanuatu archipelago is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire: the Australian plate subducts eastward beneath the North Fiji basin, on the western border of the Pacific Plate. High topographic features on the diving plate may contribute to locking of the plates, which can play a major role in the genesis of destructive earthquakes. GPS network points were installed in the early 1990s and the geodesy network has been densified through the years, enabling us to map interseismic horizontal and vertical deformation rates throughout the archipelago. More recently, 8 continuous GPS stations were installed, along with 3 continuous seafloor pressure gauges very near to the plate interface. We show results from GPS data collected from 1996 to 2011, that we re-processed and combined into the ITRF2008 reference frame, and altimetry and seafloor pressure data from 1999 to 2010. The GPS results show that vertical deformation rates vary both across and along the archipelago. We believe that these variations result from variable distance to the plate limit and variable locking parameters. In some areas, subsidence rates are close to one centimeter per year. In the Torres islands (at the northern end of the archipelago) where villagers face recurrent coastal flooding, we showed that this flooding is due more to ground motion than to rise in the absolute sea level, even though the sea-level rise rates are locally high and the islands uplift over the long term. In the Central area of Vanuatu, we augmented the on-land network with two offshore sites using absolute pressure gauges. The sites - Wusi and Sabine Banks - are installed beneath altimetry satellite tracks, Wusi Bank on the over-riding plate and Sabine Bank on the subducting plate. The difference in the pressure records between the sites shows that Wusi Bank subsides by 11 +/- 3 mm/yr with respect to Sabine Bank. We combined the water depths derived from the pressure measurements with altimetry-derived sea-surface heights to tie these heights to a global reference frame: Wusi Bank subsides and Sabine Bank's vertical motion is near zero. Using a 2D elastic model and a finite-element code, we used the gradient of vertical deformation between the coast and the Wusi Bank site to discriminate between possible locked zone geometries. The best simple approximation is a 25° dipping, 30 km long fully locked zone, indicating that stress is currently accumulating west of Santo, Central Vanuatu. The movement of Wusi Bank is a key factor in constraining the dip and length of the locked zone, demonstrating the importance of offshore geodesy measurements.

  6. Effect of plate permeability on nonlinear stability of the asymptotic suction boundary layer.

    PubMed

    Wedin, HÃ¥kan; Cherubini, Stefania; Bottaro, Alessandro

    2015-07-01

    The nonlinear stability of the asymptotic suction boundary layer is studied numerically, searching for finite-amplitude solutions that bifurcate from the laminar flow state. By changing the boundary conditions for disturbances at the plate from the classical no-slip condition to more physically sound ones, the stability characteristics of the flow may change radically, both for the linearized as well as the nonlinear problem. The wall boundary condition takes into account the permeability K̂ of the plate; for very low permeability, it is acceptable to impose the classical boundary condition (K̂=0). This leads to a Reynolds number of approximately Re(c)=54400 for the onset of linearly unstable waves, and close to Re(g)=3200 for the emergence of nonlinear solutions [F. A. Milinazzo and P. G. Saffman, J. Fluid Mech. 160, 281 (1985); J. H. M. Fransson, Ph.D. thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, Sweden, 2003]. However, for larger values of the plate's permeability, the lower limit for the existence of linear and nonlinear solutions shifts to significantly lower Reynolds numbers. For the largest permeability studied here, the limit values of the Reynolds numbers reduce down to Re(c)=796 and Re(g)=294. For all cases studied, the solutions bifurcate subcritically toward lower Re, and this leads to the conjecture that they may be involved in the very first stages of a transition scenario similar to the classical route of the Blasius boundary layer initiated by Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves. The stability of these nonlinear solutions is also investigated, showing a low-frequency main unstable mode whose growth rate decreases with increasing permeability and with the Reynolds number, following a power law Re(-ρ), where the value of ρ depends on the permeability coefficient K̂. The nonlinear dynamics of the flow in the vicinity of the computed finite-amplitude solutions is finally investigated by direct numerical simulations, providing a viable scenario for subcritical transition due to TS waves. PMID:26274284

  7. The relationship between growth orientation and grain boundary generation in sapphire plate crystals grown by the EFG technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shou-Qing, Zhang; Liang-An, Tang; Wen, Wang; Shou-Hong, Le

    1980-11-01

    Sapphire plate crystals used for substrates have been grown by the EFG technique. The experiments indicated that the generation of subgrain boundaries is closely related to the seed orientation. By choosing a favorable growth orientation, this imperfection can be obviously decreased. It is confirmed that the (0001) <11 overline20> slip system must be responsible for the generation of such grain boundaries.

  8. Young tectonics of a complex plate boundary zone: Indentation, rotation, and escape in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, W. K.; Ruppert, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    Convergence of thick crust of the Yakutat block with the southern margin of Alaska is widely recognized as a dominant influence on the tectonics of Alaska since at least late Miocene time. It is less clear how this convergence relates to the distribution, type, and orientation of geologic structures, and to the boundaries between the tectonic provinces that they define. We propose that convergence of Yakutat block includes two distinct components that influence deformation and topography in different ways: 1) The crust of the exposed, southern Yakutat block is too thick to subduct, which has caused the collisional St. Elias orogen. Detachment of the upper part of the mafic basement allows delamination and sinking of the remaining mafic crust and lithospheric mantle. The collisional orogen drives rigid counterclockwise rotation of the southern Alaska block south of the arcuate, right-lateral Denali fault. The western boundary of this block is a zone of distributed contraction in the western Alaska Range and Cook Inlet. 2) The northern part of the Yakutat block is thin enough to subduct but thick and buoyant enough to cause localized flat-slab subduction orthogonal to rotation of the southern Alaska block. Consequences include the gently antiformal Talkeetna Mountains that span the forearc basin, a gap in the magmatic arc, and a basement-involved fold-and-thrust belt in the northern Alaska Range. An arcuate oroclinal hinge from southern Alaska to the northeastern Brooks Range reflects indentation since at least Paleocene time. Traction above the subducted Yakutat block along the southern part of this hinge drives current indentation. North of the subducted Yakutat block, indentation is reflected by left-lateral block rotation that accommodates shortening between the Denali and Tintina faults and by contraction farther north along the northern edge of the arcuate northeastern Brooks Range. Western Alaska accommodates both northward indentation and westward convergence of the southern Alaska block by right-lateral block rotation and tectonic escape related to local left-lateral faults. Farther west, slow clockwise rigid rotation of the extensive Bering block accommodates escape and is separated from stable northwestern Alaska by a zone of extension. These tectonic provinces are defined by mapped structures and by the distribution and focal mechanisms of earthquakes. Structures are generally consistent with stress orientations determined from earthquakes, but local discrepancies between observed structures and those predicted from the stress determinations suggest that reactivation of older structures is important.

  9. The memory of the accreting plate boundary and the continuity of fracture zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schouten, Hans; Klitgord, Kim D.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed aeromagnetic anomaly map of the Mesozoic seafloor-spreading lineations southwest of Bermuda reveals the dominant magnetic grain of the oceanic crust and the character of the accreting boundary at the time of crustal formation. The magnetic anomaly pattern is that of a series of elongate lobes perpendicular to the fracture zone (flowline) trends. The linear sets of magnetic anomaly peaks and troughs have narrow regions of reduced amplitude anomalies associated with the fracture zones. During the period of Mesozoic geomagnetic polarity reversals (when 1200 km of central North Atlantic seafloor formed), the Atlantic accreting boundary consisted of stationary, elongate, spreading center cells that maintained their independence even though sometimes only minor spatial offsets existed between cells. Normal oceanic crustal structure was formed in the spreading center cells, but structural anomalies and discontinuities characteristic of fracture zones were formed at their boundaries, which parallel flowlines of Mesozoic relative plate motion in the central North Atlantic. We suggest that the memory for a stationary pattern of independent spreading center cells resides in the young brittle lithosphere at the accreting boundary where the lithosphere is weakest; here, each spreading center cell independently goes through its cylce of stress buildup, stress release, and crustal accretion, after which its memory is refreshed. The temporal offset between the peaks of the accretionary activity that takes place within each cell may provide the mechanism for maintaining the independence of adjacent spreading center cells through times when no spatial offset between the cells exists.

  10. Flowfield measurements in a separated and reattached flat plate turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patrick, William P.

    1987-01-01

    The separation and reattachment of a large-scale, two-dimensional turbulent boundary layer at low subsonic speed on a flat plate has been studied experimentally. The separation bubble was 55 cm long and had a maximum bubble thickness, measured to the height of the mean dividing streamline, of 17 cm, which was twice the thickness of the inlet boundary layer. A combination of laser velocimetry, hot-wire anemometry, pneumatic probing techniques, and flow visualization were used as diagnostics. Principal findings were that an outer inviscid rotational flow was defined which essentially convected over the blockage associated with the inner, viscously dominated bubble recirculation region. A strong backflow region in which the flow moved upstream 100 percent of the time was measured near the test surface over the central 35 percent of the bubble. A laminar backflow boundary layer having pseudo-turbulent characteristics including a log-linear velocity profile was generated under the highly turbulent backflow. Velocity profile shapes in the reversed flow region matched a previously developed universal backflow profile at the upstream edge of the separation region but not in the steady backflow region downstream. A smoke flow visualization movie and hot-film measurements revealed low frequency nonperiodic flapping at reattachment. However, forward flow fraction data at reattachment and mean velocity profiles in the redeveloping boundary layer downstream of reattachment correlated with backward-facing step data when the axial dimension was scaled by the distance from the maximum bubble thickness to reattachment.

  11. Low Intensity Characteristic of Plate-Boundary S-S Reflections Within a Region of Strong Plate-Boundary P-P Reflections and low Seismicity Along the Japan Trench Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochizuki, K.; Kasahara, J.; Hino, R.; Nishino, M.; Yamada, T.; Shinohara, M.; Kanazawa, T.

    2003-12-01

    It has been pointed out that the epicenters of the microearthquakes along the forearc slope of the Japan Trench are not uniformly distributed but clustered in seismically active zones that are oriented perpendicular to the trench axis. One of the clear seismic-aseismic boundaries of such seismic clusters can be identified in latitude 39° N. A seismic survey was conducted in 1996 with one profile running across the boundary and parallel to the trench axis, and a P-wave velocity structure model was obtained by travel-time inversion (Fujie, 1999). A strong anti-correlation between the seismicity and the intensity of the plate-boundary P-P reflected waves was found: strong plate-boundary P-P reflected waves were observed in a region where seismicity is quite low, and vice versa (Fujie et al., 2002). They discussed that a thin layer of low P-wave velocities (3~4 km/s) with its thickness up to a few hundred meters along the plate boundary could explain the intensity of the reflections. Results of finite-difference waveform calculations support this estimation (Moghaddam, 2002). Another seismic survey was carried out in 2001 with 7 trench-parallel profiles in the same region as the 1996 survey in order to map and verify the strong anti-correlation. The strong anti-correlation was observed over the seismic-aseismic boundary region, and it was inferred that a thin layer with low P-wave velocities along the plate boundary exists beneath the aseismic zone in the region. Understanding the characteristics of plate-boundary S-S reflections in addition to those of P-P reflections would greatly help put better constraints on the physical properties along the plate boundary. Substantial P-to-S conversion at the base of the sedimentary layers was observed. S-wave velocities, especially those of the sedimentary layers, should be precisely determined in order to have good estimates of the arrival times of the plate-boundary S-S reflected waves. The S-wave velocities of the sedimentary layers were obtained by the tau-p analysis of the OBS horizontal-component waveforms. The Vp/Vs ratios within the sediment layers were estimated to be 5.2 and 2.3 from top to bottom. The Vp/Vs ratios within the deeper structure were assumed to be 1.8 to 1.74 as the Vp varies from 4.5 km/s to 8.0 km/s. The calculated travel times explain well the observed travel times of P-S-converted refraction arrivals. Expected arrival times of the plate-boundary S-S reflected waves were calculated with respect to the obtained Vs structure. Such intense amplitude as observed for the plate-boundary P-P reflections was not identified for the S-S reflections. Irregularity of the interfaces within the structure or differences in the reflectivity coefficients between P-P and S-S reflections at the plate boundary does not explain the opposite appearances of those reflections. Although the strong plate-boundary P-P reflections could be explained by putting a thin low-velocity layer, some additional features for S-S reflections along the plate boundary may be required, such as very low Q values (high attenuation) for the S-wave propagation.

  12. Seismicity of the diffusive Iberian/African plate boundary at the eastern terminus of the Azores-Gibraltar Transform fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, D.; Grevemeyer, I.; Matias, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    The plate boundary at the eastern terminus of the Azores-Gibraltar transform fault between Africa and Iberia is poorly defined. The deformation in the area is forced by the slow NW-SE convergence of 4 mm/yr between the oceanic domains of Iberia/Eurasia and Africa and is accommodated over a 200 km broad tectonically-active deformation zone. The region, however, is also characterized by large earthquakes, such as the 1969 Mw=7.9 Horseshoe event and the November 1, 1755 Great Lisbon earthquake with an estimated magnitude of Mw~8.5. The exact location of the source of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake is still unknown. Recent work may suggest that the event occurred in the vicinity of the Horseshoe fault, an oblique thrust fault. However, estimates of tsunami arrival times suggested a source near the Gorringe Bank, a ~180 km-long and ~70 km-wide ridge that has a relieve of ~5000 m. Deep Sea Drilling (DSDP) and rock samples indicated that the bank is mainly composed of serpentinized peridotites with gabbroic intrusions, perhaps being created by overthrusting of the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain onto the Tagus Abyssal Plain in NW direction. Further, the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain is marked by the presence of compressive structures with a roughly NE-SW orientation and E-W trending, segmented, crustal-scale, strike slip faults that extend from the Gorringe Bank to the Gibraltar Arc in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz, which were called "South West Iberian Margin" or SWIM faults. The fault system may mark a developing Eurasia-Africa plate boundary. Two local seismic networks were operated in the area. First, a network of 14 ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) was operated between April and October 2012 in the vicinity of the Horseshoe fault between 10°W to 11°W, and 35°50'N to 36°10'N. From October 2013 to March 2014 a second network of 15 OBS monitored seismicity at the Gorringe Bank. Both networks benefitted from seismic stations operated in Portugal. The first network provided in the order of 100 locale earthquakes occurring with the network. Most earthquakes in the abyssal plain occurred at a depth of 40-60 km, either in oceanic or unroofed continental mantle. The large source depth of events in the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain supports the idea that large catastrophic earthquakes, like the Great Lisbon earthquake of 1755, may indeed occur in the area.

  13. Seismicity and seismotectonics of the diffusive Iberian/African plate boundary: Horseshoe Abyssal Plain and Gorringe Bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevemeyer, Ingo; Lange, Dietrich; Matias, Luis

    2014-05-01

    In the area to the west of the Gibraltar Arc the plate boundary between Africa and Iberia is poorly defined. The deformation in the area is forced by the slow NW-SE convergence of 4 mm/yr between the oceanic domains of Iberia/Eurasia and Africa and is accommodated over a 200 km broad tectonically-active deformation zone. The region, however, is also characterized by large earthquakes and tsunamis, such as the 1969 Mw=7.9 Horseshoe Abyssal Plain earthquake and the November 1, 1755 Great Lisbon earthquake with an estimated magnitude of Mw~8.5. The exact location of the source of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake is still unknown. Recent work may suggest that the event occurred in the vicinity of the Horseshoe fault, an oblique thrust fault. However, estimates of tsunami arrival times suggested a source near the Gorringe Bank, a ~180 km-long and ~70 km-wide ridge that has a relieve of ~5000 m. Deep Sea Drilling (DSDP) and rock samples indicated that the bank is mainly composed of serpentinized peridotites with gabbroic intrusions, perhaps being created by overthrusting of the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain onto the Tagus Abyssal Plain in NW direction. Further, the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain is marked by the presence of compressive structures with a roughly NE-SW orientation and E-W trending, segmented, crustal-scale, strike slip faults that extend from the Gorringe Bank to the Gibraltar Arc in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz, which were called "South West Iberian Margin" or SWIM faults. The fault system may mark a developing Eurasia-Africa plate boundary. Two local seismic networks were operated in the area. First, a network of 14 ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) was operated between April and October 2012 in the vicinity of the Horseshoe fault between 10°W to 11°W, and 35°50'N to 36°10'N. From October 2013 to March 2014 a second network of 15 OBS monitored seismicity at the Gorringe Bank. Both networks benefitted from seismic stations operated in Portugal. The first network provided in the order of 100 locale earthquakes occurring with the network. Most earthquakes in the Horseshoe occurred at a depth of 40-60 km, either in oceanic or unroofed continental mantle. The large source depth of events observed in the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain supports the idea that large catastrophic earthquakes, like the Great Lisbon earthquake of 1755, may indeed occur in the area.

  14. Chemical and isotopic evidence of gas-influenced flow at a transform plate boundary: Monterey Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, J.B.; Orange, D.L.; Lorenson, T.D.; Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1997-01-01

    Chemical and isotopic compositions of pore fluids document upward flow through communities of vesicomyid clams in Monterey Bay, California. Within the clam communities, the sulfate reduction zone is only 10 cm thick, and Ca and Mg concentrations decrease to values as low as 2.2 mM and 34.5 mM, respectively, at depths less than 30 cm below the sediment-water interface. Less than 5 m outside the communities, the base of the sulfate reduction zone is deeper than the greatest penetration of the cores (-30 cm), and Ca and Mg exhibit only minor changes from seawater values. The sediment exhibits no significant variation in grain size, mineralogy, organic carbon, nitrogen, or carbonate content throughout the region. The composition of pore fluid within clam communities results from upward flow of altered fluid rather than different diagenetic reactions within and outside the communities. Isotopically light dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), with ??13C values ranging from -3.2 to -54.1???, could reflect carbon sources from either oxidized thermogenic methane and/or a mixture of oxidized microbial methane and solid organic carbon. The C1/(C2+C3) ratios (ranging from 34 to 1142) and the hydrogen and carbon isotopic compositions of methane (??D values of -109 to -156???; ??13C values of -30.6 to -86.6???) suggest that methane is primarily microbial but that a minor component could be thermally generated. Any thermogenic methane would have migrated from great depths, possibly >2 km. The presence of methane is likely to contribute to fluid flow by reducing the density of the fluids. Past fluid migration and venting are reflected by widespread carbonate mineralization at the sediment-water interface. This mineralization and the geographic distribution and proportions of microbial and thermogenic methane suggest that vent sites migrate when permeability is reduced during carbonate cementation. These results demonstrate that along with convergent and divergent plate boundaries, transform plate boundaries are characterized by fluid flow and that the flow may be widespread, occurring at sites away from fault zones.

  15. Preliminary Heat Flow Measurements from Plate Boundary Observatory Boreholes along the San Andreas Fault System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, K. J.; Harris, R. N.; Williams, C.; Grubb, F. V.; Fulton, P. M.; Chapman, D. S.

    2009-12-01

    Knowledge of the subsurface thermal regime is critical for understanding lithospheric rheology, fault mechanics and geodynamic processes. We report new heat flow values from boreholes drilled during the installation of borehole strain meters as part of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) help constrain the role of temperature in determining the spatial and temporal pattern of deformation within along strike-slip faults in California. The new boreholes sites along this plate boundary system are clustered in the San Francisco Bay Area (n=5), San Juan Batista (n=5), Parkfield (n=7), and Anza (n=5). The boreholes vary in depth from 97 to 245 m. Temperature profiles were measured in each borehole and more than 899 thermal conductivity measurements were determined from drill cuttings and core samples. Heat production measurements are currently in progress. Temperature gradients have been corrected for the perturbing effects of terrain and combined with thermal conductivity to form thermal resistance plots and calculate heat flow. In general these plots indicate constant heat flow in the lower parts of the holes consistent with conductive heat transfer. Overall heat flow values are consistent with elevated heat flow that characterizes much of the California Coast Ranges. This study will help constrain the role of temperature in determining the spatial and temporal pattern of deformation within and along strike-slip faults in California.

  16. Divergent plate boundaries and crustal spreading on Venus: Evidence from Aphrodite Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumpler, L. S.; Head, James W.

    1989-01-01

    The modes of lithospheric heat transfer and the tectonic styles may differ between Earth and Venus, depending on how the high surface temperature (700 K = 430 C), dense and opaque atmosphere (approx. 10 MPa = 100 bars), lack of water oceans, and the other known ways in which Venus differs from Earth, influence basic lithospheric processes, thermal gradient, upper mantle temperature, thermal and chemical evolution, and convection. A fundamental question is whether the lithosphere of Venus is horizontally stable, like the other terrestrial planets, or is mobile like that on Earth. The variety of characteristics, their integrated relationships, and their predictable behavior throughout Western Aphrodite Terra are similar to those features known to occur in association with the terrestrial seafloor at spreading centers and divergent plate boundaries. It is concluded that Western Aphrodite Terra represents the site of crustal spreading centers and divergent plate boundaries. The extent of similar characteristics and processes elsewhere on Venus outside of the 13,000 km long Western and Eastern Aphrodite Terra rise is unknown at the present, but their presence in other areas of the equatorial highlands, suggested from recent analysis, may be tested with forthcoming Magellan data.

  17. Mean profile of a high-Reynolds-number smooth-flat-plate turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, David R.; Oweis, Ghanem F.; Winkel, Eric S.; Cutbirth, James M.; Ceccio, Steven L.; Perlin, Marc

    2010-11-01

    Although smooth-flat-plate turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) have been studied for nearly a century, measurements at Reynolds numbers typical of marine & aerospace transportation systems are scarce. Experimental results at momentum-thickness Reynolds numbers (Re) up to 150,000 from the US Navy W.B. Morgan Large Cavitation Channel using a polished 12.9-m-long flat-plate test model at water flow speeds up to 20 m/s are presented. Mean velocity profiles were measured 10.7 m from the leading edge of the model over a wall-normal range from less than one wall unit to more than twice the nominal boundary layer thickness using particle-tracking and laser-Doppler velocimetry. Static pressure and average skin-friction were measured independently. A mild favorable pressure gradient led to a flow speed increase of 2.5% over the test surface. The measurements span a factor of three in Re and were fitted to within experimental uncertainty using one set of constants and modern empirical inner- and outer-profile forms based on traditional TBL asymptotics. The fitted profiles satisfy the von-Karman momentum integral to within 1%, and show distinct differences from equivalent zero pressure gradient results. [Supported by DARPA & ONR

  18. Fluid flow and heat transfer of carbon nanotubes along a flat plate with Navier slip boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, W. A.; Khan, Z. H.; Rahi, M.

    2014-06-01

    Homogeneous flow model is used to study the flow and heat transfer of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) along a flat plate subjected to Navier slip and uniform heat flux boundary conditions. This is the first paper on the flow and heat transfer of CNTs along a flat plate. Two types of CNTs, namely, single- and multi-wall CNTs are used with water, kerosene or engine oil as base fluids. The empirical correlations are used for the thermophysical properties of CNTs in terms of the solid volume fraction of CNTs. For the effective thermal conductivity of CNTs, Xue (Phys B Condens Matter 368:302-307, 2005) model has been used and the results are compared with the existing theoretical models. The governing partial differential equations and boundary conditions are converted into a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations using suitable similarity transformations. These equations are solved numerically using a very efficient finite difference method with shooting scheme. The effects of the governing parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, skin friction, and Nusselt numbers are investigated and presented in graphical and tabular forms. The numerical results of skin friction and Nusselt numbers are compared with the available data for special cases and are found in good agreement.

  19. Vibrations of plates with clamped and free edges excited by low-speed turbulent boundary layer flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambric, S. A.; Hwang, Y. F.; Bonness, W. K.

    2004-01-01

    Plate vibrations due to turbulent boundary layer (TBL) excitation can depend strongly on the plate boundary conditions, especially when the flow convects over the plate at speeds much slower than those of the bending waves in the plate. The vibration response of a TBL excited baffled flat rectangular plate is analyzed with two sets of boundary conditions: (a) all four edges clamped, and (b) three edges clamped and one edge free, with the flow direction perpendicular to the free edge. A finite element model with discretization sufficient to resolve the convective wavenumbers in the flow excitation field is used for the study. Three TBL wall pressure excitation models are applied to the plates to represent the cross-spectra of the wall pressures: (i) a modified Corcos model, which includes all wavenumber components of excitation; (ii) a low-wavenumber excitation model previously derived by one of the authors, which only models the wavenumber-white region of the modified Corcos model; and (iii) an equivalent edge force model which only models the convective component in the modified Corcos model. The TBL wall pressure autospectrum is approximated using the model derived by Smolyakov and Tkachenko. The results obtained from applying models (ii) and (iii) to the clamped and free edge plates are compared to those generated using model (i). For the completely clamped boundary conditions, the low-wavenumber and Modified Corcos models yield nearly identical vibration spectra, indicating that surface interactions dominate the response of fully clamped plates excited by TBL pressures. For the free edge boundary condition, the vibrations predicted using the equivalent edge force and modified Corcos models match very well, showing that edge interactions between TBL pressures and structural modes dominate the vibrations of plates with free edges excited by TBL flow.

  20. A Three-Dimensional Seismic Model of the Dead Sea Plate Boundary From Active Source Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, C. H.; ten Brink, U. S.

    2007-12-01

    The Dead Sea fault system is a north-south striking left-lateral shear zone separating the African and Arabian tectonic plates. The southern part of the plate boundary is located within the Dead Sea valley. The valley, much of it below sea level, is surrounded by highlands on both sides, and contains subsurface sedimentary basins, including the large (~150 km long) a deep (6-8 km) Dead Sea basin. A wide-angle seismic reflection and refraction experiment was carried out in the Dead Sea Region in October 2004 to study the deep structure of the plate boundary. The experiment consisted of two perpendicular profiles a 280-km long profile along the valley and the international border between Jordan, Israel and the Palestinian Territories, and a 250 km long profile from Gaza strip to eastern Jordan across the Dead Sea basin. Modeling of the West-East line shows a low velocity zone extending to a depth of 18 km below the basin, which includes >6 km of "syn-rift" sediments (ten Brink et al., GRL, 2006). The lower crust and Moho are not perturbed. The uplift surrounding the Dead Sea Transform also appears to be an upper crustal phenomenon. The shear deformation, associated with the transform plate boundary motion appears, on the other hand, to cut throughout the entire crust (Ibid.). Two-dimensional modeling of the South-North line is more complex due to the fact that sedimentary basins do not occupy the entire width of the valley hence some sources and some receivers are located within the basins whereas others are located outside. This heterogeneous near-surface structure explains why a simple 2-D velocity model does not fit the observed travel times from all shots. Therefore, we are using 3-D travel-time tomography to model the heterogeneous near-surface and deeper structure of the Dead Sea. Preliminary models indicate that some ray-paths from sources near the basin use the edges of the basin as a wave-guide and generate earlier than expected arrivals at receivers near the shot. We find seismic confirmation of sub-basins along the Dead Sea Transform that have been identified using gravity and aeromagnetic surveying (ten Brink, et al., G-cubed, 2007, ten Brink, et al., Geology, 1999), and will present a preliminary model for variations in the crustal structure.

  1. Temperature, lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and heat flux beneath the Antarctic Plate inferred from seismic velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Meijian; Wiens, Douglas A.; Zhao, Yue; Feng, Mei; Nyblade, Andrew; Kanao, Masaki; Li, Yuansheng; Maggi, Alessia; Lévêque, Jean-Jacques

    2015-12-01

    We estimate the upper mantle temperature of the Antarctic Plate based on the thermoelastic properties of mantle minerals and S velocities using a new 3-D shear velocity model, AN1-S. Crustal temperatures and surface heat fluxes are then calculated from the upper mantle temperature assuming steady state thermal conduction. The temperature at the top of the asthenosphere beneath the oceanic region and West Antarctica is higher than the dry mantle solidus, indicating the presence of melt. From the temperature values, we generate depth maps of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary and the Curie temperature isotherm. The maps show that East Antarctica has a thick lithosphere similar to that of other stable cratons, with the thickest lithosphere (~250 km) between Domes A and C. The thin crust and lithosphere beneath West Antarctica are similar to those of modern subduction-related rift systems in East Asia. A cold region beneath the Antarctic Peninsula is similar in spatial extent to that of a flat-subducted slab beneath the southern Andes, indicating a possible remnant of the Phoenix Plate, which was subducted prior to 10 Ma. The oceanic lithosphere generally thickens with increasing age, and the age-thickness correlation depends on the spreading rate of the ridge that formed the lithosphere. Significant flattening of the age-thickness curves is not observed for the mature oceanic lithosphere of the Antarctic Plate.

  2. Development of an Auto-Convergent Free-Boundary Axisymmetric Equilibrium Solver

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.; Menard, J.

    2006-01-01

    The calculation of the magnetic flux given an assumed value for the current profile in axisymmetric toroidal plasmas is essential in studying the effects of various magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities upon controlled fusion. To this end, an iterative, modular algorithm coupled with a fast, direct elliptic solver for the Grad-Shafranov equation has been used to reconstruct the desired free-boundary equilibrium solution. This free-boundary Grad-Shafranov (FBGS) equilibrium algorithm is modified with the application of the von Hagenow method for determining the flux on the computational boundary, greatly reducing the time cost from O(N3) to O(N2 ln N) machine operations as compared to current Green’s function methods. The inherent variance in implementing the von Hagenow method gives a mean error bound of 0.1 percent with respect to the normal Green’s method. The improvements will allow the grid resolution to be increased efficiently and automatically to reduce the maximum Grad-Shafranov error to values needed for accurate stability calculations on a more effective time scale.

  3. Large-Eddy Simulation of the Flat-plate Turbulent Boundary Layer at High Reynolds numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Michio

    The near-wall, subgrid-scale (SGS) model [Chung and Pullin, "Large-eddy simulation and wall-modeling of turbulent channel flow'', J. Fluid Mech. 631, 281--309 (2009)] is used to perform large-eddy simulations (LES) of the incompressible developing, smooth-wall, flat-plate turbulent boundary layer. In this model, the stretched-vortex, SGS closure is utilized in conjunction with a tailored, near-wall model designed to incorporate anisotropic vorticity scales in the presence of the wall. The composite SGS-wall model is presently incorporated into a computer code suitable for the LES of developing flat-plate boundary layers. This is then used to study several aspects of zero- and adverse-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layers. First, LES of the zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer are performed at Reynolds numbers Retheta based on the free-stream velocity and the momentum thickness in the range Retheta = 103-1012. Results include the inverse skin friction coefficient, 2/Cf , velocity profiles, the shape factor H, the Karman "constant", and the Coles wake factor as functions of Re theta. Comparisons with some direct numerical simulation (DNS) and experiment are made, including turbulent intensity data from atmospheric-layer measurements at Retheta = O (106). At extremely large Retheta , the empirical Coles-Fernholz relation for skin-friction coefficient provides a reasonable representation of the LES predictions. While the present LES methodology cannot of itself probe the structure of the near-wall region, the present results show turbulence intensities that scale on the wall-friction velocity and on the Clauser length scale over almost all of the outer boundary layer. It is argued that the LES is suggestive of the asymptotic, infinite Reynolds-number limit for the smooth-wall turbulent boundary layer and different ways in which this limit can be approached are discussed. The maximum Retheta of the present simulations appears to be limited by machine precision and it is speculated, but not demonstrated, that even larger Retheta could be achieved with quad- or higher-precision arithmetic. Second, the time series velocity signals obtained from LES within the logarithmic region of the zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer are used in combination with an empirical, predictive inner--outer wall model [Marusic et al., "Predictive model for wall-bounded turbulent flow'', Science 329, 193 (2010)] to calculate the statistics of the fluctuating streamwise velocity in the inner region of the zero-pressure gradient turbulent boundary layer. Results, including spectra and moments up to fourth order, are compared with equivalent predictions using experimental time series, as well as with direct experimental measurements at Reynolds numbers Retau based on the friction velocity and the boundary layer thickness, Retau = 7,300, 13,600 and 19,000. LES combined with the wall model are then used to extend the inner-layer predictions to Reynolds numbers Retau = 62,000, 100,000 and 200,000 that lie within a gap in log(Retau) space between laboratory measurements and surface-layer, atmospheric experiments. The present results support a log-like increase in the near-wall peak of the streamwise turbulence intensities with Retau and also provide a means of extending LES results at large Reynolds numbers to the near-wall region of wall-bounded turbulent flows. Finally, we apply the wall model to LES of a turbulent boundary layer subject to an adverse pressure gradient. Computed statistics are found to be consistent with recent experiments and some Reynolds number similarity is observed over a range of two orders of magnitude.

  4. Experimental study of boundary layer transition with elevated freestream turbulence on a heated flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, Ki-Hyeon; Reshotko, Eli

    1991-01-01

    A detailed investigation to document momentum and thermal development of boundary layers undergoing natural transition on a heated flat plate was performed. Experimental results of both overall and conditionally sampled characteristics of laminar, transitional, and low Reynolds number turbulent boundary layers are presented. Measurements were acquired in a low-speed, closed-loop wind tunnel with a freestream velocity of 100 ft/s and zero pressure gradient over a range of freestream turbulence intensities (TI) from 0.4 to 6 percent. The distributions of skin friction, heat transfer rate and Reynolds shear stress were all consistent with previously published data. Reynolds analogy factors for R(sub theta) is less than 2300 were found to be well predicted by laminar and turbulent correlations which accounted for an unheated starting length. The measured laminar value of Reynolds analogy factor was as much as 53 percent higher than the Pr(sup -2/3). A small dependence of turbulent results on TI was observed. Conditional sampling performed in the transitional boundary layer indicated the existence of a near-wall drop in intermittency, pronounced at certain low intermittencies, which is consistent with the cross-sectional shape of turbulent spots observed by others. Non-turbulent intervals were observed to possess large magnitudes of near-wall unsteadiness and turbulent intervals had peak values as much as 50 percent higher than were measured at fully turbulent stations. Non-turbulent and turbulent profiles in transitional boundary layers cannot be simply treated as Blasius and fully turbulent profiles, respectively. The boundary layer spectra indicate predicted selective amplification of T-S waves for TI is approximately 0.4 percent. However, for TI is approximately 0.8 and 1.1 percent, T-S waves are localized very near the wall and do not play a dominant role in transition process.

  5. Thermochronology and tectonics of the Leeward Antilles: Evolution of the southern Caribbean Plate boundary zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Lelij, Roelant; Spikings, Richard A.; Kerr, Andrew C.; Kounov, Alexandre; Cosca, Michael; Chew, David; Villagomez, Diego

    2010-12-01

    Tectonic reconstructions of the Caribbean Plate are severely hampered by a paucity of geochronologic and exhumation constraints from anastomosed basement blocks along its southern margin. New U/Pb, 40Ar/39Ar, apatite fission track, and apatite (U-Th)/He data constrain quantitative thermal and exhumation histories, which have been used to propose a model for the tectonic evolution of the emergent parts of the Bonaire Block and the southern Caribbean Plate boundary zone. An east facing arc system intruded through an oceanic plateau during ˜90 to ˜87 Ma and crops out on Aruba. Subsequent structural displacements resulted in >80°C of cooling on Aruba during 70-60 Ma. In contrast, exhumation of the island arc sequence exposed on Bonaire occurred at 85-80 Ma and 55-45 Ma. Santonian exhumation on Bonaire occurred immediately subsequent to burial metamorphism and may have been driven by the collision of a west facing island arc with the Caribbean Plate. Island arc rocks intruded oceanic plateau rocks on Gran Roque at ˜65 Ma and exhumed rapidly at 55-45 Ma. We attribute Maastrichtian-Danian exhumation on Aruba and early Eocene exhumation on Bonaire and Gran Roque to sequential diachronous accretion of their basement units to the South American Plate. Widespread unconformities indicate late Eocene subaerial exposure. Late Oligocene-early Miocene dextral transtension within the Bonaire Block drove subsidence and burial of crystalline basement rocks of the Leeward Antilles to ?1 km. Late Miocene-recent transpression caused inversion and ?1 km of exhumation, possibly as a result of the northward escape of the Maracaibo Block.

  6. Thermochronology and tectonics of the Leeward Antilles: Evolution of the southern Caribbean Plate boundary zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van der Lelij, Roelant; Spikings, Richard A.; Kerr, Andrew C.; Kounov, Alexandre; Cosca, Michael; Chew, David; Villagomez, Diego

    2010-01-01

    Tectonic reconstructions of the Caribbean Plate are severely hampered by a paucity of geochronologic and exhumation constraints from anastomosed basement blocks along its southern margin. New U/Pb, 40Ar/39Ar, apatite fission track, and apatite (U-Th)/He data constrain quantitative thermal and exhumation histories, which have been used to propose a model for the tectonic evolution of the emergent parts of the Bonaire Block and the southern Caribbean Plate boundary zone. An east facing arc system intruded through an oceanic plateau during ~90 to ~87 Ma and crops out on Aruba. Subsequent structural displacements resulted in >80°C of cooling on Aruba during 70–60 Ma. In contrast, exhumation of the island arc sequence exposed on Bonaire occurred at 85–80 Ma and 55–45 Ma. Santonian exhumation on Bonaire occurred immediately subsequent to burial metamorphism and may have been driven by the collision of a west facing island arc with the Caribbean Plate. Island arc rocks intruded oceanic plateau rocks on Gran Roque at ~65 Ma and exhumed rapidly at 55–45 Ma. We attribute Maastrichtian-Danian exhumation on Aruba and early Eocene exhumation on Bonaire and Gran Roque to sequential diachronous accretion of their basement units to the South American Plate. Widespread unconformities indicate late Eocene subaerial exposure. Late Oligocene–early Miocene dextral transtension within the Bonaire Block drove subsidence and burial of crystalline basement rocks of the Leeward Antilles to ≤1 km. Late Miocene–recent transpression caused inversion and ≤1 km of exhumation, possibly as a result of the northward escape of the Maracaibo Block.

  7. Summary of the stratigraphy and structural elements related to plate convergence of the Quetta-Muslim Bagh-Sibi region, Balochistan, west-central Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maldonado, Florian; Mengal, Jan M.; Khan, Shahid H.; Warwick, Peter D.

    2011-01-01

    The four major faults that bound the structural terrane are the Frontal (F), Ghazaband-Zhob (GZ), Gwal-Bagh (GB), and Chaman (C) faults. Four major periods of deformation are recognized: (1) emplacement of ophiolitic rocks onto the continental margin of the India plate; (2) convergence of the India-Eurasia plates; (3) deposition of Tertiary-Quaternary molasse units followed by major folding and thrusting, and formation of strike-slip faults; and (4) deposition of Pleistocene molasse units with subsequent folding, thrusting, and strike-slip motion that continues to the present.

  8. Abbot Ice Shelf, structure of the Amundsen Sea continental margin and the southern boundary of the Bellingshausen Plate seaward of West Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Cochran, James R; Tinto, Kirsty J; Bell, Robin E

    2015-01-01

    Inversion of NASA Operation IceBridge airborne gravity over the Abbot Ice Shelf in West Antarctica for subice bathymetry defines an extensional terrain made up of east-west trending rift basins formed during the early stages of Antarctica/Zealandia rifting. Extension is minor, as rifting jumped north of Thurston Island early in the rifting process. The Amundsen Sea Embayment continental shelf west of the rifted terrain is underlain by a deeper, more extensive sedimentary basin also formed during rifting between Antarctica and Zealandia. A well-defined boundary zone separates the mildly extended Abbot extensional terrain from the deeper Amundsen Embayment shelf basin. The shelf basin has an extension factor, β, of 1.5–1.7 with 80–100 km of extension occurring across an area now 250 km wide. Following this extension, rifting centered north of the present shelf edge and proceeded to continental rupture. Since then, the Amundsen Embayment continental shelf appears to have been tectonically quiescent and shaped by subsidence, sedimentation, and the advance and retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. The Bellingshausen Plate was located seaward of the Amundsen Sea margin prior to incorporation into the Antarctic Plate at about 62 Ma. During the latter part of its independent existence, Bellingshausen plate motion had a clockwise rotational component relative to Antarctica producing convergence across the north-south trending Bellingshausen Gravity Anomaly structure at 94°W and compressive deformation on the continental slope between 94°W and 102°W. Farther west, the relative motion was extensional along an east-west trending zone occupied by the Marie Byrd Seamounts. Key Points: Abbot Ice Shelf is underlain by E-W rift basins created at ∼90 Ma Amundsen shelf shaped by subsidence, sedimentation, and passage of the ice sheet Bellingshausen plate boundary is located near the base of continental slope and rise PMID:26709352

  9. 16 Years, 16 Cruises, 1.6 Billion Soundings: a Compilation of High-Resolution Multibeam Bathymetry of the Active Plate Boundary Along the Chilean Continental Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinrebe, W.; Flueh, E. R.; Hasert, M.; Behrmann, J. H.; Voelker, D.; Geersen, J.; Ranero, C. R.; Diaz-Naveas, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Chile, a country stranding the active plate boundary between the South-American and the Nazca Plate is afflicted by recurrent earthquakes and hazardous volcanic eruptions. The strongest earthquake ever recorded occurred here, and volcanic hazards are frequent. Consequently, this area has been studied by geoscientists for many years to improve the understanding of subduction zone processes. Swath bathymetry mapping of the ocean floor has proven to bear a large potential for the interpretation of subduction-related processes, such as tectonic deformation of the marine forearc, release and migration of fluids as well as earthquake-triggered mass wasting. Multibeam bathymetry data of 16 major cruises of German, British, and Chilean research vessels recorded between 1995 and December 2010, in total more than 10,000 data files comprising about 1.6 billion soundings, have now been carefully reprocessed, compiled and merged into a unifying set of high-resolution bathymetric maps of the Chilean continental margin from latitude 40°S to 20°S. The imprint of subsurface processes on the surface morphology is well displayed in the case of the Chilean continental margin. The 3,500 km long Chilean convergent margin is not uniform, as various segments with different tectonic characteristics can be distinguished. Major factors that control margin morphology and thus the style of subduction are (1) relief and structure of the incoming oceanic plate, (2) supply of trench sediment, (3) turbidite transport within the trench, and (4) the input of terrigeneous sediments down the continental slope. A major segment boundary occurs at latitude 32°-33° S where the hotspot-related volcanic chain of Juan Fernandez is presently subducting. South of the area of ridge subduction the trench is filled with turbidites, and accretionary ridges develop across the base of the slope along most of the segment, whereas north of this boundary the turbiditic infill is reduced and subduction erosion is prevailing.

  10. EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory Data in the College Classroom (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, S. C.; Olds, S. E.

    2009-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) is the geodetic component of the EarthScope project, designed to study the 3-D strain field across the active boundary zone between the Pacific and North American tectonics plates in the western United States. All PBO data are freely available to scientific and educational communities and have been incorporated into a variety of activities for college and university classrooms. UNAVCO Education and Outreach program staff have worked closely with faculty users, scientific researchers, and facility staff to create materials that are scientifically and technically accurate as well as useful to the classroom user. Availability of processed GPS data is not new to the geoscience community. However, PBO data staff have worked with education staff to deliver data that are readily accessible to educators. The UNAVCO Data for Educators webpage, incorporating an embedded Google Map with PBO GPS locations and providing current GPS time series plots and downloadable data, extends and updates the datasets available to our community. Google Earth allows the visualization GPS data with other types of datasets, e.g. LiDAR, while maintaining the self-contained and easy-to-use interface of UNAVCO’s Jules Verne Voyager map tools, which have multiple sets of geological and geophysical data. Curricular materials provide scaffolds for using EarthScope data in a variety of forms for different learning goals. Simple visualization of earthquake epicenters and locations of volcanoes can be used with velocity vectors to make simple deductions of plate boundary behaviors. Readily available time series plots provide opportunities for additional science skills, and there are web and paper-based support materials for downloading data, manipulating tables, and using plotting programs for processed GPS data. Scientists have provided contextual materials to explore the importance of these data in interpreting the structure and dynamics of the Earth. These data and their scientific context are now incorporated into the Active Earth Display developed by IRIS. Formal and informal evaluations during the past five years have provided useful data for revision and on-line implementation.

  11. Quaternary evolution of the Lucania Apennine thrust front area (Southern Italy), and its relations with the kinematics of the Adria Plate boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonini, Marco; Sani, Federico; Moratti, Giovanna; Benvenuti, Marco G.

    2011-03-01

    We examine the structural characteristics and the tectonic evolution of some key areas along the thrust front of the Lucania sector of the Southern Apennines, which also represents the southwestern boundary of the Adria Plate. The results of our study have allowed the identification of a complex tectonic history manifested by the presence of structural elements compatible with different stress fields. Particularly, during the Pleistocene the area experienced a transition from a compressional setting, characterised by NE-ENE shortening, to a post-Middle Pleistocene strike-slip/extensional phase controlled by NE-ENE-directed lateral extension associated with a horizontal NW-NNW-trending ?1 axis. Roughly coaxial transitional stress fields apparently accompanied the progression between these two main regimes. This major change in tectonic setting can be framed into the fragmentation processes of the Adriatic Plate. We propose that the Mid-Adriatic Ridge, a WNW-ESE-trending belt of inverted Mesozoic grabens underwater the Adriatic Sea, has increasingly accommodated the NNW-directed Africa-Adria convergence giving the way to the Africa shortening to propagate into the Lucania Apennines. Furthermore, the comparison with GPS data suggests the existence of an important deep-seated tectonic boundary beneath the Apennines. This element is expected to focus seismicity and may represent an important discontinuity fragmenting Adria.

  12. Tectonic lineaments in the cenozoic volcanics of southern Guatemala: Evidence for a broad continental plate boundary zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baltuck, M.; Dixon, T. H.

    1984-01-01

    The northern Caribbean plate boundary has been undergoing left lateral strike slip motion since middle Tertiary time. The western part of the boundary occurs in a complex tectonic zone in the continental crust of Guatemala and southernmost Mexico, along the Chixoy-Polochic, Motogua and possibly Jocotan-Chamelecon faults. Prominent lineaments visible in radar imagery in the Neogene volcanic belt of southern Guatemala and western El Salvador were mapped and interpreted to suggest southwest extensions of this already broad plate boundary zone. Because these extensions can be traced beneath Quaternary volcanic cover, it is thought that this newly mapped fault zone is active and is accommodating some of the strain related to motion between the North American and Caribbean plates. Onshore exposures of the Motoqua-Polochic fault systems are characterized by abundant, tectonically emplaced ultramafic rocks. A similar mode of emplacement for these off shore ultramafics, is suggested.

  13. Tectonic activity and plate boundaries along the northern flank of the Fiji Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes Clarke, J. E.; Jarvis, P.; Tiffin, D.; Price, R.; Kroenke, L.

    1993-06-01

    Recent volcanic activity along the northern flank of the Fiji Platform, revealed for the first time from new GLORIA imagery, suggests that the loci of interplate motion in this region have migrated rapidly since the switch from Vitiaz to New Hebridean subduction at 5 8 Ma. At present the plate boundaries along the northern flank of the Fiji Platform consist of two major strike-slip faults of opposing sense: the sinistral Fiji Transform Fault along the northwest flank of the platform, and at least one (or possibly two) zones of dextral strike slip (including Peggy Ridge) along the northeast flank. The tectonic relation-ships of these two fault systems lies north of Fiji and is not determined.

  14. Measurements of Reynolds analogy for a hypersonic turbulent boundary layer on a nonadiabatic flat plate.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keener, E. R.; Polek, T. E.

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of the described experiment was to obtain simultaneous measurements of skin friction and heat transfer at hypersonic Mach numbers, especially with conditions of considerable heat transfer. The experiment was conducted in air in the Ames Hypersonic Wind Tunnel, in which cold air was passed through an alumina storage heater system and heated to total temperatures ranging from about 670 to 1170 K. The nozzle was contoured to produce a flow at Mach 7.4. Thin-skin heat-transfer gauges were placed at equal intervals along the centerline of a sharp-edge flat plate, which was used as the model. A skin-friction balance and a boundary-layer pitot-pressure rake were mounted on each side of the centerline at a certain distance from the leading edge.

  15. XFEM simulation of a quenched cracked glass plate with moving convective boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari, Diyako; Rash Ahmadi, Samrand; Shabani, Farzin

    2016-02-01

    A moving quenched soda-lime glass plate with an initial edge crack is modeled, applying the eXtended finite-element method (XFEM) in order to investigate the stress field components and Von Mises stress around the crack. The convective heat with moving boundaries is considered in thermal formulation. The Crank-Nicolson time integration scheme is reformed and adjusted with a view to accurately solving the system of transient heat conduction matrix equations. In order to simulate the whole stages of the problem formulation, MATLAB XFEM (MXFEM) codes are written and employed. The stress distribution contours are plotted in detail and the stress fields around the crack tip are compared quantitatively. The variations of stress intensity factors (SIFs) during crack propagation are obtained through the calculation of the domain form of the interaction integral. In order to verify the procedure and display the ability of the developed formulation, the results are compared with experimental outputs from the literature.

  16. Controlling Bragg gaps induced by electric boundary conditions in phononic piezoelectric plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kherraz, N.; Haumesser, L.; Levassort, F.; Benard, P.; Morvan, B.

    2016-02-01

    A Phononic Crystal (PC), constituted of a homogeneous piezoelectric plate covered by a 1D periodic arrangement of thin metallic electrodes on both surfaces, is studied. The application of Electric Boundary Conditions (EBCs) on the electrodes enables the propagation control of the ultrasonic guided waves in the PC. The band structure is investigated for different EBCs: the electrodes are either at a floating potential or they are alternately short-circuited and at a floating potential. In the latter case, a Bragg gap appears for the fundamental S0 guided Lamb mode. These results are verified experimentally and compared to finite element calculations. A physical interpretation is also given, relying on the symmetry of the electric potential fields associated with these guided modes.

  17. Multibeam investigation of the active North Atlantic plate boundary reorganization tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hey, Richard; Martinez, Fernando; Höskuldsson, Ármann; Eason, Deborah E.; Sleeper, Jonathan; Thordarson, Sigvaldi; Benediktsdóttir, Ásdís; Merkuryev, Sergey

    2016-02-01

    The previous orthogonal ridge/transform staircase geometry south of Iceland is being progressively changed to the present continuous oblique Reykjanes Ridge spreading geometry as North America-Eurasia transform faults are successively eliminated from north to south. This reorganization is commonly interpreted as a thermal phenomenon, caused by warmer Iceland plume mantle progressively interacting with the ridge, although other diachronous seafloor spreading reorganizations are thought to result from tectonic rift propagation. New marine geophysical data covering our reinterpretation of the reorganization tip near 57°N show successive transform eliminations at a propagation velocity of ∼110 km/Myr, ten times the spreading half rate, followed by abrupt reorganization slowing at the Modred transform as it was converted to a migrating non-transform offset. Neither the simple thermal model nor the simple propagating rift model appears adequate to explain the complicated plate boundary reorganization process.

  18. A unified GPS-based earthquake catalog for the Sumatran plate boundary between 2002 and 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lujia; Hill, Emma M.; Banerjee, Paramesh; Hermawan, Iwan; Tsang, Louisa L. H.; Natawidjaja, Danny H.; Suwargadi, Bambang W.; Sieh, Kerry

    2015-05-01

    We have compiled the first self-consistent GPS-based earthquake catalog for the Sumatran plate boundary. Using continuous daily position time series from the Sumatran GPS Array (SuGAr), we document 30 earthquakes which occurred within or outside the SuGAr network from August 2002 through the end of 2013, and we provide estimates of both vertical and horizontal coseismic offsets associated with 1 M9.2, 3 M8, 6 M7, 19 M6, and 1 M5.9 earthquakes, as well as postseismic decay amplitudes and times associated with 9 M > 7 earthquakes and 1 M6.7 earthquake. For most of the previously studied earthquakes, our geodetic catalog provides more complete coseismic displacements than those published, showing consistent patterns of motion across a large range of distances. For many of the moderate to large earthquakes, we publish their coseismic displacements for the first time, providing new constraints on their locations and slip distributions. For the postseismic time series, we have tackled the challenge of separating the signals for individual events from the overlapping effects of many other earthquakes. As a result, we have obtained either new or much longer time series than previously published. Based on our long time series, we find logarithmic decay times ranging from several days to more than 20 years, and sometimes a second decay time is needed, suggesting that when studying large to great Sumatran earthquakes, we need to consider multiple postseismic mechanisms. Our geodetic catalog provides rich spatial and temporal Sumatran earthquake cycle information for future studies of the physics and dynamics of the Sumatran plate boundary.

  19. Logistical Support for the Installation of the Plate Boundary Observatory GPS and Borehole Strainmeter Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurnik, C.; Austin, K.; Coyle, B.; Dittmann, T.; Feaux, K.; Friesen, B.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.; Pauk, B.; Walls, C.

    2007-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), part of the NSF-funded EarthScope project, is designed to study the three- dimensional strain field resulting from deformation across the active boundary zone between the Pacific and North American plates in the western United States. To meet these goals, UNAVCO will install 880 continuous GPS stations, 103 borehole strainmeter stations, 28 tiltmeters, and five laser strainmeters by October 2008. Such a broad network presents significant logisitical challenges, including moving supplies, equipment, and personnel around 6 million square kilometers, and this requires accurate tracking and careful planning. The PBO logistics chain includes the PBO headquarters at UNAVCO in Boulder, Colorado and five regional offices in the continental United States and Alaska, served by dozens of suppliers spread across the globe. These offices are responsible for building and maintaining sites in their region. Most equipment and supplies first arrive in Boulder, where they are tagged and entered into a UNAVCO-wide equipment database, assembled and quality checked as necessary, and sent on to the appropriate regional office. Larger items which are costly to store and ship from Boulder, such as batteries or long sections of stainless steel pipe and bar required for monuments, are shipped directly from the supplier to each region as needed. These supplies and equipment are also tracked through the ordering, delivery, installation, and maintenance cycle via Earned Value Management techniques which allow us to meet NSF and other Federal procurement rules. Early prototypes and assembly configurations aid the development of material and supply budgets. A thorough understanding of Federal procurement rules at project start up is critical as the project moves forward.

  20. Tsunami effects at Korean Nuclear Power Plant Sites by Plate Boundary Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sobeom; Hyun, Seung Gyu; Bae, Jae Seok; Kim, Gun Hyeong; Yoon, Sung Bum

    2015-04-01

    Great earthquakes have occurred at the Nankai Trough due to the subduction of the Philippine Sea plate beneath Honshu, Japan. The 1707 Hoei tsunami associated with the Mw 8.7 earthquake, in particular, was the largest event generated in this area. The Nankai Trough is one of the most earthquake-prone area near Japan. And the tsunami affected to Korea according to a Korean historic literature. In this study, new hypothetical plate boundary earthquakes (Mw 9.6) ruptured simultaneously from the Nankai Trough to the Ryukyu Trench (NTRT) are proposed and applied to evaluate the tsunami effects at the Nuclear Power Plant Sites in Korea. In order to make reasonable tsunami sources the asperity model is adapted. The numerical model using the modified leap-frog finite difference scheme is employed to simulate the propagation of tsunami generated at NTRT. This numerical model considering the dispersion effect and inundation of tsunami is then employed to estimate the maximum tsunami heights. Predicted results will be used to make the measures against unexpected tsunami attacks.

  1. The final year of GPS Installations in the Alaska Region of the Plate Boundary Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyle, B.; Pauk, B.; Enders, M.; Bierma, R.; Gasparich, S.; Marzulla, A.; Feaux, K.

    2008-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) is the geodetic component of the National Science Foundation funded Earthscope Project. The final PBO GPS network will comprise 1100 continuously operating GPS stations installed throughout the Western US and Alaska. The Alaska region is an important area of study because of the major crustal deformation and high volcanic activity associated with the subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North American Plate. The PBO network will provide data to help better understand these earth processes. In the fifth and final year of the PBO installation phase, we built 31 GPS Stations and installed 8 tilt meters in Alaska. These installs completed the PBO network in Alaska which comprises 135 GPS stations and 12 tilt meters. We also completed maintenance visits to GPS stations installed during earlier years of the five year project. In the 2008 field season we faced some of our most difficult logistical challenges with installations in remote areas, islands and volcanoes. Highlights include boat-based helicopter supported installs in the Shumagin Islands on Chernabura, Nagai and Popof; and 13 GPS stations and 8 tiltmeters installed on Unimak Island to monitor Westdahl and Shishaldin volcanoes. The Unimak installations were completed in a four week period and were carried out in cooperation with scientists from the Alaska Volcano Observatory. We also installed the remaining stations monitoring the Denali fault and integrated the Denali earthquake response stations built by University of Alaska Fairbanks into the PBO network. Now that the installations are completed, the PBO network will be operated and maintained by UNAVCO engineers for the next 10 years. Data from all of the PBO stations are available from the UNAVCO archive.

  2. A mixed problem of plate bending for doubly connected domains with partially unknown boundaries in the presence of cyclic symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odishelidze, N.; Criado-Aldeanueva, F.

    2010-10-01

    This paper addresses the problem of plate bending for a doubly connected body with outer and inner boundaries in the form of regular polygons with a common center and parallel sides. The neighborhoods of the vertices of the inner boundary are equal full-strength smooth arcs symmetric about the rays coming from the vertices to the center, but have unknown positions. Rigid bars are attached to the linear parts of the boundary. The plate bends by the moments applied to the middle point bars. The unknown arcs are free from external stresses. The same problem of plate bending is considered for a regular hexagon weakened by a full-strength hole. Using the methods of complex analysis, the analytical image of Kolosov-Muskhelishvili’s complex potentials (characterizing an elastic equilibrium of the body), the plate deflection and unknown parts of its boundary are determined under the condition that the tangential normal moment on that plate takes a constant value. Numerical analyses are also performed and the corresponding graphs are constructed.

  3. Prediction and measurement of heat transfer rates for the shock-induced unsteady laminar boundary layer on a flat plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The unsteady laminar boundary layer induced by the flow-initiating shock wave passing over a flat plate mounted in a shock tube was theoretically and experimentally studied in terms of heat transfer rates to the plate for shock speeds ranging from 1.695 to 7.34 km/sec. The theory presented by Cook and Chapman for the shock-induced unsteady boundary layer on a plate is reviewed with emphasis on unsteady heat transfer. A method of measuring time-dependent heat-transfer rates using thin-film heat-flux gages and an associated data reduction technique are outlined in detail. Particular consideration is given to heat-flux measurement in short-duration ionized shocktube flows. Experimental unsteady plate heat transfer rates obtained in both air and nitrogen using thin-film heat-flux gages generally agree well with theoretical predictions. The experimental results indicate that the theory continues to predict the unsteady boundary layer behavior after the shock wave leaves the trailing edge of the plate even though the theory is strictly applicable only for the time interval in which the shock remains on the plate.

  4. The Formation of the Betic-Alboran System in the Iberia-Africa Plate Boundary: a New Kinematic Evolution Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, M.; Verges, J.

    2013-12-01

    Several geodynamic models have been proposed so far to explain the origin and evolution of the Betic-Rif arcuate orogeny and the inner Alboran back-arc basin. Many of these models propose that the Alboran domain underwent a large westward drifting (> 600 km) driven by a subduction rollback, eventually resulting in a symmetric configuration in both the S-Iberia and N-African margins. Alternative models with a more autochthonous component assume that the Oligocene subduction trench extended continuously along the whole Iberian Mediterranean margin from the present Gibraltar arc to the Alps. Common assumptions to all these models are: i) the initial time is about 35 Ma (Eocene-Oligocene), ii) the plate boundary is continuous and non-segmented, iii) the initial subduction polarity is NW-dipping, and iv) the slab must underwent a twisted roll-back to explain the present position of the HP-LT metamorphic rocks involving slab rupture, detachment and tearing. Recent geophysical models based on seismic data, tomography and potential fields draw an arcuate mantle slab restricted below the Betic-Rif orogen, dipping towards the E below the Gibraltar Strait and turning to the SE and S beneath the Betics. In addition, the crust beneath the northern Moroccan margin shows a smooth thinning toward the Alboran basin whereas the southern Iberian margin presents a much sharper thinning. These findings put severe limitations to some of the proposed models and open room for new kinematic proposals. One of the most recent models is based on the following considerations: i) the reconstruction starts in Late Cretaceous times at the onset of northern Africa convergence, ii) displacements and initial configuration are based on plate reconstructions of the Atlantic-Ligurian-Tethys region, and iii) the model assumes that subduction polarity changes laterally from NW-dipping in the Algerian segment to SE-dipping in the Betic-Rif segment. Apart from its simplicity, this model requires a moderate NW to W drifting of the HP-LT metamorphic complexes formed by limited subduction and exhumation, fulfills the imaged crustal and mantle asymmetries, and is compatible with the main geological structures in the region. Cartoon showing the evolution of the Betic-Alboran-Rif system at 9 Ma.

  5. Active faulting in northern Chile: ramp stacking and lateral decoupling along a subduction plate boundary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armijo, Rolando; Thiele, Ricardo

    1990-04-01

    Two large features parallel to the coastline of northern Chile have long been suspected to be the sites of young or active deformation: (1) The 700-km long Coastal Scarp, with average height (above sea level) of about 1000 m; (2) The Atacama Fault zone, that stretches linearly for about 1100 km at an average distance of 30-50 km from the coastline. New field observations combined with extensive analysis of aerial photographs demonstrate that both the Coastal Scarp and the Atacama Fault are zones of Quaternary and current fault activity. Little-degraded surface breaks observed in the field indicate that these fault zones have recently generated large earthquakes ( M = 7-8). Normal fault offsets observed in marine terraces in the Coastal Scarp (at Mejillones Peninsula) require tectonic extension roughly orthogonal to the compressional plate boundary. Strike-slip offsets of drainage observed along the Salar del Carmen and Cerro Moreno faults (Atacama Fault system) imply left-lateral displacements nearly parallel to the plate boundary. The left-lateral movement observed along the Atacama Fault zone may be a local consequence of E-W extension along the Coastal Scarp. But if also found everywhere along strike, left-lateral decoupling along the Atacama Fault zone would be in contradiction with the right lateral component of Nazca-South America motion predicted by models of present plate kinematics. Clockwise rotation with left-lateral slicing of the Andean orogen south of the Arica bend is one way to resolve this contradiction. The Coastal Scarp and the Atacama Fault zone are the most prominent features with clear traces of activity within the leading edge of continental South America. The great length and parallelism of these features with the subduction zone suggest that they may interact with the subduction interface at depth. We interpret the Coastal Scarp to be a west-dipping normal fault or flexure and propose that it is located over an east-dipping ramp stack at the subduction interface. The similar flexure at the western edge of the Altiplano may have the same origin. Ramp stacking along the subduction zone, a mechanism disregarded so far, may be an important thickening process in the Andes and perhaps the basic cause of the uplift of the Altiplano.

  6. Influence of shear heating on microstructurally defined plate boundary shear zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, John P.

    2015-10-01

    In plate-boundary scale ductile shear zones defined by microstructural weakening, shear heating may lead to a temperature increase over 5 m.y. of up to 80 °C just below the brittle ductile transition, up to 120 °C just below the Moho, and to thermal boundary zones tens of km wide on either side of the shear zone. Where rock strength is highest, shear zones are narrow (?1 km), and thermal gradients within the shear zone itself are low, so there is no tendency for increased localization. Heating results in thermal weakening, but this is partly offset by grain growth related to the decrease in stress. In shear zones of the order of 10 km width, shear stress, strain rate, and hence heat generation are lower, and thermal gradients are insufficient to cause additional strain localization. Temperature increases in the mid-crust are of the order of 10 °C, insufficient to cause partial melting or an increase in metamorphic grade. In the upper mantle, shear zones may be 50 km or more wide, and the temperature increase is less than 20 °C in 5 m.y., but temperature differences between center and margin may enhance the strain rate at the center by up to 18%.

  7. 3D Simulation of the Entire Process of Earthquake Generation at Subduction-Zone Plate Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsu'Ura, M.; Hashimoto, C.; Fukuyama, E.

    2003-12-01

    In general, the entire process of earthquake generation consists of tectonic loading due to relative plate motion, quasi-static rupture nucleation, dynamic rupture propagation and stop, and restoration of fault strength. This process can be completely described by a coupled nonlinear system, which consists of an elastic/viscoelastic slip-response function that relates fault slip to shear stress change and a fault constitutive law that prescribes change in shear strength with fault slip and contact time. The shear stress and the shear strength are related with each other through boundary conditions on the fault. The driving force of this system is observed relative plate motion. The system to describe the earthquake generation cycle is conceptually quite simple. The complexity in practical modelling mainly comes from complexity in structure of the real earth. As a product of Crustal Activity Modelling Program (CAMP), which is one of the three main programs composing the Solid Earth Simulator project (1998-2003) promoted by MEXT, we have completed a physics-based predictive simulation model for the entire process of earthquake generation cycles in and around Japan, where the four plates of Pacific, North American, Philippine Sea and Eurasian are interacting with each other in a very complicated way. The total simulation system consists of a crust-mantle structure model, a tectonic loading model and a dynamic rupture model. First, we constructed a realistic 3D standard model of plate interfaces in and around Japan by applying an inversion technique to ISC hypocenter distribution data, and computed viscoelastic slip-response functions for this structure model. Second, we introduced the slip- and time-dependent fault constitutive law with an inherent strength-restoration mechanism as a basic equation governing the entire process of earthquake generation. Third, combining all these elements, we developed a simulation model for quasi-static stress accumulation due to relative plate motion. Fourth, we also developed a simulation model for dynamic rupture propagation on a 3D curved fault surface by applying BIEM. Finally, we connected the quasi-static stress accumulation model and the dynamic rupture propagation model through a simulation platform on the Earth Simulator, which is a high performance, massively parallel-processing computer system with 10 TB memories and 40 TFLOPS peak speed. Outputs of this simulation system are crustal deformation, internal stress changes and seismic wave radiation associated with seismic and/or aseismic slip at the plate interfaces. From comparison of these simulation outputs and observed data, we can extract useful information to estimate the past slip history and the present stress state at the plate interfaces by using an inversion technique. Given the past slip history and the present stress state, we can predict the next step fault slip and stress changes through computer simulation. In this presentation, as a demonstration, we show the result of 3D simulation of the entire process of earthquake generation cycle at the Tokachi-oki seismogenic region in northeast Japan.

  8. Boundary Element Inverse Analysis with Regularization for Estimating Welding Residual Stress Distribution in Butt-Welded Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtake, Yasuhiro; Kubo, Shiro

    This paper deals with an inverse problem for estimating welding residual stresses in a butt-welded plate from measured data. In previous papers, a method of thermo-elastic boundary element inverse analysis was proposed to estimate the inherent strains in the butt-welded plate. It was found in the papers that the accuracy of the evaluated inherent strain in the butt-welded plate was low when the location of the measurement points was far from the welding line or the number of measurement points was small. This paper examines how the shape of the inherent strain distribution affects the accuracy of the estimated results. Trapezoidal and triangular inherent strain distributions were assumed in each analysis model of the butt-welded plate. Numerical simulations were conducted for those analysis models. In the simulations, measurement errors were included in stresses at measurement points. From all calculation results, it was found that the inherent strains in the butt-welded plate were evaluated in high accuracy from a few measured data by using Tikhonov's regularization regardless of the shape of the inherent strain distribution. The residual stresses in the whole butt-welded plate were calculated from the evaluated inherent strains. Accordingly, it became clear that the proposed boundary element inverse analysis with Tikhonov's regularization was useful in evaluating the residual stresses in the butt-welded plate.

  9. Mechanisms of Strain Localization: Implications for Lithospheric Strength and the Structure of Plate-Boundary Shear Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Deformation mechanism switches caused by grain-size reduction are a likely principal cause of strain localization, assisted by development of crystallographic preferred orientation, interconnected weak-phase layering, phase changes, and on longer time-scales, shear heating. Grain-size reduction results in a marked increase in the rate of grain-size sensitive creep mechanisms, which include grain-boundary diffusion creep, pressure solution, diffusion- or dislocation-accommodated grain-boundary sliding, and dislocation creep in which grain-boundary migration is the main recovery mechanism (DRX creep). In polyphase systems, grain-boundary sliding plus grain-boundary diffusion may allow the development of a well-mixed fine-grained aggregate, in which the grain size is controlled by the phase showing the greatest degree of grain-size reduction by dynamic recrystallization. The resulting fine-grained mixture resists grain growth, and may be up to three orders of magnitude weaker than the undeformed rock. Microstructural weakening requires a minimum level of stress to produce the required deformation. This buffers the stress, even when there is a velocity boundary condition to the system, along a plate boundary, for example. Shear zones therefore evolve at constant stress, and the cumulative width w of a plate boundary shear zone is a function of the strength of the undeformed rock, the imposed velocity difference, and the rheology of the shear zone material. This allows a first order prediction of w as a function of depth in the lithosphere.

  10. How do long-offset oceanic transforms adapt to plate motion changes? The example of the Western Pacific-Antarctic plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodolo, Emanuele; Coren, Franco; Ben-Avraham, Zvi

    2013-03-01

    Oceanic transform faults respond to changes in the direction of relative plate motion. Studies have shown that short-offset transforms generally adjust with slight bends near the ridge axis, while long-offset ones have a remarkably different behavior. The western Pacific-Antarctic plate boundary highlights these differences. A set of previously unpublished seismic profiles, in combination with magnetic anomaly identifications, shows how across a former, ~1250 km long transform (the Emerald Fracture Zone), plate motion changes have produced a complex geometric readjustment. Three distinct sections are recognized along this plate boundary: an eastern section, characterized by parallel, multiple fault strand lineaments; a central section, shallower than the rest of the ridge system, overprinted by a mantle plume track; and a western section, organized in a cascade of short spreading axes/transform lineaments. This configuration was produced by changes that occurred since 30 Ma in the Australia-Pacific relative plate motion, combined with a gradual clockwise change in Pacific-Antarctic plate motion. These events caused extension along the former Emerald Fracture Zone, originally linking the Pacific-Antarctic spreading ridge system with the Southeast Indian ridge. Then an intra-transform propagating ridge started to develop in response to a ~6 Ma change in the Pacific-Antarctic spreading direction. The close proximity of the Euler poles of rotation amplified the effects of the geometric readjustments that occurred along the transform system. This analysis shows that when a long-offset transform older than 20 Ma is pulled apart by changes in spreading velocity vectors, it responds with the development of multiple discrete, parallel fault strands, whereas in younger lithosphere, locally modified by thermal anisotropies, tensional stresses generate an array of spreading axes offset by closely spaced transforms.

  11. High resolution image of the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary of the subducting Nazca plate beneath northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodoudi, F.; Yuan, X.; Asch, G.; Kind, R.

    2010-12-01

    Results obtained from S and P receiver functions produced a clear image of the top and bottom of the subducting Nazca lithosphere beneath northern Chile. Using data from the teleseismic events recorded at 15 permanent IPOC (Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile) stations, we were able to obtain new constraints on the shape and thickness of the descending Nazca lithosphere. We observed the subducted crust of the Nazca plate at depths ranging from 40 km beneath the Coastal Cordillera down to 110 km beneath the Western Cordillera. We found significant along-strike variations in the geometry of the Nazca plate beneath northern Chile. On closer inspection, it appears that the oceanic Nazca plate is divided into two distinct segments as it descends beneath the continental South American plate. The transition from the relatively steeper and deeper slab to the north of 21° S to the flatter southern segment is shown reasonably clearly by our data. This feature could well be associated with variations in the curvature of the plate margin and the geometry of the Chile trench, which is mainly curved to the north of 21° S. We have also mapped the continental Moho of the South American plate at depths ranging between 60-70 km to the east of the Longitudinal Valley. Beneath the Coastal Cordillera, this boundary becomes invisible, probably due to the serpentinization of the forearc mantle wedge. The Lithosphere-Astheonsphere Boundary (LAB) of the subducted Nazca plate was clearly identified as a sharp boundary in the results obtained from the P and S receiver functions. The LAB lies at a depth of 80 km beneath the coastal area and dips from a depth of 100 km beneath the Coastal Cordillera to about 150 km underneath the Western Cordillera. High frequency PRF data enabled us to make confident estimates of the top and bottom of the Nazca lithosphere, which results in a lithospheric thickness of 57-60 km. In relation to the age of the Nazca plate, which is assumed to be ~ 50 My beneath northern Chile, the obtained thickness can be explained by a thermally controlled origin for the oceanic LAB. Furthermore, the LAB phases identified using high-frequency PRF data are characterized by a sharp discontinuity. This implies that the LAB probably represents a boundary in terms of hydration and melting, and not in temperature alone.

  12. The Plate Boundary Observatory Borehole Network: Geologic Resources from Drilling and Logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W.; Van Boskirk, E.; Mencin, D.; Gottlieb, M. H.; Pyatt, C.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Fox, O.; Gallaher, W. W.; Borsa, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory Strainmeter Borehole Network has a total of 79 operational boreholes, with depths drilled from 420 to 800 feet. All drill cuttings, core samples and logs are stored and catalogued. The cuttings for each successful borehole were recently photo documented and will be placed on the UNAVCO website to be readily available to the public, as well as to request samples. The drill cuttings were collected in 10 foot intervals, and in Yellowstone they were collected in five foot intervals. The extent of the borehole network includes sites near the San Jacinto fault, San Andreas Fault, throughout the Cascadia region, Mt St Helens and Yellowstone. These locations provide a wide array of tectonic and volcanic environments. In the case of Yellowstone, the park has not been drilled in for four decades. Due to the circulation of hot fluids, holes are at a shallower depth ( > 420 feet). These cuttings provide a resource of understanding the history and dynamics of fluid interaction in Yellowstone. Along the San Jacinto fault and San Andreas fault, these cuttings can help to build better models of the fault dynamics through evaluating the stratigraphy, fractures, rock strength, structural geology and fluid interaction near and along the fault zones. The stranmeter sites in the Pacific NW were chosen for the subduction zone, and are therefore not near a major plate boundary. They could instead be used to understand local regional fault dynamics, stratigraphy, structural geology and volcanic history of the NW. Presented will be examples of interest from each region, from cuttings, core, logs, to correlated network observations. For example, a site on the San Jacinto fault, near Anza has recorded creep events. This site is the closest to the fault and during drilling fault gouge was observed. While in Parkfield, cuttings and core reveal different fault blocks for sites that are 1000 feet apart in distance. As UNAVCO cannot provide any analysis on these samples, the documentation and variability of these resources will be presented. The availability of these resources and an interest of understanding the hydrology and structural geology could provide new incite for understanding strike slip faulting as well as additional resources for understanding volcanic history.

  13. Lithospheric structure beneath the Caribbean- South American plate boundary from S receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masy, J.; Levander, A.; Niu, F.

    2010-12-01

    We have analyzed teleseismic S-wave data recorded by the permanent national seismic network of Venezuela and the BOLIVAR broadband array (Broadband Onshore-offshore Lithospheric Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region) deployed from 2003 to 2005. A total of 28 events with Mw > 5.7 occurring at epicentral distances from 55° to 85° were used. We made Sp receiver functions to estimate the rapid variations of lithospheric structure in the southern Caribbean plate boundary region to try to better understand the complicated tectonic history of the region. Estimated Moho depth ranges from ~20 km beneath the Caribbean Large Igneous Provinces to ~50 km beneath the Mérida Andes in western Venezuela and the Sierra del Interior in northeastern Venezuela. These results are consistent with previous receiver functions studies (Niu et al., 2007) and active source profiles (Schmitz et al., 2001; Bezada et al., 2007; Clark et al., 2008; Guedez, 2008; Magnani et al., 2009). Beneath the Maracaibo Block we observe a signal at a depth of 100 km dipping ~24° towards the continent, which we interpret as the top of the oceanic Caribbean slab that is subducting beneath South America from the west. The deeper part of the slab was previously imaged using P-wave tomography (Bezada et al, 2010), and the upper part inferred from intermediate depth seismicity (Malavé and Suarez, 1995). These studies indicate flat slab subduction beneath northern Colombia and northwestern Venezuela with the slab dipping between 20° - 30° beneath Lake Maracaibo. Like others we attribute the flat slab subduction to the uplift of the Mérida Andes (for example Kellogg and Bonini, 1982). In eastern Venezuela beneath the Sierra del Interior we also observe a deep signal that we interpret as deep South American lithosphere that is detaching from the overriding plate as the Atlantic subducts and tears away from SA (Bezada et al., 2010; Clark et al, 2008). The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) is not a continuous feature under the entire region, instead it is seen beneath the Cordillera de la Costa in central Venezuela at ~130 km, also under the Perijá Range and the Sierra del Interior. Under the Guayana Shield we observe two distinct regions with LAB depths at ~150 km depth. We also see the LAB at this depth in places north of the Orinoco River, suggesting the presence of cratonic structures north of the river. These results are in good agreement with the structures observed by Miller et al. (2009) in Rayleigh wave tomography images.

  14. The Quest for the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary West of the Strait of Gibraltar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zitellini, N.

    2009-04-01

    A new swath bathymetry compilation of the Gulf of Cadiz Area and SW Iberia is presented. The new map is the result of a collaborative research performed after year 2000 by teams from 7 European countries and 14 research institutions. This new dataset allow for the first time to present and to discuss the missing link in the plate boundary between Eurasia and Africa in the Central Atlantic. A set of almost linear and sub parallel dextral strike-slip faults, the SWIM Faults (SWIM is the acronym of the ESF EuroMargins project "Earthquake and Tsunami hazards of active faults at the South West Iberian Margin: deep structure, high-resolution imaging and paleoseismic signature") was mapped using a the new swath bathymetry compilation available in the area. The SWIM Faults form a narrow band of deformation over a length of 600 km coincident with a small circle centred on the pole of rotation of Africa with respect to Eurasia, This narrow band of deformation connects the Gloria Fault to the Rif-Tell Fault Zone, two segments of the plate boundary between Africa and Eurasia. In addition, the SWIM faults cuts across the Gulf of Cadiz, in the Atlantic Ocean, where the 1755 Great Lisbon earthquake, M~8.5-8.7, and tsunami were generated, providing a new insights on its source location. SWIM Team: E. Gràcia (2), L. Matias (3), P. Terrinha (4), M.A. Abreu (5), G. DeAlteriis(6), J.P. Henriet (7), J.J. Dañobeitia (2), D.G. Masson (8), T. Mulder (9), R. Ramella (10), L. Somoza (11) and S. Diez (2) (2) Unitat de Tecnologia Marina (CSIC), Centre Mediterrani d'Investigacions Marines i Ambientals, Barcelona, Spain (3) Centro Geofísica da Universidade de Lisboa (CGUL, IDL), Lisboa, Portugal (4) National Institute for Engineering, Technology and Innovation (INETI, LATTEX), Departamento de Geologia Marinha, Amadora, Portugal (5) Estrutura de Missão para a Extensão da Plataforma Continental, Lisboa, Portugal (6) Geomare Sud IAMC, CNR, Napoli, Italy (7) Renard Centre of Marine Geology, Dpt. Geology and Soil Science, Gent University, Gent, Belgium (8) National Oceanography Centre, European Way, Southampton, United Kingdom (9) Département de Géologie et Océanographie, Talence Cedex, France (10) Department for the Development of Marine Technology and Research, Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), Sgonico, Italy (11) Geología Marina, Instituto Geológico y Minero de España, Madrid, Spain

  15. Receiver Functions Imaging of the Moho and LAB in the Southern Caribbean plate boundary and Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masy, J.; Levander, A.; Niu, F.

    2011-12-01

    We have made teleseismic Ps and Sp receiver functions from data recorded from 2003 to 2009 by the permanent national seismic network of Venezuela, the BOLIVAR (Broadband Onshore-offshore Lithospheric Investigation of Venezuela and the Antilles arc Region) and WAVE (Western Array for Venezuela) experiments. The receiver functions show rapid variations in Moho and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) depths both across and along the southern Caribbean plate boundary region. We used a total of 69 events with Mw > 6 occurring at epicentral distances from 30° to 90° for the Ps receiver functions, and 43 events with Mw > 5.7 from 55° to 85° to make Sp receiver functions. For CCP stacking we constructed a 3D velocity model from numerous active source profiles (Schmitz et al., 2001; Bezada et al., 2007; Clark et al., 2008; Guedez, 2008; Magnani et al., 2009), from finite-frequency P wave upper mantle tomography model of Bezada et al., (2010) and the Rayleigh wave tomography model of Miller et al., (2009). The Moho ranges in depth from ~25 km beneath the Caribbean Large Igneous Provinces to ~55 km beneath the Mérida Andes in western Venezuela. These results are consistent with previous receiver functions studies (Niu et al., 2007) and the available active source profiles. Beneath the Maracaibo Block in northwestern Venezuela, we observe a strong positive signal at 40 to 60 km depth dipping ~6° towards the continent. We interpret this as the Moho of the Caribbean slab subducting beneath northernmost South America from the west. Beneath northern Colombia and northwestern Venezuela the top of this slab has been previously inferred from intermediate depth seismicity (Malavé and Suarez, 1995), which indicates a slab dipping between 20° - 30° beneath Lake Maracaibo. Our results could indicate that the slab is tearing beneath Lake Maracaibo as suggested previously by Masy et al. (2011). The deeper (> 100 km depth) part of the slab has been imaged using P-wave tomography (Bezada et al, 2010). Like others we attribute the uplift of the Mérida Andes to flat Caribbean slab subduction (for example Kellogg and Bonini, 1982). In central Venezuela beneath the Cordillera de la Costa we observe a positive signal shallower than the Moho at <30 km depth beneath the entire range. We interpret this as a detachment surface beneath Caribbean & arc terranes thrust onto the SA margin (Bezada et al., 2010). The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath the Mérida Andes is shallow, ~65km depth, and parallels the range. In the plate boundary region under the Cordillera de la Costa the lithosphere is also thin, ~65km, beneath the Cariaco basin the lithosphere thickens to 85 km. In the far east under Serranía del Interior the lithosphere is ~75 km. Cratonic lithosphere thickness varies from 85 to 100 km.

  16. The August and October, 2008 earthquake swarms on the Explorer/Pacific plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czoski, P. A.; Trehu, A. M.; Williams, M. C.; Dziak, R. P.; Embley, R. W.

    2011-12-01

    In August and October of 2008, earthquake swarms occurred on the Explorer/Pacific plate boundary. The August swarm lasted for approximately 4 days. Seventy-five earthquakes were reported by the Canadian National Seismograph Nework (CNSN), with the largest having a magnitude of 5.9. The U.S. Navy's Sound Surveillance System (SOSUS) hydrophones reported 148 earthquakes. Over 250 earthquakes were recorded on the Central Oregon Locked Zone Array (COLZA), a temporary array of 15 ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) and hydrophones. The October swarm lasted about 2 days with only one reported CNSN magnitude 4.4 earthquake. This event was also observed with the COLZA network. SOSUS reported 119 earthquakes over the course of two days. In this poster, we use the COLZA T-phase data to better understand the tectonic significance of these swarms. T-phases are generated by earthquakes and converted to acoustic energy at the seafloor. We used the ANSS magnitudes to calibrate an empirical magnitude scale for maximum amplitudes handpicked from the COLZA T-phase observations. This enabled us to lower the magnitude threshold to 2.8. A b-value of 0.78 was obtained for the August swarm suggesting that it may be a tectonic event rather then a magmatic one. Focal mechanisms reported by the Harvard CMT catalog for 3 of the largest events also support strike-slip motion. The reported SOSUS hypocenter locations indicate a linear NE/SW trend west of and parallel to the Explorer Ridge while the ANSS locations are very scattered but suggest a northwest/southeast trend in line with but east of the Dellwood-Revere transform fault. To obtain better-constrained locations, we plan to relocate the events and COLZA T-phase data using cross-correlation techniques developed to locate seismic tremor. We expect the COLZA data will allow us to determine whether activity was primarily focused along the Explorer Ridge axis, along the Dellwood-Revere transform, or within the plate. This investigation could provide us with new insight into the evolution and possible fragmentation of the Explorer Plate.

  17. Surface constraints on the temporal and spatial evolution of the Farallon-Pacific-North America plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuarrie, N.; Oskin, M.

    2009-05-01

    Extension and volcanism are two surface derived data sets used to infer mantle processes back in time. We integrate two new large GIS-based datasets to create palinspastic restorations of extension and volcanism allowing us to readdress the relationship between plate-boundary deformation, intra-plate extension and magmatism in western North America. Using ArcGIS and custom software, we retrodeformed the NAVDat (North American Volcanic Database, navdat.geongrid.org) using the western North America reconstruction of McQuarrie and Wernicke (2005). We compare this data to strain rates calculated over a 50 km-grid forward- deformed from 36 Ma to present. With the deformed grid and palinspastically restored volcanic dataset we quantitatively compare rates of magmatism and deformation and evaluate the age, location, and migration of Cenozoic volcanic arcs. A first order conclusion from this study is that magmatism, throughout the Basin and Range, is primarily driven by plate boundary effects. The plate boundary effects include subduction and rollback of the Farallon plate, creation and expansion of slab windows as the Pacific plate intercepts the North American plate and re-establishment of the ancestral Cascade arc along the eastern margin of the Sierra Nevada at ˜ 15 Ma. Notable exceptions include the Yellowstone hotspot system along the northern boarder of our study area and late-stage (<8 Ma) passive, extension related asthenospheric upwelling that accompanied a thinning lithosphere along the eastern and western margins of the Basin and Range. The palinspastic reconstructions presented here highlight that the classic, high-angle, Basin and Range faulting that comprises most of the physiographic Basin and Range province commenced during a remarkably amagmatic period. These observations largely contradicts the active rifting model where magmatism triggers Basin and Range extension

  18. The interpretation of crustal dynamics data in terms of plate motions and regional deformation near plate boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.

    1987-01-01

    The nature and dynamics of time-dependent deformation along major seismic zones including the influence of irregularities in fault geometry on the earthquake cycle, and the processes contributing to the state of stress and rates of strain in plate interior regions were studied. The principle findings of the research are discussed.

  19. Great earthquakes, seismicity gaps and potential for earthquake disaster along the Himalaya plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khattri, K. N.

    1987-06-01

    Analysis of the space-time patterns of seismicity in the Himalaya plate boundary has established the existence of three seismic gaps: (1) The "Kashmir gap" lying west of the 1905 Kangra earthquake; (2) the "Central gap", situated between the 1905 Kangra and the 1934 Bihar earthquakes; (3) the "Assam gap" between the 1897 and 1950 Assam earthquakes. This study has shown that the above great earthquakes were preceded as well as followed by long periods (? 19 years) of decreased levels of seismic activity in the epicentral regions. Remarkable decrease in the seismicity following the year 1970 has been observed in the western half of the Central gap as well as in the Assam gap. Local seismic investigation in the Assam gap confirms this feature and the seismicity suggests the existence there of an asperity. The local seismic investigations in Garhwal Himalaya have shown that the small earthquakes are confined to the upper 6-8 km of the crust and may have strike-slip motions. These earthquakes occur in a region where teleseismically recorded events were few.

  20. Tidal calibration of Plate Boundary Observatory borehole strainmeters: Roles of vertical and shear coupling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roeloffs, Evelyn

    2010-01-01

    A multicomponent borehole strainmeter directly measures changes in the diameter of its cylindrical housing at several azimuths. To transform these measurements to formation strains requires a calibration matrix, which must be estimated by analyzing the installed strainmeter's response to known strains. Typically, theoretical calculations of Earth tidal strains serve as the known strains. This paper carries out such an analysis for 12 Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) borehole strainmeters, postulating that each of the strainmeters' four gauges responds ("couples") to all three horizontal components of the formation strain tensor, as well as to vertical strain. Orientation corrections are also estimated. The fourth extensometer in each PBO strainmeter provides redundant information used to reduce the chance that coupling coefficients could be misleadingly fit to inappropriate theoretical tides. Satisfactory fits between observed and theoretically calculated tides were obtained for three PBO strainmeters in California, where the calculated tides are corroborated by other instrumentation, as well as for six strainmeters in Oregon and Washington, where no other instruments have ever recorded Earth tidal strain. Several strainmeters have unexpectedly large coupling coefficients for vertical strain, which increases the strainmeter's response to atmospheric pressure. Vertical coupling diminishes, or even changes the sign of, the apparent response to areal strain caused by Earth tides or deep Earth processes because near the free surface, vertical strains are opposite in sign to areal strain. Vertical coupling does not impair the shear strain response, however. PBO borehole strainmeters can provide calibrated shear strain time series of transient strain associated with tectonic or magmatic processes.

  1. Is the Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone an ancient plate boundary of Baltica?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, Stanislaw; Mikolajczak, Mateusz; Krzywiec, Piotr; Malinowski, Michal; Buffenmyer, Vinton; Lewandowski, Marek

    2015-12-01

    The Teisseyre-Tornquist Zone (TTZ) is generally regarded as a fossil plate boundary in Europe that extends 2000 km from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea. We used an integrated approach merging potential fields and seismic data to explore crustal architecture across the TTZ in central Poland. The aim of the study was to test whether the TTZ coincides with an early Paleozoic (Caledonian) suture formed through the closure of the Tornquist Ocean along the SW Baltica margin. The suture is presumed to separate the East European Craton (EEC) from the Paleozoic terranes of Western Europe. Two seismic reflection lines from the PolandSPAN™ experiment were used to image the deep structure at the SW margin of the EEC. Lines PL-5300 and PL-5400 run NE-SW in central and northern Poland, respectively. The seismic interpretation down to top of basement was integrated with 2-D gravity and magnetic modeling to highlight the structure of the deep crust. Both the gravity and magnetic models show a suture that welds together two blocks at the base of crust. However, top of basement above the suture dips uniformly to the SW and is overlain by undisturbed lower Paleozoic and younger sediments. By implication, the suture must have developed in the Precambrian and both crustal blocks amalgamated belong to the EEC. Consequently, the Caledonian suture, formed by the closure of the Tornquist Ocean between Avalonia and Baltica, must be located farther southwest beneath thick upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments.

  2. GPS Installation Progress in the Northern California Region of the Plate Boundary Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basset, A.; Coyle, B.; Williams, T.; Mann, D.; Finn, D.; Feaux, K.

    2008-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) is the geodetic component of the National Science Foundation (NSF) funded Earthscope Project. The final PBO GPS network will comprise 1100 continuously operating GPS stations installed throughout the Western US and Alaska. There are 448 Stations planned for California with 231 of these in Northern California (NCA). This poster will present a progress report and highlights of GPS installations in NCA over the past year up until the end of the five year project. In the fifth year of the project (beginning 10/1/2007 and ending 10/1/2008), we installed 40 additional stations for a total of 231 stations. The stations installed include; 8 station installed at Lassen Volcanic National Park, 2 additional stations built around Mount Shasta (8 total), 3 stations built in Yosemite National Park, 2 in the Mendocino National Forest, and 2 stations in Tahoe National Forest. The higher elevations stations required modification for use in areas of high snow load and high wind. Data from these stations are available from the UNAVCO archive. In addition to the installations, there was a gradual shift of resources from installation to the operation and maintenance aspects of the growing GPS network. Telemetry priorities moved from individual stations telemetry solutions to grouped telemetry solutions to increase efficiency and reduce costs.

  3. Detailed Seismic Velocity Structure of the Plate Boundary, Cascadia Subduction Zone, from Prestack Waveform Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, W.; Holbrook, W.; Tobin, H. J.; Keranen, K. M.; Everson, E.; Mallick, S.; Padhi, A.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the geologic makeup of the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) has great importance for understanding seismic hazards in the coastal margin of the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The Cascadia margin is a potential earthquake and tsunami threat to the many millions who live in the area, yet details of its structure and mechanics remain poorly understood. In particular, the character of the subduction interface is elusive due to the CSZ's relatively aseismic behavior and low seismic reflectivity, making imaging difficult for passive and active source methods, respectively. In July 2012 seismic data were acquired as a part of the COAST project, spanning the important transition from the Cascadia basin, across the deformation front, and into the accretionary wedge. This modern data, coupled with sophisticated pre-stack full waveform seismic inversion methods, allows us to create highly detailed velocity models. While still computationally expensive, current computing clusters can perform these inversions with enough lateral density to yield highly detailed velocity information in both the vertical and horizontal. Here we present pre-stack full waveform inversions of a seismic line from the center of the COAST survey offshore Washington state as a cross section of the velocity structure of the CSZ. This detailed velocity model is a necessary initial step toward a detailed porosity cross section to be used to determine the role of fluids in the CSZ. Using these new data we investigate the lateral variability in reflectivity of the subducting plate boundary reflection in terms of its seismic velocity.

  4. Rigid and non-rigid micro-plates: Philippines and Myanmar-Andaman case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangin, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Generally, tectonic plates are considered as rigid. Oblique plate convergence favors the development of micro-plates along the converging boundaries. The north-south-trending Philippines archipelago (here named Philippine Mobile Belt, PMB), a few hundreds kilometers wide, is one of such complex tectonic zones. We show here that it is composed of rigid rotating crustal blocks (here called platelets). In Myanmar, the northernmost tip of the Sumatra-Andaman subduction system is another complex zone made of various crustal blocks in-between convergent plates. Yet, contrary to PMB, it sustains internal deformation with platelet buckling, altogether indicative of a non-rigid behavior. Therefore, the two case studies, Philippine Mobile Belt and Myanmar-Andaman micro-plate (MAS), illustrate the complexity of micro-plate tectonics and kinematics at convergent plate boundaries.

  5. The interpretation of crustal dynamics data in terms of plate motions and regional deformation near plate boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.

    1987-01-01

    The focus of the research was in two broad areas during the most recent 6 month period: the nature and dynamics of time-dependent deformation along major seismic zones, including the influence of irregularities in fault geometry on the earthquake cycles, and the processes contributing to the state of stress and rates of strain in plate interior regions. The principal findings of the research to date are described.

  6. Nature and distribution of geological domains at the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary off SW Iberia and regional geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Loriente, Sara; Sallarès, Valentí; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Bartolome, Rafael

    2014-05-01

    We present a new classification of geological domains at the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary off SW Iberia, together with a regional geodynamic reconstruction spanning from the Mesozoic extension to the Neogene-to-present-day convergence. It is based on seismic velocity and density models along two regional wide-angle seismic transects, one running NW-SE from the Horseshoe to the Seine abyssal plains, and the other running N-S from S Portugal to the Seine Abyssal Plain, combined with previously available information. The seismic velocity and density structure at the Seine Abyssal Plain and the internal Gulf of Cadiz indicates the presence of a highly heterogeneous oceanic crust, similar to that described in ultra-slow spreading centers, whereas in the Horseshoe and Tagus abyssal plains, the basement structure resembles that of exhumed mantle sections identified in the Northern Atlantic margin. The integration of all this new information allows defining the presence of three oceanic domains offshore SW Iberia: (1) the Seine Abyssal Plain domain, generated during the first stages of slow seafloor spreading in the NE Central Atlantic (Early Jurassic); (2) the Gulf of Cadiz domain, made of oceanic crust generated in the Alpine-Tethys spreading system between Iberia and Africa, which was coeval with the formation of the Seine Abyssal Plain domain and lasted up to the North Atlantic continental break-up (Late Jurassic); and (3) the Gorringe Bank domain, mainly made of rocks exhumed from the mantle with little synchronous magmatism, which formed during the first stages of North Atlantic opening. Our models suggest that the Seine Abyssal Plain and Gulf of Cadiz domains are separated by the Lineament South strike-slip fault, whereas the Gulf of Cadiz and Gorringe Bank domains appear to be limited by a deep thrust fault located at the center of the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain. The formation and evolution of these three domains during the Mesozoic is key to understand the sequence of events that occurred during the first stages of opening of the Northern Atlantic.

  7. Contrasting styles of (U)HP rock exhumation along the Cenozoic Adria-Europe plate boundary (Western Alps, Calabria, Corsica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malusà, Marco G.; Faccenna, Claudio; Baldwin, Suzanne L.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Rossetti, Federico; Balestrieri, Maria Laura; Danišík, Martin; Ellero, Alessandro; Ottria, Giuseppe; Piromallo, Claudia

    2015-06-01

    Since the first discovery of ultrahigh pressure (UHP) rocks 30 years ago in the Western Alps, the mechanisms for exhumation of (U)HP terranes worldwide are still debated. In the western Mediterranean, the presently accepted model of synconvergent exhumation (e.g., the channel-flow model) is in conflict with parts of the geologic record. We synthesize regional geologic data and present alternative exhumation mechanisms that consider the role of divergence within subduction zones. These mechanisms, i.e., (i) the motion of the upper plate away from the trench and (ii) the rollback of the lower plate, are discussed in detail with particular reference to the Cenozoic Adria-Europe plate boundary, and along three different transects (Western Alps, Calabria-Sardinia, and Corsica-Northern Apennines). In the Western Alps, (U)HP rocks were exhumed from the greatest depth at the rear of the accretionary wedge during motion of the upper plate away from the trench. Exhumation was extremely fast, and associated with very low geothermal gradients. In Calabria, HP rocks were exhumed from shallower depths and at lower rates during rollback of the Adriatic plate, with repeated exhumation pulses progressively younging toward the foreland. Both mechanisms were active to create boundary divergence along the Corsica-Northern Apennines transect, where European southeastward subduction was progressively replaced along strike by Adriatic northwestward subduction. The tectonic scenario depicted for the Western Alps trench during Eocene exhumation of (U)HP rocks correlates well with present-day eastern Papua New Guinea, which is presented as a modern analog of the Paleogene Adria-Europe plate boundary.

  8. Kinematics of the New Zealand plate boundary: Relative motion by GPS across networks of 1000 km and 50 km spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meertens, Charles M.; Rocken, Christian; Perin, Barbara; Walcott, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The NASA/DOSE 'Kinematics of the New Zealand Plate Boundary' experiment is a four-year cooperative Global Positioning System (GPS) experiment involving 6 universities and institutions in New Zealand and the United States. The investigation covers two scales, the first on the scale of plates (approximately 1000 km) and the second is on the scale of the plate boundary zone (approximately 50 km). In the first portion of the experiment, phase A, the objective is to make direct measurements of tectonic plate motion between the Australian and Pacific plates using GPS in order to determine the Euler vector of this plate pair. The phase A portion of this experiment was initiated in December 1992 with the first-epoch baseline measurements on the large scale network. The network will be resurveyed two years later to obtain velocities. The stations which were observed for phase A are shown and listed. Additional regional stations which will be used for this study are listed and are part of either CIGNET or other global tracking networks. The phase A portion of the experiment is primarily the responsibility of the UNAVCO investigators. Therefore, this report concentrates on phase A. The first year of NASA funding for phase A included only support for the field work. Processing and analysis will take place with the second year of funding. The second part of the experiemnt measured relative motion between the Australian and Pacific plates across the pate boundary zone between Hokitika and Christchurch on the South Island of New Zealand. The extent and rate of deformation will be determined by comparisons with historical, conventional surveys and by repeated GPS measurements to be made in two years. This activity was the emphasis of the LDGO portion of the study. An ancillary experiment, phase C, concentrated on plate boundary deformation in the vicinity of Wellington and was done as part of training during the early portion of the field campaign. Details of the objectives of the field investigations are given in the appendix. An overview of the 1992 GPS field program is also given in the appendix.

  9. North American plate dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Randall M.; Reding, Lynn M.

    1991-01-01

    Deformation within the North American plate in response to various tectonic processes is modeled using an elastic finite element analysis. The tectonic processes considered in the modeling include ridge forces associated with the normal thermal evolution of oceanic lithosphere, shear and normal stresses transmitted across transforms, normal stresses transmitted across convergent boundaries, stresses due to horizontal density contrasts within the continent, and shear tractions applied along the base of the plate. Model stresses are calculated with respect to a lithostatic reference stress state. Shear stresses transmitted across transform boundaries along the San Andreas and Caribbean are small, of the order of 5-10 MPa. Also, compressive stresses of the order of 5-10 MPa transmitted across the major transforms improve the fit to the data. Compressive stresses across convergent margins along the Aleutians and the Middle America trench are important.

  10. The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) Facility: Innovations, Transformations, and Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, M. E.; Mencin, D.; Feaux, K.

    2013-12-01

    The word 'transformation' is not used lightly in science. However, the transformative nature of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory facility on the science community is large and measurable. The impact of the creation, execution and delivery of the PBO resulted in radical changes in the way the geodesy community views permanent, continuously operating (and often) real-time GPS and strain networks, open data policies, and the ability for consortium based facilities, such as UNAVCO, to manage and deliver on large National Science Foundation investments. Our presentation will explore these innovations and transformations from the community, facility, and science perspectives. In the genesis of the EarthScope proposal there was a distinct shift away from the PBO being managed and constructed by prominent PI's within the community to a vesting of the responsibility and authority in UNAVCO to execute on behalf of the entire community. This tipping away from individual PI concerns towards a communal behavior allowed the construction of a facility based on broad input from, and equal access for, any member of the geodesy community. The open and transparent nature of EarthScope, including the open data policy for both facility and PI derived data was truly transformative. One of the key tenants of the PBO was strict adherence to not redesigning unless absolutely necessary. For example PBO monumentation and data processing practices were adopted wholesale from the SCIGN project, while the station selection, project management, permitting practices, data downloading, metadata, and, data communications were refactored for optimum use for the broader geodesy community and to scale with the large geography that confronted PBO. The PBO strainmeter network, one of the largest in the world, started by looking at the procedures of 30 years of heterogeneous installations around the word then crafted, created, and amalgamated new drilling, grouting, installation, and data processing procedures that allowed the project to deal with a compressed installation time line and the varying climactic and geological terrains in the Western US. The science that has come from the PBO deployments includes not only estimates of the secular deformation field across important structures in the active Western US but has provided a full kinematic and dynamic picture of the Pacific and North American Plate boundary interaction. The data registered from the PBO network has been used in diverse studies including determination of the asthenospheric density, temperature, and elastic moduli beneath the Western US (Ito and Simons, 2011), snow depth sensing using GPS multipath (Larson and Nievinski, 2013), continuous monitoring of the horizontal displacement gradient tensor field in Southern California (Holt and Shcherbenko, 2013), and using strainmeter data to constrain the magma reservoir beneath the Yellowstone (Luttrell, 2013). There is little doubt that the EarthScope PBO has met and exceeded its science goals, however what is exciting and transformative is the science that has resulted from the signals and the noise found in between these broad science goals.

  11. Halfway There: An EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory Progress Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, M.; Anderson, G.; Blume, F.; Coyle, B.; Feaux, K.; Friesen, B.; Hafner, K.; Hasting, M.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.; Pauk, B.; Phillips, D.; Walls, C.; Prescott, W.

    2006-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), part of the NSF-funded EarthScope project, is designed to study the three-dimensional strain field resulting from deformation across the active boundary zone between the Pacific and North American plates in the western United States. To meet these goals, UNAVCO will install 852 continuous GPS stations, 103 borehole strainmeter stations, 28 tiltmeters, and five laser strainmeters by October 2008, acquire radar imagery and geochronology as well as manage data for 209 previously existing continuous GPS stations through the PBO Nucleus project. As of September 2006, UNAVCO had completed half the PBO GPS stations, with 426 installed and data returned from 400 stations, and 60% of the PBO Nucleus stations have been upgraded. Highlights of the past year's work include the expansion of the Alaska subnetwork to nearly 70 continuously-operating stations, including coverage of Akutan and Augustine volcanoes and reconnaissance for future installations on Unimak Island; the installation of nine new stations on Mt. St. Helens; and the arrival of 33 permits for station installations on BLM land in Nevada. The Augustine network provided critical data on magmatic and volcanic processes associated with the 2005-2006 volcanic crisis, and is now being expanded to a total of 11 stations. Please visit http://pboweb.unavco.org/?pageid=3 for further information on PBO GPS network construction activities. UNAVCO is also installing and operating the largest borehole seismic/strainmeter network in North America, as well as tiltmeters and laser strainmeters. As of September 2006, 19 PBO borehole stations had been installed and two laser strainmeter stations were operating, with a total of 28 borehole stations and 3 laser strainmeters expected by the end of 2006. In response to direction from the EarthScope community, UNAVCO has installed a dense network of six stations along the San Jacinto Fault near Anza, California. During the fall of 2006, the first borehole stations will be installed on Mt. St. Helens, along with the first PBO borehole tiltmeters, and work will begin to densify the network near Parkfield. Please visit http://pboweb.unavco.org/?pageid=8 for more information on PBO strainmeter network construction progress. The combined PBO/Nucleus GPS network has now provided almost 150 GB of raw data, with special downloads of more than 15 GB of high-rate GPS data following the March 2006 Koryakia, Russia and May 2006 Tonga earthquakes. These GPS data are processed routinely to generate data products including station position time series, velocity vectors, and related information, and all data products are available from the UNAVCO Facility archive. The PBO seismic network seismic network has provided 60 GB of raw data, which are available from the IRIS Data Management Center (DMC). The PBO strainmeter network has provided nearly 30 GB of raw data, available in both raw native format and SEED format from the Northern California Earthquake Data Center and the IRIS DMC, along with higher-level products such as cleaned strain time series and related information. Please visit http://pboweb.unavco.org/?pageid=88 and http://pboweb.unavco.org/?pageid=89 for more information on PBO GPS and strainmeter/seismic data products.

  12. A new approach to study rotational deformation near plate boundaries by combining paleomagnetism and geodetic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsburg, N.; Granot, R.; Hamiel, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Vertical axis rotations are a significant component of crustal deformation and provide important constraints on the tectonic history of plate boundaries. Geodetic measurements can be used to calculate present-day rotations whereas paleomagnetic measurements can be used for calculating finite long-term (millions of years) rotations. Here we present a new approach for integrating both datasets through mechanical modeling that links these time scales. We test this approach in northern Israel, a region where a tectonic triple junction lies at the intersection between two deformation zones: (1) The Dead Sea Fault, and (2) The Carmel-Gilboa Fault System. We examined the distribution of crustal deformation and rotation rates near these two major fault zones. First, rotation rates were calculated from current interseismic global positioning system (GPS) measurements that were recorded during 12 years. We analyzed the GPS velocities using a 3D dislocation slip model that takes into account motion on major active faults in the study area. This model was then modified to account for the total deformation of the crust during several seismic cycles. Rotations from the mechanical modeling were compared against finite rotations determined based on primary magnetic remanence directions from 30 Neogenic basaltic sites. Paleomagnetic results indicate significant (>20º) rotations near the edges of fault segments. These results disagree with interseismic rotations calculated from the GPS measurements; however they are in general agreement with the vertical axis rotations obtained from the mechanical model. The comparison to the modified model suggests that the tectonic setting of the Carmel-Gilboa Fault system was fairly stable during the last ~10 Myr. Furthermore, the new suggested method for comparing interseismic recent deformation with long-term deformation provides important new insights on the timing, magnitude and style of deformation near major faults.

  13. A 3-D lithospheric model of the Caribbean-South American plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Javier; Götze, Hans-Jürgen; Schmitz, Michael

    2011-10-01

    A 3-D structural model of the Caribbean-South American plate boundary was constructed by gravity modeling. The model was constrained by four wide-angle seismic refraction sections, Moho depth estimations from receiver functions, and additionally seismological hypocenters, surface geology, and geodynamic information. Density values were calculated from empirical velocity-density functions, and mineralogical-chemical composition considering specific P/T conditions. We tested different structural models for Western and Eastern Venezuela. In the final model, the fit of the measured and modeled gravity fields for a long Caribbean slab in Western Venezuela was better than the fit obtained for a short one. This interpretation is consistent with the constraining data. The slab is interpreted to extend further to the south beneath Northern Colombia and culminates in the area of the seismic cluster of the Bucaramanga nest. The modeling estimates a slab dip angle under Maracaibo and Mérida Andes of 15°, which increases to 32° below 100 km depth. The dip direction of approx. N150°E ± 5 increases lightly eastward. In Eastern Venezuela, considering its short wavelength, lineaments analyzed from gravity data (by curvature methods and Euler deconvolution) seem to be related to shallow structures and density contrast in the Serranía del Interior and not from a deep detached slab beneath the continental crust. It is deduced from modeling results that this slab configuration has a very small influence on the gravity field. The slab was modeled according to the subduction-transform propagation model with purely westward subduction and a slab break off along a vertical dip-slip tear through the lithosphere.

  14. Noise-based surface wave tomography of the Southern California plate boundary region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zigone, D.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Campillo, M.; Roux, P.

    2013-12-01

    We use ambient noise tomography to investigate the crustal structures of the Southern California plate boundary region with a focus on the San Jacinto Fault Zone. A network consisting of 154 broadband and short period sensors is used to estimate the Green's functions of surface waves propagating between station pairs. To obtain better signal to noise ratios in the noise correlation functions, we adopt a procedure using short time windows (4 hr). Energy tests are performed on the data to remove effects of transient sources and instrumental problems. After computing the correlations functions, we perform Optimal Rotation Algorithm (ORA) calculations (Roux, 2009) to better take into account the unfavorable directive ambient seismic noise that is coming mainly from the Pacific in Southern California. This method is used to make travel time measurements on the vertical, radial and transverse components that can be used to evaluate dispersion using frequency-time analysis for periods between 1-20 seconds. After rejecting paths without sufficient signal to noise ratios, we invert the velocity measurements using the Barmin et al (2001) approach on a 1.5 km grid size. The obtained group velocity maps reveal complex structures with clear velocity contrasts across sections of the San Jacinto fault zone, along with low velocity damage zones and basins. We also find a strong group velocity contrast across the southern part of the San Andreas Fault where the Salton trough produces a slower southwest block. The group velocities are inverted to 3D images of shear wave speeds using the linear inversion method of Hermann and Ammon (2002). The results show flower-type damage structures in the top few km of the crust around the SJFZ that are in agreement with, and complement, earthquake tomography studies in the region.

  15. Fault and graben growth along active magmatic divergent plate boundaries in Iceland and Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trippanera, D.; Acocella, V.; Ruch, J.; Abebe, B.

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies highlight the importance of annual-scale dike-induced rifting episodes in developing normal faults and graben along the active axis of magmatic divergent plate boundaries (MDPB). However, the longer-term (102-105 years) role of diking on the cumulative surface deformation and evolution of MDPB is not yet well understood. To better understand the longer-term normal faults and graben along the axis of MDPB, we analyze fissure swarms in Iceland and Ethiopia. We first focus on the simplest case of immature fissure swarms, with single dike-fed eruptive fissures; these consist of a <1 km wide graben bordered by normal faults with displacement up to a few meters, consistent with theoretical models and geodetic data. A similar structural pattern is found, with asymmetric and multiple graben, within wider mature fissure swarms, formed by several dike-fed eruptive fissures. We then consider the lateral termination of normal faults along these grabens to detect their upward or downward propagation. Most faults terminate as open fractures on flat surface, suggesting downward fault propagation; this is consistent with recent experiments showing dike-induced normal faults propagating downward from the surface. However, some normal faults also terminate as open fractures on monoclines, which resemble fault propagation folds; this suggests upward propagation of reactivated buried faults, promoted by diking. These results suggest that fault growth and graben development, as well as the longer-term evolution of the axis of MDPB, may be explained only through dike emplacement and that any amagmatic faulting is not necessary.

  16. Friction experiments on Alpine Fault DFDP core samples: Implications for slip style on plate boundary faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikari, M.; Trütner, S.; Toy, V. G.; Carpenter, B. M.; Kopf, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Alpine Fault is a major plate-boundary fault zone that poses a significant seismic hazard in southern New Zealand, with the next major earthquake expected to be imminent. Core samples from the Alpine Fault were recovered from two Deep Fault Drilling Project pilot boreholes that penetrated the principal slip zone (PSZ). We show here that at room temperature and low effective stress (30 MPa), materials from within and very near the PSZ are weaker than the surrounding cataclasites (? = 0.45), exhibit velocity-strengthening friction, and also tend to restrengthen (heal) rapidly. Under conditions appropriate for several kilometers depth on the Alpine Fault (100 MPa, 160 °C, fluid-saturated), a cataclasite/gouge sample located very near to the PSZ exhibits ? = 0.67, which is high compared to measurements performed at lower pressures and temperatures for the Alpine Fault and other major fault zones sampled by scientific drilling. Every major lithological unit tested under elevated P-T conditions exhibits both positive and negative values of friction velocity-dependence suggesting that they are all capable of earthquake nucleation. Using representative values of the friction velocity-dependent parameter a-b, the critical slip distance Dc, and previously documented elastic properties of the wall rock, estimated critical nucleation patch lengths may be as low as ~3 m. This small value is consistent with a seismic moment Mo = ~4x1010 or a Mw = ~1, which suggests that events of this size or larger are expected to occur as normal earthquakes and that slow or transient slip events are unlikely in the approximate depth range of 3-7 km. In conjunction with previous geodetic and seismologic observations, our results indicate that the Alpine Fault has a high potential for frictional instability throughout the brittle crust, in contrast with other major fault zones on which the uppermost portion is relatively stable.

  17. The Plate Boundary Observatory Student Field Assistant Program in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seider, E. L.

    2007-12-01

    Each summer, UNAVCO hires students as part of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) Student Field Assistant Program. PBO, the geodetic component of the NSF-funded EarthScope project, involves the reconnaissance, permitting, installation, documentation, and maintenance of 880 permanent GPS stations in five years. During the summer 2007, nine students from around the US and Puerto Rico were hired to assist PBO engineers during the busy summer field season. From June to September, students worked closely with PBO field engineers to install and maintain permanent GPS stations in all regions of PBO, including Alaska. The PBO Student Field Assistant Program provides students with professional hands-on field experience as well as continuing education in the geosciences. It also gives students a glimpse into the increasing technologies available to the science community, the scope of geophysical research utilizing these technologies, and the field techniques necessary to complete this research. Students in the PBO Field Assistant Program are involved in all aspects of GPS support, including in-warehouse preparation and in-field installations and maintenance. Students are taught practical skills such as drilling, wiring, welding, hardware configuration, documentation, and proper field safety procedures needed to construct permanent GPS stations. These real world experiences provide the students with technical and professional skills that are not always available to them in a classroom, and will benefit them greatly in their future studies and careers. The 2007 summer field season in Southern California consisted of over 35 GPS permanent station installations. To date, the Southern California region of PBO has installed over 190 GPS stations. This poster presentation will highlight the experiences gained by the Southern California student field assistants, while supporting PBO- Southern California GPS installations in the Mohave Desert and the Inyo National Forest.

  18. The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory Akutan Alaskan Volcano Tiltmeter Installation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauk, B. A.; Gallaher, W.; Dittmann, T.; Smith, S.

    2007-12-01

    During August of 2007, the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) successfully installed four Applied Geomechanics Lily Self Leveling Borehole Tiltmeters on Akutan Volcano, in the central Aleutian islands of Alaska. All four stations were collocated with existing PBO Global Positioning Systems (GPS) stations installed on the volcano in 2005. The tiltmeters will aid researchers in detecting and measuring flank deformation associated with future magmatic intrusions of the volcano. All four of the tiltmeters were installed by PBO field crews with helicopter support provided by JL Aviation and logistical support from the Trident Seafood Corporation, the City of Akutan, and the Akutan Corporation. Lack of roads and drivable trails on the remote volcanic island required that all drilling equipment be transported to each site from the village of Akutan by slinging gear beneath the helicopter and with internal loads. Each tiltmeter hole was drilled to a depth of approximately 30 feet with a portable hydraulic/pneumatic drill rig. The hole was then cased with splined 2.75 inch PVC. The PVC casing was cemented in place with grout and the tiltmeters were installed and packed with fine grain sand to stabilize the tiltmeters inside the casing. The existing PBO NetRS GPS receivers were configured to collect the tiltmeter data through a spare receiver serial port at one sample per minute and 1 hour files. Data from the GPS receivers and tiltmeters is telemetered directly or through a repeater radio to a base station located in the village of Akutan that transmits the data using satellite based communications to connect to the internet and to the UNAVCO Facility data archive where it is made freely available to the public.

  19. The Future of the Plate Boundary Observatory in the GAGE Facility and beyond 2018

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, G. S.; Bendick, R. O.; Foster, J. H.; Freymueller, J. T.; La Femina, P. C.; Miller, M. M.; Rowan, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and Earthscope (GAGE) Facility, which operates the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), builds on UNAVCO's strong record of facilitating research and education in the geosciences and geodesy-related engineering fields. Precise positions and velocities for the PBO's ~1100 continuous GPS stations and other PBO data products are used to address a wide range of scientific and technical issues across North America. A large US and international community of scientists, surveyors, and civil engineers access PBO data streams, software, and other on-line resources daily. In a global society that is increasingly technology-dependent, consistently risk-averse, and often natural resource-limited, communities require geodetic research, education, and infrastructure to make informed decisions about living on a dynamic planet. The western U.S. and Alaska, where over 95% of the PBO sensor assets are located, have recorded significant geophysical events like earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunami. UNAVCO community science provides first-order constraints on geophysical processes to support hazards mapping and zoning, and form the basis for earthquake and tsunami early warning applications currently under development. The future of PBO was discussed at a NSF-sponsored three-day workshop held in September 2014 in Breckenridge, CO. Over 40 invited participants and community members, including representatives from interested stakeholder groups, UNAVCO staff, and members of the PBO Working Group and Geodetic Infrastructure Advisory Committee participated in workshop, which included retrospective and prospective plenary presentations and breakout sessions focusing on specific scientific themes. We will present some of the findings of that workshop in order to continue a dialogue about policies and resources for long-term earth observing networks. How PBO fits into the recently released U.S. National Plan for Civil Earth Observations will also be discussed.

  20. Receptivity of Flat-Plate Boundary Layer in a Non-Uniform Free Stream (Vorticity Normal to the Plate)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogan, M. N.; Shumilkin, V. G.; Ustinov, M. V.; Zhigulev, S. V.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of low speed leading edge boundary layer receptivity to free-stream vorticity produced by upstream wires normal to the leading edge are discussed. Data include parametric variations in leading edge configuration and details of the incident disturbance field including single and multiple wakes. The induced disturbance amplitude increases with increases in the leading edge diameter and wake interactions. Measurements agree with the theory of M. E. Goldstein.

  1. Monitoring the northern Chile megathrust with the Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurr, Bernd; Asch, Günter; Cailleau, Beatrice; Diaz, Guillermo Chong; Barrientos, Sergio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Oncken, Onno

    2010-05-01

    The oceanic Nazca plate subducts beneath the continental South American plate by recurrent rupture of large segments of its interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all sizeable segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.5 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the south and north broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake intruded into the southern part of the seismic gap in 2007 between Antofagasto and Tocopilla. This makes northern Chile a unique natural laboratory to observe a subduction megathrust at various stages of its seismic cycle. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (France), and the GFZ German research Centre for Geosciences (Germany). Currently we are operating 17 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. Continuous GPS, tilt, creep, climate and magnetotellurics measurements are complementing the seismological part. A majority of the sites provide data near real-time. We will present results of seismic monitoring including analysis of the 2007 M7.7 Tocopilla earthquake sequence that was recorded during the installation stage of the observatory. We relocated the mainshock and about a one thousand aftershocks during the following week using waveform cross-correlation and the double-difference algorithm. Aftershocks reveal that rupture during this earthquake was confined to the deeper part (35 - 55 km depth) of the seismogenic coupling zone, except near the Mejillones peninsula that marks rupture termination in the south. Here earthquake activity reaches to depths of 20 km and even shallower, possibly indicating upper plate activation. The sequence also features an M 6.8 earthquake that broke the oceanic slab on an almost vertical plane at the down-dip end of the megathrust rupture. Confrontation with the aftershock distribution of the 1995 M 8.0 Antofagasta earthquake on the adjoining southern segment reveals an intriguing mirror symmetry with an axis crossing the Mejillones peninsula, emphasizing the penisula's significance as a segment boundary. Since then activity inside the remaining seismic gap to the north picked up with three earthquakes exceeding magnitude 6, maybe heralding the next great rupture.

  2. Abbot Ice Shelf, structure of the Amundsen Sea continental margin and the southern boundary of the Bellingshausen Plate seaward of West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, James R.; Tinto, Kirsty J.; Bell, Robin E.

    2015-05-01

    Inversion of NASA Operation IceBridge airborne gravity over the Abbot Ice Shelf in West Antarctica for subice bathymetry defines an extensional terrain made up of east-west trending rift basins formed during the early stages of Antarctica/Zealandia rifting. Extension is minor, as rifting jumped north of Thurston Island early in the rifting process. The Amundsen Sea Embayment continental shelf west of the rifted terrain is underlain by a deeper, more extensive sedimentary basin also formed during rifting between Antarctica and Zealandia. A well-defined boundary zone separates the mildly extended Abbot extensional terrain from the deeper Amundsen Embayment shelf basin. The shelf basin has an extension factor, ?, of 1.5-1.7 with 80-100 km of extension occurring across an area now 250 km wide. Following this extension, rifting centered north of the present shelf edge and proceeded to continental rupture. Since then, the Amundsen Embayment continental shelf appears to have been tectonically quiescent and shaped by subsidence, sedimentation, and the advance and retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. The Bellingshausen Plate was located seaward of the Amundsen Sea margin prior to incorporation into the Antarctic Plate at about 62 Ma. During the latter part of its independent existence, Bellingshausen plate motion had a clockwise rotational component relative to Antarctica producing convergence across the north-south trending Bellingshausen Gravity Anomaly structure at 94°W and compressive deformation on the continental slope between 94°W and 102°W. Farther west, the relative motion was extensional along an east-west trending zone occupied by the Marie Byrd Seamounts. The copyright line for this article was changed on 5 JUN 2015 after original online publication.

  3. Cascadia slow slip events and earthquake initiation theories: Hazards research with Plate Boundary Observatory geodetic data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeloffs, E. A.; Beeler, N. M.

    2013-12-01

    The relationship of transient slow slip events (SSEs) to great earthquakes is a global focus of intense and critical hazards research. Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) GPS and borehole strainmeter (BSM) networks in the Cascadia forearc provide detailed data that can be compared with simulations predicting how SSEs might evolve as a great earthquake approaches. Cascadia SSEs represent aseismic slip of a few cm in the direction of plate convergence over a period of days or weeks, in a depth range down-dip from the locked zone expected to generate the next great Cascadia subduction earthquake. During an SSE, shear stress borne in the SSE depth range is transferred up-dip at an above-background loading rate. If shear stress on the locked zone is continually accumulating, the daily probability of reaching a threshold failure stress is elevated during an SSE . Alternatively, if dynamic instability is due to rate-weakening fault strength, then SSEs still promote earthquake initiation, but that initiation may be delayed until after the SSE ends, and short-duration SSEs may have negligible effect. In some numerical simulations, great earthquakes could nucleate in the SSE depth range, where effective pressure is assumed to be low. Certain models predict that successive SSEs will slip to increasingly shallower depths, eventually encountering higher effective stress where shear heating can destabilize slip and lead to dynamic rupture. PBO GPS stations have recorded surface deformation from SSEs since inception in 2003; borehole strainmeters (BSMs) have recorded SSE strain signals since 2007. GPS and seismic tremor data show that SSEs reoccur all along the Cascadia subduction zone. An SSE is in progress somewhere in Cascadia much of the time, so the short-term probability increase warranted by a typical SSE is presumably low. We could, however, detect differences among successive SSEs and use criteria informed by the models described above to judge whether a distinctive SSE might represent a higher short-term earthquake probability increase. In all conceptual models, an SSE with more net slip and/or extending further up-dip is more likely to lead to dynamic rupture. There are also models in which faster propagation speed would promote instability by increasing the potential for shear heating. In northernmost Cascadia, BSMs near the coast, up-dip of SSEs, record transient SSE strains at high signal-to-noise ratio. Successive SSEs have differed somewhat in length and propagation speed, but not greatly in up-dip extent or net slip. BSMs up-dip of northern Oregon SSEs have recorded two large SSEs (in 2011 and 2013) having similar strain time series, as well as tremor patterns. In these regions, BSM data could allow an SSE of greater net slip, shallower up-dip extent, or unusual propagation pattern to be identified. Resolution is poorer in reaches of the forearc with BSMs only down-dip of the SSEs. Up-dip BSMs would also be best-positioned to record strain from aseismic slip approaching the locked zone. Some models predict systematic evolution of SSE behavior as a great earthquake approaches, such as decreasing intervals between SSEs, increasing rupture length and slip speed, and slip at successively shallower depths. The northern Cascadia SSEs observed with BSMs since 2007 have not exhibited these patterns, but PBO geodetic instrumentation provides an opportunity to observe them should they develop.

  4. Late Neogene geohistory analysis of the Humboldt basin and its relationship to convergence of the Juan de Fuca plate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCrory, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    Geohistory analysis of Neogene Humboldt basin strata provides important constraints for hypotheses of the tectonic evolution of the southern Cascadia subduction margin, leading up to the arrival of the Mendocino triple junction. This analysis suggests that the tectonic evolution of the Humboldt basin area was dominated by coupling between the downgoing Juan de Fuca plate and the continental margin. This coupling is reflected in the timing of major hiatuses within the basin sedimentary sequence and margin uplift and subsidence which occur during periods of tectonic plate adjustment. -from Author

  5. The interpretation of crustal dynamics data in terms of plate motions and regional deformation near plate boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.

    1991-01-01

    During our participation in the NASA Crustal Dynamics Project under NASA contract NAS-27339 and grant NAG5-814 for the period 1982-1991, we published or submitted for publication 30 research papers and 52 abstracts of presentations at scientific meetings. In addition, five M.I.T. Ph.D. students (Eric Bergman, Steven Bratt, Dan Davis, Jeanne Sauber, Anne Sheehan) were supported wholly or in part by this project during their thesis research. Highlights of our research progress during this period include the following: application of geodetic data to determine rates of strain in the Mojave block and in central California and to clarify the relation of such strain to the San Andreas fault and Pacific-North American plate motions; application of geodetic data to infer post seismic deformation associated with large earthquakes in the Imperial Valley, Hebgen Lake, Argentina, and Chile; determination of the state of stress in oceanic lithosphere from a systematic study of the centroid depths and source mechanisms of oceanic intraplate earthquakes; development of models for the state of stress in young oceanic regions arising from the differential cooling of the lithosphere; determination of the depth extent and rupture characteristics of oceanic transform earthquakes; improved determination of earthquake slip vectors in the Gulf of California, an important data set for the estimation of Pacific-North American plate motions; development of models for the state of stress and mechanics of fold-and-thrust belts and accretionary wedges; development of procedures to invert geoid height, residual bathymetry, and differential body wave travel time residuals for lateral variations in the characteristic temperature and bulk composition of the oceanic upper mantle; and initial GPS measurements of crustal deformation associated with the Imperial-Cerro Prieto fault system in southern California and northern Mexico. Full descriptions of the research conducted on these topics may be found in the Semi-Annual status Reports submitted regularly to NASA over the course of this project and in the publications listed.

  6. Seismo-electromagnetic phenomena in the western part of the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves da Silva, Hugo; Bezzeghoud, Mourad; Biagi, Pier; Namorado Rosa, Rui; Salgueiro da Silva, Manuel; Caldeira, Bento; Heitor Reis, Artur; Borges, José Fernando; Tlemçani, Mouhaydine; Manso, Marco

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a future research plan that aims to monitor Seismo-electromagnetic (SEM) phenomena in the western part of the Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary (WENP). This region has a significant tectonic activity [1] combined with relatively low electromagnetic noise levels and for that reason presents the possibility to perform high quality SEM measurements. Further, it is known that low-frequency [ultra (ULF), very (VLF), and low-frequencies (LF)] electromagnetic (EM) waves produce more convincing earthquake precursors (compared to higher frequencies) because of less contamination, large skin depth, and low attenuation [2]. Thus, two SEM effects will be considered: ULF electromagnetic field emissions [3], and VLF/LF radio broadcastings [4]. With respect to the ULF measurements, as a start, three ULF sensors are planned to be installed in the South of Iberian Peninsula supported by the existing networks of seismic research stations. Subsequent development of this initial plan could result in the implementation of a lager ULF monitoring network not only in the Iberian Peninsula, but also in the rest of Europe. Possible integration in the SEGMA array is now under consideration. Another perspective is to use a portable station to track seismic events. Regarding the VLF/LF radio broadcastings, a receiver is planned to be mounted in University of Évora. Radio signals from up to 10 transmitters (in these bands) of interest to study the seismic activity in the WENP region will be monitored. Actually, the radio path from the transmitter to the receiver should cross the epicentral area, therefore two possible transmitters are the ones installed in Monaco (France) and Sicily (Italy). Furthermore, the system will integrate the INFREP network and in this context it will not be restricted to WENP region. With the development of these research plans we aim to collect novel SEM data emerging from the seismic activity in the WENP region. We expect to address the time variations of EM properties of the crust/plate in relation with the strain field, and in space in relation with composition and temperature and stress fields. Further, the interplay between atmospheric (and solar) perturbations with crust perturbations will be monitored, to observe geomagnetic perturbations at different locations. Our study will be focused in the analyses of low magnitude earthquakes with M =< 4, these events are frequent in the WENP region, but have been almost completely disregarded in literature [5,6]. [1] J. Borges, A. J. S. Fitas, M. Bezzeghoud, and P. Teves-Costa, Tectonophysics 337, 373 (2001). [2] V. Chauhan, O.P. Singh, V. Kushwah, V. Singh, B. Singh, Journal of Geodynamics 48, 68 (2009). [3] L. Telesca, V. Lapenna, M. Macchiato, and K. Hattori, Earth and Planet. Science Lett. 268, 219 (2008). [4] P. F. Biagi, L. Castellana, T. Maggipinto, D. Loiacono, L. Schiavulli, T. Ligonzo, M. Fiore, E. Suciu, and A. Ermini, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. 9, 1551 (2009). [5] A. Rozhnoi , M.S. Solovieva, O.A. Molchanov, and M. Hayakawa, Phys. and Chem. of the Earth 29, 589-598 (2004). [6] K. Hattori, I. Takahashi, C. Yoshino, N. Isezaki, H. Iwasaki, M. Harada, K. Kawabata, E. Kopytenko, Y. Kopytenko, P. Maltsev, V. Korepanov, O. Molchanov, M. Hayakawa, Y. Noda, T. Nagao, S. Uyeda, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth 29, 481-494 (2004).

  7. Rayleigh wave tomography beneath the oceanic and continental margin of the North-America and Pacific plate boundary.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathnayaka, S.; Escobar, L., Sr.; Weeraratne, D. S.; Kohler, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The inception of the San Andreas fault, a transform plate boundary system, is the result of subduction of the EPR spreading center, rifting of the Borderland in the Miocene and subsequent plate rotation that is ongoing today. To address the lack of offshore data at this plate boundary, we use Rayleigh waves recorded by a marine seismic array of 34 ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) to tomographically image phase velocities beneath the oceanic and continental margin of the North America-Pacific plate boundary. The OBSs were deployed as part of the ALBACORE project offshore southern California on 18-32 Ma seafloor. The marine seismic array recorded data from August 2010 to 2011 and are combined with 82 land stations from the CISN network. We analyze ~100 teleseismic events at distances ranging from 30° to 120° for Mw ? 5.9, filtered at periods between 16 and 78 s. Strong structural gradients are present across this plate margin; therefore, we perform amplitude corrections for OBS stations that account for velocity variations in water, sediment layer, crustal thickness, marine fossil layers and lithospheric thickness as a function of seafloor age. We use a surface wave inversion that considers a two plane wave method and perform a grid search for inversion parameters. Our results indicate that averaged phase velocities are 1.3% lower than previous studies for the seafloor age bin 20-52 Ma. Phase velocities at lithospheric depths are 5% higher in the oceanic mantle compared to the continental mantle indicating compositional and structural differences due to formation history in the two tectonic environments. Anisotropy in the offshore region of our study is consistent with Pacific plate motion, N 78.5? W, except for periods longer than 40 s in the Borderland where anisotropy demonstrates N-S alignment. The Borderland, a transitional region between the continental and oceanic plate margin where rotation of the transverse ranges involved rifting and extension, shows unique velocity and anisotropic structure compared to the land and deep seafloor regions.

  8. MHD forced convective laminar boundary layer flow from a convectively heated moving vertical plate with radiation and transpiration effect.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Md Jashim; Khan, Waqar A; Ismail, A I Md

    2013-01-01

    A two-dimensional steady forced convective flow of a Newtonian fluid past a convectively heated permeable vertically moving plate in the presence of a variable magnetic field and radiation effect has been investigated numerically. The plate moves either in assisting or opposing direction to the free stream. The plate and free stream velocities are considered to be proportional to x(m) whilst the magnetic field and mass transfer velocity are taken to be proportional to x((m-1)/2) where x is the distance along the plate from the leading edge of the plate. Instead of using existing similarity transformations, we use a linear group of transformations to transform the governing equations into similarity equations with relevant boundary conditions. Numerical solutions of the similarity equations are presented to show the effects of the controlling parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles as well as on the friction factor, rate of heat and mass transfer. It is found that the rate of heat transfer elevates with the mass transfer velocity, convective heat transfer, Prandtl number, velocity ratio and the magnetic field parameters. It is also found that the rate of mass transfer enhances with the mass transfer velocity, velocity ratio, power law index and the Schmidt number, whilst it suppresses with the magnetic field parameter. Our results are compared with the results existing in the open literature. The comparisons are satisfactory. PMID:23741295

  9. MHD Forced Convective Laminar Boundary Layer Flow from a Convectively Heated Moving Vertical Plate with Radiation and Transpiration Effect

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Md. Jashim; Khan, Waqar A.; Ismail, A. I. Md.

    2013-01-01

    A two-dimensional steady forced convective flow of a Newtonian fluid past a convectively heated permeable vertically moving plate in the presence of a variable magnetic field and radiation effect has been investigated numerically. The plate moves either in assisting or opposing direction to the free stream. The plate and free stream velocities are considered to be proportional to whilst the magnetic field and mass transfer velocity are taken to be proportional to where is the distance along the plate from the leading edge of the plate. Instead of using existing similarity transformations, we use a linear group of transformations to transform the governing equations into similarity equations with relevant boundary conditions. Numerical solutions of the similarity equations are presented to show the effects of the controlling parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles as well as on the friction factor, rate of heat and mass transfer. It is found that the rate of heat transfer elevates with the mass transfer velocity, convective heat transfer, Prandtl number, velocity ratio and the magnetic field parameters. It is also found that the rate of mass transfer enhances with the mass transfer velocity, velocity ratio, power law index and the Schmidt number, whilst it suppresses with the magnetic field parameter. Our results are compared with the results existing in the open literature. The comparisons are satisfactory. PMID:23741295

  10. Unsteady Boundary Layer Flow and Heat Transfer of a Casson Fluid past an Oscillating Vertical Plate with Newtonian Heating

    PubMed Central

    Hussanan, Abid; Zuki Salleh, Mohd; Tahar, Razman Mat; Khan, Ilyas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the heat transfer effect on the unsteady boundary layer flow of a Casson fluid past an infinite oscillating vertical plate with Newtonian heating is investigated. The governing equations are transformed to a systems of linear partial differential equations using appropriate non-dimensional variables. The resulting equations are solved analytically by using the Laplace transform method and the expressions for velocity and temperature are obtained. They satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and reduce to some well-known solutions for Newtonian fluids. Numerical results for velocity, temperature, skin friction and Nusselt number are shown in various graphs and discussed for embedded flow parameters. It is found that velocity decreases as Casson parameters increases and thermal boundary layer thickness increases with increasing Newtonian heating parameter. PMID:25302782

  11. Unsteady boundary layer flow and heat transfer of a Casson fluid past an oscillating vertical plate with Newtonian heating.

    PubMed

    Hussanan, Abid; Zuki Salleh, Mohd; Tahar, Razman Mat; Khan, Ilyas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the heat transfer effect on the unsteady boundary layer flow of a Casson fluid past an infinite oscillating vertical plate with Newtonian heating is investigated. The governing equations are transformed to a systems of linear partial differential equations using appropriate non-dimensional variables. The resulting equations are solved analytically by using the Laplace transform method and the expressions for velocity and temperature are obtained. They satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and reduce to some well-known solutions for Newtonian fluids. Numerical results for velocity, temperature, skin friction and Nusselt number are shown in various graphs and discussed for embedded flow parameters. It is found that velocity decreases as Casson parameters increases and thermal boundary layer thickness increases with increasing Newtonian heating parameter. PMID:25302782

  12. The turbulent boundary layer on a porous plate: An experimental study of the heat transfer behavior with adverse pressure gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, B. F.; Kays, W. M.; Moffat, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the heat transfer behavior of the near equilibrium transpired turbulent boundary layer with adverse pressure gradient has been carried out. Stanton numbers were measured by an energy balance on electrically heated plates that form the bottom wall of the wind tunnel. Two adverse pressure gradients were studied. Two types of transpiration boundary conditions were investigated. The concept of an equilibrium thermal boundary layer was introduced. It was found that Stanton number as a function of enthalpy thickness Reynolds number is essentially unaffected by adverse pressure gradient with no transpiration. Shear stress, heat flux, and turbulent Prandtl number profiles were computed from mean temperature and velocity profiles. It was concluded that the turbulent Prandtl number is greater than unity in near the wall and decreases continuously to approximately 0.5 at the free stream.

  13. GPS Installation Progress in the Southern California Region of the Plate Boundary Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walls, C.; Arnitz, E.; Bick, S.; Lawrence, S.; Feaux, K.; Jackson, M.

    2005-12-01

    One of the roles the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), the geodetic component of the NSF-funded EarthScope project, is the rapid deployment of permanent GPS units following large earthquakes to capture postseismic transients and any long-term viscoelastic-response . The PBO Southern California region conducted responses to three earthquakes; the M6.5 San Simeon earthquake, the M6.0 Parkfield earthquake, and the M5.6 Anza earthquake. For each event, PBO began a response within hours and developed reconnaissance, prioritization, relocation, and deployment plans at the request of the PBO Transform Site Selection Working Group. The San Simeon event initiated the beginning of the PBO GPS station construction phase when 5 stations were located, permitted, and built within 38 days of the earthquake. For the September 28th, 2004, Parkfield earthquake, the PBO Transform Site Selection Working Group elevated the priority of two planned GPS stations (P539 and P532) sited to the south of the earthquake epicenter. Reconnaissance for five sites in Parkfield began the day following the earthquake and two permits were secured within three days of the earthquake. Materials and equipment for construction were brought along with the response team and within 4 days the first monument (P539) was installed. Following the June 12 M5.6 Anza earthquake, the first station was located, permitted, and built within 4 days and the second station within 12 days. Of the 875 total PBO GPS stations, 212 proposed sites are distributed throughout the Southern California region. Currently the production status is: 59 stations built (23 short braced monuments, 36 deep drilled braced monuments), 72 permits signed, 105 permits submitted and 114 station reconnaissance reports. Year 1 and 2 production goals are on schedule and under budget. The balance of 153 stations will be built over the next 3 years from Long Valley to the Mexico border in order of priority as recommended by the PBO Transform, Extension and Magmatic working groups. Volunteers from the California Spatial Reference Center and others within the survey community have aided in the siting and permitting process.

  14. The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory Response to the 2006 Augustine Alaskan Volcanic Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauk, B.; Feaux, K.; Jackson, M.; Friesen, B.; Enders, M.; Baldwin, A.; Fournier, K.; Marzulla, A.

    2006-12-01

    During September of 2006, UNAVCO installed five permanent Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) GPS stations on Augustine Volcano, in the lower Cook Inlet of Alaska. The installations were done at the request of the PBO Magmatic Systems committee in response to the January 11, 2006 eruption of Augustine Volcano. Prior to the eruption, PBO installed five permanent GPS stations on Augustine in 2004. The five existing stations on the volcano were instrumental in detecting precursory deformation of the volcano's flanks prior to and during the eruption. During the course of the first explosive phase of the eruption, two existing PBO stations, AV03 and AV05 were subsequently destroyed by separate pyroclastic flows. The existing station AV04 was heavily damaged by a separate pyroclastic flow during the continuous phase of the eruption and was repaired during September as well. Existing stations AV01 and AV02 were not affected or damaged by the eruption and remained operating during the entire eruptive phase and subsequent debris flows. All five new stations, and maintenance on the three remaining existing stations, were completed by PBO field crews with helicopter support provided by Maritime Helicopters. Lack of roads and drivable trails on the remote volcanic island required that all equipment be transported to each site from an established base camp by slinging gear beneath the helicopter and internal loads. Each new and existing station installed on the volcano consists of a standard short braced GPS monument, two solar panels mounted to an inclined structure, and a six foot high Plaschem enclosure with two solar panels mounted to one of the inclined sides. Each Plaschem houses 24 12 volt batteries that power a Trimble NetRS GPS receiver and one or two Intuicom radios and are recharged by the solar panels. Data from each GPS receiver is telemetered directly or through a repeater radio to a base station located in the town of Homer that transmits the data over the internet to the UNAVCO data archive at ftp://data-out.unavco.or/pub/PBO_rinex where it is made freely available to the public.

  15. The Plate Boundary Observatory: Current status and plans for the next five years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, G. S.; Feaux, K.; Meertens, C. M.; Mencin, D.; Miller, M.

    2013-12-01

    UNAVCO currently operates and maintains the NSF-funded Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), which is the geodetic facility of EarthScope. PBO was designed and built from 2003 to 2008 with $100M investment from the NSF Major Research Equipment and Facilities Construction (MREFC) Program. UNAVCO operated and maintained PBO under a Cooperative Agreement (CA) with NSF from 2008 to 2013 and will continue PBO O&M for the next five years as part of the new Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope (GAGE) Facility. PBO is largest continuous GPS and borehole geophysical network in the Americas, with 1100 continuous Global Positioning System (cGPS) sites, including several with multiple monuments, 79 boreholes, with 75 tensor strainmeters, 78 short-period, 3-component seismometers, and pore pressure sensors at 23 sites. PBO also includes 26 tiltmeters deployed at volcanoes in Alaska, Mt St Helens, and Yellowstone caldera and 6 long-baseline laser strainmeters. Surface meteorological sensors are collocated at 154 GPS sites. UNAVCO provides high-rate (1 Hz), low-latency (<1 s) GPS data streams (RT-GPS) from 382 stations in PBO. UNAVCO has delivered over 62 Tb of geodetic data to the EarthScope community since its PBO's inception in 2004. Over the past year, data return for the cGPS component of PBO is 98%, well above the data return metric of 85% set by the NSF, a result of efforts to upgrade power systems and communications infrastructure. In addition, PBO has set the standard for the design, construction, and operation of other multi-hazard networks across the Americas, including COCONet in the Caribbean region and TLALOCNet in Mexico. Funding to support ongoing PBO O&M has declined from FY2012 CA levels under the new GAGE Facility. The implications for data return and data quality metrics as well as replacement of aging PBO GPS instruments with GNSS-compatible systems are as yet unknown. A process to assess the cost of specific PBO components, data rates, enhanced capabilities, and method of delivery (i.e. continuous streams vs. archived files) relative to their scientific value will be proposed. In addition, options to partner with other federal mission-oriented agencies and possible commercial ventures also will be discussed. 1100 station PBO continuous GPS Network.

  16. Detection of Slow Slip Events Along the Cascadia Subduction Zone Using Plate Boundary Observatory Borehole Strainmeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCausland, W.; Roeloffs, E.

    2007-12-01

    In the spring of 2005, the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) began installing borehole strainmeters in the Pacific Northwest. Currently there are 18 borehole strainmeters operating from Vancouver Island, Canada to Southern Oregon that are favorably located to detect slow slip along the Cascadia subduction zone. While the longest (> two weeks) subduction tremor episodes are accompanied by slow slip events, there are shorter duration tremor episodes that have not been accompanied by GPS-detected slow slip events. It is possible that a slow slip event does occur, but is below the current resolution of the GPS network. Using data from these PBO strainmeters, we developed a scanning technique to detect strain transients. The strainmeter data are band-passed between 5 and 16 days to eliminate tides and long-term variations. In this band, the instrument responds primarily to atmospheric pressure. Excursions of the gauges from the atmospheric pressure variations are investigated as possible tectonic strain transients. Several features of the strainmeters aid us in distinguishing between tectonic strain transients and other variations in the data. First, tectonic transient strain signals will be recorded similarly on closely clustered strainmeters; there are 4 such clusters along the Cascadia subduction zone. Second, if the areal strain recalculated using two orthogonal gauges is not consistent with the areal strain calculated on three equally spaced gauges, then the signal is not caused by strain. Pumping or rainfall can cause strain variations that we can distinguish from tectonic events by looking at other measured quantities including fluid pressure, precipitation, etc. Thus far, in northern Washington and Canada, all the known transient slow slip events recorded on the strainmeters were also detected by the GPS network. In southern Oregon, our scanning technique found one possible tectonic event on the B035-B036 cluster near Grant's Pass during late July and early August 2007. Other researchers (Szeliga et al, 2004; McCausland et al, 2005; Brudzinski and Allen, in press) have reported recurring subduction tremor and slow slip in this area. Further corroborating our observations, cleaned GPS data from the PANGA website for the east-west component of nearby station DDSN, resembles signals from previous slip events.

  17. The Plate Boundary Observatory Borehole Strainmeter Program: Overview of Data Analysis and Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkinson, K.; Anderson, G.; Hasting, M.; Hoyt, B.; Jackson, M.; Lee, E.; Matykiewicz, J.; Mencin, D.; Persson, E.; Smith, S.; Torrez, D.; Wright, J.

    2006-12-01

    The PBO borehole strainmeter network is now the largest in the US with 19 strainmeters installed along the Western US Plate Boundary: 14 in the Pacific North West and 5 in Anza, Southern California. With five drilling crews operating though October 2006 the network should grow to 28 strainmeters by December 2006. The areas include Parkfield and Mt St. Helens, PBO's first strainmeter installation in a volcanic region. PBO strainmeter sites are multi-instrumented. Seismic, pore pressure, atmospheric pressure, rainfall and temperature data are measured at almost all sites. Tiltmeters will also be installed at some sites. The strainmeters record at 20-sps, 1-sps and 10-minute interval and are downloaded hourly. The 1-sps data are sent to the NCEDC and IRIS DMC within a few minutes of being retrieved from the strainmeter. The data are archived in SEED format and can be viewed and analyzed with any SEED handling software. PBO's Borehole Strainmeter Analysis Center (BSMAC) in Socorro, NM, produces processed strain data every 10 to 14 days. The data are stored in XML format giving the user the option to use PBO edits or to work with unedited data. The XML file contains time series corrections for the atmospheric pressure, the Earth tides and borehole effects. Every 3 months the data are reviewed and the borehole trends and tidal signal are re- estimated to form the best possible processed data set. PBO reviewed the quality of the data collected by the first 8 strainmeters in a workshop in January 2006. The group discussed coring, examined the borehole trends, tidal signal, and a PSD analysis of data from each strainmeter. A second workshop, focusing on data analysis and in-situ calibration, will take place in October 2006. The UNAVCO strainmeter web page (http://pboweb.unavco.org) provides links to the raw and processed data and is a source for information on data formats, links to software and instrument documentation. An XML log file for each strainmeter provides a history of firmware upgrades and details anything that might affect data quality. A homepage has been developed for each strainmeter where plots of strain and state-of-health data can be viewed. UNAVCO has provided training in processing strainmeter data both at the BSMAC and through short courses. In June 2006 UNAVCO hosted the joint GPS and Strainmeter Short course where the topics of data analysis, calibration, hydrological signals and noise models where taught using PBO data. The next UNAVCO strainmeter course is planned for summer 2007.

  18. Plate Boundary Observatory Southwest Region Network Operations, Expansion and Communications Hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, D.; Walls, C. P.; Basset, A.; Turner, R.; Lawrence, S.; Feaux, K.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Southwest Region of the Plate Boundary Observatory manages 480 continuously operating GPS stations located principally along the transform system of the San Andreas fault, Eastern California Shear Zone and the northern Baja peninsula. In the past year, network uptime averaged 98% with greater than 99% data acquisition. In an effort to modernize the network, we have started to replace Trimble NETRS receivers with GNSS capable NETR9 receivers. Currently, we have 431 NetRS receivers deployed in the region, and 48 NetR9 receivers. In addition, 82 stations (17%) stream 1 Hz data over the VRS3Net typically with <0.5 second latency and an average completeness of >92%. Based on their typical data download rates, approximately 252 (53%) of all stations are capable of streaming 1 Hz, but have not yet been added to the real time network because of lack of resources. In the immediate aftermath of the M8.2 Chile earthquake in April 2014, high rate data downloads from the entire SW network had a success rate of 95% and 71% for 1 Hz and 5 Hz data downloads respectively. We have continued to upgrade critical radio networks, including the San Francisco Bay Area, Anza Borrego, and Santa Barbara networks. These efforts are ongoing, but they have already significantly improved data download rates and dependability. We are also converting cell modem to radio communications whenever possible for increased reliability and cost savings. In December 2013 the 13-station Edison network expansion was completed through cost recovery contracts. These stations span coastal southern California in Orange, San Diego and Los Angeles counties including a hybrid site on the Elly oil platform. The primary purpose of the stations is to aid in the seismic source characterization of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station and assess the strain field associated with the Oceanside Blind Thrust and Newport Inglewood fault. The new stations fill a gap between SCIGN and PBO. Three sites have WXT520 Vaisala metpacks and twelve stations stream 1Hz data via VRS3Net. UNAVCO and SCRIPPS are working in collaboration to augment a subset of stations with low-cost strong-motion sensors along the San Andreas and San Jacinto faults. To date twelve PBO stations have been upgraded with MEMS accelerometer packages.

  19. Building a Global Data Network for Studies of Earth Processes at the World's Plate Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, K. A.; Carbotte, S.; Tsuboi, S.; Weinrebe, W.

    2007-12-01

    The international geoscience community is engaged in scientifically aligned goals to understand the fundamental processes of crustal formation, modification and destruction at the Earth's plate boundaries through broad multi- disciplinary initiatives such as the InterRidge and InterMARGINS programs. These programs involve the collection of unique data sets during oceanic and terrestrial expeditions and subsequent laboratory work conducted by research institutions around the globe. These international research efforts would benefit significantly if data collections maintained as national efforts could be better linked and broader access were initiated. At present there are no formal agreements within these programs for data sharing between foreign partners. A workshop was convened in May 2007, jointly sponsored and funded by MARGINS, InterMARGINS, InterRidge, Ridge2000, the US National Science Foundation, and the German project "The Future Ocean", to explore current opportunities and challenges for international data exchange to support marine geoscience research broadly. Participants from 14 countries discussed technological, organizational, and cultural issues for building a global data network and agreed on a set of recommendations regarding science user needs, data documentation, data publication, metadata interoperability, and opportunities and obstacles for international data sharing. They underscored that (1) open public access to data is fundamental to verifiable scientific progress; (2) uniform best practices and standards for data acquisition, data submission to data centers, and data publication need to be developed and used routinely within the international community, facilitated by tools that automate metadata acquisition in the field and in the lab; (3) the proliferation of metadata standards needs to be minimized to achieve a uniform approach for scientific metadata building upon the work of existing community-based projects; (4) data centers should expose their data resources via web services to enable data access through programmatic interfaces and expand options for data analysis and visualization; (5) international programs and bodies such as GEOSS, eGY, and ICSU should be leveraged to promote an initiative for a global data network; (6) a dedicated task group is needed to advance the implementation of a global data network along with special interest groups to share experience and solutions on issues concerning metadata and interfaces. Several immediate next steps were identified to initiate the implementation of these recommendations.

  20. Evolving seismogenic plate boundary megathrust and mega-splay faults in subduction zone (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, G.; Hamahashi, M.; Fukuchi, R.; Yamaguchi, A.; Kameda, J.; Kitamura, Y.; Hashimoto, Y.; Hamada, Y.; Saito, S.; Kawasaki, R.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the fault mechanism and its relationship to the sesimo-tsunamigenesis is a key of the scientific targets of subduction zone and therefore NantroSEIZE project of IODP and future new drilling project of International Ocean Discovery Program keeps focusing on that. Mega-splay fault branched from plate boundary megathrust in subduction zone is located around the border between outer and inner wedges and is considered to cause great earthquake and tsunami such as 1960 Alaska earthquake, 1944 and 1946 Nankai-Tonankai earthquakes, and 2004 Sumatra earthquakes. Seismic reflection studies for the mega-splay fault in 2D and 3D in the Nankai forearc present the reflector with negative or positive polarities with various amplitudes and suggest complicated petrophysical properties and condition of the fault and its surroundings. The Nankai mega-splay fault at a depth of ~5km is going to be drilled and cored by NantroSEIZE experiments and is expected for great progress of understanding of the fault mechanics. Before drilling the really targeted seismogenic fault, we are conducting many exercises of geophysical and geological observations. The core-log-seismic integrated exercise for the exhumed mega-splay fault by drilling was operated for the Nobeoka thrust in the Shimanto Belt, Kyushu, Japan. The Nobeoka thrust was once buried in the depth >~10km and suffered maximum temperature >~300 dgree C. As the core recovery is ~99%, perfect correlation between the core and logging data is possible. Thickness of the fault zone is >200 m with a ~50 cm thick central fault core dividing the phyllitic hanging wall and the footwall of broken-melange like cataclasite. A-few-meter-thick discrete damage zones with fault cores are recognized by difference in physical properties and visual deformation textures at several horizons in the fault zone. Host rocks for those damaged zones are completely lithified cataclasites with abundant mineral veins, which record the older and deeper deformation in the maximum depth >10km. Temperature difference between the hanging wall and footwall suggests the displacement along the Nobeoka thrust is >10km, which is almost similar to the mega-splay fault in the Nankai Trough. Geological and physical properties of the Nobeoka thrust suggest an evolving process of the seismogenic mega-splay fault associated with seismogenic up-thrust of the inner wedge of the accretionary prism.

  1. 2011 Operations and Maintenance Activities in the East Region of UNAVCO's Plate Boundary Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, T.; Feaux, K.; Kasmer, D.; Jenkins, F.; Mencin, D.

    2011-12-01

    2011 marked Year 3 of Operations and Maintenance of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO). In the East Region of PBO, it was a year characterized by several major projects as well as scheduled ongoing maintenance activities. The most significant major project was a USGS/ARRA funded communications upgrade in Yellowstone National Park. This upgrade consisted of bringing 8 existing PBO stations within the Yellowstone volcanic region to near real-time communications. This work will be completed on time and in collaboration with the National Park Service. The upgrade promises to provide much faster latency for invaluable data being recorded for one of the most geodetically critical regions of the current PBO network. Another significant ongoing project in the East Region has been supporting the community that continues to use PBO data. In particular, support of Kristine Larson (Univ of CO) both in installing webcams at PBO sites for monitoring snow depth as well as supporting vegetative surveys at current PBO sites. Similarly, the East Region responded promptly to the community with requests for data quality issues that are station hardware related, including replacing GPS antennae and receivers. With regards to ongoing operations and maintenance projects, reasons for site visits in 2011 were dominated by two significant situations: battery replacement and CDMA modem swaps. 83 site visits were required as part of the Operations and Maintenance strategic battery plan of 5 year battery replacements. This proved to be a considerable challenge due to the scale and geography of the scheduled replacements- the sites were spread throughout the entire network, east to west and north to south. 20 station visits were required due to a Verizon upgrade of the older Alltel network purchased by Verizon. These stations are predominantly in the Rocky Mountain region, but often times had limited access to due weather. Overall, despite record snowfalls throughout the west, state of health in the East Region was consistently over 95% operational; a testament to past network-hardening and current vigilance and hard work. The east region looks forward to a successful 2012 campaign.

  2. GPS Installation Progress in the Northern California Region of the Plate Boundary Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coyle, B.; Basset, A.; Williams, T.; Enders, M.; Rogers, J.; Mann, D.; Feaux, K.

    2006-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) is the geodetic component of the NSF funded EarthScope Project. The final PBO GPS network will comprise 852 continuously operating GPS stations installed throughout the Western US and Alaska. There are 435 Stations planned for California with 229 of these in Northern California (NCA). This poster will present a progress report and highlights of GPS installations in NCA over the past year. At the end of the second year of the project (10/2006), PBO NCA installed 68 GPS stations. In the third year of the project we installed 56 stations for a total of 124. This total comprises 60% of the along the active transform margin, 15% of the sites on volcanoes and calderas and 44% of the sites covering the extensional regime of the Basin and Range. We have submitted permit applications for all but 40 of the remaining stations proposed for NCA and expect to have these completed in the next few months. A particularly important metric for planning our schedules is the time lag between reconnaissance and permit accepted. This time lag has varied from 1 day to over a year. Our average over the first two years was 192 days from reconnaissance to installation. Other highlights include completing station installations along the Maacama Fault Zone and onshore of the Mendocino Triple Junction. Data from these stations are available from the UNAVCO archive. As part of our operations and maintenance activities we are developing a catalog of the effects of fences, trees and other near-field objects on GPS data quality. We hope to have 190 Stations built by the end of Sept 2007. In order to accomplish this goal, we are working to finalize our reconnaissance and permitting activities for stations located in National Forests and National Parks, installations we expect to complete by September 2007. We expect to be finished with all our reconnaissance activities by spring 2007 after which crews will focus solely on installations and the transition to operations and maintenance mode in 2008.

  3. Free Vibration Analysis of Patch Repaired Plates with a Through Crack by p-Convergent Layerwise Element

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jae S.; Yang, Seung H.; Woo, Kwang S.

    2014-01-01

    The high-order layerwise element models have been used for damaged plates and shells in the presence of singularities such as crack, cutout, and delamination. In this study, the extension of a proposed finite element model has been tested for free vibration analysis of composite laminated systems. For the elements, three-dimensional displacement fields can be captured by layer-by-layer representation. For the elements, higher-order shape functions are derived by combination of one- and two-dimensional shape functions based on higher-order Lobatto shape functions, not using pure higher-order three-dimensional shape functions. The present model can relieve difficulty of aspect ratios in modeling very thin thickness of bonding layer. For verification of the model, natural frequencies and corresponding mode shapes are calculated and then compared with reference values for uncracked and cracked plates. Also, the vibration characteristics of one-sided patch repaired plates with a through internal crack are investigated with respect to variation of crack length, size and thickness of patch, and shear modulus of adhesive, respectively. PMID:25215321

  4. Crustal structure of the South American-Caribbean plate boundary at 67°W from controlled source seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnani, Maria Beatrice; Zelt, Colin A.; Levander, Alan; Schmitz, Michael

    2009-02-01

    We present the results of new seismic reflection and wide-angle data across the SE Caribbean plate boundary. The 550 km long N-S profile crosses the structures involved in the active 55 Ma long continent-arc oblique collision between the Caribbean (CAR) and the South American (SA) plate. From the north to the south these structures include the accretionary prism, the extinct volcanic arc (Leeward Antilles arc), the Tertiary Bonaire basin, the continental-size dextral strike-slip fault system (San Sebastián-El Pilar fault), the allochthonous exhumed terranes, and the authocthonous fold and thrust belt (Caribbean Mountain system) and foreland basin. The wide-angle data show that these elements are characterized by different velocity structures and that they are separated by sharp lateral velocity variations. The Leeward Antilles arc exhibits a velocity structure similar to that of the Lesser Antilles active volcanic arc, indicating that the extinct arc has not been modified by the collision with the SA plate. The data show a ˜20 km change in crustal thickness across the San Sebastián fault, suggesting that the dextral strike-slip fault is a crustal feature that likely continues in the mantle as a primary strand of the plate boundary between the South American and the Caribbean plates. South of the strike-slip fault and beneath the exhumed eclogitic terranes, the data image a north dipping, high-velocity (>6.5 km/s) anomaly in the upper crust (3-11 km), indicating that high-pressure/low-temperature rocks are the likely lithologies responsible for the high seismic velocities and suggesting that exhumation of these assemblages is enabled by the strike-slip fault.

  5. Active Pacific North America Plate boundary tectonics as evidenced by seismicity in the oceanic lithosphere offshore Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauksson, Egill; Kanamori, Hiroo; Stock, Joann; Cormier, Marie-Helene; Legg, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Pacific Ocean crust west of southwest North America was formed by Cenozoic seafloor spreading between the large Pacific Plate and smaller microplates. The eastern limit of this seafloor, the continent-ocean boundary, is the fossil trench along which the microplates subducted and were mostly destroyed in Miocene time. The Pacific-North America Plate boundary motion today is concentrated on continental fault systems well to the east, and this region of oceanic crust is generally thought to be within the rigid Pacific Plate. Yet, the 2012 December 14 Mw 6.3 earthquake that occurred about 275 km west of Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico, is evidence for continued tectonism in this oceanic part of the Pacific Plate. The preferred main shock centroid depth of 20 km was located close to the bottom of the seismogenic thickness of the young oceanic lithosphere. The focal mechanism, derived from both teleseismic P-wave inversion and W-phase analysis of the main shock waveforms, and the 12 aftershocks of M ˜3-4 are consistent with normal faulting on northeast striking nodal planes, which align with surface mapped extensional tectonic trends such as volcanic features in the region. Previous Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements on offshore islands in the California Continental Borderland had detected some distributed Pacific and North America relative plate motion strain that could extend into the epicentral region. The release of this lithospheric strain along existing zones of weakness is a more likely cause of this seismicity than current thermal contraction of the oceanic lithosphere or volcanism. The main shock caused weak to moderate ground shaking in the coastal zones of southern California, USA, and Baja California, Mexico, but the tsunami was negligible.

  6. Shape sensitivity analysis of the energy integrals for the Timoshenko-type plate containing a crack on the boundary of a rigid inclusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarev, N.

    2015-08-01

    An equilibrium problem for an elastic Timoshenko-type plate containing a rigid inclusion is considered. On the interface between the elastic plate and the rigid inclusion, there is a vertical crack. Inequality-type boundary conditions are imposed at the crack faces to guarantee mutual nonpenetration. By using a sufficiently smooth perturbation determined in the middle plate plane, the variation of plate geometry is specified. The formula of the derivative of the plate energy functional with respect to the perturbation parameter is deduced.

  7. North America-Pacific plate boundary, an elastic-plastic megashear - Evidence from very long baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Steven N.

    1988-01-01

    Data obtained by Mark III VLBI measurements of radio signals from permanent and mobile VLBI sites for 5.5 years of observations, starting in October 1982, were used to derive a picture of the earth crust deformation near the North America-Pacific plate boundary. The data, which included the vector positions of the VLBI sites and their rate of change, were used for comparison with a number of lithospheric deformation models based upon the concept that the motions of points near the North America-Pacific plate boundary are a linear combination of North America and Pacific velocities. The best of these models were found to fit 95 percent of the variance in 139 VLBI length and transverse velocity observations. Instantaneous shear deformation associated with plate tectonics is apparently developing in a zone 450 km wide paralleling the San Andreas Fault; some of this deformation will be recovered through elastic rebound, while the rest will be permanently set through plastic processes. Because the VLBI data have not been collected for a significant fraction of the earthquake cycle, they cannot discriminate between elastic and plastic behaviors.

  8. Quasi-Love Surface Wave Observations on USArray: Evidence for Upper Mantle Anisotropy Along the North American Plate Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, D. M.; Park, J.

    2008-12-01

    Strong evidence for mantle anisotropy exists along the North American and Pacific plate boundary, likely a result of deformation of upper-mantle rocks from the applied stress of tectonic motion. We have observed anisotropy-sensitive Love-to-Rayleigh scattered waves, also known as Quasi-Love waves, on the USArray component of EarthScope, on propagation paths that cross the North American plate boundary. These observed Quasi-Love waves may indicate the location and orientation of this anisotropy and help understand the tectonic motion along the North American plate boundary on the Pacific coast of the US. We have performed quantitative and qualitative tests to support the interpretation of these Quasi-Love waves against the misnomer of a surface-reflected body wave or Rayleigh overtone. All of our Quasi-Love wave observations are made after applying a 100 second low-pass to the data in effort to mute higher frequency Rayleigh wave overtones. The Quasi-Love waveforms that we have observed are the largest deviation between the USArray recorded wave trains and long-period synthetic seismograms computed using an isotropic Earth model. The observed amplitudes of the Quasi-Love waves fall roughly within 5-10% of the incident Love wave amplitudes, which is consistent with a 3-5% lateral anisotropic gradient along the great circle path [Yu et al., 1995]. Two example observations that we have made that support the proposed hypothesis are from a 3/31/2006 earthquake source near the Kermadec Islands region, where the observed Quasi-Love wave arrives from the west closely after the arrival of the Love wave, suggesting that the anisotropic scattering occurs relatively close to USArray stations in the Pacific Northwest. By contrast, no Quasi-Love waves are observed from a 4/5/2007 earthquake near the Azores Islands, which arrives at the same stations from the east. A particular point of interest is how the anisotropic scattering mechanism changes, if at all, between the Juan de Fuca subduction zone along the coast of Washington and Oregon and the transform plate boundary in California. Though the exact cause of the anisotropy, whether LPO, parallel fracturing, or a combination of both, may not be known, the orientation of the anisotropy will illuminate the stress and strain in the upper mantle and aid in the investigation of tectonic motion along the boundary.

  9. Plate boundary and major fault system in the overriding plate within the Shumagin gap at the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becel, A.; Shillington, D. J.; Nedimovic, M. R.; Keranen, K. M.; Li, J.; Webb, S. C.; Kuehn, H.

    2013-12-01

    Structure in the overriding plate is one of the parameters that may increase the tsunamigenic potential of a subduction zone but also influence the seismogenic behavior and segmentation of great earthquake rupture. The Alaska-Aleutian margin is characterized by along-strike changes in plate interface coupling over relatively small distances. Here, we present trench normal multichannel seismic (MCS) profiles acquired across the Shumagin gap that has not broken in many decades and appears to be weakly coupled. The high fold, deep penetration (636 channel, 8-km long streamer, 6600 cu.in airgun source) MCS data were acquired as part of the ALEUT project. This dataset gives us critical new constraints on the interplate boundary that can be traced over ~100 km distance beneath the forearc with high variation in its reflection response with depth. These profiles also reveal the detailed upper plate fault structure and forearc morphology. Clear reflections in the overriding plate appear to delineate one or more large faults that cross the shelf and the upper slope. These faults are observed 75 km back from the trench and seem to branch at depth and connect to the plate interface within this gap at ~11 s twtt. We compare the reflective structure of these faults to that of the plate boundary and examine where it intersects the megathrust with respect of the expected downdip limit of coupling. We also compare this major structure with the seismicity recorded in this sector. The imaged fault system is associated with a large deep basin (~6s twt) that is an inherited structure formed during the pre-Aleutian period. Basins faults appear to have accommodated primarily normal motion, although folding of sediments near the fault and complicated fault geometries in the shallow section may indicate that this fault has accommodated other types of motion during its history that may reflect the stress-state at the megathrust over time. The deformation within the youngest sediment also suggests also that this fault system might be still active. The coincident wide-angle seismic data coincident with one MCS profile allow the addition of more information about the deep P-wave velocity structure whereas the streamer tomography (Michaelson-Rotermund et al., this session) around the fault system add more detailed view into the complex structure in the shallow portions (upper 2km) of these structures showing a low velocity zone along one large fault suggesting that this fault is still active. These large-scale structures imaged in the overriding plate within the Shumagin gap are probably sufficiently profound to play a major role in the behavior of the megathrust in this area, segmentation of great earthquake rupture area, tsunami generation and may influence the frictional properties of the seismogenic zone at depth.

  10. Upper Plate Deformation in Response to Aseismic Ridge Subduction along a Convergent Margin - the Piano Player Model: Osa Peninsula, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, T. W.; Fisher, D. M.; Morell, K. D.; Cupper, M. L.

    2008-12-01

    The Osa Peninsula, an outer forearc high ~20 km inboard of the Middle America Trench, is deforming in response to short wavelength variations in the bathymetry on the subducting aseismic Cocos Ridge, an elongate region of thickened crust ( up to 40% thicker) created by motion of the Cocos plate across the Galapagos Hotspot. Plate convergence is nearly orthogonal to the trench at ~90 mm/yr and the plate interface occurs at a depth ~5 km under the peninsula. Relief on the Cocos Ridge locally exceeds 1 km with the dominant topography expressed as two nearly parallel, but locally offset ridges separated by an axial graben. The strike of these features is sub-parallel to the convergence vector. Modern topography of the Osa Peninsula, elevation of the basement rocks (Early to Middle Tertiary Osa Mélange), elevations of late Quaternary marine deposits, and distribution of late Quaternary deformation rates directly mirror the bathymetry on the Cocos Ridge just outboard of the MAT. New geologic mapping, radiometric dating and fission track analysis constrain distribution and rates of deformation on the Osa Peninsula. The Osa Peninsula is fragmented into a complex set of blocks that vary in size from several kms on a side to <10 kms on a side. These blocks, which closely match the size, distribution and shape of bathymetric features on the incoming Cocos Ridge, are bounded by trench parallel and trench perpendicular, high angle, normal and reverse faults that extend to the plate interface, allowing for grossly different deformation histories over short distances. Fission track analyses of 4 sandstone samples from the Osa Mélange suggest that the basement rocks reached maximum burial temperatures of 60-80 ° C indicating burial depths of ~3-4 kms assuming a reasonable geothermal gradient of ~20 °/km. This suggests a very thin margin wedge prior to late Neogene unroofing. Rates of late Quaternary deformation are constrained by over 30 radiocarbon and 5 Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) ages from sections of the shallow marine Armuelles Fm. Deposition and subsequent block deformation of the Armuelles Fm are fundamentally controlled by interaction of eustatic sea level and bathymetry on the subducted Cocos Ridge. Sea level highstands (MIS 1, 3, and 5) allow for deposition of the shallow marine to estuarine Jimenez, Marenco and Rincón members while sea level lowstands allow for subaerial erosion and the development of internal unconformities. Deformation rates for individual blocks range from > 15 mm/yr directly inboard of subducting ridges to < -6 mm/yr directly inboard of axial grabens. These new results imply a model in which the thin, mechanically weak, outer margin, characterized by pervasive, penetrative, brittle deformation of the Osa Melange basement rocks, deforms directly in response to short wavelength, high-relief bathymetric features on the down going plate. In this case bathymetry dominates over basal traction in controlling deformation of the upper plate. Surface uplift or subsidence of the Osa Peninsula, is not significantly driven by shortening within the outer margin nor underplating or subduction erosion at the plate interface, but by the variations in bathymetry, relief, of the subducting Cocos Ridge.

  11. Along-strike variation of strain partition modes: a case study in a regime of oblique plate convergence (External Betics, northern branch of the Gibraltar Arc)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balanyá, Juan Carlos; Crespo-Blanc, Ana; Díaz-Azpiroz, Manuel; Expósito, Inmaculada; Torcal, Federico; Vicente, Pérez; Booth-Rea, Guillermo

    2010-05-01

    The Betic and Rif chains shape the northern and southern branches of the Gibraltar Arc in the westernmost Mediterranean. During the last 25 Ma, the Gibraltar Arc evolved in a kinematic setting of NNW-SSE to NW-SE convergence between Europe and Africa combined with a relative westward arc migration. Accordingly, at a first glance, the northern branch of the Gibraltar Arc as a whole could be considered as a dextral transpressive zone. Nevertheless, within the Betics, significant variations of structural associations can be observed, in terms of areal distribution and timing, which denotes that strain partition occurred. In particular, this is the case for its external wedge. Indeed, from west to east (from Gibraltar to Granada areas), three main structural domains can be identified: a) The external wedge situated in the closest part of the Arc, the Western Gibraltar Arc, is characterized by outward radial arc-perpendicular shortening (folds and thrusts, with a W to NW dominant vergence) and coeval arc-parallel stretching. This latter is accomplished by normal fault systems striking nearly orthogonal to the main orogenic trend, conjugate strike-slip fault systems and distributed minor structures. This deformation is coetaneous with back-arc extension in the inner zone of the Gibraltar Arc system, the Alboran Domain. Nevertheless, most of the recognized extensional fault systems in central and western parts of the external wedge are due to arc-parallel stretching instead of back-arc extension. Pliocene (mainly open folds and normal faults) to recent deformation (assessed from earthquake data) seems to follow a similar pattern. b) The "recess" zone, which links the Western Gibraltar Arc and the NE-SW to ENE-WSW trending central Betics, corresponds to the area where the structural trend line pattern of the external wedge is concave-to-the foreland. One of its most conspicuous features is situated along the boundary with the Betics internal zone (the Alboran Domain). It consists of a highly partitioned, E-W directed, dextral transpressive shear zone, built up by a set of an echelon NE-SW trending relieves, in turn affected by an array of NW-SE oriented normal conjugate faults. Numerical kinematic models suggest that their extrusion was nearly vertical and controlled by the pure shear component, as the simple shear component was mostly localized at the shear zone walls. Coeval extension is predicted by the model. This situation is still active, as earthquake focal solution data from this region indicate that dextral strike-slip earthquakes (NW-SE trending) are dominant, although they coexist with a complex network of thrust and normal fault earthquakes. c) In the central Betics, NE-SW to ENE-WSW trending, shortening in the external wedge was accommodated by folding and thrusting. The variation of the trend line pattern between the central zone and the "recess" zone has been reproduced through analogue experiments of a rigid, concave indenter (the Alboran Domain) pushing-from-behind a sand pack floored by silicone (the Triassic evaporites). The main shortening occurred earlier than in the Western Gibraltar Arc. In this zone, extensional faulting accommodating arc-parallel stretching is nearly absent and large-scale strike-slip faults striking parallel to the main structural trend line developed. The analysis of the variation of along strike strain partition modes in the northern branch of the Gibraltar Arc shows that several structural domains can be characterized within its external wedge, which indicates strong horizontal and vertical decoupling at upper crustal levels. Although situated in a regime of oblique plate convergence as a whole, strain partition modes indicate that only the E-W directed segment of the "recess" zone of the Gibraltar Arc external wedge and part of the Central Betics have structural associations that reveal a transpressive character. Acknowledgements: This study was supported by projects CGL2009-11384, RNM 3713, RNM 215 and CONSOLIDER-INGENIO2010-CSD2006-00041.

  12. EarthScope's Plate Boundary Observatory as the Mother of Invention (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blewitt, G.; Hammond, W. C.; Kreemer, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) component of EarthScope includes a network of over 1,100 permanent, continuously operating GPS stations. After 5 years of site selection, permitting, and construction, the network was completed in 2008. Having such an unprecedented number of high quality stations in western North America has enabled us to image geology in action, as it happens, such as contemporary uplift of the Sierra Nevada, and block rotation in the Walker Lane. Yet, when PBO was in its planning stages, questions were raised as to whether GPS analysis could keep up with the flood of data, while producing results with the highest achievable accuracy. The general consensus was that the challenge would be met by a combination of innovative data processing methods together with the inevitable progress in computer speed and capacity. Various innovations made by the geodetic community over the last decade have enabled massive operational processing of GPS data with high accuracy. For example, now in 2013, the Nevada Geodetic Laboratory operationally produces position time series and quality assurance data from all ~7,000 GPS geodetic stations in the world that make data publicly available. Of these stations, 4,000 have daily time series updated the next day, and 2,000 have 5-minute time series updated within 1-2 hours of real time. The RMS precision of daily positions for well-sited stations are at the level of 1-2 mm horizontal, and 3-6 mm vertical in the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). For 5-minute positions, the precision is at the level of 6-12 mm horizontal, and 15-30 mm vertical. Here we review some of the innovations that have made all of this possible, which were in part driven by challenges presented by EarthScope. First of all, at the data processing level, much creative effort went into making computer processing time scale linearly with the number of GPS stations. The Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique invented in 1997 has been significantly enhanced recently by techniques to resolve integer-cycle ambiguities in the GPS carrier phase data for single stations. PPP with ambiguity resolution now delivers positioning as precise as full-network processing using differenced data, but with processing time that scales linearly with the number of stations. PPP depends critically on accurate GPS orbit and clock modeling and estimation, which in turn depends on the International GNSS Service (IGS) and its ~500-station global network. IGS products have continued to improve over the last decade as a result of innovation in observable modeling, such as the introduction of antenna calibrations, and new satellite force models. At the foundation of this interconnected geodetic system is the ITRF, which depends critically on the synergy of various space-based geodetic techniques, and the IERS Conventions, which ensure accurate models and overall consistency between analysis centers. This 'global geodetic observing system' is monumental in scale, and involves the hard operational work, research and development of the global geodetic community. Indeed, it is the improvements of this system by the innovations of the geodetic community that has enabled EarthScope to meet its scientific requirements.

  13. Stability of GNSS Monumentation: Analysis of Co-Located Monuments in the Plate Boundary Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume, F.; Berglund, H. T.; Feaux, K.; Dittmann, S. T.; Walls, C. P.; Austin, K. E.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2013-12-01

    Geodetic-quality permanent GNSS stations have used a number of different monumentation styles for the purpose of ensuring that the motions of the GNSS antenna reflect those of the Earth's crust while minimizing non-tectonic motions near the surface. Monuments range from simple masts drilled into building roofs or bedrock that cost a few hundred dollars to machine-drilled-braced monuments in soil that cost tens of thousands. Monument stability can depend on their design, the construction techniques used to install them, and the local surface geology where they are installed. Previous studies have separately investigated pairs of identical monuments at a single site, monument type variations using global statistical analysis, and multiple monument styles at a single site. Despite these efforts, the stability of different styles of monumentation in similarly varying geologic conditions has not been adequately determined. Errors in GPS measurements can be dominated by error sources unrelated to the movement of the monument with respect to the Earth's crust, thus making it difficult to isolate monument instability. Contributions from GPS measurement error unrelated to monument stability include, but are not limited to: satellite orbits, satellite clocks, tropospheric delay, and ionospheric delay, antenna phase center variations, near-field multipath, far-field multipath. Installing multiple monuments with small antenna separations at a given test location can help to reduce GPS measurement errors. To increase the understanding of monument stability of various monument styles in diverse geologic conditions UNAVCO has constructed two additional monuments at five existing Plate Boundary Observatory stations during the past year. Deep drilled-braced, short drilled-braced, and single mast type monuments were installed at sites with bedrock at the surface; deep drilled-braced, short driven-braced and pillar type monuments were installed at sites with alluvium or soil at the surface. Sites were selected that comprised a variety of geographic, hydrologic, and geologic conditions. The resulting set of 10-meter spaced monument triangles will yield valuable information regarding the stability of their types in different settings. Data collected from PBO Multi-Monument Experiment are being analyzed using a variety of methods. Each site is characterized using quality-control parameters such as multipath, signal-to-noise and previously determined seasonal variations. High-precision processing by the PBO Analysis Centers with GAMIT and GIPSY software packages using regional and global schemes yield time-series with millimeter-level that determine noise content, overall site stability relative to other PBO sites and differential motions between the individual monuments. Sub-millimeter results from UNAVCO's short-baseline processing efforts will be presented showing further details of monument performance site characterization including the effects of varying elevation cutoff angle and modeling of monument-dependent noise.

  14. EarthScope: Cyberinfrastructure to access Plate Boundary Observatory data products and services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meertens, C. M.; Mattioli, G. S.; Miller, M.; Boler, F. M.; Crosby, C. J.; Mencin, D.; Phillips, D. A.; Snett, L.

    2013-12-01

    The wealth of data from geodetic observing systems, especially the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), presents major data management challenges. The challenges are driven by ingenious new uses of Global Positioning System (GPS) data, demands for higher-rate, lower latency data, the need for continued access and long term preservation of archival data, the expansion of data users into other science, engineering and commercial arenas, and the growth of enhanced products that expand the utility of the data. To meet these challenges, UNAVCO has established a comprehensive suite of data services encompassing sensor network data operations, data product generation (through the activities of partners at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Central Washington University, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, and the University of California, San Diego - UCSD), data management, access and archiving, and advanced cyberinfrastructure. PBO sensor systems include 1,100 continuously operating GPS stations, 79 borehole geophysical sites (with a combination of strainmeters, tiltmeters, seismometers, pore pressure gauges, and meteorological sensors), and 6 long baseline strainmeters. Imaging data acquired for EarthScope include large volumes of satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and airborne LiDAR data. Core data products such as daily GPS position time series and derived crustal motion velocities have been augmented with real-time data streams and positions calculated every second from 367 PBO stations. Higher rate (5 Hz) data files are available for applications such as GPS seismology. Efforts are underway with UCSD to integrate GPS and accelerometers at a subset of PBO sites to increase the reliability and capability of the observations. These observations have utility for research and hazards mitigation. Ingenious methods of GPS data analysis, developed by the University of Colorado and the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, measure snow depth, near surface soil moisture, and vegetation. Along with atmospheric water vapor estimates, these products are expanding the utility of the data into atmospheric, environmental, ecological and soil sciences. Another new PBO product, hydrologic loading models derived from the NASA Global Land Data Assimilation System, is available for correcting GPS time series and hydrologic studies. To facilitate discovery and access of these extensive, diverse, and distributed data collections, UNAVCO has led collaborative efforts to develop web services and federated query capabilities for GPS, LiDAR and SAR. These services form the foundations for global integration projects such as EarthCube, GEO Geohazard Supersites and Natural Laboratories, and COOPEUS. In order to further curation and enhance access and processing capabilities, UNAVCO is exploring cloud computing and storage with UCSD and Amazon that will increase capacity over the next five years. Finally, with the rich set of data and services offered from PBO comes the need to help users better understand data techniques, observations, and quality. To serve this need, UNAVCO is enhancing online resources and, with its community partners, will continue to develop technical short courses and workshops.

  15. Secular and annual hydrologic effects from the Plate Boundary Observatory GPS network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meertens, C. M.; Wahr, J. M.; Borsa, A. A.; Jackson, M. E.; Herring, T.

    2009-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) GPS network is providing accurate and spatially coherent vertical signals that can be interpreted in terms of hydrological loading and poroelastic effects from both natural and anthropogenic changes in water storage. Data used for this analysis are the precise coordinate time series produced on a daily basis by PBO Analysis Centers at New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology and at Central Washington University and combined by the Analysis Center Coordinator at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. These products, as well as derived velocity solutions, are made freely available from the UNAVCO Data Center in Boulder. Analysis of secular trends and annual variations in the time series was made using the analysis software of Langbein, 2008. Spatial variations in the amplitude and phase of the annual vertical component of motion allow for identification of anthropogenic effects due to water pumping, irrigation, and reservoir lake variations, and of outliers due to instrumental or other local site effects. Vertical annual signals of 8-10 mm peak-to-peak amplitude are evident at stations in the mountains of northern and central California and the Pacific Northwest. The peak annual uplift is in October and is correlated to hydrological loading effects. Mountainous areas appear to be responding elastically to the load of the water contained in surface soil, fractures, and snow. Vertical signals are highest when the water load is at a minimum. The vertical elastic hydrologic loading signal was modeled using the 0.25 degree community NOAH land-surface model (LSM) and generally fits the observed GPS signal. Addition comparisons will be made using the Mosaic LSM and the NOAA “Leaky Bucket” hydrologic model. In contrast to mountain stations that are installed principally in bedrock, stations in the valleys of California are installed in sediments. Observations from these stations show greater spatial variability ranging from almost no detectable annual signal to very large, 20-30 mm, vertical amplitudes that reach a maximum in March. Vertical signals in the valleys are the result of poroelastic effects induced by groundwater variations caused by pumping for irrigation or other purposes and are highest when groundwater is at maximum recharge level. Secular trends in the vertical time series show 1-3 mm/yr of subsidence across the western U.S. In areas of groundwater pumping the rates are up to several cm/yr showing subsidence as pumping exceeds annual recharge over a multi-year time period. In the mountainous areas where hydrologic loading is evident in the annual signals, secular trends show uplift of 1-3 mm/yr possibly due to regional drought and decreased overall water volumes that result in less load and vertical uplift. Overall, these results illustrate the potential of using GPS data to constrain hydrological models. In return, accurate hydrologic loading models will be needed to better measure and detect vertical tectonic motions at the mm-level.

  16. The Dauki Thrust Fault and the Shillong Anticline: An incipient plate boundary in NE India?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, E. K.; Seeber, L.; Steckler, M. S.; Akhter, S. H.; Mondal, D.; Lenhart, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Shillong Massif is a regional contractional structure developing across the Assam sliver of the Indian plate near the Eastern Syntaxis between the Himalaya and Burma arcs. Faulting associated with the Shillong Massif is a major source of earthquake hazard. The massif is a composite basement-cored asymmetric anticline and is 100km wide, >350km long and 1.8km high. The high relief southern limb preserves a Cretaceous-Paleocene passive margin sequence despite extreme rainfall while the gentler northern limb is devoid of sedimentary cover. This asymmetry suggests southward growth of the structure. The Dauki fault along the south limb builds this relief. From the south-verging structure, we infer a regional deeply-rooted north-dipping blind thrust fault. It strikes E-W and obliquely intersects the NE-SW margin of India, thus displaying three segments: Western, within continental India; Central, along the former passive margin; and Eastern, overridden by the west-verging Burma accretion system. We present findings from recent geologic fieldwork on the western and central segments. The broadly warped erosional surface of the massif defines a single anticline in the central segment, east of the intersection with the hinge zone of the continental margin buried by the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta. The south limb of the anticline forms a steep topographic front, but is even steeper structurally as defined by the Cretaceous-Eocene cover. Below it, Sylhet Trap Basalts intrude and cover Precambrian basement. Dikes, presumably parallel to the rifted margin, are also parallel to the front, suggesting thrust reactivation of rift-related faults. Less competent Neogene clastics are preserved only near the base of the mountain front. Drag folds in these rocks suggest north-vergence and a roof thrust above a blind thrust wedge floored by the Dauki thrust fault. West of the hinge zone, the contractional structure penetrates the Indian continent and bifurcates. After branching into the Dapsi Fault, the Dauki Fault continues westward as the erosion-deposition boundary combined with a belt of N-S shortening. The Dapsi thrust fault strikes WNW across the Shillong massif and dips NNE. It is mostly blind below a topographically expressed fold involving basement and passive-margin cover. Recent fieldwork has shown that the fault is better exposed in the west, where eventually Archean basement juxtaposes folded and steeply dipping fluvial sediment. Both Dauki and Dapsi faults probably continue beyond the Brahmaputra River, where extreme fluvial processes mask them. The area between the two faults is a gentle southward monocline with little or no shortening. Thus uplift of this area stems from slip on the Dauki thrust fault, not from pervasive shortening. The Burma foldbelt overrides the Shillong Plateau and is warped but continuous across the eastern segment of the Dauki fault. The Haflong-Naga thrust front north of the Dauki merges with the fold-thrust belt in the Sylhet basin to the south, despite >150km of differential advance due to much greater advance of the accretionary prism in the basin. Where the Dauki and Haflong-Naga thrusts cross, the thrust fronts are nearly parallel and opposite vergence. We trace a Dauki-related topographic front eastward across the Burma Range. This and other evidence suggest that the Dauki Fault continues below the foldbelt.

  17. Plate Boundary Observatory Infrastructure and Data Products in Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, S. C.; Barbour, K.; Lee, E.

    2005-12-01

    As one of three major components of NSF's EarthScope program, the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) encourages the integration of research and education. Informing various communities about the current work of PBO and the scientific discoveries related to the use of this instrumentation has contributed to the success of PBO during the first two years of the EarthScope project. UNAVCO(PBO), IRIS (USArray), and the EarthScope project office work together to integrate Education and Outreach (E&O) opportunities into a program that is greater than the sum of its parts and yet maintains the identity of each organization. Building and maintaining the PBO website, documenting and archiving activities of PBO, providing short courses for professional development of scientists using EarthScope data, and developing higher level data products with an appropriate educational framework are a few of the activities that provide both challenges and opportunities. The internet, particularly the World Wide Web, has become the primary tool for disseminating information to various audiences. The primary goals of the PBO website are to provide current information on the progress of GPS and Strainmeter facility construction; to provide access to different levels of data products; and to facilitate networking with and among scientists. Challenges for the PBO website include publishing current stories on installation projects while coordinating with field engineers on a regular basis; providing near to real time updates and maintaining quality assurance processes; and defining personnel requirements for a maintaining a dynamic website. Currently, archived photographs, web diaries, and numerous web highlights document PBO's success and provide a visual record of PBO's accomplishments and behind-the-scene activities over the last two years. The community charged PBO with increasing the number of scientists using its data. UNAVCO does this by providing short courses for professional development of young scientists and more established scientists broadening their research interests. In addition, collecting, manipulating, and aggregating real scientific data for classroom use is a current priority in science education. Educators want their students to use these data to draw conclusions following the logical processes characteristic of the scientific endeavor. Hence, PBO is a natural source of data for use in the classroom. Staff and community members are designing higher level data products for a variety of audiences in formal education (students and instructors in middle/high school, community colleges, undergraduate science majors and students in general science education, graduate students) and in informal education (museums, park information centers, science centers, and media. PBO is working on a chapter for the Earth Exploration Toolbox (http://serc.carleton.edu/eet/) for undergraduate general science education, and the Jules Verne Voyager will include a user-friendly interface and associated educational materials. Evaluation of the effectiveness of this entire program and of individual projects and products is a major undertaking. The multitude of tasks, integration of these tasks into a coherent program, and identification of resources for evaluation are both opportunities and challenges in helping build a program with measurable impact.

  18. PBO Nucleus Project Status: Integration of 209 Existing GPS Stations into the Plate Boundary Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume, F.; Meertens, C.; Anderson, G.; Eriksson, S.; Boyce, E.

    2007-12-01

    Tectonic and earthquake research in the US has experienced a quiet revolution over the last decade precipitated by the recognition that slow-motion faulting events can both trigger and be triggered by regular earthquakes. Transient motion has now been found in essentially all tectonic environments, and the detection and analysis of such events is the first-order science target of the EarthScope Project. Because of this and a host of other fundamental tectonics questions that can be answered only with long-duration geodetic time series, the incipient 1100-station EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network has been designed to leverage 445 existing continuous GPS stations whose measurements extend back over a decade. The irreplaceable recording history of these stations will accelerate EarthScope scientific return by providing the highest possible resolution. This resolution will be used to detect and understand transients, to determine the three-dimensional velocity field (particularly vertical motion), and to improve measurement precision by understanding the complex noise sources inherent in GPS. The PBO Nucleus project supports the operation, maintenance and hardware upgrades of a subset of the six western U.S. geodetic networks until they are subsumed by PBO. Uninterrupted data flow from these stations will effectively double the time-series length of PBO over the expected life of EarthScope, and has created, for the first time, a single GPS-based geodetic network in the US. The other existing sites remain in operation under support from non-NSF sources (e.g. the USGS), and EarthScope continues to benefit from their continued operation On the grounds of relevance to EarthScope science goals, geographic distribution and data quality, 209 of the 432 existing stations were selected as the nucleus upon which to build PBO. Conversion of these stations to a PBO-compatible mode of operation was begun under previous funding, and as a result data now flow directly to PBO archives and processing centers while maintenance, operations, and meta-data requirements are continue to be upgraded to PBO standards. At the end of this project all 209 stations will be fully incorporated into PBO, meeting all standards for new PBO construction including data communications and land use permits. Funds for operation of these stations have been included in planned budgets for PBO after the construction phase ends and PBO begins an operational phase in 2008. At this time work on the project is apporixmately 80% complete, with over 90% of the stations having been upgraded. The data from these stations serve a much larger audience than just the few people who work to keep them operating. This project is now collecting the data that will be used by the next generation of solid-earth researchers for at least two decades. Educational modules are being developed by a team of researchers, educators, and curriculum development professionals, and are being disseminated through regional and national workshops. An interactive website provides the newest developments in tectonics research to K-16 classrooms.

  19. PBO Nucleus Project Status: Integration of 209 Existing GPS Stations into the Plate Boundary Observatory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume, F.; Prescott, W.; Anderson, G.; Eriksson, S.; Feldl, N.

    2006-12-01

    Tectonic and earthquake research in the US has experienced a quiet revolution over the last decade precipitated by the recognition that slow-motion faulting events can both trigger and be triggered by regular earthquakes. Transient motion has now been found in essentially all tectonic environments, and the detection and analysis of such events is the first-order science target of the EarthScope Project. Because of this and a host of other fundamental tectonics questions that can be answered only with long-duration geodetic time series, the incipient 1400-station EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) network has been designed to leverage 432 existing continuous GPS stations whose measurements extend back over a decade. The irreplaceable recording history of these stations is accelerating EarthScope scientific return by providing the highest possible resolution. This resolution will be used to detect and understand transients, to determine the three-dimensional velocity field (particularly vertical motion), and to improve measurement precision by understanding the complex noise sources inherent in GPS. The PBO Nucleus project supports the operation, maintenance and hardware upgrades of a subset of the six western U.S. geodetic networks until they are subsumed by PBO. Uninterrupted data flow from these stations will effectively double the time-series length of PBO over the expected life of EarthScope, and has created, for the first time, a single GPS-based geodetic network in the US. The other existing sites remain in operation under support from non-NSF sources (e.g. the USGS), and EarthScope continues to benefit from their continued operation. On the grounds of relevance to EarthScope science goals, geographic distribution and data quality, 209 of the 432 existing stations were selected as the nucleus upon which to build PBO. Conversion of these stations to a PBO-compatible mode of operation was begun under previous funding, and as a result data now flow directly to PBO archives and processing centers while maintenance, operations, and meta-data requirements are continuing to be upgraded to PBO standards. At the end of this project all 209 stations will be fully incorporated into PBO, meeting all standards for new PBO construction including data communications and land use permits. Funds for operation of these stations have been included in planned budgets for PBO after the construction phase ends and PBO begins an operational phase in 2008. To date approximately 150 of the 209 stations have been completely upgraded, and data flow from all stations is incorporated into the PBO data analysis flow. The community has only begun to understand the pervasive effects of transient creep, and its societal consequences remained largely unexplored. For example, one open question is whether slow faulting pervasively moderates earthquake nucleation. The existence of slow earthquakes will impact seismic hazards estimation, since these transients are now known to `absorb' a significant component of total slip in some regions and trigger earthquakes in others. The data from these stations serve a much larger audience than just the few people who work to keep them operating. This project is now collecting the data that will be used by the next generation of solid-earth researchers for at least two decades. Educational modules are being developed by a team of researchers, educators, and curriculum development professionals, and are being disseminated through regional and national workshops. An interactive website provides the newest developments in tectonics research to K-16 classrooms.

  20. Crustal structure of a transform plate boundary: San Francisco Bay and the central California continental margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holbrook, W.S.; Brocher, T.M.; ten Brink, U.S.; Hole, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Wide-angle seismic data collected during the Bay Area Seismic Imaging Experiment provide new glimpses of the deep structure of the San Francisco Bay Area Block and across the offshore continental margin. San Francisco Bay is underlain by a veneer (<300 m) of sediments, beneath which P wave velocities increase rapidly from 5.2 km/s to 6.0 km/s at 7 km depth, consistent with rocks of the Franciscan subduction assemblage. The base of the Franciscan at-15-18 km depth is marked by a strong wide-angle reflector, beneath which lies an 8- to 10-km-thick lower crust with an average velocity of 6.75??0.15 km/s. The lower crust of the Bay Area Block may be oceanic in origin, but its structure and reflectivity indicate that it has been modified by shearing and/or magmatic intrusion. Wide-angle reflections define two layers within the lower crust, with velocities of 6.4-6.6 km/s and 6.9-7.3 km/s. Prominent subhorizontal reflectivity observed at near-vertical incidence resides principally in the lowermost layer, the top of which corresponds to the "6-s reflector" of Brocher et al. [1994]. Rheological modeling suggests that the lower crust beneath the 6-s reflector is the weakest part of the lithosphere; the horizontal shear zone suggested by Furlong et al. [1989] to link the San Andreas and Hayward/Calaveras fault systems may actually be a broad zone of shear deformation occupying the lowermost crust. A transect across the continental margin from the paleotrench to the Hayward fault shows a deep crustal structure that is more complex than previously realized. Strong lateral variability in seismic velocity and wide-angle reflectivity suggests that crustal composition changes across major transcurrent fault systems. Pacific oceanic crust extends 40-50 km landward of the paleotrench but, contrary to prior models, probably does not continue beneath the Salinian Block, a Cretaceous arc complex that lies west of the San Andreas fault in the Bay Area. The thickness (10 km) and high lower-crustal velocity of Pacific oceanic crust suggest that it was underplated by magmatism associated with the nearby Pioneer seamount. The Salinian Block consists of a 15-km-thick layer of velocity 6.0-6.2 km/s overlying a 5-km-thick, high-velocity (7.0 km/s) lower crust that may be oceanic crust, Cretaceous arc-derived lower crust, or a magmatically underplated layer. The strong structural variability across the margin attests to the activity of strike-slip faulting prior to and during development of the transcurrent Pacific/North American plate boundary around 29 Ma. Copyright 1996 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Experimental study of skin friction drag reduction on superhydrophobic flat plates in high Reynolds number boundary layer flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljallis, Elias; Sarshar, Mohammad Amin; Datla, Raju; Sikka, Vinod; Jones, Andrew; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we report the measurement of skin friction drag on superhydrophobic-coated flat plates in high Reynolds (Re) number boundary layer flows, using a high-speed towing tank system. Aluminum flat plates with a large area (4 feet × 2 feet, 3/8 in. thick) and sharpened leading/trailing edges (1 in. long) were prepared as a boundary layer flow model. Spray coating of hydrophobic nanoparticles was applied to make two different types of superhydrophobic coatings: one with low contact angle and high contact angle hysteresis, and the other with high contact angle and low contact angle hysteresis. Skin friction drag of the superhydrophobic plates was measured in the flow speed up to 30 ft/s to cover transition and turbulent flow regimes (105 < ReL < 107), and was compared to that of an uncoated bare aluminum plate. A significant drag reduction was observed on the superhydrophobic plate with high contact angle and low contact angle hysteresis up to ˜30% in transition regime (105 < ReL < 106), which is attributed to the shear-reducing air layer entrapped on the superhydrophobic surface. However, in fully turbulence regime (106 < ReL < 107), an increase of drag was observed, which is ascribed to the morphology of the surface air layer and its depletion by high shear flow. The texture of superhydrophobic coatings led to form a rugged morphology of the entrapped air layer, which would behave like microscale roughness to the liquid flow and offset the drag-reducing effects in the turbulent flow. Moreover, when the superhydrophobic coating became wet due to the removal of air by high shear at the boundary, it would amplify the surface roughness of solid wall and increase the drag in the turbulent flow. The results illustrate that drag reduction is not solely dependent on the superhydrophobicity of a surface (e.g., contact angle and air fraction), but the morphology and stability of the surface air layer are also critical for the effective drag reduction using superhydrophobic surfaces, especially in high Re number turbulent flow regimes.

  2. Consolidation patterns during initiation and evolution of a plate-boundary decollement zone: northern Barbados accretionary prism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, J.C.; Klaus, A.; Bangs, N.L.; Bekins, B.; Bucker, C.J.; Bruckmann, W.; Erickson, S.N.; Hansen, O.; Horton, T.; Ireland, P.; Major, C.O.; Moore, G.F.; Peacock, S.; Saito, S.; Screaton, E.J.; Shimeld, J.W.; Stauffer, P.H.; Taymaz, T.; Teas, P.A.; Tokunaga, T.

    1998-01-01

    Borehole logs from the northern Barbados accretionary prism show that the plate-boundary decollement initiates in a low-density radiolarian claystone. With continued thrusting, the decollement zone consolidates, but in a patchy manner. The logs calibrate a three-dimensional seismic reflection image of the decollement zone and indicate which portions are of low density and enriched in fluid, and which portions have consolidated. The seismic image demonstrates that an underconsolidated patch of the decollement zone connects to a fluid-rich conduit extending down the decollement surface. Fluid migration up this conduit probably supports the open pore structure in the underconsolidated patch.

  3. Continental Subduction and Subduction Initiation Leading to Extensional Exhumation of Ultra-High Pressure Rocks During Ongoing Plate Convergence in Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, W. R.; Petersen, K. D.

    2014-12-01

    Subduction of continental rocks is necessary to produce ultra-high pressure (UHP) rocks but the mechanism bringing them to the surface is disputed. A major question is whether this involves fairly small diapirs of crust that move up through the mantle or it involves an entire subducted plate that undergoes coherent 'reverse subduction' (sometimes called 'eduction'). Both mechanisms have been invoked to explain the only known region of on-going exhumation of UHP rocks, on the D'Entrecasteaux Islands of Papua New Guinea. Ductile flow fabrics in the island rocks have been used to argue for a diapiric model while constraints on the plate kinematics of the region require relatively large (>100 km) amounts of recent (>6 Myr) extension, supporting eduction as a primary mechanism. A self-consistent thermo-mechanical model of continental subduction shows that eduction can be accompanied by some ductile flow within the crust. Also we show, that subduction and stacking of continental crust can cause a subduction zone to lock up and lead to subduction initiation elsewhere. When this happens the region of earlier continental subduction can reverse direction causing exhumation of rocks from depth of ~100 km followed by localized extension and plate spreading. This can occur even if a region is in overall convergence. Applied to New Guinea our results are consistent with earlier suggestions that extension of the Woodlark Basin was caused by the initiation of the New Britain Trench, as indicated on the attached figure. We suggest that this subduction initiation event triggered eduction that led to exposure of the D'Entrcasteaux Islands and exhumation of the UHP rocks there. Our numerical results are broadly consistent with the recently refined seismic structure of the region around the islands. The model implies that the present-day basement of the ~70 km wide Goodenough Bay, south of the islands, was subducted then exhumed. This can be tested by drilling.

  4. Green's Function In Free Axisymmetric Vibration Analysis Of Annular Thin Plates With Different Boundary Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?ur, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    Free vibration analysis of homogeneous and isotropic annular thin plates by using Green's functions is considered. The formula of the influence function for uniform thin circular and annular plates is presented in closed-form. The limited independent solutions of differential Euler equation were expanded in the Neumann power series based on properties of integral equations. The analytical frequency equations as power series were obtained using the method of successive approximations. The natural axisymmetric frequencies for singularities when the core radius approaches zero are calculated. The results are compared with selected results presented in the literature.

  5. Kinematics to dynamics in the New Zealand Plate boundary zone: implications for the strength of the lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Simon

    2015-05-01

    New Zealand straddles the boundary between the Australian and Pacific Plate. Cenozoic relative plate motion has resulted in a complex pattern of faulting and block rotation in a zone of continental lithosphere up to 250 km wide. I investigate the implications of the short-term kinematics for the strength of the deforming lithosphere. I use a compilation of seismic reflection/refraction studies and high quality receiver function analyses to determine both the regional structure of the crust, which ranges from 20 to 50 km thick, and fields of buoyancy stress (or GPE per unit volume). Deformation over thousands of years is quantified in terms of velocity and strain rate fields, based on an inversion of neotectonic fault slip and palaeomagnetic data, in the context of the short-term relative plate motions. Forces on the subduction megathrust, as well as deviatoric stresses in the behind subduction region, are calculated from simple 2-D force balances across the Hikurangi Margin, given negligible deviatoric stresses at the along-strike transition between backarc extension and compression. Average megathrust shear stresses are in the range 6-15 MPa, and average lithospheric stresses <20 MPa in the overriding plate. The regional lithospheric strength of the plate boundary zone, assuming a viscous rheology (Newtonian or power law), is determined from an inversion of the field of gradients of buoyancy stress (averaged over either the top 25 km of the crust, or 100-km-thick lithosphere) and strain rate, using the thin sheet stress balance equations, calibrated with the subduction force balance analysis. Effective viscosities for the deforming lithosphere and/or crust are in the range 0.1-5 × 1021 Pa s, with marked weakening in zones of high strain rate, and an abrupt transition to viscosities >1022 Pa s at the margins of the rigid plates. If lateral variations in effective viscosity are only due to non-Newtonian behaviour, these data indicate a bulk power law rheology, with exponent n in the range 2-6. Average lithospheric or crustal deviatoric stresses <30 MPa. Such low driving stresses for the deforming crust are likely to be the result of a combination of pore fluid pressures much greater than hydrostatic (≫40 per cent lithostatic) and low coefficients of friction (≪0.6) on crustal faults.

  6. Anatomy of a Plate Boundary at Shallow Crustal Levels: a Composite Section from the Alpine Fault, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, N. C.; Toy, V. G.; Boulton, C. J.; Carpenter, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    New Zealand's Alpine Fault is mostly a moderately SE-dipping dextral reverse plate boundary structure, but at its southern end, strike-slip-normal motion is indicated by offset of recent surfaces, juxtaposition of sediments, and both brittle and ductile shear sense indicators. At the location of uplift polarity reversal fault rocks exhumed from both the hangingwall Pacific and footwall Australian Plates are juxtaposed, offering a remarkably complete cross section of the plate boundary at shallow crustal levels. We describe Alpine Fault damage zone and fault core structures overprinted on Pacific and Australian plate mylonites of a variety of compositions, in a fault-strike perpendicular composite section spanning the reversal in dip-slip polarity. The damage zone is asymmetric; on the Australian Plate 160m of quartzose paragneiss-derived mylonites are overprinted by brittle faults and fractures that increase in density towards the principal slip surface (PSS). This damage zone fabric consists of 1-10m-spaced, moderately to steeply-dipping, 1-20cm-thick gouge-filled faults, overprinted on and sub-parallel to a mylonitic foliation sub-parallel to the PSS. On the Pacific Plate, only 40m of the 330m section of volcaniclastic-derived mylonites have brittle damage in the form of unhealed fractures and faults, as well as a pervasive greenschist facies hydrothermal alteration absent in the footwall. These damage-related structures comprise a network of small-offset faults and fractures with increasing density and intensity towards the PSS. The active Pacific Plate fault core is composed of ~1m of cataclasite grading into folded protocataclasite that is less folded and fractured with increasing distance from the PSS. The active Australian Plate fault core is <1.5m wide and consists of 3 distinct foliated clay gouges, as well as a 4cm thick brittle ultracataclasite immediately adjacent to the active PSS. The Australian Plate foliated clay gouge contains stringers of quartz that become less continuous and more sigmoidal toward the PSS, indicating a strain gradient across the gouge zone. Gouge textures are consistent with deformation by pressure solution. Intact wafers from one of the gouges, experimentally -sheared in a biaxial configuration under true-triaxial loading at ?n’= 31MPa and Pf = 10MPa, yielded a friction coefficient, ?ss = 0.32 and displayed velocity strengthening behavior. No significant re-strengthening was observed during hold periods of slide-hold tests. Well-cemented glacial till (~8000 years old), which caps many outcrops, is a marker that shows that the damage zone is not active in the near-surface, but most of the fault core is. The active near-surface damage zone here is <40m wide and the active fault core is <2.5m wide. Both overprint a much wider, inactive damage zone. The combination of rheologically-weak Australian Plate fault rocks with surface rupture traces indicates distinctly different coseismic and interseismic behaviors along the southern strike-slip-normal segment of the Alpine Fault.

  7. Soret and Dufour effects on the flow of an Erying-Powell fluid over a flat plate with convective boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qasim, M.

    2014-02-01

    This article addresses the heat and mass transfer effects in the boundary layer flow over a plate. Mathematical modelling is based upon the constitutive equations of the Erying-Powell fluid. The problem formulation takes into account the Soret and Dufour effects and convective boundary conditions. A numerical solution to the nonlinear flow problem is presented. The impact of the emerging parameters is analyzed.

  8. Effects of orientation angles on film cooling over a flat plate: Boundary layer temperature distributions and adiabatic film cooling effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, I.S.; Lee, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    Presented are experimental results describing the effects of orientation angle of film cooling holes on boundary layer temperature distributions and film cooling effectiveness. Film flow data were obtained from a row of five film cooling holes on a flat test plate. The inclination angle of the hole was fixed at 35 deg and four orientation angles of 0, 30, 60, and 90 deg were investigated. The velocity ratios surveyed were 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0. The boundary layer temperature distributions were measured at three downstream locations using 1 {micro}m platinum wire. Detailed adiabatic film cooling effectiveness distributions were measured using thermochromic liquid crystal. Results show that the increased lateral momentum in the case of large orientation angle injection strongly affects boundary layer temperature distributions. Temperature distribution characteristics are, in general, explained in the context of the interactions between injectant and free-stream fluid and between injectants issuing from adjacent holes. The adiabatic film cooling effectiveness distributions are discussed in connection with the boundary layer temperature distributions. Spanwise-averaged effectiveness distributions and space-averaged effectiveness distributions are also presented with respect to the velocity ratios and the orientation angles.

  9. Late Mesozoic- Cenozoic plate boundaries in the North Atlantic – Arctic: Quantitative reconstructions using Hellinger criterion in GPlates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Carmen; Watson, Robin; Cirbus, Juraj

    2015-04-01

    Cretaceous extension that resulted in the formation of several sedimentary basins along the North American and western and southwestern Greenland margin was followed by seafloor spreading in the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. Controversy regarding the timing of the oldest oceanic crust in these basins spanned more than 25 years and it is still not resolved due to the complexity of the margins and non-uniqueness of potential field data interpretation. Here we revisit the geophysical data (in particular the magnetic and gravity data) available for the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay in order to identify the age of oceanic crust and infer new parameters that can be used for quantitative kinematic reconstructions. We identify chrons 20 to 29 for the central part of the basin. For the crust formed near the extinct spreading ridge we have modelled chrons 19 to 15 assuming an ultraslow spreading rate. Oceanic crust older than chron 29 is uncertain and may be part of a transitional crust that possibly contains other type of crust or exhumed mantle. The new magnetic anomaly identifications were inverted using the Hellinger (1981) criterion of fit. In this method the magnetic data are regarded as points on two conjugate isochrons consisting of great circle segments. This method has been extensively used for kinematic reconstructions since Royer and Chang (1991) first implemented it for quantitative plate tectonics, and is now available as a new interactive tool in the open-source software GPlates (www.gplates.org). The GPlates Hellinger tool lets the user interactively generate a best-fit rotation pole to a series of segmented magnetic picks. The fitting and determination of uncertainties are based on the FORTRAN program hellinger1 (Chang, 1988; Hellinger, 1981; Hanna and Chang, 1990); Royer and Chang, 1991). Input data can be viewed and adjusted both tabularly and graphically, and the best fit can be viewed and tested on the GPlates globe. The new set of rotations and their uncertainties are combined with a regional model and used to infer the plate boundaries during the formation of Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. Challenges for establishing the continuation of these plate boundaries the Arctic domain are also discussed. References Chang, T. (1988), Estimating the relative rotation of two tectonic plates from boundary crossings, J. Am. Stat. Assoc., 83, 1178-1183. Hellinger, S. J. (1981), The uncertainties of finite rotations in plate tectonics, J Geophys Res, 86, 9312-9318. Hanna, M.S and T. Chang (1990), On graphically representing the confidence region for an unknown rotation in three dimensions. Computers & Geosciences 16 (2), 163-194. Royer, J. Y., and T. Chang (1991), Evidence for Relative Motions between the Indian and Australian Plates during the Last 20 My from Plate Tectonic Reconstructions - Implications for the Deformation of the Indo-Australian Plate, J Geophys Res, 96(B7), 11779-11802.

  10. Discovering Plate Boundaries in Data-Integrated Environments: Preservice Teachers' Conceptualization and Implementation of Scientific Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sezen-Barrie, Asli; Moore, Joel; Roig, Cara E.

    2015-01-01

    Drawn from the norms and rules of their fields, scientists use variety of practices, such as asking questions and arguing based on evidence, to engage in research that will contribute to our understanding of Earth and beyond. In this study, we explore how preservice teachers' learn to teach scientific practices while teaching plate tectonic…

  11. Discovering Plate Boundaries in Data-Integrated Environments: Preservice Teachers' Conceptualization and Implementation of Scientific Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sezen-Barrie, Asli; Moore, Joel; Roig, Cara E.

    2015-01-01

    Drawn from the norms and rules of their fields, scientists use variety of practices, such as asking questions and arguing based on evidence, to engage in research that will contribute to our understanding of Earth and beyond. In this study, we explore how preservice teachers' learn to teach scientific practices while teaching plate tectonic…

  12. Convergence of shock waves generated by underwater electrical explosion of cylindrical wire arrays between different boundary geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanuka, D.; Kozlov, M.; Zinowits, H. E.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2015-10-01

    The results of experiments and numerical simulations of a shock wave propagating between either conical or parabolic bounding walls are presented. The shock wave was generated by a microsecond timescale underwater electrical explosion of a cylindrical wire array supplied by a current pulse having an amplitude of ˜230 kA and a rise time of ˜1 ?s. It is shown that with the same energy density deposition into the exploding wire array, the shock wave converges faster between parabolic walls, and as a result, the pressure in the vicinity of convergence is ˜2.3 times higher than in the case of conical walls. The results obtained are compared to those of earlier experiments [Antonov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 124104 (2013)] with explosions of spherical wire arrays. It is shown that at a distance of ˜400 ?m from the implosion origin the pressure obtained in the current experiments is higher than for the case of spherical wire arrays.

  13. A review of structural patterns and melting processes in the Archean craton of West Greenland: Evidence for crustal growth at convergent plate margins as opposed to non-uniformitarian models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polat, Ali; Wang, Lu; Appel, Peter W. U.

    2015-11-01

    The Archean craton of West Greenland consists of many fault-bounded Eoarchean to Neoarchean tectonic terranes (crustal blocks). These tectonic terranes are composed mainly of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) gneisses, granitic gneisses, metavolcanic-dominated supracrustal belts, layered anorthositic complexes, and late- to post-tectonic granites. Rock assemblages and geochemical signatures in these terranes suggest that they represent fragments of dismembered oceanic island arcs, consisting mainly of TTG plutons, tholeiitic to calc-alkaline basalts, boninites, picrites, and cumulate layers of ultramafic rocks, gabbros, leucogabbros and anorthosites, with minor sedimentary rocks. The structural characteristics of the terrane boundaries are consistent with the assembly of these island arcs through modern style of horizontal tectonics, suggesting that the Archean craton of West Greenland grew at convergent plate margins. Several supracrustal belts that occur at or near the terrane boundaries are interpreted as relict accretionary prisms. The terranes display fold and thrust structures and contain numerous 10 cm to 20 m wide bifurcating, ductile shear zones that are characterized by a variety of structures including transposed and redistributed isoclinal folds. Geometrically these structures are similar to those occurring on regional scales, suggesting that the Archean craton of West Greenland can be interpreted as a continental scale accretionary complex, such as the Paleozoic Altaids. Melting of metavolcanic rocks during tectonic thickening in the arcs played an important role in the generation of TTGs. Non-uniformitarian models proposed for the origin of Archean terranes have no analogs in the geologic record and are inconsistent with structural, lithological, petrological and geochemical data collected from Archean terranes over the last four decades. The style of deformation and generation of felsic rocks on outcrop scales in the Archean craton of West Greenland and the Mesozoic Sulu orogenic belt of eastern China are similar, consistent with the formation of Archean continental crust by subduction zone processes.

  14. STRUCTURAL MODEL OF THE PANAMA - NORTH ANDES PLATE BOUNDARY ZONE FROM REMOTE SENSING, GEOLOGIC MAPPING AND SEISMIC TOMOGRAPHY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, O.; Vargas, G.; Montes, L. A.; Molano, J. C.; Kammer, A.; Briceño, L. A.; Vargas-Jimenez, C. A.

    2009-12-01

    To advance in the understanding of the tectonic setting of the Panama - North Andres plate boundary zone, an integrated research project is being carried out, including remote sensing, field geology, gravity and magnetic surveys and passive seismic tomography. This program includes the geologic interpretation of C band -RADARSAT, X-band TERRASAR and L-band ALOS PALSAR images with fieldwork verification. The Panama microplate is characterized by intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks or cretaceous and tertiary ages, respectively, while the North Andes is formed by a thick sedimentary sequence of tertiary age. Thick quaternary deposits of the Atrato river and the Gulf of Uraba are covering the plate boundary zone. A seismological network with 25 triaxial broadband stations has been implemented to monitor the seismic activity since January 2009 to present. The registered seismic events have been processed including the determination of first arrival of P and S waves and their wave attenuation, Regional stress and strain estimates and seismic anisotropy are being calculated. Three structural trends are identified: a) NE structures associated with main regional faults b) EW and NE structures associated with secondary regional faults and c) local structures and lineaments associated with major fractures. Mud volcanoes were detected in the northeastern part of the basin. Some of them aligned with NW and EW structures.

  15. The Plate Boundary Observatory Cascadia Network: Development and Installation of a Large Scale Real-time GPS Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, K. E.; Blume, F.; Berglund, H. T.; Feaux, K.; Gallaher, W. W.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Mattioli, G. S.; Mencin, D.

    2014-12-01

    The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), through a NSF-ARRA supplement, has enhanced the geophysical infrastructure in in the Pacific Northwest by upgrading a total of 282 Plate Boundary Observatory GPS stations to allow the collection and distribution of high-rate (1 Hz), low-latency (<1 s) data streams (RT-GPS). These upgraded stations supplemented the original 100 RT-GPS stations in the PBO GPS network. The addition of the new RT-GPS sites in Cascadia should spur new volcano and earthquake research opportunities in an area of great scientific interest and high geophysical hazard. Streaming RT-GPS data will enable researchers to detect and investigate strong ground motion during large geophysical events, including a possible plate-interface earthquake, which has implications for earthquake hazard mitigation. A Mw 6.9 earthquake occurred on March 10, 2014, off the coast of northern California. As a response, UNAVCO downloaded high-rate GPS data from Plate Boundary Observatory stations within 500 km of the epicenter of the event, providing a good test of network performance.In addition to the 282 stations upgraded to real-time, 22 new meteorological instruments were added to existing PBO stations. Extensive testing of BGAN satellite communications systems has been conducted to support the Cascadia RT-GPS upgrades and the installation of three BGAN satellite fail over systems along the Cascadia margin will allow for the continuation of data flow in the event of a loss of primary communications during in a large geophysical event or other interruptions in commercial cellular networks. In summary, with these additional upgrades in the Cascadia region, the PBO RT-GPS network will increase to 420 stations. Upgrades to the UNAVCO data infrastructure included evaluation and purchase of the Trimble Pivot Platform, servers, and additional hardware for archiving the high rate data, as well as testing and implementation of GLONASS and Trimble RTX positioning on the receivers. UNAVCO staff is working closely with the UNAVCO community to develop data standards, protocols, and a science plan for the use of RT-GPS data.

  16. Hydromagnetic natural convection flow between vertical parallel plates with time-periodic boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adesanya, S. O.; Oluwadare, E. O.; Falade, J. A.; Makinde, O. D.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the free convective flow of magnetohydrodynamic fluid through a channel with time periodic boundary condition is investigated by taking the effects of Joule dissipation into consideration. Based on simplifying assumptions, the coupled governing equations are reduced to a set of nonlinear boundary valued problem. Approximate solutions are obtained by using semi-analytical Adomian decomposition method. The effect of pertinent parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature distribution, Nusselt number and skin friction are presented graphically and discussed. The result of the computation shows that an increase in the magnetic field intensity has significant influence on the fluid flow.

  17. Experiments of dike-induced deformation: Insights on the long-term evolution of divergent plate boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trippanera, D.; Ruch, J.; Acocella, V.; Rivalta, E.

    2015-10-01

    The shallow transport of magma occurs through dikes causing surface deformation. Our understanding of the effects of diking at the surface is limited, especially on the long term, for repeated intrusive episodes. We use analogue models to study the upper crustal deformation induced by dikes. We insert metal plates within cohesive sand with three setups: in setup A, the intrusion rises upward with constant thickness and in setups B and C, the intrusion thickens at a fixed depth, with final rectangular (setup B) or triangular (setup C) shape in section. Setup A creates a doming delimited by reverse faults, with secondary apical graben, without close correspondence in nature. In setups B and C, a depression flanked by two uplifted areas is bordered by inward dipping normal faults propagating downward and, for deeper intrusions in setup B, also by inner faults, reverse at the surface; this deformation is similar to what is observed in nature, suggesting a consistent physical behavior. Dikes in nature initially propagate developing a mode I fracture at the tip, subsequently thickened by magma intrusion, without any host rock translation in the propagation direction (as in setup A). The deformation pattern in setups B and C depends on the intrusion depth and thickness, consistently to what is observed along divergent plate boundaries. The early deformation in setups B and C is similar to that from a single rifting episode (i.e., Lakagigar, Iceland, and Dabbahu, Afar), whereas the late stages resemble the structure of mature rifts (i.e., Krafla, Iceland), confirming diking as a major process in shaping divergent plate boundaries.

  18. Deformation record of 4-d accommodation of strain in the transition from transform to oblique convergent plate margin, southern Alaska (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roeske, S.; Benowitz, J.; Enkelmann, E.; Pavlis, T. L.

    2013-12-01

    Crustal deformation at the transition from a dextral transform to subduction in the northern Cordillera is complicated by both the bend of the margin and the presence of low-angle subduction of an oceanic plateau, the Yakutat microplate, into the 'corner'. The dextral Denali Fault system located ~400 km inboard of the plate margin shows a similar transition from a dominantly strike-slip to transpressional regime as it curves to the west. Thermochronologic and structural studies in both areas indicate crustal response through the transition region is highly varied along and across strike. Previous thermochronology along the Fairweather fault SE of the St. Elias bend shows the most rapid exhumation occurs in close proximity to the fault, decreasing rapidly away from it. Enkelmann et al. (2010) and more recent detrital zircon FT (Falkowski et al., 2013 AGU abstract) show rapid and deep exhumation concentrated in the syntaxis, but over a fairly broad area continuing north beyond the Fairweather fault. Although the region is dominantly under ice, borders of the rapidly exhuming region appear to be previously identified major high-angle faults. This suggests that structures controlling the extreme exhumation may have significant oblique slip component, or, if flower structure, are reverse faults, and the region may be exhuming by transpression, with a significant component of pure shear. Southwest of the syntaxis, where convergence dominates over strike-slip, thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belts in the Yakutat microplate strata account for the shortening. The long-term record of convergence in this area is more cryptic due to sediment recycling through deep underplating and/or limited exhumation by upper crustal shortening, but a wide range of thermochronologic studies suggests that initial exhumation in the region began ~ 30 Ma and most rapid exhumation in the syntaxis began ~ 5 Ma. In the eastern Alaska Range a significant component of strike-slip, in addition to convergence, has been accommodated along the Denali Fault since E. Miocene. Southeast of the bend there is little evidence of convergence across the fault and Quaternary slip is ~12-13.5 mm/year. The eastern restraining bend of the Denali fault is much broader than the syntaxis and dextral slip continues at rates of ~10 mm/year, but the rock response to increasing obliquity is similar. Low and moderate-T cooling histories determined from a wide range of isotopic systems on minerals from bedrock show exhumation strongly localized on the north side of the high-angle Denali fault, south of the Hines Creek fault, since ~25 Ma. The structural record in ductilely deformed rocks from the most highly exhumed regions shows transpressive deformation over a few km wide region, but above the brittle-ductile transition strain becomes highly partitioned and is accommodated by thrust and normal faults on the north side of the bend. A connector fault between the Fairweather and Totschunda-Denali fault systems has been speculated on but it is not clear whether a single through-going fault is expressed at the surface. Any connector is likely a relatively young structure compared to the Fairweather and Denali systems' histories of long-lived oblique convergence. Overall, in both regions high-angle faults appear to be critical for controlling the location of major deep-seated and/or long-lived exhumation, and deformation at these geometrical complexities is dominated by transpression.

  19. Evolutionary process of Beppu Bay in central Kyushu, Japan: a quantitative study of the basin-forming process controlled by plate convergence modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Yasuto; Kusumoto, Shigekazu; Takemura, Keiji

    2014-12-01

    This integrated tectonic study reveals the basin-forming and deforming processes on an active margin. Southwest Japan (SWJ) is an island arc under the influence of oblique subduction of the Philippine Sea plate, which has provoked dextral slips on the arc-bisecting Median Tectonic Line (MTL). Plio-/Pleistocene sediments in Beppu Bay, a tectonic depression at the westernmost portion of the MTL, are categorized into lower (5 ~ 0.7 Ma), upper (0.7 ~ 0.3 Ma), and an auxiliary uppermost (0.3 Ma ~ present) unit in ascending order. Detailed seismic interpretation demonstrates that major structures in the deep interior of the basin are an older half-graben under a strong N-S extensional regime and a younger pull-apart sag that developed in a right-stepping part of the MTL as a result of late Quaternary-enhanced strike-slip rates on the fault. Sediments within the pull-apart have been deformed by later inversion events as a contraction phase arose. Conspicuous deformation of the hanging wall of the low-angle detachment of the basin was successfully reproduced by numerical modeling. Based on a discrete element method, this suggests that structural differences in the deformed sedimentary layers are caused by differences in the dip angles of the faults. Remarkable temporal changes in tectonic regimes around Beppu Bay and other areas of SWJ are probably related to transient modes of convergence, including the migration of the Euler pole, of the Philippine Sea plate since ca. 6 Ma.

  20. Direct measurements of turbulent boundary layer wall pressure wavenumber-frequency spectra on smooth and riblet-coated plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Bruce Matthew

    Measurements of the fluctuating wall pressure space-time field were made with a linear array of 48 hydrophones beneath a fully developed turbulent boundary layer of water on a flat plate. Autospectra, cross-spectra, and wavenumber-frequency spectra were calculated from digitized hydrophone signals. Boundary layer parameters were estimated from streamwise velocity profiles that were measured with a laser doppler anemometry system and a pitot tube. The wall pressure measurements spanned an Rtheta range of 3,000 to 16,800. The estimated wall pressure spectra were scaled using boundary layer parameters and compared with other experimental data. Scaling laws were established for wavenumber-frequency spectra such that the data collapse over the widest possible range of Reynolds numbers, nondimensional frequencies, and nondimensional wavenumbers. Scaling results for the wavenumber-frequency spectra were consistent with those already established for wall pressure autospectra. An empirical model of the wall pressure streamwise wavenumber-frequency spectrum was developed based on normalized data. Because the model was based on the measured data, it predicts the asymmetric distribution in wavenumber of the wall pressure fluctuations that existing analytical and semi-empirical models do not. Vinyl riblet material, consisting of a multitude of parallel, symmetric, "V" grooves with a peak-to-peak spacing and height of 0.1143-mm, was applied to the flat plate such that the grooves were aligned with the free-stream direction. Boundary layer parameters and wall pressure spectra were measured to assess the effect of the riblets on the turbulent boundary layer flow. The riblets had a minor effect on the wall pressure spectra (approximately 1dB attenuation or amplification), although there was a consistent decrease in the autospectrum levels at lower measured frequencies. Mean wall shear stresses were estimated using mean streamwise velocity profiles and also from attenuations of the wall pressure autospectra at low frequencies. The former method was very sensitive to the chosen wall-normal coordinate origin while the latter yielded maximum estimated skin friction drag reductions of 8.5% at a nondimensional riblet spacing of s+ = 14. These reductions were consistent with the results of other investigations that directly measured the drag on similar riblet materials using a force balance.

  1. Models of the Evolution of Finite Strain at Strike-Slip Plate Boundaries and Potential Implications for Seismic Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurz, I.; Roy, M.

    2014-12-01

    While we are aware of the extent and distribution of strain at the surface near the Pacific-North America plate boundary at the San Andreas Fault (SAF) system in California, at depth, our understanding is poor. Recent seismic observations suggest a narrow shear zone throughout the lithosphere corresponding to the narrow plate boundary at the surface. Surrounding the SAF in California, measurements of seismic anisotropy demonstrate orientations which vary depending on the location relative to the fault. Specifically, in northern California, the orientations align along the fault in its proximity, and in the east-west direction elsewhere. We investigate how the finite-strain ellipsoid (FSE) evolves for tracers in a 3D model of the lithosphere and asthenosphere beneath the SAF. The top surface of the mesh has a right-lateral strike-slip velocity boundary condition, and the bottom, a uniform asthenospheric flow velocity condition perpendicular to the strike-slip fault. We calculate the orientations of the FSE for various ratios of strike-slip to asthenospheric velocity and viscosity stratification. The two classes of models which we investigate simulate an asthenospheric channel beneath a uniform-thickness lithosphere and a variable-depth lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). In an isoviscous fluid beneath a uniform-thickness lithosphere, strain rates, and thus FSE orientations, are constant throughout the channel, dependent on the ratio of the velocities but not the viscosity. For a two-layered asthenospheric channel of a higher-viscosity layer overlying a lower-viscosity layer, FSE orientations align with the strike-slip boundary in the upper layer and the drag in the lower layer. When we emulate a lithosphere of variable thickness across the fault by increasing the viscosity of the upper layer, we observe asymmetric FSE orientations across the step in the LAB. The direction of lithospheric thickening across the strike-slip fault govern these orientations. Following these investigations, we interpret the direction of maximum strain of the FSE as the preferred direction of a-type anisotropy in the region of the SAF system and analogous strike-slip fault systems.

  2. "Discovering Plate Boundaries in Data-Rich Environments": Supporting Pre-service Teachers involvement in Unique Practices of Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrie, A. S.; Moore, J.

    2012-12-01

    Plate tectonics is one of the core scientific concepts in both the NRC K-12 standards documents (#ESS2.B) and College Board Standards for Science (#ES.1.3). These documents also mention the scientific practices expected to improve as students are learning plate tectonics: interpreting data based on their observations of maps and argumentation around the evidence based on data. Research on students' understanding of maps emphasizes the difficulty of reading maps in science classrooms.We are conducting an ethnographic case study of the process of learning and teaching by novice teachers in the middle school science major at a mid-Atlantic University. The participants of the study are third-year majors (in the middle school science program and middle students at a suburban middle school. The study uses the data from four different fields (geography, geochronology, volcanology and seismology) to help involve preservice teachers in the practices of geosciences.The data for the study includes video and audio records of novice teachers' learning and teaching processes as well as teachers' reflections about their learning and on teaching Plate Tectonics by using real data. The video and audio data will be compiled and synthesized into event maps and transcripts, which are necessary for sociolinguistic analysis. Event maps provide an overall view of the events and are used to map the learning and teaching events into timely sequences and phases based on the subtopics and types of educational activities. Transcripts cover in detail the discussion and activity observed at each phase of the learning and teaching events. After compilation, event maps and transcripts will be analyzed by using Discourse analysis with an ethnographic perspective in order to identify novice teachers' challenges and the improvement they want to make on their teaching and assessment artifacts. The preliminary findings of the project identified challenges faced by novice teachers learning and teaching plate tectonics using key scientific practices. As a result of the educational activities developed in this project, we will try help teachers to overcome their challenges and develop the pedagogical skills that novice teachers need to use to teach plate tectonics by focusing on key scientific practices with the help of previously-developed educational resources. Learning about the processes that occur at plate boundaries will help future teachers (and their students) understand natural disasters such as earthquakes and volcanoes. Furthermore, the study will have a significant, and broader, impact by 'teaching the teachers' and empowering novice teachers to overcome the challenges of reading maps and using argumentation in science classrooms.

  3. Turbulent Friction in the Boundary Layer of a Flat Plate in a Two-Dimensional Compressible Flow at High Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankl, F.; Voishel, V.

    1943-01-01

    In the present report an investigation is made on a flat plate in a two-dimensional compressible flow of the effect of compressibility and heating on the turbulent frictional drag coefficient in the boundary layer of an airfoil or wing radiator. The analysis is based on the Prandtl-Karman theory of the turbulent boundary later and the Stodola-Crocco, theorem on the linear relation between the total energy of the flow and its velocity. Formulas are obtained for the velocity distribution and the frictional drag law in a turbulent boundary later with the compressibility effect and heat transfer taken into account. It is found that with increase of compressibility and temperature at full retardation of the flow (the temperature when the velocity of the flow at a given point is reduced to zero in case of an adiabatic process in the gas) at a constant R (sub x), the frictional drag coefficient C (sub f) decreased, both of these factors acting in the same sense.

  4. Space geodetic observations of nazca-south america convergence across the central andes

    PubMed

    Norabuena; Leffler-Griffin; Mao; Dixon; Stein; Sacks; Ocola; Ellis

    1998-01-16

    Space geodetic data recorded rates and directions of motion across the convergent boundary zone between the oceanic Nazca and continental South American plates in Peru and Bolivia. Roughly half of the overall convergence, about 30 to 40 millimeters per year, accumulated on the locked plate interface and can be released in future earthquakes. About 10 to 15 millimeters per year of crustal shortening occurred inland at the sub-Andean foreland fold and thrust belt, indicating that the Andes are continuing to build. Little (5 to 10 millimeters per year) along-trench motion of coastal forearc slivers was observed, despite the oblique convergence. PMID:9430582

  5. Hypersonic Laminar Boundary Layer Velocimetry with Discrete Roughness on a Flat Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bathel, Brett; Danehy, Paul M.; Inman, Jennifer A.; Watkins, A. Neal; Jones, Stephen B.; Lipford, William E.; Goodman, Kyle Z.; Ivey, Christopher B.; Goyne, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    Laminar boundary layer velocity measurements are made on a 10-degree half-angle wedge in a Mach 10 flow. Two types of discrete boundary layer trips were used to perturb the boundary layer gas. The first was a 2-mm tall, 4-mm diameter cylindrical trip. The second was a scaled version of the Orbiter Boundary Layer Transition (BLT) Detailed Test Objective (DTO) trip. Both 1-mm and 2.5-mm tall BLT DTO trips were tested. Additionally, side-view and plan-view axial boundary layer velocity measurements were made in the absence of these tripping devices. The free-stream unit Reynolds numbers tested for the cylindrical trips were 1.7x10(exp 6)/m and 3.3x10(exp 6)/m. The free-stream unit Reynolds number tested for the BLT DTO trips was 1.7x10(exp 6)/m. The angle of attack was kept at approximately 5-degrees for most of the tests resulting in a Mach number of approximately 8.3. These combinations of unit Reynolds numbers and angle of attack resulted in laminar flowfields. To study the precision of the measurement technique, the angle of attack was varied during one run. Nitric-oxide (NO) molecular tagging velocimetry (MTV) was used to obtain averaged axial velocity values and associated uncertainties. These uncertainties are as low as 20 m/s. An interline, progressive scan CCD camera was used to obtain separate images of the initial reference and shifted NO molecules that had been tagged by the laser. The CCD configuration allowed for sub-microsecond sequential acquisition of both images. The maximum planar spatial resolution achieved for the side-view velocity measurements was 0.07-mm in the wall-normal direction by 1.45-mm in the streamwise direction with a spatial depth of 0.5-mm. For the plan-view measurements, the maximum planar spatial resolution in the spanwise and streamwise directions was 0.69-mm by 1.28-mm, respectively, with a spatial depth of 0.5-mm. Temperature sensitive paint (TSP) measurements are provided to compliment the velocity data and to provide further insight into the behavior of the boundary layers. The experiments were performed at the NASA Langley Research Center 31-Inch Mach 10 Air tunnel.

  6. Discontinuous and smooth 3D structure of the upper mantle and crust across and along the Eurasia-Africa plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marone, F.; van der Meijde, M.; van der Lee, S.; Giardini, D.

    2003-04-01

    We have acquired and analyzed new seismological data to investigate and map seismic discontinuities and to image smooth 3DS-velocity structure of the upper mantle and crust of the Africa-Eurasia suture zone. The results of this effort have a resolution that is complementary to that of existing studies. The new data have been recorded at 25 broadband seismic stations (MIDSEA project), temporarily deployed across and along the plate boundary region. We used additional seismic data from permanent networks in the region. We jointly inverted linear constraints on Moho depth and upper mantleS-velocity structure obtained by waveform modeling (ofS- and surface wave trains) and from point estimates of crustal thickness (from receiver function, gravity and active-source seismic studies). This joint inversion has yielded a Moho map and a 3D upper mantleS-velocity model. The Moho map shows strong lateral variations, which confirm the complex evolution of this plate boundary region. The Moho appears to be deeper than 45 km beneath mountain ranges (e.g. Alps), while in locations dominated by extension it is found shallower than 15 km (e.g. Algero-Provençal Basin). Beneath the eastern Atlantic Ocean, the crust may be up to 5 km thicker than standard oceanic crust (6 km). Serpentinization of the sub-Moho mantle at the Mid-Atlantic ridge could be a process contributing to the imaging of an anomalously deep apparent Moho in this region. Depsite the high level of heterogeneity, the region appears to be very close to isostatic equilibrium. The 3D upper mantleS-velocity structure shows strong correlation between the imaged heterogeneities and the tectonics along the plate boundary. The Eurasia-Africa suture zone manifests itself in the upper mantle mainly as a belt of fast material representing subducted oceanic lithosphere. A new, striking and resolved feature of our model is a high velocity anomaly imaged beneath eastern Spain between 250 and 500 km depth. We suggest that this fast body could be a fragment of African lithosphere that subducted in an early stage of NW subduction of oceanic lithosphere in the western Mediterranean. Not only convergence has been recorded in the upper mantle, but also extension has its own signature. This is particularly clear for the Algero-Proven{çal and Tyrrhenian basins, where a shallow low-velocity layer (asthenosphere) is observed. The lithosphere-asthenosphere system of the western Mediterranean clearly distinguishes itself from the structure of the older eastern Atlantic Ocean and from the structure below oceanic crust of comparable age as the western Mediterranean. We suggest that, rather than a young ocean, the western Mediterranean represents a strongly extended continent in the back arc region of a rapdily retreating subducting slab, and only partly affected by sea-floor spreading. Receiver function analysis shows a relatively sharp 660-km discontinuity throughout the region. The 410-km discontinuity, shows more complex behavior and the amplitudes ofP toS conversions at this discontinutiy appear to be frequency dependent. This frequency dependence is particularly clear in stacks of receiver functions for 9 of the 23 seismic stations analyzed. We attribute this behavior to finite thickness of the 410-km phase transiton interval of olivine to wadsleyite. We find this interval to be up to 30 km thick and attribute these large thicknesses to the presence of up to at least 700 ppm water at depths near 410 km.

  7. Crustal movements at a divergent plate boundary: interplay between volcano deformation, geothermal processes, and plate spreading in the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland since 2008.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouin, Vincent; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Hreinsdóttir, Sigrún; Ofeigsson, Benedikt G.; Sturkell, Erik; Islam, Tariqul

    2014-05-01

    Iceland is a subaerial part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, where the divergent plate boundary between the North-American and Eurasian Plates can be studied. The Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ) of Iceland, comprised of several volcanic systems, is particularly well suited to study interplay between volcanoes, geothermal areas and plate spreading, as the zone is relatively simple and accommodates the full spreading of the plates (18.6 mm/yr in a direction of 105 degrees according to NUVEL-1A predictions). The most recent volcanic activity in the area was the Krafla rifting episode (1975-1984). In 2007-2008 two intrusive events were detected: one in Upptypingar and the other in Þeistareykir. Extensive crustal deformation studies have been carried out in the NVZ; we report the results of recent GPS and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) studies focusing on Krafla, Þeistareykir and Askja volcanic systems in the NVZ. An extensive GPS survey was undertaken in 2013, with over 135 stations occupied. This data was evaluated in conjunction with data acquired since 2008, to generate a velocity field spanning this entire time period. In addition to an existing continuous GPS (cGPS) station, three cGPS stations were installed in the area in 2011-2012. The 2008-2013 GPS velocities were compared to earlier GPS results, and complementary analysis of InSAR images was undertaken. Earlier studies have shown that the Krafla caldera underwent uplift during 1984-1989, followed by subsidence. Since 1995, the maximum subsidence in Krafla has shifted from directly above the shallow magma chamber towards an array of boreholes (geothermal exploitation) in Leirbotnar. Similar subsidence has been observed around another array of boreholes in Bjarnaflag, 7 km further south. The most significant signal on the velocities calculated from campaign GPS data over the 5 year period, is plate spreading with an E-W velocity of about 12 mm/yr over a 30 km wide area. However it also shows an ongoing pressure decrease inside and south of Krafla caldera, meaning the subsidence caused by geothermal exploitation is still continuing. TerraSAR-X images have been acquired every year since 2009 and preliminary interferograms and time-series analysis show similar results as those observed by GPS but with a much better resolution. We can cleary see local subsidence toward the center of Askja, around the boreholes in Leirbotnar and Bjarnaflag (~3-4 mm/yr) but also on the 1975-1984 Krafla lava field (~3-4 mm/yr). By combining InSAR and GPS data, an enhanced spatial and temporal resolution of the deformation history within in the area is achieved. The planned expansion of geothermal utilization and new power plants in the area may produce additional deformation signals. Continuous monitoring for the upcoming years may deliver information on further magmatic activity as well as the effects of geothermal exploitation on the volcanic systems. The recent Supersite award to the FUTUREVOLC project will ensure that a considerable amount of past and future SAR data will be available over Iceland and thus greatly improve our InSAR results over the NVZ.

  8. Computational Study of a Plate Mounted Finite Cylinder: Aspect Ratio and Boundary Layer Thickness Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummer, Christopher J.

    The integration of protrusions on aircraft, whether they are antennas or sensor turrets, can impact both aircraft safety and performance. The protrusions vary in size and shape and where they are placed on the aircraft can greatly affect the flow around the structure. This work utilizes the power and adaptability of modern computational methods to analyze finite cylinders of various aspect ratios subjected to incoming flow of varying boundary layer thickness. The geometry and flow conditions for the analysis match a wind tunnel test completed by the University of Cincinnati in 2005. This flow is challenging to model computationally because the flow is largely separated and influenced by both ends of the cylinder. The four cylinders analyzed, labeled by their diameter and height in inches, are D2H5, D4H2, D4H5, and D4H10. These four cylinders were subjected to cross-flows with two different boundary layer thicknesses for a total of eight cases. The boundary layer thicknesses were 1.5" and 6.0". This work compared the computational results with both the wind tunnel results and with available literature. The results compared favorably with both and captured all primary flow features for this class of flows. Furthermore, the impacts of cylinder aspect ratio and boundary layer thickness were evident in the results. The lower the aspect ratio of the cylinder, the more the flow from the free-end dominates the wake. Higher aspect ratio cylinders can be divided into regions with juncture flow near the wall, Karman style shedding near the middle and free-end effects near the tip. This work also identifies a transitional cylinder aspect ratio where the flow transitions from segregated regions to being dominated by the free-end downwash. This work shows that modern computational methods are capable of modelling the complex flow about a finite cylinder and can provide valuable insight to aid in protrusion design and integration.

  9. Transients in Pacific/North American Plate Boundary Deformation: Synthesis and Modeling of GPS and Borehole Strain Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.; Frey, H. V. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This is the Final Technical Report on research conducted between 1 June 1997 and 14 September 2001 entitled "Transients in Pacific/North American plate boundary deformation: Synthesis and modeling of GPS and borehole strain observations." As the project title implies, our effort involved a geodetic study of strain transients, i.e., temporal variations in deformation rates, that occur within plate boundary zones and their relationship to earthquakes and plate motions. Important transients occur during and following large earthquakes, and there are also strain transients not apparently associated with earthquakes. A particularly intriguing class of transients, for which there is a modest but growing list of examples, are preseismic anomalies. Such earthquake precursors, if further documented and understood, would have obvious importance for earthquake hazard mitigation. Because the timescales for these diverse transients range over at least 6 orders of magnitude (minutes to years), no single geodetic technique is optimum. We therefore undertook a systematic synthesis of Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) and borehole strainmeter data in three areas in California where there are adequate numbers of both types of instruments (or their equivalent): the San Francisco Bay region (within the Bay Area Regional Deformation network), southern California (within the Southern California Integrated GPS Network), and Parkfield (where a two-color laser system provides a proxy for continuous GPS measurements). An integral component of our study was the elucidation of the physical mechanisms by which such transients occur and propagate. We therefore initiated the development of multiple forward models, using two independent approaches. In the first, we explored the response to specified earthquake slip in viscoelastic models that incorporated failure criteria and the geometry of major faults in California. In the second approach, we examined the dynamical response of a complex rheological medium to the application of a far-field stress imposed by plate motions. The forward models were used both to gain insight into the range of strain transients to be expected under different assumed mechanical conditions and to develop representations for strain fields that allow GPS, borehole, and other strain data to be combined in a self-consistent, yet well-determined, manner. The models also provided a basis for hypothesis testing, by which data from a strain transient well characterized by GPS and borehole observations were utilized to distinguish among competing candidates for the causative physical mechanism and the governing physical characteristics. During the three years of this project, continued to a fourth year through a no-cost extension of the grant, we published 14 papers and presented or co-authored 37 papers at national scientific meetings.

  10. Three-Dimensional Variations in Tectonic Stress Along a Complex Plate Boundary: Australia-Pacific Plate Interaction in Central New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townend, J.; Sherburn, S.; Arnold, R.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, a number of regional seismological studies have determined the present-day principal tectonic stress directions at points along the Australia-Pacific plate boundary in central New Zealand. To date, however, there has not been a broader-scale study of tectonic stress that capitalises on high-quality seismological data recorded by the GeoNet monitoring system. In this study, we have computed tectonic stress parameters throughout central New Zealand (latitudes 38-43°S) using a data set of almost 3500 earthquake focal mechanisms recorded by GeoNet between January 2004 and February 2011. Each earthquake has been relocated using the nationwide 3D seismic velocity model of Eberhart-Phillips et al. (2010, SRL) and the NonLinLoc algorithm of Lomax et al. (2000, Advances in Seismic Event Location). The estimated uncertainties in each hypocenter are propagated into the focal mechanism calculations, and thereby into the stress parameter estimates using Bayesian algorithms (Arnold & Townend, 2007, GJI; Walsh et al., 2009, GJI). In most regional or broader-scale studies of tectonic stress it is common to compute the azimuth of maximum horizontal compressive stress, SHmax. Here we describe a method of representing the stresses acting on dipping structures, notably the Hikurangi subduction thrust beneath the North Island, and on arbitrarily oriented cross-sections.

  11. Crustal Buoyancies Dominate over Plate Boundary Effects in the U.S. Basin and Range: The Requirement of Weak Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, E. C.; Holt, W. E.; Flesch, L. M.; Haines, A. J.

    2008-12-01

    We model the long-term dynamics of the seismogenic layer within the plate boundary zone of western North America, where the relevant time scale is 105 -- 106 years. We utilize a forward dynamic modeling approach, where the body force distributions, inferred lateral variations in effective viscosity, power-law behavior, and the known far-field velocity boundary conditions are defined. Body forces are the differences in gravity potential energy per unit area (GPE), calculated by performing depth integration of vertical stress from the surface down to a common depth reference (20 km below sea level). In our treatment of the seismogenic layer, depth-integrated viscosities are proportional to the assumed long-term friction on faults (expected deviatoric stress at fault failure) and inversely proportional to the long-term strain rates (the known fault slip rates). The velocity boundary conditions are defined using PA-NA, CO-NA, RI-NA, and JF-NA plate motion estimates. Self-consistent dynamic strain rate tensor solutions to the force-balance equations were solved for and scored with kinematic strain rate tensor and velocity fields of western North America, obtained from a large set of highly detailed Quaternary fault observations (e.g., United States Geologic Survey Quaternary fault and fold data base of the United States). We use fault data from present-day to 750 ka to investigate models using a range of long-term fault friction coefficients from 0.02 -- 1.0 under hydrostatic pore pressure conditions. Evaluation of fitness of the dynamic solutions to deformation indicators is achieved using two different measures. In one measure, the forward dynamic strain rate tensor styles are scored by misfit to the kinematic strain rate tensor styles inferred from Kostrov summation of Quaternary fault observations. In a second measure, the dynamic model velocity fields are scored via reduced chi-square misfit with the long-term kinematic model velocity field defined by Quaternary fault observations. Models constructed with low fault friction coefficients (? < 0.20) achieve a vastly superior fit to Quaternary fault observations than do models with intermediate or high fault friction coefficients. Successful models require a weak and distributed fault fabric in which the deviatoric stresses associated with internal crustal buoyancies in the Basin and Range Province dominate over deviatoric stresses associated with velocity boundary conditions. The deformation field in western North America therefore suggests and supports the premise of a sufficiently dense fabric of faults that possess low long-term friction coefficients of 0.10--0.20.

  12. Seismic and gravity constraints on the nature of the basement in the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary: New insights for the geodynamic evolution of the SW Iberian margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Loriente, Sara; Sallarès, Valentí; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Bartolome, Rafael; Dañobeitia, Juan José; Zitellini, Nevio

    2014-01-01

    We present a new classification of geological domains at the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary off SW Iberia, together with a regional geodynamic reconstruction spanning from the Mesozoic extension to the Neogene-to-present-day convergence. It is based on seismic velocity and density models along a new transect running from the Horseshoe to the Seine abyssal plains, which is combined with previously available geophysical models from the region. The basement velocity structure at the Seine Abyssal Plain indicates the presence of a highly heterogeneous, thin oceanic crust with local high-velocity anomalies possibly representing zones related to the presence of ultramafic rocks. The integration of this model with previous ones reveals the presence of three oceanic domains offshore SW Iberia: (1) the Seine Abyssal Plain domain, generated during the first stages of slow seafloor spreading in the NE Central Atlantic (Early Jurassic); (2) the Gulf of Cadiz domain, made of oceanic crust generated in the Alpine-Tethys spreading system between Iberia and Africa, which was coeval with the formation of the Seine Abyssal Plain domain and lasted up to the North Atlantic continental breakup (Late Jurassic); and (3) the Gorringe Bank domain, made of exhumed mantle rocks, which formed during the first stages of North Atlantic opening. Our models suggest that the Seine Abyssal Plain and Gulf of Cadiz domains are separated by the Lineament South strike-slip fault, whereas the Gulf of Cadiz and Gorringe Bank domains appear to be limited by a deep thrust fault located at the center of the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain.

  13. Wide-angle seismic constraints on the evolution of the deep San Andreas plate boundary by Mendocino triple junction migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hole, J.A.; Beaudoin, B.C.; Henstock, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Recent wide-angle seismic observations that constrain the existence and structure of a mafic layer in the lower crust place strong constraints on the evolution of the San Andreas plate boundary system in northern and central California. Northward migration of the Mendocino Triple Junction and the subducted Juan de Fuca lithospheric slab creates a gap under the continent in the new strike-slip system. This gap must be filled by either asthenospheric upwelling or a northward migrating slab attached to the Pacific plate. Both processes emplace a mafic layer, either magmatic underplating or oceanic crust, beneath the California Coast Ranges. A slab of oceanic lithosphere attached to the Pacific plate is inconsistent with the seismic observation that the strike-slip faults cut through the mafic layer to the mantle, detaching the layer from the Pacific plate. The layer could only be attached to the Pacific plate if large vertical offsets and other complex structures observed beneath several strike-slip faults are original oceanic structures that are not caused by the faults. Otherwise, if oceanic slabs exist beneath California, they do not migrate north to fill the growing slab gap. The extreme heat pulse created by asthenospheric upwelling is inconsistent with several constraints from the seismic data, including a shallower depth to the slab gap than is predicted by heat flow models, seismic velocity and structure that are inconsistent with melting or metamorphism of the overlying silicic crust, and a high seismic velocity in the upper mantle. Yet either the Pacific slab model or the asthenospheric upwelling model must be correct. While the mafic material in the lower crust could have been emplaced prior to triple junction migration, the deeper slab gap must still be filled. A preexisting mafic layer does not reduce the inconsistencies of the Pacific slab model. Such material could, however, compensate for the decrease in mafic magma that would be produced if asthenospheric upwelling occurred at a lower temperature. These low temperatures, however, may be inconsistent with asthenospheric rheology.

  14. Fluctuating pressures measured beneath a high-temperature, turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate at Mach number of 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrott, Tony L.; Jones, Michael G.; Albertson, Cindy W.

    1989-01-01

    Fluctuating pressures were measured beneath a Mach 5, turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate with an array of piezoresistive sensors. The data were obtained with a digital signal acquisition system during a test run of 4 seconds. Data sampling rate was such that frequency analysis up to 62.5 kHz could be performed. To assess in situ frequency response of the sensors, a specially designed waveguide calibration system was employed to measure transfer functions of all sensors and related instrumentation. Pressure time histories were approximated well by a Gaussian prohibiting distribution. Pressure spectra were very repeatable over the array span of 76 mm. Total rms pressures ranged from 0.0017 to 0.0046 of the freestream dynamic pressure. Streamwise, space-time correlations exhibited expected decaying behavior of a turbulence generated pressure field. Average convection speed was 0.87 of freestream velocity. The trendless behavior with sensor separation indicated possible systematic errors.

  15. Double Diffusive Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Mixed Convective Slip Flow along a Radiating Moving Vertical Flat Plate with Convective Boundary Condition

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi, Mohammad M.; Kavyani, Neda; Abelman, Shirley; Uddin, Mohammed J.; Freidoonimehr, Navid

    2014-01-01

    In this study combined heat and mass transfer by mixed convective flow along a moving vertical flat plate with hydrodynamic slip and thermal convective boundary condition is investigated. Using similarity variables, the governing nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The transformed equations are then solved using a semi-numerical/analytical method called the differential transform method and results are compared with numerical results. Close agreement is found between the present method and the numerical method. Effects of the controlling parameters, including convective heat transfer, magnetic field, buoyancy ratio, hydrodynamic slip, mixed convective, Prandtl number and Schmidt number are investigated on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. In addition effects of different parameters on the skin friction factor, , local Nusselt number, , and local Sherwood number are shown and explained through tables. PMID:25343360

  16. Double diffusive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mixed convective slip flow along a radiating moving vertical flat plate with convective boundary condition.

    PubMed

    Rashidi, Mohammad M; Kavyani, Neda; Abelman, Shirley; Uddin, Mohammed J; Freidoonimehr, Navid

    2014-01-01

    In this study combined heat and mass transfer by mixed convective flow along a moving vertical flat plate with hydrodynamic slip and thermal convective boundary condition is investigated. Using similarity variables, the governing nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into a system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The transformed equations are then solved using a semi-numerical/analytical method called the differential transform method and results are compared with numerical results. Close agreement is found between the present method and the numerical method. Effects of the controlling parameters, including convective heat transfer, magnetic field, buoyancy ratio, hydrodynamic slip, mixed convective, Prandtl number and Schmidt number are investigated on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. In addition effects of different parameters on the skin friction factor, [Formula: see text], local Nusselt number, [Formula: see text], and local Sherwood number [Formula: see text] are shown and explained through tables. PMID:25343360

  17. The Garzon fault: active southwestern boundary of the Caribbean plate in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorowicz, J.; Chotin, P.; Guillande, R.

    We propose active right-lateral strike-slip motion on the Garzon fault zone of the Neiva basin, Colombia, based on the identification of two active right-stepping releasing bend basins along the fault using stereoscopic analysis of 1/250 000 SPOT images. The Garzon fault connects the Bocono-Pamplona-Guaicaramo fault zones of Venezuela and Colombia with the Romeral, Dolores and Guayaquil faults of Colombia. Together these faults form a continuous, active right-lateral fault between accreted terranes in northwestern South America and a more stable South America plate. We infer 5-km right-lateral offset of the Garzon fault based on the width of the Algeciras releasing bend basin.

  18. The Garzon fault: active southwestern boundary of the Caribbean plate in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorowicz, J.; Chotin, P.; Guillande, R.

    1996-03-01

    We propose active right-lateral strike-slip motion on the Garzon fault zone of the Neiva basin, Colombia, based on the identification of two active right-stepping releasing bend basins along the fault using stereoscopic analysis of 1/250000 SPOT images. The Garzon fault connects the Bocono-Pamplona-Guaicaramo fault zones of Venezuela and Colombia with the Romeral, Dolores and Guayaquil faults of Colombia. Together these faults form a continuous, active right-lateral fault between accreted terranes in northwestern South America and a more stable South America plate. We infer 5-km right-lateral offset of the Garzon fault based on the width of the Algeciras releasing bend basin.

  19. Hydrodynamic and hydroelastic analyses of a plate excited by the turbulent boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciappi, E.; Magionesi, F.; de Rosa, S.; Franco, F.

    2009-02-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the characterisation of wall-pressure fluctuations for surface ships is of great interest not only for military applications but also for civil marine vehicles. A ship model towed in a towing tank is used to perform pressure and structural measurements at high Reynolds numbers. This facility provides ideal flow conditions because background turbulence and noise are almost absent. Free surface effects are naturally included in the analysis, although in the particular section chosen for the present study do not have significant consequences on pressure spectra. Scaling laws for the power spectral density are identified providing the possibility to estimate pressure spectra for different flow conditions and in particular for full-scale applications. The range of validity of some theoretical models for the cross-spectral density representation is analysed by direct comparison with experimental data of wall-pressure fluctuations measured in streamwise and spanwise direction. In a second phase, an indirect validation is performed by comparing the measured vibrational response of an elastic plate inserted in the catamaran hull with that obtained numerically using, as a forcing function, the modelled pressure load. In general, marine structures are able to accept energy mainly from the sub-convective components of the pressure field because the typical bending wavenumber values are usually lower than the convective one; thus, a model that gives an accurate description of the phenomenon at low wavenumbers is needed. In this work, it is shown that the use of the Chase model for the description of the pressure field provides a satisfactory agreement between the numerical and the experimental response of the hull plate. These experimental data, although acquired at model scale, represent a significant test case also for the real ship problem.

  20. Plate motion

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, R.G. )

    1991-01-01

    The motion of tectonic plates on the earth is characterized in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics addressed include the NUVEL-1 global model of current plate motions, diffuse plate boundaries and the oceanic lithosphere, the relation between plate motions and distributed deformations, accelerations and the steadiness of plate motions, the distribution of current Pacific-North America motion across western North America and its margin, plate reconstructions and their uncertainties, hotspots, and plate dynamics. A comprehensive bibliography is provided. 126 refs.

  1. Low heat flow inferred from >4Gyr zircons suggests Hadean plate boundary interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Michelle; Harrison, T. Mark; Manning, Craig E.

    2008-11-01

    The first ~600 million years of Earth history (the `Hadean' eon) remain poorly understood, largely because there is no rock record dating from that era. Detrital Hadean igneous zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia, however, can potentially provide insights into the conditions extant on our planet at that time. Results of geochemical investigations using these ancient grains have been interpreted to suggest the presence of a hydrosphere and continental crust before 4Gyr. An underexploited characteristic of the >4Gyr zircons is their diverse assemblage of mineral inclusions. Here we present an examination of over 400 Hadean zircons from Jack Hills, which shows that some inclusion assemblages are conducive to thermobarometry. Our thermobarometric analyses of 4.02-4.19-Gyr-old inclusion-bearing zircons constrain their magmatic formation conditions to about 700°C and 7kbar. This result implies a near-surface heat flow of ~75mWm-2, about three to five times lower than estimates of Hadean global heat flow. As the only site of magmatism on modern Earth that is characterized by heat flow of about one-quarter of the global average is above subduction zones, we suggest that the magmas from which the Jack Hills Hadean zircons crystallized were formed largely in an underthrust environment, perhaps similar to modern convergent margins.

  2. Deformation across the Pacific-North America plate boundary near San Francisco, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prescott, W.H.; Savage, J.C.; Svarc, J.L.; Manaker, D.

    2001-01-01

    We have detected a narrow zone of compression between the Coast Ranges and the Great Valley, and we have estimated slip rates for the San Andreas, Rodgers Creek, and Green Valley faults just north of San Francisco. These results are based on an analysis of campaign and continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) data collected between 1992 and 2000 in central California. The zone of compression between the Coast Ranges and the Great Valley is 25 km wide. The observations clearly show 3.8??1.5 mm yr-1 of shortening over this narrow zone. The strike slip components are best fit by a model with 20.8??1.9 mm yr-1 slip on the San Andreas fault, 10.3??2.6 mm yr-1 on the Rodgers Creek fault, and 8.1??2.1 mm yr-1 on the Green Valley fault. The Pacific-Sierra Nevada-Great Valley motion totals 39.2??3.8 mm yr-1 across a zone that is 120 km wide (at the latitude of San Francisco). Standard deviations are one ??. The geodetic results suggest a higher than geologic rate for the Green Valley fault. The geodetic results also suggest an inconsistency between geologic estimates of the San Andreas rate and seismologic estimates of the depth of locking on the San Andreas fault. The only convergence observed is in the narrow zone along the border between the Great Valley and the Coast Ranges.

  3. Low heat flow inferred from >4 Gyr zircons suggests Hadean plate boundary interactions.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Michelle; Harrison, T Mark; Manning, Craig E

    2008-11-27

    The first approximately 600 million years of Earth history (the 'Hadean' eon) remain poorly understood, largely because there is no rock record dating from that era. Detrital Hadean igneous zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia, however, can potentially provide insights into the conditions extant on our planet at that time. Results of geochemical investigations using these ancient grains have been interpreted to suggest the presence of a hydrosphere and continental crust before 4 Gyr. An underexploited characteristic of the >4 Gyr zircons is their diverse assemblage of mineral inclusions. Here we present an examination of over 400 Hadean zircons from Jack Hills, which shows that some inclusion assemblages are conducive to thermobarometry. Our thermobarometric analyses of 4.02-4.19-Gyr-old inclusion-bearing zircons constrain their magmatic formation conditions to about 700 degrees C and 7 kbar. This result implies a near-surface heat flow of approximately 75 mW m(-2), about three to five times lower than estimates of Hadean global heat flow. As the only site of magmatism on modern Earth that is characterized by heat flow of about one-quarter of the global average is above subduction zones, we suggest that the magmas from which the Jack Hills Hadean zircons crystallized were formed largely in an underthrust environment, perhaps similar to modern convergent margins. PMID:19037314

  4. Deformations along the Caribbean - South American Plate Boundary From Nine Years Repeated GPS Observations in the CASA Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewes, H.; Kaniuth, K.; Stuber, K.; Tremel, H.; Hernandez, J. N.; Hoyer, M.

    2002-05-01

    The first GPS observations along the Caribbean - South American plate boundary were carried out within the Central and South American Geodynamics Project (CASA UNO) in 1988. The precision of the results was quite poor due to the imperfect operation of the GPS system at that time. Since 1993 regular re-measurements of more than 20 stations in the eastern part of the network along the Bocono - El Pilar fault system in Venezuela have been performed. The paper presents the continuous deformations derived from the 1993, 1996, 1999 and 2002 complete network observations and some additional partial measurements. The long-term deformations in the order of one to two centimeters per year are now significantly confirmed and may be interpreted in the context of regional plate tectonics and geodynamics. The co-seismic displacements during the Cariaco (Sucre) 1997 earthquake are analyzed separately using detailed GPS observations in 1997. They are discussed as well as the local post-seismic deformations from 1997 to 2002.

  5. Multiple major faults at the Japan Trench: Chemostratigraphy of the plate boundary at IODP Exp. 343: JFAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinowitz, Hannah S.; Savage, Heather M.; Plank, Terry; Polissar, Pratigya J.; Kirkpatrick, James D.; Rowe, Christie D.

    2015-08-01

    We determine the trace element stratigraphy of Site C0019, drilled during the Japan Fast Trench Drilling Project (JFAST) International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 343, to illuminate the structure of the plate boundary following the Tohoku-Oki earthquake of 2011. The stratigraphic units at the JFAST site are compared to undeformed Western Pacific sediments from two reference sites (Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1149 and Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 436). The trace element fingerprints in these reference sedimentary units can be correlated to individual JFAST samples. At the JFAST site, we find that the accretionary wedge and downgoing plate sediments in the core are composed primarily of Holocene to Eocene sediments. There are several age reversals and gaps within the sequence, consistent with multiple faults in the bottom 15 m of the JFAST core. Our results point to several candidate faults that could have slipped during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, in addition to the pelagic clay layer that has been proposed as the main décollement fault.

  6. Plate Boundary Observatory Nucleus Education and Outreach: Bringing GPS and Data- Rich Activities Into College and Secondary Earth Science Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, B.; Eriksson, S. C.

    2006-05-01

    Incorporating scientific data into the curriculum provides students with insight into elements of the scientific process such as developing questions and hypotheses, understanding how data are collected, evaluating data quality and limitations, and formulating conclusions based on scientific results (Manduca et al., 2003.) UNAVCO, a geodetic consortium and co-administrator of the Plate Boundary Observatory Nucleus project, seeks to increase public appreciation and understanding of Earth deformation processes and their societal relevance through education and outreach. To that end, we are developing place-based instructional materials for college and secondary Earth science classrooms in which GPS data are used to teach students about plate tectonics. To assess the needs of our users, we conducted interviews with college geoscience faculty from a variety of institution types and focus groups with secondary Earth science teachers to solicit feedback on the types of educational materials that they would likely use in their classrooms. We are engaging members of the scientific and educational communities to develop the materials and are catering the modules to accommodate diverse groups of learners and learning styles. In addition, we have completed and scheduled several professional development opportunities on the local and national levels for college and university faculty and secondary teachers and have created a new education and outreach website. Our education programs are being assessed by an external evaluator. We will present interview and focus group results, report on the status of our education programs, and discuss upcoming UNAVCO education activities.

  7. A 2006 earthquakes series at the Colima rift and its relationship to the Rivera-Cocos plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, J.; Jimenez, Z.

    2013-12-01

    From July 31 through 13 August 2006 a series of fourteen earthquakes (M 3.9 to 6.1) occurred in the western end of the Central Mexican Volcanic Belt (CMVB) in twenty five days period. The most prominent earthquake (Mw 6.1) occurred on 11 August 2006 at 14:30 UTC (9:30 local time) approximately at 18.37° N, 101.25° W and 81 km depth. The epicenter was less than 40 km from Huetamo, Michoacan a 41,250-inhabitant city and 60 km from the El Infiernillo dam embayment the third largest hydroelectric plant in Mexico. This earthquake was widely felt through out the region with minor to moderate reported damage. In Mexico City 250 km away from the epicenter the earthquake, produced alarm among the population and several buildings evacuated. The earthquake series developed into two activity clusters one centered in the coast and separated about 300 km from a second inland cluster. The initial coastal cluster consisted of a nearly linear activity distribution which includes two shallow-depth earthquakes and reverse faulting mechanism with a slight left lateral strike-slip component and a possible fault planes trending roughly east-west. Two normal faulting earthquakes located at the extremes of the graben system, and fault planes oriented in a nearly north-south direction followed. The earthquakes are located approximately between the trench and the coast along the El Gordo-Colima graben system, which has been proposed as the continuation of the diffuse boundary between the Rivera and Cocos plates. The reverse faulting earthquakes are congruent either, with the expected subduction of the Rivera or Cocos plate under the North America plate and the normal faulting earthquake that can be associated to motions in the graben.

  8. Volcanism in response to plate flexure.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Naoto; Takahashi, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Junji; Abe, Natsue; Ingle, Stephanie P; Kaneoka, Ichiro; Hirata, Takafumi; Kimura, Jun-Ichi; Ishii, Teruaki; Ogawa, Yujiro; Machida, Shiki; Suyehiro, Kiyoshi

    2006-09-01

    Volcanism on Earth is known to occur in three tectonic settings: divergent plate boundaries (such as mid-ocean ridges), convergent plate boundaries (such as island arcs), and hot spots. We report volcanism on the 135 million-year-old Pacific Plate not belonging to any of these categories. Small alkalic volcanoes form from small percent melts and originate in the asthenosphere, as implied by their trace element geochemistry and noble gas isotopic compositions. We propose that these small volcanoes erupt along lithospheric fractures in response to plate flexure during subduction. Minor extents of asthenospheric melting and the volcanoes' tectonic alignment and age progression in the direction opposite to that of plate motion provide evidence for the presence of a small percent melt in the asthenosphere. PMID:16873612

  9. Parallel and convergent processing in grid cell, head-direction cell, boundary cell, and place cell networks

    PubMed Central

    Brandon, Mark P; Koenig, Julie; Leutgeb, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The brain is able to construct internal representations that correspond to external spatial coordinates. Such brain maps of the external spatial topography may support a number of cognitive functions, including navigation and memory. The neuronal building block of brain maps are place cells, which are found throughout the hippocampus of rodents and, in a lower proportion, primates. Place cells typically fire in one or few restricted areas of space, and each area where a cell fires can range, along the dorsoventral axis of the hippocampus, from 30?cm to at least several meters. The sensory processing streams that give rise to hippocampal place cells are not fully understood, but substantial progress has been made in characterizing the entorhinal cortex, which is the gateway between neocortical areas and the hippocampus. Entorhinal neurons have diverse spatial firing characteristics, and the different entorhinal cell types converge in the hippocampus to give rise to a single, spatially modulated cell type—the place cell. We therefore suggest that parallel information processing in different classes of cells—as is typically observed at lower levels of sensory processing—continues up into higher level association cortices, including those that provide the inputs to hippocampus. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:207–219. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1272 PMID:24587849

  10. Numerical Study of Three-dimensional Spatial Instability of a Supersonic Flat Plate Boundary Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio; Bayliss, A.; Krishnan, R.

    1989-01-01

    The behavior of spatially growing three-dimensional waves in a supersonic boundary layer was studied numerically by solving the complete Navier-Stokes equations. Satisfactory comparison with linear parallel and non-parallel stability theories, and experiment are obtained when a small amplitude inflow disturbance is used. The three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are solved by a finite difference method which is fourth-order and second-order accurate in the convection and viscous terms respectively, and second-order accurate in time. Spanwise periodicity is assumed. The inflow disturbance is composed of eigenfunctions from linear stability theory. By increasing the amplitude of the inflow disturbance, nonlinear effects in the form of a relaxation type oscillation of the time signal of rho(u) are observed.

  11. Plate Boundary Observatory Strainmeter Recordings of The M6.0 August 24, 2014 South Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkinson, Kathleen; Mencin, David; Phillips, David; Mattioli, Glen; Meertens, Charles

    2015-04-01

    The 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa earthquake nucleated at 11 km depth near the West Napa fault, one of a complex system of sub-parallel major right lateral faults north of San Francisco that together accommodate much of the relative motion between the Pacific and North American tectonic plates. The South Napa event was the largest to have shaken the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) in almost 25 years. A major goal of the NSF-funded EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), installed and maintained by UNAVCO, was to enable researchers to study the interaction between the faults that form a plate boundary zone, and in particular, to investigate the role that aseismic transients contribute to strain accumulation and release. To realize this goal, PBO includes borehole tensor strainmeters (BSMs) installed in several targeted regions, including on to the north and east of San Francisco. Two PBO BSMs have been operating in the SFBA since 2008: B057, north of San Francisco and 30 km from the epicenter, and B054, 3 km from the Hayward Fault and 40 km from the epicenter. We find the coseismic strains recorded by B057 are close to those predicted using elastic half-space dislocation theory and the seismically determined focal mechanism, while a more complicated variable slip model may be required for observations from B054. Months after the event, B057 continued to record a significant postseismic signal. In this presentation we document the coseismic signals recorded by the PBO BSMs and characterize the temporal behavior of the postseismic signal at B057. The PBO network includes over 1100 GPS, 75 BSMs, 79 seismometers and arrays of tiltmeters, pore pressure sensors and meteorological instrumentation. UNAVCO generates an Earthscope Level 2 processed strain time-series combined into areal and shear strains for the PBO BSM network; the raw data are available from the IRIS DMC in mSEED format. For events of interest, such as the South Napa earthquake, UNAVCO generates a 1-sps processed strain time series that also includes tilt data, pore pressure and high-rate meteorological measurements if available. Site information, data quality measurements, current strain plots and strain time-series for all PBO strain instruments can be obtained from the UNAVCO PBO web page (http://www.unavco.org/data/strain-seismic/strain-seismic.html).

  12. Magmatism at the Eurasian–North American modern plate boundary: Constraints from alkaline volcanism in the Chersky Belt (Yakutia)

    PubMed Central

    Tschegg, Cornelius; Bizimis, Michael; Schneider, David; Akinin, Vyacheslav V.; Ntaflos, Theodoros

    2011-01-01

    The Chersky seismic belt (NE-Russia) forms the modern plate boundary of the Eurasian−North American continental plate. The geodynamic evolution of this continent−continent setting is highly complex and remains a matter of debate, as the extent and influence of the Mid-Arctic Ocean spreading center on the North Asian continent since the Eocene remains unclear. The progression from a tensional stress regime to a mo