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Sample records for conversion disorder

  1. Conversion disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... from reality that is not on purpose) A personality disorder (inability to manage feelings and behaviors that ... MA, Smallwood P, Groves JE, Rivas-Vazquez RA. Personality and personality disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum JF, ...

  2. Postoperative conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, Kola; Ali, Sameer; Gahtan, Vivian; Gorji, Reza; Li, Fenghua; Nussmeier, Nancy A

    2016-05-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which psychological stress causes neurologic deficits. A 28-year-old female surgical patient had uneventful general anesthesia and emergence but developed conversion disorder 1 hour postoperatively. She reported difficulty speaking, right-hand numbness and weakness, and right-leg paralysis. Neurologic examination and imaging revealed no neuronal damage, herniation, hemorrhage, or stroke. The patient mentioned failing examinations the day before surgery and discontinuing her prescribed antidepressant medication, leading us to diagnose conversion disorder, with eventual confirmation by neuroimaging and follow-up examinations. PMID:27041258

  3. Clinical features of conversion disorder.

    PubMed Central

    Grattan-Smith, P; Fairley, M; Procopis, P

    1988-01-01

    This study reviewed the case notes of 52 children diagnosed as suffering from hysterical conversion during admission to a paediatric teaching hospital over a 10 year period. The disorder was rare below 8 years of age and girls outnumbered boys three to one. Altogether 75% of the children presented during spring and summer; at the time of end of year exams and the beginning of the new school year. The presentation was usually polysymptomatic with gait disturbance being the main complaint in 36 children. Sensory abnormality, predominantly pain, was present in 40 children; this indicates a strong association between psychogenic pain and conversion disorder in children. At discharge 32 were completely recovered or had appreciably improved. There was a core group that presented particular difficulties with diagnosis and showed little positive response to treatment. PMID:3365011

  4. [Neurology of hysteria (conversion disorder)].

    PubMed

    Sonoo, Masahiro

    2014-07-01

    Hysteria has served as an important driving force in the development of both neurology and psychiatry. Jean Martin Charcot's devotion to mesmerism for treating hysterical patients evoked the invention of psychoanalysis by Sigmund Freud. Meanwhile, Joseph Babinski took over the challenge to discriminate between organic and hysterical patients from Charcot and found Babinski's sign, the greatest milestone in modern neurological symptomatology. Nowadays, the usage of the term hysteria is avoided. However, new terms and new classifications are complicated and inconsistent between the two representative taxonomies, the DSM-IV and ICD-10. In the ICD-10, even the alternative term conversion disorder, which was becoming familiar to neurologists, has also disappeared as a group name. The diagnosis of hysteria remains important in clinical neurology. Extensive exclusive diagnoses and over investigation, including various imaging studies, should be avoided because they may prolong the disease course and fix their symptoms. Psychological reasons that seem to explain the conversion are not considered reliable. Positive neurological signs suggesting nonorganic etiologies are the most reliable measures for diagnosing hysteria, as Babinski first argued. Hysterical paresis has several characteristics, such as giving-way weakness or peculiar distributions of weakness. Signs to uncover nonorganic paresis utilizing synergy include Hoover's test and the Sonoo abductor test. PMID:24998831

  5. Conversion Disorder in Australian Pediatric Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozlowska, Kasia; Nunn, Kenneth P.; Rose, Donna; Morris, Anne; Ouvrier, Robert A.; Varghese, John

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the incidence and clinical features of children presenting to Australian child health specialists with conversion disorder. Method: Active, national surveillance of conversion disorder in children younger than 16 years of age during 2002 and 2003. Results: A total of 194 children were reported on. The average age was 11.8…

  6. Temperamental traits associated with conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, P; Sumesh, P; Mathews, Lulu

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the temperamental traits associated with conversion disorder in children. Thirty children with conversion disorder attending a child guidance clinic were compared with an age and sex matched control group of normal children for life stresses and temperament dimensions. The temperament measurement schedule (TMS) and the life event scale for Indian children (LESIC) were used for evaluating the temperament dimensions and life stresses respectively. Children with conversion disorder experienced significantly more stressful life events compared to the children in the control group. The stress factors included scholastic difficulties, examination failures, punishment by teacher, conflict with peers, parental disharmony and family problems and sibling rivalry. The characteristic temperamental traits associated with conversion disorder were low emotionality and low threshold of responsiveness. PMID:17079833

  7. Case study: camptocormia, a rare conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Rajmohan, Velayudhan; Thomas, Biju; Sreekumar, Kumaran

    2004-09-01

    Camptocormia is a condition characterized by severe frontal flexion of the spinal cord and knees, with passive drooping of both arms. It occurs as a form of conversion disorder. Some cases are associated with behavioral problems. A case of camptocormia of 2-year duration in a south Indian adolescent girl with oppositional defiant disorder and moderate mental retardation is reported. PMID:15322421

  8. Case Study: Camptocormia, a Rare Conversion Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajmohan, Velayudhan; Thomas, Biju; Sreekumar, Kumaran

    2004-01-01

    Camptocormia is a condition characterized by severe frontal flexion of the spinal cord and knees, with passive drooping of both arms. It occurs as a form of conversion disorder. Some cases are associated with behavioral problems. A case of camptocormia of 2-year duration in a south Indian adolescent girl with oppositional defiant disorder and…

  9. Emotional stimuli and motor conversion disorder

    PubMed Central

    Brezing, Christina; Gallea, Cecile; Ameli, Rezvan; Roelofs, Karin; LaFrance, W. Curt; Hallett, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by neurological signs and symptoms related to an underlying psychological issue. Amygdala activity to affective stimuli is well characterized in healthy volunteers with greater amygdala activity to both negative and positive stimuli relative to neutral stimuli, and greater activity to negative relative to positive stimuli. We investigated the relationship between conversion disorder and affect by assessing amygdala activity to affective stimuli. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study using a block design incidental affective task with fearful, happy and neutral face stimuli and compared valence contrasts between 16 patients with conversion disorder and 16 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers. The patients with conversion disorder had positive movements such as tremor, dystonia or gait abnormalities. We also assessed functional connectivity between the amygdala and regions associated with motor preparation. A group by affect valence interaction was observed. Post hoc analyses revealed that whereas healthy volunteers had greater right amygdala activity to fearful versus neutral compared with happy versus neutral as expected, there were no valence differences in patients with conversion disorder. There were no group differences observed. The time course analysis also revealed greater right amygdala activity in patients with conversion disorder for happy stimuli (t = 2.96, P = 0.006) (with a trend for fearful stimuli, t = 1.81, P = 0.08) compared with healthy volunteers, with a pattern suggestive of impaired amygdala habituation even when controlling for depressive and anxiety symptoms. Using psychophysiological interaction analysis, patients with conversion disorder had greater functional connectivity between the right amygdala and the right supplementary motor area during both fearful versus neutral, and happy versus neutral ‘stimuli’ compared with healthy volunteers. These results were confirmed with

  10. Response Inhibition in Motor Conversion Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Voon, Valerie; Ekanayake, Vindhya; Wiggs, Edythe; Kranick, Sarah; Ameli, Rezvan; Harrison, Neil A.; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Conversion disorders (CDs) are unexplained neurological symptoms presumed to be related to a psychological issue. Studies focusing on conversion paralysis have suggested potential impairments in motor initiation or execution. Here we studied CD patients with aberrant or excessive motor movements and focused on motor response inhibition. We also assessed cognitive measures in multiple domains. We compared 30 CD patients and 30 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy volunteers on a motor response inhibition task (go/no go), along with verbal motor response inhibition (color-word interference) and measures of attention, sustained attention, processing speed, language, memory, visuospatial processing, and executive function including planning and verbal fluency. CD patients had greater impairments in commission errors on the go/no go task (P <.001) compared with healthy volunteers, which remained significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons and after controlling for attention, sustained attention, depression, and anxiety. There were no significant differences in other cognitive measures. We highlight a specific deficit in motor response inhibition that may play a role in impaired inhibition of unwanted movement such as the excessive and aberrant movements seen in motor conversion. Patients with nonepileptic seizures, a different form of conversion disorder, are commonly reported to have lower IQ and multiple cognitive deficits. Our results point toward potential differences between conversion disorder subgroups. PMID:23554084

  11. Emotional Stimuli and Motor Conversion Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voon, Valerie; Brezing, Christina; Gallea, Cecile; Ameli, Rezvan; Roelofs, Karin; LaFrance, W. Curt, Jr.; Hallett, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by neurological signs and symptoms related to an underlying psychological issue. Amygdala activity to affective stimuli is well characterized in healthy volunteers with greater amygdala activity to both negative and positive stimuli relative to neutral stimuli, and greater activity to negative relative to…

  12. An atypical presentation of visual conversion disorder

    PubMed Central

    Foutch, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    Nonorganic vision loss accounts for up to 5% of patients and presents in two forms, malingering and visual conversion disorder (VCD). It is described a case of VCD in a new mother struggling both with her husband being deployed overseas and the recent death of her father. In addition, she had been evaluated for a concussion secondary to a motor vehicle accident three months prior. An inexpensive series of clinical tests were performed to rule out organic disease and obtained equivocal results. Some tests revealed intact vision in the affected eye while others supported a neurological cause for the vision loss. However, the patient quickly recovered normal visual acuity when encouraged to discuss situations that have been causing emotional stress. This almost immediate recovery of vision confirmed the diagnosis of VCD. This report should make primary eye care professionals more aware of visual conversion disorder and its clinical evaluation. PMID:25744066

  13. Psychosocial Factors in Children and Adolescents with Conversion Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, I.; Giri, D.; Dutta, Anna; Mazumder, P.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: In view of the limited studies on the psychosocial environment of children presenting with conversion disorders, the present study was carried out to study the psychosocial factors in children with conversion disorders. Method: 40 patients of Conversion Disorder, who presented with "pseudo seizures" and were diagnosed according to…

  14. Functional Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology of Functional Neurological Disorders (Conversion Disorder).

    PubMed

    Voon, Valerie; Cavanna, Andrea E; Coburn, Kerry; Sampson, Shirlene; Reeve, Alya; LaFrance, W Curt

    2016-01-01

    Much is known regarding the physical characteristics, comorbid symptoms, psychological makeup, and neuropsychological performance of patients with functional neurological disorders (FNDs)/conversion disorders. Gross neurostructural deficits do not account for the patients' deficits or symptoms. This review describes the literature focusing on potential neurobiological (i.e. functional neuroanatomic/neurophysiological) findings among individuals with FND, examining neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies of patients with the various forms of motor and sensory FND. In summary, neural networks and neurophysiologic mechanisms may mediate "functional" symptoms, reflecting neurobiological and intrapsychic processes. PMID:26900733

  15. Pituitary volumes are changed in patients with conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Atmaca, Murad; Baykara, Sema; Mermi, Osman; Yildirim, Hanefi; Akaslan, Unsal

    2016-03-01

    Our study group previously measured pituitary volumes and found a relationship between somatoform disoders and pituitary volumes. Therefore, in conversion disorder, another somatoform disorder, we hypothesized that pituitary gland volumes would be reduced. Twenty female patients and healthy controls were recruited to the present investigation. The volumes of the pituitary gland were determined by using a 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner. We found that the pituitary gland volumes of the patients with conversion disorder were significantly smaller than those of healthy control subjects. In the patients with conversion disorder but not in the healthy control group, a significant negative correlation between the duration of illness and pituitary gland volume was determined. In summary, in the present study, we suggest that the patients with conversion disorder have smaller pituitary volumes compared to those of healthy control subjects. Further studies should confirm our data and ascertain whether volumetric alterations determined in the patients with conversion disorder can be changed with treatment or if they change over time. PMID:25877743

  16. The misdiagnosis of conversion disorder in a psychiatric emergency service.

    PubMed

    Fishbain, D A; Goldberg, M

    1991-05-01

    During a 1-year period, 8400 patient presentations to a psychiatric emergency service were screened for the conversion symptom of extremity paresis/paralysis. Of 4220 unduplicated presentations, three patients had this complaint. These cases were reviewed and followed up. All had received a DSM-III diagnosis of conversion disorder, but in each case the patient's conversion symptom was attributed to organic disease. This had medicolegal consequences in one case and threatened legal consequences in the others. Although the frequency of this alleged conversion symptom was 0.07%, in reality it was 0.0%. Guidelines for the management of the alleged conversion symptom of paresis/paralysis are discussed. PMID:1855657

  17. Conversion disorder in women with the FMR1 premutation.

    PubMed

    Seritan, Andreea L; Schneider, Andrea; Olichney, John M; Leehey, Maureen A; Akins, R Scott; Hagerman, Randi J

    2009-11-01

    Women with fragile X mental retardation (FMR1) gene premutations (55-200 CGG repeats) were until recently believed to be unaffected. It is now known that up to 8% of older female FMR1 premutation carriers develop fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Female carriers may also develop primary ovarian insufficiency, thyroid disease, hypertension, seizures, peripheral neuropathy, and fibromyalgia. We present a 60-year-old woman with FMR1 premutation who had depression, anxiety, and conversion disorder with seizures. The FMR1 premutation with its associated mRNA toxicity is postulated as an underlying neurobiological mechanism of conversion symptoms, through functional and structural neural dysconnectivity. PMID:19842197

  18. Neuropsychological function and memory suppression in conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Brown, Laura B; Nicholson, Timothy R; Aybek, Selma; Kanaan, Richard A; David, Anthony S

    2014-09-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is a condition where neurological symptoms, such as weakness or sensory disturbance, are unexplained by neurological disease and are presumed to be of psychological origin. Contemporary theories of the disorder generally propose dysfunctional frontal control of the motor or sensory systems. Classical (Freudian) psychodynamic theory holds that the memory of stressful life events is repressed. Little is known about the frontal (executive) function of these patients, or indeed their general neuropsychological profile, and psychodynamic theories have been largely untested. This study aimed to investigate neuropsychological functioning in patients with CD, focusing on executive and memory function. A directed forgetting task (DFT) using words with variable emotional valence was also used to investigate memory suppression. 21 patients and 36 healthy controls completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and patients had deficits in executive function and auditory-verbal (but not autobiographical) memory. The executive deficits were largely driven by differences in IQ, anxiety and mood between the groups. A subgroup of 11 patients and 28 controls completed the DFT and whilst patients recalled fewer words overall than controls, there were no significant effects of directed forgetting or valence. This study provides some limited support for deficits in executive, and to a lesser degree, memory function in patients with CD, but did not find evidence of altered memory suppression to support the psychodynamic theory of repression. PMID:23582098

  19. Brief Report: A Scale for Rating Conversational Impairment in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Villiers, Jessica; Fine, Jonathan; Ginsberg, Gary; Vaccarella, Liezanne; Szatmari, Peter

    2007-01-01

    There are few well-standardized measures of conversational breakdown in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The study's objective was to develop a scale for measuring pragmatic impairments in conversations of individuals with ASD. We analyzed 46 semi-structured conversations of children and adolescents with high-functioning ASD using a functional…

  20. Uncovering the etiology of conversion disorder: insights from functional neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Ejareh dar, Maryam; Kanaan, Richard AA

    2016-01-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is a syndrome of neurological symptoms arising without organic cause, arguably in response to emotional stress, but the exact neural substrates of these symptoms and the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood with the hunt for a biological basis afoot for centuries. In the past 15 years, novel insights have been gained with the advent of functional neuroimaging studies in patients suffering from CDs in both motor and nonmotor domains. This review summarizes recent functional neuroimaging studies including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET) to see whether they bring us closer to understanding the etiology of CD. Convergent functional neuroimaging findings suggest alterations in brain circuits that could point to different mechanisms for manifesting functional neurological symptoms, in contrast with feigning or healthy controls. Abnormalities in emotion processing and in emotion-motor processing suggest a diathesis, while differential reactions to certain stressors implicate a specific response to trauma. No comprehensive theory emerges from these clues, and all results remain preliminary, but functional neuroimaging has at least given grounds for hope that a model for CD may soon be found. PMID:26834476

  1. Uncovering the etiology of conversion disorder: insights from functional neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Ejareh Dar, Maryam; Kanaan, Richard Aa

    2016-01-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is a syndrome of neurological symptoms arising without organic cause, arguably in response to emotional stress, but the exact neural substrates of these symptoms and the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood with the hunt for a biological basis afoot for centuries. In the past 15 years, novel insights have been gained with the advent of functional neuroimaging studies in patients suffering from CDs in both motor and nonmotor domains. This review summarizes recent functional neuroimaging studies including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography (PET) to see whether they bring us closer to understanding the etiology of CD. Convergent functional neuroimaging findings suggest alterations in brain circuits that could point to different mechanisms for manifesting functional neurological symptoms, in contrast with feigning or healthy controls. Abnormalities in emotion processing and in emotion-motor processing suggest a diathesis, while differential reactions to certain stressors implicate a specific response to trauma. No comprehensive theory emerges from these clues, and all results remain preliminary, but functional neuroimaging has at least given grounds for hope that a model for CD may soon be found. PMID:26834476

  2. Using self-management to improve the reciprocal social conversation of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Koegel, Lynn Kern; Park, Mi N; Koegel, Robert L

    2014-05-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders often exhibit difficulties with reciprocal social conversation, engaging in limited verbal exchanges, even when language structures are intact. This study employed a multiple baseline design to examine the effectiveness of a self-management intervention targeting (1) on-topic responsiveness to a conversational partner; (2) expansion of the conversational topic; and (3) on-topic question asking. Results demonstrated improved reciprocal social conversation through elaborated responses and on-topic question asking, which generalized and maintained. Social validity measures by naïve observers indicated that the intervention led to meaningful improvements during conversation, including interest, naturalness, and desirability as a conversational partner. PMID:24127164

  3. Using Self-Management to Improve the Reciprocal Social Conversation of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Koegel, Lynn Kern; Park, Mi Na; Koegel, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often exhibit difficulties with reciprocal social conversation, engaging in limited verbal exchanges, even when language structures are intact. This study employed a multiple baseline design to examine the effectiveness of a self-management intervention targeting (1) on-topic responsiveness to a conversational partner; (2) expansion of the conversational topic; and (3) on-topic question asking. Results demonstrated improved reciprocal social conversation through elaborated responses and on-topic question asking, which generalized and maintained. Social validity measures by naïve observers indicated that the intervention led to meaningful improvements during conversation, including interest, naturalness, and desirability as a conversational partner. PMID:24127164

  4. Conversational characteristics of children with semantic-pragmatic disorder. I: Exchange structure, turntaking, repairs and cohesion.

    PubMed

    Adams, C; Bishop, D V

    1989-12-01

    Conversational samples were obtained from 57 children aged from 8 to 12 years with specific language impairment, and 67 control children aged from 4 to 12 years. Fourteen of the language-impaired children fitted the clinical description of semantic-pragmatic disorder. It was found that exchange structure, turntaking, conversational repair and use of cohesive devices could be assessed with adequate inter-rater and test-retest reliability. Children with semantic-pragmatic disorder produced more initiations than other children. Some of these children also violated turntaking rules by interrupting the conversational partner to an unusual degree. Use of cohesion was normal for children with semantic-pragmatic disorder, but limited in other language-impaired children. Analysis of conversations may be more useful than conventional language tests for identifying linguistic abnormalities in children with semantic-pragmatic disorder. PMID:2627544

  5. Cognitive-analytical therapy for a patient with functional neurological symptom disorder-conversion disorder (psychogenic myopia): A case study

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Hamid; Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Zahed, Arash; Arab, Mostafa; Samouei, Rahele

    2015-01-01

    Functional neurological symptom disorder commonly presents with symptoms and defects of sensory and motor functions. Therefore, it is often mistaken for a medical condition. It is well known that functional neurological symptom disorder more often caused by psychological factors. There are three main approaches namely analytical, cognitive and biological to manage conversion disorder. Any of such approaches can be applied through short-term treatment programs. In this case, study a 12-year-old boy with the diagnosed functional neurological symptom disorder (psychogenic myopia) was put under a cognitive-analytical treatment. The outcome of this treatment modality was proved successful. PMID:26487881

  6. The role of psychiatrists in diagnosing conversion disorder: a mixed-methods analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kanaan, Richard A; Armstrong, David; Wessely, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Since DSM-5 removed the requirement for a psychosocial formulation, neurologists have been able to make the diagnosis of conversion disorder without psychiatric input. We sought to examine whether neurologists and specialist psychiatrists concurred with this approach. Design We used mixed methods, first surveying all the neurologists in the UK and then interviewing the neuropsychiatrists in a large UK region on the role of psychiatrists in diagnosing conversion disorder. Results Of the surveyed neurologists, 76% did not think that psychiatrists were essential for the diagnosis and 71% thought that psychiatrists did not even consider conversion disorder when referred a case. The neuropsychiatrists who were interviewed held complex models of conversion disorder. They believed all cases could be explained psychosocially in theory, but the nature of the diagnostic encounter often prevented it in practice; all felt that psychosocial formulation could be very helpful and some felt that it was essential to diagnosis. Conclusion Although neurologists do not think psychiatrists are required for diagnosing conversion disorder, specialist psychiatrists disagree, at least in some cases. PMID:27274253

  7. Using a Behavioral Skills Training Package to Teach Conversation Skills to Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuernberger, Jodi E.; Ringdahl, Joel E.; Vargo, Kristina K.; Crumpecker, Anna C.; Gunnarsson, Karl F.

    2013-01-01

    A behavioral skills training package was used to teach vocal and non-vocal conversation skills to young adults with autism spectrum disorders. A task analysis was created and verified that included both vocal conversation skills such as making comments related to the conversation topic, and non-vocal conversation skills such as maintaining…

  8. Is physiotherapy effective in the management of child and adolescent conversion disorder? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, Tara L; Southby, Alesha K; Haines, Terrence P; Hough, Janet P; Skinner, Elizabeth H

    2015-02-01

    Child and adolescent conversion disorder has the potential to impart significant burden on health-care services and affect quality of life. Clinically, physiotherapists are involved in conversion disorder management; however, no systematic reviews have examined physiotherapy effectiveness in its management. The aim of this review is to identify the efficacy of physiotherapy management of child and adolescent conversion disorder. A search of multiple databases (Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsychINFO, PEDro and the Cochrane Library) was completed along with manual searching of relevant reference lists to identify articles including children 0-18 years with a diagnosis of conversion disorder who received physical management. Two independent reviewers screened titles and abstracts using criteria. Data were extracted regarding study characteristics, functional outcome measures, length of stay, physiotherapy service duration and resolution of conversion symptoms. Methodological quality was assessed using a tool designed for observational studies. Twelve observational studies were included. No functional outcome measures were used to assess the effectiveness of the treatment protocols in the case studies. Resolution of symptoms occurred in all but two cases, with conversion symptoms still present at 11 months and at 2 years. Length of stay varied from 3 days to 16 weeks, with similar variation evident in length of physiotherapy service provision (2.5 weeks to 16 weeks). There was limited and poor quality evidence to establish the efficacy of physiotherapy management of child and adolescent conversion disorders. More rigorous study designs with consistent use of reliable, valid and sensitive functional outcome measures are needed in this area. PMID:24923418

  9. Clinical characteristics of patients with motor disability due to conversion disorder: a prospective control group study

    PubMed Central

    Binzer, M.; Andersen, P.; Kullgren, G.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Previous studies have suggested associations between conversion and many different clinical characteristics. This study investigates these findings in a prospective design including a control group.
METHODS—Thirty consecutive patients with a recent onset of motor disability due to a conversion disorder were compared with a control group of patients with corresponding motor symptoms due to a definite organic lesion. Both groups had a similar duration of symptoms and a comparable age and sex profile and were assessed on a prospective basis. Background information about previous somatic and psychiatric disease was collected and all patients were assessed by means of a structured clinical interview linked to the diagnostic system DSM III-R, the Hamilton rating depression scale, and a special life events inventory.
RESULTS—The conversion group had a higher degree of psychopathology with 33% of the patients fulfilling the criteria for psychiatric syndromes according to DSM-III-R axis I, whereas 50% had axis II personality disorders compared with 10% and 17% respectively in the control group. Conversion patients also had significantly higher scores according to the Hamilton rating depression scale. Although patients with known neurological disease were not included in the conversion group, a concomitant somatic disorder was found in 33% of the patients and 50% complained of benign pain. The educational background in conversion patients was poor with only 13% having dropped out of high school compared with 67% in the control group. Self reported global assessment of functioning according to the axis V on DSM IV was significantly lower in conversion patients, who also registered significantly more negative life events before the onset of symptoms than controls. Logistic regression analysis showed that low education, presence of a personality disorder, and high Hamilton depression score were significantly associated with conversion disorder

  10. Brief report: a scale for rating conversational impairment in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, Jessica; Fine, Jonathan; Ginsberg, Gary; Vaccarella, Liezanne; Szatmari, Peter

    2007-08-01

    There are few well-standardized measures of conversational breakdown in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The study's objective was to develop a scale for measuring pragmatic impairments in conversations of individuals with ASD. We analyzed 46 semi-structured conversations of children and adolescents with high-functioning ASD using a functional linguistic paradigm. Five constructs were developed that assessed difficulties related to the pragmatics of conversation: atypical intonation; semantic drift; terseness; pedantic speech; perseveration. The scale shows good inter-rater reliability and variation in the scales is not simply a reflection of IQ or language competence. This tool represents a way of characterizing language use in ASD and is an initial step towards developing a tool to evaluate change in degree of social impairments in conversation. PMID:17082976

  11. Using Self-Management to Improve the Reciprocal Social Conversation of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koegel, Lynn Kern; Park, Mi N.; Koegel, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders often exhibit difficulties with reciprocal social conversation, engaging in limited verbal exchanges, even when language structures are intact. This study employed a multiple baseline design to examine the effectiveness of a self-management intervention targeting (1) on-topic responsiveness to a…

  12. Pseudolabor: A New Conversion Disorder Subtype? A Case Presentation and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Lyman, David

    2004-01-01

    Pseudolabor is not a recognized conversion disorder subtype. The diagnosis of conversion disorder is suspected when a patient presents with symptoms under voluntary control that mimic a neurologic or medical condition. The term pseudolabor was first used in 1994 to describe a patient who presented at 27 weeks' gestation with monitored contraction activity and no palpable uterine contractions. A second case is presented herein. Both patients were initially managed as though they had preterm labor or uterine irritability with minimal cervical changes. The diagnosis was suspected only after each patient failed to respond to aggressive tocolysis. On external tocodynamometry, contractions were abrupt in onset and abrupt in descent. Only after palpating abdominal contractions and not uterine contractions did the attending physicians make the correct diagnosis. The development of pseudolabor in a patient with previously diagnosed pseudoseizures suggests that the condition was conversion disorder. The prevalence of pseudolabor is unknown and may be underestimated: electronic fetal monitoring has minimized the need to palpate uterine contractions in the laboring patient. The diagnosis of pseudolabor as a subtype of conversion disorder should be considered in any patient who presents with recurrent preterm uterine contractions, no (or minimal) cervical changes, and an atypical contraction pattern. PMID:15254598

  13. Behavioral Treatment of Conversion Disorder in Adolescence: A Case Example of Globus Hystericus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Brad; Thevenin, Deborah M.; Runyon, Melissa K.

    1997-01-01

    Using a case study, evaluates the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention for the treatment of a patient diagnosed with a conversion disorder characterized by a perceived lump in the throat and subsequent weight loss. Results indicate that the behavioral therapy procedures contributed to increased weight and improved eating behavior. (RJM)

  14. Differential diagnosis of seizure disorders: a conversation analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Schwabe, Meike; Howell, Stephen J; Reuber, Markus

    2007-08-01

    "Taking the history" remains the most important diagnostic tool in the assessment of people who have lost consciousness. The distinction of epileptic and non-epileptic seizures (NES) is particularly difficult and relevant. Whereas epileptic seizures can usually be controlled with antiepileptic drugs, NES are considered an expression of psychosocial distress and may improve with psychotherapy. The recording of typical seizures with simultaneous video and electroencephalography (EEG) can produce almost complete certainty about the diagnosis but access to video-EEG is limited, the test is very expensive and often video-EEG fails to capture typical seizures. A German research group used conversation analysis (CA) to examine patients' descriptions of seizures to their doctors. They found that certain linguistic and interactional features clustered together and that these clusters were usually concordant with particular medical diagnoses. This study was undertaken to establish whether the observations made in German-speaking patients could be replicated in English speakers presenting to a less specialised epilepsy service. The findings presented here are based on transcripts of interviews with 11 patients admitted to a neurology ward in England because their consultant felt unable to make a clear diagnosis clinically. Transcripts were only analysed if the diagnosis of epilepsy or NES had been proven with video-EEG. The medical diagnosis was only disclosed to the linguist once a linguistic hypothesis of the diagnosis had been formulated to ensure that the linguist's decision would not be influenced by factors not contained in the 30-min-interview between doctor and patient. The linguist predicted the correct diagnosis in all cases. PMID:17482737

  15. Functional networks of motor inhibition in conversion disorder patients and feigning subjects.

    PubMed

    Hassa, Thomas; de Jel, Esther; Tuescher, Oliver; Schmidt, Roger; Schoenfeld, Mircea Ariel

    2016-01-01

    The neural correlates of motor inhibition leading to paresis in conversion disorder are not well known. The key question is whether they are different of those of normal subjects feigning the symptoms. Thirteen conversion disorder patients with hemiparesis and twelve healthy controls were investigated using functional magnetic resonance tomography under conditions of passive motor stimulation of the paretic/feigned paretic and the non-paretic hand. Healthy controls were also investigated in a non-feigning condition. During passive movement of the affected right hand conversion disorder patients exhibited activations in the bilateral triangular part of the inferior frontal gyri (IFG), with a left side dominance compared to controls in non-feigning condition. Feigning controls revealed for the same condition a weak unilateral activation in the right triangular part of IFG and an activity decrease in frontal midline areas, which couldn't be observed in patients. The results suggest that motor inhibition in conversion disorder patients is mediated by the IFG that was also involved in inhibition processes in normal subjects. The activity pattern in feigning controls resembled that of conversion disorder patients but with a clear difference in the medial prefrontal cortex. Healthy controls showed decreased activity in this region during feigning compared to non-feigning conditions suggesting a reduced sense of self-agency during feigning. Remarkably, no activity differences could be observed in medial prefrontal cortex for patients vs healthy controls in feigning or non-feigning conditions suggesting self-agency related activity in patients to be in between those of non-feigning and feigning healthy subjects. PMID:27330971

  16. Parent Conversations about Healthful Eating and Weight: Associations with Adolescent Disordered Eating Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; MacLehose, Rich; Loth, Katie A.; Eisenberg, Marla; Bucchianeri, Michaela M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of weight-related problems in adolescents is high. Parents of adolescents may wonder whether talking about eating habits and weight is useful or detrimental. This study aimed to examine the associations between parent conversations about healthful eating and weight and adolescent disordered eating behaviors. Design Cross-sectional analysis using data from two linked multi-level population-based studies. Setting Anthropometric assessments and surveys completed at school by adolescents and surveys completed at home by parents in 2009–2010. Participants Socio-economically and racially/ethnically diverse sample (81% ethnic minority; 60% low income) of adolescents from EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens) 2010 (n = 2,793, mean age=14.4) and parents from F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity in Teens) (n = 3,709, mean age = 42.3). Main Exposure Parent conversations about healthful eating and weight/size. Outcome Measures Adolescent dieting, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and binge eating. Results Mothers and fathers who engaged in weight-related conversations had adolescents who were more likely to diet, use unhealthy weight control behaviors, and engage in binge eating. Overweight/obese adolescents whose mothers engaged in conversations that were focused only on healthful eating behaviors were less likely to diet and use unhealthy weight control behaviors. Additionally, sub-analyses with adolescents with data from two parents showed that when both parents engaged in healthful eating conversations, their overweight/obese adolescent children were less likely to diet and use unhealthy weight control behaviors. Conclusion Parent conversations focused on weight/size are associated with increased risk for adolescent disordered eating behaviors, whereas conversations focused on healthful eating are protective against disordered eating behaviors. PMID:23797808

  17. Clinical Considerations Regarding Regression in Psychotherapy with Patients with Conversion Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    Regression is a ubiquitous phenomenon in psychodynamic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis, typically part of a reorganization that leads to progression, at least with respect to recruiting elements in the unconscious to consciousness. Regression in patients with conversion disorder (i.e., pseudo-neurological symptoms without an organic basis) is often itself somatic/physical rather than psychic in nature. Psychotherapists working with these patients must be prepared for confusing or frightening forms of regression that should be expected as part of the therapeutic process. In conversion disorder patients with adequate character structure, this regression, when handled effectively by the psychotherapist, ultimately leads to verbalized thoughts and feelings and a gradually strengthening alternative to physically experienced psychic conflict. PMID:27603802

  18. Conversion disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... who believes it is not acceptable to have violent feelings may suddenly feel numbness in her arms ... hit someone. Instead of allowing herself to have violent thoughts about hitting someone, she experiences the physical ...

  19. Conversion disorder: a case report of treatment with the Main Puteri, a Malay shamanastic healing ceremony.

    PubMed

    Razali, S M

    1999-12-01

    We report on the case of a 38-year-old Malay housewife diagnosed with conversion disorder. It was believed that 'evil spirits' caused her symptoms. The patient was eventually treated by the Main Puteri, a Malay shamanistic healing ceremony, after previous treatments failed. The patient improved on the third day of the performance, which was attributed to the departure of the spirits from her body. This case documents the potential benefits of indigenous psychotherapy. PMID:10683634

  20. Stroke mimicking conversion disorder: two young women who put our feet back on the ground.

    PubMed

    Booij, H A; Hamburger, H L; Jöbsis, G J; Beuerle, E Y; Kruyt, N D

    2012-06-01

    We describe two young female patients with symptoms and signs initially of conversion disorder. It became apparent, however, that both patients had a posterior circulation stroke. These cases remind us of just how broad the clinical presentation of neurological diseases is and illustrate how careful we must be in our own attributions, actions and diagnoses particularly when assessing patients with bizarre behaviour and with apparent inconsistencies on neurological examination. PMID:22661350

  1. Caloric Vestibular Stimulation as a Treatment for Conversion Disorder: A Case Report and Medical Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Noll-Hussong, Michael; Holzapfel, Sabrina; Pokorny, Dan; Herberger, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Conversion disorder is a medical condition in which a person has paralysis, blindness, or other neurological symptoms that cannot be clearly explained physiologically. To date, there is neither specific nor conclusive treatment. In this paper, we draw together a number of disparate pieces of knowledge to propose a novel intervention to provide transient alleviation for this condition. As caloric vestibular stimulation has been demonstrated to modulate a variety of cognitive functions associated with brain activations, especially in the temporal–parietal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and insular cortex, there is evidence to assume an effect in specific mental disorders. Therefore, we go on to hypothesize that lateralized cold vestibular caloric stimulation will be effective in treating conversion disorder and we present provisional evidence from one patient that supports this conclusion. If our hypothesis is correct, this will be the first time in psychiatry and neurology that a clinically well-known mental disorder, long considered difficult to understand and to treat, is relieved by a simple or common, non-invasive medical procedure. PMID:24917828

  2. Enhancing the Conversation Skills of a Boy with Asperger's Disorder through Social Stories[TM] and Video Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scattone, Dorothy

    2008-01-01

    This study combined Social Stories with video modeling in an effort to enhance the conversation skills of a boy with Asperger's Disorder. Treatment consisted of two components: (a) observation of video taped Social Stories that included two adults modeling targeted conversational skills and (b) 5-min social interactions. A multiple baseline design…

  3. Targeting Question-Asking Initiations through Video-Feedback to Improve Social Conversation in College Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detar, Whitney James

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) display a marked impairment in social interaction and often exhibit difficulty in maintaining social conversations with peers. These deficiencies can manifest in low levels of question-asking initiations and pragmatics in social conversation that persist throughout the developmental lifespan. Most of…

  4. Evaluation of oxidant, antioxidant, and S100B levels in patients with conversion disorder

    PubMed Central

    Büyükaslan, Hasan; Kandemir, Sultan Basmacı; Asoğlu, Mehmet; Kaya, Halil; Gökdemir, Mehmet Tahir; Karababa, İbrahim Fatih; Güngörmez, Fatih; Kılıçaslan, Fethiye; Şavik, Emin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Various psychodynamic, neurobiological, genetic, and sociocultural factors are believed to be involved in the etiology of conversion disorder (CD). Oxidative metabolism has been shown to deteriorate in association with many health problems and psychiatric disorders. We evaluated oxidative metabolism and S100B levels in the context of this multifactorial disease. Methods Thirty-seven patients with CD (25 females and 12 males) and 42 healthy volunteers (21 females and 21 males), all matched for age and sex, were included in this study. The total oxidant status, total antioxidant status, oxidative stress index, and S100B levels were compared between the two groups. Results The total oxidant status, oxidative stress index, and S100B levels were significantly higher in patients with CD than in the control group, whereas the total antioxidant status was significantly lower. Conclusion CD is associated with deterioration of oxidative metabolism and increased neuronal damage. PMID:27471386

  5. P-wave and QT dispersion in patients with conversion disorder

    PubMed Central

    Izci, Filiz; Hocagil, Hilal; Izci, Servet; Izci, Vedat; Koc, Merve Iris; Acar, Rezzan Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate QT dispersion (QTd), which is the noninvasive marker of ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death, and P-wave dispersion, which is the noninvasive marker of atrial arrhythmia, in patients with conversion disorder (CD). Patients and methods A total of 60 patients with no known organic disease who were admitted to outpatient emergency clinic and were diagnosed with CD after psychiatric consultation were included in this study along with 60 healthy control subjects. Beck Anxiety Inventory and Beck Depression Scale were administered to patients and 12-lead electrocardiogram measurements were obtained. Pd and QTd were calculated by a single blinded cardiologist. Results There was no statistically significant difference in terms of age, sex, education level, socioeconomic status, weight, height, and body mass index between CD patients and controls. Beck Anxiety Inventory scores (25.2±10.8 and 3.8±3.2, respectively, P<0.001) and Beck Depression Scale scores (11.24±6.15 and 6.58±5.69, respectively, P<0.01) were significantly higher in CD patients. P-wave dispersion measurements did not show any significant differences between conversion patients and control group (46±5.7 vs 44±5.5, respectively, P=0.156). Regarding QTc and QTd, there was a statistically significant increase in all intervals in conversion patients (416±10 vs 398±12, P<0.001, and 47±4.8 vs 20±6.1, P<0.001, respectively). Conclusion A similar relation to that in literature between QTd and anxiety and somatoform disorders was also observed in CD patients. QTc and QTd were significantly increased compared to the control group in patients with CD. These results suggest a possibility of increased risk of ventricular arrhythmia resulting from QTd in CD patients. Larger samples are needed to evaluate the clinical course and prognosis in terms of arrhythmia risk in CD patients. PMID:25848293

  6. Limited utility of ICD-10 and DSM-IV classification of dissociative and conversion disorders in India.

    PubMed

    Alexander, P J; Joseph, S; Das, A

    1997-03-01

    Studies of psychiatric out-patients from India have found that diagnosis of some of the subcategories of the dissociative and conversion disorders of the ICD and DSM classificatory systems are rarely made in this setting. Moreover, it was found that a significant percentage of patients seen in psychiatric practice may not fit into the defined subcategories of dissociative (conversion) disorders of these systems of classification. We studied the prevalence of various ICD-10 and DSM-IV categories of dissociative (conversion) disorders and our own proposed category of 'brief dissociative stupor' (BDS), among all the in-patients of a psychiatric unit in a general teaching hospital, over a 2-year period. There were 18 patients who fulfilled our criteria for BDS and 18 patients in the second group which included all of the remaining subjects with a diagnosis of any other subcategory of dissociative disorder according to ICD-10. Our analysis revealed that there were no patients with a diagnosis of dissociative amnesia, fugue, stupor, trance and possession disorders or identity disorders. There were significantly more female patients in the BDS group, and they also had significantly more comorbid Axis-I diagnoses and panic attacks. Since 50% of our patients fulfilled the criteria for BDS, there is clearly a need for further studies to establish the prevalence of this subcategory in patients from other centres. The classification of these patients with this phenomenology is problematic. Inclusion of a subcategory of dissociative non-epileptic seizures, instead of dissociative convulsions, should improve the classification of dissociative (conversion) disorders. PMID:9111849

  7. Development of the Conversation Participation Rating Scale: Intervention Planning Implications for Two School-Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timler, Geralyn R.; Boone, William J.; Bergmann, Amelia A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: School-age children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have pervasive challenges in social interactions with peers. This study examined the feasibility of eliciting children's perceptions of their conversation participation with peers for the purposes of assessment and intervention planning. Methods: Two school-age children with ASD…

  8. Can motor imagery and hypnotic susceptibility explain Conversion Disorder with motor symptoms?

    PubMed

    Srzich, Alexander J; Byblow, Winston D; Stinear, James W; Cirillo, John; Anson, J Greg

    2016-08-01

    Marked distortions in sense of agency can be induced by hypnosis in susceptible individuals, including alterations in subjective awareness of movement initiation and control. These distortions, with associated disability, are similar to those experienced with Conversion Disorder (CD), an observation that has led to the hypothesis that hypnosis and CD share causal mechanisms. The purpose of this review is to explore the relationships among motor imagery (MI), hypnotic susceptibility, and CD, then to propose how MI ability may contribute to hypnotic responding and CD. Studies employing subjective assessments of mental imagery have found little association between imagery abilities and hypnotic susceptibility. A positive association between imagery abilities and hypnotic susceptibility becomes apparent when objective measures of imagery ability are employed. A candidate mechanism to explain motor responses during hypnosis is kinaesthetic MI, which engages a strategy that involves proprioception or the "feel" of movement when no movement occurs. Motor suppression imagery (MSI), a strategy involving inhibition of movement, may provide an alternate objective measurable phenomenon that underlies both hypnotic susceptibility and CD. Evidence to date supports the idea that there may be a positive association between kinaesthetic MI ability and hypnotic susceptibility. Additional evidence supports a positive association between hypnotic susceptibility and CD. Disturbances in kinaesthetic MI performance in CD patients indicate that MI mechanisms may also underlie CD symptoms. Further investigation of the above relationships is warranted to explain these phenomena, and establish theoretical explanations underlying sense of agency. PMID:27346334

  9. Problems with diagnosing Conversion Disorder in response to variable and unusual symptoms.

    PubMed

    Barnum, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Conversion Disorder (CD) is a diagnosis offered to explain signs and symptoms that do not correspond to recognized medical conditions. Pediatric patients with variable, vague, and multisystem complaints are at increased risk for being diagnosed with CD. Little is known about the impact of such a diagnosis. In making such diagnoses, it is likely that pediatric providers hope to encourage patients to access mental health care, but no basis exists to show that these diagnoses result in such access in any useful way. This article presents the case of a child with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, who had been previously (incorrectly) diagnosed with CD and referred for mental health care. It offers commentary based on interviews with other pediatric patients with similar experiences - conducted in collaboration with the Ehlers-Danlos National Foundation. These cases indicate that CD diagnoses can seriously undermine patients' trust in doctors, and can create such defensiveness that it may interfere with (especially) patients' abilities to engage with mental health services. Such interference is an important problem, if the diagnosis is accurate. But, in the (more likely) event that it is not accurate, this defensiveness can interfere with both important mental health care and further ongoing necessary medical care. PMID:24808723

  10. Emotion-Motion Interactions in Conversion Disorder: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    O’Daly, Owen; Zelaya, Fernando; Kanaan, Richard A.; David, Anthony S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the neural correlates of implicit processing of negative emotions in motor conversion disorder (CD) patients. Methods An event related fMRI task was completed by 12 motor CD patients and 14 matched healthy controls using standardised stimuli of faces with fearful and sad emotional expressions in comparison to faces with neutral expressions. Temporal changes in the sensitivity to stimuli were also modelled and tested in the two groups. Results We found increased amygdala activation to negative emotions in CD compared to healthy controls in region of interest analyses, which persisted over time consistent with previous findings using emotional paradigms. Furthermore during whole brain analyses we found significantly increased activation in CD patients in areas involved in the ‘freeze response’ to fear (periaqueductal grey matter), and areas involved in self-awareness and motor control (cingulate gyrus and supplementary motor area). Conclusions In contrast to healthy controls, CD patients exhibited increased response amplitude to fearful stimuli over time, suggesting abnormal emotional regulation (failure of habituation / sensitization). Patients with CD also activated midbrain and frontal structures that could reflect an abnormal behavioral-motor response to negative including threatening stimuli. This suggests a mechanism linking emotions to motor dysfunction in CD. PMID:25859660

  11. What's on Your Mind? Conversation Topics Chosen by People With Degenerative Cognitive-Linguistic Disorders for Communication Boards

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Darlene; Ettinger, Olivia; Mooney, Aimee; Noethe, Glory; Rowland, Charity

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Conversational topics chosen by a group of adults with degenerative cognitive-linguistic disorders for personalized communication board development were examined. The patient-generated themes commonly selected are presented to guide treatment planning and communication board development. Method Communication boards were created for 109 adults as part of a larger research project. One autobiographical topic that each participant would enjoy discussing multiple times was represented on each communication board with 16 pictures and word labels. For this review, topics were collapsed into general themes through a consensus process and examined by gender and age. Results Sixty unique conversational topics were identified from 109 participants and collapsed into 9 general themes: Hobbies, Family, Travel, Work, Home/Places I've Lived, Sports/Fitness, Religion, Animals, and World War II. Age and gender produced variations in themes chosen, though no significance in rank orders was found across groups. Conclusions Topics selected by adults with degenerative cognitive-linguistic disorders for communication boards resemble common conversational adult themes and do not center around basic needs or medical issues. Differences in gender and age for topic selection tend to be based on traditional roles. These general themes should be used when creating personalized communication boards for those who benefit from conversational aids. PMID:25835511

  12. Conversational characteristics of children with semantic-pragmatic disorder. II: What features lead to a judgement of inappropriacy?

    PubMed

    Bishop, D V; Adams, C

    1989-12-01

    Independent raters scanned transcribed conversations from 57 language-impaired children and 67 control children aged from 4 to 12 years and identified instances where the normal flow of conversation appeared to be disrupted because the child's utterance was in some way inappropriate. It was found that adequate inter-rater reliability could be obtained using this procedure. Furthermore, test-retest correlations for inappropriacy were significant, indicating that this is a stable conversational characteristic. The measure of inappropriacy decreased with age in control children, and it distinguished language-impaired from control children. Those identified as having 'semantic-pragmatic disorder' obtained particularly high scores. In a subsidiary analysis, inappropriate responses were subcategorised. A wide range of semantic, syntactic and pragmatic peculiarities was identified as leading to a sense of inappropriacy. Some instances of inappropriacy appeared to indicate cognitive rather than linguistic difficulties. Children with semantic-pragmatic disorder resembled younger normal children in that they frequently misunderstood the literal or implicit meaning of adult utterances and they violated normal rules of exchange structure. In other respects, however, the semantic-pragmatic group did not resemble normally developing children of any age. In particular, they tended to provide the listener with too much or too little information. PMID:2627545

  13. An Open Conversation on Using Eye-Gaze Methods in Studies of Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venker, Courtney E.; Kover, Sara T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Eye-gaze methods have the potential to advance the study of neurodevelopmental disorders. Despite their increasing use, challenges arise in using these methods with individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders and in reporting sufficient methodological detail such that the resulting research is replicable and interpretable. Method: This…

  14. Disordered speech disrupts conversational entrainment: a study of acoustic-prosodic entrainment and communicative success in populations with communication challenges

    PubMed Central

    Borrie, Stephanie A.; Lubold, Nichola; Pon-Barry, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Conversational entrainment, a pervasive communication phenomenon in which dialogue partners adapt their behaviors to align more closely with one another, is considered essential for successful spoken interaction. While well-established in other disciplines, this phenomenon has received limited attention in the field of speech pathology and the study of communication breakdowns in clinical populations. The current study examined acoustic-prosodic entrainment, as well as a measure of communicative success, in three distinctly different dialogue groups: (i) healthy native vs. healthy native speakers (Control), (ii) healthy native vs. foreign-accented speakers (Accented), and (iii) healthy native vs. dysarthric speakers (Disordered). Dialogue group comparisons revealed significant differences in how the groups entrain on particular acoustic–prosodic features, including pitch, intensity, and jitter. Most notably, the Disordered dialogues were characterized by significantly less acoustic-prosodic entrainment than the Control dialogues. Further, a positive relationship between entrainment indices and communicative success was identified. These results suggest that the study of conversational entrainment in speech pathology will have essential implications for both scientific theory and clinical application in this domain. PMID:26321996

  15. Disordered speech disrupts conversational entrainment: a study of acoustic-prosodic entrainment and communicative success in populations with communication challenges.

    PubMed

    Borrie, Stephanie A; Lubold, Nichola; Pon-Barry, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Conversational entrainment, a pervasive communication phenomenon in which dialogue partners adapt their behaviors to align more closely with one another, is considered essential for successful spoken interaction. While well-established in other disciplines, this phenomenon has received limited attention in the field of speech pathology and the study of communication breakdowns in clinical populations. The current study examined acoustic-prosodic entrainment, as well as a measure of communicative success, in three distinctly different dialogue groups: (i) healthy native vs. healthy native speakers (Control), (ii) healthy native vs. foreign-accented speakers (Accented), and (iii) healthy native vs. dysarthric speakers (Disordered). Dialogue group comparisons revealed significant differences in how the groups entrain on particular acoustic-prosodic features, including pitch, intensity, and jitter. Most notably, the Disordered dialogues were characterized by significantly less acoustic-prosodic entrainment than the Control dialogues. Further, a positive relationship between entrainment indices and communicative success was identified. These results suggest that the study of conversational entrainment in speech pathology will have essential implications for both scientific theory and clinical application in this domain. PMID:26321996

  16. Proinsulin maturation disorder is a contributor to the defect of subsequent conversion to insulin in {beta}-cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jie; Osei, Kwame

    2011-07-22

    Highlights: {yields} Primary proinsulin maturation disorder is inherent in Ins2{sup +/Akita} islets/{beta}-cells. {yields} A consequence is the inefficient conversion of proinsulin to insulin. {yields} Post-translational defects occur as well in the involved PC1/3 and PC2 convertases. {yields} Proinsulin maturation chaos results in defects in the following conversion process. {yields} A link of the proinsulin maturation disorder and hyperproinsulinemia is suggested. -- Abstract: Disproportionate hyperproinsulinemia is an indicator of {beta}-cell dysfunction in diabetes and the basis underlying this abnormality remains obscure. Recently, we have found proinsulin is an aggregation-prone molecule inherent with a low relative folding rate and maintains a homeostatic balance of natively and plentiful non-natively folded states (i.e., proinsulin homeostasis, PIHO) in normal {beta}-cells as a result of the integration of maturation and disposal processes. PIHO is susceptible to environmental and genetic influences. Perturbation of PIHO produces a number of toxic consequences with known association to {beta}-cell failure in diabetes. To explore whether the perturbation of PIHO has a link to disproportionate hyperproinsulinemia, we investigated proinsulin conversion and the involved prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) and 2 (PC2) in mouse Ins2{sup +/Akita} islets/{beta}-cells that preserve a primary PIHO disorder due to a mutation (C96Y) in the insulin 2 (Ins2) gene. Our metabolic-labeling studies found an increased ratio of proinsulin to insulin in the cellular or released proteins of Ins2{sup +/Akita} islets. Histological, metabolic-labeling, and RT-PCR analyses revealed decreases of the PC1/3 and PC2 immunoreactivities in the {beta}-cells of Ins2{sup +/Akita} islets in spite of no declines of these two convertases at the transcriptional and translational levels. Immunoblot analyses in cloned Ins2{sup +/Akita} {beta}-cells further confirmed the increased ratio of proinsulin

  17. Conversational pursuit of medication compliance in a Therapeutic Community for persons diagnosed with mental disorders*

    PubMed Central

    Mortari, Luigina

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In this article, we contribute to the debate on medication compliance by exploring the conversational “technologies” entailed in the process of promoting clients’ adherence to psychopharmacological prescriptions. Using a case study approach, we explore how medication-related problems are dealt with in conversational interaction between the staff members and the clients of a mental health Therapeutic Community (TC) in Italy. Method Four meetings between two staff members (Barbara and Massimo) and the clients of the TC were audio-recorded. The data were transcribed and analyzed using the method of Conversation Analysis. Results Barbara and Massimo recur to practices of topic articulation to promote talk that references the clients’ failure to take the medications. Through these practices they deal with the practical problem of mobilizing the clients’ cooperation in courses of action that fit into the institutional agenda of fostering medication adherence. Conclusions Barbara and Massimo’s conversational practices appear to reflect the assumption that medication-related problems can be reduced to compliance problems. This assumption works to make the clients accountable for their failure to take the medications while shaping a conversational environment that is unreceptive to their complaints about side effects. Implications for the understanding of mental health rehabilitation practice in TCs are discussed. Implications of RehabilitationTherapeutic community staff members should be aware of the challenges and blocks in communicating with their clients.Therapeutic communities can promote staff members’ awareness of communication challenges through reflective workshops in which they can jointly view and comment on interaction with their clients.Reflective workshops can be used to raise awareness of the presuppositions underlying therapeutic community staff members’ communication practices. PMID:24053481

  18. People with "MECP2" Mutation-Positive Rett Disorder Who Converse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, A. M.; Archer, H. L.; Evans, J. C.; Prescott, R. J.; Gibbon, F.

    2006-01-01

    Background: People with useful speech after regression constitute a distinct group of those with mutation-positive Rett disorder, 6% (20/331) reported among mutation-positive people in the British Survey. We aimed to determine the physical, mental and genetic characteristics of this group and to gain insight into their experience of Rett syndrome.…

  19. The role of alexithymia in the development of functional motor symptoms (conversion disorder)

    PubMed Central

    Demartini, Benedetta; Petrochilos, Panayiota; Ricciardi, Lucia; Price, Gary; Edwards, Mark J; Joyce, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Background The mechanisms leading to the development of functional motor symptoms (FMS) are of pathophysiological and clinical relevance, yet are poorly understood. Aim The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether impaired emotional processing at the cognitive level (alexithymia) is present in patients affected by FMS. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a population of patients with FMS and in two control groups (patients with organic movement disorders (OMD) and healthy volunteers). Methods 55 patients with FMS, 33 patients affected by OMD and 34 healthy volunteers were recruited. The assessment included the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes’ Test and the Structured Clinical Interview for Personality Disorders. Results Alexithymia was present in 34.5% of patients with FMS, 9.1% with OMD and 5.9% of the healthy volunteers, which was significantly higher in the FMS group (χ2 (2)=14.129, p<0.001), even after controlling for the severity of symptoms of depression. Group differences in mean scores were observed on both the difficulty identifying feelings and difficulty describing feelings dimensions of the TAS-20, whereas the externally orientated thinking subscale score was similar across the three groups. Regarding personality disorder, χ2 analysis showed a significantly higher prominence of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) in the FMS group (χ2 (2)=16.217, p<0.001) and 71.4% of those with OCPD also reached threshold criteria for alexithymia. Conclusions Because alexithymia is a mental state denoting the inability to identify emotions at a cognitive level, one hypothesis is that some patients misattribute autonomic symptoms of anxiety, for example, tremor, paraesthesiae, paralysis, to that of a physical illness. Further work is required to understand the contribution of OCPD to the development of FMS. PMID:24610939

  20. Interaction and Use of Speech-Generating Devices in the Homes of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders--An Analysis of Conversational Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thunberg, Gunilla; Ahlsen, Elisabeth; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2009-01-01

    This project investigated the communication of four children with autism spectrum disorders, who used a speech-generating device (SGD) in one or two selected activities in their home environment. The children were between five and seven years of age. The conversational topics introduced by the children and their parents were analyzed. The…

  1. Why and When Do Some Language-Impaired Children Seem Talkative? A Study of Initiation in Conversations of Children with Semantic-Pragmatic Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Dorothy; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of the conversations of 6 children (mean age 11 years) with semantic-pragmatic disorder found they were more likely to produce initiating utterances (rather than acknowledging or responding utterances) with both familiar and unfamiliar partners than other children of similar age or ability. Subjects did not produce more utterances or…

  2. Using Comic Strip Conversations to Increase Social Satisfaction and Decrease Loneliness in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierson, Melinda R.; Glaeser, Barbara C.

    2007-01-01

    Comic Strip Conversations have been used to improve the social skills of students on the autism spectrum. Research on the effectiveness of this strategy was extended to three lower elementary-aged male students diagnosed as exhibiting high-functioning autism. One elementary special education teacher and her 2 paraprofessionals used Comic Strip…

  3. Why and when do some language-impaired children seem talkative? A study of initiation in conversations of children with semantic-pragmatic disorder.

    PubMed

    Bishop, D; Hartley, J; Weir, F

    1994-04-01

    Six language-impaired children fitting the clinical picture of semantic-pragmatic disorder (mean age 11 years) engaged in conversations with adults in four situations varying in terms of familiarity of the interlocutor (familiar or unfamiliar) and type of setting (interview or toy exploration). These children did not produce more utterances or longer utterances than normally developing children of similar age or ability, but they were more likely to produce utterances that served the conversational function of initiating, rather than responding or acknowledging. This tendency was most pronounced in the toy setting. There was a nonsignificant trend for control children to initiate more with a familiar than with an unfamiliar adult, but no such tendency in the semantic-pragmatic group. A high rate of initiations in children with semantic-pragmatic disorder cannot be regarded as an unusual behavior provoked by the demands of the interview setting, as it is even more apparent during toy exploration, where the child is under less pressure to respond to adult questions. PMID:8040160

  4. Using conversation analysis to explore the recurrence of a topic in the talk of a boy with an autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Stribling, Penny; Rae, John; Dickerson, Paul

    2009-08-01

    Some higher functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are reported to produce perseverative talk, especially around 'special interests'. Topic perseveration is a form of pragmatic impairment captured in Prizant and Rydell's (1993) continuum of unconventional verbal behaviour in autism. Although widely reported, there is little systematic empirical research into this phenomenon. This paper considers the utility of Conversation Analysis in developing knowledge in this area, drawing upon data involving a boy with an ASD interacting with a researcher and a mobile robot platform. Although a frequency analysis of the boy's talk on a single topic may suggest that it is perseverative in nature, in a sequential analysis of both talk and non-spoken activities this study aims to show how these may be interactionally-embedded. It is suggested that, in considering the interactional salience of apparently perseverative talk, it can be useful to explore the participation framework in which the topic is revisited. PMID:19669991

  5. Everyday social and conversation applications of theory-of-mind understanding by children with autism-spectrum disorders or typical development.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Candida C; Garnett, Michelle; Kelly, Adrian; Attwood, Tony

    2009-02-01

    Children with autism-spectrum disorders (ASD) often fail laboratory false-belief tests of theory of mind (ToM). Yet how this impacts on their everyday social behavior is less clear, partly owing to uncertainty over which specific everyday conversational and social skills require ToM understanding. A new caregiver-report scale of these everyday applications of ToM was developed and validated in two studies. Study 1 obtained parent ratings of 339 children (85 with autism; 230 with Asperger's; 24 typically-developing) on the new scale and results revealed (a) that the scale had good psychometric properties and (b) that children with ASD had significantly more everyday mindreading difficulties than typical developers. In Study 2, we directly tested links between laboratory ToM and everyday mindreading using teacher ratings on the new scale. The sample of 25 children included 15 with autism and 10 typical developers aged 5-12 years. Children in both groups who passed laboratory ToM tests had fewer everyday mindreading difficulties than those of the same diagnosis who failed. Yet, intriguingly, autistic ToM-passers still had more problems with everyday mindreading than younger typically-developing ToM-failers. The possible roles of family conversation and peer interaction, along with ToM, in everyday social functioning were considered. PMID:18810310

  6. Effects of Lowering Dialysate Calcium Concentration on Mineral and Bone Disorders in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients: Conversion from 3.0 mEq/L to 2.75 mEq/L.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shunsuke; Ueki, Kenji; Tokumoto, Masanori; Suehiro, Takaichi; Kimura, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Masatomo; Fujimi, Satoru; Kitazono, Takanari; Tsuruya, Kazuhiko

    2016-02-01

    Selection of a lower dialysate calcium concentration (DCa) can reduce calcium burden and prevent vascular calcification in hemodialysis patients. However, decreased DCa can worsen mineral and bone disorders. This 1-year retrospective observational study evaluated 121 hemodialysis patients at Fukuoka Renal Clinic who underwent conversion of DCa from 3.0 mEq/L to 2.75 mEq/L. The primary outcomes were changes in serum levels of calcium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone (PTH). The effects of baseline serum calcium and PTH levels on changes in biochemical parameters were also determined. One year after DCa conversion, mean serum calcium level decreased, while serum phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, and PTH concentrations increased. The rate of achievement of target PTH was higher in patients with lower serum PTH level at baseline, while patients with higher baseline serum PTH level tended to exceed the upper limit of the PTH target range. Patients with higher baseline serum calcium concentration showed a greater decrease in serum calcium level and a greater increase in serum PTH level at 1 year. Patients with a lower baseline serum PTH level can benefit from optimal PTH control following conversion of DCa from 3.0 mEq/L to 2.75 mEq/L. However, secondary hyperparathyroidism may be exacerbated in some patients with higher baseline serum calcium (Ca) and PTH levels. These results indicate that an individualized approach can maximize the benefits of Ca unloading after conversion to lower DCa. PMID:26482334

  7. Metric Conversion

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-03-12

    ... 1,000,000 1,000,000 micrometers nano- 1,000,000,000 1,000,000,000 nanometers ... conversions, see the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publications: NIST Guide to SI Units: ...

  8. Using Conversation Analysis to Explore the Recurrence of a Topic in the Talk of a Boy with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stribling, Penny; Rae, John; Dickerson, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Some higher functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are reported to produce perseverative talk, especially around "special interests". Topic perseveration is a form of pragmatic impairment captured in Prizant and Rydell's (1993) continuum of unconventional verbal behaviour in autism. Although widely reported, there is little…

  9. Conversion Disorder— Mind versus Body: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jabeen, Shagufta; Pate, Rebecca J.; Shahid, Marwah; Chinala, Sandhya; Nathani, Milankumar; Shah, Rida

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors accentuate the signs and symptoms of conversion disorder and the significance of clinical judgment and expertise in order to reach the right diagnosis. The authors review the literature and provide information on the etiology, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, and the treatment methods currently employed in the management of conversion disorder. Of note, the advancements of neuropsychology and brain imaging have led to emergence of a relatively sophisticated picture of the neuroscientific psychopathology of complex mental illnesses, including conversion disorder. The available evidence suggests new methods with which to test hypotheses about the neural circuits underlying conversion symptoms. In context of this, the authors also explore the neurobiological understanding of conversion disorder. PMID:26155375

  10. Conversation Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xia, Jiang

    1998-01-01

    Describes an activity for use in the conversational English-as-a-foreign-language classroom. The activity involves having each student say one or two sentences that continues a story being made up as the activity goes along. Students were positive about the activity, because saying only one or two sentences helped them not to feel pressured or…

  11. Conversational sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

  12. Conversational sensemaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preece, Alun; Webberley, Will; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in natural language question-answering systems and context-aware mobile apps create opportunities for improved sensemaking in a tactical setting. Users equipped with mobile devices act as both sensors (able to acquire information) and effectors (able to act in situ), operating alone or in collectives. The currently- dominant technical approaches follow either a pull model (e.g. Apple's Siri or IBM's Watson which respond to users' natural language queries) or a push model (e.g. Google's Now which sends notifications to a user based on their context). There is growing recognition that users need more flexible styles of conversational interaction, where they are able to freely ask or tell, be asked or told, seek explanations and clarifications. Ideally such conversations should involve a mix of human and machine agents, able to collaborate in collective sensemaking activities with as few barriers as possible. Desirable capabilities include adding new knowledge, collaboratively building models, invoking specific services, and drawing inferences. As a step towards this goal, we collect evidence from a number of recent pilot studies including natural experiments (e.g. situation awareness in the context of organised protests) and synthetic experiments (e.g. human and machine agents collaborating in information seeking and spot reporting). We identify some principles and areas of future research for "conversational sensemaking".

  13. Converse Piezoelectricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springborg, Michael; Kirtman, Bernard

    2013-03-01

    Piezoelectricity results from a coupling between responses to mechanical and electric perturbations and leads to changes in the polarization due to strain or stress or, alternatively, the occurrence of strain as a function of an applied external, electrostatic field (i.e., converse piezoelectricity). Theoretical studies of those properties for extended systems require accordingly that their dipole moment or polarization can be calculated. However, whereas the definition of the operator for the dipole moment for any finite system is trivial, it is only within the last 2 decades that the expressions for the equivalent operator in the independent-particle approximation for the infinite and periodic system have been presented. Here, we demonstrate that the so called branch dependence of the polarization for the infinite, periodic system is related to physical observables in contrast to what often is assumed. This is related to the finding that converse piezoelectric properties depend both on the surfaces of the samples of interest even for samples with size well above the thermodynamic limit. However, we shall demonstrate that these properties can be calculated without explicitly taking the surfaces into account. Both the foundations and results for real system shall be presented.

  14. Energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Woodall, J.M.

    1982-02-16

    Energy conversion capable of receiving input energy in thermal or radiant form at a variable rate and releasing energy in thermal, radiant or electrical form independent of rate is accomplished by providing a buffer member of a material that has three criteria: a melting temperature above 1300/sup degree/ K, a thermal conductance greater than 0.1 in calories per square centimeter per centimeter per degree per second and a latent heat of fusion of the order of 1 kilocalorie per mole. The converter can absorb energy of multiple types, store it and then release it in a form compatible with the prospective use. Sunlight of daylight duration and varying intensity is converted to steady 24 hour a day electrical output.

  15. Teaching Children with Autism to Respond to Conversation Partners' Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Lindsay C.; Thompson, Rachel H.

    2015-01-01

    Successful conversation requires that the speaker's behavior is sensitive to nonvocal listener responses. We observed children with autism spectrum disorder during conversation probes in which a listener periodically displayed nonvocal cues that she was uninterested in the conversation. We used behavioral skills training to teach conversation…

  16. Course of Subthreshold Bipolar Disorder in Youth: Diagnostic Progression from Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Strober, Michael A.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Ha, Wonho; Gill, Mary Kay; Goldstein, Tina R.; Yen, Shirley; Hower, Heather; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liao, Fangzi; Iyengar, Satish; Dickstein, Daniel; Kim, Eunice; Ryan, Neal D.; Frankel, Erica; Keller, Martin B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the rate of diagnostic conversion from an operationalized diagnosis of bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) to bipolar I disorder (BP-I) or bipolar II disorder (BP-II) in youth over prospective follow-up and to identify factors associated with conversion. Method: Subjects were 140 children and adolescents…

  17. Document Conversion Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bovee, Donna

    1990-01-01

    Discusses digital imaging technology and examines document database conversion considerations. Two types of document imaging systems are described: (1) a work in process system, and (2) a storage and retrieval system. Conversion methodology is outlined, and a document conversion scenario is presented as a practical guide to conversion. (LRW)

  18. Pashto Conversation Manual and Pashto Conversation Tapescript.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tegey, Habibullah; Robson, Barbara

    This conversation manual and tapescript are part of a set of materials that have been developed to teach oral and written Afghan Pashto to English speakers. In addition to the conversation manual and tapescript, the set consists of a beginning textbook, an intermediate textbook, a reader, and a set of taped lessons that correlate with the…

  19. Biotechnology of biomass conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.R.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers: An introduction to biomass crops; The microbiology of fermentation processes; The production of ethanol from biomass crops, such as sugar cane and rubbers; The energy of biomass conversion; and The economics of biomass conversion.

  20. Direct Conversion of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corliss, William R.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Direct energy conversion involves energy transformation without moving parts. The concepts of direct and dynamic energy conversion plus the laws governing energy conversion are investigated. Among the topics…

  1. Iterated multidimensional wave conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizard, A. J.; Tracy, E. R.; Johnston, D.; Kaufman, A. N.; Richardson, A. S.; Zobin, N.

    2011-12-01

    Mode conversion can occur repeatedly in a two-dimensional cavity (e.g., the poloidal cross section of an axisymmetric tokamak). We report on two novel concepts that allow for a complete and global visualization of the ray evolution under iterated conversions. First, iterated conversion is discussed in terms of ray-induced maps from the two-dimensional conversion surface to itself (which can be visualized in terms of three-dimensional rooms). Second, the two-dimensional conversion surface is shown to possess a symplectic structure derived from Dirac constraints associated with the two dispersion surfaces of the interacting waves.

  2. Bipolar disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Manic depression; Bipolar affective disorder; Mood disorder - bipolar; Manic depressive disorder ... happiness and high activity or energy (mania) or depression and low activity or energy (depression). The following ...

  3. Dissociative disorders in DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, David; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Lanius, Ruth; Vermetten, Eric; Simeon, Daphne; Friedman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The rationale, research literature, and proposed changes to the dissociative disorders and conversion disorder in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) are presented. Dissociative identity disorder will include reference to possession as well as identity fragmentation, to make the disorder more applicable to culturally diverse situations. Dissociative amnesia will include dissociative fugue as a subtype, since fugue is a rare disorder that always involves amnesia but does not always include confused wandering or loss of personality identity. Depersonalization disorder will include derealization as well, since the two often co-occur. A dissociative subtype of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), defined by the presence of depersonalization or derealization in addition to other PTSD symptoms, is being recommended, based upon new epidemiological and neuroimaging evidence linking it to an early life history of adversity and a combination of frontal activation and limbic inhibition. Conversion disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder) will likely remain with the somatic symptom disorders, despite considerable dissociative comorbidity. PMID:23394228

  4. Conversing with Computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    I/NET, Inc., is making the dream of natural human-computer conversation a practical reality. Through a combination of advanced artificial intelligence research and practical software design, I/NET has taken the complexity out of developing advanced, natural language interfaces. Conversational capabilities like pronoun resolution, anaphora and ellipsis processing, and dialog management that were once available only in the laboratory can now be brought to any application with any speech recognition system using I/NET s conversational engine middleware.

  5. Bipolar disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Manic depression; Bipolar affective disorder; Mood disorder - bipolar; Manic depressive disorder ... Bipolar disorder affects men and women equally. It most often starts between ages 15 and 25. The exact ...

  6. Cyclothymic disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... mental disorder. It is a mild form of bipolar disorder (manic depressive illness), in which a person has ... causes of cyclothymic disorder are unknown. Major depression, bipolar disorder, and cyclothymia often occur together in families. This ...

  7. Common conversion factors.

    PubMed

    2001-05-01

    This appendix presents tables of some of the more common conversion factors for units of measure used throughout Current Protocols manuals, as well as prefixes indicating powers of ten for SI units. Another table gives conversions between temperatures on the Celsius (Centigrade) and Fahrenheit scales. PMID:18770653

  8. Assessment through Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fu, Danling; Lamme, Linda L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents conversations with parents, teachers, and children around portfolios that provide a better picture of a child's growth and understanding than standardized test scores ever can. Concludes that the involvement of students, teachers, and parents in conversation about children's literacy development brings the potential of a common vision and…

  9. Marathi Conversational Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berntsen, Maxine; Nimbkar, Jai

    This volume is an elementary Marathi conversation text for adult learners of Marathi, both foreign and Indian. Designed to be used in conjunction with "Marathi Structural Patterns. Book One," the volume presents over 80 conversations that include material required in everyday situations. Each section contains basic and more difficult…

  10. Energy conversion alternatives study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  11. NUCLEAR CONVERSION APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1960-09-13

    A nuclear conversion apparatus is described which comprises a body of neutron moderator, tubes extending therethrough, uranium in the tubes, a fluid- circulating system associated with the tubes, a thorium-containing fluid coolant in the system and tubes, and means for withdrawing the fluid from the system and replacing it in the system whereby thorium conversion products may be recovered.

  12. Changing Our Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porto, Mark

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a principal is inspired to change the conversations with students and staff members from discipline and deficit to hope and planning for future achievement. He wants conversations to be more about academic goals and decision making and less about discipline and random acceptance of postsecondary plans. He has asked all staff…

  13. Autism spectrum disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Autism; Autistic disorder; Asperger syndrome; Childhood disintegrative disorder; Pervasive developmental disorder ... to be regarded as separate disorders: Autistic disorder Asperger syndrome Childhood disintegrative disorder Pervasive developmental disorder

  14. [Somatoform disorders in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Konichezky, Andres; Gothelf, Doron

    2011-02-01

    Somatoform disorders among children and adolescents may cause impairment in educational and social functioning and generate a great deal of psychosocial distress. The diagnosis of such disorders is complex due to the fact that they may appear as medical conditions. Hence, most of somatoform patients do not seek psychiatric assistance. The common feature of somatoform disorders as described in DSM-IV-TR is the presence of physical symptoms suggesting an underlying medical condition that is either not found or does not account for the level of functional impairment. The diagnostic criteria for the somatoform disorders were established for adults and are applied to children for lack of child-specific research base and a developmentally appropriate alternative system. The most common somatoform disorders in children and adolescents are recurrent abdominal pain and tension headache. Other disorders in the category include: somatization disorder, undifferentiated somatoform disorder, conversion disorder, hypochondriasis and body dysmorphic disorder Treatment is applied through a combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. SSRI'S are effective in somatoform disorders that have co-morbidity with anxiety and depression as well as in body dysmorphic disorder and hypochondriasis. Conversion disorder is usually treated with benzodiazepines and pain disorder with light analgesics, tricyclics and tegretol. In terms of psychotherapy, treatments most effective for somatoform disorders have been found to be cognitive-behavioral therapy, hypnosis and biofeedback. PMID:22164950

  15. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Bipolar Disorder KidsHealth > For Teens > Bipolar Disorder Print A A ... Bipolar Disorder en español Trastorno bipolar What Is Bipolar Disorder? Bipolar disorders are one of several medical conditions ...

  16. Responsive Teaching through Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dozier, Cheryl; Garnett, Susan; Tabatabai, Simeen

    2011-01-01

    Conversations are the heart of responsive teaching. By talking with struggling learners, teachers can find out about their interests in order to design effective, personalized instruction; build relationships; work through complexities in teaching and learning; and celebrate successes.

  17. Excitatory and inhibitory conversive experiences: neurobiological features involving positive and negative conversion symptoms.

    PubMed

    Río-Casanova, Lucía Del; González, Anabel; Páramo, Mario; Brenlla, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Previous reviews have focused on neurobiological and physiological mechanisms underlying conversion disorder, but they do not usually distinguish between negative and positive conversion symptoms. Some authors have proposed that different phenomena should underlie both situations and that diverse emotion regulation strategies (under- vs. overregulation of affect) should be related to different internal experiences (excitatory experiences with hyperarousal manifestations vs. inhibitory experiences coexisting with hypoarousal states, respectively). After a careful review of the literature, we conclude that there is not a unique theory comprising all findings. Nevertheless, we have also collected some replicated findings that should be salient. Patients manifesting positive conversion symptoms tended to present with limbic hyperfunction, not sufficiently counteracted by prefrontal control. This leads to underregulation of affect mechanisms, increased emotional reactivity and autonomic hyperarousal. The opposite pattern (with a prefrontal overfunction working as a cognitive brake over the limbic system) has been described during negative conversion manifestations. We also highlight the influence of fronto-limbic circuits over cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits' regulation, whose horizontal and vertical synchronization has been at the spotlight of the genesis of conversion and dissociative disorders. PMID:26259230

  18. Structured luminescence conversion layer

    DOEpatents

    Berben, Dirk; Antoniadis, Homer; Jermann, Frank; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Von Malm, Norwin; Zachau, Martin

    2012-12-11

    An apparatus device such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer deposited on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains regions such as color-changing and non-color-changing regions with particular shapes arranged in a particular pattern.

  19. Conversion of solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, N. N.; Shilov, A. E.

    The papers presented in this volume provide an overview of current theoretical and experimental research related to the conversion and practical utilization of solar energy. Topics discussed include semiconductor photovoltaic cells, orbital solar power stations, chemical and biological methods of solar energy conversion, and solar energy applications. Papers are included on new theoretical models of solar cells and prospects for increasing their efficiency, metrology and optical studies of solar cells, and some problems related to the thermally induced deformations of large space structures.

  20. Conversational Flow Promotes Solidarity

    PubMed Central

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H.

    2013-01-01

    Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of “we-ness”. Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here). The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay). Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition) increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed. PMID:24265683

  1. Cyclothymic disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... It is a mild form of bipolar disorder (manic depressive illness), in which a person has mood swings over ... causes of cyclothymic disorder are unknown. Major depression, bipolar disorder, and cyclothymia often occur together in families. This ...

  2. TMJ Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... referred Sally and her parents to a local dentist who specialized in jaw disorders. After examining Sally ... having symptoms of a TMJ disorder, let your dentist know. The earlier a TMJ disorder is diagnosed ...

  3. Mental Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders Psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history ... Biological factors can also be part of the cause. A traumatic brain injury can lead to a ...

  4. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatments and Therapies Join a Study Learn More Eating Disorders Definition There is a commonly held view that ... can lead to stroke or heart attack Binge-eating disorder People with binge-eating disorder lose control over ...

  5. Cerebellar Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Problems with the cerebellum include Cancer Genetic disorders Ataxias - failure of muscle control in the arms and legs that result in movement disorders Degeneration - disorders caused by brain cells decreasing in ...

  6. Genetic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... This can cause a medical condition called a genetic disorder. You can inherit a gene mutation from ... during your lifetime. There are three types of genetic disorders: Single-gene disorders, where a mutation affects ...

  7. Phonological disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Articulation disorder; Developmental articulation disorder; Speech distortion; Sound distortion ... unknown. Close relatives may have had speech and language problems. ... sounds. These changes may include cleft palate and problems ...

  8. Tongue Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... more, written in everyday language. Home Mouth and Dental Disorders Lip and Tongue Disorders Burning Mouth Syndrome Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Lip Changes and Discoloration Lip Inflammation Lip ...

  9. Panic disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anxiety disorder - panic attacks References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  10. Parents' Strategies to Elicit Autobiographical Memories in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Developmental Language Disorders and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Sylvie; DeNigris, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Conversations about the past support the development of autobiographical memory. Parents' strategies to elicit child's participation and recall during past event conversations were compared across three school-age diagnostic groups: autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 11), developmental language disorders (n = 11) and typically developing (TD,…

  11. Panic Disorder among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  12. Any Personality Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  13. Antisocial Personality Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  14. Bipolar Disorder Among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  15. Borderline Personality Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  16. Isomolybdate conversion coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minevski, Zoran (Inventor); Maxey, Jason (Inventor); Nelson, Carl (Inventor); Eylem, Cahit (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A conversion coating solution and process forms a stable and corrosion-resistant layer on metal substrates or layers or, more preferably, on a boehmite layer or other base conversion coating. The conversion coating process involves contacting the substrate, layer or coating with an aqueous alkali metal isomolybdate solution in order to convert the surface of the substrate, layer or coating to a stable conversion coating. The aqueous alkali metal molybdates are selected from sodium molybdate (Na.sub.2 MoO.sub.4), lithium molybdate (Li.sub.2 MoO.sub.4), potassium molybdate (K.sub.2 MoO.sub.4), or combinations thereof, with the most preferred alkali metal molybdate being sodium molybdate. The concentration of alkali metal molybdates in the solution is preferably less than 5% by weight. In addition to the alkali metal molybdates, the conversion coating solution may include alkaline metal passivators selected from lithium nitrate (LiNO.sub.3), sodium nitrate (NaNO.sub.3), ammonia nitrate (NH.sub.4 NO.sub.3), and combinations thereof; lithium chloride, potassium hexafluorozirconate (K.sub.2 ZrF.sub.6) or potassium hexafluorotitanate (K.sub.2 TiF.sub.6).

  17. Laser energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalufka, N. W.

    1989-01-01

    The conversion of laser energy to other, more useful, forms is an important element of any space power transmission system employing lasers. In general the user, at the receiving sight, will require the energy in a form other than laser radiation. In particular, conversion to rocket power and electricity are considered to be two major areas where one must consider various conversion techniques. Three systems (photovoltaic cells, MHD generators, and gas turbines) have been identified as the laser-to-electricity conversion systems that appear to meet most of the criteria for a space-based system. The laser thruster also shows considerable promise as a space propulsion system. At this time one cannot predict which of the three laser-to-electric converters will be best suited to particular mission needs. All three systems have some particular advantages, as well as disadvantages. It would be prudent to continue research on all three systems, as well as the laser rocket thruster. Research on novel energy conversion systems, such as the optical rectenna and the reverse free-electron laser, should continue due to their potential for high payoff.

  18. Direct conversion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H.; Ryan, M.A.; Fabris, G.

    1992-01-07

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991. Research on AMTEC and on LMMHD was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions (Refs. 1--5) contain descriptive and performance discussions of the following direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (Nitionol heat engine); and also, more complete descriptive discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

  19. Direct conversion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massier, Paul F.; Bankston, C. P.; Williams, R.; Underwood, M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Fabris, G.

    1989-12-01

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal Magnetohydrodynamic Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1989 through December 31, 1989. Research on these concepts was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions contain discussions on the following other direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (nitinol heat engines); and also, more complete discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

  20. Digital optical conversion module

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.

    1991-02-26

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer.

  1. Digital optical conversion module

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.

    1988-07-19

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer. 2 figs.

  2. Direct conversion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massier, Paul F.; Bankston, C. P.; Williams, R.; Underwood, M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Fabris, G.

    1989-01-01

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal Magnetohydrodynamic Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1989 through December 31, 1989. Research on these concepts was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions contain discussions on the following other direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (nitinol heat engines); and also, more complete discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

  3. Frequency conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Steven (Inventor); Waarts, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A frequency conversion system comprises first and second gain sources providing first and second frequency radiation outputs where the second gain source receives as input the output of the first gain source and, further, the second gain source comprises a Raman or Brillouin gain fiber for wave shifting a portion of the radiation of the first frequency output into second frequency radiation output to provided a combined output of first and second frequencies. Powers are gain enhanced by the addition of a rare earth amplifier or oscillator, or a Raman/Brillouin amplifier or oscillator between the high power source and the NFM device. Further, polarization conversion using Raman or Brillouin wavelength shifting is provided to optimize frequency conversion efficiency in the NFM device.

  4. Digital optical conversion module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.

    1988-07-01

    A digital optical conversion module is used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer.

  5. Personality Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page You are here Home » Personality Disorder Personality Disorder What is “Personality?” Personality refers to a distinctive set of traits, ... family, friends, and co-workers. What is a Personality Disorder? Those who struggle with a personality disorder ...

  6. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-08-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  7. Direct Conversion Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Back, L.H.; Fabris, G.; Ryan, M.A.

    1992-07-01

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. Initially, two systems were selected for exploratory research and advanced development. These are Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and Two-Phase Liquid Metal MD Generator (LMMHD). This report describes progress that has been made during the first six months of 1992 on research activities associated with these two systems. (GHH)

  8. Accessory apartment conversion programs.

    PubMed

    Retsinas, J; Retsinas, N P

    1991-01-01

    In recent years, state housing finance agencies have joined with state units on aging to develop programs to help the frail, elderly homeowner. Under an accessory apartment conversion program, a low-income homeowner will borrow money at a reduced interest rate to underwrite conversion of excess space into a rental apartment. The tenant will provide additional income as well as, ideally, certain kinds of personal assistance and a friendly presence. To date, few elderly clients have used this option. The initial rationale for the program is explained as are plausible reasons for the fact that it has not met expectations. PMID:10186784

  9. ADEPT: Efficient Power Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    ADEPT Project: In today’s increasingly electrified world, power conversion—the process of converting electricity between different currents, voltage levels, and frequencies—forms a vital link between the electronic devices we use every day and the sources of power required to run them. The 14 projects that make up ARPA-E’s ADEPT Project, short for “Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,” are paving the way for more energy efficient power conversion and advancing the basic building blocks of power conversion: circuits, transistors, inductors, transformers, and capacitors.

  10. Inpatient rehabilitation approach for a young woman with conversion hemiparesis and sensory deficits.

    PubMed

    Kanarek, Samantha L; Stevenson, Jennifer E; Wakefield, Holly; Reite, Elizabeth; Zumsteg, Jennifer M; Brockway, Jo Ann

    2013-01-01

    In the treatment of conversion disorder, the inpatient rehabilitation setting supports interdisciplinary functional goals and a structured approach consistent with encouraging psychological well-being. This case presentation illustrates 1 approach to the rehabilitation of hemiparesis secondary to conversion disorder that includes a behavioral management plan, as well as protocols for "learning to walk" and "learning to use your arm." We provide a practical starting point for advancing function in patients with conversion disorder when functional loss is present in both upper and lower extremities. PMID:23332911

  11. Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Metabolic Disorders Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders of Lipid Metabolism Carbohydrates are sugars. ... Metabolic Disorders Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders of Lipid Metabolism NOTE: This is ...

  12. Catalyst increases COS conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Goodboy, K.P.

    1985-02-18

    Increasingly stringent air quality legislation is placing greater emphasis on conversion of COS and CS/sub 2/ in Claus plants for the maximum sulfur recovery. Overall sulfur recovery goals are dependent upon outstanding service from the Claus catalyst in each reactor because catalyst activity is a major factor influencing plant performance. Today's catalyst are much improved over those used 10 years ago for the Claus (H/sub 2/S/SO/sub 2/) reaction. Recent technical efforts have focused on the conversion of COS and CS/sub 2/. These carbon-sulfur compounds can account for as much as 50% of the sulfur going to the incinerator, which essentially converts all remaining sulfur species to SO/sub 2/ for atmospheric dispersion. Previously, the mechanism of Claus COS conversion, i.e., hydrolysis or oxidation by SO/sub 2/, was studied and the conclusion was that oxidation by SO/sub 2/ appears to be the predominate mode of COS conversion on sulfated alumina catalysts.

  13. Mechanochemical Energy Conversion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pines, E.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the thermodynamics of macromolecular systems, including theories and experiments of cyclic energy conversion with rubber and collagen as working substances. Indicates that an early introduction into the concept of chemical potential and solution thermodynamics is made possible through the study of the cyclic processes. (CC)

  14. Planetary image conversion task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, M. D.; Stanley, C. L.; Laughlin, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Planetary Image Conversion Task group processed 12,500 magnetic tapes containing raw imaging data from JPL planetary missions and produced an image data base in consistent format on 1200 fully packed 6250-bpi tapes. The output tapes will remain at JPL. A copy of the entire tape set was delivered to US Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Ariz. A secondary task converted computer datalogs, which had been stored in project specific MARK IV File Management System data types and structures, to flat-file, text format that is processable on any modern computer system. The conversion processing took place at JPL's Image Processing Laboratory on an IBM 370-158 with existing software modified slightly to meet the needs of the conversion task. More than 99% of the original digital image data was successfully recovered by the conversion task. However, processing data tapes recorded before 1975 was destructive. This discovery is of critical importance to facilities responsible for maintaining digital archives since normal periodic random sampling techniques would be unlikely to detect this phenomenon, and entire data sets could be wiped out in the act of generating seemingly positive sampling results. Reccomended follow-on activities are also included.

  15. Leadership is a conversation.

    PubMed

    Groysberg, Boris; Slind, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Globalization and new technologies have sharply reduced the efficacy of command-and-control management and its accompanying forms of corporate communication. In the course of a recent research project, the authors concluded that by talking with employees, rather than simply issuing orders, leaders can promote operational flexibility, employee engagement, and tight strategic alignment. Groysberg and Slind have identified four elements of organizational conversation that reflect the essential attributes of interpersonal conversation: intimacy, interactivity, inclusion, and intentionality. Intimacy shifts the focus from a top-down distribution of information to a bottom-up exchange of ideas. Organizational conversation is less corporate in tone and more casual. And it's less about issuing and taking orders than about asking and answering questions. Interactivity entails shunning the simplicity of monologue and embracing the unpredictable vitality of dialogue. Traditional one-way media-print and broadcast, in particular-give way to social media buttressed by social thinking. Inclusion turns employees into full-fledged conversation partners, entitling them to provide their own ideas, often on company channels. They can create content and act as brand ambassadors, thought leaders, and storytellers. Intentionality enables leaders and employees to derive strategically relevant action from the push and pull of discussion and debate. PMID:22741420

  16. Clinical Linguistics: Conversational Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crystal, David

    2013-01-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference…

  17. National conversion pilot project

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, D.; Nichols, F.; Lily, A.

    1994-12-31

    Manufacturing Sciences Corporation (MSC) has undertaken a project from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to convert buildings that are currently contaminated at Rocky Flats into buildings that are capable of producing commercial products. This conversion project is called the National Conversion Pilot Project (NCPP). The mission of the NCPP is to explore and demonstrate at the Rocky Flats site the feasibility of economic conversion at DOE facilities. This project was officially started on April 1 with the signing of a Cooperative Assistance Agreement between MSC and the DOE. The NCPP was jointly announced by Roy Romer, Governor of the State of Colorado; Mark Silverman, Manager of the Department of Energy Rocky Flats Office; Jack McGraw, Activity Administrator for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 8; and Tom Looby, Director of the Office of Environment from the Colorado Department of Health. On March 25, 1994, Hazel O`Leary, the Secretary of the DOE, toured the site of the NCPP and heartily endorsed the project as an example of how the DOE and commercial industry can jointly accomplish the conversion and cleanup of government facilities into productive commercial ventures.

  18. Economics of Grassland Conversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper we provide an overview of economic factors that contribute to changes in grassland area including the relative profitability of crop and livestock production, effects of land productivity, and effects of conversion costs. We also identify other potential socio-economic influences on gr...

  19. Electromechanical Energy Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LePage, Wilbur R.

    This programed text on electromechanical energy conversion (motors and generators) was developed under contract with the U.S. Office of Education as Number 12 in a series of materials for use in an electrical engineering sequence. It is intended to be used in conjunction with other materials and with other short texts in the series. (DH)

  20. Evaluating Energy Conversion Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byvik, C. E.; Smith, B. T.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    Devices that convert solar radiation directly into storable chemical or electrical energy, have characteristic energy absorption spectrum; specifically, each of these devices has energy threshold. The conversion efficiency of generalized system that emcompasses all threshold devices is analyzed, resulting in family of curves for devices of various threshold energies operating at different temperatures.

  1. A Conversation about Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.; Mao, Minnie Yuan

    2012-01-01

    In the spirit of the Lindau Meeting, we present a dialogue between a Nobel laureate and a young researcher. This interchange started online, where it continues to unfold. Here is a digest of this conversation, which has developed across time and space.

  2. Teaching Conversation with Trivia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a rationale for utilizing trivia to teach conversation. Shows how trivia-based materials fit into communicative language teaching approaches and provides examples of trivia-based activities and explains how to use them in the classroom. (Author/VWL)

  3. Conversational Involvement and Loneliness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Robert A.

    1985-01-01

    Assessed the relationship of conversational involvement and loneliness among college students. Found that lonely participants in this study had lower rates of talkativeness, interruptions, and attention than the nonlonely; they were also perceived as less involved and less interpersonally attractive. (PD)

  4. Solar energy conversion.

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, G. W.; Lewis, N. S.

    2008-03-01

    If solar energy is to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels, we must have efficient ways to convert photons into electricity, fuel, and heat. The need for better conversion technologies is a driving force behind many recent developments in biology, materials, and especially nanoscience. The Sun has the enormous untapped potential to supply our growing energy needs. The barrier to greater use of the solar resource is its high cost relative to the cost of fossil fuels, although the disparity will decrease with the rising prices of fossil fuels and the rising costs of mitigating their impact on the environment and climate. The cost of solar energy is directly related to the low conversion efficiency, the modest energy density of solar radiation, and the costly materials currently required. The development of materials and methods to improve solar energy conversion is primarily a scientific challenge: Breakthroughs in fundamental understanding ought to enable marked progress. There is plenty of room for improvement, since photovoltaic conversion efficiencies for inexpensive organic and dye-sensitized solar cells are currently about 10% or less, the conversion efficiency of photosynthesis is less than 1%, and the best solar thermal efficiency is 30%. The theoretical limits suggest that we can do much better. Solar conversion is a young science. Its major growth began in the 1970s, spurred by the oil crisis that highlighted the pervasive importance of energy to our personal, social, economic, and political lives. In contrast, fossil-fuel science has developed over more than 250 years, stimulated by the Industrial Revolution and the promise of abundant fossil fuels. The science of thermodynamics, for example, is intimately intertwined with the development of the steam engine. The Carnot cycle, the mechanical equivalent of heat, and entropy all played starring roles in the development of thermodynamics and the technology of heat engines. Solar-energy science faces

  5. [Sleep related eating disorder].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yuichi; Komada, Yoko

    2010-01-01

    Nighttime eating is categorized as either sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) or night eating syndrome (NES). Critical reviews of the literature on both disorders have suggested that they are situated at opposite poles of a disordered eating spectrum. The feeding behavior in SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating after an arousal from nighttime sleep with amnesia. Conversely, NES could be considered as an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing with a normal circadian timing of sleep onset. Both conditions clearly concentrate to occur during young adulthood, and are often relentless and chronic. Misunderstanding and low awareness of SRED and NES have limited our ability to determine the exact prevalence of the two disorders. SRED is frequently associated with other sleep disorders, in particular parasomnias such as sleep walking. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is ineffective, but pharmacotherapy is very effective in controlling SRED. Especially, studies have shown that the anti-seizure medication topiramate may be an effective treatment for SRED. PMID:21077298

  6. Conversational Characteristics of Children with Fragile X Syndrome: Repetitive Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belser, Richard C.; Sudhalter, Vicki

    2001-01-01

    Comparison of the production of repetitive speech during conversations in 30 people with either fragile X syndrome, autistic disorder, or mental retardation not caused by fragile X found repetitive speech more prevalent among those with fragile X. Results support the hypothesis that such speech dysfluency reflects the effects of physiological…

  7. Conversational Profiles of Children with ADHD, SLI and Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2004-01-01

    Conversational indices of language impairment were used to investigate similarities and differences among children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and children with typical development (TD). Utterance formulation measures (per cent words mazed and average number of words per…

  8. Differential diagnosis of emotional disorders that cause weight loss.

    PubMed Central

    Garfinkel, P. E.; Garner, D. M.; Kaplan, A. S.; Rodin, G.; Kennedy, S.

    1983-01-01

    Recently, anorexia nervosa has received much attention in the scientific and lay press. As a result there is a danger that the other emotional disorders that can present with weight loss and vomiting will be overlooked. Case examples are presented for anorexia nervosa, conversion disorder, schizophrenia and depression. The presentation and treatment of these four disorders are compared. PMID:6367916

  9. Wind energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  10. Movement Coordination during Conversation

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Nida; Barbosa, Adriano V.; Vatiokiotis-Bateson, Eric; Castelhano, Monica S.; Munhall, K. G.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral coordination and synchrony contribute to a common biological mechanism that maintains communication, cooperation and bonding within many social species, such as primates and birds. Similarly, human language and social systems may also be attuned to coordination to facilitate communication and the formation of relationships. Gross similarities in movement patterns and convergence in the acoustic properties of speech have already been demonstrated between interacting individuals. In the present studies, we investigated how coordinated movements contribute to observers’ perception of affiliation (friends vs. strangers) between two conversing individuals. We used novel computational methods to quantify motor coordination and demonstrated that individuals familiar with each other coordinated their movements more frequently. Observers used coordination to judge affiliation between conversing pairs but only when the perceptual stimuli were restricted to head and face regions. These results suggest that observed movement coordination in humans might contribute to perceptual decisions based on availability of information to perceivers. PMID:25119189

  11. Frequency conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Steven (Inventor); Lang, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Laser diode pumped mid-IR wavelength sources include at least one high power, near-IR wavelength, injection and/or sources wherein one or both of such sources may be tunable providing a pump wave output beam to a quasi-phase matched (QPM) nonlinear frequency mixing (NFM) device. The NFM device may be a difference frequency mixing (DFM) device or an optical parametric oscillation (OPO) device. Wavelength tuning of at least one of the sources advantageously provides the ability for optimizing pump or injection wavelengths to match the QPM properties of the NFM device enabling a broad range of mid-IR wavelength selectivity. Also, pump powers are gain enhanced by the addition of a rare earth amplifier or oscillator, or a Raman/Brillouin amplifier or oscillator between the high power source and the NFM device. Further, polarization conversion using Raman or Brillouin wavelength shifting is provided to optimize frequency conversion efficiency in the NFM device.

  12. Catalytic conversions of chlorodecalin

    SciTech Connect

    Takhistov, U.V.; Kovyazin, V.E.

    1985-10-01

    This paper studies catalytic conversions of chlorinated decahydronaphthalene (chlorodecalin), since the introduction of chlorine into the hydrocarbon molecule would facilitate formation of the original carbonium ion required for conversion to adamantane. Analysis of the fractions obtained showed that two main products are formed: the tricyclic hydrocarbon C/sub 10/H/sub 16/ and the bicyclic hydrocarbon C/sub 10/H/sub 16/. Therefore, the C/sub 10/H/sub 17/ cation formed by removal of chlorine from chlorodecalin, C/sub 10/H/sub 17/CI, undergoes changes in two directions: addition of hydride ions from other chlorodecalin molecules to form Decalin, and loss of a proton to give a tricyclic system of the adamantane weries and its isomer. Introduction of a substituent (chlorine) into the Decalin molecule made it possible to conduct the process at low temperatures.

  13. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They go ... The down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in families. ...

  14. Muscle disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs of a muscle disorder, tests such as an electromyogram , ...

  15. Learning Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... new information. People with learning disorders may have problems Listening or paying attention Speaking Reading or writing ... around them can make them less of a problem. NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

  16. Swallowing Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Swallowing Disorders Information Page Synonym(s): Dysphagia Table of Contents ( ... Clinical Trials Organizations Publicaciones en Español What are Swallowing Disorders? Having trouble swallowing (dysphagia) is a symptom ...

  17. Rumination disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Katzman DK, Kearney SA, Becker AE. Feeding and eating disorders. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Eating Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  18. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Eating disorders are serious behavior problems. They can include severe overeating or not consuming enough food to stay ... concern about your shape or weight. Types of eating disorders include Anorexia nervosa, in which you become too ...

  19. Adjustment disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum ...

  20. Mood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... include depression and bipolar disorder (also called manic depression). Mood disorders can increase a person's risk for heart disease, diabetes, and other diseases. Treatments include medication, psychotherapy, or a combination of both. With treatment, most ...

  1. Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t want them to. If you have a movement disorder, you experience these kinds of impaired movement. Dyskinesia ... movement and is a common symptom of many movement disorders. Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. Nerve diseases ...

  2. Muscle Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause weakness, pain or even paralysis. Causes of muscle disorders include Injury or overuse, such as sprains or strains, cramps or tendinitis A genetic disorder, such as muscular dystrophy Some ... muscles Infections Certain medicines Sometimes the cause is not ...

  3. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Erzegovesi, Stefano; Bellodi, Laura

    2016-08-01

    Twenty years have passed from the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and, in the meanwhile, a lot of research data about eating disorders has been published. This article reviews the main modifications to the classification of eating disorders reported in the "Feeding and Eating Disorders" chapter of the DSM-5, and compares them with the ICD-10 diagnostic guidelines. Particularly, we will show that DSM-5 criteria widened the diagnoses of anorexia and bulimia nervosa to less severe forms (so decreasing the frequency of Eating Disorders, Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) diagnoses), introduced the new category of Binge Eating Disorder, and incorporated several feeding disorders that were first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence. On the whole, the DSM-5 revision should allow the clinician to make more reliable and timely diagnoses for eating disorders. PMID:27319605

  4. Personality disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000939.htm Personality disorders To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Personality disorders are a group of mental conditions in ...

  5. Personality disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Personality disorders are a group of mental conditions in which a person has a long-term pattern ... Causes of personality disorders are unknown. Genetic and environmental factors are thought to play a role. Mental health professionals categorize these ...

  6. Panic Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... panic disorder? Panic disorder is characterized by recurrent panic attacks—an uncontrollable and terrifying response to ordinary, nonthreatening ... is also persistent anxiety or fear about the panic attacks and changes in behavior in an attempt to ...

  7. Schizoaffective disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorder is thought to be less common than schizophrenia and mood disorders. Women may have the condition ... Complications are similar to those for schizophrenia and major mood ... therapy Problems due to manic behavior (for example, spending ...

  8. Metabolic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... as your liver, muscles, and body fat. A metabolic disorder occurs when abnormal chemical reactions in your body ... that produce the energy. You can develop a metabolic disorder when some organs, such as your liver or ...

  9. Personality Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and ...

  10. Personality Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors that ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and problems. ...

  11. Sleep Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard ... problems called parasomnias. There are treatments for most sleep disorders. Sometimes just having regular sleep habits can help.

  12. Mathematics disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001534.htm Mathematics disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Mathematics disorder is a condition in which a child's ...

  13. Tooth Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... These include eating, speaking and even smiling. But tooth disorders are nothing to smile about. They include problems ... with your teeth. Fortunately, you can prevent many tooth disorders by taking care of your teeth and keeping ...

  14. Praxis conversion utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, J.M.; Greenwood, J.R.; Shapiro, R.

    1981-12-02

    The Praxis Conversion Utilities are a set of Praxis routines which convert data objects to/from Ascii strings. For instance, the AsciiInteger function converts an array of characters to an integer value. These routines are implemented as a consistent set of utilities with complete control over the various formatting options and fill characters. Most of the parameters for each routine are optional such that they are easy to invoke for standard cases, yet allowing the detailed control when necessary.

  15. Direct conversion technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massier, P. F.; Bankston, C. P.; Fabris, G.; Kirol, L. D.

    1988-12-01

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1988 through December 1988. Research on these concepts was initiated during October 1987. In addition, status reviews and assessments are presented for thermomagnetic converter concepts and for thermoelastic converters (Nitinol heat engines). Reports prepared on previous occasions contain discussions on the following other direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic thermophotovoltaic and thermoacoustic; and also, more complete discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems. A tabulated summary of the various systems which have been reviewed thus far has been prepared. Some of the important technical research needs are listed and a schematic of each system is shown.

  16. Direct conversion technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massier, P. F.; Bankston, C. P.; Fabris, G.; Kirol, L. D.

    1988-01-01

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1988 through December 1988. Research on these concepts was initiated during October 1987. In addition, status reviews and assessments are presented for thermomagnetic converter concepts and for thermoelastic converters (Nitinol heat engines). Reports prepared on previous occasions contain discussions on the following other direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic thermophotovoltaic and thermoacoustic; and also, more complete discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems. A tabulated summary of the various systems which have been reviewed thus far has been prepared. Some of the important technical research needs are listed and a schematic of each system is shown.

  17. Bipolar Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearing, Melissa

    Bipolar disorder, a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in a person's mood, affects approximately one percent of the population. It commonly occurs in late adolescence and is often unrecognized. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder is made on the basis of symptoms, course of illness, and when possible, family history. Thoughts of suicide are…

  18. Affective Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Steven R. H.; Whisman, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a heterogeneous disorder with lifetime prevalence of "major depressive disorder" estimated to be 16.2%. Although the disorder is common and impairs functioning, it often goes untreated, with less than adequate response even when treated. We review research indicating the likely value of utilizing currently available, well-validated,…

  19. Conversion of Questionnaire Data

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC&A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC&A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC&A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC&A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC&A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A.D. Swain and H.E. Guttmann

  20. Crucial Conversations about America's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, John C.; Protheroe, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    It's up to school leaders to shift the momentum away from conversations based on misperceptions and toward those that study critical issues about school improvement. "Crucial Conversations About America's Schools" talks about how to do this and provides examples of how to reframe conversations on the hot-button but important topics of…

  1. The Personal Enjoyment of Conversation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Paul W.

    Conversation reminds us that we are not alone, that shared language is the opportunity to try on our many masks to see how many of them we can do without. The variety of pleasures accrued from conversation--"layers of pleasure"--deepen only as they move away from the individual orbits into the circle of mutual experience. When conversation is…

  2. Bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Grande, Iria; Berk, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Vieta, Eduard

    2016-04-01

    Bipolar disorder is a recurrent chronic disorder characterised by fluctuations in mood state and energy. It affects more than 1% of the world's population irrespective of nationality, ethnic origin, or socioeconomic status. Bipolar disorder is one of the main causes of disability among young people, leading to cognitive and functional impairment and raised mortality, particularly death by suicide. A high prevalence of psychiatric and medical comorbidities is typical in affected individuals. Accurate diagnosis of bipolar disorder is difficult in clinical practice because onset is most commonly a depressive episode and looks similar to unipolar depression. Moreover, there are currently no valid biomarkers for the disorder. Therefore, the role of clinical assessment remains key. Detection of hypomanic periods and longitudinal assessment are crucial to differentiate bipolar disorder from other conditions. Current knowledge of the evolving pharmacological and psychological strategies in bipolar disorder is of utmost importance. PMID:26388529

  3. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  4. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  5. Solar photothermophotovoltaic energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolf, L. D.

    A solar photothermophotovoltaic (PTPV) process for solar energy conversion is proposed in which concentrated solar radiation impinges on a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cell with a back surface reflector. The above band-gap blackbody radiation is converted into electricity, while the below band-gap radiation is reflected back to the blackbody. Computer modeling has shown the PTPV system to be much less sensitive to parasitic losses than a comparable TPV system, and to operate at a significantly lower blackbody absorber/emitter temperature. PTPV efficiency is also shown to be as much as 50 percent higher than that for a comparable photovoltaic system.

  6. Natural gas conversion process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The main objective is to design and operate a laboratory apparatus for the catalytic reforming of natural gas in order to provide data for a large-scale process. To accelerate the assembly and calibration of this equipment, a request has been made to the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for assistance, under the DOE's Industrial Visitor Exchange Program. Pr. Heinz Heinemann (Catalysis), Dr. John Apps (Geochemistry) and Dr. Robert Fulton (Mechanical Engineering) have expressed interest in supporting our request. Pr. Heinemann's recent results on the conversion of Petroleum Coke residues into CO2 and H2 mixtures using highly basic metal oxides catalysts, similar to ours, are very encouraging regarding the possibility of converting the Coke residue on our catalyst into Syngas in the Regenerator/riser, as proposed. To minimize Coke formation in the vapor phase, by the Plasmapyrolytic Methane Conversion reactions, the experimental data of H. Drost et al. (Ref. 12) have been reviewed. Work is underway to design equipment for the safe and non-polluting disposal of the two gaseous product streams of the flow loop. 2 refs.

  7. Energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, L.M.

    1985-09-16

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weathproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction and operational with a minimal power draw.

  8. Energy conversion system

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, Lawrence M.

    1987-01-01

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weatherproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction, and operational with a minimal power draw.

  9. Direct somatic lineage conversion.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Koji; Haag, Daniel; Wernig, Marius

    2015-10-19

    The predominant view of embryonic development and cell differentiation has been that rigid and even irreversible epigenetic marks are laid down along the path of cell specialization ensuring the proper silencing of unrelated lineage programmes. This model made the prediction that specialized cell types are stable and cannot be redirected into other lineages. Accordingly, early attempts to change the identity of somatic cells had little success and was limited to conversions between closely related cell types. Nuclear transplantation experiments demonstrated, however, that specialized cells even from adult mammals can be reprogrammed into a totipotent state. The discovery that a small combination of transcription factors can reprogramme cells to pluripotency without the need of oocytes further supported the view that these epigenetic barriers can be overcome much easier than assumed, but the extent of this flexibility was still unclear. When we showed that a differentiated mesodermal cell can be directly converted to a differentiated ectodermal cell without a pluripotent intermediate, it was suggested that in principle any cell type could be converted into any other cell type. Indeed, the work of several groups in recent years has provided many more examples of direct somatic lineage conversions. Today, the question is not anymore whether a specific cell type can be generated by direct reprogramming but how it can be induced. PMID:26416679

  10. Conversion program in Sweden

    SciTech Connect

    Jonsson, E.B.

    1997-08-01

    The conversion of the Swedish 50 MW R2 reactor from HEU to LEU fuel has been successfully accomplished over a 16 cycles long process. The conversion started in January 1991 with the introduction of 6 LEU assemblies in the 8*8 core. The first all LEU core was loaded in March 1993 and physics measurements were performed for the final licensing reports. A total of 142 LEU fuel assemblies have been irradiated up until September 1994 without any fuel incident. The operating licence for the R2 reactor was renewed in mid 1994 taking into account new fuel type. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) pointed out one crucial problem with the LEU operation, that the back end of the LEU fuel cycle has not yet been solved. For the HEU fuel Sweden had the reprocessing alternative. The country is now relying heavily on the success of the USDOEs Off Site Fuels Policy to take back the spent fuel from the research reactors. They have in the meantime increased their intermediate storage facilities. There is, however, a limit both in time and space for storage of MTR-type of assemblies in water. The penalty of the lower thermal neutron flux in LEU cores has been reduced by improvements of the new irradiation rigs and by fine tuning the core calculations. The Studsvik code package, CASMO-SIMULATE, widely used for ICFM in LWRs has been modified to suit the compact MTR type of core.

  11. Micromechanical power conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noworolski, J. Mark

    A new concept in power conversion, based on electromechanical energy storage, is developed. Mechanical energy storage using Silicon offers a 2 order of magnitude improvement in volumetric energy storage density over conventional approaches using magnetic components. Two broad classes of electromechanical power converter topologies are introduced and analyzed: resonant and boost. Both are shown to scale well to smaller electromechanical device dimensions. A novel self-aligned micromachined polysilicon on nitride (SAMPSON) process flow was developed to fabricate mumechanical devices suitable for the boost conversion function. The process utility includes simplified fabrication of conventional surface micromachined resonators. Calculations showed that well-designed boost converters can achieve step-up factors in excess of 10 while using only a single mumechanical device. Boost converter tests utilizing discrete devices and the fabricated mumechanical elements demonstrated a step-up factor of 1.7. Measurements conducted on representative test devices indicate that power densities an order of magnitude higher than those in conventional power converters are attainable.

  12. Mode conversion in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A.; Myra, J. R.

    2006-10-01

    Fast magnetosonic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) can convert to much shorter wavelength modes such as ion Bernstein waves (IBW) and ion cyclotron waves (ICW) [1]. These modes are potentially useful for plasma control through the generation of localized currents and sheared flows. As part of the SciDAC Center for Simulation of Wave-Plasma Interactions project, the AORSA global-wave solver [2] has been ported to the new, dual-core Cray XT-3 (Jaguar) at ORNL where it demonstrates excellent scaling with the number of processors. Preliminary calculations using 4096 processors have allowed the first full-wave simulations of mode conversion in ITER. Mode conversion from the fast wave to the ICW is observed in mixtures of deuterium, tritium and helium3 at 53 MHz. The resulting flow velocity and electric field shear will be calculated. [1] F.W. Perkins, Nucl. Fusion 17, 1197 (1977). [2] E.F. Jaeger, L.A. Berry, J.R. Myra, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 195001-1 (2003).

  13. [Eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Shishida, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Yasumasa

    2015-02-01

    Eating disorders are characterized by aberrant patterns of eating behavior, including such symptoms as extreme restriction of food intake or binge eating, and severe disturbances in the perception of body shape and weight, as well as a drive for thinness and obsessive fears of becoming fat. Eating disorder is an important cause for physical and psychosocial morbidity in young women. Patients with eating disorders have a deficit in the cognitive process and functional abnormalities in the brain system. Recently, brain-imaging techniques have been used to identify specific brain areas that function abnormally in patients with eating disorders. We have discussed the clinical and cognitive aspects of eating disorders and summarized neuroimaging studies of eating disorders. PMID:25681363

  14. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Rome, Ellen S

    2003-06-01

    Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorders not otherwise specified remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in girls and young women. Management of eating disorders typically requires a multidisciplinary team approach, often spear-headed by the clinician initially detecting the illness. This article addresses the definitions and prevalence of eating disorders, tips on recognition and management of medical complications, and reproductive health concerns for these young women. Issues surrounding care of the patient with the female athlete triad, or amenorrhea, osteopenia, and eating disorders, are also discussed. PMID:12836725

  15. Eosinophilic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... parasites , particularly ones that invade tissue, cause eosinophilia. Cancers that cause eosinophilia include Hodgkin lymphoma , leukemia , and myeloproliferative disorders . If the number of eosinophils is only ...

  16. Case Series: Outbreak of Conversion Disorder among Amish Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassady, Joslyn D.; Kirschke, David L.; Jones, Timothy F.; Craig, Allen S.; Bermudez, Ovidio B.; Schaffner, William

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Outbreak investigations are challenging in a cross-cultural context, and outbreaks of psychiatric disease are rare in any community. We investigated a cluster of unexplained debilitating illness among Amish girls. Method: We reviewed the medical records of cases, consulted with health care providers, performed active case finding,…

  17. Laser plasmadynamic energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimada, K.

    1976-01-01

    The generation of electrons ions by interacting an intense laser beam with cesium vapor is considered. Theoretical calculation shows that the conversion efficiency is as high as 40 percent if the entire photon energy is utilized in ionizing the cesium vapor that is generated initially by the incoming laser beam. An output voltage is expected to be generated across two electrodes, one of which is the liquid cesium, by keeping the other electrode at a different work function. Evaluation of the laser plasmadynamic (LPD) converter was performed using pulsed ruby and Nd-glass lasers. Although the results obtained to date indicate an efficiency smaller than that of theoretical predictions, an unoptimized LPD converter did demonstrate the capability of converting laser energy at large power levels. The limitations in the performance may by due to converter geometry, the types of lasers used, and other limitations inherent to the cesium plasma.

  18. Optomechanical down-conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeblacher, Simon; Hofer, Sebastian; Wieczorek, Witlef; Vanner, Michael; Hammerer, Klemens; Aspelmeyer, Markus

    2011-03-01

    One of the central interactions in quantum optics is two-mode squeezing, also known as down-conversion. It has been used in a multitude of pioneering experiments to demonstrate non-classical states of light and it is at the heart of generating quantum entanglement in optical fields. Here we demonstrate first experimental results towards the optomechanical analogue, in which an optical and a mechanical mode interact via a two-mode squeezing operation. In addition, we make use of the fact that large optomechanical coupling strengths provide access to an interaction regime beyond the rotating wave approximation. This allows for simultaneous cooling of the mechanical mode, which will eventually enable the preparation of pure initial mechanical states and is hence an important precondition to achieve the envisioned optomechanical entanglement.

  19. Gyroharmonic conversion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshfield, J. L.; LaPointe, M. A.; Ganguly, A. K.

    1999-05-07

    Generation of high power microwaves has been observed in experiments where a 250-350 kV, 20-30 A electron beam accelerated in a cyclotron autoresonance accelerator (CARA) passes through a cavity tuned gyroharmonic) and at 8.6 GHz (3rd harmonic) will be described. Theory indicates that high conversion efficiency can be obtained for a high quality beam injected into CARA, and when mode competition can be controlled. Comparisons will be made between the experiments and theory. Planned 7th harmonic experiments will also be described, in which phase matching between the TE-72 mode at 20 GHz, and the TE-11 mode at 2.86 GHz, allows efficient 20 GHz co-generation within the CARA waveguide itself.

  20. Gyroharmonic conversion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshfield, J.L.; LaPointe, M.A.; Ganguly, A.K.; LaPointe, M.A.

    1999-05-01

    Generation of high power microwaves has been observed in experiments where a 250{endash}350 kV, 20{endash}30 A electron beam accelerated in a cyclotron autoresonance accelerator (CARA) passes through a cavity tuned gyroharmonic) and at 8.6 GHz (3rd harmonic) will be described. Theory indicates that high conversion efficiency can be obtained for a high quality beam injected into CARA, and when mode competition can be controlled. Comparisons will be made between the experiments and theory. Planned 7th harmonic experiments will also be described, in which phase matching between the TE-72 mode at 20 GHz, and the TE-11 mode at 2.86 GHz, allows efficient 20 GHz co-generation within the CARA waveguide itself. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Automated FORTRAN conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aharonian, Gregory

    1986-01-01

    The most pratical solution to the conversion of FORTRAN to other programming languages which STO and a few others have adopted, uses an intermediate language that is easy to translate FORTRAN into, and allows for source codes in other languages to be generated automatically. The intermediate language is the union of all other programming languages (and the trick is to create a useful union) with some extensions that reflect the nature of the algorithms. The benefits of this approach are many. First the original FORTRAN program has to be rewritten only once, and then only parts of the program: most FORTRAN code passes through without and change (i.e., assignment and simple IF statements). Software tools are provided to ease this initial translation. Once in the intermediate language, the algorithm can then be obtained in any other language automatically. An example of a subroutine from the Rispack library in ten different languages is given.

  2. Power conversion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, M. A.

    1997-02-01

    The Power Conversion Technologies thrust area identifies and sponsors development activities that enhance the capabilities of engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the area of solid- state power electronics. Our primary objective is to be a resource to existing and emerging LLNL programs that require advanced solid-state power electronic technologies.. Our focus is on developing and integrating technologies that will significantly impact the capability, size, cost, and reliability of future power electronic systems. During FY-96, we concentrated our research efforts on the areas of (1) Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR); (2) novel solid-state opening switches; (3) advanced modulator technology for accelerators; (4) compact accelerators; and (5) compact pulse generators.

  3. Thermal Energy Conversion Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.

  4. Semantic pragmatic disorder with application of selected pragmatic concepts.

    PubMed

    Coulter, L

    1998-01-01

    Children with semantic pragmatic disorder have been described as having difficulties in conversational interaction. The content of their conversations has been described as 'odd', 'loose', tangential', 'irrelevant' and 'inappropriate' (Stubbs 1986). A diagnosis of semantic pragmatic disorder is currently made based on whether or not a child displays certain surface characteristics. The present study attempts to apply precision to the intuitive terms which have been used to describe these children's conversations. To this end conversation samples from three children identified by speech and language therapists as fitting the clinical diagnosis of semantic pragmatic disorder were analysed. Aspects of pragmatic theory which best explained the strengths and weaknesses which emerged in the conversations are discussed. Therefore this represents an essentially data driven study. PMID:10343733

  5. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... or digestive problems Problems sleeping, or wanting to sleep all of the time Feeling tired all of the time Thoughts about death and suicide Causes & Risk Factors What causes bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder may be caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain. It sometimes runs in ...

  6. Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Rachel G.

    2009-01-01

    Because of their high prevalence and their negative long-term consequences, child anxiety disorders have become an important focus of interest. Whether pathological anxiety and normal fear are similar processes continues to be controversial. Comparative studies of child anxiety disorders are scarce, but there is some support for the current…

  7. Anxiety Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickey, Marilyn

    Anxiey, in general, helps one to cope. It rouses a person to action and gears one up to face a threatening situation. It makes students study harder for exams, and keeps presenters on their toes when making speeches. But an anxiety disorder can prevent one from coping and can disrupt daily life. Anxiety disorders are not just a case of "nerves,"…

  8. EATING DISORDERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are complex disorders that are often perplexing to therapists and difficult to manage. The purpose of this chapter is to review the history, nature, etiology, and treatment of these disorders, as well as to provide a brief introduction to the proposed d...

  9. PDB to AMPL Conversion

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-09-01

    PDB to AMPL Conversion was written to convert protein data base files to AMPL files. The protein data bases on the internet contain a wealth of information about the structue and makeup of proteins. Each file contains information derived by one or more experiments and contains information on how the experiment waw performed, the amino acid building blocks of each chain, and often the three-dimensional structure of the protein extracted from the experiments. The waymore » a protein folds determines much about its function. Thus, studying the three-dimensional structure of the protein is of great interest. Analysing the contact maps is one way to examine the structure. A contact map is a graph which has a linear back bone of amino acids for nodes (i.e., adjacent amino acids are always connected) and vertices between non-adjacent nodes if they are close enough to be considered in contact. If the graphs are similar then the folds of the protein and their function should also be similar. This software extracts the contact maps from a protein data base file and puts in into AMPL data format. This format is designed for use in AMPL, a programming language for simplifying linear programming formulations.« less

  10. Geothermal energy conversion facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1997-12-31

    With the termination of favorable electricity generation pricing policies, the geothermal industry is exploring ways to improve the efficiency of existing plants and make them more cost-competitive with natural gas. The Geothermal Energy Conversion Facility (GECF) at NREL will allow researchers to study various means for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of binary cycle geothermal plants. This work has received considerable support from the US geothermal industry and will be done in collaboration with industry members and utilities. The GECF is being constructed on NREL property at the top of South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado. As shown in Figure 1, it consists of an electrically heated hot water loop that provides heating to a heater/vaporizer in which the working fluid vaporizes at supercritical or subcritical pressures as high as 700 psia. Both an air-cooled and water-cooled condenser will be available for condensing the working fluid. In order to minimize construction costs, available equipment from the similar INEL Heat Cycle Research Facility is being utilized.

  11. Static Scale Conversion (SSC)

    SciTech Connect

    2007-01-19

    The Static Scale Conversion (SSC) software is a unique enhancement to the AIMVEE system. It enables a SSC to weigh and measure vehicles and cargo dynamically (i.e., as they pass over the large scale. Included in the software is the AIMVEE computer code base. The SSC and AIMVEE computer system electronically continue to retrieve deployment information, identify vehicle automatically and determine total weight, individual axle weights, axle spacing and center-of-balance for any wheeled vehicle in motion. The AIMVEE computer code system can also perform these functions statically for both wheel vehicles and cargo with information. The AIMVEE computer code system incorporates digital images and applies cubing algorithms to determine length, width, height for cubic dimensions of both vehicle and cargo. Once all this information is stored, it electronically links to data collection and dissemination systems to provide “actual” weight and measurement information for planning, deployment, and in-transit visibility.

  12. Microbial conversion of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, R.M. )

    1989-10-01

    The objectives of this project were to describe in detail the degradation of coals by fungi and microbes, to expand the range of applicability of the process to include new microbes and other coal types, to identify the means by which biosolubilization of coal is accomplished, and to explore means to enhance the rates and extent of coal bioconversion. The project was initiated in a response to the discovery by Dr. Martin Cohen at the University of Hartford, of a fungal strain of Coriolus versicolor that would render a solid coal substance, leonardite, into a liquid product. The project has identified the principal agent of leonardite solubilization as a powerful metal chelator, most likely a fungal-produced siderophore. Another nonlaccase enzyme has also been identified as a unique biosolubilizing agent produced by C. versicolor. Assays were developed for the quantitative determination of biological coal conversion, and for the determination of potency of biosolubilizing agent. Screening studies uncovered several microbial organisms capable of coal biodegradation, and led to the discovery that prolonged heating in air at the moderate temperature of 150{degree}C allowed the biodegradation of Illinois {number sign}6 coal to material soluble in dilute base. Chemical studies showed that leonardite biosolubilization was accompanied by relatively small change in composition, while solubilization of Illinois {number sign}6 coal involves considerable oxidation of the coal. 24 refs., 32 figs., 27 tabs.

  13. Static Scale Conversion (SSC)

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-01-19

    The Static Scale Conversion (SSC) software is a unique enhancement to the AIMVEE system. It enables a SSC to weigh and measure vehicles and cargo dynamically (i.e., as they pass over the large scale. Included in the software is the AIMVEE computer code base. The SSC and AIMVEE computer system electronically continue to retrieve deployment information, identify vehicle automatically and determine total weight, individual axle weights, axle spacing and center-of-balance for any wheeled vehicle inmore » motion. The AIMVEE computer code system can also perform these functions statically for both wheel vehicles and cargo with information. The AIMVEE computer code system incorporates digital images and applies cubing algorithms to determine length, width, height for cubic dimensions of both vehicle and cargo. Once all this information is stored, it electronically links to data collection and dissemination systems to provide “actual” weight and measurement information for planning, deployment, and in-transit visibility.« less

  14. GPU color space conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, Patrick; Vondran, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Tetrahedral interpolation is commonly used to implement continuous color space conversions from sparse 3D and 4D lookup tables. We investigate the implementation and optimization of tetrahedral interpolation algorithms for GPUs, and compare to the best known CPU implementations as well as to a well known GPU-based trilinear implementation. We show that a 500 NVIDIA GTX-580 GPU is 3x faster than a 1000 Intel Core i7 980X CPU for 3D interpolation, and 9x faster for 4D interpolation. Performance-relevant GPU attributes are explored including thread scheduling, local memory characteristics, global memory hierarchy, and cache behaviors. We consider existing tetrahedral interpolation algorithms and tune based on the structure and branching capabilities of current GPUs. Global memory performance is improved by reordering and expanding the lookup table to ensure optimal access behaviors. Per multiprocessor local memory is exploited to implement optimally coalesced global memory accesses, and local memory addressing is optimized to minimize bank conflicts. We explore the impacts of lookup table density upon computation and memory access costs. Also presented are CPU-based 3D and 4D interpolators, using SSE vector operations that are faster than any previously published solution.

  15. Record Conversion at Oregon State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Deane

    1985-01-01

    Describes the conversion of card catalog records at William Jasper Kerr Library, Oregon State University, to an online system. Discussion covers the use of OCLC and student assistants, procedures and specifications, and problems associated with massive retrospective conversion needs and uncertain budget allocations. Eight sources are recommended.…

  16. Career Conversations in Vocational Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mittendorff, Kariene; den Brok, Perry; Beijaard, Douwe

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine career conversations between teachers and students in competence-based vocational education in the Netherlands. A total of 32 career conversations were observed and analysed with respect to four elements: content, teacher activities, student activities and relationship. Results showed that career…

  17. Children's Understanding of Conversational Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conti, Daniel J.; Camras, Linda A.

    1984-01-01

    Investigates the development of awareness of conversational principles in preschool, first-, and third-grade children by presenting them with short stories ending with a verbal statement by a story character. Results suggest that children's understanding of conversational principles improves considerably between preschool and first grade.…

  18. Faculty Meetings: Hidden Conversational Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    In the everydayness of faculty meetings, collegial conversations mirror distinctive dynamics and practices, which either enhance or undercut organizational effectiveness. A cluster of conversational practices affect how colleagues connect, engage, interact, and influence others during faculty meetings in diverse educational settings. The…

  19. Conversational Competence in Academic Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Conversational competence is a process, not a state. Ithaca does not exist, only the voyage to Ithaca. Vibrant campuses are a series of productive conversations. At its core, communicative competence in academic settings mirrors a collective search for meaning regarding the purpose and direction of a campus community. Communicative competence…

  20. Disorderly Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Ivars

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between theories about electrical conductivity in microscopic wires and laser speckle patterns is described. Practical applications of laser speckle patterns are included. Wave ideas are being used to describe and predict novel phenomena in disordered solids. (KR)

  1. Voice Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... make you hoarse. They can also lead to problems such as nodules, polyps, and sores on the ... disorders varies depending on the cause. Most voice problems can be successfully treated when diagnosed early. NIH: ...

  2. Mathematics disorder

    MedlinePlus

    The child may have problems in school, including behavior problems and loss of self-esteem. Some children with mathematics disorder become anxious or afraid when given math problems, making the problem even worse.

  3. Psychotic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe mental disorders that cause abnormal thinking and perceptions. People with psychoses lose touch with reality. Two ... is sending you secret messages. Hallucinations are false perceptions, such as hearing, seeing, or feeling something that ...

  4. Taste Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... combine with a food’s aroma to produce a perception of flavor. It is flavor that lets you ... The most common taste disorder is phantom taste perception : a lingering, often unpleasant taste even though there ...

  5. Corneal Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Injuries Dystrophies - conditions in which parts of the cornea lose clarity due to a buildup of cloudy material Treatments of corneal disorders include medicines, corneal transplantation, and corneal laser surgery. NIH: National Eye Institute

  6. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood and prevent ...

  7. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... and friends again. Eating disorders involve both the mind and body. So medical doctors, mental health professionals, and dietitians ...

  8. TMJ Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the popular belief that a bad bite or orthodontic braces can trigger TMJ disorders. There is no ... effective – and may make the problem worse – include orthodontics to change the bite; crown and bridge work ...

  9. Conduct disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Disruptive behavior - child; Impulse control problem - child ... Conduct disorder has been linked to: Child abuse Drug or alcohol abuse in the parents Family conflicts Genetic defects Poverty The diagnosis is more common among boys. It is ...

  10. Panic Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a type of anxiety disorder. It causes panic attacks, which are sudden feelings of terror when there ... or a cold chill Tingly or numb hands Panic attacks can happen anytime, anywhere, and without warning. You ...

  11. Sleep Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  12. Anxiety Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... a sense of unease) to severe (frequent, disabling panic attacks). Severe anxiety disorders can lead the person to ... More Are there medications that can help with panic attacks? Yes. There are many medications that have FDA ...

  13. Parathyroid Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... much phosphorous. Causes include injury to the glands, endocrine disorders, or genetic conditions. Treatment is aimed at restoring the balance of calcium and phosphorous. NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

  14. Bleeding disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... which there is a problem with the body's blood clotting process. These disorders can lead to heavy and ... II, and III) Causes Watch this video about: Blood clotting Normal blood clotting involves blood components called platelets ...

  15. Bleeding disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... which there is a problem with the body's blood clotting process. These disorders can lead to heavy and ... Normal blood clotting involves blood components called platelets and as many as 20 different plasma proteins. These are known as ...

  16. Peritoneal Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your peritoneum is the tissue that lines your abdominal wall and covers most of the organs in your abdomen. ... the surface of this tissue. Disorders of the peritoneum are not common. They include Peritonitis - an inflammation ...

  17. Tooth Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... made of a hard, bonelike material. Inside the tooth are nerves and blood vessels. You need your ... These include eating, speaking and even smiling. But tooth disorders are nothing to smile about. They include ...

  18. Eosinophilic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... and play a role in your body's immune response. They can also build up and cause inflammation. ... Your body may produce more of them in response to Allergic disorders Skin conditions Parasitic and fungal ...

  19. Panic Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... by recurrent episodes of paralyzing fear, known as panic attacks. Panic disorder, which affects three million to six ... Americans, typically surfaces between ages fifteen and nineteen. Panic attacks may be precipitated by specific events, but they ...

  20. Learning Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... age. About one-third of children who have learning disabilities also have ADHD, which makes it hard to focus. Evaluation and testing by a trained professional can help identify a learning disorder. The next step is special education, which ...

  1. Muscle Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  2. Muscle disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Myopathic changes; Myopathy; Muscle problem ... Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs ...

  3. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... health professional before making a commitment. Learn More Free Booklets and Brochures Bipolar Disorder: A brochure on ... in the public domain and available for use free of charge. Citation of the NIMH is appreciated. ...

  4. Autoimmune disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... exact cause of autoimmune disorders is unknown. One theory is that some microorganisms (such as bacteria or viruses) or drugs may trigger changes that confuse the immune system. This may happen ...

  5. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder among Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...

  6. Petite fabrique de conversation francaise (Little Factory of French Conversation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubroca, Danielle

    1987-01-01

    A technique using dialogues and realistic prose passages from the works of Georges Simenon and Simone de Beauvoir to teach French conversational skills at the college level is explained and illustrated. (MSE)

  7. Roadmap on optical energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Green, Martin A.; Catchpole, Kylie; Yablonovitch, Eli; Beard, Matthew C.; Okada, Yoshitaka; Lany, Stephan; Gershon, Talia; Zakutayev, Andriy; Tahersima, Mohammad H.; Sorger, Volker J.; Naughton, Michael J.; Kempa, Krzysztof; Dagenais, Mario; Yao, Yuan; Xu, Lu; Sheng, Xing; Bronstein, Noah D.; Rogers, John A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Gordon, Jeffrey M.; Wu, Di M.; Wisser, Michael D.; Salleo, Alberto; Dionne, Jennifer; Bermel, Peter; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Manor, Assaf; Rotschild, Carmel; Raman, Aaswath; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Chen, Gang

    2016-07-01

    For decades, progress in the field of optical (including solar) energy conversion was dominated by advances in the conventional concentrating optics and materials design. In recent years, however, conceptual and technological breakthroughs in the fields of nanophotonics and plasmonics combined with a better understanding of the thermodynamics of the photon energy-conversion processes reshaped the landscape of energy-conversion schemes and devices. Nanostructured devices and materials that make use of size quantization effects to manipulate photon density of states offer a way to overcome the conventional light absorption limits. Novel optical spectrum splitting and photon-recycling schemes reduce the entropy production in the optical energy-conversion platforms and boost their efficiencies. Optical design concepts are rapidly expanding into the infrared energy band, offering new approaches to harvest waste heat, to reduce the thermal emission losses, and to achieve noncontact radiative cooling of solar cells as well as of optical and electronic circuitries. Light–matter interaction enabled by nanophotonics and plasmonics underlie the performance of the third- and fourth-generation energy-conversion devices, including up- and down-conversion of photon energy, near-field radiative energy transfer, and hot electron generation and harvesting. Finally, the increased market penetration of alternative solar energy-conversion technologies amplifies the role of cost-driven and environmental considerations. This roadmap on optical energy conversion provides a snapshot of the state of the art in optical energy conversion, remaining challenges, and most promising approaches to address these challenges. Leading experts authored 19 focused short sections of the roadmap where they share their vision on a specific aspect of this burgeoning research field. The roadmap opens up with a tutorial section, which introduces major concepts and terminology. It is our hope that the

  8. Speech disorders - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... deficiency; Voice disorders; Vocal disorders; Disfluency; Communication disorder - speech disorder ... The following tests can help diagnose speech disorders: Denver ... Peabody Picture Test Revised A hearing test may also be done.

  9. Illness anxiety disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Somatic symptom disorder; Somatic symptom and related disorders; Hypochondriasis ... Illness anxiety disorder is different from somatic symptom disorder. With somatic symptom disorder, the person has physical pain or other ...

  10. Somatic symptom disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders; Somatization disorder; Somatiform disorders; Briquet syndrome; Illness anxiety disorder ... and emotionally sensitive to pain and other sensations Family ... to illness anxiety disorder . This is when a person is overly ...

  11. Energy conversion and storage program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-12-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemical and chemical engineering principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels; (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy storage; (4) characterization of complex chemical processes; and (5) the application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, and advanced methods of analysis. The following five areas are discussed: electrochemical energy storage and conversion; microstructured materials; biotechnology; fossil fuels; and high temperature superconducting processing. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  12. Problematic boundaries in the diagnosis of bipolar disorder: the interface with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Mark; Morgan, Theresa A

    2013-12-01

    It is clinically important to recognize both bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in patients seeking treatment for depression, and it is important to distinguish between the two. The most studied question on the relationship between BPD and bipolar disorder is their diagnostic concordance. Across studies approximately 10 % of patients with BPD had bipolar I disorder and another 10 % had bipolar II disorder. Likewise, approximately 20 % of bipolar II patients were diagnosed with BPD, though only 10 % of bipolar I patients were diagnosed with BPD. While the comorbidity rates are substantial, each disorder is, nonetheless, diagnosed in the absence of the other in the vast majority of cases (80-90 %). In studies examining personality disorders broadly, other personality disorders were more commonly diagnosed in bipolar patients than was BPD. Likewise, the converse is also true: other axis I disorders such as major depression, substance abuse, and post-traumatic stress disorder are more commonly diagnosed in patients with BPD than is bipolar disorder. Studies comparing patients with BPD and bipolar disorder find significant differences on a range of variables. These findings challenge the notion that BPD is part of the bipolar spectrum. While a substantial literature has documented problems with the under-recognition and under-diagnosis of bipolar disorder, more recent studies have found evidence of bipolar disorder over-diagnosis and that BPD is a significant contributor to over-diagnosis. Re-conceptualizing the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition, diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorder as a type of test, rather than the final word on diagnosis, shifts the diagnostician from thinking solely whether a patient does or does not have a disorder to considering the risks of false-positive and false-negative diagnoses, and the ease by which each type of diagnostic error can be corrected by longitudinal observation

  13. Bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Frederick K.; Ghaemi, S. Nassir

    1999-01-01

    Bipolar disorder's unique combination of three characteristics - clear genetic diathesis, distinctive clinical features, early availability of an effective treatment (lithium) - explains its special place in the history of psychiatry and its contribution to the current explosive growth of neuroscience. This article looks at the state of the art in bipolar disorder from the vantage point of: (i) genetics (possible linkages on chromosomes 18 and 21q, polygenic hypothesis, research into genetic markers); (ii) diagnosis (new focus on the subjective aspects of bipolar disorder to offset the current trend of underdiagnosis due to overreliance on standardized interviews and rating scales); (iii) outcome (increase in treatment-resistant forms signaling a change in the natural history of bipolar disorder); (iv) pathophysiology (research into circadian biological rhythms and the kindling hypothesis to explain recurrence); (v) treatment (emergence of the anticonvulsants, suggested role of chronic antidepressant treatment in the development of treatment resistance); (vi) neurobiology (evaluation of regulatory function in relation to affective disturbances, role of postsynaptic second-messenger mechanisms, advances in functional neuroimaging); and (vii) psychosocial research (shedding overly dualistic theories of the past to understand the mind and brain as an entity, thus emphasizing the importance of balancing the psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches). Future progress in the understanding and treatment of bipolar disorder will rely on successful integration of the biological and psychosocial lines of investigation. PMID:22033232

  14. A Conversation Well Worth Remembering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolven-Allen, John

    2009-01-01

    To mark the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth, a special event was held at Oxford, which included a "Conversation" between Professor Richard Dawkins and Bishop Richard Harries. Here we present a personal reminiscence of the event.

  15. Effective communication during difficult conversations.

    PubMed

    Polito, Jacquelyn M

    2013-06-01

    A strong interest and need exist in the workplace today to master the skills of conducting difficult conversations. Theories and strategies abound, yet none seem to have found the magic formula with universal appeal and success. If it is such an uncomfortable skill to master is it better to avoid or initiate such conversations with employees? Best practices and evidence-based management guide us to the decision that quality improvement dictates effective communication, even when difficult. This brief paper will offer some suggestions for strategies to manage difficult conversations with employees. Mastering the skills of conducting difficult conversations is clearly important to keeping lines of communication open and productive. Successful communication skills may actually help to avert confrontation through employee engagement, commitment and appropriate corresponding behavior PMID:23833841

  16. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    DOEpatents

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  17. Gastroduodenal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Stanghellini, Vincenzo; Chan, Francis K L; Hasler, William L; Malagelada, Juan R; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Tack, Jan; Talley, Nicholas J

    2016-05-01

    Symptoms that can be attributed to the gastroduodenal region represent one of the main subgroups among functional gastrointestinal disorders. A slightly modified classification into the following 4 categories is proposed: (1) functional dyspepsia, characterized by 1 or more of the following: postprandial fullness, early satiation, epigastric pain, and epigastric burning, which are unexplained after a routine clinical evaluation; and includes 2 subcategories: postprandial distress syndrome that is characterized by meal-induced dyspeptic symptoms and epigastric pain syndrome that does not occur exclusively postprandially; the 2 subgroups can overlap; (2) belching disorders, defined as audible escapes of air from the esophagus or the stomach, are classified into 2 subcategories, depending on the origin of the refluxed gas as detected by intraluminal impedance measurement belching: gastric and supragastric belch; (3) nausea and vomiting disorders, which include 3 subcategories: chronic nausea and vomiting syndrome; cyclic vomiting syndrome; and cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome; and (4) rumination syndrome. PMID:27147122

  18. Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gucciardi, Enza; Celasun, Nalan; Ahmad, Farah; Stewart, Donna E

    2004-01-01

    Health Issue Eating disorders are an increasing public health problem among young women. Anorexia and bulimia may give rise to serious physical conditions such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. Key Issues Eating disorders are primarily a problem among women. In Ontario in 1995, over 90% of reported hospitalized cases of anorexia and bulimia were women. In addition to eating disorders, preoccupation with weight, body image and self-concept disturbances, are more prevalent among women than men. Women with eating disorders are also at risk for long-term psychological and social problems, including depression, anxiety, substance abuse and suicide. For instance, in 2000, the prevalence of depression among women who were hospitalized with a diagnosis of anorexia (11.5%) or bulimia (15.4 %) was more than twice the rate of depression (5.7 %) among the general population of Canadian women. The highest incidence of depression was found in women aged 25 to 39 years for both anorexia and bulimia. Data Gaps and Recommendations Hospitalization data are the most recent and accessible information available. However, this data captures only the more severe cases. It does not include the individuals with eating disorders who may visit clinics or family doctors, or use hospital outpatient services or no services at all. Currently, there is no process for collecting this information systematically across Canada; consequently, the number of cases obtained from hospitalization data is underestimated. Other limitations noted during the literature review include the overuse of clinical samples, lack of longitudinal data, appropriate comparison groups, large samples, and ethnic group analysis. PMID:15345084

  19. [Headache disorders].

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Takao; Kikui, Shoji

    2013-09-01

    Primary headache disorders such as migraine, tension-type headache, and cluster headache are prevalent and disabling neurological disorders. Although most headache disorders are largely treatable, they are under-recognized, under-diagnosed, and under-treated. Many headache sufferers in Japan do not receive appropriate and effective health care; hence, the illness, which should be relieved, persists and acts as an individual and societal burden. One of the barriers most responsible for this is poor awareness of the disorders. For lifting the burden, health care must be improved. Education is an essential way to resolve these issues at multiple levels. We have a Japanese version of the international headache classification and diagnostic criteria II (ICHD-II) and guidelines for the management of chronic headaches. Utilization of these resources is key for the improvement of headache management in our country. Not only neurologists, but also neurosurgeons and other medical specialists are participating in headache care in Japan. The Japanese Headache Society and the Japanese Society for Neurology should play major roles in health care service, education programs, as well as clinical and basic research for headache disorders. The road map for realizing our aim on headache treatment is as follows: (1) increase the number of units concerning headache in lectures for medical students, implement training programs for residents and neurologists, and offer continuous medical educations for physicians and neurologists; (2) secure more funding for headache research; (3) propagate medical care for headache in primary care settings and regional fundamental hospitals; (4) reform the health care system for headache and incentivize appropriate compensation for headache care in public health insurance; and (5) spread appropriate information on medical and socio-ethical issues related to headache for the sufferers and citizens. The authors expect that many neurologists have an

  20. Frequency conversion of structured light

    PubMed Central

    Steinlechner, Fabian; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Pruneri, Valerio; Torres, Juan P.

    2016-01-01

    Coherent frequency conversion of structured light, i.e. the ability to manipulate the carrier frequency of a wave front without distorting its spatial phase and intensity profile, provides the opportunity for numerous novel applications in photonic technology and fundamental science. In particular, frequency conversion of spatial modes carrying orbital angular momentum can be exploited in sub-wavelength resolution nano-optics and coherent imaging at a wavelength different from that used to illuminate an object. Moreover, coherent frequency conversion will be crucial for interfacing information stored in the high-dimensional spatial structure of single and entangled photons with various constituents of quantum networks. In this work, we demonstrate frequency conversion of structured light from the near infrared (803 nm) to the visible (527 nm). The conversion scheme is based on sum-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal pumped with a 1540-nm Gaussian beam. We observe frequency-converted fields that exhibit a high degree of similarity with the input field and verify the coherence of the frequency-conversion process via mode projection measurements with a phase mask and a single-mode fiber. Our results demonstrate the suitability of exploiting the technique for applications in quantum information processing and coherent imaging. PMID:26875448

  1. Frequency conversion of structured light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinlechner, Fabian; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Pruneri, Valerio; Torres, Juan P.

    2016-02-01

    Coherent frequency conversion of structured light, i.e. the ability to manipulate the carrier frequency of a wave front without distorting its spatial phase and intensity profile, provides the opportunity for numerous novel applications in photonic technology and fundamental science. In particular, frequency conversion of spatial modes carrying orbital angular momentum can be exploited in sub-wavelength resolution nano-optics and coherent imaging at a wavelength different from that used to illuminate an object. Moreover, coherent frequency conversion will be crucial for interfacing information stored in the high-dimensional spatial structure of single and entangled photons with various constituents of quantum networks. In this work, we demonstrate frequency conversion of structured light from the near infrared (803 nm) to the visible (527 nm). The conversion scheme is based on sum-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal pumped with a 1540-nm Gaussian beam. We observe frequency-converted fields that exhibit a high degree of similarity with the input field and verify the coherence of the frequency-conversion process via mode projection measurements with a phase mask and a single-mode fiber. Our results demonstrate the suitability of exploiting the technique for applications in quantum information processing and coherent imaging.

  2. Frequency conversion of structured light.

    PubMed

    Steinlechner, Fabian; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Pruneri, Valerio; Torres, Juan P

    2016-01-01

    Coherent frequency conversion of structured light, i.e. the ability to manipulate the carrier frequency of a wave front without distorting its spatial phase and intensity profile, provides the opportunity for numerous novel applications in photonic technology and fundamental science. In particular, frequency conversion of spatial modes carrying orbital angular momentum can be exploited in sub-wavelength resolution nano-optics and coherent imaging at a wavelength different from that used to illuminate an object. Moreover, coherent frequency conversion will be crucial for interfacing information stored in the high-dimensional spatial structure of single and entangled photons with various constituents of quantum networks. In this work, we demonstrate frequency conversion of structured light from the near infrared (803 nm) to the visible (527 nm). The conversion scheme is based on sum-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal pumped with a 1540-nm Gaussian beam. We observe frequency-converted fields that exhibit a high degree of similarity with the input field and verify the coherence of the frequency-conversion process via mode projection measurements with a phase mask and a single-mode fiber. Our results demonstrate the suitability of exploiting the technique for applications in quantum information processing and coherent imaging. PMID:26875448

  3. Schizophrenic thought disorder. A psychological and organic interpretation.

    PubMed

    Cutting, J; Murphy, D

    1988-03-01

    It is suggested that schizophrenic thought disorder comprises four relatively independent components: delusion; intrinsic thinking disturbance; formal thought disorder; and deficient real-world knowledge--a new concept. Schizophrenic and neurotic control subjects were given tests of thinking, perception, appreciation of conversational discourse, and social and practical knowledge. Not all deluded schizophrenics had intrinsic thinking disturbance. Those that did tended to have overinclusive categorisation as the most apparent deficit. Formal thought disorder was associated with a poor performance on the test of conversational discourse. The most striking result was that 75% of schizophrenic patients were markedly deficient, relative to neurotic patients, on their knowledge of everyday social issues. PMID:3167363

  4. Penis Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Problems with the penis can cause pain and affect a man's sexual function and fertility. Penis disorders include Erectile dysfunction - inability to get or ... not go away Peyronie's disease - bending of the penis during an erection due to a hard lump ...

  5. Myeloproliferative disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gilliland, D. Gary

    2008-01-01

    In 1951 William Dameshek classified polycythemia vera (PV), essential thombocytosis (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) as pathogenetically related myeloproliferative disorders (MPD). Subsequent studies demonstrated that PV, ET, and PMF are clonal disorders of multipotent hematopoietic progenitors. In 2005, a somatic activating mutation in the JAK2 nonreceptor tyrosine kinase (JAK2V617F) was identified in most patients with PV and in a significant proportion of patients with ET and PMF. Subsequent studies identified additional mutations in the JAK-STAT pathway in some patients with JAK2V617F− MPD, suggesting that constitutive activation of this signaling pathway is a unifying feature of these disorders. Although the discovery of mutations in the JAK-STAT pathway is important from a pathogenetic and diagnostic perspective, important questions remain regarding the role of this single disease allele in 3 related but clinically distinct disorders, and the role of additional genetic events in MPD disease pathogenesis. In addition, these observations provide a foundation for development of small molecule inhibitors of JAK2 that are currently being tested in clinical trials. This review will discuss our understanding of the pathogenesis of PV, ET, and PMF, the potential role of JAK2-targeted therapy, and the important unanswered questions that need to be addressed to improve clinical outcome. PMID:18779404

  6. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... might cause your mood changes. If not treated, bipolar disorder can lead to damaged relationships, poor job or school performance, and even suicide. However, there are effective treatments to control symptoms: medicine and talk therapy. A combination usually works best. NIH: National Institute ...

  7. Mental Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... and family history may play a role. Your life experiences, such as stress or a history of abuse, may also matter. Biological factors can also be part of the cause. A traumatic brain injury can lead to a mental disorder. A mother's exposure to viruses or toxic chemicals while pregnant may play a ...

  8. Adjustment disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Mental Disorders Stress Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission ... for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D. ...

  9. Growth Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Thyroid Disorders Your Endocrine System Going to the Doctor I'm Growing Up - But Am I Normal? Feeling Too Tall or Too Short What a Pain! Kids and Growing ... Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com

  10. Eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Kontić, Olga; Vasiljević, Nadja; Trisović, Marija; Jorga, Jagoda; Lakić, Aneta; Gasić, Miroslava Jasović

    2012-01-01

    Eating disorders are considered chronic diseases of civilization. The most studied and well known are anorexia and bulimia nervosa. Anorexia is considered one of the most common psychiatric problems of girls in puberty and adolescence. Due to high mortality and morbidity as well as the increasing expansion of these diseases, it is clear why the amount of research on these diseases is growing worldwide. Eating disorders lead to numerous medical complications, mostly due to late diagnosis. The main characteristic of these diseases is changed behavior in the nutrition, either as an intentional restriction of food, i.e. extreme dieting, or overeating, i.e. binge eating. Extreme dieting, skipping meals, self-induced vomiting, excessive exercise, and misuse of laxatives and diuretics for the purpose of maintaining or reducing body weight are characteristic forms of compensatory behavior of patients with eating disorder. The most appropriate course of treatment is determined by evaluating the patient's health condition, associated with behavior and eating habits, the experience of one's own body, character traits of personality, and consequently the development and functioning of the individual. The final treatment plan is individual. Eating disorders are a growing medical problem even in this part of the world. Prevention should be planned in cooperation with different sectors so as to stop the epidemic of these diseases. PMID:23289290

  11. Other Disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental conditions, such as wind, water, and temperature, or genetic disorders can affect beet production but can also cause symptoms that may be confused with those associated with pest or disease damage. Listed below are some the potential abiotic stresses that may occur to beet but are unr...

  12. Eating disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of eating disorders is increasing, and health care professionals are faced with the difficult task of treating these refractory conditions. The first clinical description of anorexia nervosa (AN) was reported in 1694 and included symptoms such as decreased appetite, amenorrhea, food av...

  13. Dysthymic Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... depression, it appears to be more common in women. Causes & Risk Factors What causes dysthymic disorder? No one knows for sure what causes dysthymia. It may be related to some changes in the brain that involve a chemical called serotonin (say: seer-uh-tone-in). Serotonin helps your ...

  14. Analysis of internal conversion coefficients

    PubMed

    Coursol; Gorozhankin; Yakushev; Briancon; Vylov

    2000-03-01

    An extensive database has been assembled that contains the three most widely used sets of calculated internal conversion coefficients (ICC): [Hager R.S., Seltzer E.C., 1968. Internal conversion tables. K-, L-, M-shell Conversion coefficients for Z = 30 to Z = 103, Nucl. Data Tables A4, 1-237; Band I.M., Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1978. Tables of gamma-ray internal conversion coefficients for the K-, L- and M-shells, 10 < or = Z < or = 104, Special Report of Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute; Rosel F., Fries H.M., Alder K., Pauli H.C., 1978. Internal conversion coefficients for all atomic shells, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 21, 91-289] and also includes new Dirac Fock calculations [Band I.M. and Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1993. Internal conversion coefficients for low-energy nuclear transitions, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 55, 43-61]. This database is linked to a computer program to plot ICCs and their combinations (sums and ratios) as a function of Z and energy, as well as relative deviations of ICC or their combinations for any pair of tabulated data. Examples of these analyses are presented for the K-shell and total ICCs of the gamma-ray standards [Hansen H.H., 1985. Evaluation of K-shell and total internal conversion coefficients for some selected nuclear transitions, Eur. Appl. Res. Rept. Nucl. Sci. Tech. 11.6 (4) 777-816] and for the K-shell and total ICCs of high multipolarity transitions (total, K-, L-, M-shells of E3 and M3 and K-shell of M4). Experimental data sets are also compared with the theoretical values of these specific calculations. PMID:10724406

  15. Autism and related disorders.

    PubMed

    McPartland, James; Volkmar, Fred R

    2012-01-01

    The pervasive developmental disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that include autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD), and Rett's disorder. All feature childhood onset with a constellation of symptoms spanning social interaction and communication and including atypical behavior patterns. The first three disorders (autistic disorder, Asperger's disorder, and PDD-NOS) are currently referred to as autism spectrum disorders, reflecting divergent phenotypic and etiological characteristics compared to Rett's disorder and CDD. This chapter reviews research and clinical information to appropriate medical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22608634

  16. Autism and Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    McPartland, James; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2012-01-01

    The Pervasive Developmental Disorders are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that include Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, Pervasive Developmental Disorder - Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS), Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD), and Rett’s Disorder. All feature childhood onset with a constellation of symptoms spanning social interaction and communication and including atypical behavior patterns. The first three disorders (Autistic Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder, and PDD-NOS) are currently referred to as Autism Spectrum Disorders, reflecting divergent phenotypic and etiologic characteristics compared to Rett’s Disorder and CDD. This chapter reviews relevant research and clinical information relevant to appropriate medical diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22608634

  17. Somatic symptom disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorder References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, 2013. Ferri F. Somatization disorder. In: Ferri FF, ...

  18. Anxiety Disorders: Support Groups

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anxiety Disorder Treating Anxiety Disorders: Educational Videos Clinical Practice Review for Major Depressive Disorder Meetings & Events Mental Health Apps Announcements Awards Alies Muskin Career Development ...

  19. Screening for Panic Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anxiety Disorder Treating Anxiety Disorders: Educational Videos Clinical Practice Review for Major Depressive Disorder Meetings & Events Mental Health Apps Announcements Awards Alies Muskin Career Development ...

  20. The urea cycle disorders.

    PubMed

    Helman, Guy; Pacheco-Colón, Ileana; Gropman, Andrea L

    2014-07-01

    The urea cycle is the primary nitrogen-disposal pathway in humans. It requires the coordinated function of six enzymes and two mitochondrial transporters to catalyze the conversion of a molecule of ammonia, the α-nitrogen of aspartate, and bicarbonate into urea. Whereas ammonia is toxic, urea is relatively inert, soluble in water, and readily excreted by the kidney in the urine. Accumulation of ammonia and other toxic intermediates of the cycle lead to predominantly neurologic sequelae. The disorders may present at any age from the neonatal period to adulthood, with the more severely affected patients presenting earlier in life. Patients are at risk for metabolic decompensation throughout life, often triggered by illness, fasting, surgery and postoperative states, peripartum, stress, and increased exogenous protein load. Here the authors address neurologic presentations of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency in detail, the most common of the urea cycle disorders, neuropathology, neurophysiology, and our studies in neuroimaging. Special attention to late-onset presentations is given. PMID:25192511

  1. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, E. J.

    1993-06-01

    This report is the 1992 annual progress report for the Energy Conversion and Storage Program, a part of the Energy and Environment Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Work described falls into three broad areas: electrochemistry; chemical applications; and materials applications. The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies principles of chemistry and materials science to solve problems in several areas: (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species, and (5) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Chemical applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing product and waste streams from synfuel plants, coal gasifiers, and biomass conversion processes. Materials applications research includes evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as development of novel preparation techniques. For example, techniques such as sputtering, laser ablation, and poised laser deposition are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  2. Robust adiabatic sum frequency conversion.

    PubMed

    Suchowski, Haim; Prabhudesai, Vaibhav; Oron, Dan; Arie, Ady; Silberberg, Yaron

    2009-07-20

    We discuss theoretically and demonstrate experimentally the robustness of the adiabatic sum frequency conversion method. This technique, borrowed from an analogous scheme of robust population transfer in atomic physics and nuclear magnetic resonance, enables the achievement of nearly full frequency conversion in a sum frequency generation process for a bandwidth up to two orders of magnitude wider than in conventional conversion schemes. We show that this scheme is robust to variations in the parameters of both the nonlinear crystal and of the incoming light. These include the crystal temperature, the frequency of the incoming field, the pump intensity, the crystal length and the angle of incidence. Also, we show that this extremely broad bandwidth can be tuned to higher or lower central wavelengths by changing either the pump frequency or the crystal temperature. The detailed study of the properties of this converter is done using the Landau-Zener theory dealing with the adiabatic transitions in two level systems. PMID:19654679

  3. Thermal to Electric Energy Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagelstein, Peter L.

    2005-12-01

    As research in the area of excess power production moves forward, issues associated with thermal to electric conversion become increasingly important. This paper provides a brief tutorial on basic issues, including the Carnot limit, entropy, and thermoelectric conversion. Practical thermal to electric conversion is possible well below the Carnot limit, and this leads to a high threshold for self-sustaining operation in Pons-Fleischmann type experiments. Excess power production at elevated temperatures will become increasingly important as we move toward self-sustaining devices and energy production for applications. Excess power production in heat-producing systems that do not require electrical input have an enormous advantage over electrochemical systems. Such systems should be considered seriously within our community in the coming years.

  4. [Dysmorphic disorder].

    PubMed

    Racy, Emmanuel

    2016-03-01

    The term "dysmorphic disorder" is used in psychiatry to define an obsessive fear of being ugly or deformed. Orthognathic surgery can entail varying degrees of facial change in patients. However, it is widely acknowledged that some patients find it difficult to adjust to the changes, either as a result of what they see in the mirror or of comments from those around them. Occasionally, the psychological impact of the transformation exceeds the extent of the modification itself. The term "dysmorphic disorder" is applied to this type of psychological suffering due to an inability to adapt. It is the duty of practitioners (orthodontists and surgeons) to screen patients who show signs during their first appointments of psychological fragility in order either to dissuade them from choosing a surgical route involving a high potential for transformation or to assist them, with professional support from a psychologist or psychotherapist, towards accepting the change. PMID:27083236

  5. Conversations with Environmental Educators: A Conversation with Four Classroom Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volk, Trudi L.

    2003-01-01

    This article includes a conversation with four environmental education classroom teachers. The author introduces the four classroom teachers, Marie Marrs, Barb Pietrucha, Vicki Newberry, and Dara Lukonen. In the interview, the four environmental education classroom teachers describe the environmental education in their classrooms. Three of these…

  6. Calculation Methods and Conversions for Pesticide Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Herbert, Jr.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University consists of conversion tables and formulas for determining concentration and rate of application of pesticides. Contents include: (1) Area and volume conversions; (2) Important conversion formulae; (3) Conversions for rates of application; (4) Quantities of pesticide…

  7. Language disorder - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... dysphasia; Delayed language; Specific developmental language disorder; SLI; Communication disorder - language disorder ... 2014. Simms MD, Schum RL. Language development and communication disorders. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme ...

  8. Disorder of written expression

    MedlinePlus

    Written expression disorder; Dysgraphia; Specific learning disorder with impairment in written expression ... disorder appears by itself or along with other learning disabilities, such as: Developmental coordination disorder (includes poor handwriting) ...

  9. Disorder of written expression

    MedlinePlus

    Written expression disorder; Dysgraphia; Specific learning disorder with impairment in written expression ... Specific learning disorder with impairment in written expression is as common as other learning disorders, which is about 5 ...

  10. Paranoid personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... have a full-blown psychotic disorder, such as schizophrenia . Causes Causes of paranoid personality disorder are unknown. ... common in families with psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia and delusional disorder. This suggests genes may be ...

  11. Disorders of Lipid Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Metabolic Disorders Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders of Lipid Metabolism Fats (lipids) are ... carbohydrates and low in fats. Supplements of the amino acid carnitine may be helpful. The long-term outcome ...

  12. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurological and developmental disorder that begins early in childhood and lasts throughout a ... and pervasive developmental disorders. It is called a "spectrum" disorder because people with ASD can have a ...

  13. Screening for Panic Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Membership Journal & Multimedia Resources Awards Consumers Screening for Panic Disorder Main navigation FAQs Screen Yourself Screening for Depression ... Screening for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Screening for Panic Disorder Screening for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Screening for ...

  14. Oppositional defiant disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Bipolar disorder Depression Learning disorders Substance abuse disorders ... Group on Quality Issues. Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with oppositional ...

  15. Dependent personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Dependent personality disorder is a mental condition in which people depend too much on others to meet their emotional ... Causes of dependent personality disorder are unknown. The disorder usually ... It is one of the most common personality disorders and ...

  16. Introduction to Solar Photon Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Nozik, Arthur J; Miller, John

    2010-11-10

    This Thematic Issue on Solar Photon Conversion will provide a review by leading researchers on the present status and prognosis of the science and technology of direct solar photoconversion to electricity and fuels. The topics covered include advanced and novel concepts for low-cost photovoltaic (PV) energy based on chemistry (dye-sensitized photoelectrodes, organic and molecular PV, multiple exciton generation in quantum dots, singlet fission), solar water splitting, redox catalysis for water oxidation and reduction, the role of nanoscience and nanocrystals in solar photoconversion, photoelectrochemical energy conversion, and photoinduced electron transfer.

  17. Recirculation in multiple wave conversions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, A. N.; Brizard, A.J.; Kaufman, A.N.; Tracy, E.R.

    2008-07-30

    A one-dimensional multiple wave-conversion model is constructed that allows energy recirculation in ray phase space. Using a modular eikonal approach, the connection coefficients for this model are calculated by ray phase-space methods. Analytical results (confirmed numerically) show that all connection coefficients exhibit interference effects that depend on an interference phase, calculated from the coupling constants and the area enclosed by the intersecting rays. This conceptual model, which focuses on the topology of intersecting rays in phase space, is used to investigate how mode conversion between primary and secondary waves is modified by the presence of a tertiary wave.

  18. Review of betavoltaic energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Larry C.

    1993-01-01

    Betavoltaic energy conversion refers to the generation of power by coupling a beta source to a semiconductor junction device. The theory of betavoltaic energy conversion and some past studies of the subject are briefly reviewed. Calculations of limiting efficiencies for semiconductor cells versus bandgap are presented along with specific studies for Pm-147 and Ni-63 fueled devices. The approach used for fabricating Pm-147 fueled batteries by the author in the early 1970's is reviewed. Finally, the potential performance of advanced betavoltaic power sources is considered.

  19. Pronunciation models for conversational speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Keith

    2005-09-01

    Using a pronunciation dictionary of clear speech citation forms a segment deletion rate of nearly 12% is found in a corpus of conversational speech. The number of apparent segment deletions can be reduced by constructing a pronunciation dictionary that records one or more of the actual pronunciations found in conversational speech; however, the resulting empirical pronunciation dictionary often fails to include the citation pronunciation form. Issues involved in selecting pronunciations for a dictionary for linguistic, psycholinguistic, and ASR research will be discussed. One conclusion is that Ladefoged may have been the wiser for avoiding the business of producing pronunciation dictionaries. [Supported by NIDCD Grant No. R01 DC04330-03.

  20. Power conversion in electrical networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Aspects of dc to dc conversion were studied in terms of a class of switching voltage regulators from a stability viewpoint. Background concepts of nonlinear system theory were considered, including the problem of obtaining suitable realizations for a class of positive operators. It is shown that the state evolution equations for a power conversion network are in general of bilinear form, and that the theory of lie groups and lie algebras is useful in analyzing such systems. The feedback stabilization of a class of bilinear systems whose state space is a manifold is also discussed.

  1. Generation of diverse neural cell types through direct conversion

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Gayle F; Strappe, Padraig M

    2016-01-01

    A characteristic of neurological disorders is the loss of critical populations of cells that the body is unable to replace, thus there has been much interest in identifying methods of generating clinically relevant numbers of cells to replace those that have been damaged or lost. The process of neural direct conversion, in which cells of one lineage are converted into cells of a neural lineage without first inducing pluripotency, shows great potential, with evidence of the generation of a range of functional neural cell types both in vitro and in vivo, through viral and non-viral delivery of exogenous factors, as well as chemical induction methods. Induced neural cells have been proposed as an attractive alternative to neural cells derived from embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells, with prospective roles in the investigation of neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative disease modelling, drug screening, and cellular replacement for regenerative medicine applications, however further investigations into improving the efficacy and safety of these methods need to be performed before neural direct conversion becomes a clinically viable option. In this review, we describe the generation of diverse neural cell types via direct conversion of somatic cells, with comparison against stem cell-based approaches, as well as discussion of their potential research and clinical applications. PMID:26981169

  2. Movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Stoessl, A Jon; Mckeown, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    Movement disorders can be hypokinetic (e.g., parkinsonism), hyperkinetic, or dystonic in nature and commonly arise from altered function in nuclei of the basal ganglia or their connections. As obvious structural changes are often limited, standard imaging plays less of a role than in other neurologic disorders. However, structural imaging is indicated where clinical presentation is atypical, particularly if the disorder is abrupt in onset or remains strictly unilateral. More recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may allow for differentiation between Parkinson's disease and atypical forms of parkinsonism. Functional imaging can assess regional cerebral blood flow (functional MRI (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)), cerebral glucose metabolism (PET), neurochemical and neuroreceptor status (PET and SPECT), and pathologic processes such as inflammation or abnormal protein deposition (PET) (Table 49.1). Cerebral blood flow can be assessed at rest, during the performance of motor or cognitive tasks, or in response to a variety of stimuli. In appropriate situations, the correct imaging modality and/or combination of modalities can be used to detect early disease or even preclinical disease, and to monitor disease progression and the effects of disease-modifying interventions. Various approaches are reviewed here. PMID:27430452

  3. Direct digital conversion detector technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandl, William J.; Fedors, Richard

    1995-06-01

    Future imaging sensors for the aerospace and commercial video markets will depend on low cost, high speed analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion to efficiently process optical detector signals. Current A/D methods place a heavy burden on system resources, increase noise, and limit the throughput. This paper describes a unique method for incorporating A/D conversion right on the focal plane array. This concept is based on Sigma-Delta sampling, and makes optimum use of the active detector real estate. Combined with modern digital signal processors, such devices will significantly increase data rates off the focal plane. Early conversion to digital format will also decrease the signal susceptibility to noise, lowering the communications bit error rate. Computer modeling of this concept is described, along with results from several simulation runs. A potential application for direct digital conversion is also reviewed. Future uses for this technology could range from scientific instruments to remote sensors, telecommunications gear, medical diagnostic tools, and consumer products.

  4. Photovoltaic conversion of laser energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The Schottky barrier photovoltaic converter is suggested as an alternative to the p/n junction photovoltaic devices for the conversion of laser energy to electrical energy. The structure, current, output, and voltage output of the Schottky device are summarized. The more advanced concepts of the multilayer Schottky barrier cell and the AMOS solar cell are briefly considered.

  5. Catholic identity: realized in conversation.

    PubMed

    Neale, A

    1997-01-01

    Catholic literature leaders must constantly engage the Catholic tradition, because it provides the framework for everything we do. The way they can do this is through conversation--discussion about the profound values and philosophical and theological assumptions that are at the heart of our ministry. Yet many healthcare boards and senior managers do not engage in such conversations. This is a serious omission, with potentially serious consequences. Too often mission and pastoral care values are regarded as separate from the business aspects of a healthcare organization. If we are to understand and integrate our mission into our healthcare work, this must change. The entire organization must make a commitment to foster an understanding of Catholic identity through conversation. As important as the dialogue is, some Catholic healthcare leaders let obstacles prevent them from delving into Catholic identity. They may not understand it, or they may be deterred by our cultural tendency to regard religion as personal, not part of the business realm. Some may be embarrassed, uncomfortable with abstraction, or reluctant to spend the time required. To encourage the conversation among Catholic healthcare leaders, we may take a lesson from our counterparts in Catholic education, who struggle with the same questions. A model Catholic university, where Catholic values are incorporated at all levels, may be a model for Catholic healthcare. PMID:10166695

  6. WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN COAL CONVERSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes water treatment control technology specific to fuel conversion plant sites in the western U.S. Most plants converting coal to other fuels use a large quantity of clean water (as stream) and put out a large quantity of dirty water that is condensed when the pr...

  7. A Conversation with Edwin Shneidman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pestian, John

    2010-01-01

    This article is a transcript of a conversation that took place with Edwin Shneidman, PhD, on August 19, 2008. Recent advances in machine learning, particularly neurocognitive computing, have provided a fresh approach to the idea of using computers to analyze the language of the suicidal person. Here this notion and many others are discussed.

  8. Laser power conversion system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Orbit to orbit and orbit to ground laser power conversion systems and power transfer are discussed. A system overview is presented. Pilot program parameters are considered: SLPS assumptions are listed, a laser SPS overview is presented, specifications are listed, and SLPS coats are considered.

  9. Welcome to the Great Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    No matter how hard teachers and administrators work, they cannot fulfill society's enormous list of demands for schools without addressing the four basics of public sentiment: community understanding, trust, permission, and support. They can do this through the Great Conversation, a positive, ongoing discussion between educators and the public…

  10. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  11. Conversations to Transform Geometry Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szydlik, Jennifer Earles; Parrott, Amy; Belnap, Jason Knight

    2016-01-01

    Classroom culture is negotiated and established through both conversations and practices. Traditionally, teachers and researchers have focused primarily on the individual and social construction of mathematical content--that is, students' conceptual understanding and procedural skills--through mathematical actions and practices. This article…

  12. Conversation with Marcia Baxter Magolda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Gideon L.

    1999-01-01

    Presents the reconstruction of conversations and e-mail correspondences with Dr. Marcia Baxter Magolda regarding students'"ways of knowing." Dr. Baxter Magolda reveals various ways in which students beginning college learn, offers examples of effective teaching, and exemplifies principles for promoting learning. (VWC)

  13. Taking the Grading Conversation Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Douglas B.

    2011-01-01

    To manage effective grading reform, education leaders must engage teachers, parents, communities, and policymakers in a rational discussion about grading. Doug Reeves suggests that leaders start the conversation with a discussion of the principles on which all stakeholders can agree; make clear what will not change under the new grading policy; be…

  14. Conversation Techniques and Their Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Ronald M.

    This article provides suggestions for generating real conversation in the foreign language classroom. Garfinkel suggests using cameras for students to take pictures to talk about, and Gillett suggests that students be involved in the preparation, operation and display of media. Conner advocates round table discussions, language games, and panel…

  15. Technology for satellite power conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, D. P.; Gouker, M. A.; Summers, C.; Gallagher, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for satellite electromagnetic energy transfer and power conversion at millimeter and infrared wavelengths are discussed. The design requirements for rectenna receiving elements are reviewed for both coherent radiation sources and Earth thermal infrared emission. Potential power transmitters including gyrotrons, free electron lasers, and CO2 lasers are assessed along with the rectification properties of metal-oxide metal diode power converters.

  16. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavi, A.

    1977-01-01

    Energy Research and Development Administration research progress in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) is outlined. The development program is being focused on cost effective heat exchangers; ammonia is generally used as the heat exchange fluid. Projected costs for energy production by OTEC vary between $1000 to $1700 per kW.

  17. Prosody and Conversation: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swerts, Marc; Hirschberg, Julia

    1998-01-01

    Introduces a special issue that includes papers which focus on the relationship between prosody and conversation. The papers represent different research traditions (e.g., the ethnomethodological framework of dialog analyses and report case studies, quantitative study of large corpora, experimental research using elicited or constructed speech…

  18. Turbulence and energy conversion research

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, R.A.

    1985-07-01

    This report examines the role of fluid mechanics research (particularly turbulence research) in improving energy conversion systems. In this report two of the listed application areas are selected as examples: fluidization and cavitation. Research needs in general, and research possibilities for ECUT in particular, are examined.

  19. INDOOR EMISSIONS FROM CONVERSION VARNISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conversion varnishes are two-component, acid-catalyzed varnishes that are commonly used to finish cabinets. They are valued for their water- and stain-resistance, as well as their appearance. They have been found, however, to contribute to indoor emissions of organic compounds. F...

  20. An Update on Psychogenic Movement Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ellenstein, Aviva; Kranick, Sarah M.; Hallett, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Psychogenic movement disorders (PMD) and other conversion disorders (CD) with apparent neurological signs (neurologic CD) plague patients and perplex physicians. Due to a lack of objective evidence of underlying brain lesions, CD were largely abandoned by neurologists and remained poorly understood psychiatric diagnoses throughout most of the 20th century. Modern neuroscience now supports increasingly comprehensive biological models for these complex disorders, definitively establishing their place in both neurology and psychiatry. Indeed although it is often clinically useful to distinguish a movement disorder as either “organic” or “psychogenic,” this dichotomy is difficult to defend scientifically. Here we describe the neuroimaging and neurophysiologic evidence for dysfunctional neural networks in PMD, explain the diagnostic potential of clinical neurophysiologic testing, discuss the promising if increasingly complex role of neuropsychiatric genetics, and review current treatment strategies. PMID:21559795

  1. Reflections on Deviance in 1984: Selected Papers from the 1984 Midwest Symposium in Behavior Disorders. National Needs Analysis in Behavior Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosenick, Judith, Ed.; And Others

    Three papers from a symposium on "Reflections on Deviance in 1984" are presented with particular emphasis on educational programs for behavior disordered students. An initial paper by James A. and Robert H. Zabel entitled "Reflections on Deviance in Nineteen Eighty-Four: A Conversation with 'George Orwell'," presents a simulated conversation with…

  2. Life as the Middle Child: A Conversation With Mary Margaret Kerr

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teagarden, James M.; Zabel, Robert H.; Kaff, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    As part of an ongoing oral history project, a conversation was held with Dr. Mary Margaret Kerr on the past, present, and possible future of the field of providing services to children with emotional-behavioral disorders. Dr. Wood stresses the increasing importance of providing an interdisciplinary approach to meet the needs for children or, as…

  3. Conversational Behaviors in Youth with High-Functioning ASD and Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Rhea; Orlovski, Stephanie Miles; Marcinko, Hillary Chuba; Volkmar, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Twenty-nine youth with autism spectrum disorders and 26 with typical development between 12 and 18 years of age were engaged in structured interviews (ADOS). The interviews were videotaped and rated for atypical conversational behaviors by trained raters, using the Pragmatic Rating Scale (Landa et al. "Psychol Med" 22:245-254, 1992). The ASD group…

  4. Using Pivotal Response Training and Technology to Engage Preschoolers with Autism in Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockall, Nancy; Dennis, Lindsay R.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate a significant delay in language development that impacts their ability to engage in robust conversations. In this article the authors discuss two specific elements of pivotal response training--motivation and self-initiations--for children with ASD. Specific…

  5. Inflexibility as an Interactional Phenomenon: Using Conversation Analysis to Re-Examine a Symptom of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muskett, Tom; Perkins, Mick; Clegg, Judy; Body, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Many accounts of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) imply that the condition's behavioural "symptoms" are direct reflexes of underlying deficits. In doing so, however, they invariably overlook the social contexts in which symptomatic behaviours occur and are identified as pathological. This study addresses this issue, using conversation analysis (CA)…

  6. Ratios of internal conversion coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, S.; Ertugrul, M.; Nestor, C.W. . E-mail: CNestorjr@aol.com; Trzhaskovskaya, M.B.

    2006-03-15

    We present here a database of available experimental ratios of internal conversion coefficients for different atomic subshells measured with an accuracy of 10% or better for a number of elements in the range 26 {<=} Z {<=} 100. The experimental set involves 414 ratios for pure and 1096 ratios for mixed-multipolarity nuclear transitions in the transition energy range from 2 to 2300 keV. We give relevant theoretical ratios calculated in the framework of the Dirac-Fock method with and without regard for the hole in the atomic subshell after conversion. For comparison, the ratios obtained within the relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater approximation are also presented. In cases where several ratios were measured for the same transition in a given isotope in which two multipolarities were involved, we present the mixing ratio {delta} {sup 2} obtained by a least squares fit.

  7. Biological conversion of synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The anaerobic, photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum has been chosen for catalysis of the biological water gas shift reaction. In addition, two other anaerobic, photosynthetic bacteria, Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum and Chloroblum phaeobacteroides, have been evaluated as candidates for H{sub 2}S conversion to elemental sulfur. Growth and H{sub 2}S uptake studies in the presence of basal medium indicated that C. thlosulfatophilum is a much superior organism. C. phaeobacteroldes showed sporatic growth at best, with growth always slower than C. thlosulfatophilum. Also, when C. phaeobacteroides experienced slow growth, no H{sub 2}S consumption was observed. C. thiosulfatophilum always showed superior growth and H{sub 2}S uptake, and thus will be selected as the bacterium for H{sub 2}S conversion to elemental sulfur.

  8. Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Masel, Richard I; Salehi-Khojin, Amin

    2015-04-21

    Electrocatalysts for carbon dioxide conversion include at least one catalytically active element with a particle size above 0.6 nm. The electrocatalysts can also include a Helper Catalyst. The catalysts can be used to increase the rate, modify the selectivity or lower the overpotential of electrochemical conversion of CO.sub.2. Chemical processes and devices using the catalysts also include processes to produce CO, HCO.sup.-, H.sub.2CO, (HCO.sub.2).sup.-, H.sub.2CO.sub.2, CH.sub.3OH, CH.sub.4, C.sub.2H.sub.4, CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH, CH.sub.3COO.sup.-, CH.sub.3COOH, C.sub.2H.sub.6, (COOH).sub.2, or (COO.sup.-).sub.2, and a specific device, namely, a CO.sub.2 sensor.

  9. Coal conversion products Industrial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, D.; Dunkin, J.

    1980-01-01

    The synfuels economic evaluation model was utilized to analyze cost and product economics of the TVA coal conversion facilities. It is concluded that; (1) moderate yearly future escalations ( 6%) in current natural gas prices will result in medium-Btu gas becoming competitive with natural gas at the plant boundary; (2) utilizing DRI price projections, the alternate synfuel products, except for electricity, will be competitive with their counterparts; (3) central site fuel cell generation of electricity, utilizing MBG, is economically less attractive than the other synthetic fuels, given projected price rises in electricity produced by other means; and (4) because of estimated northern Alabama synfuels market demands, existing conventional fuels, infrastructure and industrial synfuels retrofit problems, a diversity of transportable synfuels products should be produced by the conversion facility.

  10. Ocean energy conversion systems report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-03-01

    Alternative power cycle concepts to the closed-cycle Rankine are evaluated and those that show potential for delivering power in a cost effective and environmentally acceptable fashion are explored. Concepts are classified according to the ocean energy resource: thermal, waves, currents, and salinity gradient. The lift of seawater entrained in a vertical steam flow provides potential energy for a conventional hydraulic turbine conversion system. Quantification of the process and assessment of potential cost must be completed to support concept evaluation. Exploratory development is completed in thermoelectricity and 2-phase nozzles for other thermal concepts. Wave energy concepts are evaluated by analysis and model testing with emphasis on pneumatic turbines and wave focussing. Several conversion approaches to ocean current energy are being evaluated.

  11. The National Conversion Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, A.V.

    1995-12-31

    The National Conversion Pilot Project (NCPP) is a recycling project under way at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in Colorado. The recycling aim of the project is threefold: to reuse existing nuclear weapon component production facilities for the production of commercially marketable products, to reuse existing material (uranium, beryllium, and radioactively contaminated scrap metals) for the production of these products, and to reemploy former Rocky Flats workers in this process.

  12. Enzymatic conversion of carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiafu; Jiang, Yanjun; Jiang, Zhongyi; Wang, Xueyan; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Shaohua; Han, Pingping; Yang, Chen

    2015-10-01

    With the continuous increase in fossil fuels consumption and the rapid growth of atmospheric CO2 concentration, the harmonious state between human and nature faces severe challenges. Exploring green and sustainable energy resources and devising efficient methods for CO2 capture, sequestration and utilization are urgently required. Converting CO2 into fuels/chemicals/materials as an indispensable element for CO2 capture, sequestration and utilization may offer a win-win strategy to both decrease the CO2 concentration and achieve the efficient exploitation of carbon resources. Among the current major methods (including chemical, photochemical, electrochemical and enzymatic methods), the enzymatic method, which is inspired by the CO2 metabolic process in cells, offers a green and potent alternative for efficient CO2 conversion due to its superior stereo-specificity and region/chemo-selectivity. Thus, in this tutorial review, we firstly provide a brief background about enzymatic conversion for CO2 capture, sequestration and utilization. Next, we depict six major routes of the CO2 metabolic process in cells, which are taken as the inspiration source for the construction of enzymatic systems in vitro. Next, we focus on the state-of-the-art routes for the catalytic conversion of CO2 by a single enzyme system and by a multienzyme system. Some emerging approaches and materials utilized for constructing single-enzyme/multienzyme systems to enhance the catalytic activity/stability will be highlighted. Finally, a summary about the current advances and the future perspectives of the enzymatic conversion of CO2 will be presented. PMID:26055659

  13. Irradiation enhancement of biomass conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G. S.; Kiesling, H. E.; Galyean, M. L.; Bader, J. R.

    The vast supply of cellulosic agricultural residues and industrial by-products that is produced each year is a prospective resource of biomass suitable for conversion to useful products such as feedstock for the chemicals industry and feedstuffs for the livestock industry. Conversions of such biomass is poor at present, and utilization is inefficient, because of physio-chemical barriers to biological degradation and (or) anti-quality components such as toxicants that restrict biological usages. Improvements in biodegradability of ligno-cellulosic materials have been accomplished by gamma-ray and electron-beam irradiation at intermediate dosage (˜ 50 Mrad; .5 MGy); but applications of the technology have been hampered by questionable interpretations of results. Recent research with organic wastes such as sewage sludge and straw suggests opportunity for important applications of irradiation technology in enhancement of biomass conversion. Data from experiments using irradiated straw as feed for ruminants are presented and discussed in relation to research on prospective usage of sewage products as feed for ruminants. Findings are discussed in regard to prospective applications in industrial fermentation processes. Possible usage of irradiation technology for destruction of toxicants in exotic plants is considered in regard to prospective new feedstuffs.

  14. Ceramic membranes for methane conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, U.; Dusek, J.T.; Mieville, R.L.; Maiya, P.S.; Kleefisch, M.S.; Pei, S.; Kobylinski, T.P.; Udovich, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    In conventional conversion of methane to syngas, a significant cost of the partial oxidation process is that of the oxygen plant. In this report, the authors offer a technology that is based on dense ceramic membranes and that uses air as the oxidant for methane-conversion reactions, thus eliminating the need for the oxygen plant. Certain ceramic materials exhibit both electronic and ionic conductivities (of particular interest is oxygen-ion conductivity). These materials transport not only oxygen ions (functioning as selective oxygen separators) but also electrons back from the reactor side to the oxygen/reduction interface. No external electrodes are required and if the driving potential of transport is sufficient, the partial-oxidation reactions should be spontaneous. Such a system will operate without an externally applied potential. Oxygen is transported across the ceramic material in the form of oxygen anions, not oxygen molecules. Long tubes of Sr-Fe-Co-O (SFC) membrane were fabricated by plastic extrusion, and thermal stability of the tubes was studied as a function of oxygen partial pressure and high-temperature XRD. Mechanical properties were measured and found to be acceptable for a reactor material. Fracture of certain SFC tubes was the consequence of an oxygen gradient that introduced a volumetric lattice difference between the inner and outer walls. However, tubes made with a particular stoichiometry (SFC-2) provided methane conversion efficiencies of >99% in a reactor and some of these tubes have operated for up to {approx}1,000 h.

  15. Parents’ Strategies to Elicit Autobiographical Memories in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Developmental Language Disorders and Typically Developing Children

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Sylvie; DeNigris, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Conversations about the past support the development of autobiographical memory. Parents’ strategies to elicit child's participation and recall during past event conversations were compared across three school-age diagnostic groups: autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 11), developmental language disorders (n = 11) and typically developing (TD, n = 11). We focused on the prevalence of directives versus enrichment of events. Groups did not differ in number of events, length, and total turns. However, parents of children with ASD produced more direct questions, corrections, and unrelated turns than parents of TD children. Results highlight how parents adjusted their conversational style to their child's communication difficulties to maximize interactions and how these strategies may affect the development of personal conversations. PMID:25312278

  16. Arousal disorders.

    PubMed

    Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo; Bisulli, Francesca; Lugaresi, Elio

    2011-12-01

    Arousal Disorders (AD) are motor behaviours arising from NREM sleep. They comprise a spectrum of manifestations of increasing complexity from confusional arousal to sleep terror to sleepwalking. AD usually appear in childhood with a low frequency of episodes and spontaneously disappear before adolescence. The advent of video-polysomnography disclosed the existence of other phenomena alongside AD, in particular nocturnal frontal lobe seizures, requiring a differential diagnosis from AD. History-taking is usually sufficient to establish a correct diagnosis of AD even though viewing the episodes is essential for the clinician to distinguish the different motor events. Videopolysomnographic recording in a sleep laboratory is not always necessary and homemade video-recordings are useful to capture events closest to real life episodes. PMID:22136894

  17. Molten Slag Would Boost Coal Conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrall, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    Reactor increases residence time of uncovered char. Near-100percent carbon conversion achievable in reactor incorporating moltenslag bath. Slag maintains unconverted carbon impinging on surface at high temperatures for longer period of time, enhancing conversion.

  18. Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunctions and sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Provini, Federica; Guaraldi, Pietro; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Cortelli, Pietro

    2016-04-01

    Animal and human studies have shown that disorders of the autonomic nervous system may influence sleep physiology. Conversely, sleep disorders may be associated with autonomic dysfunctions. The current review describes the clinical presentation, supposed pathogenetic mechanisms and the diagnostic and prognostic implications of impaired cardiovascular autonomic control in sleep disorders. This dysfunction may result from a common pathogenetic mechanism affecting both autonomic cardiovascular control and sleep, as in fatal familial insomnia, or it may be mainly caused by the sleep disorder, as observed in obstructive sleep apnoea. For other sleep disorders, like primary insomnia, restless legs syndrome, narcolepsy type 1 and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, the causal link with the autonomic dysfunction and its possible impact on health remains unsettled. Given its clinical implications, most of the data available suggest that a systematic assessment of the association between sleep disorders and impaired autonomic control of the cardiovascular system is warranted. Understanding the mechanism of this association may also yield insights into the interaction between the autonomic nervous system and sleep. PMID:26146026

  19. 5 CFR 317.301 - Conversion coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conversion coverage. 317.301 Section 317... THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE Conversion to the Senior Executive Service § 317.301 Conversion coverage... statutory action extending coverage under 5 U.S.C. 3132(a)(1) to that agency. Except as otherwise...

  20. 5 CFR 317.301 - Conversion coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE Conversion to the Senior Executive Service § 317.301 Conversion coverage... implementation of the Senior Executive Service effective on July 13, 1979, and the initial conversions thereto. (2) The implementation of the Senior Executive Service in an agency following the revocation of...

  1. 41 CFR 101-30.402 - Conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Federal Catalog System § 101-30.402 Conversion. Following completion of cataloging action, GSA will establish a time period in which conversion to the Federal Catalog System shall be accomplished by all civil... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Conversion....

  2. 5 CFR 534.506 - Conversion provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.506 Conversion provisions. (a) This section covers initial conversion to the pay system under 5 U.S.C. 5376 as of the... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conversion provisions. 534.506...

  3. 41 CFR 101-30.402 - Conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Catalog System § 101-30.402 Conversion. Following completion of cataloging action, GSA will establish a time period in which conversion to the Federal Catalog System shall be accomplished by all civil... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Conversion....

  4. 41 CFR 101-30.402 - Conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Catalog System § 101-30.402 Conversion. Following completion of cataloging action, GSA will establish a time period in which conversion to the Federal Catalog System shall be accomplished by all civil... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Conversion....

  5. 41 CFR 101-30.402 - Conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Federal Catalog System § 101-30.402 Conversion. Following completion of cataloging action, GSA will establish a time period in which conversion to the Federal Catalog System shall be accomplished by all civil... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conversion....

  6. 5 CFR 534.506 - Conversion provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.506 Conversion provisions. (a) This section covers initial conversion to the pay system under 5 U.S.C. 5376 as of the... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conversion provisions. 534.506...

  7. 5 CFR 534.506 - Conversion provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.506 Conversion provisions. (a) This section covers initial conversion to the pay system under 5 U.S.C. 5376 as of the... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conversion provisions. 534.506...

  8. 41 CFR 101-30.402 - Conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Federal Catalog System § 101-30.402 Conversion. Following completion of cataloging action, GSA will establish a time period in which conversion to the Federal Catalog System shall be accomplished by all civil... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Conversion....

  9. 47 CFR 80.761 - Conversion graphs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conversion graphs. 80.761 Section 80.761... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.761 Conversion graphs. The following graphs must be employed where conversion from one to the other of the indicated types of units...

  10. 47 CFR 80.761 - Conversion graphs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conversion graphs. 80.761 Section 80.761... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.761 Conversion graphs. The following graphs must be employed where conversion from one to the other of the indicated types of units...

  11. 47 CFR 80.761 - Conversion graphs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conversion graphs. 80.761 Section 80.761... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.761 Conversion graphs. The following graphs must be employed where conversion from one to the other of the indicated types of units...

  12. 47 CFR 80.761 - Conversion graphs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conversion graphs. 80.761 Section 80.761... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.761 Conversion graphs. The following graphs must be employed where conversion from one to the other of the indicated types of units...

  13. 47 CFR 80.761 - Conversion graphs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conversion graphs. 80.761 Section 80.761... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.761 Conversion graphs. The following graphs must be employed where conversion from one to the other of the indicated types of units...

  14. Adaptive Feedback Improving Learningful Conversations at Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaeta, Matteo; Mangione, Giuseppina Rita; Miranda, Sergio; Orciuoli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes the definition of an Adaptive Conversation-based Learning System (ACLS) able to foster computer-mediated tutorial dialogues at the workplace in order to increase the probability to generate meaningful learning during conversations. ACLS provides a virtual assistant selecting the best partner to involve in the conversation and…

  15. 24 CFR 884.123 - Conversions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Conversions. 884.123 Section 884.123 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... RENTAL HOUSING PROJECTS Applicability, Scope and Basic Policies § 884.123 Conversions. (a) Conversion...

  16. 24 CFR 884.123 - Conversions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Conversions. 884.123 Section 884.123 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... RENTAL HOUSING PROJECTS Applicability, Scope and Basic Policies § 884.123 Conversions. (a) Conversion...

  17. Somatoform and dissociative disorders in children and adolescents: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Savita; Singh, Gagandeep; Mohan, Ashwin

    2005-01-01

    Background: Somatoform and dissociative (conversion) disorders in adults have been reported to have a close relationship because of a diagnostic overlap and comparable aetiological models. The literature on these disorders in children and adolescents is scarce. Aim: The present study attempted to compare these two disorders in children and adolescents since antecedents of these disorders are said to be laid in childhood. Methods: Case files of 118 patients (69 of somatoform disorders and 49 of dissociative disorders) were reviewed and the two groups were compared with respect to sociodemographic profile, clinical profile, neurotic traits, behavioural problems, temperament, intelligence and family dysfunction. Results: Age at presentation and intelligence were significantly higher in those with somatoform disorders than in those with dissociative disorders. Patients with dissociative disorders had a significantly higher number of co-morbid somatoform symptoms. Conclusion: Somatoform and dissociative disorders are closely linked.

  18. Speech and Communication Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... or understand speech. Causes include Hearing disorders and deafness Voice problems, such as dysphonia or those caused by cleft lip or palate Speech problems like stuttering Developmental disabilities Learning disorders Autism spectrum disorder Brain injury Stroke Some speech and ...

  19. Autism Spectrum Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Autism Spectrum Disorder Information Page Condensed from Autism Spectrum ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Autism Spectrum Disorder? Autistic disorder (sometimes called autism or ...

  20. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Overview What is obsessive-compulsive disorder? Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an illness that causes people to have unwanted thoughts (obsessions) ...

  1. Help With Bipolar Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Psychiatrist Patients & Families All Topics Help With Bipolar Disorders Curated and updated for the community by APA Topic Information Bipolar disorders are brain disorders that cause changes in a ...

  2. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... defects & other health conditions > Amino acid metabolism disorders Amino acid metabolism disorders E-mail to a friend Please ... baby’s newborn screening may include testing for certain amino acid metabolism disorders. These are rare health conditions that ...

  3. Panic Disorder and Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... in your state. Panic Attacks, Panic Disorder, and Agoraphobia (Copyright © American Academy of Family Physicians) - This online ... and examples of co-existing conditions. Panic Disorder & Agoraphobia (Copyright © Anxiety Disorders Association of America) - This web ...

  4. Social anxiety disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Phobia - social; Anxiety disorder - social; Social phobia; SAD - social anxiety disorder ... People with social anxiety disorder fear and avoid situations in which they may be judged by others. It may begin in the teens ...

  5. Binge Eating Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... ePublications > Binge eating disorder fact sheet ePublications Binge eating disorder fact sheet Print this fact sheet Binge eating disorder fact sheet (PDF, 211 KB) Related information Anorexia ...

  6. Kids and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Kids and Eating Disorders KidsHealth > For Kids > Kids and Eating Disorders Print ... withdrawing from social activities previous continue What Causes Eating Disorders? There really is no single cause for an ...

  7. Preschool Language Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... not get a language disorder from learning a second language. It won't confuse your child to speak ... on child language disorders describes research supporting the benefits of speech-language pathology treatment for children with language disorders. It ...

  8. Eye Movement Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  9. Children with Learning Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... learning disorder. Children with learning disorders can have intelligence in the normal but the specific learning disorder ... make teachers and parents concerned about their general intelligence. Often, these children may try very hard to ...

  10. Types of Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Studies Peer Support Research WeSearchTogether Types of Bipolar Disorder There are several kinds of bipolar disorder. Each ... like an illness. What is the difference between bipolar disorder and ordinary mood swings? The three main things ...

  11. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is ... disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Carbohydrate metabolism disorders are a group of metabolic disorders. Normally ...

  12. Chest Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... your neck and your abdomen. It includes the ribs and breastbone. Inside your chest are several organs, ... and collapsed lung Pleural disorders Esophagus disorders Broken ribs Thoracic aortic aneurysms Disorders of the mediastinum, the ...

  13. Chronic motor tic disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic vocal tic disorder; Tic - chronic motor tic disorder ... Chronic motor tic disorder is more common than Tourette syndrome . Chronic tics may be forms of Tourette syndrome. Tics usually start ...

  14. Stereotypic movement disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... include repetitive and purposeless picking, hand wringing, head tics, or lip-biting. Long-term stimulant use may ... disorders Obsessive compulsive disorder Tourette syndrome or other tic disorder

  15. Alpine radar conversion for LAWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savina, M.; Burlando, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) is a ship-born weather radar system operating in X-band developed by the DHI Group to detect precipitation in urban areas. To date more than thirty units are installed in different settings around the world. A LAWR was also deployed in the Alps, at 3883 m a.s.l. on the Kl. Matterhorn (Valais, Switzerland). This was the highest LAWR of the world and it led to the development of an Alpine LAWR system that, besides featuring important technological improvements needed to withstand the severe Alpine conditions, required the development of a new Alpine Radar COnversion Model (ARCOM), which is the main focus of this contribution. The LAWR system is equipped with the original FURUNO fan-beam slotted antenna and the original logarithmic receiver, which limits the radar observations to the video signal (L) withour providing the reflectivity (Z). The beam is 0.95 deg wide and 20 deg high. It can detect precipitation to a max range of 60 km. In order to account for the limited availability of raw signal and information and the specific mountain set-up, the conversion model had to be developed differently from the state-of-the-art radar conversion technique used for this class of radars. In particular, the ARCOM is based on a model used to simulate a spatial dependent factor, hereafter called ACF, which is in turn function of parameters that take in account climatological conditions, also used in other conversion methods, but additionally accounting for local radar beam features and for orographic forcings such as the effective sampling power (sP), which is modelled by means of antenna pattern, geometric ground clutter and their interaction. The result is a conversion factor formulated to account for a range correction that is based on the increase of the sampling volume, partial beam blocking and local climatological conditions. The importance of the latter in this study is double with respect to the standard conversion technique for this

  16. Algal Energy Conversion and Capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazendonk, P.

    2015-12-01

    We address the potential for energy conversions and capture for: energy generation; reduction in energy use; reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; remediation of water and air pollution; protection and enhancement of soil fertility. These processes have the potential to sequester carbon at scales that may have global impact. Energy conversion and capture strategies evaluate energy use and production from agriculture, urban areas and industries, and apply existing and emerging technologies to reduce and recapture energy embedded in waste products. The basis of biocrude production from Micro-algal feedstocks: 1) The nutrients from the liquid fraction of waste streams are concentrated and fed into photo bioreactors (essentially large vessels in which microalgae are grown) along with CO2 from flue gasses from down stream processes. 2) The algae are processed to remove high value products such as proteins and beta-carotenes. The advantage of algae feedstocks is the high biomass productivity is 30-50 times that of land based crops and the remaining biomass contains minimal components that are difficult to convert to biocrude. 3) The remaining biomass undergoes hydrothermal liquefaction to produces biocrude and biochar. The flue gasses of this process can be used to produce electricity (fuel cell) and subsequently fed back into the photobioreactor. The thermal energy required for this process is small, hence readily obtained from solar-thermal sources, and furthermore no drying or preprocessing is required keeping the energy overhead extremely small. 4) The biocrude can be upgraded and refined as conventional crude oil, creating a range of liquid fuels. In principle this process can be applied on the farm scale to the municipal scale. Overall, our primary food production is too dependent on fossil fuels. Energy conversion and capture can make food production sustainable.

  17. Formation of alcohol conversion catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2001-01-01

    The method of the present invention involves a composition containing an intimate mixture of (a) metal oxide support particles and (b) a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, its method of manufacture, and its method of use for converting alcohols to aldehydes. During the conversion process, catalytically active metal oxide from the discrete catalytic metal oxide particles migrates to the oxide support particles and forms a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on the oxide support particle to form a catalyst composition having a higher specific activity than the admixed particle composition.

  18. Low conversion ratio fuel studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M. A.

    2006-02-28

    Recent studies on TRU disposition in fast reactors indicated viable reactor performance for a sodium cooled low conversion ratio reactor design. Additional studies have been initiated to refine the earlier work and consider the feasibility of alternate fuel forms such as nitride and oxide fuel (rather than metal fuel). These alternate fuel forms may have significant impacts upon the burner design and the safety behavior. The work performed thus far has focused on compiling the necessary fuel form property information and refinement of the physics models. For this limited project, the burner design and performance using nitride fuel will be assessed.

  19. Power enhanced frequency conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Steven (Inventor); Lang, Robert J. (Inventor); Waarts, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A frequency conversion system includes at least one source providing a first near-IR wavelength output including a gain medium for providing high power amplification, such as double clad fiber amplifier, a double clad fiber laser or a semiconductor tapered amplifier to enhance the power output level of the near-IR wavelength output. The NFM device may be a difference frequency mixing (DFM) device or an optical parametric oscillation (OPO) device. Pump powers are gain enhanced by the addition of a rare earth amplifier or oscillator, or a Ra-man/Brillouin amplifier or oscillator between the high power source and the NFM device.

  20. Conversion of raw carbonaceous fuels

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    2007-08-07

    Three configurations for an electrochemical cell are utilized to generate electric power from the reaction of oxygen or air with porous plates or particulates of carbon, arranged such that waste heat from the electrochemical cells is allowed to flow upwards through a storage chamber or port containing raw carbonaceous fuel. These configurations allow combining the separate processes of devolatilization, pyrolysis and electrochemical conversion of carbon to electric power into a single unit process, fed with raw fuel and exhausting high BTU gases, electric power, and substantially pure CO.sub.2 during operation.

  1. Autism Spectrum Disorders (Pervasive Developmental Disorders)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strock, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    This booklet focuses on classic autism, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), and Asperger syndrome, with brief descriptions of Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder. The booklet describes possible indicators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), their diagnosis, available aids, treatment options, adults…

  2. High resolution A/D conversion based on piecewise conversion at lower resolution

    DOEpatents

    Terwilliger, Steve

    2012-06-05

    Piecewise conversion of an analog input signal is performed utilizing a plurality of relatively lower bit resolution A/D conversions. The results of this piecewise conversion are interpreted to achieve a relatively higher bit resolution A/D conversion without sampling frequency penalty.

  3. Biomass thermochemical conversion program: 1987 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program is to generate a base of scientific data and conversion process information that will lead to establishment of cost-effective processes for conversion of biomass resources into clean fuels. To accomplish this objective, in fiscal year 1987 the Thermochemical Conversion Program sponsored research activities in the following four areas: Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology; Gasification Technology; Direct Combustion Technology; Program Support Activities. In this report an overview of the Thermochemical Conversion Program is presented. Specific research projects are then described. Major accomplishments for 1987 are summarized.

  4. Static conversion systems. [for space power reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewell, R.; Mondt, J.

    1985-01-01

    Historically, all space power systems that have actually flown in space have relied on static energy conversion technology. Thus, static conversion is being considered for space nuclear power systems as well. There are four potential static conversion technologies which should be considered. These include: the alkali metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC), the thermionic converter, the thermoelectric converter, and the thermophotovoltaic converter (TPV). These four conversion technologies will be described in brief detail along with their current status and development needs. In addition, the systems implications of using each of these conversion technologies with a space nuclear reactor power system will be evaluated and some comparisons made.

  5. Biomass thermochemical conversion program. 1985 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research on this conversion technology for renewable energy through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. The Program is part of DOE's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, Office of Renewable Technologies. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1985. 32 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Biomass conversion processes for energy and fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofer, S. S.; Zaborsky, O. R.

    The book treats biomass sources, promising processes for the conversion of biomass into energy and fuels, and the technical and economic considerations in biomass conversion. Sources of biomass examined include crop residues and municipal, animal and industrial wastes, agricultural and forestry residues, aquatic biomass, marine biomass and silvicultural energy farms. Processes for biomass energy and fuel conversion by direct combustion (the Andco-Torrax system), thermochemical conversion (flash pyrolysis, carboxylolysis, pyrolysis, Purox process, gasification and syngas recycling) and biochemical conversion (anaerobic digestion, methanogenesis and ethanol fermentation) are discussed, and mass and energy balances are presented for each system.

  7. Binge eating disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Eating disorder - binge eating; Eating - binge; Overeating - compulsive; Compulsive overeating ... as having close relatives who also have an eating disorder Changes in brain chemicals Depression or other emotions, ...

  8. Avoidant personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Personality disorder - avoidant References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  9. Borderline personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Personality disorder - borderline References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  10. Borderline personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Personality disorder - borderline ... Cause of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is unknown. Genetic, family, and social factors are thought to play roles. Risk factors for BPD include: Abandonment ...

  11. Antisocial personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Sociopathic personality; Sociopathy; Personality disorder - antisocial ... Cause of antisocial personality disorder is unknown. Genetic factors and environmental factors, such as child abuse, are believed to contribute to ...

  12. Generalized anxiety disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorder References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Calkins AW, Bui E, Taylor CT, Pollack ...

  13. [An effect enhancement mechanism of up-conversion luminescence--up-conversion sensitization].

    PubMed

    Meng, C; Meng, G; Song, Z

    2001-04-01

    The research of frequency up-conversion has been developed greatly in recent ten years. In order to achieve its applications, it needs to enhance the up-conversion efficiency further greatly, which is the core problem of up-conversion. Because of the specialty of Yb3+ ion energy level, Yb3+ can greatly enhance up-conversion luminescence of co-doped rare earth ion activator through energy transfer. Meanwhile it may not cause the obvious fluorescence quenching. Thus it is very significance to investigate up-conversion sensitization which Yb3+ ion acts as a sensitizer. It is more important that it is quite urgent to combine up-conversion efficiency and material property to develop up-conversion. This paper reviews the proposing and developing process of up-conversion sensitization. The achievement of up-conversion sensitization field especial the originate fruit in indirect up-conversion sensitization obtained by China are introduce emphatically. PMID:12947606

  14. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program: 1986 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. Thermochemical conversion processes can generate a variety of products such as gasoline hydrocarbon fuels, natural gas substitutes, or heat energy for electric power generation. The US Department of Energy is sponsoring research on biomass conversion technologies through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been designated the Technical Field Management Office for the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program with overall responsibility for the Program. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1986. 88 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Gene Conversion in Human Genetic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian-Min; Férec, Claude; Cooper, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Gene conversion is a specific type of homologous recombination that involves the unidirectional transfer of genetic material from a ‘donor’ sequence to a highly homologous ‘acceptor’. We have recently reviewed the molecular mechanisms underlying gene conversion, explored the key part that this process has played in fashioning extant human genes, and performed a meta-analysis of gene-conversion events known to have caused human genetic disease. Here we shall briefly summarize some of the latest developments in the study of pathogenic gene conversion events, including (i) the emerging idea of minimal efficient sequence homology (MESH) for homologous recombination, (ii) the local DNA sequence features that appear to predispose to gene conversion, (iii) a mechanistic comparison of gene conversion and transient hypermutability, and (iv) recently reported examples of pathogenic gene conversion events. PMID:24710102

  16. Biological conversion of synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K.T.; Basu, R.; Johnson, E.R.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1992-03-01

    Mass transfer and kinetic studies were carried out for the Rhodospirillum rubrum and Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum bacterial systems. R. rubrum is a photosynthetic anaerobic bacterium which catalyzes the biological water gas shift reaction: CO + H[sub 2]0 [yields] CO[sub 2] + H[sub 2]. C. thiosulfatophilum is also a H[sub 2]S and COS to elemental sulfur. The growth of R. rubrum may be satisfactorily carried out at 25[degree] and 30[degree]C, while CO uptake and thus the conversion of CO best occurs at temperatures of either 30[degree], 32[degree] or 34[degree]C. The rate of conversion of COs and H[sub 2]O to CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2]S may be modeled by a first order rate expression. The rate constant at 30[degree]C was found to be 0.243 h[sup [minus]1]. The growth of C. thiosulfatophilum may be modeled in terms of incoming light intensity using a Monod equation: [mu] = [sub 351] + I[sub o]/[sup 0.152]I[sub o]. Comparisons of the growth of R. rubrum and C. thiosulfatophilum shows that the specific growth rate of C. thiosulfatophilum is much higher at a given light intensity.

  17. Astrophysicists’ Conversational Connections on Twitter

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Kim; Bowman, Timothy D.; Haustein, Stefanie; Peters, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Because Twitter and other social media are increasingly used for analyses based on altmetrics, this research sought to understand what contexts, affordance use, and social activities influence the tweeting behavior of astrophysicists. Thus, the presented study has been guided by three research questions that consider the influence of astrophysicists’ activities (i.e., publishing and tweeting frequency) and of their tweet construction and affordance use (i.e. use of hashtags, language, and emotions) on the conversational connections they have on Twitter. We found that astrophysicists communicate with a variety of user types (e.g. colleagues, science communicators, other researchers, and educators) and that in the ego networks of the astrophysicists clear groups consisting of users with different professional roles can be distinguished. Interestingly, the analysis of noun phrases and hashtags showed that when the astrophysicists address the different groups of very different professional composition they use very similar terminology, but that they do not talk to each other (i.e. mentioning other user names in tweets). The results also showed that in those areas of the ego networks that tweeted more the sentiment of the tweets tended to be closer to neutral, connecting frequent tweeting with information sharing activities rather than conversations or expressing opinions. PMID:25153196

  18. Electromagnetic wave energy conversion research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, R. L.; Callahan, P. S.

    1975-01-01

    Known electromagnetic wave absorbing structures found in nature were first studied for clues of how one might later design large area man-made radiant-electric converters. This led to the study of the electro-optics of insect dielectric antennae. Insights were achieved into how these antennae probably operate in the infrared 7-14um range. EWEC theoretical models and relevant cases were concisely formulated and justified for metal and dielectric absorber materials. Finding the electromagnetic field solutions to these models is a problem not yet solved. A rough estimate of losses in metal, solid dielectric, and hollow dielectric waveguides indicates future radiant-electric EWEC research should aim toward dielectric materials for maximum conversion efficiency. It was also found that the absorber bandwidth is a theoretical limitation on radiant-electric conversion efficiency. Ideally, the absorbers' wavelength would be centered on the irradiating spectrum and have the same bandwith as the irradiating wave. The EWEC concept appears to have a valid scientific basis, but considerable more research is needed before it is thoroughly understood, especially for the complex randomly polarized, wide band, phase incoherent spectrum of the sun. Specific recommended research areas are identified.

  19. Astrophysicists' conversational connections on Twitter.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Kim; Bowman, Timothy D; Haustein, Stefanie; Peters, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Because Twitter and other social media are increasingly used for analyses based on altmetrics, this research sought to understand what contexts, affordance use, and social activities influence the tweeting behavior of astrophysicists. Thus, the presented study has been guided by three research questions that consider the influence of astrophysicists' activities (i.e., publishing and tweeting frequency) and of their tweet construction and affordance use (i.e. use of hashtags, language, and emotions) on the conversational connections they have on Twitter. We found that astrophysicists communicate with a variety of user types (e.g. colleagues, science communicators, other researchers, and educators) and that in the ego networks of the astrophysicists clear groups consisting of users with different professional roles can be distinguished. Interestingly, the analysis of noun phrases and hashtags showed that when the astrophysicists address the different groups of very different professional composition they use very similar terminology, but that they do not talk to each other (i.e. mentioning other user names in tweets). The results also showed that in those areas of the ego networks that tweeted more the sentiment of the tweets tended to be closer to neutral, connecting frequent tweeting with information sharing activities rather than conversations or expressing opinions. PMID:25153196

  20. Transparency in nonlinear frequency conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhi, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Suppression of wave scattering and the realization of transparency effects in engineered optical media and surfaces have attracted great attention in the past recent years. In this work the problem of transparency is considered for optical wave propagation in a nonlinear dielectric medium with second-order χ(2 ) susceptibility. Because of nonlinear interaction, a reference signal wave at carrier frequency ω1 can exchange power, thus being amplified or attenuated, when phase-matching conditions are satisfied and frequency conversion takes place. Therefore, rather generally the medium is not transparent to the signal wave because of "scattering" in the frequency domain. Here we show that broadband transparency, corresponding to the full absence of frequency conversion in spite of phase matching, can be observed for the signal wave in the process of sum frequency generation whenever the effective susceptibility χ(2 ) along the nonlinear medium is tailored following a suitable spatial apodization profile and the power level of the pump wave is properly tuned. While broadband transparency is observed under such conditions, the nonlinear medium is not invisible owing to an additional effective dispersion for the signal wave introduced by the nonlinear interaction.

  1. Radiation energy conversion in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billman, K. W.

    1979-01-01

    Topics discussed at the third NASA conference on radiant energy conversion are reviewed. The unconcentrated-photovoltaic-generation version of a solar power satellite is described, noting that it will consist of a 21.3 x 5.3-sq-km silicon-solar-cell array expected to provide 17 Gw of electrical power, with 1 km in diam transmitters oriented to beam 2.45 GHz microwave power to two receiving/rectifying 'rectennas' on earth. The Solares space-energy-system concept, designed for providing a large fraction of the world's energy needs at costs comparable to those of future coal/nuclear alternative, is considered, as are subsystems for improving the economics of the solar power satellite. A concept proposing the use of relativistic-electron-storage rings for electron-beam energy transmission and storage, and a report on the production of a high temperature plasma with concentrated solar radiation are taken into account. Laser-conversion systems, including the direct-solar-pumped space laser, and the telec-powered spacecraft, are discussed.

  2. Biological conversion of synthesis gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, R.; Klasson, K. T.; Johnson, E. R.; Takriff, M.; Clausen, E. C.; Gaddy, J. L.

    1993-09-01

    Based upon the results of this culture screening study, Rhodospirillum rubrum is recommended for biocatalysis of the water gas shift reaction and Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum is recommended for H2S conversion to elemental sulfur. Both bacteria require tungsten light for growth and can be co-cultured together if H2S conversion is not complete (required concentration of at least 1 ppM), thereby presenting H2 uptake by Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum. COS degradation may be accomplished by utilizing various CO-utilizing bacteria or by indirectly converting COS to elemental sulfur after the COS first undergoes reaction to H2 in water. The second alternative is probably preferred due to the low expected concentration of COS relative to H2S. Mass transfer and kinetic studies were carried out for the Rhodospirillum rubrum and Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum bacterial systems. Rhodospirillum rubrum is a photosynthetic anaerobic bacterium which catalyzes the biological water gas shift reaction: CO + H2O yields CO2 + H2. Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum is also a photosynthetic anaerobic bacteria, and converts H2S and COS to elemental sulfur.

  3. Biological conversion of synthesis gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klasson, K. T.; Basu, R.; Johnson, E. R.; Clausen, E. C.; Gaddy, J. L.

    1992-03-01

    Mass transfer and kinetic studies were carried out for the Rhodospirillum rubrum and Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum bacterial systems. R. rubrum is a photosynthetic anaerobic bacterium which catalyzes the biological water gas shift reaction: CO + H2O yields CO2 + H2. C. thiosulfatophilum is also a H2S and COS to elemental sulfur. The growth of R. rubrum may be satisfactorily carried out at 25 and 30 C, while CO uptake and thus the conversion of CO best occurs at temperatures of either 30, 32 or 34 C. The rate of conversion of COs and H2O to CO2 and H2S may be modeled by a first order rate expression. The rate constant at 30 C was found to be 0.243 h(sup -1). The growth of C. thiosulfatophilum may be modeled in terms of incoming light intensity using a Monod equation: mu = (sub 351) + I(sub o)/(sup 0.152)I(sub o). Comparisons of the growth of R. rubrum and C. thiosulfatophilum shows that the specific growth rate of C. thiosulfatophilum is much higher at a given light intensity.

  4. Chromatin Structure Regulates Gene Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, W. Jason; Yabuki, Munehisa; Ordinario, Ellen C; Bednarski, David W; Quay, Simon; Maizels, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Homology-directed repair is a powerful mechanism for maintaining and altering genomic structure. We asked how chromatin structure contributes to the use of homologous sequences as donors for repair using the chicken B cell line DT40 as a model. In DT40, immunoglobulin genes undergo regulated sequence diversification by gene conversion templated by pseudogene donors. We found that the immunoglobulin Vλ pseudogene array is characterized by histone modifications associated with active chromatin. We directly demonstrated the importance of chromatin structure for gene conversion, using a regulatable experimental system in which the heterochromatin protein HP1 (Drosophila melanogaster Su[var]205), expressed as a fusion to Escherichia coli lactose repressor, is tethered to polymerized lactose operators integrated within the pseudo-Vλ donor array. Tethered HP1 diminished histone acetylation within the pseudo-Vλ array, and altered the outcome of Vλ diversification, so that nontemplated mutations rather than templated mutations predominated. Thus, chromatin structure regulates homology-directed repair. These results suggest that histone modifications may contribute to maintaining genomic stability by preventing recombination between repetitive sequences. PMID:17880262

  5. A neuroplastic deafferentation hypothesis for bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Jonathan; Mirams, Jamie; Patel, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar disorder, characterised by extreme cyclical variations in mood between depression and mania, is a common, debilitating and sometimes fatal psychiatric condition with an unclear aetiology. In this paper we propose a hypothesis for the development of bipolar disorder through which neuroplastic changes in response to an index depressive episode leads to the amplification of subthreshold pleasurable stimuli that then drive conversion into a manic state. This ‘pleasure deafferentation hypothesis’ is reached through a discussion of the neuroscientific basis of deafferentation at the level of the neuron and its role in the development of various neurological and psychiatric phenomena before a case for deafferentation as applied to bipolar disorder is justified and its implications discussed. PMID:26459976

  6. Microturbine Power Conversion Technology Review

    SciTech Connect

    Staunton, R.H.

    2003-07-21

    In this study, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is performing a technology review to assess the market for commercially available power electronic converters that can be used to connect microturbines to either the electric grid or local loads. The intent of the review is to facilitate an assessment of the present status of marketed power conversion technology to determine how versatile the designs are for potentially providing different services to the grid based on changes in market direction, new industry standards, and the critical needs of the local service provider. The project includes data gathering efforts and documentation of the state-of-the-art design approaches that are being used by microturbine manufacturers in their power conversion electronics development and refinement. This project task entails a review of power converters used in microturbines sized between 20 kW and 1 MW. The power converters permit microturbine generators, with their non-synchronous, high frequency output, to interface with the grid or local loads. The power converters produce 50- to 60-Hz power that can be used for local loads or, using interface electronics, synchronized for connection to the local feeder and/or microgrid. The power electronics enable operation in a stand-alone mode as a voltage source or in grid-connect mode as a current source. Some microturbines are designed to automatically switch between the two modes. The information obtained in this data gathering effort will provide a basis for determining how close the microturbine industry is to providing services such as voltage regulation, combined control of both voltage and current, fast/seamless mode transfers, enhanced reliability, reduced cost converters, reactive power supply, power quality, and other ancillary services. Some power quality improvements will require the addition of storage devices; therefore, the task should also determine what must be done to enable the power conversion circuits to

  7. Binge Eating Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... from a weight-loss program that also offers treatment for eating disorders. However, some people with binge eating disorder may ... disorder should get help from a specialist in eating disorders, such as a psychiatrist or a psychologist. Treatment may include the use of behavior change therapy, ...

  8. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... us to find out more about ADHD. Share Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Easy-to-Read) Download PDF Download ePub Order ... attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder , or ADHD . What is attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD? ADHD is a common mental disorder ...

  9. Rayleigh surface waves, phonon mode conversion, and thermal transport in nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Leon; Knezevic, Irena

    We study the effects of phonon mode conversion and Rayleigh (surface) waves on thermal transport in nanostructures. We present a technique to calculate thermal conductivity in the elastic-solid approximation: a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solution of the elastic or scalar wave equations combined with the Green-Kubo formula. The technique is similar to an equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation, captures phonon wave behavior, and scales well to nanostructures that are too large to simulate with many other techniques. By imposing fixed or free boundary conditions, we can selectively turn off mode conversion and Rayleigh waves to study their effects. In the example case of graphenelike nanoribbons with rough edges, we find that mode conversion among bulk modes has little effect on thermal transport, but that conversion between bulk and Rayleigh waves can significantly reduce thermal conductivity. With increasing surface disorder, Rayleigh waves readily become trapped by the disorder and draw energy away from the propagating bulk modes, which lowers thermal conductivity. We discuss the implications on the accuracy of popular phonon-surface scattering models that stem from scalar wave equations and cannot capture mode conversion to Rayleigh waves.

  10. Eating disorders in males.

    PubMed

    Robb, Adelaide S; Dadson, Michele J

    2002-04-01

    Eating disorders are one of the rare psychiatric disorders with a large preponderance of female patients. The other articles in this issue review eating disorders in children and adolescents and focus primarily on female patients. This article reviews the eating disorders that occur in male children and teenagers, including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, a subtype of body dysmorphic disorder named muscle dysmorphobia, and obesity. This article reviews subgroups of boys who are at higher risk for developing eating disorders. The article commences with the difference in male perceptions of body image and dieting behaviors. PMID:12109328

  11. Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aspiration Syndrome Additional Content Medical News Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism By Lee M. Sanders, MD, MPH NOTE: ... Metabolic Disorders Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders of Lipid Metabolism Amino acids are ...

  12. Power conversion apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui-Jia

    2012-02-07

    A power conversion apparatus includes an interfacing circuit that enables a current source inverter to operate from a voltage energy storage device (voltage source), such as a battery, ultracapacitor or fuel cell. The interfacing circuit, also referred to as a voltage-to-current converter, transforms the voltage source into a current source that feeds a DC current to a current source inverter. The voltage-to-current converter also provides means for controlling and maintaining a constant DC bus current that supplies the current source inverter. The voltage-to-current converter also enables the current source inverter to charge the voltage energy storage device, such as during dynamic braking of a hybrid electric vehicle, without the need of reversing the direction of the DC bus current.

  13. Conversation Simulation and Sensible Surprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchens, Jason L.

    I have entered the Loebner Prize five times, winning the "most humanlike program" category in 1996 with a surly ELIZA-clone named HeX, but failed to repeat the performance in subsequent years with more sophisticated techniques. Whether this is indicative of an unanticipated improvement in "conversation simulation" technology, or whether it highlights the strengths of ELIZA-style trickery, is as an exercise for the reader. In 2000, I was invited to assume the role of Chief Scientist at Artificial Intelligence Ltd. (Ai) on a project inspired by the advice given by Alan Turing in the final section of his classic paper - our quest was to build a "child machine" that could learn and use language from scratch. In this chapter, I will discuss both of these experiences, presenting my thoughts regarding the Chinese Room argument and Artificial Intelligence (AI) in between.

  14. Photoelectrochemical based direct conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kocha, S.; Arent, D.; Peterson, M.

    1995-09-01

    The goal of this research is to develop a stable, cost effective, photoelectrochemical based system that will split water upon illumination, producing hydrogen and oxygen directly, using sunlight as the only energy input. This type of direct conversion system combines a photovoltaic material and an electrolyzer into a single monolithic device. We report on our studies of two multifunction multiphoton photoelectrochemical devices, one based on the ternary semiconductor gallium indium phosphide, (GaInP{sub 2}), and the other one based on amorphous silicon carbide. We also report on our studies of the solid state surface treatment of GaInP{sub 2} as well as our continuing effort to develop synthetic techniques for the attachment of transition metal complexes to the surface of semiconductor electrodes. All our surface studies are directed at controlling the interface energetics and forming stable catalytic surfaces.

  15. Biological conversion of synthesis gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, R.; Klasson, K. T.; Takriff, M.; Clausen, E. C.; Gaddy, J. L.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a technically and economically feasible process for biologically producing H2 from synthesis gas while, at the same time, removing harmful sulfur gas compounds. Six major tasks are being studied: culture development, where the best cultures are selected and conditions optimized for simultaneous hydrogen production and sulfur gas removal; mass transfer and kinetic studies in which equations necessary for process design are developed; bioreactor design studies, where the cultures chosen in the first task are utilized in continuous reaction vessels to demonstrate process feasibility and define operating conditions; evaluation of biological synthetic gas conversion under limiting conditions in preparation for industrial demonstration studies; process scale-up where laboratory data are scaled to larger-size units in preparation for process demonstration in a pilot-scale unit; and economic evaluation, where process simulations are used to project process economics and identify high cost areas during sensitivity analyses.

  16. Pyroelectric energy conversion: optimization principles.

    PubMed

    Sebald, Gael; Lefeuvre, Elie; Guyomar, Daniel

    2008-03-01

    In the framework of microgenerators, we present in this paper the key points for energy harvesting from temperature using ferroelectric materials. Thermoelectric devices profit from temperature spatial gradients, whereas ferroelectric materials require temporal fluctuation of temperature, thus leading to different applications targets. Ferroelectric materials may harvest perfectly the available thermal energy whatever the materials properties (limited by Carnot conversion efficiency) whereas thermoelectric material's efficiency is limited by materials properties (ZT figure of merit). However, it is shown that the necessary electric fields for Carnot cycles are far beyond the breakdown limit of bulk ferroelectric materials. Thin films may be an excellent solution for rising up to ultra-high electric fields and outstanding efficiency. Different thermodynamic cycles are presented in the paper: principles, advantages, and drawbacks. Using the Carnot cycle, the harvested energy would be independent of materials properties. However, using more realistic cycles, the energy conversion effectiveness remains dependent on the materials properties as discussed in the paper. A particular coupling factor is defined to quantify and check the effectiveness of pyroelectric energy harvesting. It is defined similarly to an electromechanical coupling factor as k2=p2theta0/(epsilontheta33cE), where p, theta0, epsilontheta33, cE are pyroelectric coefficient, maximum working temperature, dielectric permittivity, and specific heat, respectively. The importance of the electrothermal coupling factor is shown and discussed as an energy harvesting figure of merit. It gives the effectiveness of all techniques of energy harvesting (except the Carnot cycle). It is finally shown that we could reach very high efficiency using 1110.75Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)-0.25PbTiO3 single crystals and synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (almost 50% of Carnot efficiency). Finally, practical implementation key

  17. Introduction to Solar Photon Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Nozik, A.; Miller, J.

    2010-11-10

    The efficient and cost-effective direct conversion of solar photons into solar electricity and solar fuels is one of the most important scientific and technological challenges of this century. It is estimated that at least 20 terawatts of carbon-free energy (1 and 1/2 times the total amount of all forms of energy consumed today globally), in the form of electricity and liquid and gaseous fuels, will be required by 2050 in order to avoid the most serious consequences of global climate change and to ensure adequate global energy supply that will avoid economic chaos. But in order for solar energy to contribute a major fraction of future carbon-free energy supplies, it must be priced competitively with, or perhaps even be less costly than, energy from fossil fuels and nuclear power as well as other renewable energy resources. The challenge of delivering very low-cost solar fuels and electricity will require groundbreaking advances in both fundamental and applied science. This Thematic Issue on Solar Photon Conversion will provide a review by leading researchers on the present status and prognosis of the science and technology of direct solar photoconversion to electricity and fuels. The topics covered include advanced and novel concepts for low-cost photovoltaic (PV) energy based on chemistry (dye-sensitized photoelectrodes, organic and molecular PV, multiple exciton generation in quantum dots, singlet fission), solar water splitting, redox catalysis for water oxidation and reduction, the role of nanoscience and nanocrystals in solar photoconversion, photoelectrochemical energy conversion, and photoinduced electron transfer. The direct conversion of solar photons to electricity via photovoltaic (PV) cells is a vital present-day commercial industry, with PV module production growing at about 75%/year over the past 3 years. However, the total installed yearly averaged energy capacity at the end of 2009 was about 7 GW-year (0.2% of global electricity usage). Thus, there

  18. Learning and Cognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Anil; Uderman, Jodi; Feirsen, Nicole; Bedard, Anne-Claude; Marks, David

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis The purpose of this article is to provide a select review of treatments for addressing reading disorder, mathematics disorder, disorder of written expression, auditory processing disorder and poor working memory. This information will be valuable to practitioners in determining the suitability of certain treatments for these various disorders/problems which has direct implications for providing comprehensive, multi-disciplinary treatment for youth. PMID:23806314

  19. Overview of sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Roldan, Glenn; Ang, Robert C

    2006-03-01

    Sleep disorders are common and can affect anyone, from every social class and every ethnic background. It is estimated that more than 70 million Americans are afflicted by chronic sleep disorders. Currently about 88 sleep disorders are described by the International Classification of Sleep Disorders as established by The American Academy of Sleep Medicine. This article describes the dyssomnias and parasomnias most commonly seen in the clinical setting of the sleep disorder clinic or laboratory. PMID:16530646

  20. Solar energy, its conversion and utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farber, E. A.

    1972-01-01

    The work being carried out at the University of Florida Solar Energy and Energy Conversion Laboratory in converting solar energy, our only income, into other needed and useful forms of energy is described. A treatment such as this demonstrates, in proper perspective, how solar energy can benefit mankind with its many problems of shortages and pollution. Descriptions were given of the conversion processes, equipment, and performance. The testing of materials, solar water heating, space heating, cooking and baking, solar distillation, refrigeration and air-conditioning, work with the solar furnace, conversion to mechanical power, hot air engines, solar-heated sewage digestion, conversion to electricity, and other devices will be discussed.

  1. NASA Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology NRA Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David J.

    2005-01-01

    The focus of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Development program is aimed at developing nuclear power and technologies that would improve the effectiveness of space science missions. The Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology (RPCT) NASA Research Announcement (NRA) is an important mechanism through which research and technology activities are supported in the Advanced Power Conversion Research and Technology project of the Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems Development program. The purpose of the RPCT NRA is to advance the development of radioisotope power conversion technologies to provide higher efficiencies and specific powers than existing systems. These advances would enable a factor of 2 to 4 decrease in the amount of fuel and a reduction of waste heat required to generate electrical power, and thus could result in more cost effective science missions for NASA. The RPCT NRA selected advanced RPS power conversion technology research and development proposals in the following three areas: innovative RPS power conversion research, RPS power conversion technology development in a nominal 100We scale; and, milliwatt/multi-watt RPS (mWRPS) power conversion research. Ten RPCT NRA contracts were awarded in 2003 in the areas of Brayton, Stirling, thermoelectric (TE), and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion technologies. This paper will provide an overview of the RPCT NRA, a summary of the power conversion technologies approaches being pursued, and a brief digest of first year accomplishments.

  2. NASA Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology NRA Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David J.

    2005-01-01

    The focus of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Development program is aimed at developing nuclear power and technologies that would improve the effectiveness of space science missions. The Radioisotope Power Conversion Technology (RPCT) NASA Research Announcement (NRA) is an important mechanism through which research and technology activities are supported in the Advanced Power Conversion Research and Technology project of the Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems Development program. The purpose of the RPCT NRA is to advance the development of radioisotope power conversion technologies to provide higher efficiencies and specific powers than existing systems. These advances would enable a factor of two to four decrease in the amount of fuel and a reduction of waste heat required to generate electrical power, and thus could result in more cost effective science missions for NASA. The RPCT NRA selected advanced RPS power conversion technology research and development proposals in the following three areas: innovative RPS power conversion research, RPS power conversion technology development in a nominal 100 W(sub e) scale; and, milliwatt/multi-watt RPS (mWRPS) power conversion research. Ten RPCT NRA contracts were awarded in 2003 in the areas of Brayton, Stirling, thermoelectric (TE), and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion technologies. This paper will provide an overview of the RPCT NRA, a summary of the power conversion technologies approaches being pursued, and a brief digest of first year accomplishments.

  3. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Ptáček, R; Kuželová, H; Papežová, H; Stěpánková, T

    2010-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common child diagnosis with frequent comorbidities (Quinn, 2008). According to present studies eating disorders may represent one of them (Mikami et al., 2008). Several studies reported ADHD relation to the higher predisposition to obesity (Altafas, 2002), higher values of signs of overnutrition, as body mass index (Waring and Lapane, 2008) or higher value of fat (Ptacek et al., 2009a, c). These characteristics are considered to be directly related to the disorder. They can be caused by impulsivity and probable specific feeding customs of ADHD patients. The presence of eating disorders in ADHD patients could partially explain previously described growth and weight changes. PMID:20946717

  4. Personality Disorder in Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Attrition and Change During Long-term Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gift, Thomas E; Reimherr, Frederick W; Marchant, Barrie K; Steans, Tammy A; Wender, Paul H

    2016-05-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are commonly found in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and are associated with increased ADHD symptoms and psychosocial impairment. To assess the impact of PDs or personality traits on retention rates in ADHD trials and whether treating ADHD affects the expression of PD, data were analyzed from 2 methylphenidate trials. Assessment of PDs and personality traits included using the Wisconsin Personality Disorders Inventory IV and the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Personality Disorders. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms were evaluated using the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale. Major findings were that subjects with cluster A, cluster B, passive-aggressive, or more than 1 PD showed more attrition. Subjects dropping out also had more schizoid and narcissistic traits. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms (p < 0.001) and all personality traits (range, p = 0.03 to p = 0.001) improved, but there was almost no correlation between changes on these 2 measures. Conversely, of 11 Wisconsin Personality Disorders Inventory IV items that improved most, 8 resembled ADHD or oppositional defiant disorder symptoms. PMID:27082828

  5. Depression and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Casper, R C

    1998-01-01

    Both depressive disorders and eating disorders are multidimensional and heterogeneous disorders. This paper examines the nature of their relationship by reviewing clinical descriptive, family-genetic, treatment, and biological studies that relate to the issue. The studies confirm the prominence of depressive symptoms and depressive disorders in eating disorders. Other psychiatric syndromes which occur with less frequency, such as anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders in anorexia nervosa, or personality disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse in bulimia nervosa, also play an important role in the development and maintenance of eating disorders. Since few studies have controlled for starvation-induced physical, endocrine, or psychological changes which mimic the symptoms considered diagnostic for depression, further research will be needed. The evidence for a shared etiology is not compelling for anorexia nervosa and is at most suggestive for bulimia nervosa. Since in contemporary cases dieting-induced weight loss is the principal trigger, women with self-critical or depressive features will be disproportionately recruited into eating disorders. The model that fits the data best would accommodate a relationship between eating disorders and the full spectrum of depressive disorders from no depression to severe depression, with somewhat higher rates of depression in bulimic anorectic and bulimia nervosa patients than in restricting anorexia nervosa patients, but the model would admit a specific pathophysiology and psychopathology in each eating disorder. PMID:9809221

  6. The Conversion of Wiswesser Line Notations to Ring Codes. I. The Conversion of Ring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granito, Charles E.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    The computerized conversion of Wiswesser Line Notations to Ring Codes, using a two-part approach, and the set of computer programs generated for the conversion of ring systems are described. (9 references) (Author)

  7. [Pharmacotherapy of Anxiety Disorders].

    PubMed

    Zwanzger, P

    2016-05-01

    Anxiety disorders belong to the most frequent psychiatric disorders according to epidemiological studies and are associated with a high economic burden. Panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia belong to the most important clinical disorders. The etiology is complex, including genetic, neurobiological as well as psychosocial factors. With regard to treatment, both psychotherapy and medication can be employed according to current treatment guidelines. With regard to psychotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) represents the treatment of choice. As for pharmacological treatment, in particular modern antidepressants and pregabalin are recommended. However, several recommendations have to be considered in daily clinical practice. PMID:27299791

  8. [Adolescent behavioral disorders].

    PubMed

    Karila, Laurent; Larrar, Michael; Ferreri, Mélanie

    2014-04-01

    Adolescence is a period of physical and mental transition between childhood and adulthood, two supposedly quieter periods. Puberty and social pressures generate painful psychic conflicts even for a subject without particular problem. Behavioral disorders of adolescents are numerous and heterogeneous. It is oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, hyperactive disorder with attention deficit which often begin during childhood to evolve negatively in adolescence. Eating disorders, addictive disorders, self-mutilation and scarification are also found. Therapeutic management should be multimodal and involve different actors in the health, education and social areas. PMID:24855786

  9. Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion Development Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukla, Kailash; Doyle, Edward; Becker, Frederick

    1998-01-01

    Completely integrated thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power sources in the range of 100 to 500 watts are being developed. The technical approach taken in this project focuses on optimizing the integrated performance of the primary subsystems in order to yield high energy conversion efficiency and cost effectiveness. An important aspect of the approach is the use of a narrow band fibrous emitter radiating to a bandgap matched photovoltaic array to minimize thermal and optical recuperation requirements, as well as the non-recoverable heat losses. For the prototype system, fibrous ytterbia emitters radiating in a narrow band centered at 980 nm are matched with high efficiency silicon photoconverters. The integrated system includes a dielectric stack filter for optical energy recovery and a ceramic recuperator for thermal energy recovery. The prototype TPV system uses a rapid mix distributed fuel delivery system with controlled feeding of the fuel and heated air into a flame at the surface of the emitter. This makes it possible to operate at air preheat temperatures well above the auto-ignition temperature of the fuel thereby substantially increasing the system efficiency. The system has been operated with air preheat temperatures up to 1367 K and has produced a uniform narrow band radiation over the surface of the emitter with this approach. The design of the system is described and test data for the system and some of the key components are presented. The results from a system model, which show the impact of various parameters on system performance, are also discussed.

  10. Energy conversion in polyelectrolyte hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olvera de La Cruz, Monica; Erbas, Aykut; Olvera de la Cruz Team

    Energy conversion and storage have been an active field of research in nanotechnology parallel to recent interests towards renewable energy. Polyelectrolyte (PE) hydrogels have attracted considerable attention in this field due to their mechanical flexibility and stimuli-responsive properties. Ideally, when a hydrogel is deformed, applied mechanical work can be converted into electrostatic, elastic and steric-interaction energies. In this talk, we discuss the results of our extensive molecular dynamics simulations of PE hydrogels. We demonstrate that, on deformation, hydrogels adjust their deformed state predominantly by altering electrostatic interactions between their charged groups rather than excluded-volume and bond energies. This is due to the hydrogel's inherent tendency to preserve electro-neutrality in its interior, in combination with correlations imposed by backbone charges. Our findings are valid for a wide range of compression ratios and ionic strengths. The electrostatic-energy alterations that we observe in our MD simulations may induce pH or redox-potential changes inside the hydrogels. The resulting energetic difference can be harvested, for instance, analogously to a Carnot engine, or facilitated for sensor applications. Center for Bio-inspired Energy Science (CBES).

  11. Catalytic conversion of light alkanes

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, J.E.

    1992-06-30

    The second Quarterly Report of 1992 on the Catalytic Conversion of Light Alkanes reviews the work done between April 1, 1992 and June 31, 1992 on the Cooperative Agreement. The mission of this work is to devise a new catalyst which can be used in a simple economic process to convert the light alkanes in natural gas to oxygenate products that can either be used as clean-burning, high octane liquid fuels, as fuel components or as precursors to liquid hydrocarbon uwspomdon fuel. During the past quarter we have continued to design, prepare, characterize and test novel catalysts for the mild selective reaction of light hydrocarbons with air or oxygen to produce alcohols directly. These catalysts are designed to form active metal oxo (MO) species and to be uniquely active for the homolytic cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bonds in light alkanes producing intermediates which can form alcohols. We continue to investigate three molecular environments for the active catalytic species that we are trying to generate: electron-deficient macrocycles (PHASE I), polyoxometallates (PHASE II), and regular oxidic lattices including zeolites and related structures as well as other molecular surface structures having metal oxo groups (PHASE I).

  12. Interdigitated photovoltaic power conversion device

    DOEpatents

    Ward, J.S.; Wanlass, M.W.; Gessert, T.A.

    1999-04-27

    A photovoltaic power conversion device has a top surface adapted to receive impinging radiation. The device includes at least two adjacent, serially connected cells. Each cell includes a semi-insulating substrate and a lateral conductivity layer of a first doped electrical conductivity disposed on the substrate. A base layer is disposed on the lateral conductivity layer and has the same electrical charge conductivity thereof. An emitter layer of a second doped electrical conductivity of opposite electrical charge is disposed on the base layer and forms a p-n junction therebetween. A plurality of spaced channels are formed in the emitter and base layers to expose the lateral conductivity layer at the bottoms thereof. A front contact grid is positioned on the top surface of the emitter layer of each cell. A first current collector is positioned along one outside edge of at least one first cell. A back contact grid is positioned in the channels at the top surface of the device for engagement with the lateral conductivity layer. A second current collector is positioned along at least one outside edge of at least one oppositely disposed second cell. Finally, an interdigitation mechanism is provided for serially connecting the front contact grid of one cell to the back contact grid of an adjacent cell at the top surface of the device. 15 figs.

  13. Interdigitated photovoltaic power conversion device

    DOEpatents

    Ward, James Scott; Wanlass, Mark Woodbury; Gessert, Timothy Arthur

    1999-01-01

    A photovoltaic power conversion device has a top surface adapted to receive impinging radiation. The device includes at least two adjacent, serially connected cells. Each cell includes a semi-insulating substrate and a lateral conductivity layer of a first doped electrical conductivity disposed on the substrate. A base layer is disposed on the lateral conductivity layer and has the same electrical charge conductivity thereof. An emitter layer of a second doped electrical conductivity of opposite electrical charge is disposed on the base layer and forms a p-n junction therebetween. A plurality of spaced channels are formed in the emitter and base layers to expose the lateral conductivity layer at the bottoms thereof. A front contact grid is positioned on the top surface of the emitter layer of each cell. A first current collector is positioned along one outside edge of at least one first cell. A back contact grid is positioned in the channels at the top surface of the device for engagement with the lateral conductivity layer. A second current collector is positioned along at least one outside edge of at least one oppositely disposed second cell. Finally, an interdigitation mechanism is provided for serially connecting the front contact grid of one cell to the back contact grid of an adjacent cell at the top surface of the device.

  14. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    ECAS compared various advanced energy conversion systems that can use coal or coal-derived fuels for baseload electric power generation. It was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 consisted of parametric studies. From these results, 11 concepts were selected for further study in Phase 2. For each of the Phase 2 systems and a common set of ground rules, performance, cost, environmental intrusion, and natural resource requirements were estimated. In addition, the contractors defined the state of the associated technology, identified the advances required, prepared preliminary research and development plans, and assessed other factors that would affect the implementation of each type of powerplant. The systems studied in Phase 2 include steam systems with atmospheric- and pressurized-fluidized-bed boilers; combined cycle gas turbine/steam systems with integrated gasifiers or fired by a semiclean, coal derived fuel; a potassium/steam system with a pressurized-fluidized-bed boiler; a closed-cycle gas turbine/organic system with a high-temperature, atmospheric-fluidized-bed furnace; a direct-coal-fired, open- cycle magnetohydrodynamic/steam system; and a molten-carbonate fuel cell/steam system with an integrated gasifier. The sensitivity of the results to changes in the ground rules and the impact of uncertainties in capital cost estimates were also examined.

  15. Conversion of pentoses by yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, C.S.; Claypool, T.A.; Maun, C.M.; Mccracken, L.D.; Tsao, G.T.; Ueng, P.P.

    1983-01-01

    The utilization and conversion of D-xylose, D-xyulose, L-arabinose, and xylitol by yeast strains have been investigated with the following results: 1) The majority of yeasts tested utilize D-xylose and produce polyols, ethanol, and organic acids. The type and amount of products formed varies with the yeast strains used. The most commonly detected product is xylitol. 2) The majority of yeasts tested utilize D-xylulose aerobically and fermentatively to produce ethanol, xylitol D-arabitol, and organic acids. The type and amount of products varies depending upon the yeast strains used. 3) Xylitol is a poor carbon and energy source for most yeasts tested. Some yeast strains produce small amounts of ethanol from xylitol. 4) Most yeast strains utilize L-arabinose, and L-arabitol is the common product. Small amounts of ethanol are also produced by some yeast strains. 5) Of the four substrates examined, D-xylulose was the preferred substrate, followed by D-xylose, L-arabinose, and xylitol. 6) Mutant yeast strains that exhibit different metabolic product patterns can be induced and isolated from Candida sp. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and other yeasts. These mutant strains can be used for ethanol production from D-xylose as well as for the study of metabolic regulation of pentose utilization in yeasts.

  16. Keep meaning in conversational coordination

    PubMed Central

    Cuffari, Elena C.

    2014-01-01

    Coordination is a widely employed term across recent quantitative and qualitative approaches to intersubjectivity, particularly approaches that give embodiment and enaction central explanatory roles. With a focus on linguistic and bodily coordination in conversational contexts, I review the operational meaning of coordination in recent empirical research and related theorizing of embodied intersubjectivity. This discussion articulates what must be involved in treating linguistic meaning as dynamic processes of coordination. The coordination approach presents languaging as a set of dynamic self-organizing processes and actions on multiple timescales and across multiple modalities that come about and work in certain domains (those jointly constructed in social, interactive, high-order sense-making). These processes go beyond meaning at the level that is available to first-person experience. I take one crucial consequence of this to be the ubiquitously moral nature of languaging with others. Languaging coordinates experience, among other levels of behavior and event. Ethical effort is called for by the automatic autonomy-influencing forces of languaging as coordination. PMID:25520693

  17. Substance Use Disorders and Anxiety: A Treatment Challenge for Social Workers

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Kathleen T.; Haynes, Louise F.; Hartwell, Karen J.; Killeen, Therese K.

    2013-01-01

    Converging evidence from epidemiologic and treatment studies indicate that anxiety disorders and substance use disorders commonly co-occur, and the interaction is multifaceted and variable. Epidemiological studies and investigations within clinical substance abuse populations have found an association between anxiety disorders and substance use disorders. Specific anxiety disorders including generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and post traumatic stress disorder have all been associated with substance use. The association with obsessive–compulsive disorder is less robust, and some research has found a negative association. The risk of nicotine dependence is significantly higher among individuals with an anxiety disorder, and conversely, smoking has been found to be associated with trait anxiety and anxiety disorders. A review of the current literature and the relationship between specific anxiety disorders and alcohol and substance use disorders is discussed in detail. This article, written for social workers in a variety of practice settings, reviews the prevalence, diagnostic, and treatment issues at the interface of substance use disorders and anxiety disorders. PMID:23731428

  18. "The Clearing": Conversations at the Wabash Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Nadine S.

    2007-01-01

    The study of religion seeks to understand life and life practices, which means that it is internally suited to dynamic teaching-learning methods such as exploration, conversation, and imaginative construction. Wabash Center hospitality enables reflective conversations about the nature of our craft, the shape of our vocation, and the direction of…

  19. Conversational Memory Employing Cued and Free Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, Pamela J.; Benoit, William L.

    1988-01-01

    Tests two hypotheses: (1) that cued recall elicits significantly more conversational information than free recall; and (2) that conversational interactants recall more of their partner's utterances than their own. Finds cued recall produced significantly higher amounts of remembering than free recall. (MS)

  20. Provoking Reflective Thinking in Post Observation Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Younhee; Silver, Rita Elaine

    2016-01-01

    We present a micro-analysis of post observation conversations between classroom teachers and mentors. Using the approach of conversation analysis, we show how the sequential organization of an episode (i.e., who initiates the interaction, question format used by mentors) could potentially serve to provoke or hinder teacher reflection. Our analysis…

  1. Effects of Conversational Pressures on Speech Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swets, Benjamin; Jacovina, Matthew E.; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    In ordinary conversation, speakers experience pressures both to produce utterances suited to particular addressees and to do so with minimal delay. To document the impact of these conversational pressures, our experiment asked participants to produce brief utterances to describe visual displays. We complicated utterance planning by including…

  2. 43 CFR 3140.4 - Conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conversion. 3140.4 Section 3140.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Conversion of...

  3. 43 CFR 3140.4 - Conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conversion. 3140.4 Section 3140.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Conversion of...

  4. 43 CFR 3140.4 - Conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conversion. 3140.4 Section 3140.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Conversion of...

  5. 43 CFR 3140.4 - Conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conversion. 3140.4 Section 3140.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Conversion of...

  6. Analyzing Conversation Strategies among Colombian EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nausa Triana, Ricardo Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the teaching of conversation strategies in the EFL classroom. This is reflected in how institutional programs and textbook series regard conversation management as crucial in the learning of the L2. Classrooms, in this sense, have become spaces for active socialization, and have given the study…

  7. Sonication Induced Intermediate in Prion Protein Conversion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In vivo conversion of prion protein (PrPC) to its abnormal pathogenic isoform (PrPSc) is associated with conformational transition of alpha-helices and unstructured regions to beta-sheets. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) is thought to mimics this conversion in vitro. PMCA involves son...

  8. Effective Techniques for English Conversation Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Julia M.

    This book gathers ideas and practices in teaching English as a second language to serve as a reference for the leader of a conversation group. A variety of tested techniques is included for stimulating conversation among students with a basic command of English. The book begins with a discussion of what is involved in directed conversation…

  9. Doing Conversation Analysis: A Practical Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ten Have, Paul

    Noting that conversation analysis (CA) has developed into one of the major methods of analyzing speech in the disciplines of communications, linguistics, anthropology and sociology, this book demonstrates in a practical way how to become a conversation analyst. As well as providing an overall introduction to the approach, it focuses on the…

  10. CONVERSION OF MUNICIPAL SLUDGE TO OIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermal conversion of municipal sludge to oil has been investigated as a viable alternative for ultimate sludge disposal due to generation of energy. The conversion process using water as a solvent was evaluated in a batch mode using primary and secondary municipal sludges. A wel...

  11. 5 CFR 534.605 - Conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conversion. 534.605 Section 534.605 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Administrative Appeals Judge Positions § 534.605 Conversion. On the first day of the first pay period...

  12. 5 CFR 534.605 - Conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conversion. 534.605 Section 534.605 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Administrative Appeals Judge Positions § 534.605 Conversion. On the first day of the first pay period...

  13. 5 CFR 534.605 - Conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conversion. 534.605 Section 534.605 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Administrative Appeals Judge Positions § 534.605 Conversion. On the first day of the first pay period...

  14. 5 CFR 534.605 - Conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conversion. 534.605 Section 534.605 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Administrative Appeals Judge Positions § 534.605 Conversion. On the first day of the first pay period...

  15. 5 CFR 534.605 - Conversion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion. 534.605 Section 534.605 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Administrative Appeals Judge Positions § 534.605 Conversion. On the first day of the first pay period...

  16. The Role of Conversation in Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox-Turnbull, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates recent literature in the area of classroom conversation and dialogue with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the role that classroom conversation and dialogue plays in learning. It also investigates literature on the constructivist, collaborative nature of technology education and suggests that to enhance our…

  17. Learning to Talk: Conversation across Religious Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Theresa

    2009-01-01

    Bringing adults to speak about their religious belief and practice requires moving beyond what is deemed socially polite. Yet the plural nature of U.S. society increasingly demands that adults develop just such conversational capacities. This article offers a description of conversation as suggested by Nicholas Burbules, and reports on the…

  18. Reflection during Portfolio-Based Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterbaan, Anne E.; van der Schaaf, Marieke F.; Baartman, Liesbeth K. J.; Stokking, Karel M.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to explore the relationship between the occurrence of reflection (and non-reflection) and thinking activities (e.g., orientating, selecting, analysing) during portfolio-based conversations. Analysis of 21 transcripts of portfolio-based conversations revealed that 20% of the segments were made up of reflection (content reflection…

  19. Thermal-energy conversion: Under pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillip, William A.

    2016-07-01

    The conversion of low-grade waste heat into electrical energy is an attractive opportunity to harvest a sustainable energy resource. A thermo-osmotic energy conversion process that uses Earth-abundant materials has now been shown to convert waste heat into electrical energy from sources at temperatures as low as 40 °C.

  20. 1982 annual report: Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program

    SciTech Connect

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    This report provides a brief overview of the Thermochemical Conversion Program's activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1982. The objective of the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program is to generate scientific data and fundamental biomass converison process information that, in the long term, could lead to establishment of cost effective processes for conversion of biomass resources into clean fuels and petrochemical substitutes. The goal of the program is to improve the data base for biomass conversion by investigating the fundamental aspects of conversion technologies and exploring those parameters which are critical to these conversion processes. To achieve this objective and goal, the Thermochemical Conversion Program is sponsoring high-risk, long-term research with high payoff potential which industry is not currently sponsoring, nor is likely to support. Thermochemical conversion processes employ elevated temperatures to convert biomass materials into energy. Process examples include: combustion to produce heat, steam, electricity, direct mechanical power; gasification to produce fuel gas or synthesis gases for the production of methanol and hydrocarbon fuels; direct liquefaction to produce heavy oils or distillates; and pyrolysis to produce a mixture of oils, fuel gases, and char. A bibliography of publications for 1982 is included.

  1. Mathematical Conversations to Transform Algebra Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szydlik, Jennifer Earles

    2015-01-01

    Classroom culture is established through both conversations and practices. Traditionally in mathematics class, the focus is primarily on the latter; that is, students are shown what "doing mathematics" looks like, and then asked that they try it themselves. This article discusses three mathematical conversations that help bring…

  2. Collective Contexts in Conversation: Grounding by Proxy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshghi, Arash; Healey, Patrick G. T.

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that participants in conversation can sometimes act as a coalition. This implies a level of conversational organization in which groups of individuals form a coherent unit. This paper investigates the implications of this phenomenon for psycholinguistic and semantic models of shared context in dialog. We present a…

  3. Improving Teamwork through Awareness of Conversational Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehling, Louise

    2004-01-01

    Conversational styles can sometimes cause conflicts on problem-solving writing teams. In self-defense, students often resort to blaming and shaming around conversational styles, which can just worsen unproductive group behaviors, limiting idea exchanges and deflecting attention from substantive issues and onto what is often labeled "personality…

  4. Tag Questions and Gender in Swedish Conversations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordenstam, Kerstin

    A study investigated the use of tag questions in the private conversations of Swedish men and women. Conversations took place in single-gender dyads (six with two men and six with two women) and six mixed-gender dyads. Informants were aged approximately 25 or approximately 50, of different social classes, chosen by random selection, and asked to…

  5. Biomass thermal conversion research at SERI

    SciTech Connect

    Milne, T. A.; Desrosiers, R. E.; Reed, T. B.

    1980-09-01

    SERI's involvement in the thermochemical conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals is reviewed. The scope and activities of the Biomass Thermal Conversion and Exploratory Branch are reviewed. The current status and future plans for three tasks are presented: (1) Pyrolysis Mechanisms; (2) High Pressure O/sub 2/ Gasifier; and (3) Gasification Test Facility.

  6. Using Focused Conversation in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spee, James C.

    2005-01-01

    Focused conversation is a method of collecting observations, emotions, interpretations, and decisions from groups that have shared a significant experience. This article reports how the author used focused conversation to discuss the events of September 11 with students in three sections of a master's-level organizational change class in the week…

  7. Collaborative Conversations About Second-Grade Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, Sarah

    2005-01-01

    This article tells the story of young second-grade teacher and her quest to help students reach the New York state standards in reading. It is the yearlong story of significant professional growth highlighted by the conversations surrounding student learning. The collaborative conversations between the teacher, her colleague, and her staff…

  8. Enhancing Classroom Conversation for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, William

    2013-01-01

    The author, a 5th-grade teacher, offers strategies intended to assist and encourage ELL students to participate in academic conversations. They include insisting that children take part in conversations despite their apprehension and teaching them the language they need to communicate their ideas. One strategy is Think, Pair, Share--a simple…

  9. 5 CFR 534.506 - Conversion provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conversion provisions. 534.506 Section 534.506 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.506 Conversion provisions. (a) This section covers initial...

  10. Exploring How Conversations Meet Teacher Learning Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Amber Heiserman

    2012-01-01

    This study identified the content of educator conversations and determined how social interactions contributed to participant learning. Data sources included videos from face-to-face conversational sessions and individual, video stimulated-recall (SR) interviews conducted virtually. Participants included fifth and sixth-grade teachers from five…

  11. A Conversation with Gita Levovna Vygodskaya.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Linda; Good, Kenneth

    The work of Lev Vygotsky, a Russian developmental psychologist, has made enormous recent contributions to the fields of child development and education. This paper recounts a conversation with Gita Levovna Vygodskaya, Vygotsky's eldest daughter, also a psychologist. There were two foci of the conversation. The first was on the parallels between…

  12. 42 CFR 414.28 - Conversion factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conversion factors. 414.28 Section 414.28 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.28 Conversion factors....

  13. Agricultural Land Conversion: Background and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furuseth, Owen J.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzes forces contributing to the conversion of agricultural land for other uses, causes for the depletion of the land, major issues surrounding the loss of farmland, and current policies designed to control haphazard land conversion. Concludes that the United States lacks a national farmland protection policy. (KC)

  14. The Conversational Frame in Public Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branham, Robert James; Pearce, W. Barnett

    1996-01-01

    Explores the diverse forms and motives of the conversational frame in public address. Argues that, by framing their remarks and transactions with their listeners as conversational, orators may attempt to reconstruct or seem to reconstruct speaker-audience relationships and to position themselves and their audiences within networks of reciprocal…

  15. Retrospective Conversion: Investing in the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Richard

    1984-01-01

    Report on developments in the retrospective conversion of manual library files to machine-readable form discusses planning and decision making; accommodating full records; conforming to standards; creating bibliographic records; sources of retrospective conversion support (bibliographic utilities, stand-alone systems); use of microcomputers;…

  16. Retrospective Conversion Manual: University Library Recon Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramage, Pat

    This manual provides a brief description of the procedures employed by the University of South Alabama in converting their library records from print to computerized cataloging. A description of the procedure is followed by detailed instructions and examples. Rules for NOTIS-LCCN Conversion Records, OCLC--Telex Transfer, and Conversion of…

  17. Retrospective Conversion of Music Collection. Project Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayne, Pauline S.; And Others

    This manual describes procedures followed by the University of Tennessee, Knoxville Library Cataloging Department in its Music Retrospective Conversion Project. The goal of the project, running from October 1, 1983 to December 31, 1984, is full conversion of bibliographic records for scores, recordings, and music monographs to machine readable…

  18. [Obsessive-compulsive disorder. A hidden disorder].

    PubMed

    Haraldsson, Magnús

    2015-02-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a common and often chronic psychiatric illness that significantly interferes with the patient´s functioning and quality of life. The disorder is characterized by excessive intrusive and inappropriate anxiety evoking thoughts as well as time consuming compulsions that cause significant impairment and distress. The symptoms are often accompanied by shame and guilt and the knowledge of the general public and professional community about the disorder is limited. Hence it is frequently misdiagnosed or diagnosed late. There are indications that the disorder is hereditary and that neurobiological processes are involved in its pathophysiology. Several psychological theories about the causes of obsessive-compulsive disorder are supported by empirical evidence. Evidence based treatment is either with serotoninergic medications or cognitive behavioral therapy, particularly a form of behavioral therapy called exposure response prevention. Better treatment options are needed because almost a third of people with obsessive-compulsive disorder respond inadequatly to treatment. In this review article two cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder are presented. The former case is a young man with typical symptoms that respond well to treatment and the latter is a middle aged lady with severe treatment resistant symptoms. She underwent stereotactic implantation of electrodes and received deep brain stimulation, which is an experimental treatment for severe obsessive-compulsive disorder that does not respond to any conventional treatment. Landspitali University Hospital, Division of Psychiatry. Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland. PMID:25682808

  19. Parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jokiranta, Elina; Brown, Alan S.; Heinimaa, Markus; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Partanen, Auli; Sourander, Andre

    2013-01-01

    The present population-based, case-control study examines associations between specific parental psychiatric disorders and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) including childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder (PDD-NOS). The cohort includes 4713 children born between 1987 and 2005 with diagnoses of childhood autism, Asperger’s syndrome or PDD-NOS. Cases were ascertained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, and each was matched to four controls by gender, date of birth, place of birth, and residence in Finland. Controls were selected from the Finnish Medical Birth Register. Parents were identified through the Finnish Medical Birth Register and Finnish Central Population Register. Parental psychiatric diagnoses from inpatient care were collected from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess whether parents’ psychiatric disorders predicted ASD after controlling for parents’ age, smoking during pregnancy and weight for gestational age. In summary, parental schizophrenia spectrum disorders and affective disorders were associated with the risk of ASD regardless of the subgroup. PDD-NOS was associated with all parental psychiatric disorders investigated. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings. These results may facilitate the investigation of shared genetic and familial factors between ASD and other psychiatric disorders. PMID:23391634

  20. Eating disorders in the male athlete.

    PubMed

    Baum, Antonia

    2006-01-01

    Eating disorders do occur in male athletes. They are less prominent than in female athletes, and therefore in danger of being missed. The high-risk sports fall into the same categories as with females: aesthetic sports, sports in which low body fat is advantageous, such as cross-country and marathon running, and sports in which there is a need to "make weight", including wrestling and horse racing. Athletic involvement may foster the development of an eating disorder. Some male athletes, in their preoccupation with body image, will abuse anabolic steroids. While sports participation may contribute to the aetiology of an eating disorder, the converse is also true. Exercise may be used as therapy for some cases of eating disorder. In order to adequately treat eating disorders in the male athlete, it is first essential to identify cases. Psychoeducation of athletes, their families, coaches and trainers is an important first step. Counselling an athlete to pursue a sport appropriate to his body type, or to leave his sport behind altogether (an unpopular recommendation from a coach's perspective) can be important to treatment. Treatment of co-morbid psychiatric conditions is essential. Treatment can be structured using a biopsychosocial approach, and all appropriate modalities of therapy, including individual, family and group, as well as psychopharmacotherapy, where appropriate, should be applied. PMID:16445307

  1. Application of Planck's law to thermionic conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, F.

    1998-07-01

    A simple, highly accurate, mathematical model of heat-to-electricity conversion is developed from Planck's law for the distribution of the radiant exitance of heat at a selected temperature. An electrical power curve is calculated by integration of the heat law over a selected range of electromagnetic wavelength corresponding to electrical voltage. A novel wavelength-voltage conversion factor, developed from the known wavelength-electron volt conversion factor, establishes the wavelength ({lambda}) for the integration. The Planck law is integrated within the limits {lambda} to 2{lambda}. The integration provides the ideal electrical power that is available from heat at the emitter temperature. When multiplied by a simple ratio, the calculated ideal power closely matches published thermionic converter experimental data. The thermal power model of thermionic conversion is validated by experiments with thermionic emission of ordinary electron tubes. A theoretical basis for the heat law based model of thermionic conversion is found in linear oscillator theory.

  2. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy--can conversion be predicted?

    PubMed

    Sikora, S S; Kumar, A; Saxena, R; Kapoor, V K; Kaushik, S P

    1995-01-01

    The possibility of conversion to open cholecystectomy (OC) always exists while performing a laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). This study has been performed with the aim of identifying factors predicting conversion to OC. From October 1992-April 1994, LC was attempted in 150 patients and conversion to OC was required in 29 (19%) patients. Ten preoperative factors were analyzed retrospectively to identify parameters significantly correlating with conversion to OC. Preoperative factors analyzed were age, sex, duration of symptoms, BMI (Body Mass Index), past history of jaundice, previous abdominal surgery, associated medical risk factors, palpable lump on clinical examination, USG, and OCG findings. Univariate and multiple stepwise regression analysis identified male sex, USG finding of contracted/thick-walled gall bladder, and a palpable gall bladder lump on examination as significant preoperative factors predicting conversion to OC. PMID:8553679

  3. Anxiety Disorders Information: Helping Others

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anxiety Disorder Treating Anxiety Disorders: Educational Videos Clinical Practice Review for Major Depressive Disorder Meetings & Events Mental Health Apps Announcements Awards Alies Muskin Career Development ...

  4. Hepatic dysfunction in peroxisomal disorders.

    PubMed

    Baes, Myriam; Van Veldhoven, Paul P

    2016-05-01

    The peroxisomal compartment in hepatocytes hosts several essential metabolic conversions. These are defective in peroxisomal disorders that are either caused by failure to import the enzymes in the organelle or by mutations in the enzymes or in transporters needed to transfer the substrates across the peroxisomal membrane. Hepatic pathology is one of the cardinal features in disorders of peroxisome biogenesis and peroxisomal β-oxidation although it only rarely determines the clinical fate. In mouse models of these diseases liver pathologies also occur, although these are not always concordant with the human phenotype which might be due to differences in diet, expression of enzymes and backup mechanisms. Besides the morphological changes, we overview the impact of peroxisome malfunction on other cellular compartments including mitochondria and the ER. We further focus on the metabolic pathways that are affected such as bile acid formation, and dicarboxylic acid and branched chain fatty acid degradation. It appears that the association between deregulated metabolites and pathological events remains unclear. PMID:26453805

  5. Males and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and men also are vulnerable. Boys with eating disorders show the same types of ... as girls, but for a variety of reasons, boys are less likely to be diagnosed with what ...

  6. Extraintestinal Complications: Kidney Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Extraintestinal Complications: Kidney Disorders Go Back Extraintestinal Complications: Kidney Disorders Email Print + Share The kidneys filter the ... but some less serious ones occur more frequently. Kidney stones These are probably the most commonly encountered ...

  7. Schizoid personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorder is unknown. It may be related to schizophrenia and shares many of the same risk factors. Schizoid personality disorder is not as disabling as schizophrenia. It does not cause the disconnection from reality ( ...

  8. Speech and Communication Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... speech. Causes include Hearing disorders and deafness Voice problems, such as dysphonia or those caused by cleft lip or palate Speech problems like stuttering Developmental disabilities Learning disorders Autism spectrum ...

  9. How to characterize disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egami, T.

    2016-05-01

    Researchers working on nuclear materials encounter disorder in the atomic structure all the time, usually caused by irradiation. The nature of disorder varies widely, from lattice defects to amorphous phase formation. Generally it is not easy to characterize the state of disorder with the accuracy necessary to elucidate the properties caused by structural disorder. However, owing to advances in the tools of characterization and rapid rise in computer power, significant progress has been made in characterizing structural disorder. We discuss how to describe and determine the structure and dynamics of disordered materials using scattering measurements and modeling. Lattice defects caused by irradiation usually has negative effects on properties, but glasses and highly disordered materials can be irradiation resistant, and could be useful as nuclear materials. Characterizing and controlling disorder is becoming an important endeavor in the field of nuclear materials.

  10. Kinetics of Tetrataenite Disordering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos, E.; Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P.; Scorzelli, R. B.

    2014-09-01

    Tetrataenite is a sensitive tracer of transient secondary thermal events that leads to disordering of tetrataenite into taenite. Thus, preliminary results concerning time-temperature data for tetrataenite disordering are presented.

  11. Males and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  12. Sleep and Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M

    2016-10-01

    Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia. PMID:27553980

  13. Specific Genetic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Genetic Terms Definitions for genetic terms Specific Genetic Disorders Many human diseases have a genetic component. ... Condition in an Adult The Undiagnosed Diseases Program Genetic Disorders Achondroplasia Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Antiphospholipid Syndrome ...

  14. Genetic Brain Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    A genetic brain disorder is caused by a variation or a mutation in a gene. A variation is a different form ... mutation is a change in a gene. Genetic brain disorders affect the development and function of the ...

  15. What Are Reading Disorders?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications What are reading disorders? Skip sharing on social media links Share ... for more information about these problems. Types of Reading Disorders Dyslexia is a brain-based type of ...

  16. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is ... One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup ...

  17. Lipid Metabolism Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolism is the process your body uses to make energy from the food you eat. Food is ... disorder, something goes wrong with this process. Lipid metabolism disorders, such as Gaucher disease and Tay-Sachs ...

  18. Facial Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Face injuries and disorders can cause pain and affect how you look. In severe cases, they can affect sight, ... your nose, cheekbone and jaw, are common facial injuries. Certain diseases also lead to facial disorders. For ...

  19. Dependent personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000941.htm Dependent personality disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Dependent personality disorder is a mental condition in which people ...

  20. Histrionic personality disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001531.htm Histrionic personality disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Histrionic personality disorder is a mental condition in which people ...