Science.gov

Sample records for conversion factor analysis

  1. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wasiolek

    2004-09-08

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standard. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters, their development, and the relationship between the parameters and specific features events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs for the groundwater exposure scenario for the three climate states considered in the TSPA-LA as well as conversion factors for evaluating compliance with the groundwater protection standard. The BDCFs will be used in performance assessment for calculating all-pathway annual doses for a given concentration of radionuclides in groundwater. The conversion factors will be used for calculating gross alpha particle activity in groundwater and the annual dose

  2. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Wasiolek

    2003-07-25

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standard. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 164186]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports (BSC 2003 [DIRS 160964]; BSC 2003 [DIRS 160965]; BSC 2003 [DIRS 160976]; BSC 2003 [DIRS 161239]; BSC 2003 [DIRS 161241]) contain detailed description of the model input parameters. This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs and conversion factors for the TSPA. The BDCFs will be used in performance assessment for calculating annual doses for a given concentration of radionuclides in groundwater. The conversion factors will be used for calculating gross alpha particle activity in groundwater and the annual dose from beta- and photon-emitting radionuclides.

  3. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Wasiolek

    2005-04-28

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standards. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters, their development, and the relationship between the parameters and specific features events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172827]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis'' (Figure 1-1). The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs for the

  4. Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M. A. Wasiolek

    2003-07-21

    This analysis report, ''Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis'', is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the ERMYN (Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain Nevada) biosphere model for the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, its input parameters, and the application of the model to perform the dose assessment for the repository. The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of the two reports that develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs), which are input parameters for the TSPA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 164186]) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and lists its input parameters. Model input parameters are developed and described in detail in five analysis report (BSC 2003 [DIRS 160964], BSC 2003 [DIRS 160965], BSC 2003 [DIRS 160976], BSC 2003 [DIRS 161239], and BSC 2003 [DIRS 161241]). The objective of this analysis was to develop the BDCFs for the volcanic ash exposure scenario and the dose factors (DFs) for calculating inhalation doses during volcanic eruption (eruption phase of the volcanic event). The volcanic ash exposure scenario is hereafter referred to as the volcanic ash scenario. For the volcanic ash scenario, the mode of radionuclide release into the biosphere is a volcanic eruption through the repository with the resulting entrainment of contaminated waste in the tephra and the subsequent atmospheric transport and dispersion of contaminated material in the biosphere. The biosphere process

  5. Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wasiolek

    2004-09-08

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the volcanic ash exposure scenario, and the development of dose factors for calculating inhalation dose during volcanic eruption. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the Biosphere Model Report in Figure 1-1, contain detailed descriptions of the model input parameters, their development and the relationship between the parameters and specific features, events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the volcanic ash exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and from the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169671]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; and BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis''. The objective of this analysis was to develop the BDCFs for the volcanic ash

  6. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wasiolek, Maryla A.

    2000-12-21

    The purpose of this report was to document the process leading to development of the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for the postclosure nominal performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. BDCF calculations concerned twenty-four radionuclides. This selection included sixteen radionuclides that may be significant nominal performance dose contributors during the compliance period of up to 10,000 years, five additional radionuclides of importance for up to 1 million years postclosure, and three relatively short-lived radionuclides important for the human intrusion scenario. Consideration of radionuclide buildup in soil caused by previous irrigation with contaminated groundwater was taken into account in the BDCF development. The effect of climate evolution, from the current arid conditions to a wetter and cooler climate, on the BDCF values was evaluated. The analysis included consideration of different exposure pathway's contribution to the BDCFs. Calculations of nominal performance BDCFs used the GENII-S computer code in a series of probabilistic realizations to propagate the uncertainties of input parameters into the output. BDCFs for the nominal performance, when combined with the concentrations of radionuclides in groundwater allow calculation of potential radiation doses to the receptor of interest. Calculated estimates of radionuclide concentration in groundwater result from the saturated zone modeling. The integration of the biosphere modeling results (BDCFs) with the outcomes of the other component models is accomplished in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) to calculate doses to the receptor of interest from radionuclides postulated to be released to the environment from the potential repository at Yucca Mountain.

  7. Disruptive Event Biosphere Doser Conversion Factor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wasiolek

    2000-12-28

    The purpose of this report was to document the process leading to, and the results of, development of radionuclide-, exposure scenario-, and ash thickness-specific Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for the postulated postclosure extrusive igneous event (volcanic eruption) at Yucca Mountain. BDCF calculations were done for seventeen radionuclides. The selection of radionuclides included those that may be significant dose contributors during the compliance period of up to 10,000 years, as well as radionuclides of importance for up to 1 million years postclosure. The approach documented in this report takes into account human exposure during three different phases at the time of, and after, volcanic eruption. Calculations of disruptive event BDCFs used the GENII-S computer code in a series of probabilistic realizations to propagate the uncertainties of input parameters into the output. The pathway analysis included consideration of different exposure pathway's contribution to the BDCFs. BDCFs for volcanic eruption, when combined with the concentration of radioactivity deposited by eruption on the soil surface, allow calculation of potential radiation doses to the receptor of interest. Calculation of radioactivity deposition is outside the scope of this report and so is the transport of contaminated ash from the volcano to the location of the receptor. The integration of the biosphere modeling results (BDCFs) with the outcomes of the other component models is accomplished in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA), in which doses are calculated to the receptor of interest from radionuclides postulated to be released to the environment from the potential repository at Yucca Mountain.

  8. Biosphere dose conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wasiolek

    2004-10-15

    This report presents importance and sensitivity analysis for the environmental radiation model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN). ERMYN is a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis concerns the output of the model, biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater, and the volcanic ash exposure scenarios. It identifies important processes and parameters that influence the BDCF values and distributions, enhances understanding of the relative importance of the physical and environmental processes on the outcome of the biosphere model, includes a detailed pathway analysis for key radionuclides, and evaluates the appropriateness of selected parameter values that are not site-specific or have large uncertainty.

  9. Common conversion factors.

    PubMed

    2001-05-01

    This appendix presents tables of some of the more common conversion factors for units of measure used throughout Current Protocols manuals, as well as prefixes indicating powers of ten for SI units. Another table gives conversions between temperatures on the Celsius (Centigrade) and Fahrenheit scales. PMID:18770653

  10. A meta-analysis of responses of canopy photosynthetic conversion efficiency to environmental factors reveal major causes of yield gap

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving plant energy conversion efficiency is crucial for increasing food and bioenergy crop production and yields. This study statistically quantifies the effects of climate/weather factors and management techniques on energy conversion efficiency from 140 published studies and provides a quantit...

  11. 42 CFR 414.28 - Conversion factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conversion factors. 414.28 Section 414.28 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.28 Conversion factors....

  12. Technique for measuring gas conversion factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Sprinkle, D. R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A method for determining hydrocarbon conversion factors for a flowmeter. A mixture of air, O2 and C sub x H sub y is burned and the partial paressure of O2 in the resulting gas is forced to equal the partial pressure of O2 in air. The flowrate of O2 flowing into the mixture is measured by flowmeter and the flowrate of C sub x H sub y flowing into the mixture is measured by the flowmeter conversion factor is to be determined. These measured values are used to calculate the conversion factor.

  13. 42 CFR 414.28 - Conversion factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conversion factors. 414.28 Section 414.28 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and Other...

  14. 42 CFR 414.28 - Conversion factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conversion factors. 414.28 Section 414.28 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and...

  15. 42 CFR 414.28 - Conversion factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conversion factors. 414.28 Section 414.28 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and Other...

  16. 42 CFR 414.28 - Conversion factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conversion factors. 414.28 Section 414.28 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and...

  17. Derivation of dose conversion factors for tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Killough, G. G.

    1982-03-01

    For a given intake mode (ingestion, inhalation, absorption through the skin), a dose conversion factor (DCF) is the committed dose equivalent to a specified organ of an individual per unit intake of a radionuclide. One also may consider the effective dose commitment per unit intake, which is a weighted average of organ-specific DCFs, with weights proportional to risks associated with stochastic radiation-induced fatal health effects, as defined by Publication 26 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This report derives and tabulates organ-specific dose conversion factors and the effective dose commitment per unit intake of tritium. These factors are based on a steady-state model of hydrogen in the tissues of ICRP's Reference Man (ICRP Publication 23) and equilibrium of specific activities between body water and other tissues. The results differ by 27 to 33% from the estimate on which ICRP Publication 30 recommendations are based. The report also examines a dynamic model of tritium retention in body water, mineral bone, and two compartments representing organically-bound hydrogen. This model is compared with data from human subjects who were observed for extended periods. The manner of combining the dose conversion factors with measured or model-predicted levels of contamination in man's exposure media (air, drinking water, soil moisture) to estimate dose rate to an individual is briefly discussed.

  18. Conversion from robotic surgery to laparotomy: A case-control study evaluating risk factors for conversion

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Nate; Fleming, Nicole D.; Nick, Alpa M.; Munsell, Mark F.; Rallapalli, Vijayashri; Westin, Shannon N.; Meyer, Larissa A.; Schmeler, Kathleen M.; Ramirez, Pedro T.; Soliman, Pamela T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine risk factors associated with conversion to laparotomy for women undergoing robotic gynecologic surgery. Methods The medical records of 459 consecutive robotic surgery cases performed between December 2006 and October 2011 by 8 different surgeons at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Cases converted to laparotomy were compared to those completed robotically. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the demographic and clinical characteristics. Results Forty of 459 (8.7%, 95% CI 6.3%-11.7%) patients had conversion to open surgery. Reason for conversion included poor visualization due to adhesions (13), inability to tolerate Trendelenburg (7), enlarged uterus (7), extensive peritoneal disease (5), bowel injury (2), ureteral injury (1), vascular injury (1), bladder injury (1), technical difficulty with the robot (2), and inability to access abdominal cavity (1). 5% of cases were converted prior to docking the robot. On univariate analysis preoperative diagnosis (p=0.012), non-White race (p=0.004), history of asthma (p=0.027), ASA score (p=0.032), bowel injury (p=0.012), greater BMI (p<0.001), need for blood transfusion (p<0.001), and expected blood loss (p<0.001) were associated with conversion. On multivariate analysis, non-White race (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.39-5.96, p=0.004), bowel injury (OR 35.40, 95% CI 3.00-417.28, p=0.005), and increasing BMI (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.03-1.09, p<0.001) were significantly associated with increased risk for conversion. Prior surgery was not associated with conversion to open surgery (p=0.347). Conclusion Conversion to laparotomy was required for 8.7% of patients undergoing robotic surgery for a gynecologic indication. Increasing BMI and non-white race were identified as the two preoperative risk factors associated with conversion. PMID:24937481

  19. 7 CFR 989.601 - Conversion factors for raisin weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conversion factors for raisin weight. 989.601 Section... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Conversion Factors § 989.601 Conversion factors for raisin...

  20. 7 CFR 989.601 - Conversion factors for raisin weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conversion factors for raisin weight. 989.601 Section... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Conversion Factors § 989.601 Conversion factors for raisin...

  1. 7 CFR 989.601 - Conversion factors for raisin weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conversion factors for raisin weight. 989.601 Section... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Conversion Factors § 989.601 Conversion factors for raisin...

  2. Drivers of Wetland Conversion: a Global Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Asselen, Sanneke; Verburg, Peter H.; Vermaat, Jan E.; Janse, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    Meta-analysis of case studies has become an important tool for synthesizing case study findings in land change. Meta-analyses of deforestation, urbanization, desertification and change in shifting cultivation systems have been published. This present study adds to this literature, with an analysis of the proximate causes and underlying forces of wetland conversion at a global scale using two complementary approaches of systematic review. Firstly, a meta-analysis of 105 case-study papers describing wetland conversion was performed, showing that different combinations of multiple-factor proximate causes, and underlying forces, drive wetland conversion. Agricultural development has been the main proximate cause of wetland conversion, and economic growth and population density are the most frequently identified underlying forces. Secondly, to add a more quantitative component to the study, a logistic meta-regression analysis was performed to estimate the likelihood of wetland conversion worldwide, using globally-consistent biophysical and socioeconomic location factor maps. Significant factors explaining wetland conversion, in order of importance, are market influence, total wetland area (lower conversion probability), mean annual temperature and cropland or built-up area. The regression analyses results support the outcomes of the meta-analysis of the processes of conversion mentioned in the individual case studies. In other meta-analyses of land change, similar factors (e.g., agricultural development, population growth, market/economic factors) are also identified as important causes of various types of land change (e.g., deforestation, desertification). Meta-analysis helps to identify commonalities across the various local case studies and identify which variables may lead to individual cases to behave differently. The meta-regression provides maps indicating the likelihood of wetland conversion worldwide based on the location factors that have determined historic

  3. Analysis of internal conversion coefficients

    PubMed

    Coursol; Gorozhankin; Yakushev; Briancon; Vylov

    2000-03-01

    An extensive database has been assembled that contains the three most widely used sets of calculated internal conversion coefficients (ICC): [Hager R.S., Seltzer E.C., 1968. Internal conversion tables. K-, L-, M-shell Conversion coefficients for Z = 30 to Z = 103, Nucl. Data Tables A4, 1-237; Band I.M., Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1978. Tables of gamma-ray internal conversion coefficients for the K-, L- and M-shells, 10 < or = Z < or = 104, Special Report of Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute; Rosel F., Fries H.M., Alder K., Pauli H.C., 1978. Internal conversion coefficients for all atomic shells, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 21, 91-289] and also includes new Dirac Fock calculations [Band I.M. and Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1993. Internal conversion coefficients for low-energy nuclear transitions, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 55, 43-61]. This database is linked to a computer program to plot ICCs and their combinations (sums and ratios) as a function of Z and energy, as well as relative deviations of ICC or their combinations for any pair of tabulated data. Examples of these analyses are presented for the K-shell and total ICCs of the gamma-ray standards [Hansen H.H., 1985. Evaluation of K-shell and total internal conversion coefficients for some selected nuclear transitions, Eur. Appl. Res. Rept. Nucl. Sci. Tech. 11.6 (4) 777-816] and for the K-shell and total ICCs of high multipolarity transitions (total, K-, L-, M-shells of E3 and M3 and K-shell of M4). Experimental data sets are also compared with the theoretical values of these specific calculations. PMID:10724406

  4. Psychosocial Factors in Children and Adolescents with Conversion Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, I.; Giri, D.; Dutta, Anna; Mazumder, P.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: In view of the limited studies on the psychosocial environment of children presenting with conversion disorders, the present study was carried out to study the psychosocial factors in children with conversion disorders. Method: 40 patients of Conversion Disorder, who presented with "pseudo seizures" and were diagnosed according to…

  5. Gene array analysis of neural crest cells identifies transcription factors necessary for direct conversion of embryonic fibroblasts into neural crest cells.

    PubMed

    Motohashi, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Natsuki; Nishioka, Masahiro; Nakatake, Yuhki; Yulan, Piao; Mochizuki, Hiromi; Kawamura, Yoshifumi; Ko, Minoru S H; Goshima, Naoki; Kunisada, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Neural crest cells (NC cells) are multipotent cells that emerge from the edge of the neural folds and migrate throughout the developing embryo. Although the gene regulatory network for generation of NC cells has been elucidated in detail, it has not been revealed which of the factors in the network are pivotal to directing NC identity. In this study we analyzed the gene expression profile of a pure NC subpopulation isolated from Sox10-IRES-Venus mice and investigated whether these genes played a key role in the direct conversion of Sox10-IRES-Venus mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) into NC cells. The comparative molecular profiles of NC cells and neural tube cells in 9.5-day embryos revealed genes including transcription factors selectively expressed in developing trunk NC cells. Among 25 NC cell-specific transcription factor genes tested, SOX10 and SOX9 were capable of converting MEFs into SOX10-positive (SOX10+) cells. The SOX10+ cells were then shown to differentiate into neurons, glial cells, smooth muscle cells, adipocytes and osteoblasts. These SOX10+ cells also showed limited self-renewal ability, suggesting that SOX10 and SOX9 directly converted MEFs into NC cells. Conversely, the remaining transcription factors, including well-known NC cell specifiers, were unable to convert MEFs into SOX10+ NC cells. These results suggest that SOX10 and SOX9 are the key factors necessary for the direct conversion of MEFs into NC cells. PMID:26873953

  6. Gene array analysis of neural crest cells identifies transcription factors necessary for direct conversion of embryonic fibroblasts into neural crest cells

    PubMed Central

    Motohashi, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Natsuki; Nishioka, Masahiro; Nakatake, Yuhki; Yulan, Piao; Mochizuki, Hiromi; Kawamura, Yoshifumi; Ko, Minoru S. H.; Goshima, Naoki; Kunisada, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Neural crest cells (NC cells) are multipotent cells that emerge from the edge of the neural folds and migrate throughout the developing embryo. Although the gene regulatory network for generation of NC cells has been elucidated in detail, it has not been revealed which of the factors in the network are pivotal to directing NC identity. In this study we analyzed the gene expression profile of a pure NC subpopulation isolated from Sox10-IRES-Venus mice and investigated whether these genes played a key role in the direct conversion of Sox10-IRES-Venus mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) into NC cells. The comparative molecular profiles of NC cells and neural tube cells in 9.5-day embryos revealed genes including transcription factors selectively expressed in developing trunk NC cells. Among 25 NC cell-specific transcription factor genes tested, SOX10 and SOX9 were capable of converting MEFs into SOX10-positive (SOX10+) cells. The SOX10+ cells were then shown to differentiate into neurons, glial cells, smooth muscle cells, adipocytes and osteoblasts. These SOX10+ cells also showed limited self-renewal ability, suggesting that SOX10 and SOX9 directly converted MEFs into NC cells. Conversely, the remaining transcription factors, including well-known NC cell specifiers, were unable to convert MEFs into SOX10+ NC cells. These results suggest that SOX10 and SOX9 are the key factors necessary for the direct conversion of MEFs into NC cells. PMID:26873953

  7. Laser power conversion system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Orbit to orbit and orbit to ground laser power conversion systems and power transfer are discussed. A system overview is presented. Pilot program parameters are considered: SLPS assumptions are listed, a laser SPS overview is presented, specifications are listed, and SLPS coats are considered.

  8. Doing Conversation Analysis: A Practical Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ten Have, Paul

    Noting that conversation analysis (CA) has developed into one of the major methods of analyzing speech in the disciplines of communications, linguistics, anthropology and sociology, this book demonstrates in a practical way how to become a conversation analyst. As well as providing an overall introduction to the approach, it focuses on the…

  9. 42 CFR 414.30 - Conversion factor update.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conversion factor update. 414.30 Section 414.30 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Other Practitioners § 414.30 Conversion factor update. Unless Congress acts in accordance with...

  10. 42 CFR 414.30 - Conversion factor update.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conversion factor update. 414.30 Section 414.30 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Practitioners § 414.30 Conversion factor update. Unless Congress acts in accordance with section 1848(d)(3)...

  11. 42 CFR 414.30 - Conversion factor update.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conversion factor update. 414.30 Section 414.30 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Other Practitioners § 414.30 Conversion factor update. Unless Congress acts in accordance with...

  12. Ethnomethodology, Conversation Analysis and Education: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, D. Rodney

    1992-01-01

    Considers the applicability of ethnomethodology and conversation analysis (which focus on language and the social organization of linguistic interchange) to the study of education, children's techniques of communication, socialization processes, and classroom communication. (DMM)

  13. 42 CFR 414.30 - Conversion factor update.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conversion factor update. 414.30 Section 414.30 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) PAYMENT FOR PART B MEDICAL AND OTHER HEALTH SERVICES Physicians and Other Practitioners § 414.30 Conversion...

  14. Laser power conversion system analysis, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. S.; Morgan, L. L.; Forsyth, J. B.; Skratt, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    The orbit-to-orbit laser energy conversion system analysis established a mission model of satellites with various orbital parameters and average electrical power requirements ranging from 1 to 300 kW. The system analysis evaluated various conversion techniques, power system deployment parameters, power system electrical supplies and other critical supplies and other critical subsystems relative to various combinations of the mission model. The analysis show that the laser power system would not be competitive with current satellite power systems from weight, cost and development risk standpoints.

  15. Hollywood's Conversion to Color: The Technological, Economic and Aesthetic Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindem, Forham A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the film industry's conversion to color cinematography in the period between the 1920s and 1960s. Cites economic considerations, technological modifications, and aesthetic preferences by audiences as factors in this development. (JMF)

  16. A Pattern Analysis of Gene Conversion Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Mark J.; Jiao, Jian; Fan, Weiguo; Zhang, Liqing

    2009-01-01

    Gene conversion is an important biological process that involves the transfer of genetic (sequence) information from one gene to another. This can have a variety of effects on an organism, both short-term and long-term and both positive and detrimental. In an effort to better understand this process, we searched through over 3,000 abstracts that contain research on gene conversions, tagging the important data and performing an analysis on what we extract. Through this we established trends that give a better insight into gene conversion research and genetic research in general. Our results show the importance of the process and the importance of continuing gene conversion research. PMID:20148076

  17. Laser power conversion system analysis, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. S.; Morgan, L. L.; Forsyth, J. B.; Skratt, J. P.

    1979-01-01

    The orbit-to-ground laser power conversion system analysis investigated the feasibility and cost effectiveness of converting solar energy into laser energy in space, and transmitting the laser energy to earth for conversion to electrical energy. The analysis included space laser systems with electrical outputs on the ground ranging from 100 to 10,000 MW. The space laser power system was shown to be feasible and a viable alternate to the microwave solar power satellite. The narrow laser beam provides many options and alternatives not attainable with a microwave beam.

  18. Incidence of cesarean section and analysis of risk factors for failed conversion of labor epidural to surgical anesthesia: A prospective, observational study in a tertiary care center

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Samina; Chugtai, Shakaib; Hussain, Alia

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: This study aimed to analyze the effect of labor epidural (LE) on the incidence of cesarean section (CS) and assess the risk factors involved in failed conversion of LE to surgical anesthesia for CS. Material and Methods: A prospective observational study of 18 months from January 2012 to June 2013 was conducted on all patients who had delivered in the labor room suit of our hospital. The data collected for all 4694 patients included their demographics, parity and mode of delivery. In addition a predesigned proforma, with additional information was used for 629 parturient with LE. Results: During the study period, total numbers of deliveries performed in our hospital were 4694, with an epidural rate of 13.4% (629/4694). No significant difference (P = 0.06) was observed in the rate of CS among women with or without LE (28 % [n = 176/629] vs. 31.7 % [n = 1289/4065]), however, a statistically significant difference (P < 0.01) was observed in the rate of assisted delivery in patients receiving LE as compared to those delivering without it (8.7% [n = 55/629] vs. n = 3.7% [154/4065]). For 176 patients requiring CS, LE utilization for surgical anesthesia was 52.8% (93/176) and factors identified for not utilizing LE in 47% (83/176) were; failure to achieve surgical anesthesia in 6.8% (12/176), emergency CS in 28.4% (50/176), patient preference in 6.8% (12/176) and inadequate labor pain relief with LE in 5.1% (9/176) patients. Non-obstetric anesthesiologists were involved in 59% (49/83) of cases where LE was not used for CS. Conclusion: LE had no effect on the rate of CS; however it significantly increased (P < 0.01) the rate of assisted delivery. Factors like inadequate LE, emergency situations and non-obstetric anesthesiologists can all be responsible for failed conversion of LE to surgical anesthesia for CS. PMID:26702215

  19. Shelflist Conversion at NCSU: Factors in Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jinnie Y.

    Written when an in-house retrospective conversion project on the monographs collection of an academic library was 80% complete, this paper presents factors for consideration by decision-makers prior to establishing a similar project. Topics considered together with a description of how North Carolina State University (NCSU) handled each, include:…

  20. 7 CFR 989.601 - Conversion factors for raisin weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion factors for raisin weight. 989.601 Section 989.601 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN...

  1. 7 CFR 989.601 - Conversion factors for raisin weight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conversion factors for raisin weight. 989.601 Section 989.601 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN...

  2. Conversion during thoracoscopic lobectomy: related factors and learning curve impact.

    PubMed

    Smith, David E; Dietrich, Agustin; Nicolas, Matias; Da Lozzo, Alejandro; Beveraggi, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy has become a standard procedure for lung cancer treatment. Conversion-related factors and learning curve impacts, were poorly described. The aim of this study was to review the reasons and related factor for conversion in VATS lobectomy and the impact on this of the surgeon's learning curve. From June 2009 to May 2014, 154 patients who underwent a VATS lobectomy were included in our study. Patients' characteristics, pathology background, operative times, overall length of stay, overall morbidity and type of major complications were recorded for all patients and compared between non converted (n = 133) and converted (n = 21) patients. To evaluate surgeon's learning curve, we analyzed rates and causes of conversion in the first period (first 77 patients) and in the last period (78-154 patients). Patients characteristics were similar between converted and non-converted groups. Patients who were converted to open thoracotomy presented more frecuently tumors >3 cms (P = 0.02). The average of operative times and the length of stay were not significantly different between groups. Overall morbidity and major complications were also similar in both groups. There were no impact of surgeon's learning curve in overall rate conversion in both groups. Emergency conversion was always secondary to vascular accidents, all in the first group (p = 0.059). Surgeons should be expecting to perform a conversion to a thoracotomy in patients who present in preoperative studies, tumors greater than 3 cms. Learning curve only affected the emergency conversion, occurred all in the first half of our series. PMID:26561493

  3. The CO-to-H2 Conversion Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolatto, Alberto D.; Wolfire, Mark; Leroy, Adam K.

    2013-08-01

    CO line emission represents the most accessible and widely used tracer of the molecular ISM. This renders the translation of observed CO intensity into total H2 gas mass critical to understanding star formation and the ISM in our Galaxy and beyond. We review the theoretical underpinning, techniques, and results of efforts to estimate this CO-to-H2 “conversion factor,” XCO, in different environments. In the Milky Way disk, we recommend a conversion factor of [Formula: see text] cm-2 (K km s-1)-1 with ±30% uncertainty. Studies of other “normal galaxies” return similar values in Milky Way-like disks, but with greater scatter and systematic uncertainty. Departures from this Galactic conversion factor are both observed and expected. Dust-based determinations, theoretical arguments, and scaling relations all suggest that XCO increases with decreasing metallicity, turning up sharply below metallicity ˜1/3-1/2 solar in a manner consistent with model predictions that identify shielding as a key parameter. Based on spectral line modeling and dust observations, XCO appears to drop in the central, bright regions of some but not all galaxies, often coincident with regions of bright CO emission and high stellar surface density. This lower XCO is also present in the overwhelmingly molecular ISM of starburst galaxies, where several lines of evidence point to a lower CO-to-H2 conversion factor. At high redshift, direct evidence regarding the conversion factor remains scarce; we review what is known based on dynamical modeling and other arguments.

  4. Solar Program Assessment: Environmental Factors - Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This report presents the environmental problems which may arise with the further development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion, one of the eight Federally-funded solar technologies. To provide a background for this environmental analysis, the history and basic concepts of the technology are reviewed, as are its economic and resource requirements.…

  5. Reassessment of NRC`s dollar per person-rem conversion factor policy

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has completed a review and analysis of its dollar per person-rem conversion factor policy. As a result of this review, the NRC has decided to adopt a $2000 per person-rem conversion factor, subject it to present worth considerations, and limit its scope solely to health effects. This is in contrast to the previous policy and staff practice of using an undiscounted $1000 per person-rem conversion factor that served as a surrogate for all offsite consequences (health and offsite property). The policy shift has been incorporated in ``Regulatory Analysis Guidelines of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission,`` NUREG/BR-0058, Revision 2, November 1995.

  6. Effectiveness Factors and Conversion in a Biocatalytic Membrane Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Godongwana, Buntu

    2016-01-01

    Analytical expressions of the effectiveness factor of a biocatalytic membrane reactor, and its asymptote as the Thiele modulus becomes large, are presented. The evaluation of the effectiveness factor is based on the solution of the governing equations for solute transport in the two regions of the reactor, i.e. the lumen and the matrix (with the biofilm immobilized in the matrix). The lumen solution accounts for both axial diffusion and radial convective flow, while the matrix solution is based on Robin-type boundary conditions. The effectiveness factor is shown to be a function of the Thiele modulus, the partition coefficient, the Sherwood number, the Peclet number, and membrane thickness. Three regions of Thiele moduli are defined in the effectiveness factor graphs. These correspond with reaction rate limited, internal-diffusion limited, and external mass transfer limited solute transport. Radial convective flows were shown to only improve the effectiveness factor in the region of internal diffusion limitation. The assumption of first order kinetics is shown to be applicable only in the Thiele modulus regions of internal and external mass transfer limitation. An iteration scheme is also presented for estimating the effectiveness factor when the solute fractional conversion is known. The model is validated with experimental data from a membrane gradostat reactor immobilised with Phanerochaete chrysosporium for the production of lignin and manganese peroxidases. The developed model and experimental data allow for the determination of the Thiele modulus at which the effectiveness factor and fractional conversion are optimal. PMID:27104954

  7. Risk factors for conversion to conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy in single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Gon; Moon, Ju Ik; Lee, Sang Eok; Sung, Nak Song; Chun, Ki Won; Lee, Hye Yoon; Yoon, Dae Sung; Choi, Won Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for conversion to conventional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CLC) in single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) along with the proposal for procedure selection guidelines in treating patients with benign gallbladder (GB) diseases. Methods SILC was performed in 697 cases between April 2010 and July 2014. Seventeen cases (2.4%) underwent conversion to conventional LC. We compared these 2 groups and analyzed the risk factors for conversion to CLC. Results In univariate analysis, American Society of Anesthesiologist score > 3, preoperative percutaneous transhepatic GB drainage status and pathology (acute cholecystitis or GB empyema) were significant risk factors for conversion (P = 0.010, P = 0.019 and P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, pathology (acute cholecystitis or GB empyema) was significant risk factors for conversion to CLC in SILC (P < 0.001). Conclusion Although SILC is a feasible method for most patients with benign GB disease, CLC has to be considered in patients with acute cholecystitis or GB empyema because it is likely to result in inadequate visualization of the Calot's triangle and greater bleeding risk. PMID:27274505

  8. The Exposure Rate Conversion Factor for Nuclear Fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Spriggs, G D

    2009-02-11

    Nuclear fallout is comprised of approximately 2000 radionuclides. About 1000 of these radionuclides are either primary fission products or activated fission products that are created during the burn process. The exposure rate one meter above the surface produced by this complex mixture of radionuclides varies rapidly with time since many of the radionuclides are short-lived and decay numerous times before reaching a stable isotope. As a result, the mixture of radionuclides changes rapidly with time. Using a new code developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the mixture of radionuclides at any given point in time can be calculated. The code also calculates the exposure rate conversion factor (ECF) for all 3864 individual isotopes contained in its database based on the total gamma energy released per decay. Based on the combination of isotope mixture and individual ECFs, the time-dependent variation of the composite exposure rate conversion factor for nuclear fallout can be easily calculated. As example of this new capability, a simple test case corresponding to a 10 kt, uranium-plutonium fuel has been calculated. The results for the time-dependent, composite ECF for this test case are shown in Figure 1. For comparison, we also calculated the composite exposure rate conversion factor using the conversion factors found in Federal Guidance Report No.12 (FGR-12) published by ORNL, which contains the conversion factors for approximately 1000 isotopes. As can be noted from Figure 1, the two functions agree reasonably well at times greater than about 30 minutes. However, they do not agree at early times since FGR-12 does not include all of the short-lived isotopes that are produced in nuclear fallout. It should also be noted that the composite ECF at one hour is 19.7 R/hr per Ci/m{sup 2}. This corresponds to 3148 R/hr per 1 kt per square mile, which agrees reasonably well with the value of 3000 R/hr per 1 kt per square mile as quoted by Glasstone. We have

  9. The Dose Rate Conversion Factors for Nuclear Fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Spriggs, G D

    2009-02-13

    In a previous paper, the composite exposure rate conversion factor (ECF) for nuclear fallout was calculated using a simple theoretical photon-transport model. The theoretical model was used to fill in the gaps in the FGR-12 table generated by ORNL. The FGR-12 table contains the individual conversion factors for approximate 1000 radionuclides. However, in order to calculate the exposure rate during the first 30 minutes following a nuclear detonation, the conversion factors for approximately 2000 radionuclides are needed. From a human-effects standpoint, it is also necessary to have the dose rate conversion factors (DCFs) for all 2000 radionuclides. The DCFs are used to predict the whole-body dose rates that would occur if a human were standing in a radiation field of known exposure rate. As calculated by ORNL, the whole-body dose rate (rem/hr) is approximately 70% of the exposure rate (R/hr) at one meter above the surface. Hence, the individual DCFs could be estimated by multiplying the individual ECFs by 0.7. Although this is a handy rule-of-thumb, a more consistent (and perhaps, more accurate) method of estimating the individual DCFs for the missing radionuclides in the FGR-12 table is to use the linear relationship between DCF and total gamma energy released per decay. This relationship is shown in Figure 1. The DCFs for individual organs in the body can also be estimated from the estimated whole-body DCF. Using the DCFs given FGR-12, the ratio of the organ-specific DCFs to the whole-body DCF were plotted as a function of the whole-body DCF. From these plots, the asymptotic ratios were obtained (see Table 1). Using these asymptotic ratios, the organ-specific DCFs can be estimated using the estimated whole-body DCF for each of the missing radionuclides in the FGR-12 table. Although this procedure for estimating the organ-specific DCFs may over-estimate the value for some low gamma-energy emitters, having a finite value for the organ-specific DCFs in the table is

  10. Calculation of conversion factors for effective dose for various interventional radiology procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Compagnone, Gaetano; Giampalma, Emanuela; Domenichelli, Sara; Renzulli, Matteo; Golfieri, Rita

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: To provide dose-area-product (DAP) to effective dose (E) conversion factors for complete interventional procedures, based on in-the-field clinical measurements of DAP values and using tabulated E/DAP conversion factors for single projections available from the literature. Methods: Nine types of interventional procedures were performed on 84 patients with two angiographic systems. Different calibration curves (with and without patient table attenuation) were calculated for each DAP meter. Clinical and dosimetric parameters were recorded in-the-field for each projection and for all patients, and a conversion factor linking DAP and effective doses was derived for each complete procedure making use of published, Monte Carlo calculated conversion factors for single static projections. Results: Fluoroscopy time and DAP values for the lowest-dose procedure (biliary drainage) were approximately 3-fold and 13-fold lower, respectively, than those for the highest-dose examination (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, TIPS). Median E/DAP conversion factors from 0.12 (abdominal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty) to 0.25 (Nephrostomy) mSvGy{sup -1} cm{sup -2} were obtained and good correlations between E and DAP were found for all procedures, with R{sup 2} coefficients ranging from 0.80 (abdominal angiography) to 0.99 (biliary stent insertion, Nephrostomy and TIPS). The DAP values obtained in this study showed general consistency with the values provided in the literature and median E values ranged from 4.0 mSv (biliary drainage) to 49.6 mSv (TIPS). Conclusions: Values of E/DAP conversion factors were derived for each procedure from a comprehensive analysis of projection and dosimetric data: they could provide a good evaluation for the stochastic effects. These results can be obtained by means of a close cooperation between different interventional professionals involved in patient care and dose optimization.

  11. Factor Analysis via Components Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentler, Peter M.; de Leeuw, Jan

    2011-01-01

    When the factor analysis model holds, component loadings are linear combinations of factor loadings, and vice versa. This interrelation permits us to define new optimization criteria and estimation methods for exploratory factor analysis. Although this article is primarily conceptual in nature, an illustrative example and a small simulation show…

  12. Ethnomethodology, conversation analysis and education: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, D. Rodney

    1992-05-01

    Formal education is saturated with language, but language is usually seen as a separate and often subsidiary topic of research, secondary to social class, ethnicity, etc., which are regarded as independent variables. Ethnomethodology (EM) and Conversation Analysis (CA) are recent approaches devised in North America which propose to make language and the social organization of linguistic interchange a generic topic of investigation. They see mastery of language as central to the ability to make culturally recognizable sense of social interaction. Social class, for example, is thus seen as a worded entity. While EM and CA are sufficiently comprehensive to be applied to any topic, formal education is not stable and constant. It is apprehended differently by the various players of "language games". CA therefore uses "real-world" transcriptions of recordings for analysis of speech exchange. Early CA was concerned with commonsense membership categorizations such as "adult", "child", "adolescent", "mother", "son", "tennis player", which serve as reference points for the imputation of rights and obligations. Stress is now laid on children's techniques of communication, whereas conventional sociology sees the socialization of children as "one-way", from adults to children and frequently ignores children's language. In school tests, for example, it is not certain that children will only use the interpretive resources given them by the teacher, or that they will understand test items in terms of the test design devised by adults. The wider classroom agenda is also set by an adult teacher, who is conventionally the next speaker after each student in formal trum-taking.

  13. Ergosterol-to-Biomass Conversion Factors for Aquatic Hyphomycetes

    PubMed Central

    Gessner, Mark O.; Chauvet, Eric

    1993-01-01

    Fourteen strains of aquatic hyphomycete species that are common on decaying leaves in running waters were grown in liquid culture and analyzed for total ergosterol contents. Media included an aqueous extract from senescent alder leaves, a malt extract broth, and a glucose-mineral salt solution. Concentrations of ergosterol in fungal mycelium ranged from 2.3 to 11.5 mg/g of dry mass. The overall average was 5.5 mg/g. Differences among both species and growth media were highly significant but followed no systematic pattern. Stationary-phase mycelium had ergosterol contents 10 to 12% lower or higher than mycelium harvested during the growth phase, but these differences were only significant for one of four species examined. Availability of plant sterols in the growth medium had no clear effect on ergosterol concentrations in two species tested. To convert ergosterol contents determined in field samples to biomass values of aquatic hyphomycetes, a general multiplicative factor of 182 is proposed. More accurate estimates would be obtained with species-specific factors. Using these in combination with estimates of the proportion of the dominant species in a naturally established community on leaves resulted in biomass estimates that were typically 20% lower than those obtained with the general conversion factor. Improvements of estimates with species-specific factors may be limited, however, by intraspecific variability in fungal ergosterol content. PMID:16348874

  14. Conversion factors: SI metric and U.S. customary units

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1977-01-01

    The policy of the U.S. Geological Survey is to foster use of the International System of Units (SI) which was defined by the 11th General Conference of Weights and Measures in 1960. This modernized metric system constitutes an international "language" by means of which communications throughout the world's scientific and economic communities may be improved. This publication is designed to familiarize the reader with the SI units of measurement that correspond to the common units frequently used in programs of the Geological Survey. In the near future, SI units will be used exclusively in most publications of the Survey; the conversion factors provided herein will help readers to obtain a "feel" for each unit and to "think metric."

  15. Introduction: Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sert, Olcay; Seedhouse, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This short, introductory paper presents an up-to-date account of works within the field of Applied Linguistics which have been influenced by a Conversation Analytic paradigm. The article reviews recent studies in classroom interaction, materials development, proficiency assessment and language teacher education. We believe that the publication of…

  16. Impact of HFIR LEU Conversion on Beryllium Reflector Degradation Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Ilas, Dan

    2013-10-01

    An assessment of the impact of low enriched uranium (LEU) conversion on the factors that may cause the degradation of the beryllium reflector is performed for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The computational methods, models, and tools, comparisons with previous work, along with the results obtained are documented and discussed in this report. The report documents the results for the gas and neutronic poison production, and the heating in the beryllium reflector for both the highly enriched uranium (HEU) and LEU HFIR configurations, and discusses the impact that the conversion to LEU may have on these quantities. A time-averaging procedure was developed to calculate the isotopic (gas and poisons) production in reflector. The sensitivity of this approach to different approximations is gauged and documented. The results show that the gas is produced in the beryllium reflector at a total rate of 0.304 g/cycle for the HEU configuration; this rate increases by ~12% for the LEU case. The total tritium production rate in reflector is 0.098 g/cycle for the HEU core and approximately 11% higher for the LEU core. A significant increase (up to ~25%) in the neutronic poisons production in the reflector during the operation cycles is observed for the LEU core, compared to the HEU case, for regions close to the core s horizontal midplane. The poisoning level of the reflector may increase by more than two orders of magnitude during long periods of downtime. The heating rate in the reflector is estimated to be approximately 20% lower for the LEU core than for the HEU core. The decrease is due to a significantly lower contribution of the heating produced by the gamma radiation for the LEU core. Both the isotopic (gas and neutronic poisons) production and the heating rates are spatially non-uniform throughout the beryllium reflector volume. The maximum values typically occur in the removable reflector and close to the midplane.

  17. Vocabulary Explanations in CLIL Classrooms: A Conversation Analysis Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This article uses a conversation analysis methodology to examine how lexical Focus on Form is interactionally accomplished in teachers' vocabulary explanations in secondary Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) classrooms. Recent conversation-analytic work has focused on the interactional organisation of vocabulary explanations in…

  18. New conversion factors between human and automatic readouts of the CDMAM phantom for CR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, Johann; Homolka, Peter; Osanna-Elliot, Angelika; Kaar, Marcus; Semtrus, Friedrich; Figl, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Mammography screenings demand for profound image quality (IQ) assessment to guarantee their screening success. The European protocol for the quality control of the physical and technical aspects of mammography screening (EPQCM) suggests a contrast detail phantom such as the CDMAM phantom to evaluate IQ. For automatic evaluation a software is provided by the EUREF. As human and automatic readouts differ systematically conversion factors were published by the official reference organisation (EUREF). As we experienced a significant difference for these factors for Computed Radiography (CR) systems we developed an objectifying analysis software which presents the cells including the gold disks randomly in thickness and rotation. This allows to overcome the problem of an inevitable learning effect where observers know the position of the disks in advance. Applying this software, 45 computed radiography (CR) systems were evaluated and the conversion factors between human and automatic readout determined. The resulting conversion factors were compared with the ones resulting from the two methods published by EUREF. We found our conversion factors to be substantially lower than those suggested by EUREF, in particular 1.21 compared to 1.42 (EUREF EU method) and 1.62 (EUREF UK method) for 0.1 mm, and 1.40 compared to 1.73 (EUREF EU) and 1.83 (EUREF UK) for 0.25 mm disc diameter, respectively. This can result in a dose increase of up to 90% using either of these factors to adjust patient dose in order to fulfill image quality requirements. This suggests the need of an agreement on their proper application and limits the validity of the assessment methods. Therefore, we want to stress the need for clear criteria for CR systems based on appropriate studies.

  19. Solar UV geometric conversion factors: horizontal plane to cylinder model.

    PubMed

    Pope, Stanley J; Godar, Dianne E

    2010-01-01

    Most solar UV measurements are relative to the horizontal plane. However, problems arise when one uses those UV measurements to perform risk or benefit assessments because they do not yield the actual doses people get while they are outdoors. To better estimate the UV doses people actually get while outdoors, scientists need geometric conversion factors (GCF) that change horizontal plane irradiances to average irradiances on the human body. Here we describe a simple geometric method that changes unweighted, erythemally weighted and previtamin D(3)-weighted UV irradiances on the horizontal plane to full cylinder and semicylinder irradiances. Scientists can use the full cylinder model to represent the complete human body, while they can use the semicylinder model to represent the face, shoulders, tops of hands and feet. We present daily, monthly and seasonally calculated averages of the GCF for these cylinder models every 5 degrees from 20 to 70 degrees N so that scientists can now get realistic UV doses for people who are outdoors doing a variety of different activities. The GCF show that people actually get less than half their annual erythemally weighted, and consequently half their previtamin D(3)-weighted, UV doses relative to the horizontal plane. Thus, scientists can now perform realistic UV risk and benefit assessments. PMID:20059727

  20. Corn stover availability for biomass conversion: situation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, J. Richard; Kenney, Kevin L.; Wright, Christopher; Perlack, Robert D; Turhollow, Jr., Anthony

    2009-08-01

    As biorefining conversion technologies become commercial, feedstock availability, supply system logistics, and biomass material attributes are emerging as major barriers to the availability of corn stover for biorefining. While systems do exist to supply corn stover as feedstock to biorefining facilities, stover material attributes affecting physical deconstruction, such as densification and post-harvest material stability, challenge the cost-effectiveness of present-day feedstock logistics systems. In addition, the material characteristics of corn stover create barriers with any supply system design in terms of equipment capacity/efficiency, dry matter loss, and capital use efficiency. However, analysis of a conventional large square bale corn stover feedstock supply system concludes that (1) where other agronomic factors are not limiting, corn stover can be accessed and supplied to a biorefinery using existing bale-based technologies, (2) technologies and new supply system designs are necessary to overcome biomass bulk density and moisture material property challenges, and (3) major opportunities to improve conventional bale biomass feedstock supply systems include improvements in equipment efficiency and capacity and reducing biomass losses in harvesting, collection, and storage. Finally, the backbone of an effective stover supply system design is the optimization of intended and minimization of unintended material property changes as the corn stover passes through the individual supply system processes from the field to the biorefinery conversion processes.

  1. Bayesian Exploratory Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Gabriella; Frühwirth-Schnatter, Sylvia; Heckman, James J.; Piatek, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops and applies a Bayesian approach to Exploratory Factor Analysis that improves on ad hoc classical approaches. Our framework relies on dedicated factor models and simultaneously determines the number of factors, the allocation of each measurement to a unique factor, and the corresponding factor loadings. Classical identification criteria are applied and integrated into our Bayesian procedure to generate models that are stable and clearly interpretable. A Monte Carlo study confirms the validity of the approach. The method is used to produce interpretable low dimensional aggregates from a high dimensional set of psychological measurements. PMID:25431517

  2. Modeling and analysis of energy conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Den Braven, K.R. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Stanger, S. )

    1990-10-01

    An investigation was conducted to assess the need for and the feasibility of developing a computer code that could model thermodynamic systems and predict the performance of energy conversion systems. To assess the market need for this code, representatives of a few industrial organizations were contacted, including manufacturers, system and component designers, and research personnel. Researchers and small manufacturers, designers, and installers were very interested in the possibility of using the proposed code. However, large companies were satisfied with the existing codes that they have developed for their own use. Also, a survey was conduced of available codes that could be used or possibly modified for the desired purpose. The codes were evaluated with respect to a list of desirable features, which was prepared as a result of the survey. A few publicly available codes were found that might be suitable. The development, verification, and maintenance of such a code would require a substantial, ongoing effort. 21 refs.

  3. Exploratory Bi-Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennrich, Robert I.; Bentler, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Bi-factor analysis is a form of confirmatory factor analysis originally introduced by Holzinger. The bi-factor model has a general factor and a number of group factors. The purpose of this article is to introduce an exploratory form of bi-factor analysis. An advantage of using exploratory bi-factor analysis is that one need not provide a specific…

  4. Factor Analysis and Counseling Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, David J.

    1970-01-01

    Topics discussed include factor analysis versus cluster analysis, analysis of Q correlation matrices, ipsativity and factor analysis, and tests for the significance of a correlation matrix prior to application of factor analytic techniques. Techniques for factor extraction discussed include principal components, canonical factor analysis, alpha…

  5. Conversion Intentions of Interns: What Are the Motivating Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Jessica L.; Good, Linda K.; Gardner, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate interns' supervisory support expectations, psychological contract obligations, job satisfaction, perception of advancement opportunities and affective organisational commitment in an attempt to gain a better understanding of how these variables influence interns' conversion intentions.…

  6. An experiment to develop conversion factors to standardise measurements of airborne asbestos.

    PubMed

    Dodic-Fikfak, Metoda

    2007-06-01

    Various researchers and agencies recommend different conversion factors for different asbestos exposures. The aim of this study was to develop conversion factors from particles per cm3 (p cm(-3)) to fibres per cm3 (f cm(-3)) and from mg m(-3) to f cm(-3). More than 1000 exposure measurements were available in the Slovenian asbestos-cement factory Salonit Anhovo. Three types of measurement of asbestos concentrations in the air were used: a konimeter measuring p cm-3, a gravimetric method measuring mg m-3 and a membrane filter method measuring f cm-3. Operation-specific conversion factors among these methods were developed. One conversion factor was obtained for asbestos-pipe-dry jobs (4.7) and one for asbestos-sheet-dry jobs (1.6). Only one conversion factor (0.8) was used for asbestos-cement-pipe-wet and asbestos-cement-pipe-dry jobs. For asbestos cement sheets, two conversion factors were obtained (0.3 and 1.2). The development of five different conversion factors made it possible to calculate cumulative exposure to asbestos from historical data and to decrease exposure misclassification. PMID:17562601

  7. 12 CFR 615.5212 - Credit conversion factors-off-balance sheet items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Credit conversion factors-off-balance sheet... Credit conversion factors—off-balance sheet items. (a) The face amount of an off-balance sheet item is generally incorporated into risk-weighted assets in two steps. For most off-balance sheet items, the...

  8. 12 CFR 615.5212 - Credit conversion factors-off-balance sheet items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit conversion factors-off-balance sheet... Credit conversion factors—off-balance sheet items. (a) The face amount of an off-balance sheet item is generally incorporated into risk-weighted assets in two steps. For most off-balance sheet items, the...

  9. 12 CFR 615.5212 - Credit conversion factors-off-balance sheet items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Credit conversion factors-off-balance sheet... Credit conversion factors—off-balance sheet items. (a) The face amount of an off-balance sheet item is generally incorporated into risk-weighted assets in two steps. For most off-balance sheet items, the...

  10. 12 CFR 615.5212 - Credit conversion factors-off-balance sheet items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Credit conversion factors-off-balance sheet... Credit conversion factors—off-balance sheet items. (a) The face amount of an off-balance sheet item is generally incorporated into risk-weighted assets in two steps. For most off-balance sheet items, the...

  11. 12 CFR 615.5212 - Credit conversion factors-off-balance sheet items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Credit conversion factors-off-balance sheet... Credit conversion factors—off-balance sheet items. (a) The face amount of an off-balance sheet item is generally incorporated into risk-weighted assets in two steps. For most off-balance sheet items, the...

  12. Recursive Frame Analysis: A Practitioner's Tool for Mapping Therapeutic Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeney, Hillary; Keeney, Bradford; Chenail, Ronald J.

    2012-01-01

    Recursive frame analysis (RFA), both a practical therapeutic tool and an advanced qualitative research method that maps the structure of therapeutic conversation, is introduced with a clinical case vignette. We present and illustrate a means of mapping metaphorical themes that contextualize the performance taking place in the room, recursively…

  13. Conversion factors for external gamma dose derived from natural radionuclides in soils.

    PubMed

    Quindos, L S; Fernández, P L; Ródenas, C; Gómez-Arozamena, J; Arteche, J

    2004-01-01

    Field in situ gamma radiation exposure rates and laboratory measured radioactivity contents of 1500 Spanish soils were compared. The main objective was to determine if published theoretically derived conversion factors would yield accurate quantitative activity concentration (Bq kg(-1)) for the data carried out in different surveys developed by our laboratory during the last ten years. The in situ external gamma dose rate results were compared to laboratory gamma analysis of soils samples gathered from each site, considering the concentrations of seven radionuclides: 40K, 214Pb, 214Bi, 212Bi, 212Pb, 208Tl and 228Ac. The coefficient of correlation found between these variables indicate a good relationship. A discussion of the factors contributing to the uncertainties as well as measurement procedure are also given in this paper. PMID:14567949

  14. External dose-rate conversion factors for calculation of dose to the public

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    This report presents a tabulation of dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons emitted by radionuclides in the environment. This report was prepared in conjunction with criteria for limiting dose equivalents to members of the public from operations of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The dose-rate conversion factors are provided for use by the DOE and its contractors in performing calculations of external dose equivalents to members of the public. The dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons presented in this report are based on a methodology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. However, some adjustments of the previously documented methodology have been made in obtaining the dose-rate conversion factors in this report. 42 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  15. Enhanced target factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Akram; Abdollahi, Hamid; Maeder, Marcel

    2016-03-10

    Target testing or target factor analysis, TFA, is a well-established soft analysis method. TFA answers the question whether an independent target test vector measured at the same wavelengths as the collection of spectra in a data matrix can be excluded as the spectrum of one of the components in the system under investigation. Essentially, TFA cannot positively prove that a particular test spectrum is the true spectrum of one of the components, it can, only reject a spectrum. However, TFA will not reject, or in other words TFA will accept, many spectra which cannot be component spectra. Enhanced Target Factor Analysis, ETFA addresses the above problem. Compared with traditional TFA, ETFA results in a significantly narrower range of positive results, i.e. the chance of a false positive test result is dramatically reduced. ETFA is based on feasibility testing as described in Refs. [16-19]. The method has been tested and validated with computer generated and real data sets. PMID:26893084

  16. Planning Document for an NBSR Conversion Safety Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond D. J.; Baek J.; Hanson, A.L.; Cheng, L-Y.; Brown, N.; Cuadra, A.

    2013-09-25

    The NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) is a reactor-laboratory complex providing the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the nation with a world-class facility for the performance of neutron-based research. The heart of this facility is the National Bureau of Standards Reactor (NBSR). The NBSR is a heavy water moderated and cooled reactor operating at 20 MW. It is fueled with high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel elements. A Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program is underway to convert the reactor to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. This program includes the qualification of the proposed fuel, uranium and molybdenum alloy foil clad in an aluminum alloy, and the development of the fabrication techniques. This report is a planning document for the conversion Safety Analysis Report (SAR) that would be submitted to, and approved by, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) before the reactor could be converted.This report follows the recommended format and content from the NRC codified in NUREG-1537, “Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Applications for the Licensing of Non-power Reactors,” Chapter 18, “Highly Enriched to Low-Enriched Uranium Conversions.” The emphasis herein is on the SAR chapters that require significant changes as a result of conversion, primarily Chapter 4, Reactor Description, and Chapter 13, Safety Analysis. The document provides information on the proposed design for the LEU fuel elements and identifies what information is still missing. This document is intended to assist ongoing fuel development efforts, and to provide a platform for the development of the final conversion SAR. This report contributes directly to the reactor conversion pillar of the GTRI program, but also acts as a boundary condition for the fuel development and fuel fabrication pillars.

  17. Dark matter conversion as a source of boost factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ze-Peng; Wu, Yue-Liang; Zhou, Yu-Feng

    2012-09-01

    In interacting multi-component dark matter (DM) models, the interactions between the DM components can covert relatively heavy DM components into lighter ones at late times after the thermal decoupling. As a consequence, the relic density of the lightest DM component can be greatly enhanced at late times, which can lead to an alternative source of boost factor required to explain the positron and electron excesses reported by the recent DM indirect search experiments.

  18. Monte Carlo calculations of electron beam quality conversion factors for several ion chamber types

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, B. R.; Rogers, D. W. O.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To provide a comprehensive investigation of electron beam reference dosimetry using Monte Carlo simulations of the response of 10 plane-parallel and 18 cylindrical ion chamber types. Specific emphasis is placed on the determination of the optimal shift of the chambers’ effective point of measurement (EPOM) and beam quality conversion factors. Methods: The EGSnrc system is used for calculations of the absorbed dose to gas in ion chamber models and the absorbed dose to water as a function of depth in a water phantom on which cobalt-60 and several electron beam source models are incident. The optimal EPOM shifts of the ion chambers are determined by comparing calculations of R{sub 50} converted from I{sub 50} (calculated using ion chamber simulations in phantom) to R{sub 50} calculated using simulations of the absorbed dose to water vs depth in water. Beam quality conversion factors are determined as the calculated ratio of the absorbed dose to water to the absorbed dose to air in the ion chamber at the reference depth in a cobalt-60 beam to that in electron beams. Results: For most plane-parallel chambers, the optimal EPOM shift is inside of the active cavity but different from the shift determined with water-equivalent scaling of the front window of the chamber. These optimal shifts for plane-parallel chambers also reduce the scatter of beam quality conversion factors, k{sub Q}, as a function of R{sub 50}. The optimal shift of cylindrical chambers is found to be less than the 0.5 r{sub cav} recommended by current dosimetry protocols. In most cases, the values of the optimal shift are close to 0.3 r{sub cav}. Values of k{sub ecal} are calculated and compared to those from the TG-51 protocol and differences are explained using accurate individual correction factors for a subset of ion chambers investigated. High-precision fits to beam quality conversion factors normalized to unity in a beam with R{sub 50} = 7.5 cm (k{sub Q}{sup ′}) are provided. These

  19. Chart of conversion factors: From English to metric system and metric to English system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1976-01-01

    The conversion factors in the following tables are for conversion of our customary (English) units of measurement to SI*units, and for convenience, reciprocals are shown for converting SI units back to the English system. The first table contains rule-of-thumb figures, useful for "getting the feel" of SI units or mental estimation. The succeeding tables contain factors accurate to 3 or more significant figures. Please refer to known reference volumes for additional accuracy, as well as for factors dealing with other scientific notation involving SI units.

  20. Conversion Preliminary Safety Analysis Report for the NIST Research Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, D. J.; Baek, J. S.; Hanson, A. L.; Cheng, L-Y; Brown, N.; Cuadra, A.

    2015-01-30

    The NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) is a reactor-laboratory complex providing the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the nation with a world-class facility for the performance of neutron-based research. The heart of this facility is the NIST research reactor (aka NBSR); a heavy water moderated and cooled reactor operating at 20 MW. It is fueled with high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel elements. A Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program is underway to convert the reactor to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. This program includes the qualification of the proposed fuel, uranium and molybdenum alloy foil clad in an aluminum alloy, and the development of the fabrication techniques. This report is a preliminary version of the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) that would be submitted to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for approval prior to conversion. The report follows the recommended format and content from the NRC codified in NUREG-1537, “Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Applications for the Licensing of Non-power Reactors,” Chapter 18, “Highly Enriched to Low-Enriched Uranium Conversions.” The emphasis in any conversion SAR is to explain the differences between the LEU and HEU cores and to show the acceptability of the new design; there is no need to repeat information regarding the current reactor that will not change upon conversion. Hence, as seen in the report, the bulk of the SAR is devoted to Chapter 4, Reactor Description, and Chapter 13, Safety Analysis.

  1. Quantitative analysis of a wind energy conversion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucker, Florian; Gräbner, Anna; Strunz, Andreas; Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2015-03-01

    A rotor of 12 cm diameter is attached to a precision electric motor, used as a generator, to make a model wind turbine. Output power of the generator is measured in a wind tunnel with up to 15 m s-1 air velocity. The maximum power is 3.4 W, the power conversion factor from kinetic to electric energy is cp = 0.15. The v3 power law is confirmed. The model illustrates several technically important features of industrial wind turbines quantitatively.

  2. Nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors for some cereal products in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, S; Sasaki, H; Aoyagi, Y; Sugahara, T

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate a practical method of determining more accurately conversion factors for calculating the protein contents of foods from the total nitrogen content, 19 cereal products found in Japan were analyzed for total nitrogen, amino acid nitrogen, and amide nitrogen, and then the nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors were calculated. The average conversion factors were 5.75 for rice, 5.81 for wheat, and 5.95 for others. These values, corresponding to the proportion of the amino acid residue to amino acid nitrogen recovered from 20 amino acids, were lower than the currently applied factors to these foods, except for wheat flour and amaranth. The use of this factor for estimating the protein content results in a considerable difference from the estimate based on amino acid residue concentrations, due to the wide variations in amino acid composition and to the presence of a significant level of nonprotein nitrogen. The distribution of the protein nitrogen recovered from the amino acids to total nitrogen averaged 93%. Adjusted conversion factors corresponding to the proportion of the amino acid residue to total nitrogen averaged 5.26 for rice, 5.47 for wheat, and 5.54 for other cereal products. Protein contents estimated using these factors are in good agreement with the contents defined as amino acid residues. PMID:18387100

  3. Multiple conversion between the genes encoding bacterial class-I release factors

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Sohta A.; Kamikawa, Ryoma; Inagaki, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria require two class-I release factors, RF1 and RF2, that recognize stop codons and promote peptide release from the ribosome. RF1 and RF2 were most likely established through gene duplication followed by altering their stop codon specificities in the common ancestor of extant bacteria. This scenario expects that the two RF gene families have taken independent evolutionary trajectories after the ancestral gene duplication event. However, we here report two independent cases of conversion between RF1 and RF2 genes (RF1-RF2 gene conversion), which were severely examined by procedures incorporating the maximum-likelihood phylogenetic method. In both cases, RF1-RF2 gene conversion was predicted to occur in the region encoding nearly entire domain 3, of which functions are common between RF paralogues. Nevertheless, the ‘direction’ of gene conversion appeared to be opposite from one another—from RF2 gene to RF1 gene in one case, while from RF1 gene to RF2 gene in the other. The two cases of RF1-RF2 gene conversion prompt us to propose two novel aspects in the evolution of bacterial class-I release factors: (i) domain 3 is interchangeable between RF paralogues, and (ii) RF1-RF2 gene conversion have occurred frequently in bacterial genome evolution. PMID:26257102

  4. A new technique for measuring gas conversion factors for hydrocarbon mass flowmeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Sprinkle, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    A technique for measuring calibration conversion factors for hydrocarbon mass flowmeters was developed. It was applied to a widely used type of commercial thermal mass flowmeter for hydrocarbon gases. The values of conversion factors for two common hydrocarbons measured using this technique are in good agreement with the empirical values cited by the manufacturer. Similar agreements can be expected for all other hydrocarbons. The technique is based on Nernst theorem for matching the partial pressure of oxygen in the combustion product gases with that in normal air. It is simple, quick and relatively safe--particularly for toxic/poisonous hydrocarbons.

  5. Network generation and analysis of complex biomass conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rangarajan, S.; Kaminski, T.; Van Wyk, E.; Bhan, A.; Daoutidis, P.

    2011-01-01

    A modular computational tool for automated generation and rule-based post-processing of reaction systems in biomass conversion is presented. Cheminformatics and graph theory algorithms are used to generate chemical transformations pertaining to heterogeneous and homogeneous chemistries in the automated rule-based network generator. A domain-specific language provides a user-friendly English-like chemistry specification interface to the network generator. A rule-based pathway analysis module enables the user to extract and query pathways from the reaction network. A demonstration of the features of this tool is presented using Fructose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural as a case study.

  6. Computation of cross sections and dose conversion factors for criticality accident dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Devine, R T

    2004-01-01

    In the application of criticality accident dosemeters the cross sections and fluence-to-dose conversion factors have to be computed. The cross section and fluence-to-dose conversion factor for the thermal and epi-thermal contributions to neutron dose are well documented; for higher energy regions (>100 keV) these depend on the spectrum assumed. Fluence is determined using threshold detectors. The cross sections require the folding of an expected spectrum with the reaction cross sections. The fluence-to-dose conversion factors also require a similar computation. The true and effective thresholds are used to include the information on the expected spectrum. The spectra can either be taken from compendia or measured at the facility at which the exposures are to be expected. The cross sections can be taken from data computations or analytic representations and the fluence-to-dose conversion factors are determined by various standards making bodies. The problem remaining is the method of computation. The purpose of this paper is to compare two methods for computing these factors: analytic and Monte Carlo. PMID:15353697

  7. The CO-H2 Conversion Factor in Star-Forming Galaxies at z<1.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carleton, Timothy; Cooper, Mike; PHIBSS team

    2016-06-01

    Using data drawn from the Plateau de Bure High-z Blue Sequence Survey (PHIBSS) and the CO Legacy Database for GASS (COLD GASS), we study the correlation between the CO-H2 conversion factor (αco) and integrated galaxy properties, such as gas-phase metallicity and total mass surface density, for a sample of ~200 star-forming galaxies at z < 1.5. Consistent with existing observations, we find a weak anti-correlation between αco and metallicity, such that the most metal-poor galaxies exhibit an αco in excess of that observed in the Milky Way disk. Contrary to theoretical predictions, however, we find no significant correlation between αco and total mass surface density at z ~ 0 or z ~ 1; our results indicate that molecular gas primarily exists in the form of Milky Way-like GMCs in typical star-forming galaxies at z < 1.5, independent of the galaxy's mass surface density. For massive galaxies on the star-forming "main sequence" at z ~ 1, we find a factor of 4 difference in the molecular depletion timescales inferred using the predicted CO-H2 conversion factor versus those inferred using a Milky Way-like αco. This analysis underscores the importance of the CO-H2 conversion factor in interpreting CO observations, both locally and especially at high redshift during the peak of cosmic star formation.

  8. Corn Stover Availability for Biomass Conversion: Situation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    J. Richard Hess; Kevin L. Kenney; Christopher T. Wright; Robert Perlack; Anthony Turhollow

    2009-08-01

    As biorefining conversion technologies become commercial, feedstock availability, supply system logistics, and biomass material attributes are emerging as major barriers to the availability of corn stover for biorefining. While systems do exist to supply corn stover as feedstock to biorefining facilities, stover material attributes affecting physical deconstruction, such as densification and post-harvest material stability, challenge the cost-effectiveness of present-day feedstock logistics systems. In addition, the material characteristics of corn stover create barriers with any supply system design in terms of equipment capacity/efficiency, dry matter loss, and capital use efficiency. However, this study of a large, square-bale corn stover feedstock supply system concludes that (1) where other agronomic factors are not limiting, corn stover can be accessed and supplied to a biorefinery using existing bale-based technologies, (2) technologies and new supply system designs are necessary to overcome biomass bulk density and moisture material property challenges, and (3) major opportunities to improve conventional-bale biomass feedstock supply systems include improvements in equipment efficiency and capacity and reducing biomass losses in harvesting and collection and storage. Finally, the backbone of an effective stover supply system design is the optimization of intended and minimization of unintended material property changes as the corn stover passes through the individual supply system processes from the field to the biorefinery conversion processes.

  9. The CO-H2 conversion factor and the CO excitation ladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Joel Robert; Narayanan, Desika

    2015-01-01

    Indirect measurements of molecular hydrogen mass are can be made using the CO line intensity. Previous work has shown that the star formation rate surface density can be used to parameterize the conversion factor (XCO). There is further evidence to suggest that the physical conditions which determine the CO spectral line energy distribution (SLED) also determine the conversion factor from CO line intensity to molecular gas mass conversion factor (XCO). Here, we present a series of SPH simulations of idealized galaxies in evolution, focusing on their Giant Molecular Cloud properties. We simulate a range of both disk galaxies and galaxy mergers with a wide range of star formation rates, velocity dispersions, gas metallicities and temperatures. From these varying simulations we perform full radiative transfer calculations with conditions derived from the simulated GMCs. These calculations will determine theoretical values of the conversion factor (XCO) as well as CO SLEDs. We aim to find a relationship between XCO and the CO SLED that will help inform observers in the era of ALMA.

  10. Empirically Based Conversion Factors for Calculating Couple-Years of Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, John; Bertrand, Jane T.; Shelton, James D.

    2000-01-01

    Presents conversion factors to be used to translate the quality of the respective contraception methods distributed to a single measure of protection for calculating couple-years of protection in family planning studies. Discusses the implications for the evaluation of family planning programs. (SLD)

  11. A critical review on photochemical conversions in flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Diogo L; Kamogawa, Marcos Y; Rocha, Fábio R P

    2015-10-01

    Photochemical conversions are cost-effective and environmental friendly processes that require mild experimental conditions and avoid generation of highly acidic wastes. Treated samples are then compatible with most of the analytical techniques. These characteristics become more relevant when the photoconversions are accomplished to flow analysis, thus allowing exploitation of incomplete reactions, the effective use of the photogenerated unstable radicals and in-line sample treatment. Decreasing of reagent consumption and waste generation, sample processing in a closed environment, and improvement of efficiency of the photochemical processes are other inherent advantages. These aspects are critically reviewed in this article, which emphasizes applications to fractionation and speciation analysis, photo-induced luminescence, miniaturization, and in-line waste treatment. Design of flow-through photochemical cells, use of auxiliary reagents in homogeneous and heterogeneous media, and configurations of flow manifolds are also discussed. PMID:26481985

  12. Comparison of 50-year and 70-year internal-dose-conversion factors

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, M.T.; Dunning, D.E. Jr.

    1981-03-01

    The 50-year inhalation and ingestion dose commitments associated with an acute intake (of a radionuclide) of 3.7 x 10/sup 4/ Bq (1 ..mu..Ci) in one day were compared with the corresponding dose commitments calculated for a 70-year integration period resulting from a chronic intake of the same amount at a rate of 101 Bq/d (0.00274 ..mu..Ci/d) for one year. These values, known as dose conversion factors, estimate the dose accumulated during a given period of time following a unit of intake of a radionuclide. It was demonstrated that the acute intake of 3.7 x 10/sup 4/ Bq in one day and the chronic intake of 101 Bq/d for one year (a total intake of 3.7 x 10/sup 4/ Bq) result in essentially the same dose commitment for a relatively long integration period. Therefore, the comparison of 50-year acute dose conversion factors and 70-year chronic dose conversion factors is essentially only a measure of the additional dose accumulated in the 50 to 70 year period. It was found that for radionuclides with atomic mass less than 200 the percent difference in the 70-year and 50-year dose conversion factors was essentially zero in most cases. Differences of approximately 5 to 50% were obtained for dose conversion factors for most alpha emitters with atomic masses of greater than 200. Comparisons were made on the basis of both organ dose equivalent and effective dose equivalent. The implications and significance of these results are discussed.

  13. Q Conversion Factor Models for Estimating Precipitable Water Vapor for Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deniz, Ilke; Mekik, Cetin; Gurbuz, Gokhan

    2015-04-01

    precipitable water vapor is the conversion factor Q which is shown in Emardson and Derks' studies and also Jade and Vijayan's. Developing a regional model using either Tm-Ts equation or the conversion factor Q will provide a basis for GNSS Meteorology in Turkey which depends on the analysis of the radiosonde profile data. For this purpose, the radiosonde profiles from Istanbul, Ankara, Diyarbaki r, Samsun, Erzurum, Izmir, Isparta and Adana stations are analyzed with the radiosonde analysis algorithm in the context of the 'The Estimation of Atmospheric Water Vapour with GPS' Project which is funded by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK). The Project is also in the COST Action ES1206: Advanced Global Navigation Satellite Systems tropospheric products for monitoring severe weather events and climate (GNSS4SWEC). In this study, regional models using the conversion factor Q are used for the determination of precipitable water vapor, and applied to the GNSS derived wet tropospheric zenith delays. Henceforth, the estimated precipitable water vapor and the precipitable water vapor obtained from the radiosonde station are compared. The average of the differences between RS and models for Istanbul and Ankara stations are obtained as 2.0±1.6 mm, 1.6±1.6 mm, respectively.

  14. Factor Analysis of Intern Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Womack, Sid T.; Hannah, Shellie Louise; Bell, Columbus David

    2012-01-01

    Four factors in teaching intern effectiveness, as measured by a Praxis III-similar instrument, were found among observational data of teaching interns during the 2010 spring semester. Those factors were lesson planning, teacher/student reflection, fairness & safe environment, and professionalism/efficacy. This factor analysis was as much of a…

  15. Effects of protocol and obesity on dose conversion factors in adult body CT

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Samei, Ehsan; Williams, Cameron H.; Segars, W. Paul; Tward, Daniel J.; Miller, Michael I.; Ratnanather, J. Tilak; Paulson, Erik K.; Frush, Donald P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In computed tomography (CT), organ dose, effective dose, and risk index can be estimated from volume-weighted CT dose index (CTDIvol) or dose-length product (DLP) using conversion coefficients. Studies have investigated how these coefficients vary across scanner models, scan parameters, and patient size. However, their variability across CT protocols has not been systematically studied. Furthermore, earlier studies of the effect of patient size have not included obese individuals, which currently represent more than one-third of U.S. adults. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of protocol and obesity on dose and risk conversion coefficients in adult body CT. Methods: Whole-body computational phantoms were created from clinical CT images of six adult patients (three males, three females), representing normal-weight patients and patients of three obesity classes. Body CT protocols at our institution were selected and categorized into ten examination categories based on anatomical region examined. A validated Monte Carlo program was used to estimate organ dose. Organ dose estimates were normalized by CTDIvol and size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) to obtain organ dose conversion coefficients (denoted as h and hss factors, respectively). Assuming each phantom to be 20, 40, and 60 years old, effective dose and risk index were calculated and normalized by DLP to obtain effective dose and risk index conversion coefficients (denoted as k and q factors, respectively). Coefficient of variation was used to quantify the variability of each conversion coefficient across examination categories. The effect of obesity was assessed by comparing each obese phantom with the normal-weight phantom of the same gender. Results: For a given organ, the variability of h factor across examination categories that encompassed the entire organ volume was generally within 15%. However, k factor varied more across examination categories (15%–27%). For all three ages, the

  16. Conversion factors from counts to chemical ratios for the EURITRACK tagged neutron inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kanawati, W.; Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Eleon, C.; Valkovic, V.; Sudac, D.; Obhodas, J.

    2011-10-01

    The EURopean Illicit TRAfficking Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) uses 14 MeV neutrons produced by the 3H(d,n) 4H fusion reaction to detect explosives and narcotics in cargo containers. Reactions induced by fast neutrons produce gamma rays, which are detected in coincidence with the associated alpha particle to determine the neutron direction. In addition, the neutron path length is obtained from a time-of-flight measurement, thus allowing the origin of the gamma rays inside the container to be determined. Information concerning the chemical composition of the target material is obtained from the analysis of the energy spectrum. The carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen relative count contributions must be converted to chemical proportions to distinguish illicit and benign organic materials. An extensive set of conversion factors based on Monte Carlo numerical simulations has been calculated, taking into account neutron slowing down and photon attenuation in the cargo materials. An experimental validation of the method is presented by comparing the measured chemical fractions of known materials, in the form of bare samples or hidden in a cargo container, to their real chemical composition. Examples of application to real cargo containers are also reported, as well as simulated data with explosives and illicit drugs.

  17. Discourse Analysis and Cultivation of Conversational Competence in English Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    The essay is to discuss in perspective of teaching how to apply the results of Discourse Analysis study to English class to train students for successful communication through taking turns, controlling turns, teaching exchange, organizing transaction, spreading topic and taking into account contextual factors as well in order to cultivate…

  18. Dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes recent modifications of the computer code DOSFACTER, which was developed for the purpose of estimating dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons emitted by radionuclides dispersed in the environment. The modifications and additions which have been made to the calculations outlined above include the following: (1) calculation of electron dose-rate factors for radiosensitive portions of the skin; (2) incorporation of improved estimates of organ dose-rate factors for photons; and (3) calculation of dose-rate factors for additional radio nuclides and incorporation of updated radioactive decay data for all radionuclides. The revised dose-rate factors described in this paper are available upon request from the Radiation Shielding Information Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  19. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Programmatic Environmental Analysis--Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Authors, Various

    1980-01-01

    The programmatic environmental analysis is an initial assessment of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology considering development, demonstration and commercialization. It is concluded that the OTEC development program should continue because the development, demonstration, and commercialization on a single-plant deployment basis should not present significant environmental impacts. However, several areas within the OTEC program require further investigation in order to assess the potential for environmental impacts from OTEC operation, particularly in large-scale deployments and in defining alternatives to closed-cycle biofouling control: (1) Larger-scale deployments of OTEC clusters or parks require further investigations in order to assess optimal platform siting distances necessary to minimize adverse environmental impacts. (2) The deployment and operation of the preoperational platform (OTEC-1) and future demonstration platforms must be carefully monitored to refine environmental assessment predictions, and to provide design modifications which may mitigate or reduce environmental impacts for larger-scale operations. These platforms will provide a valuable opportunity to fully evaluate the intake and discharge configurations, biofouling control methods, and both short-term and long-term environmental effects associated with platform operations. (3) Successful development of OTEC technology to use the maximal resource capabilities and to minimize environmental effects will require a concerted environmental management program, encompassing many different disciplines and environmental specialties. This volume contains these appendices: Appendix A -- Deployment Scenario; Appendix B -- OTEC Regional Characterization; and Appendix C -- Impact and Related Calculations.

  20. Numerical analysis of seismoelectromagnetic field conversion at confined geological units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroeger, B.; Kemna, A.

    2010-12-01

    It is well known that at material boundaries in fluid-saturated porous media, an incoming seismic wave can give rise to electric and magnetic fields due to electrokinetic coupling effects. Given its sensitivity to rock parameters governing fluid flow, this so-called seismoelectromagnetic (or seismoelectric, if only the electric field is considered) interface response is of strong interest with a view to hydro geophysical and petroleum exploration applications. However, the understanding of the correspondence of the converting interface geometry on the one hand and electric and magnetic field characteristics on the other hand is still poor. By means of two-dimensional finite-element modeling in the time domain, we here investigate the character of the seismoelectromagnetic interface response for the special case of spatially confined geological units, which may be representative for clay lenses embedded in an aquifer or petroleum deposits in a host rock. In the numerical analysis we consider the interface response generated by both compressional and shear wave. The modeling results, which are analyzed in terms of snapshots, time slices, and electro and magneto grams, reveal a significant influence of the confined geological units on the generation and character of the seismoelectro-magnetic interface response. The different conversion patterns can be attributed to the induced streaming currents at the interfaces caused by the oscillation of the seismic body waves. Pattern analysis of the interface responses is done with a view to an improved qualitative understanding of their spatio-temporal occurrence and evolution relative to the geometry of the converting interfaces. Our time-lapse simulations illustrate that the seismoelectromagnetic interface response captures characteristics of the geometry of the converting geological unit, indicating the potential of the seismoelectromagnetic method in particular for exploration of confined targets.

  1. Tracing Developmental Changes through Conversation Analysis: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yo-An; Hellermann, John

    2014-01-01

    The descriptive focus of conversation analysis (CA) has not been considered optimal for second language (L2) acquisition research. Recently, however, some CA researchers have addressed the developmental agenda by examining longitudinal data (e.g., Brouwer, C., 2004; Ishida, M., 2009; Markee, N., 2008; Pekarek-Doehler, S., 2010). The present…

  2. Conversation Analysis--A Discourse Approach to Teaching Oral English Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores a pedagocial approach to teaching oral English---Conversation Analysis. First, features of spoken language is described in comparison to written language. Second, Conversation Analysis theory is elaborated in terms of adjacency pairs, turn-taking, repairs, sequences, openings and closings, and feedback. Third, under the…

  3. Dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.

    1981-08-01

    Dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons have been calculated for approximately 500 radionuclides of potential importance in environmental radiological assessments. The dose-rate factors were obtained using the DOSFACTER computer code. The results given in this report incorporate calculation of electron dose-rate factors for radiosensitive tissues of the skin, improved estimates of organ dose-rate factors for photons, based on organ doses for monoenergetic sources at the body surface of an exposed individual, and the spectra of scattered photons in air from monoenergetic sources in an infinite, uniformly contaminated atmospheric cloud, calculation of dose-rate factors for other radionuclides in addition to those of interest in the nuclear fuel cycle, and incorporation of updated radioactive decay data for all radionuclides. Dose-rate factors are calculated for three exposure modes - immersion in contaminated air, immersion in contaminated water, and exposure at a height of 1 m above a contaminated ground surface. The report presents the equations used to calculate the external dose-rate factors for photons and electrons, documentation of the revised DOSFACTER computer code, and a complete tabulation of the calculated dose-rate factors. 30 refs., 12 figs.

  4. Direct measurement of electron beam quality conversion factors using water calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Renaud, James Seuntjens, Jan; Sarfehnia, Arman; Marchant, Kristin; McEwen, Malcolm; Ross, Carl

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: In this work, the authors describe an electron sealed water calorimeter (ESWcal) designed to directly measure absorbed dose to water in clinical electron beams and its use to derive electron beam quality conversion factors for two ionization chamber types. Methods: A functioning calorimeter prototype was constructed in-house and used to obtain reproducible measurements in clinical accelerator-based 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV electron beams. Corrections for the radiation field perturbation due to the presence of the glass calorimeter vessel were calculated using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The conductive heat transfer due to dose gradients and nonwater materials was also accounted for using a commercial finite element method software package. Results: The relative combined standard uncertainty on the ESWcal dose was estimated to be 0.50% for the 9–20 MeV beams and 1.00% for the 6 MeV beam, demonstrating that the development of a water calorimeter-based standard for electron beams over such a wide range of clinically relevant energies is feasible. The largest contributor to the uncertainty was the positioning (Type A, 0.10%–0.40%) and its influence on the perturbation correction (Type B, 0.10%–0.60%). As a preliminary validation, measurements performed with the ESWcal in a 6 MV photon beam were directly compared to results derived from the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) photon beam standard water calorimeter. These two independent devices were shown to agree well within the 0.43% combined relative uncertainty of the ESWcal for this beam type and quality. Absorbed dose electron beam quality conversion factors were measured using the ESWcal for the Exradin A12 and PTW Roos ionization chambers. The photon-electron conversion factor, k{sub ecal}, for the A12 was also experimentally determined. Nonstatistically significant differences of up to 0.7% were found when compared to the calculation-based factors listed in the AAPM’s TG-51 protocol

  5. Factors for conversion between human and automatic read-outs of CDMAM images

    SciTech Connect

    Figl, Michael; Hoffmann, Rainer; Kaar, Marcus; Semturs, Friedrich; Brasik, Natasa; Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Homolka, Peter; Hummel, Johann

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: According to the European protocol for the quality control of the physical and technical aspects of mammography screening (EPQCM) image quality of digital mammography devices has to be assessed using human evaluation of the CDMAM contrast-detail phantom. This is accomplished by the determination of threshold thicknesses of gold disks with different diameters (0.08-2 mm) and revealed to be very time consuming. Therefore a software solution based on a nonprewhitening matched filter (NPW) model was developed at University of Nijmegen. Factors for the conversion from automatic to human readouts have been determined by Young et al.[Proc. SPIE 614206, 1-13 (2006) and Proc. SPIE 6913, 69131C1 (2008)] using a huge amount of data of both human and automatic readouts. These factors depend on the observer groups and are purely phenomenological. The authors present an alternative approach to determine the factors by using the Rose observer model. Methods: Their method uses the Rose theory which gives a relationship between threshold contrast, diameter of the object and number of incident photons. To estimate the conversion factors for the five diameters from 0.2 to 0.5 mm they exposed with five different current-time products which resulted in 25 equations with five unknowns. Results: The theoretical conversion factors (in dependence of the diameters) amounted to be 1.61 {+-} 0.02 (0.2 mm diameter), 1.67 {+-} 0.02 (0.25 mm), 1.85 {+-} 0.02 (0.31 mm), 2.09 {+-} 0.02 (0.4 mm), and 2.28 {+-} 0.02 (0.5 mm). The corresponding phenomenological factors found in literature are 1.74 (0.2 mm), 1.78 (0.25 mm), 1.83 (0.31 mm), 1.88 (0.4 mm), and 1.93 (0.5 mm). Conclusions: They transferred the problem of determining the factors to a well known observer model which has been examined for many years and is also well established. This method reveals to be reproduceable and produces factors comparable to the phenomenological ones.

  6. Defining the Minimal Factors Required for Erythropoiesis through Direct Lineage Conversion.

    PubMed

    Capellera-Garcia, Sandra; Pulecio, Julian; Dhulipala, Kishori; Siva, Kavitha; Rayon-Estrada, Violeta; Singbrant, Sofie; Sommarin, Mikael N E; Walkley, Carl R; Soneji, Shamit; Karlsson, Göran; Raya, Ángel; Sankaran, Vijay G; Flygare, Johan

    2016-06-14

    Erythroid cell commitment and differentiation proceed through activation of a lineage-restricted transcriptional network orchestrated by a group of well characterized genes. However, the minimal set of factors necessary for instructing red blood cell (RBC) development remains undefined. We employed a screen for transcription factors allowing direct lineage reprograming from fibroblasts to induced erythroid progenitors/precursors (iEPs). We show that Gata1, Tal1, Lmo2, and c-Myc (GTLM) can rapidly convert murine and human fibroblasts directly to iEPs. The transcriptional signature of murine iEPs resembled mainly that of primitive erythroid progenitors in the yolk sac, whereas addition of Klf1 or Myb to the GTLM cocktail resulted in iEPs with a more adult-type globin expression pattern. Our results demonstrate that direct lineage conversion is a suitable platform for defining and studying the core factors inducing the different waves of erythroid development. PMID:27264182

  7. Biomass recalcitrance: a multi-scale, multi-factor, and conversion-specific property.

    PubMed

    McCann, Maureen C; Carpita, Nicholas C

    2015-07-01

    Recalcitrance of plant biomass to enzymatic hydrolysis for biofuel production is thought to be a property conferred by lignin or lignin-carbohydrate complexes. However, chemical catalytic and thermochemical conversion pathways, either alone or in combination with biochemical and fermentative pathways, now provide avenues to utilize lignin and to expand the product range beyond ethanol or butanol. To capture all of the carbon in renewable biomass, both lignin-derived aromatics and polysaccharide-derived sugars need to be transformed by catalysts to liquid hydrocarbons and high-value co-products. We offer a new definition of recalcitrance as those features of biomass which disproportionately increase energy requirements in conversion processes, increase the cost and complexity of operations in the biorefinery, and/or reduce the recovery of biomass carbon into desired products. The application of novel processing technologies applied to biomass reveal new determinants of recalcitrance that comprise a broad range of molecular, nanoscale, and macroscale factors. Sampling natural genetic diversity within a species, transgenic approaches, and synthetic biology approaches are all strategies that can be used to select biomass for reduced recalcitrance in various pretreatments and conversion pathways. PMID:26060266

  8. Glossary of terms and table of conversion factors used in design of chemical propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, R. B., Jr. (Compiler)

    1979-01-01

    The glossary presented is based entirely on terms used in the monographs on Chemical Propulsion. Significant terms relating to material properties and to material fabrication are presented. The terms are arranged in alphabetical order, with multiple word terms appearing in the normal sequence of usage; for example, ablative cooling appears as such, not as cooling, ablative, and lip seal appears as such, not as seal, lip. Conversion Factors for converting U.S. customary units to the International System of Units are presented in alphabetical order of the physical quantity (e.g., density, heat flux, specific impulse) involved.

  9. CO-to-H2 conversion factor of molecular clouds using X-ray shadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofue, Yoshiaki; Kataoka, Jun

    2016-06-01

    A new method to determine the CO-to-H2 conversion factor XCO using absorption of diffuse X-ray emission by local molecular clouds was developed. It was applied to the Ophiuchus (G353+17) and Corona Australis (G359-18) clouds using CO line and soft X-ray archival data. We obtained a value XCO = 1.85 ± 0.45 × 1020 H2 cm-2 (K km s-1)-1 as the average of least-χ2 fitting results for R4 (0.7 keV) and R5 (0.8 keV) bands.

  10. Revision of the APGEMS Dose Conversion Factor File Using Revised Factors from Federal Guidance Report 12 and 13.

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, Tristan R.; Rishel, Jeremy P.

    2013-09-30

    The Air Pollutant Graphical Environmental Monitoring System (APGEMS) is used by the Hanford Emergency Operation Center (EOC) to provide refined plume modeling of releases involving radionuclides. The dose conversion factors (DCFs) used by APGEMS to convert air concentration to dose are stored in a file called HUDUFACT.dat; the DCFs are based primarily on ICRP 30 compiled in the late 1980’s. This report updates the DCFs using more recent values reported in the Environmental Protection Agencies (EPAs) Federal Guidance Report (FGR) 12 and 13. FGR 12 provides external exposure (air submersion) DCFs for radionuclides in air; FGR 13 provides DCFs for radionuclides from inhalation. DCFs were updated for only those radionuclides listed in the original HUDUFACT.dat file. Since FGR 13 provides inhalation dose conversion factors as a function of age, revised DCF files were created for APGEMS for each age group. The “adult” DCF file is the most relevant to compare to the original DCF file being used in APGEMS; these DCF values are compared in this report.

  11. Conversion of the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System (APAS) to an IBM PC Compatible Format

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruep, John M.

    1995-01-01

    The conversion of the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System (APAS) software from a Silicon Graphics UNIX-based platform to a DOS-based IBM PC compatible is discussed. Relevant background information is given, followed by a discussion of the steps taken to accomplish the conversion and a discussion of the type of problems encountered during the conversion. A brief comparison of aerodynamic data obtained using APAS with data from another source is also made.

  12. Transforming Rubrics Using Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baryla, Ed; Shelley, Gary; Trainor, William

    2012-01-01

    Student learning and program effectiveness is often assessed using rubrics. While much time and effort may go into their creation, it is equally important to assess how effective and efficient the rubrics actually are in terms of measuring competencies over a number of criteria. This study demonstrates the use of common factor analysis to identify…

  13. Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors for Reasonably Maximally Exposed Individual and Average Member of Critical Group

    SciTech Connect

    K. Montague

    2000-02-23

    The purpose of this calculation is to develop additional Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for a reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) for the periods 10,000 years and 1,000,000 years after the repository closure. In addition, Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors for the average member of a critical group are calculated for those additional radionuclides postulated to reach the environment during the period after 10,000 years and up to 1,000,000 years. After the permanent closure of the repository, the engineered systems within the repository will eventually lose their abilities to contain radionuclide inventory, and the radionuclides will migrate through the geosphere and eventually enter the local water table moving toward inhabited areas. The primary release scenario is a groundwater well used for drinking water supply and irrigation, and this calculation takes these postulated releases and follows them through various pathways until they result in a dose to either a member of critical group or a reasonably maximally exposed individual. The pathways considered in this calculation include inhalation, ingestion, and direct exposure.

  14. Direct Conversion of Fibroblasts into Functional Astrocytes by Defined Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Caiazzo, Massimiliano; Giannelli, Serena; Valente, Pierluigi; Lignani, Gabriele; Carissimo, Annamaria; Sessa, Alessandro; Colasante, Gaia; Bartolomeo, Rosa; Massimino, Luca; Ferroni, Stefano; Settembre, Carmine; Benfenati, Fabio; Broccoli, Vania

    2014-01-01

    Summary Direct cell reprogramming enables direct conversion of fibroblasts into functional neurons and oligodendrocytes using a minimal set of cell-lineage-specific transcription factors. This approach is rapid and simple, generating the cell types of interest in one step. However, it remains unknown whether this technology can be applied to convert fibroblasts into astrocytes, the third neural lineage. Astrocytes play crucial roles in neuronal homeostasis, and their dysfunctions contribute to the origin and progression of multiple human diseases. Herein, we carried out a screening using several transcription factors involved in defining the astroglial cell fate and identified NFIA, NFIB, and SOX9 to be sufficient to convert with high efficiency embryonic and postnatal mouse fibroblasts into astrocytes (iAstrocytes). We proved both by gene-expression profiling and functional tests that iAstrocytes are comparable to native brain astrocytes. This protocol can be then employed to generate functional iAstrocytes for a wide range of experimental applications. PMID:25556566

  15. Home Equity Conversion for the Elderly: An Analysis for Lenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinrobe, Maurice

    This report was prepared to explain home equity conversion (HEC), a means whereby elderly persons can convert the wealth represented by homeownership into a flow of income. It focuses exclusively on arrangements that convert residential equity into discretionary cash. The introduction reviews the recent history of HEC in the United States. A…

  16. A Conversation Analysis-Informed Test of L2 Aural Pragmatic Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, F. Scott

    2009-01-01

    Speech act theory-based, second language pragmatics testing (SLPT) raises test-validation issues owing to a lack of correspondence with empirical conversational data. On the assumption that conversation analysis (CA) provides a more accurate account of language use, it is suggested that CA serve as a more empirically valid basis for SLPT…

  17. Biomass Feedstock and Conversion Supply System Design and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Mohammad S. Roni; Patrick Lamers; Kara G. Cafferty

    2014-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy’s bioenergy research program. As part of the research program INL investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. A series of reports were published between 2000 and 2013 to demonstrate the feedstock logistics cost. Those reports were tailored to specific feedstock and conversion process. Although those reports are different in terms of conversion, some of the process in the feedstock logistic are same for each conversion process. As a result, each report has similar information. A single report can be designed that could bring all commonality occurred in the feedstock logistics process while discussing the feedstock logistics cost for different conversion process. Therefore, this report is designed in such a way that it can capture different feedstock logistics cost while eliminating the need of writing a conversion specific design report. Previous work established the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $55/dry ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, low-cost feedstock. The 2017 programmatic target is to supply feedstock to the conversion facility that meets the in-feed conversion process quality specifications at a total logistics cost of $80/dry T. The $80/dry T. target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all conversion in-feed quality targets

  18. Forest Conversion, Agricultural Transitions and the Influence of Multi-scale Market Factors in Southwest Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordway, E.; Lambin, E.; Asner, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    The changing structure of demand for commodities associated with food security and energy has had a startling impact on land use change in tropical forests in recent decades. Yet, the composition of conversion in the Congo basin remains a major uncertainty, particularly with regards to the scale of drivers of change. Owing to rapid expansion of production globally and longstanding historical production locally in the Congo basin, oil palm offers a lens through which to evaluate local land use decisions across a spectrum of small- to large-scales of production as well as interactions with regional and global supply chains. We examined the effect of global commodity crop expansion on land use change in Southwest Cameroon using a mixed-methods approach to integrate remote sensing, field surveys and socioeconomic data. Southwest Cameroon (2.5 Mha) has a long history of large- and small-scale agriculture, ranging from mixed crop subsistence agriculture to large monocrop plantations of oil palm, cocoa, and rubber. Trends and spatial patterns of forest conversion and agricultural transitions were analyzed from 2000-2015 using satellite imagery. We used economic, demographic and field survey datasets to assess how regional and global market factors and local commodity crop decisions affect land use patterns. Our results show that oil palm is a major commodity crop expanding in this region, and that conversion is occurring primarily through expansion by medium-scale producers and local elites. Results also indicate that global and regional supply chain dynamics influence local land use decision making. This research contributes new information on land use patterns and dynamics in the Congo basin, an understudied region. More specifically, results from this research contribute information on recent trends of oil palm expansion in Cameroon that will be used in national land use planning strategies.

  19. A small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvester using a resonant frequency-down conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kyung Ho; Kim, Young-Cheol; Kim, Jae Eun

    2014-10-01

    While environmental vibrations are usually in the range of a few hundred Hertz, small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters will have higher resonant frequencies due to the structural size effect. To address this issue, we propose a resonant frequency-down conversion based on the theory of dynamic vibration absorber for the design of a small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvester. The proposed energy harvester consists of two frequency-tuned elastic components for lowering the first resonant frequency of an integrated system but is so configured that an energy harvesting beam component is inverted with respect to the other supporting beam component for a small form factor. Furthermore, in order to change the unwanted modal characteristic of small separation of resonant frequencies, as is the case with an inverted configuration, a proof mass on the supporting beam component is slightly shifted toward a second proof mass on the tip of the energy harvesting beam component. The proposed small-form-factor design capability was experimentally verified using a fabricated prototype with an occupation volume of 20 × 39 × 6.9 mm3, which was designed for a target frequency of as low as 100 Hz.

  20. A small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvester using a resonant frequency-down conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Kyung Ho; Kim, Young-Cheol; Kim, Jae Eun

    2014-10-15

    While environmental vibrations are usually in the range of a few hundred Hertz, small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters will have higher resonant frequencies due to the structural size effect. To address this issue, we propose a resonant frequency-down conversion based on the theory of dynamic vibration absorber for the design of a small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvester. The proposed energy harvester consists of two frequency-tuned elastic components for lowering the first resonant frequency of an integrated system but is so configured that an energy harvesting beam component is inverted with respect to the other supporting beam component for a small form factor. Furthermore, in order to change the unwanted modal characteristic of small separation of resonant frequencies, as is the case with an inverted configuration, a proof mass on the supporting beam component is slightly shifted toward a second proof mass on the tip of the energy harvesting beam component. The proposed small-form-factor design capability was experimentally verified using a fabricated prototype with an occupation volume of 20 × 39 × 6.9 mm{sup 3}, which was designed for a target frequency of as low as 100 Hz.

  1. Charge/mass dynamic structure factors of water and applications to dielectric friction and electroacoustic conversion.

    PubMed

    Sedlmeier, Felix; Shadkhoo, Shahriar; Bruinsma, Robijn; Netz, Roland R

    2014-02-01

    We determine time correlation functions and dynamic structure factors of the number and charge density of liquid water from molecular dynamics simulations. Using these correlation functions we consider dielectric friction and electro-acoustic coupling effects via linear response theory. From charge-charge correlations, the drag force on a moving point charge is derived and found to be maximal at a velocity of around 300 m/s. Strong deviations in the resulting friction coefficients from approximate theory employing a single Debye relaxation mode are found that are due to non-Debye-like resonances at high frequencies. From charge-mass cross-correlations the ultrasonic vibration potential is derived, which characterizes the conversion of acoustic waves into electric time-varying potentials. Along the dispersion relation for normal sound waves in water, the ultrasonic vibration potential is shown to strongly vary and to increase for larger wavelengths. PMID:24511957

  2. X-ray beam filtration, dosimetry phantom size and CT patient dose conversion factors.

    PubMed

    Huda, Walter; Sterzik, Alexander; Tipnis, Sameer

    2010-01-21

    We examine how the choice of CT x-ray beam filtration and phantom size influences patient dose (D) to computed tomography dose index (CTDI) conversion factors (i.e. D/CTDI). The ratio of head to body phantom CTDI(w) for a defined scan technique is alpha, and the ratio of organ dose when the body filter is changed to the head filter is beta. CTDI and organ doses were obtained using the ImPACT CT patient dosimetry calculator, and values of alpha and beta were determined for 39 CT scanners. The average value of alpha for the 39 CT scanners covering a 20 year period was 1.99 +/- 0.23, but 30% of scanners had alpha values that differed by more than 10% from the average. For GE, the value of alpha has been approximately constant at approximately 2.0. Both Philips and Siemens show a definite upward trend from values well below 2.0 in the early 1990s to well over 2.0 for their latest models. The data for Toshiba show no overall trend with time with half the data points below 2.0 and the remainder above this value. The average value of beta was 1.09 +/- 0.25. All vendors showed a downward trend in the beta parameter, and where the most recent scanners from each vendor had a beta value close to unity. Our results show that average D/CTDI conversion factors for a body phantom/filter combination are typically double those appropriate for a head phantom/filter combination. PMID:20023330

  3. Analysis of dynamic effects in solar thermal energy conversion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, C. L.

    1978-01-01

    The paper examines a study the purpose of which is to assess the performance of solar thermal power systems insofar as it depends on the dynamic character of system components and the solar radiation which drives them. Using a dynamic model, the daily operation of two conceptual solar conversion systems was simulated under varying operating strategies and several different time-dependent radiation intensity functions. These curves ranged from smoothly varying input of several magnitudes to input of constant total energy whose intensity oscillated with periods from 1/4 hour to 6 hours.

  4. Does the CO-to-H2 conversion factor depend on the star formation rate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Paul C.; Glover, Simon C. O.

    2015-09-01

    We present a series of numerical simulations that explore how the `X-factor', XCO - the conversion factor between the observed integrated CO emission and the column density of molecular hydrogen - varies with the environmental conditions in which a molecular cloud is placed. Our investigation is centred around two environmental conditions in particular: the cosmic ray ionization rate (CRIR) and the strength of the interstellar radiation field (ISRF). Since both these properties of the interstellar medium (ISM) have their origins in massive stars, we make the assumption in this paper that both the strength of the ISRF and the CRIR scale linearly with the local star formation rate (SFR). The cloud modelling in this study first involves running numerical simulations that capture the cloud dynamics, as well as the time-dependent chemistry, and ISM heating and cooling. These simulations are then post-processed with a line radiative transfer code to create synthetic 12CO (1-0) emission maps from which XCO can be calculated. We find that for 104 M⊙ virialized clouds with mean density 100 cm- 3, XCO is only weakly dependent on the local SFR, varying by a factor of a few over 2 orders of magnitude in SFR. In contrast, we find that for similar clouds but with masses of 105 M⊙, the X-factor will vary by an order of magnitude over the same range in SFR, implying that extragalactic star formation laws should be viewed with caution. However, for denser (104 cm- 3), supervirial clouds such as those found at the centre of the Milky Way, the X-factor is once again independent of the local SFR.

  5. Efficient computerized model for dynamic analysis of energy conversion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, R. D.; Lansing, F. L.; Khan, I. R.

    1983-01-01

    In searching for the optimum parameters that minimize the total life cycle cost of an energy conversion system, various combinations of components are examined and the resulting system performance and associated economics are studied. The systems performance and economics simulation computer program (SPECS) was developed to fill this need. The program simulates the fluid flow, thermal, and electrical characteristics of a system of components on a quasi-steady state basis for a variety of energy conversion systems. A unique approach is used in which the set of characteristic equations is solved by the Newton-Raphson technique. This approach eliminates the tedious iterative loops which are found in comparable programs such as TRNSYS or SOLTES-1. Several efficient features were also incorporated such as the centralized control and energy management scheme, and analogous treatment of energy flow in electrical and mechanical components, and the modeling of components of similar fundamental characteristics using generic subroutines. Initial tests indicate that this model can be used effectively with a relatively small number of time steps and low computer cost.

  6. Efficient computerized model for dynamic analysis of energy conversion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, R. D.; Lansing, F. L.; Khan, I. R.

    1983-02-01

    In searching for the optimum parameters that minimize the total life cycle cost of an energy conversion system, various combinations of components are examined and the resulting system performance and associated economics are studied. The systems performance and economics simulation computer program (SPECS) was developed to fill this need. The program simulates the fluid flow, thermal, and electrical characteristics of a system of components on a quasi-steady state basis for a variety of energy conversion systems. A unique approach is used in which the set of characteristic equations is solved by the Newton-Raphson technique. This approach eliminates the tedious iterative loops which are found in comparable programs such as TRNSYS or SOLTES-1. Several efficient features were also incorporated such as the centralized control and energy management scheme, and analogous treatment of energy flow in electrical and mechanical components, and the modeling of components of similar fundamental characteristics using generic subroutines. Initial tests indicate that this model can be used effectively with a relatively small number of time steps and low computer cost.

  7. A Noun Phrase Analysis Tool for Mining Online Community Conversations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haythornthwaite, Caroline; Gruzd, Anatoliy

    Online communities are creating a growing legacy of texts in online bulletin board postings, chat, blogs, etc. These texts record conversation, knowledge exchange, and variation in focus as groups grow, mature, and decline; they represent a rich history of group interaction and an opportunity to explore the purpose and development of online communities. However, the quantity of data created by these communities is vast, and to address their processes in a timely manner requires automated processes. This raises questions about how to conduct automated analyses, and what can we gain from them: Can we gain an idea of community interests, priorities, and operation from automated examinations of texts of postings and patterns of posting behavior? Can we mine stored texts to discover patterns of language and interaction that characterize a community?

  8. Direct calibration in megavoltage photon beams using Monte Carlo conversion factor: validation and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Wright, Tracy; Lye, Jessica E; Ramanathan, Ganesan; Harty, Peter D; Oliver, Chris; Webb, David V; Butler, Duncan J

    2015-01-21

    The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) has established a method for ionisation chamber calibrations using megavoltage photon reference beams. The new method will reduce the calibration uncertainty compared to a (60)Co calibration combined with the TRS-398 energy correction factor. The calibration method employs a graphite calorimeter and a Monte Carlo (MC) conversion factor to convert the absolute dose to graphite to absorbed dose to water. EGSnrc is used to model the linac head and doses in the calorimeter and water phantom. The linac model is validated by comparing measured and modelled PDDs and profiles. The relative standard uncertainties in the calibration factors at the ARPANSA beam qualities were found to be 0.47% at 6 MV, 0.51% at 10 MV and 0.46% for the 18 MV beam. A comparison with the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) as part of the key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K6 gave results of 0.9965(55), 0.9924(60) and 0.9932(59) for the 6, 10 and 18 MV beams, respectively, with all beams within 1σ of the participant average. The measured kQ values for an NE2571 Farmer chamber were found to be lower than those in TRS-398 but are consistent with published measured and modelled values. Users can expect a shift in the calibration factor at user energies of an NE2571 chamber between 0.4-1.1% across the range of calibration energies compared to the current calibration method. PMID:25565406

  9. Direct calibration in megavoltage photon beams using Monte Carlo conversion factor: validation and clinical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Tracy; Lye, Jessica E.; Ramanathan, Ganesan; Harty, Peter D.; Oliver, Chris; Webb, David V.; Butler, Duncan J.

    2015-01-01

    The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) has established a method for ionisation chamber calibrations using megavoltage photon reference beams. The new method will reduce the calibration uncertainty compared to a 60Co calibration combined with the TRS-398 energy correction factor. The calibration method employs a graphite calorimeter and a Monte Carlo (MC) conversion factor to convert the absolute dose to graphite to absorbed dose to water. EGSnrc is used to model the linac head and doses in the calorimeter and water phantom. The linac model is validated by comparing measured and modelled PDDs and profiles. The relative standard uncertainties in the calibration factors at the ARPANSA beam qualities were found to be 0.47% at 6 MV, 0.51% at 10 MV and 0.46% for the 18 MV beam. A comparison with the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) as part of the key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K6 gave results of 0.9965(55), 0.9924(60) and 0.9932(59) for the 6, 10 and 18 MV beams, respectively, with all beams within 1σ of the participant average. The measured kQ values for an NE2571 Farmer chamber were found to be lower than those in TRS-398 but are consistent with published measured and modelled values. Users can expect a shift in the calibration factor at user energies of an NE2571 chamber between 0.4-1.1% across the range of calibration energies compared to the current calibration method.

  10. The effects of aquaculture production noise on the growth, condition factor, feed conversion, and survival of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davidson, J.; Bebak, J.; Mazik, P.

    2009-01-01

    Intensive aquaculture systems, particularly recirculating systems, utilize equipment such as aerators, air and water pumps, blowers, and filtration systems that inadvertently increase noise levels in fish culture tanks. Sound levels and frequencies measured within intensive aquaculture systems are within the range of fish hearing, but species-specific effects of aquaculture production noise are not well defined. Field and laboratory studies have shown that fish behavior and physiology can be negatively impacted by intense sound. Therefore, chronic exposure to aquaculture production noise could cause increased stress, reduced growth rates and feed conversion efficiency, and decreased survival. The objective of this study was to provide an in-depth evaluation of the long term effects of aquaculture production noise on the growth, condition factor, feed conversion efficiency, and survival of cultured rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Rainbow trout were cultured in replicated tanks using two sound treatments: 117??dB re 1????Pa RMS which represented sound levels lower than those recorded in an intensive recycle system and 149??dB re 1????Pa RMS, representing sound levels near the upper limits known to occur in recycle systems. To begin the study mean fish weights in the 117 and 149??dB tanks were 40 and 39??g, respectively. After five months of exposure no significant differences were identified between treatments for mean weight, length, specific growth rates, condition factor, feed conversion, or survival (n = 4). Mean final weights for the 117 and 149??dB treatments were 641 ?? 3 and 631 ?? 10??g, respectively. Overall specific growth rates were equal, i.e. 1.84 ?? 0.00 and 1.84 ?? 0.01%/day. Analysis of growth rates of individually tagged rainbow trout indicated that fish from the 149??dB tanks grew slower during the first month of noise exposure (p < 0.05); however, fish acclimated to the noise thereafter. This study further suggests that rainbow trout growth

  11. Reliability and mass analysis of dynamic power conversion systems with parallel of standby redundancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, A. J.; Bloomfield, H. S.

    1985-01-01

    A combinatorial reliability approach is used to identify potential dynamic power conversion systems for space mission applications. A reliability and mass analysis is also performed, specifically for a 100 kWe nuclear Brayton power conversion system with parallel redundancy. Although this study is done for a reactor outlet temperature of 1100K, preliminary system mass estimates are also included for reactor outlet temperatures ranging up to 1500 K.

  12. Reliability and mass analysis of dynamic power conversion systems with parallel or standby redundancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Bloomfield, Harvey S.

    1987-01-01

    A combinatorial reliability approach was used to identify potential dynamic power conversion systems for space mission applications. A reliability and mass analysis was also performed, specifically for a 100-kWe nuclear Brayton power conversion system with parallel redundancy. Although this study was done for a reactor outlet temperature of 1100 K, preliminary system mass estimates are also included for reactor outlet temperatures ranging up to 1500 K.

  13. 32P measurement and dose conversion factor evaluation of activated human hair by criticality accident.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seokwon; Ha, Wi-Ho; Park, Seyoung; Shin, Seongwook; Yoo, Jaeryong; Park, Sunhoo; Lee, Seung-Sook

    2014-10-01

    In order to conduct dose assessment of victims in criticality accidents, a method of fast neutron capture-activated (32)P measurement of hair in which samples are treated by a chemical and analytical procedure that takes 9 h and measurement is conducted by liquid scintillation counting is presented. To validate this measurement method, hair samples spiked with a (32)P reference source were measured and the results analysed and the optimal sample mass and detection efficiency were determined. To verify the correlation between (32)P-specific activity and absorbed dose for spectra with two neutron mean energies, samples collected from three normal individuals were irradiated at various neutron energies and irradiation times using the MC50 Cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. The (32)P-specific activity trend of the irradiated hair agreed well with the absorbed doses. Based on the results, dose conversion factors, which were 0.67 ± 0.15 and 0.59 ± 0.06 Gy (Bq g(-1))(-1) at neutron mean energies of 2.33 and 5.36 MeV, respectively, were calculated as a guide for medical treatment of criticality accident victims. PMID:24516187

  14. Monte Carlo calculation of dose rate conversion factors for external exposure to photon emitters in soil.

    PubMed

    Clouvas, A; Xanthos, S; Antonopoulos-Domis, M; Silva, J

    2000-03-01

    The dose rate conversion factors D(CF) (absorbed dose rate in air per unit activity per unit of soil mass, nGy h(-1) per Bq kg(-1)) are calculated 1 m above ground for photon emitters of natural radionuclides uniformly distributed in the soil. Three Monte Carlo codes are used: 1) The MCNP code of Los Alamos; 2) The GEANT code of CERN; and 3) a Monte Carlo code developed in the Nuclear Technology Laboratory of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. The accuracy of the Monte Carlo results is tested by the comparison of the unscattered flux obtained by the three Monte Carlo codes with an independent straightforward calculation. All codes and particularly the MCNP calculate accurately the absorbed dose rate in air due to the unscattered radiation. For the total radiation (unscattered plus scattered) the D(CF) values calculated from the three codes are in very good agreement between them. The comparison between these results and the results deduced previously by other authors indicates a good agreement (less than 15% of difference) for photon energies above 1,500 keV. Antithetically, the agreement is not as good (difference of 20-30%) for the low energy photons. PMID:10688452

  15. Identifying and Exploring Factors Affecting Embodied Conversational Agent Social Presence for Interpersonal Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuah, Joon Hao

    2013-01-01

    Embodied conversational agents (ECAs) have been used as virtual conversational partners in interpersonal skills training applications such as medical interviews, military decision making, and cultural training. Ideally, in interpersonal skills training users will perceive and treat the ECAs the same as they would real people. The perception and…

  16. Monte Carlo calculations of k{sub Q}, the beam quality conversion factor

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, B. R.; Rogers, D. W. O.

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: To use EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulations to directly calculate beam quality conversion factors, k{sub Q}, for 32 cylindrical ionization chambers over a range of beam qualities and to quantify the effect of systematic uncertainties on Monte Carlo calculations of k{sub Q}. These factors are required to use the TG-51 or TRS-398 clinical dosimetry protocols for calibrating external radiotherapy beams. Methods: Ionization chambers are modeled either from blueprints or manufacturers' user's manuals. The dose-to-air in the chamber is calculated using the EGSnrc user-code egs{sub c}hamber using 11 different tabulated clinical photon spectra for the incident beams. The dose to a small volume of water is also calculated in the absence of the chamber at the midpoint of the chamber on its central axis. Using a simple equation, k{sub Q} is calculated from these quantities under the assumption that W/e is constant with energy and compared to TG-51 protocol and measured values. Results: Polynomial fits to the Monte Carlo calculated k{sub Q} factors as a function of beam quality expressed as %dd(10){sub x} and TPR{sub 10}{sup 20} are given for each ionization chamber. Differences are explained between Monte Carlo calculated values and values from the TG-51 protocol or calculated using the computer program used for TG-51 calculations. Systematic uncertainties in calculated k{sub Q} values are analyzed and amount to a maximum of one standard deviation uncertainty of 0.99% if one assumes that photon cross-section uncertainties are uncorrelated and 0.63% if they are assumed correlated. The largest components of the uncertainty are the constancy of W/e and the uncertainty in the cross-section for photons in water. Conclusions: It is now possible to calculate k{sub Q} directly using Monte Carlo simulations. Monte Carlo calculations for most ionization chambers give results which are comparable to TG-51 values. Discrepancies can be explained using individual Monte Carlo

  17. Protocol Analysis as a Method for Analyzing Conversational Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleman, Carlos G.; Vangelisti, Anita L.

    Protocol analysis, a technique that uses people's verbal reports about their cognitions as they engage in an assigned task, has been used in a number of applications to provide insight into how people mentally plan, assess, and carry out those assignments. Using a system of networked computers where actors communicate with each other over…

  18. The CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor across the Perseus molecular cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Min-Young; Stanimirović, Snežana; Wolfire, Mark G.; Shetty, Rahul; Glover, Simon C. O.; Molina, Faviola Z.; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2014-03-20

    We derive the CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor, X {sub CO} = N(H{sub 2})/I {sub CO}, across the Perseus molecular cloud on sub-parsec scales by combining the dust-based N(H{sub 2}) data with the I {sub CO} data from the COMPLETE Survey. We estimate an average X {sub CO} ∼ 3 × 10{sup 19} cm{sup –2} K{sup –1} km{sup –1} s and find a factor of ∼3 variations in X {sub CO} between the five sub-regions in Perseus. Within the individual regions, X {sub CO} varies by a factor of ∼100, suggesting that X {sub CO} strongly depends on local conditions in the interstellar medium. We find that X {sub CO} sharply decreases at A{sub V} ≲ 3 mag but gradually increases at A{sub V} ≳ 3 mag, with the transition occurring at A{sub V} where I {sub CO} becomes optically thick. We compare the N(H I), N(H{sub 2}), I {sub CO}, and X {sub CO} distributions with two models of the formation of molecular gas, a one-dimensional photodissociation region (PDR) model and a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model, tracking both the dynamical and chemical evolution of gas. The PDR model based on the steady state and equilibrium chemistry reproduces our data very well but requires a diffuse halo to match the observed N(H I) and I {sub CO} distributions. The MHD model matches our data reasonably well, suggesting that time-dependent effects on H{sub 2} and CO formation are insignificant for an evolved molecular cloud like Perseus. However, we find interesting discrepancies, including a broader range of N(H I), likely underestimated I {sub CO}, and a large scatter of I {sub CO} at small A{sub V} . These discrepancies most likely result from strong compressions and rarefactions and density fluctuations in the MHD model.

  19. Analysis of a color space conversion engine implemented using dynamic partial reconfiguration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toukatly, Ryan; Patru, Dorin; Saber, Eli; Peskin, Eric; Roylance, Gene; Larson, Brad

    2013-02-01

    Dynamic Partial Reconfiguration allows parts of a Field Programmable Gate Array to be reconfigured, while the rest of the system continues uninterrupted operation. A Color Space Conversion Engine is a digital image-processing pipeline, which requires frequent reconfiguration of some, but not all of its stages. Therefore, it is a digital signal processing system that presumably can take advantage of dynamic partial reconfiguration. This paper describes the necessary design changes, testing, and performance analysis of a color space conversion engine implemented onto a field programmable gate array using dynamic partial reconfiguration. The analysis provides insight into the operational scenarios in which dynamic partial reconfiguration is advantageous or not.

  20. Systems Analysis of Safeguards Effectiveness in a Uranium Conversion Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Elayat, H A; Lambert, H; O'Connell, W J

    2004-06-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in developing tools and methods for potential U.S. use in designing and evaluating safeguards systems. For this goal several DOE National Laboratories are defining the characteristics of typical facilities of several size scales, and the safeguards measures and instrumentation that could be applied. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is providing systems modeling and analysis of facility and safeguards operations, diversion path generation, and safeguards system effectiveness. The constituent elements of diversion scenarios are structured using directed graphs (digraphs) and fault trees. Safeguards indicator probabilities are based on sampling statistics and/or measurement accuracies. Scenarios are ranked based on value and quantity of material removed and the estimated probability of non-detection. Significant scenarios, especially those involving timeliness or randomly varying order of events, are transferred to simulation analysis. Simulations show the range of conditions encountered by the safeguards measurements and inspections, e.g., the quantities of intermediate materials in temporary storage and the time sequencing of material flow. Given a diversion campaign, simulations show how much the range of the same parameters observed by the safeguards system can differ from the base-case range. The combination of digraphs, fault trees, statistics and simulation constitute a method for evaluation of the estimated benefit of alternate or additional safeguards equipment or features. A generic example illustrates the method.

  1. Measurement Bias Detection through Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barendse, M. T.; Oort, F. J.; Werner, C. S.; Ligtvoet, R.; Schermelleh-Engel, K.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement bias is defined as a violation of measurement invariance, which can be investigated through multigroup factor analysis (MGFA), by testing across-group differences in intercepts (uniform bias) and factor loadings (nonuniform bias). Restricted factor analysis (RFA) can also be used to detect measurement bias. To also enable nonuniform…

  2. The Infinitesimal Jackknife with Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Guangjian; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Jennrich, Robert I.

    2012-01-01

    The infinitesimal jackknife, a nonparametric method for estimating standard errors, has been used to obtain standard error estimates in covariance structure analysis. In this article, we adapt it for obtaining standard errors for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations in exploratory factor analysis with sample correlation matrices. Both…

  3. Factor Analysis of Law School Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boldt, Robert F.

    Grades of 116 law school students were obtained from transcripts, along with LSAT, Writing Ability and Background scores. The grades were factored, and an analysis of the goodness of fit of one- through four-factor systems indicated that the system of grades was essentially one factor in nature. A plot of factor loadings for the various courses…

  4. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Sands, M. D.

    1980-01-01

    This programmatic environmental analysis is an initial assessment of OTEC technology considering development, demonstration and commercialization; it is concluded that the OTEC development program should continue because the development, demonstration, and commercialization on a single-plant deployment basis should not present significant environmental impacts. However, several areas within the OTEC program require further investigation in order to assess the potential for environmental impacts from OTEC operation, particularly in large-scale deployments and in defining alternatives to closed-cycle biofouling control: (1) Larger-scale deployments of OTEC clusters or parks require further investigations in order to assess optimal platform siting distances necessary to minimize adverse environmental impacts. (2) The deployment and operation of the preoperational platform (OTEC-1) and future demonstration platforms must be carefully monitored to refine environmental assessment predictions, and to provide design modifications which may mitigate or reduce environmental impacts for larger-scale operations. These platforms will provide a valuable opportunity to fully evaluate the intake and discharge configurations, biofouling control methods, and both short-term and long-term environmental effects associated with platform operations. (3) Successful development of OTEC technology to use the maximal resource capabilities and to minimize environmental effects will require a concerted environmental management program, encompassing many different disciplines and environmental specialties.

  5. Facet Theory, Smallest Space Analysis, and Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttman, Louis

    1982-01-01

    Mathematical and statistical relationships between factor analysis and smallest space analysis are discussed. As spatial analysis of correlation matrices, factor analysis is a special case of smallest space analysis. The two differ in six ways: Shepard diagram, dimensionality, correction for communality, similarity coefficients, regions versus…

  6. Traitement discursif et conversationnel des representations sociales (Discourse and Conversational Analysis of Social Representations).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serra, Cecilia

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the interpretive process of social representations of bilingualism by means of discourse and conversational analysis. Representations are to be understood as an interpretive set of assumptions conveyed by discourse, creating recurrent and habitual systems of dispositions and expectations. The article shows how discourse is…

  7. An Analysis of Adult-Child Conversation Patterns in Diverse African American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolson, Timothy F. J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines familial conversation patterns of African American families during evening meals, using a social interaction analysis. Found that family size had a pervasive impact on familial interaction, and that although mothers were the clear focus of mealtime interactions, the increased number of children necessitated that fathers take a more direct…

  8. Inflexibility as an Interactional Phenomenon: Using Conversation Analysis to Re-Examine a Symptom of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muskett, Tom; Perkins, Mick; Clegg, Judy; Body, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Many accounts of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) imply that the condition's behavioural "symptoms" are direct reflexes of underlying deficits. In doing so, however, they invariably overlook the social contexts in which symptomatic behaviours occur and are identified as pathological. This study addresses this issue, using conversation analysis (CA)…

  9. Parent-Child Interaction in Nigerian Families: Conversation Analysis, Context and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Annabel; Radford, Julie

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a conversation analysis (CA) approach to explore parent-child interaction (PCI) within Nigerian families. We illustrate how speech and language therapists (SLTs), by using CA, can tailor recommendations according to the interactional style of each individual family that are consonant with the family's cultural beliefs. Three…

  10. Retrospective Analysis of Cognitive and Affective Responses in Intercultural and Intracultural Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Duyen T.; Fussell, Susan R.

    2015-01-01

    We report a study that uses retrospective analysis to understand the relationships between American and Chinese participants' utterances during a conversation and the moment-by-moment feelings and reactions they subsequently described. Intercultural and intracultural pairs of Chinese and American participants talked about a fictional crime story…

  11. Teacher Guidance of Algebraic Formula Building: Functional Grammatical Analysis of a Whole-Class Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zolkower, Betina; Shreyar, Sam; Pérez, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    How does teacher-guided whole-class interaction contribute to expanding students' potential for making and exchanging mathematical meanings? We address this question through an interpretative analysis of a whole-group conversation in a sixth grade class taught by an experienced teacher in a school in Southern Argentina. The extended interaction…

  12. Echo, Not Quotation: What Conversation Analysis Reveals about Classroom Responses to Heard Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, John

    2012-01-01

    This article applies conversation analysis to classroom talk-in-interaction where pupils respond to poetry they have heard. The phenomenon of repeating in discussion details from the poem, including patterns of delivery, is considered and named echo to distinguish it from quotation in writing. The phenomenon is significant to the pedagogy of…

  13. Comparison of Risk Factors for Unplanned Conversion from Laparoscopic and Robotic to Open Colorectal Surgery Using the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative (MSQC) Database.

    PubMed

    Bhama, Anuradha R; Wafa, Abdullah M; Ferraro, Jane; Collins, Stacey D; Mullard, Andrew J; Vandewarker, James F; Krapohl, Greta; Byrn, John C; Cleary, Robert K

    2016-06-01

    Robotic colorectal surgery has been shown to have lower rates of unplanned conversion to open surgery when compared to laparoscopic surgery. Risk factors associated with conversion from robotic to open colectomy and comparisons of the risk factors between robotic and laparoscopic approaches have not been previously reported. Patients who underwent elective laparoscopic and robotic colorectal surgeries between July 1, 2012 and April 28, 2015, were identified in the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative registry. Candidate covariates were identified, and hierarchical logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors for conversion. There were 4796 cases that met study inclusion criteria. Conversion was required in 18.2 % of laparoscopic and 7.7 % of robotic cases (p < 0.0001). Risk factors for conversion in the laparoscopic group included the following: moderate/severe adhesions, obesity, colorectal cancer, hypertension, rectal operations, urgent priority, and tobacco use. Risk factors for conversion in the robotic group included the following: severe adhesions, bleeding disorder, presence of cancer, cirrhosis, and use of statins. Higher surgeon volume was protective in both groups. Conversion rates are lower for robotic than for laparoscopic colorectal surgery with fewer predictors of conversion. Recognition of factors predicting conversion may allow surgeons to choose an operative approach that optimizes the benefits of the available technologies. PMID:26847352

  14. Conversion factor and uncertainty estimation for quantification of towed gamma-ray detector measurements in Tohoku coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnishi, S.; Thornton, B.; Kamada, S.; Hirao, Y.; Ura, T.; Odano, N.

    2016-05-01

    Factors to convert the count rate of a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector to the concentration of radioactive cesium in marine sediments are estimated for a towed gamma-ray detector system. The response of the detector against a unit concentration of radioactive cesium is calculated by Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation considering the vertical profile of radioactive material measured in core samples. The conversion factors are acquired by integrating the contribution of each layer and are normalized by the concentration in the surface sediment layer. At the same time, the uncertainty of the conversion factors are formulated and estimated. The combined standard uncertainty of the radioactive cesium concentration by the towed gamma-ray detector is around 25 percent. The values of uncertainty, often referred to as relative root mean squat errors in other works, between sediment core sampling measurements and towed detector measurements were 16 percent in the investigation made near the Abukuma River mouth and 5.2 percent in Sendai Bay, respectively. Most of the uncertainty is due to interpolation of the conversion factors between core samples and uncertainty of the detector's burial depth. The results of the towed measurements agree well with laboratory analysed sediment samples. Also, the concentrations of radioactive cesium at the intersection of each survey line are consistent. The consistency with sampling results and between different lines' transects demonstrate the availability and reproducibility of towed gamma-ray detector system.

  15. 5 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Present Value Conversion Factors for Earlier Commencing Date of Annuities of Current and Former...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Present Value Conversion Factors for...) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE...—Present Value Conversion Factors for Earlier Commencing Date of Annuities of Current and Former Spouses...

  16. 5 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Present Value Conversion Factors for Earlier Commencing Date of Annuities of Current and Former...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Present Value Conversion Factors for...) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE...—Present Value Conversion Factors for Earlier Commencing Date of Annuities of Current and Former Spouses...

  17. 5 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Present Value Conversion Factors for Earlier Commencing Date of Annuities of Current and Former...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Present Value Conversion Factors for...) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE...—Present Value Conversion Factors for Earlier Commencing Date of Annuities of Current and Former Spouses...

  18. 5 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Present Value Conversion Factors for Earlier Commencing Date of Annuities of Current and Former...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Present Value Conversion Factors for...) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE...—Present Value Conversion Factors for Earlier Commencing Date of Annuities of Current and Former Spouses...

  19. 5 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Present Value Conversion Factors for Earlier Commencing Date of Annuities of Current and Former...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Present Value Conversion Factors for...) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEATH BENEFITS AND EMPLOYEE...—Present Value Conversion Factors for Earlier Commencing Date of Annuities of Current and Former Spouses...

  20. ERBS human factors analysis: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, K. L.; Weger, C.

    1983-01-01

    The incorporation of human factors into the system development process and the benefits derived are discussed. The human factors analysis task for the Earth radiation budget satellite (ERBS) payload operations control center (POCC) is a pathfinder in the new applications approach to this discipline within the mission and data operations directorate. The topics covered include: discussions of the motivation for human factors analysis; the involvement of the human factors research group (HFRG) with project and system developers, and some examples of human factors issues addressed in the ERBS analysis task.

  1. Structuring Health in Colorectal Cancer Screening Conversations: An Analysis of Intersecting Activity Systems

    PubMed Central

    Canary, Heather; Bullis, Connie; Cummings, Jennifer; Kinney, Anita Y.

    2016-01-01

    This study used structurating activity theory to analyze 21 conversations between genetic counselors and individuals at increased risk for familial colorectal cancer (CRC). The qualitative analysis revealed ways elements of family, primary healthcare, cancer prevention and treatment, and other systems emerged in intervention conversations as shaping CRC screening attitudes and behaviors. Results indicate that family stories, norms, and roles are resources for enacting health practices in families and that the authority of healthcare providers is a resource for making screening decisions. Conclusions include practical implications for using findings in clinical applications as well as future research directions to build on this exploratory study. PMID:27182185

  2. Industrial Power Factor Analysis Guidebook.

    SciTech Connect

    Electrotek Concepts.

    1995-03-01

    Power factor is a way of measuring the percentage of reactive power in an electrical system. Reactive power represents wasted energy--electricity that does no useful work because the electrical current is out of phase with the voltage. Reactive power is used by inductive loads (such as, motors, transformers, fluorescent lights, arc welders and induction furnaces) to sustain their magnetic fields. Electric systems with many motors exhibit low power factors, increased conductor and transformer losses, and lower voltages. Utilities must supply both active and reactive power and compensate for these losses. Power factor can be improved by the addition of shunt capacitors. Capacitors act in opposition to inductive loads, thereby minimizing the reactive power required to serve them. In raising the power factor, shunt capacitors release energy to the system, reduce system losses, and ultimately decrease power costs. Improving system power factor can reduce reactive and active power losses for both industry and utilities through the addition of shunt capacitors. This Guide Book gives electric utility technical staff, industrial end-users, consultants and BPA employees a step-by-step method for evaluating the cost effectiveness of installing power factor correction capacitors in an industrial plant.

  3. Conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of Iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation, 1945--1947: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Mart, E.I.; Denham, D.H.; Thiede, M.E.

    1993-05-01

    This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project whose goal is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from emissions since 1944 at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The report describes in detail the reconstructed conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation which was collected from the beginning of October 1945 through the end of December 1947.

  4. Modeling the conversion of hydroacoustic to seismic energy at island and continental margins: preliminary analysis of Ascension Island data

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.; Rodgers, A.

    1999-07-26

    Seismic stations at islands and continental margins will be an essential component of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for event location and identification in support of Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) monitoring. Particularly important will be the detection and analysis of hydroacoustic-to-seismic converted waves (T-phases) at island or continental margins. Acoustic waves generated by sources in or near the ocean propagate for long distances very efficiently due to the ocean sound speed channel (SOFAR) and low attenuation. When ocean propagating acoustic waves strike an island or continental margin they are converted to seismic (elastic) waves. We are using a finite difference code to model the conversion of hydroacoustic T-waves at an island or continental margin. Although ray-based methods are far more efficient for modeling long-range (> 1000 km) high-frequency hydroacoustic propagation, the finite difference method has the advantage of being able to model both acoustic and elastic wave propagation for a broad range of frequencies. The method allows us to perform simulations of T-phases to relatively high frequencies ({>=}10 Hz). Of particular interest is to identify factors that affect the efficiency of T-phase conversion, such as the topographic slope and roughness at the conversion point and elastic velocity structure within the island or continent. Previous studies have shown that efficient T-phase conversion occurs when the topographic slope at the conversion point is steep (Cansi and Bethoux, 1985; Talandier and Okal, 1998). Another factor impacting T-phase conversion may be the near-shore structure of the sound channel. It is well known that the depth to the sound channel axis decreases in shallow waters. This can weaken the channeled hydroacoustic wave. Elastic velocity structure within the island or continent will impact how the converted seismic wave is refracted to recording stations at the surface and thus impact the T

  5. Conversion of Human Fibroblasts to Stably Self-Renewing Neural Stem Cells with a Single Zinc-Finger Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Ebrahim; Moradi, Sharif; Nemati, Shiva; Satarian, Leila; Basiri, Mohsen; Gourabi, Hamid; Zare Mehrjardi, Narges; Günther, Patrick; Lampert, Angelika; Händler, Kristian; Hatay, Firuze Fulya; Schmidt, Diana; Molcanyi, Marek; Hescheler, Jürgen; Schultze, Joachim L.; Saric, Tomo; Baharvand, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Summary Direct conversion of somatic cells into neural stem cells (NSCs) by defined factors holds great promise for mechanistic studies, drug screening, and potential cell therapies for different neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we report that a single zinc-finger transcription factor, Zfp521, is sufficient for direct conversion of human fibroblasts into long-term self-renewable and multipotent NSCs. In vitro, Zfp521-induced NSCs maintained their characteristics in the absence of exogenous factor expression and exhibited morphological, molecular, developmental, and functional properties that were similar to control NSCs. In addition, the single-seeded induced NSCs were able to form NSC colonies with efficiency comparable with control NSCs and expressed NSC markers. The converted cells were capable of surviving, migrating, and attaining neural phenotypes after transplantation into neonatal mouse and adult rat brains, without forming tumors. Moreover, the Zfp521-induced NSCs predominantly expressed rostral genes. Our results suggest a facilitated approach for establishing human NSCs through Zfp521-driven conversion of fibroblasts. PMID:27052315

  6. Skin dose rate conversion factors after contamination with radiopharmaceuticals: influence of contamination area, epidermal thickness and percutaneous absorption.

    PubMed

    Covens, P; Berus, D; Caveliers, V; Struelens, L; Vanhavere, F; Verellen, D

    2013-06-01

    Skin contamination with radiopharmaceuticals can occur during biomedical research and daily nuclear medicine practice as a result of accidental spills, after contact with bodily fluids of patients or by inattentively touching contaminated materials. Skin dose assessment should be carried out by repeated quantification to map the course of the contamination together with the use of appropriate skin dose rate conversion factors. Contamination is generally characterised by local spots on the palmar surface of the hand and complete decontamination is difficult as a result of percutaneous absorption. This specific issue requires special consideration as to the skin dose rate conversion factors as a measure for the absorbed dose rate to the basal layer of the epidermis. In this work we used Monte Carlo simulations to study the influence of the contamination area, the epidermal thickness and the percutaneous absorption on the absorbed skin dose rate conversion factors for a set of 39 medical radionuclides. The results show that the absorbed dose to the basal layer of the epidermis can differ by up to two orders of magnitude from the operational quantity Hp(0.07) when using an appropriate epidermal thickness in combination with the effect of percutaneous absorption. PMID:23519114

  7. Conversion of Human Fibroblasts to Stably Self-Renewing Neural Stem Cells with a Single Zinc-Finger Transcription Factor.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Ebrahim; Moradi, Sharif; Nemati, Shiva; Satarian, Leila; Basiri, Mohsen; Gourabi, Hamid; Zare Mehrjardi, Narges; Günther, Patrick; Lampert, Angelika; Händler, Kristian; Hatay, Firuze Fulya; Schmidt, Diana; Molcanyi, Marek; Hescheler, Jürgen; Schultze, Joachim L; Saric, Tomo; Baharvand, Hossein

    2016-04-12

    Direct conversion of somatic cells into neural stem cells (NSCs) by defined factors holds great promise for mechanistic studies, drug screening, and potential cell therapies for different neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we report that a single zinc-finger transcription factor, Zfp521, is sufficient for direct conversion of human fibroblasts into long-term self-renewable and multipotent NSCs. In vitro, Zfp521-induced NSCs maintained their characteristics in the absence of exogenous factor expression and exhibited morphological, molecular, developmental, and functional properties that were similar to control NSCs. In addition, the single-seeded induced NSCs were able to form NSC colonies with efficiency comparable with control NSCs and expressed NSC markers. The converted cells were capable of surviving, migrating, and attaining neural phenotypes after transplantation into neonatal mouse and adult rat brains, without forming tumors. Moreover, the Zfp521-induced NSCs predominantly expressed rostral genes. Our results suggest a facilitated approach for establishing human NSCs through Zfp521-driven conversion of fibroblasts. PMID:27052315

  8. Management factors affecting mortality, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of grow-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Agostini, P S; Fahey, A G; Manzanilla, E G; O'Doherty, J V; de Blas, C; Gasa, J

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of animal management and farm facilities on total feed intake (TFI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and mortality rate (MORT) of grower-finishing pigs. In total, 310 batches from 244 grower-finishing farms, consisting of 454 855 Pietrain sired pigs in six Spanish pig companies were used. Data collection consisted of a survey on management practices (season of placement, split-sex by pens, number of pig origins, water source in the farm, initial or final BW) and facilities (floor, feeder, ventilation or number of animals placed) during 2008 and 2009. Results indicated that batches of pigs placed between January and March had higher TFI (P=0.006), FCR (P=0.005) and MORT (P=0.03) than those placed between July and September. Moreover, batches of pigs placed between April and June had lower MORT (P=0.003) than those placed between January and March. Batches which had split-sex pens had lower TFI (P=0.001) and better FCR (P<0.001) than those with mixed-sex in pens; pigs fed with a single-space feeder with incorporated drinker also had the lowest TFI (P<0.001) and best FCR (P<0.001) in comparison to single and multi-space feeders without a drinker. Pigs placed in pens with <50% slatted floors presented an improvement in FCR (P<0.05) than pens with 50% or more slatted floors. Batches filled with pigs from multiple origins had higher MORT (P<0.001) than those from a single origin. Pigs housed in barns that performed manual ventilation control presented higher MORT (P<0.001) in comparison to automatic ventilation. The regression analysis also indicated that pigs which entered to grower-finisher facilities with higher initial BW had lower MORT (P<0.05) and finally pigs which were sent to slaughterhouse with a higher final BW presented higher TFI (P<0.001). The variables selected for each dependent variable explained 61.9%, 24.8% and 20.4% of the total variability for TFI, FCR and MORT, respectively. This study indicates that

  9. A Primer on Confirmatory Factor Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillaspy, James Arthur, Jr.

    This introduction to confirmatory factor analysis presents an overview of its basic concepts and processes. Conventional factor analysis can be described as set of analytic techniques designed to examine the covariance structure of a set of variables and to provide an explanation of the relationships among those variables in terms of a smaller…

  10. Factor Analysis of the Image Correlation Matrix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Henry F.; Cerny, Barbara A.

    1979-01-01

    Whether to factor the image correlation matrix or to use a new model with an alpha factor analysis of it is mentioned, with particular reference to the determinacy problem. It is pointed out that the distribution of the images is sensibly multivariate normal, making for "better" factor analyses. (Author/CTM)

  11. Conversion Analysis for Mutation Detection in MLH1 and MSH2 in Patients With Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Graham; Lindor, Noralane M.; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Moskow, John; Steelman, Scott; Buzin, Carolyn H.; Sommer, Steve S.; Collins, Christine E.; Butz, Malinda; Aronson, Melyssa; Gallinger, Steven; Barker, Melissa A.; Young, Joanne P.; Jass, Jeremy R.; Hopper, John L.; Diep, Anh; Bapat, Bharati; Salem, Michael; Seminara, Daniela; Haile, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Context The accurate identification and interpretation of germline mutations in mismatch repair genes in colorectal cancer cases is critical for clinical management. Current data suggest that mismatch repair mutations are highly heterogeneous and that many mutations are not detected when conventional DNA sequencing alone is used. Objective To evaluate the potential of conversion analysis compared with DNA sequencing alone to detect heterogeneous germline mutations in MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 in colorectal cancer patients. Design, Setting, and Participants Multicenter study with patients who participate in the Colon Cancer Family Registry. Mutation analyses were performed in participant samples determined to have a high probability of carrying mismatch repair germline mutations. Samples from a total of 64 hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer cases, 8 hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer–like cases, and 17 cases diagnosed prior to age 50 years were analyzed from June 2002 to June 2003. Main Outcome Measures Classification of family members as carriers or noncarriers of germline mutations in MLH1, MSH2, or MSH6; mutation data from conversion analysis compared with genomic DNA sequencing. Results Genomic DNA sequencing identified 28 likely deleterious exon mutations, 4 in-frame deletion mutations, 16 missense changes, and 22 putative splice site mutations. Conversion analysis identified all mutations detected by genomic DNA sequencing—plus an additional exon mutation, 12 large genomic deletions, and 1 exon duplication mutation—yielding an increase of 33% (14/42) in diagnostic yield of deleterious mutations. Conversion analysis also showed that 4 of 16 missense changes resulted in exon skipping in transcripts and that 17 of 22 putative splice site mutations affected splicing or mRNA transcript stability. Conversion analysis provided an increase of 56% (35/63) in the diagnostic yield of genetic testing compared with genomic DNA sequencing alone. Conclusions

  12. [Impacts of cultivated land conversion on cultivated land productivity in China: prediction and analysis].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qun-ou; Deng, Xiang-zheng; Lin, Ying-zhi; Cui, Yong-wei

    2010-12-01

    This paper simulated the spatial patterns of cultivated land in China under the future scenario by using the Dynamics of Land System (DLS) model, and then estimated the cultivated land productivity at the grid pixel dimensions based on the Estimation System of Land Production (ESLP). In addition, the spatial patterns of cultivated land productivity in each of China agro-ecological zones were analyzed. On this basis, this paper predicted the impacts of cultivated land conversion on the cultivated land production in China in 2000-2020, and identified the major affecting factors on the cultivated land production. The research results indicated that the impact of improving the cultivated land productivity on the cultivated land production would be wunch more remarkable than that from the magnitude of cultivated land conversion in regions where there were high potential to imrprove the cultivated land productivity. However, in the regions with nearly no room to improve the productivity, cultivated land conversion would produce more apparent impacts on the total cultivated land production. In this sense, it was of significance for the national food security in China to adjust the cultivated land conversion to ensure the 0.12 billion hm2 of cultivated land, and to increase investment and improve management level to increase per unit grain yield. PMID:21442997

  13. Assessment of risk-based capacity benefit factors associated with wind energy conversion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Billinton, R.; Chen, H.

    1998-08-01

    A Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) has a different impact on the load carry capability of a generating system than does a conventional energy conversion system. This is mainly due to the variation in wind velocity. Two risk-based capacity indices designated as Load Carrying Capacity Benefit Ratio (LCCBR) and Equivalent Capacity Rate (ECR) are introduced in this paper. These two indices can be used to indicate capacity benefit and credit of a WECS, and thus provide valuable information for energy policy makers in decision problems involving the selection and classification of wind sites. A midpoint sectionalized technique has been developed to calculate the Incremental Peak Load Carrying Capability (IPLCC) and to assess the LCCBR and ECR. The technique is effective and usually takes only a few iterations to obtain the indices. Sequential Monte Carlo simulation is utilized to estimate the adequacy of a generating system including WECS. A small reliability test system containing WECS is utilized to illustrate the proposed technique.

  14. Pedicle viability as the determinant factor for conversion to free nipple graft

    PubMed Central

    Al-shaham, AA

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Women with extremely large breasts have many complaints. Reduction mammaplasty improves shape and relieves physical symptoms and alleviates psychological complaints. Mammaplasty is a an evolving technique; no single method is ideal or suitable for all breasts. Many techniques are advocated for reduction mammaplasty, including the superior, vertical, horizontal, lateral and inferior (the most popular) pedicle techniques. Even after 60 years of development in breast reduction techniques, there are still reported incidences of nipple-areola complex (NAC) necrosis. OBJECTIVE: To assess the perioperative conversion to free nipple graft to prevent the complication of nipple necrosis when pedicle viability is grossly compromised. METHODS: Between January 2002 and March 2006, 66 patients (132 breasts) underwent reduction mammaplasty using the inferior pedicle technique. The patients presented with breast gigantism and required excision of more than 1000 g of breast tissue per side. The mean patient age was 34.81 years. Patients had neck, shoulder and back pain as well as psychological complaints. Data regarding sternal notch-to-nipple distances and inframammary fold-to-nipple distances were recorded preoperatively and postoperatively. The weights of the excised breast tissue from either side were recorded. Viability of the pedicle flap was carefully monitored through perioperative clinical observation of skin colour, temperature, capillary refill and bleeding characteristics, and reassessed after pedicle folding and placement inside the newly tailored skin envelope. Nonvital NAC, as evaluated by the surgeon during surgery, necessitated conversion to the free nipple graft technique. RESULTS: During the course of the study, two patients (four breasts; 3.03%) exhibited impending gangrene to the NAC, and perioperative conversion to the free nipple graft was performed. In these two patients, the pedicle length ranged from 23 cm to 25 cm, and breast mass reduction

  15. [Contributions by Conversation Analysis to healthcare studies: reflections based on patients' attributions].

    PubMed

    Ostermann, Ana Cristina; de Souza, Joseane

    2009-07-01

    This study is part of a larger research project aimed at investigating physician-patient interactions in women's health. In this article, by looking at naturalistic data, which consists of 144 fully transcribed audio recordings of face-to-face interactions between gynecologists/obstetricians and female patients, we propose to: (1) present the theoretical and methodological approach of Conversation Analysis to health studies in Brazil; (2) discuss how Conversation Analysis can reveal how 'macro' questions (e.g. National Policy for the Humanization of Healthcare) are (or are not) translated into interactional practices at the 'micro' level and, thus, emphasize the issues of language and communication, only briefly discussed in the HumanizaSUS documents; and (3) analyze how a specific interactional phenomenon, 'attribution' (i.e. voluntary explanations about the possible causes of their problems), might describe ordinary and concrete humanization practices in healthcare services. PMID:19578573

  16. Functional Analysis of Transcription Factors in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) regulate the expression of genes at the transcriptional level. Modification of TF activity dynamically alters the transcriptome, which leads to metabolic and phenotypic changes. Thus, functional analysis of TFs using ‘omics-based’ methodologies is one of the most important areas of the post-genome era. In this mini-review, we present an overview of Arabidopsis TFs and introduce strategies for the functional analysis of plant TFs, which include both traditional and recently developed technologies. These strategies can be assigned to five categories: bioinformatic analysis; analysis of molecular function; expression analysis; phenotype analysis; and network analysis for the description of entire transcriptional regulatory networks. PMID:19478073

  17. PROJECTED PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS IN FACTOR MODELS

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Liao, Yuan; Wang, Weichen

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a Projected Principal Component Analysis (Projected-PCA), which employees principal component analysis to the projected (smoothed) data matrix onto a given linear space spanned by covariates. When it applies to high-dimensional factor analysis, the projection removes noise components. We show that the unobserved latent factors can be more accurately estimated than the conventional PCA if the projection is genuine, or more precisely, when the factor loading matrices are related to the projected linear space. When the dimensionality is large, the factors can be estimated accurately even when the sample size is finite. We propose a flexible semi-parametric factor model, which decomposes the factor loading matrix into the component that can be explained by subject-specific covariates and the orthogonal residual component. The covariates’ effects on the factor loadings are further modeled by the additive model via sieve approximations. By using the newly proposed Projected-PCA, the rates of convergence of the smooth factor loading matrices are obtained, which are much faster than those of the conventional factor analysis. The convergence is achieved even when the sample size is finite and is particularly appealing in the high-dimension-low-sample-size situation. This leads us to developing nonparametric tests on whether observed covariates have explaining powers on the loadings and whether they fully explain the loadings. The proposed method is illustrated by both simulated data and the returns of the components of the S&P 500 index. PMID:26783374

  18. Review and analysis of the 1980-1989 biomass thermochemical conversion program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, D. J.

    1994-09-01

    In the period between 1980 and 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research and development projects through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion (BTC) Program. Thermochemical conversion technologies use elevated temperatures to convert biomass into more useful forms of energy such as fuel gases or transportation fuels. The BTC Program included a wide range of biomass conversion projects in the areas of gasification, pyrolysis, liquefaction, and combustion. This work formed the basis of the present DOE research and development efforts on advanced liquid fuel and power generation systems. At the beginning of Fiscal Year 1989, the management of the BTC Program was transferred from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, formerly Solar Energy Research Institute). This document presents a summary of the research which was performed under the BTC Program during the 1981-1989 time frame. The document consists of an analysis of the research projects which were funded by the BTC Program and a bibliography of published documents. This work will help ensure that information from PNL's BTC Program is available to those interested in biomass conversion technologies. The background of the BTC Program is discussed in the first chapter of this report. In addition, a brief summary of other related biomass research and development programs funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and others is presented with references where additional information can be found. The remaining chapters of the report present a detailed summary of the research projects which were funded by the BTC Program. The progress which was made on each project is summarized, the overall impact on biomass conversion is discussed, and selected references are provided.

  19. Review and analysis of the 1980-1989 biomass thermochemical conversion program

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, D.J.

    1994-09-01

    In the period between 1980 and 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research and development projects through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion (BTC) Program. Thermochemical conversion technologies use elevated temperatures to convert biomass into more useful forms of energy such as fuel gases or transportation fuels. The BTC Program included a wide range of biomass conversion projects in the areas of gasification, pyrolysis, liquefaction, and combustion. This work formed the basis of the present DOE research and development efforts on advanced liquid fuel and power generation systems. At the beginning of Fiscal Year 1989, the management of the BTC Program was transferred from Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, formerly Solar Energy Research Institute). This document presents a summary of the research which was performed under the BTC Program during the 1981-1989 time frame. The document consists of an analysis of the research projects which were funded by the BTC Program and a bibliography of published documents. This work will help ensure that information from PNL`s BTC Program is available to those interested in biomass conversion technologies. The background of the BTC Program is discussed in the first chapter of this report. In addition, a brief summary of other related biomass research and development programs funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and others is presented with references where additional information can be found. The remaining chapters of the report present a detailed summary of the research projects which were funded by the BTC Program. The progress which was made on each project is summarized, the overall impact on biomass conversion is discussed, and selected references are provided.

  20. A Comparison of Monotonicity Analysis with Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentler, P. M.

    1970-01-01

    Factor analysis of artificial data is shown to yield an incorrect number of dimensions, seven, while monotonicity analysis recovered completely and accurately the fact that the data was generated from two latent dimensions. (RF)

  1. Exploring the Use of Critical Incident Analysis and the Professional Learning Conversation in an Initial Teacher Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Jennifer K.; Lee, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on critical incident analysis in initial teacher education and the part played by the professional learning conversation. A reflection framework was used to identify changes in levels of reflective practice. Conversational skills of the supervising teacher in recognising the "person" in the student teacher, and their management…

  2. Lifetime Evaluation of Oil-immersed Power Capacitor using Conversion Factor between Model Sample and Practical Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashiyama, Masakazu; Akiyama, Ken-Ichi; Maeda, Teruhiko; Nakamura, Shuhei; Umemura, Hiro; Hikita, Masayuki

    In this paper, the lifetime estimation method was discussed in view of Weibull distribution. For the case of power capacitor, the conversion factor between model specimen and practical equipment can be calculated by using the ratio of the electrode edge length of them and the Weibull shape parameter of the normalized V-t data obtained from the model samples. The actual failure rate of the power capacitor with PP film/capacitor-paper composite dielectric system was found to agree well with the estimated failure rate from the model samples.

  3. Using Factor Analysis To Organize Student Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majors, Mark S.; Sedlacek, William E.

    2001-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was used to provide an organizational framework for data collected from an entering class of students (N=1,912). Results from the EFA indicated that items on surveys could be grouped into dimensions that can be used to plan student services. Factors that emerged included: Religion/Spirituality, Help Seeking,…

  4. Systems analysis research for energy conversion and utilization technologies (ECUT). FY 1985 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, J.J.; Gunn, M.E.; Levinson, T.M.

    1985-11-01

    This Annual Report highlights ECUT accomplishments in the Systems Analysis Project for FY 1985. The Systems Analysis Project was established in 1980 along with the ECUT Division. The Systems Analysis mission is to identify, analyze, and assess R and D needs and research program strategies for advanced conservation technologies. The PNL Systems Analysis staff conducts topical research, provides technical studies, and plans program activities in three areas related to energy conversion and utilization technologies: (1) technology assessment, (2) engineering analysis, and (3) project evaluation and review. This report summarizes the technical results and accomplishments of the FY 1985 projects. They relate mostly to tribology, improved ctalysts, regenerative heat exchangers, robotics and electronics industries, and bioprocessing.

  5. Surface analysis of mixed-conducting ferrite membranes by the conversion-electron Moessbauer spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Waerenborgh, J.C.; Tsipis, E.V.; Yaremchenko, A.A.; Kharton, V.V.

    2011-09-15

    Conversion-electron Moessbauer spectroscopy analysis of iron surface states in the dense ceramic membranes made of {sup 57}Fe-enriched SrFe{sub 0.7}Al{sub 0.3}O{sub 3-{delta}} perovskite, shows no traces of reductive decomposition or carbide formation in the interfacial layers after operation under air/CH{sub 4} gradient at 1173 K, within the limits of experimental uncertainty. The predominant trivalent state of iron cations at the membrane permeate-side surface exposed to flowing dry methane provides evidence of the kinetic stabilization mechanism, which is only possible due to slow oxygen-exchange kinetics and enables long-term operation of the ferrite-based ceramic reactors for natural gas conversion. At the membrane feed-side surface exposed to air, the fractions of Fe{sup 4+} and Fe{sup 3+} are close to those in the powder equilibrated at atmospheric oxygen pressure, suggesting that the exchange limitations to oxygen transport are essentially localized at the partially reduced surface. - Graphical Abstract: Conversion-electron Moessbauer spectroscopy analysis of dense ceramic membranes made of {sup 57}Fe-enriched SrFe{sub 0.7}Al{sub 0.3}O{sub 3-{delta}} perovskite, shows no reductive decomposition in thin interfacial layers after testing under air/CH{sub 4} gradient, enabling stable operation of the ferrite-based ceramic reactors for partial oxidation of methane. Highlights: > Conversion-electron Moessbauer spectroscopy is used for mixed-conducting membranes. > No decomposition is detected in the membrane surface layers under air/CH{sub 4} gradient. > Due to kinetic stabilization, Fe{sup 3+} states prevail at the surface exposed to methane. > Transmission Moessbauer spectra show perovskite decomposition on equlibration in CH{sub 4}. > Ferrite-based ceramic reactors can stably operate under air/CH{sub 4} gradient.

  6. Plot-scale testing and sensitivity analysis of Be7 based soil erosion conversion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Alex; Abdelli, Wahid; Barri, Bashar Al; Iurian, Andra; Gaspar, Leticia; Mabit, Lionel; Millward, Geoff; Ryken, Nick; Blake, Will

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 2 decades, a growing number of studies have recognised the potential for short-lived cosmogenic Be-7 (half-life 53 days) to be used as a tracer to evaluate soil erosion from short-term inter-rill erosion to hillslope sediment budgets. While conversion modelling approaches are now established for event-scale and extended-time-series applications, there is a lack of validation and sensitivity analysis to underpin confidence in their use across a full range of agro-climatic zones. This contribution aims to close this gap in the context of the maritime temperate climate of southwest UK. Two plots of 4 x 35 m were ploughed and tilled at the beginning of winter 2013/2014 in southwest UK to create (1) a bare, sloped soil surface and (2) a bare flat reference site. The bounded lower edge of the plot fed into a collection bin for overland flow and associated sediment. The tilled surface had a low bulk density and high permeability at the start of the experiment (ksat > 100 mm/hr). Hence, despite high rainfall in December (200 mm), notable overland flow was observed only after intense rain storms during late 2013 and early January 2014 when the soil profile was saturated i.e. driven by Saturation Overland Flow (SOF). At the time of SOF initiation, ca. 70% of the final Be-7 inventory had been delivered to the site. Subsequent to a series SOF events across a 1 month period, the plot soil surface was intensively sampled to quantify Be-7 inventory patterns and develop a tracer budget. Captured eroded sediment was dried, weighed and analysed for Be-7. All samples were analysed for particle size by laser granulometry. Be-7 inventory data were converted to soil erosion estimates using (1) standard profile distribution model, (2) the extended time series distribution model and (3) a new 'antecedent rainfall' extended time series model to account for lack of soil erosion prior to soil saturation. Results were scaled up to deliver a plot-scale sediment budget to include

  7. Starting the Conversation: An Exploratory Study of Factors That Influence Student Office Hour Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Whitney; Cohen, Steven D.; Berndtson, Rachel; Burson, Kristen M.; Camper, K. Martin; Chen, Yujie; Smith, Margaret Austin

    2014-01-01

    As part of best practices for increasing faculty-student interaction, higher education institutions across the country require faculty members to hold office hours. Various studies have reported factors affecting student use of office hours; however, results are unclear at best and in some cases conflicting with respect to which factors matter…

  8. The UTRC wind energy conversion system performance analysis for horizontal axis wind turbines (WECSPER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egolf, T. A.; Landgrebe, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    The theory for the UTRC Energy Conversion System Performance Analysis (WECSPER) for the prediction of horizontal axis wind turbine performance is presented. Major features of the analysis are the ability to: (1) treat the wind turbine blades as lifting lines with a prescribed wake model; (2) solve for the wake-induced inflow and blade circulation using real nonlinear airfoil data; and (3) iterate internally to obtain a compatible wake transport velocity and blade loading solution. This analysis also provides an approximate treatment of wake distortions due to tower shadow or wind shear profiles. Finally, selected results of internal UTRC application of the analysis to existing wind turbines and correlation with limited test data are described.

  9. 76 FR 55213 - Technical Amendments to Federal Employees' Retirement System; Present Value Conversion Factors...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... Federal Register on August 23, 2011, (76 FR 52539) revising the factor at 5 CFR 843.309(b)(2) used to convert a lump sum basic employee death benefit under 5 U.S.C. 8442(b) to 36 installment payments. That... August 23, 2011, (76 FR 52539) that changed the factor at 5 CFR 843.309(b)(2) used to convert a lump...

  10. 76 FR 52539 - Federal Employees' Retirement System; Present Value Conversion Factors for Spouses of Deceased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ...The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is issuing an interim rule to revise the table of reduction factors for early commencing dates of survivor annuities for spouses of separated employees who die before the date on which they would be eligible for unreduced deferred annuities, and to revise the annuity factor for spouses of deceased employees who die in service when those spouses elect to......

  11. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy--can conversion be predicted?

    PubMed

    Sikora, S S; Kumar, A; Saxena, R; Kapoor, V K; Kaushik, S P

    1995-01-01

    The possibility of conversion to open cholecystectomy (OC) always exists while performing a laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). This study has been performed with the aim of identifying factors predicting conversion to OC. From October 1992-April 1994, LC was attempted in 150 patients and conversion to OC was required in 29 (19%) patients. Ten preoperative factors were analyzed retrospectively to identify parameters significantly correlating with conversion to OC. Preoperative factors analyzed were age, sex, duration of symptoms, BMI (Body Mass Index), past history of jaundice, previous abdominal surgery, associated medical risk factors, palpable lump on clinical examination, USG, and OCG findings. Univariate and multiple stepwise regression analysis identified male sex, USG finding of contracted/thick-walled gall bladder, and a palpable gall bladder lump on examination as significant preoperative factors predicting conversion to OC. PMID:8553679

  12. A note on variational Bayesian factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-hua; Yu, Philip L H

    2009-09-01

    Existing works on variational bayesian (VB) treatment for factor analysis (FA) model such as [Ghahramani, Z., & Beal, M. (2000). Variational inference for Bayesian mixture of factor analysers. In Advances in neural information proceeding systems. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; Nielsen, F. B. (2004). Variational approach to factor analysis and related models. Master's thesis, The Institute of Informatics and Mathematical Modelling, Technical University of Denmark.] are found theoretically and empirically to suffer two problems: (1) penalize the model more heavily than BIC and (2) perform unsatisfactorily in low noise cases as redundant factors can not be effectively suppressed. A novel VB treatment is proposed in this paper to resolve the two problems and a simulation study is conducted to testify its improved performance over existing treatments. PMID:19135337

  13. Scene kinetics mitigation using factor analysis with derivative factors.

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, Kurt W.; Melgaard, David Kennett; Scholand, Andrew Joseph

    2010-07-01

    Line of sight jitter in staring sensor data combined with scene information can obscure critical information for change analysis or target detection. Consequently before the data analysis, the jitter effects must be significantly reduced. Conventional principal component analysis (PCA) has been used to obtain basis vectors for background estimation; however PCA requires image frames that contain the jitter variation that is to be modeled. Since jitter is usually chaotic and asymmetric, a data set containing all the variation without the changes to be detected is typically not available. An alternative approach, Scene Kinetics Mitigation, first obtains an image of the scene. Then it computes derivatives of that image in the horizontal and vertical directions. The basis set for estimation of the background and the jitter consists of the image and its derivative factors. This approach has several advantages including: (1) only a small number of images are required to develop the model, (2) the model can estimate backgrounds with jitter different from the input training images, (3) the method is particularly effective for sub-pixel jitter, and (4) the model can be developed from images before the change detection process. In addition the scores from projecting the factors on the background provide estimates of the jitter magnitude and direction for registration of the images. In this paper we will present a discussion of the theoretical basis for this technique, provide examples of its application, and discuss its limitations.

  14. Direct conversion of mouse and human fibroblasts to functional melanocytes by defined factors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruifeng; Zheng, Ying; Li, Ling; Liu, Shujing; Burrows, Michelle; Wei, Zhi; Nace, Arben; Herlyn, Meenhard; Cui, Rutao; Guo, Wei; Cotsarelis, George; Xu, Xiaowei

    2014-01-01

    Direct reprogramming provides a fundamentally new approach for the generation of patient-specific cells. Here, by screening a pool of candidate transcription factors, we identify that a combination of the three factors, MITF, SOX10 and PAX3, directly converts mouse and human fibroblasts to functional melanocytes. Induced melanocytes (iMels) activate melanocyte-specific networks, express components of pigment production and delivery system and produce melanosomes. Human iMels properly integrate into the dermal-epidermal junction and produce and deliver melanin pigment to surrounding keratinocytes in a 3D organotypic skin reconstruct. Human iMels generate pigmented epidermis and hair follicles in skin reconstitution assays in vivo. The generation of iMels has important implications for studies of melanocyte lineage commitment, pigmentation disorders and cell replacement therapies. PMID:25510211

  15. Direct conversion of mouse and human fibroblasts to functional melanocytes by defined factors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ruifeng; Zheng, Ying; Li, Ling; Liu, Shujing; Burrows, Michelle; Wei, Zhi; Nace, Arben; Herlyn, Meenhard; Cui, Rutao; Guo, Wei; Cotsarelis, George; Xu, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    Direct reprogramming provides a fundamentally new approach for the generation of patient-specific cells. Here, by screening a pool of candidate transcription factors, we identify that a combination of three factors, MITF, SOX10 and PAX3, directly converts mouse and human fibroblasts to functional melanocytes. Induced melanocytes (iMels) activate melanocyte-specific networks, express components of pigment production and delivery system, and produce melanosomes. Human iMels properly integrate into the dermal-epidermal junction, and produce and deliver melanin pigment to surrounding keratinocytes in a 3D organotypic skin reconstruct. Human iMels generate pigmented epidermis and hair follicles in skin reconstitution assays in vivo. The generation of iMels has important implications for studies of melanocyte lineage commitment, pigmentation disorders and cell replacement therapies. PMID:25510211

  16. On the use of quality factors and fluence to dose rate conversion in human radiation exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sondhaus, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that various combinations of numbers and factors arrive at estimates of dose and dose effectiveness from values of fluence; but as yet it has not been possible to use biological data with the same degree of precision to estimate the physical data. It would seem that the most reasonable way to use the human data that exist is to apply them as far as possible to the human animal as a whole.

  17. Sample Dilution and Bacterial Community Composition Influence Empirical Leucine-to-Carbon Conversion Factors in Surface Waters of the World's Oceans

    PubMed Central

    Hernando-Morales, Víctor; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M.; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Sarmento, Hugo; Valencia-Vila, Joaquín; Serrano Catalá, Teresa; Hernández-Ruiz, Marta; Varela, Marta M.; Ferrera, Isabel; Gutiérrez Morán, Xosé Anxelu; Gasol, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    The transformation of leucine incorporation rates to prokaryotic carbon production rates requires the use of either theoretical or empirically determined conversion factors. Empirical leucine-to-carbon conversion factors (eCFs) vary widely across environments, and little is known about their potential controlling factors. We conducted 10 surface seawater manipulation experiments across the world's oceans, where the growth of the natural prokaryotic assemblages was promoted by filtration (i.e., removal of grazers [F treatment]) or filtration combined with dilution (i.e., also relieving resource competition [FD treatment]). The impact of sunlight exposure was also evaluated in the FD treatments, and we did not find a significant effect on the eCFs. The eCFs varied from 0.09 to 1.47 kg C mol Leu−1 and were significantly lower in the FD than in the F samples. Also, changes in bacterial community composition during the incubations, as assessed by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), were more pronounced in the FD than in the F treatments, compared to unmanipulated controls. Thus, we discourage the common procedure of diluting samples (in addition to filtration) for eCF determination. The eCFs in the filtered treatment were negatively correlated with the initial chlorophyll a concentration, picocyanobacterial abundance (mostly Prochlorococcus), and the percentage of heterotrophic prokaryotes with high nucleic acid content (%HNA). The latter two variables explained 80% of the eCF variability in the F treatment, supporting the view that both Prochlorococcus and HNA prokaryotes incorporate leucine in substantial amounts, although this results in relatively low carbon production rates in the oligotrophic ocean. PMID:26407885

  18. DETERMINATION OF IN-VITRO LUNG SOLUBILITY AND INTAKE-TO-DOSE CONVERSION FACTOR FOR TRITIATED LANTHANUM NICKEL ALUMINUM ALLOY

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.; Labone, T.; Staack, G.; Cheng, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Varallo, T.

    2011-11-11

    A sample of tritiated lanthanum nickel aluminum alloy (LaNi4.25Al0.75 or LANA.75) similar to that used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facilities was analyzed to estimate the particle size distribution of this metal tritide powder and the rate, at which this material dissolves in the human respiratory tract after it is inhaled. This information is used to calculate the committed effective dose received by a worker after inhaling the material. These doses, which were calculated using the same methodology given in the DOE Tritium Handbook, are presented as inhalation intake-to-dose conversion factors (DCF). The DCF for this metal tritide is less than the DCF for tritiated water and radiation worker bioassay programs designed for tritiated water are adequate to monitor for intakes of this material.

  19. Pluripotent Conversion of Muscle Stem Cells Without Reprogramming Factors or Small Molecules.

    PubMed

    Bose, Bipasha; Shenoy P, Sudheer

    2016-02-01

    Muscle derived stem cells (MDSCs) are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into several lineages including skeletal muscle precursor cells. Here, we show that MDSCs from myostatin null mice (Mstn (-/-) ) can be readily induced into pluripotent stem cells without using reprogramming factors. Microarray studies revealed a strong upregulation of markers like Leukemia Inhibitory factor (LIF) and Leukemia Inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR) in Mstn (-/-) MDSCs as compared to wild type MDSCs (WT-MDSCs). Furthermore when cultured in mouse embryonic stem cell media with LIF for 95 days, Mstn (-/-) MDSCs formed embryonic stem cell (ES) like colonies. We termed such ES like cells as the culture-induced pluripotent stem cells (CiPSC). CiPSCs from Mstn (-/-) MDSCs were phenotypically similar to ESCs, expressed high levels of Oct4, Nanog, Sox2 and SSEA-1, maintained a normal karyotype. Furthermore, CiPSCs formed embryoid bodies and teratomas when injected into immunocompromised mice. In addition, CiPSCs differentiated into somatic cells of all three lineages. We further show that culturing in ES cell media, resulted in hypermethylation and downregulation of BMP2 in Mstn(-/-) MDSCs. Western blot further confirmed a down regulation of BMP2 signaling in Mstn (-/-) MDSCs in supportive of pluripotent reprogramming. Given that down regulation of BMP2 has been shown to induce pluripotency in cells, we propose that lack of myostatin epigenetically reprograms the MDSCs to become pluripotent stem cells. Thus, here we report the successful establishment of ES-like cells from adult stem cells of the non-germline origin under culture-induced conditions without introducing reprogramming genes. PMID:26358783

  20. Cost-effectiveness analysis of TxDOT CNG fleet conversion, volume 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euritt, M. A.; Taylor, D. B.; Mahmassani, H.

    1992-08-01

    Increased emphasis on energy efficiency and air quality has resulted in a number of state and federal initiatives examining the use of alternative fuels for motor vehicles. Texas' program for alternate fuels includes compressed natural gas (CNG). Based on an analysis of 30-year life-cycle costs, development of a natural gas vehicle (NGV) program for the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) would cost about $47 million (in 1991 dollars). These costs include savings from lower priced natural gas, infrastructure costs for a fast-fueling station, vehicle costs, and operating costs. The 30-year life-cycle costs translate into an average annual vehicle cost increase of $596, or about 4.9 cents more per vehicle mile of travel. Based on the cost-effectiveness analysis and assumptions, there are currently no TxDOT stations suitable for conversion to compressed natural gas.

  1. Factor Analysis by Generalized Least Squares.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joreskog, Karl G.; Goldberger, Arthur S.

    Aitkin's generalized least squares (GLS) principle, with the inverse of the observed variance-covariance matrix as a weight matrix, is applied to estimate the factor analysis model in the exploratory (unrestricted) case. It is shown that the GLS estimates are scale free and asymptotically efficient. The estimates are computed by a rapidly…

  2. Heterogeneous Factor Analysis Models: A Bayesian Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansari, Asim; Jedidi, Kamel; Dube, Laurette

    2002-01-01

    Developed Markov Chain Monte Carlo procedures to perform Bayesian inference, model checking, and model comparison in heterogeneous factor analysis. Tested the approach with synthetic data and data from a consumption emotion study involving 54 consumers. Results show that traditional psychometric methods cannot fully capture the heterogeneity in…

  3. Exploratory Factor Analysis with Small Sample Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Winter, J. C. F.; Dodou, D.; Wieringa, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is generally regarded as a technique for large sample sizes ("N"), with N = 50 as a reasonable absolute minimum. This study offers a comprehensive overview of the conditions in which EFA can yield good quality results for "N" below 50. Simulations were carried out to estimate the minimum required "N" for different…

  4. What Is Rotating in Exploratory Factor Analysis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is one of the most commonly-reported quantitative methodology in the social sciences, yet much of the detail regarding what happens during an EFA remains unclear. The goal of this brief technical note is to explore what "rotation" is, what exactly is rotating, and why we use rotation when performing…

  5. Comparing Package Programs for Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimberley, Ronald C.

    1978-01-01

    Earlier comparisons of packaged programs for factor analysis are updated because of recent revision in some programs. The top status of SPSS is no longer so apparent as formerly. BMD and SAS now have expanded options. SAS has flexibility and convenience. (Author)

  6. A Factor Analysis of Psychotic Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaves, Ronald C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The Psychotic Behavior Rating Scale uses a factor analysis approach to aid in differential diagnosis of autism, schizophrenia, mental retardation, aphasia, and other severe handicaps. The scale is compared with five existing qualitatively developed instruments, noting similarities and dissimilarities among the various scales. (Author/JDD)

  7. Plasma to egg conversion factor for evaluating polychlorinated biphenyl and DDT exposures in great horned owls and bald eagles.

    PubMed

    Strause, Karl D; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Im, Sook Hyeon; Newsted, John L; Kay, Denise P; Bradley, Patrick W; Blankenship, Alan L; Williams, Lisa L; Giesy, John P

    2007-07-01

    The benefits of nondestructive sampling techniques, such as plasma sampling, to directly measure contaminant exposure levels in at-risk or protected raptor populations are many. However, such assays are generally inconsistent with the most certain source of toxicity reference values, which are based on feeding studies and quantified as dietary or "in ovo" (egg-based) concentrations. An accurate conversion factor to translate nondestructive plasma-based contaminant concentrations to comparable egg-based concentrations will prove valuable to risk assessors investigating the potential effects of chemical exposures to raptors. We used databases describing the concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in great horned owls (GHO; Bubo virginianus) and total PCBs and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from the Great Lakes region (Michigan, Wisconsin, USA) to develop a relationship to predict concentrations of PCBs and DDE in eggs. To develop a robust predictive relationship, all of the source data included concentrations of both total PCBs and/or DDE for nestling blood plasma and egg samples collected from within discrete active nesting territories and, in most instances, the same nest. The key characteristics (slope and elevation) of each relationship were tested for differences related to species and geographic region. Predicted variability of relationships were examined and compared to variability associated with natural systems. The results of statistical testing indicate that applying the conversion factors between species (GHO to bald eagle) and among geographic regions yields predicted egg concentrations that are not statistically dissimilar and are within the natural variability observed for residue concentrations among eggs of raptors within species and region. PMID:17665679

  8. Factor Analysis Applied the VFY-218 RCS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Alex; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Present statistical factor analysis of computer simulations and measurement data for the VFY-218 configuration. Factor analysis try to quantify the statistical grouping of measurements and simulations.

  9. Lineage conversion induced by pluripotency factors involves transient passage through an iPS cell stage

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Nur, Ori; Verheul, Cassandra; Sommer, Andreia Gianotti; Brumbaugh, Justin; Schwarz, Benjamin A.; Lipchina, Inna; Huebner, Aaron J.; Mostoslavsky, Gustavo; Hochedlinger, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Brief expression of pluripotency-associated factors such as Oct4, Klf4, Sox2 and c-Myc (OKSM), in combination with differentiation-inducing signals, was reported to trigger transdifferentiation of fibroblasts into other cell types. Here we show that OKSM expression in mouse fibroblasts gives rise to both induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and induced neural stem cells (iNSCs) under conditions previously shown to induce only iNSCs. Fibroblast-derived iNSC colonies silenced retroviral transgenes and reactivated silenced X chromosomes, both hallmarks of pluripotent stem cells. Moreover, lineage tracing with an Oct4-CreER labeling system demonstrated that virtually all iNSC colonies originated from cells transiently expressing Oct4, whereas ablation of Oct4+ cells prevented iNSC formation. Lastly, an alternative transdifferentiation cocktail that lacks Oct4 and was reportedly unable to support induced pluripotency yielded iPSCs and iNSCs carrying the Oct4-CreER-derived lineage label. Together, these data suggest that iNSC generation from fibroblasts using OKSM and other pluripotency-related reprogramming factors requires passage through a transient iPSC state. PMID:26098450

  10. Internal dose conversion factors for calculation of dose to the public

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    This publication contains 50-year committed dose equivalent factors, in tabular form. The document is intended to be used as the primary reference by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors for calculating radiation dose equivalents for members of the public, resulting from ingestion or inhalation of radioactive materials. Its application is intended specifically for such materials released to the environment during routine DOE operations, except in those instances where compliance with 40 CFR 61 (National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) requires otherwise. However, the calculated values may be equally applicable to unusual releases or to occupational exposures. The use of these committed dose equivalent tables should ensure that doses to members of the public from internal exposures are calculated in a consistent manner at all DOE facilities.

  11. A Linguistic Analysis of Chat Reference Conversations with 18-24 Year-Old College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maness, Jack M.

    2008-01-01

    Thirty-one chat reference conversations were linguistically analyzed, compared to twenty-three instant messaging (IM) conversations held between students, and further correlated to students' satisfaction with the reference interaction. Conversations between librarians and students in chat reference are more formal than those solely involving…

  12. Correction factor for hair analysis by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montenegro, E. C.; Baptista, G. B.; De Castro Faria, L. V.; Paschoa, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    The application of the Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique to analyse quantitatively the elemental composition of hair specimens brings about some difficulties in the interpretation of the data. The present paper proposes a correction factor to account for the effects of the energy loss of the incident particle with penetration depth, and X-ray self-absorption when a particular geometrical distribution of elements in hair is assumed for calculational purposes. The correction factor has been applied to the analysis of hair contents Zn, Cu and Ca as a function of the energy of the incident particle.

  13. Conversion factors for determining organ doses received by paediatric patients in high-resolution single slice computed tomography with narrow collimation.

    PubMed

    Seidenbusch, Michael C; Harder, Dietrich; Regulla, Dieter F; Schneider, Karl

    2014-05-01

    Estimations of organ doses DT received during computed tomographic examinations are usually performed by applying conversion factors to basic dose indicators like the computed tomography dose index (CTDI) or the dose-length-product (DLP). In addition to the existing conversion factors for beam apertures of 5 mm or 10 mm, we present new DLP-DT conversion factors adapted to high-resolution CT (HRCT) examinations of infants and young children with beam apertures of the order of 1 mm and under consideration of bow tie filtration. Calculations are performed on mathematical MIRD phantoms for an age range from 0, 1, 5, 10, 15 up to (for comparison) 30 years by adapting PCXMC, a Monte Carlo algorithm originally developed by STUK (Helsinki, Finland) for dose reconstructions in projection radiography. For this purpose, each single slice CT examination is approximated by a series of corresponding virtual planar radiographies comprising all focus positions. The transformation of CT exposure parameters into exposure parameters of the series of corresponding planar radiographies is performed by a specially developed algorithm called XCT. The DLP values are evaluated using the EGSRay code. The new method is verified at a beam aperture of 10 mm by comparison with formerly published conversion factors. We show that the higher spatial resolution leads to an enhanced DLP-DT conversion factor if a small organ (e. g. thyroid gland, mammae, uterus, ovaries, testes) is exactly met by the chosen CT slice, while the conversion factor is drastically reduced if the chosen CT slice is positioned above or below the organ. This effect is utilized for dose-saving examinations with only a few single slices instead a full scan, which technique is applied in about 10% of all paediatric chest CT examinations. PMID:24630933

  14. For the sake of whom: conversation analysis of advice giving in offender counseling.

    PubMed

    Jing-ying, Guo

    2013-08-01

    Regarded as beneficial and preferable to the clients, advice delivery has been an integral part of counseling; however, there are controversies over the suitability of giving advice in counseling services, including counseling conducted in the context of prisons. Based on conversation analysis, this article tries to explore when and how police counselors in two Chinese prisons give advice and how inmate clients respond to and seek advice in offender counseling. It is found that advice delivery, supposed to be for the inmate clients' sake, only serves a phatic function in the context of prisons in which security is a priority, and transforming inmates into law-abiding citizen is the overall goal of prison rehabilitation and correction. Hence, offender counselors, intending to alleviate depression and anxiety in inmate clients, are caught in a dilemma. PMID:22573711

  15. Electromagnetic Spectrum Analysis and Its Influence on the Photoelectric Conversion Efficiency of Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kexiang; Ding, Enjie; Wangyang, Peihua; Wang, Qingkang

    2016-06-01

    The electromagnetic spectrum and the photoelectric conversion efficiency of the silicon hexagonal nanoconical hole (SiHNH) arrays based solar cells is systematically analyzed according to Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA) and Modal Transmission Line (MTL) theory. An ultimate efficiency of the optimized SiHNH arrays based solar cell is up to 31.92% in consideration of the absorption spectrum, 4.52% higher than that of silicon hexagonal nanoconical frustum (SiHNF) arrays. The absorption enhancement of the SiHNH arrays is due to its lower reflectance and more supported guided-mode resonances, and the enhanced ultimate efficiency is insensitive to bottom diameter (D(bot)) of nanoconical hole and the incident angle. The result provides an additional guideline for the nanostructure surface texturing fabrication design for photovoltaic applications. PMID:27427668

  16. Inflexibility as an interactional phenomenon: Using conversation analysis to re-examine a symptom of autism.

    PubMed

    Muskett, Tom; Perkins, Mick; Clegg, Judy; Body, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Many accounts of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) imply that the condition's behavioural 'symptoms' are direct reflexes of underlying deficits. In doing so, however, they invariably overlook the social contexts in which symptomatic behaviours occur and are identified as pathological. This study addresses this issue, using conversation analysis (CA) to examine the emergence of inflexibility, a behavioural trait symptomatic of ASD, during play involving an adult and diagnosed child. We argue that 'inflexibility' is the product of the child's strategic attempts to retain control over the unfolding interaction, within a context where such attempts breach normative expectations about adult-child play. Furthermore, it demonstrates that the adult does not resist these attempts, on occasion even explicitly providing opportunity for subsequent inflexibility. This challenges the assumption that ASD's behavioural profile solely represents the endpoint of underlying deficit, and demonstrates how 'non-impaired' speakers can be implicated in the manifestation of symptomatic behaviours. PMID:20030550

  17. Shaping the Conversation: A Secondary Analysis of Reproductive Decision-Making Among Black Mothers with HIV.

    PubMed

    Amutah, Ndidiamaka N; Gifuni, Jacqueline; Wesley, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative secondary data analysis is to examine the major influencers on mothers with HIV in their childbearing decisions, as well as how those influencers shape conversations with clinicians and health-care providers regarding HIV treatment and prevention. The original study gained insight into the reproductive decision-making of mothers with HIV. By analyzing a subsample of 15 interviews from an original cohort of 25 participants in the earlier study, three major themes were identified as follows: (1) family members, not health-care providers, influence reproductive decisions; (2) negative attitudes toward subsequent pregnancies are mainly due to HIV transmission; and (3) birth control decisions were predominately supported by family members, while health-care providers were not consulted. PMID:27158227

  18. Shaping the Conversation: A Secondary Analysis of Reproductive Decision-Making Among Black Mothers with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Amutah, Ndidiamaka N.; Gifuni, Jacqueline; Wesley, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative secondary data analysis is to examine the major influencers on mothers with HIV in their childbearing decisions, as well as how those influencers shape conversations with clinicians and health-care providers regarding HIV treatment and prevention. The original study gained insight into the reproductive decision-making of mothers with HIV. By analyzing a subsample of 15 interviews from an original cohort of 25 participants in the earlier study, three major themes were identified as follows: (1) family members, not health-care providers, influence reproductive decisions; (2) negative attitudes toward subsequent pregnancies are mainly due to HIV transmission; and (3) birth control decisions were predominately supported by family members, while health-care providers were not consulted. PMID:27158227

  19. Deep Learning with Hierarchical Convolutional Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Polatkan, Gungor; Sapiro, Guillermo; Blei, David; Dunson, David; Carin, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Unsupervised multi-layered (“deep”) models are considered for general data, with a particular focus on imagery. The model is represented using a hierarchical convolutional factor-analysis construction, with sparse factor loadings and scores. The computation of layer-dependent model parameters is implemented within a Bayesian setting, employing a Gibbs sampler and variational Bayesian (VB) analysis, that explicitly exploit the convolutional nature of the expansion. In order to address large-scale and streaming data, an online version of VB is also developed. The number of basis functions or dictionary elements at each layer is inferred from the data, based on a beta-Bernoulli implementation of the Indian buffet process. Example results are presented for several image-processing applications, with comparisons to related models in the literature. PMID:23787342

  20. Exploratory Bi-Factor Analysis: The Oblique Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennrich, Robert I.; Bentler, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Bi-factor analysis is a form of confirmatory factor analysis originally introduced by Holzinger and Swineford ("Psychometrika" 47:41-54, 1937). The bi-factor model has a general factor, a number of group factors, and an explicit bi-factor structure. Jennrich and Bentler ("Psychometrika" 76:537-549, 2011) introduced an exploratory form of bi-factor…

  1. Revising the Competitiveness Index using factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Houston, John; Harris, Paul; McIntire, Sandra; Francis, Dientje

    2002-02-01

    The Competitiveness Index is a 20-item true-false measure designed to assess the desire to win in interpersonal situations. To develop a more psychometrically sound form of the scale, 213 undergraduates were administered the original form and a modified version containing a 5-point Likert-type scale. An initial principal component analysis using a varimax rotation of the modified version yielded a four-factor solution accounting for 54.5% of the explained variance. Based on a subsequent reliability analysis. six items were dropped from the modified scale. A second analysis produced a two-factor solution accounting for 54.1% of the explained variance. Both factors (Enjoyment of Competition and Contentiousness) formed reliable subscales. The 14-item Revised Competitiveness Index had high internal consistency and was positively correlated with the original Competitiveness Index, the competitiveness subscales of the Work and Family Orientation Questionnaire, the Sports Orientation Questionnaire, and the Nach Naff measure of Need for Achievement. PMID:11899003

  2. Analysis of the acoustic conversion efficiency for infrasound from atmospheric entry of NEO`s

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, R.W.; ReVelle, D.O.

    1996-02-01

    ReVelle (1995) has recently presented a summary of available infrasonic signals from near earth objects (NEO`s) that entered the earth`s atmosphere between 1960-1980. We will analyze these signals using a formalism developed by Cox (1958) to calculate the energy of explosive sources in the atmosphere. For each source we will calculate the acoustic conversion efficiency for each source, i.e., the fraction of the original source energy that is available to couple into an acoustic wave. Based on results in Cox with conventional explosions, this quantity is expected to depend weakly on the range from the source. Since this quantity is difficult to estimate using fundamental blast wave theories, we instead use well-known, and independently calibrated, semi-empirical source energy-wave period (at maximum amplitude) scaling relations developed in the 1960-1975 period by the U.S. Air Force to determine the source energy, E{sub s}, from observations. Using E{sub s} and range to the source along with various observed signal and atmospheric properties, the efficiency can be computed, similar calculations have been done for other relevant atmospheric phenomena for low altitude sources. For example, thunder observations at relatively close range have been used by Few and co-workers to determine an acoustic conversion efficiency of about 0.4%. The only previous estimation for meteors was made by Astapovich (1946) who determined the acoustic efficiency to be less than 0.01%. By computing this efficiency factor we hope to predict the expected detection rate of large NEO`s for the proposed CTBT global scale infrasonic array systems, and to establish the rate of false alarms due to natural atmospheric explosions.

  3. A safety analysis of food waste-derived animal feeds from three typical conversion techniques in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Jin, Yiying; Shen, Dongsheng

    2015-11-01

    This study was based on the food waste to animal feed demonstration projects in China. A safety analysis of animal feeds from three typical treatment processes (i.e., fermentation, heat treatment, and coupled hydrothermal treatment and fermentation) was presented. The following factors are considered in this study: nutritive values characterized by organoleptic properties and general nutritional indices; the presence of bovine- and sheep-derived materials; microbiological indices for Salmonella, total coliform (TC), total aerobic plate counts (TAC), molds and yeast (MY), Staphylococcus Aureus (SA), and Listeria; chemical contaminant indices for hazardous trace elements such as Cr, Cd, and As; and nitrite and organic contaminants such as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). The present study reveals that the feeds from all three conversion processes showed balanced nutritional content and retained a certain feed value. The microbiological indices and the chemical contaminant indices for HCH, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), nitrite, and mercury all met pertinent feed standards; however, the presence of bovine- and sheep-derived materials and a few chemical contaminants such as Pb were close to or might exceed the legislation permitted values in animal feeding. From the view of treatment techniques, all feed retained part of the nutritional values of the food waste after the conversion processes. Controlled heat treatment can guarantee the inactivation of bacterial pathogens, but none of the three techniques can guarantee the absence of cattle- and sheep-derived materials and acceptable levels of certain contaminants. The results obtained in this research and the feedstuffs legislation related to animal feed indicated that food waste-derived feed could be considered an adequate alternative to be used in animal diets, while the feeding action should be changed with the different qualities of the products, such as restrictions on the application

  4. Monte Carlo calculation of flux-to-dose-rate conversion factors for energies between 0. 01 and 1. 00 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Tapia, C.S.

    1980-12-08

    Gamma-ray flux-to-dose-rate conversion factors for energies between 0.01 and 1.0 MeV were computed using the Monte Carlo method for a 30-cm-thick slab having the standard-man composition. Agreement between the computed factors and standard factors (ANSI/ANS-6.1.1-1977) was optimal for energies above 0.1 MeV and was at most 30% lower (at 0.02 MeV) for energies below 0.1 MeV. The computed factors were also in agreement with experimentally-obtained factors.

  5. Web Conversations About Complementary and Alternative Medicines and Cancer: Content and Sentiment Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Truccolo, Ivana; Antonini, Marialuisa; Rinaldi, Fabio; Omero, Paolo; Ferrarin, Emanuela; De Paoli, Paolo; Tasso, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among cancer patients is widespread and mostly self-administrated. Today, one of the most relevant topics is the nondisclosure of CAM use to doctors. This general lack of communication exposes patients to dangerous behaviors and to less reliable information channels, such as the Web. The Italian context scarcely differs from this trend. Today, we are able to mine and analyze systematically the unstructured information available in the Web, to get an insight of people’s opinions, beliefs, and rumors concerning health topics. Objective Our aim was to analyze Italian Web conversations about CAM, identifying the most relevant Web sources, therapies, and diseases and measure the related sentiment. Methods Data have been collected using the Web Intelligence tool ifMONITOR. The workflow consisted of 6 phases: (1) eligibility criteria definition for the ifMONITOR search profile; (2) creation of a CAM terminology database; (3) generic Web search and automatic filtering, the results have been manually revised to refine the search profile, and stored in the ifMONITOR database; (4) automatic classification using the CAM database terms; (5) selection of the final sample and manual sentiment analysis using a 1-5 score range; (6) manual indexing of the Web sources and CAM therapies type retrieved. Descriptive univariate statistics were computed for each item: absolute frequency, percentage, central tendency (mean sentiment score [MSS]), and variability (standard variation σ). Results Overall, 212 Web sources, 423 Web documents, and 868 opinions have been retrieved. The overall sentiment measured tends to a good score (3.6 of 5). Quite a high polarization in the opinions of the conversation partaking emerged from standard variation analysis (σ≥1). In total, 126 of 212 (59.4%) Web sources retrieved were nonhealth-related. Facebook (89; 21%) and Yahoo Answers (41; 9.7%) were the most relevant. In total, 94 CAM

  6. Performance analysis of fault-tolerant systems in parallel execution of conversations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. H.; Heu, Shin; Yang, Seung M.

    1989-01-01

    The execution overhead inherent in the conversation scheme, which is a scheme for realizing fault-tolerant cooperating processes free of the domino effect, is analyzed. Multiprocessor/multicomputer systems capable of parallel execution of conversation components are considered and a queuing network model of such systems is adopted. Based on the queuing model, various performance indicators, including system throughput, average number of processors idling inside a conversation due to the synchronization required, and average time spent in the conversation, have been evaluated numerically for several application environments. The numeric results are discussed and several essential performance characteristics of the conversation scheme are derived. For example, when the number of participant processes is not large, say less than six, the system performance is highly affected by the synchronization required on the processes in a conversation, and not so much by the probability of acceptance-test failure.

  7. Factor Rotation and Standard Errors in Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Guangjian; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we report a surprising phenomenon: Oblique CF-varimax and oblique CF-quartimax rotation produced similar point estimates for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations but different standard error estimates in an empirical example. Influences of factor rotation on asymptotic standard errors are investigated using a numerical…

  8. GACT: a Genome build and Allele definition Conversion Tool for SNP imputation and meta-analysis in genetic association studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified genes associated with complex human diseases. Although much of the heritability remains unexplained, combining single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes from multiple studies for meta-analysis will increase the statistical power to identify new disease-associated variants. Meta-analysis requires same allele definition (nomenclature) and genome build among individual studies. Similarly, imputation, commonly-used prior to meta-analysis, requires the same consistency. However, the genotypes from various GWAS are generated using different genotyping platforms, arrays or SNP-calling approaches, resulting in use of different genome builds and allele definitions. Incorrect assumptions of identical allele definition among combined GWAS lead to a large portion of discarded genotypes or incorrect association findings. There is no published tool that predicts and converts among all major allele definitions. Results In this study, we have developed a tool, GACT, which stands for Genome build and Allele definition Conversion Tool, that predicts and inter-converts between any of the common SNP allele definitions and between the major genome builds. In addition, we assessed several factors that may affect imputation quality, and our results indicated that inclusion of singletons in the reference had detrimental effects while ambiguous SNPs had no measurable effect. Unexpectedly, exclusion of genotypes with missing rate > 0.001 (40% of study SNPs) showed no significant decrease of imputation quality (even significantly higher when compared to the imputation with singletons in the reference), especially for rare SNPs. Conclusion GACT is a new, powerful, and user-friendly tool with both command-line and interactive online versions that can accurately predict, and convert between any of the common allele definitions and between genome builds for genome-wide meta-analysis and imputation of

  9. Factored interval particle filtering for gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Saboune, Jamal; Rose, Cédric; Charpillet, François

    2007-01-01

    Commercial gait analysis systems rely on wearable sensors. The goal of this study is to develop a low cost marker less human motion capture tool. Our method is based on the estimation of 3d movements using video streams and the projection of a 3d human body model. Dynamic parameters only depend on human body movement constraints. No trained gait model is used which makes this approach generic. The 3d model is characterized by the angular positions of its articulations. The kinematic chain structure allows to factor the state vector representing the configuration of the model. We use a dynamic bayesian network and a modified particle filtering algorithm to estimate the most likely state configuration given an observation sequence. The modified algorithm takes advantage of the factorization of the state vector for efficiently weighting and resampling the particles. PMID:18002684

  10. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Korean Version of Hypomania Checklist-32

    PubMed Central

    An, Doyoun; Hong, Kyung Sue

    2011-01-01

    Objective The Hypomania Checklist - 32 (HCL-32) is a self-assessment instrument developed by Angst et al. (2005) to identify bipolarity in the general population, as well as patients with unipolar depression. The principal objective of this study was to assess the factor structure of the Korean version of the HCL-32 for mood disorder patients, via exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Methods The Korean version of HCL-32 were evaluated in a sample of 608 mood disorder patients, including 210 bipolar disorder patients and 398 unipolar disorder patients, all of whom were diagnosed in accordance with either the Structured Clinical Interview of DSM-IV or Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview They were divided randomly into two groups, and then the EFA was administered to group 1 and the CFA was administered to group 2. Results A 3-factor structure for the HCL-32 was generated, which explained 44% of the total variance from EFA. Factor 1, comprising 18 items, was designated as 'elated mood/increased energy'; factor 2, comprising 8 items, was designated as 'risk-taking behavior/irritability'; and factor 3, comprising 2 items, was designated as 'increased sexual activity'. Researchers confirmed the 3-factor solution derived from group 1 by the CFA. Conclusion The primary findings of this study were the replication and confirmation of the 3-factor structure in Korean mood disorder patients; our results were consistent with previous EFAs. PMID:22216043

  11. Influence analysis for the factor analysis model with ranking data.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Poon, Wai-Yin; Lee, Sik-Yum

    2008-05-01

    Influence analysis is an important component of data analysis, and the local influence approach has been widely applied to many statistical models to identify influential observations and assess minor model perturbations since the pioneering work of Cook (1986). The approach is often adopted to develop influence analysis procedures for factor analysis models with ranking data. However, as this well-known approach is based on the observed data likelihood, which involves multidimensional integrals, directly applying it to develop influence analysis procedures for the factor analysis models with ranking data is difficult. To address this difficulty, a Monte Carlo expectation and maximization algorithm (MCEM) is used to obtain the maximum-likelihood estimate of the model parameters, and measures for influence analysis on the basis of the conditional expectation of the complete data log likelihood at the E-step of the MCEM algorithm are then obtained. Very little additional computation is needed to compute the influence measures, because it is possible to make use of the by-products of the estimation procedure. Influence measures that are based on several typical perturbation schemes are discussed in detail, and the proposed method is illustrated with two real examples and an artificial example. PMID:18482479

  12. A Review of CEFA Software: Comprehensive Exploratory Factor Analysis Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soon-Mook

    2010-01-01

    CEFA 3.02(Browne, Cudeck, Tateneni, & Mels, 2008) is a factor analysis computer program designed to perform exploratory factor analysis. It provides the main properties that are needed for exploratory factor analysis, namely a variety of factoring methods employing eight different discrepancy functions to be minimized to yield initial solutions, a…

  13. Accident Analysis for the NIST Research Reactor Before and After Fuel Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Baek J.; Diamond D.; Cuadra, A.; Hanson, A.L.; Cheng, L-Y.; Brown, N.R.

    2012-09-30

    Postulated accidents have been analyzed for the 20 MW D2O-moderated research reactor (NBSR) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The analysis has been carried out for the present core, which contains high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel and for a proposed equilibrium core with low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The analyses employ state-of-the-art calculational methods. Three-dimensional Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations were performed with the MCNPX code to determine homogenized fuel compositions in the lower and upper halves of each fuel element and to determine the resulting neutronic properties of the core. The accident analysis employed a model of the primary loop with the RELAP5 code. The model includes the primary pumps, shutdown pumps outlet valves, heat exchanger, fuel elements, and flow channels for both the six inner and twenty-four outer fuel elements. Evaluations were performed for the following accidents: (1) control rod withdrawal startup accident, (2) maximum reactivity insertion accident, (3) loss-of-flow accident resulting from loss of electrical power with an assumption of failure of shutdown cooling pumps, (4) loss-of-flow accident resulting from a primary pump seizure, and (5) loss-of-flow accident resulting from inadvertent throttling of a flow control valve. In addition, natural circulation cooling at low power operation was analyzed. The analysis shows that the conversion will not lead to significant changes in the safety analysis and the calculated minimum critical heat flux ratio and maximum clad temperature assure that there is adequate margin to fuel failure.

  14. Uses of Factor Analysis in Counseling Psychology Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinsley, Howard E. A.; Tinsley, Diane J.

    1987-01-01

    Explains factor analysis, discussing its relation to other multivariate techniques and describing characteristics of the data to consider in determining the appropriateness of factor analysis. Reviews considerations in making decisions about communality estimates, factor extraction, the number of factors to rotate, methods of factor rotation,…

  15. Molecular gas in low-metallicity starburst galaxies:. Scaling relations and the CO-to-H2 conversion factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorín, R.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Planesas, P.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Tracing the molecular gas-phase in low-mass star-forming galaxies becomes extremely challenging due to significant UV photo-dissociation of CO molecules in their low-dust, low-metallicity ISM environments. Aims: We aim to study the molecular content and the star-formation efficiency of a representative sample of 21 blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs), previously characterized on the basis of their spectrophotometric properties. Methods: We present CO (1-0) and (2-1) observations conducted at the IRAM-30m telescope. These data are further supplemented with additional CO measurements and multiwavelength ancillary data from the literature. We explore correlations between the derived CO luminosities and several galaxy-averaged properties. Results: We detect CO emission in seven out of ten BCDs observed. For two galaxies these are the first CO detections reported so far. We find the molecular content traced by CO to be correlated with the stellar and Hi masses, star formation rate (SFR) tracers, the projected size of the starburst, and its gas-phase metallicity. BCDs appear to be systematically offset from the Schmidt-Kennicutt (SK) law, showing lower average gas surface densities for a given ΣSFR, and therefore showing extremely low (≲0.1 Gyr) H2 and H2 +Hi depletion timescales. The departure from the SK law is smaller when considering H2 +Hi rather than H2 only, and is larger for BCDs with lower metallicity and higher specific SFR. Thus, the molecular fraction (ΣH2/ ΣHI) and CO depletion timescale (ΣH2/ ΣSFR) of BCDs is found to be strongly correlated with metallicity. Using this, and assuming that the empirical correlation found between the specific SFR and galaxy-averaged H2 depletion timescale of more metal-rich galaxies extends to lower masses, we derive a metallicity-dependent CO-to-H2 conversion factor αCO,Z ∝ (Z/Z⊙)- y, with y = 1.5(±0.3)in qualitative agreement with previous determinations, dust-based measurements, and recent model

  16. Designing Instructional Text in a Conversational Style: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginns, Paul; Martin, Andrew J.; Marsh, Herbert W.

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews research on the effects of conversational style on learning. Studies of conversational style have variously investigated "personalization" through changing instances of first-person address to second or third person, including sentences that directly address the learner; including more polite forms of address; and…

  17. Acoustic Analysis of Clear Versus Conversational Speech in Individuals with Parkinson Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goberman, A.M.; Elmer, L.W.

    2005-01-01

    A number of studies have been devoted to the examination of clear versus conversational speech in non-impaired speakers. The purpose of these previous studies has been primarily to help increase speech intelligibility for the benefit of hearing-impaired listeners. The goal of the present study was to examine differences between conversational and…

  18. Vocal quality factors: analysis, synthesis, and perception.

    PubMed

    Childers, D G; Lee, C K

    1991-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine several factors of vocal quality that might be affected by changes in vocal fold vibratory patterns. Four voice types were examined: modal, vocal fry, falsetto, and breathy. Three categories of analysis techniques were developed to extract source-related features from speech and electroglottographic (EGG) signals. Four factors were found to be important for characterizing the glottal excitations for the four voice types: the glottal pulse width, the glottal pulse skewness, the abruptness of glottal closure, and the turbulent noise component. The significance of these factors for voice synthesis was studied and a new voice source model that accounted for certain physiological aspects of vocal fold motion was developed and tested using speech synthesis. Perceptual listening tests were conducted to evaluate the auditory effects of the source model parameters upon synthesized speech. The effects of the spectral slope of the source excitation, the shape of the glottal excitation pulse, and the characteristics of the turbulent noise source were considered. Applications for these research results include synthesis of natural sounding speech, synthesis and modeling of vocal disorders, and the development of speaker independent (or adaptive) speech recognition systems. PMID:1837797

  19. Analysis of the rationale for, and consequences of, nonprofit and for-profit ownership conversions.

    PubMed Central

    Mark, T L

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine percursors to private hospitals conversion, both from nonprofit status to for-profit status and from for-profit to nonprofit status, as well as the effect of hospital conversions on hospital profitability, efficiency, staffing, and the probability of closure. DATA SOURCES: The Health Care Financing Administration's Medicare Cost Reports and the American Hospital Association's Annual Survey of Hospitals. STUDY DESIGN: Bivariate and multivariate analyses comparing conversion hospitals to nonconversion hospitals over time were conducted. DATA EXTRACTION METHODS: The study sample consisted of all private acute care hospital conversions that occurred from 1989 through 1992. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Hospitals that converted had significantly lower profit margins prior to converting than did nonconversion hospitals. This was particularly true for nonprofit to for-profit conversions. After converting, both nonprofit and for-profit hospitals significantly improved their profitability. Nonprofit to for-profit hospital conversions were associated with a decrease in the ratio of staff to patients. No association was found between for-profit to nonprofit conversion and staff-to-patient ratios. The difference seems partially attributed to the fact that nonprofit hospitals that converted had higher staff ratios than the industry average. For-profit to nonprofit hospital conversions were associated with an increase in the ratio of registered nurses to patients and administrators to patients, despite the fact that nonprofit and for-profit hospitals did not differ in these ratios. CONCLUSIONS: The improvement in financial performance following hospital conversions may be a benefit to the community that policymakers want to consider when regulating hospital conversions. PMID:10201853

  20. The CO-to-H2 Conversion Factor and Dust-to-gas Ratio on Kiloparsec Scales in Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandstrom, K. M.; Leroy, A. K.; Walter, F.; Bolatto, A. D.; Croxall, K. V.; Draine, B. T.; Wilson, C. D.; Wolfire, M.; Calzetti, D.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Aniano, G.; Donovan Meyer, J.; Usero, A.; Bigiel, F.; Brinks, E.; de Blok, W. J. G.; Crocker, A.; Dale, D.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Galametz, M.; Groves, B.; Hunt, L. K.; Koda, J.; Kreckel, K.; Linz, H.; Meidt, S.; Pellegrini, E.; Rix, H.-W.; Roussel, H.; Schinnerer, E.; Schruba, A.; Schuster, K.-F.; Skibba, R.; van der Laan, T.; Appleton, P.; Armus, L.; Brandl, B.; Gordon, K.; Hinz, J.; Krause, O.; Montiel, E.; Sauvage, M.; Schmiedeke, A.; Smith, J. D. T.; Vigroux, L.

    2013-11-01

    We present ~kiloparsec spatial resolution maps of the CO-to-H2 conversion factor (αCO) and dust-to-gas ratio (DGR) in 26 nearby, star-forming galaxies. We have simultaneously solved for αCO and the DGR by assuming that the DGR is approximately constant on kiloparsec scales. With this assumption, we can combine maps of dust mass surface density, CO-integrated intensity, and H I column density to solve for both αCO and the DGR with no assumptions about their value or dependence on metallicity or other parameters. Such a study has just become possible with the availability of high-resolution far-IR maps from the Herschel key program KINGFISH, 12CO J = (2-1) maps from the IRAM 30 m large program HERACLES, and H I 21 cm line maps from THINGS. We use a fixed ratio between the (2-1) and (1-0) lines to present our αCO results on the more typically used 12CO J = (1-0) scale and show using literature measurements that variations in the line ratio do not affect our results. In total, we derive 782 individual solutions for αCO and the DGR. On average, αCO = 3.1 M ⊙ pc-2 (K km s-1)-1 for our sample with a standard deviation of 0.3 dex. Within galaxies, we observe a generally flat profile of αCO as a function of galactocentric radius. However, most galaxies exhibit a lower αCO value in the central kiloparsec—a factor of ~2 below the galaxy mean, on average. In some cases, the central αCO value can be factors of 5-10 below the standard Milky Way (MW) value of αCO, MW = 4.4 M ⊙ pc-2 (K km s-1)-1. While for αCO we find only weak correlations with metallicity, the DGR is well-correlated with metallicity, with an approximately linear slope. Finally, we present several recommendations for choosing an appropriate αCO for studies of nearby galaxies.

  1. Factorized molecular wave functions: Analysis of the nuclear factor

    SciTech Connect

    Lefebvre, R.

    2015-06-07

    The exact factorization of molecular wave functions leads to nuclear factors which should be nodeless functions. We reconsider the case of vibrational perturbations in a diatomic species, a situation usually treated by combining Born-Oppenheimer products. It was shown [R. Lefebvre, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 074106 (2015)] that it is possible to derive, from the solutions of coupled equations, the form of the factorized function. By increasing artificially the interstate coupling in the usual approach, the adiabatic regime can be reached, whereby the wave function can be reduced to a single product. The nuclear factor of this product is determined by the lowest of the two potentials obtained by diagonalization of the potential matrix. By comparison with the nuclear wave function of the factorized scheme, it is shown that by a simple rectification, an agreement is obtained between the modified nodeless function and that of the adiabatic scheme.

  2. Nonrhabdomyosarcomatous abdominopelvic sarcomas: Analysis of prognostic factors

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Nida; Shukla, Nootan K.; Deo, S. V. S.; Agarwala, Sandeep; Sharma, D. N.; Sharma, Meher C.; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2016-01-01

    Background: Data concerning treatment outcome and prognostic factors in sarcomas of abdomen and pelvis are sparse in literature. Methods and Results: Of 696 patients with nonrhabdomyosarcomatous soft tissue sarcoma registered at our center between June 2003 and December 2012, 112 (16%) patients of sarcomas arising from abdomen and pelvis were identified, of which 88 patients were analyzed for treatment outcome and prognostic factors. The median age was 40 years (range: 1–78 years) with a male: female ratio of 0.7:1. Twenty-one (24%) patients were metastatic at baseline. The most common tumor sites were retroperitoneum in 70% patients and abdominal wall in 18% patients. Leiomyosarcoma was the most common histological subtype in 36% patients followed by liposarcoma in 17% patients. Thirty-five (40%) patients had Grade III tumors. Forty-six (52%) patients underwent surgical resection. At a median follow-up of 43 months (range: 2–94 months), the 5-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 35% and 42%, with a median of 22 months and 43 months, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified male gender (P - 0.03, hazard ratio [HR] - 0.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] - 0.23–0.92), baseline metastatic disease (P - 0.01, HR - 2.98, 95% CI - 1.27–6.98) and Grade III tumors (P - 0.02, HR - 1.84, 95% CI - 1.08–3.13) as factors associated with poor EFS, whereas baseline metastatic disease (P < 0.001, HR - 5.45, 95% CI - 2.31–12.87) and unresectability (P - 0.01, HR - 2.72, 95% CI - 1.27–5.83) were associated with poor OS. Conclusion: This is a single-institutional study of patients with abdominopelvic sarcomas where gender was identified as a new factor affecting survival apart from baseline presentation, histologic grade, and surgical resection. PMID:27168708

  3. Thermodynamic systems analysis of open-cycle Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, B. K.; Bharathan, D.; Althof, J. A.

    1985-09-01

    This report describes an updated thermal-hydraulic systems analysis program called OTECSYS that studies the integrated performance of an open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plant, specifically, the effects of component performance, design parameters, and site specific resource data on the total system performance and plant size. OTECSYS can size the various open-cycle power cycle and hydraulic components. Models for the evaporator, mist eliminator, turbine-generator diffuser, direct-contact condenser, exhaust compressors, seawater pumps, and seawater piping are included, as are evaluations of the pressure drops associated with the intercomponent connections. It can also determine the required steam, cold seawater, and warm seawater flow rates. OTECSYS uses an approach similar to earlier work and integrates the most up-to-date developments in component performance and configuration. The program format allows the user to examine subsystem concepts not currently included by creating new component models. It will be useful to the OTEC plant designer who wants to quantify the design point sizing, performance, and power production using site-specific resource data. Detailed design trade-offs are easily evaluated, and several examples of these types of investigations are presented using plant size and power as criteria.

  4. A stereoscopic video conversion scheme based on spatio-temporal analysis of MPEG videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Guo-Shiang; Huang, Hsiang-Yun; Chen, Wei-Chih; Yeh, Cheng-Ying; Liu, Kai-Che; Lie, Wen-Nung

    2012-12-01

    In this article, an automatic stereoscopic video conversion scheme which accepts MPEG-encoded videos as input is proposed. Our scheme is depth-based, relying on spatio-temporal analysis of the decoded video data to yield depth perception cues, such as temporal motion and spatial contrast, which reflect the relative depths between the foreground and the background areas. Our scheme is shot-adaptive, demanding that shot change detection and shot classification be performed for tuning of algorithm or parameters that are used for depth cue combination. The above-mentioned depth estimation is initially block-based, followed by a locally adaptive joint trilateral upsampling algorithm to reduce the computing load significantly. A recursive temporal filter is used to reduce the possible depth fluctuations (and also artifacts in the synthesized images) resulting from wrong depth estimations. The traditional Depth-Image-Based-Rendering algorithm is used to synthesize the left- and right-view frames for 3D display. Subjective tests show that videos converted by our scheme provide comparable perceived depth and visual quality with those converted from the depth data calculated by stereo vision techniques. Also, our scheme is shown to outperform the well-known TriDef software in terms of human's perceived 3D depth. Based on the implementation by using "OpenMP" parallel programming model, our scheme is capable of executing in real-time on a multi-core CPU platform.

  5. Characterization of selected Ohio coals to predict their conversion behavior relative to 104 North American Coals. [Factors correlating with liquefaction behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Whitacre, T. P.; Hunt, T. J.; Kneller, W. A.

    1982-02-01

    Twenty-six coal samples from Ohio were collected as washed and seam samples, and lithobodies within the seams. Characterization of these samples included determination of % maceral, % anti R/sub max/, LTA, chlorine content and proximate/ultimate and qualitative mineral analyses. These data were compared to data from a similar project by Yarzab, R.F., et al., 1980 completed at Pennsylvania State University using tetralin as the hydrogen donor solvent. The characteristics of these coals were correlated with liquefaction conversion and other data accrued on 104 North American coals by statistical analyses. Utilizing percent carbon, sulfur, volatile matter, reflectance, vitrinite and total reactive macerals, Q-mode cluster analysis demonstrated that Ohio coals are more similar to the coals of the Interior province than to those of the Appalachian province. Linear multiple regression analysis for the 104 North American coals provided a prediction equation for conversion (R = .96). The predicted conversion values for the samples range from 58.8 to 79.6%, with the Lower Kittanning (No. 5) and the Middle Kittanning (No. 6) coal seams showing the highest predicted percent conversion (respectively, 73.4 and 72.2%). The moderately low FSI values for the No. 5 and No. 6 coals (respectively, 2.5 and 3) and their moderately high alkaline earth content (respectively, 0.69 and 0.74%) suggest that these coals possess the best overall properties for conversion. Stepwise regression has indicated that the most important coal characteristics affecting conversion are, in decreasing order of importance: % volatile matter, % vitrinite and % total sulfur. Conversion processes can be expected to produce higher yields with Ohio coals due to the presence of such mineral catalysts as pyrite and kaolinite. It is believed that the presence of these disposable catalysts increases the marketability of Ohio coals.

  6. On the field-to-current conversion factors for large bipolar lightning discharge events in winter thunderstorms in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Long; Zhang, Qilin; Hou, Wenhao; Tao, Yulang

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we have simulated the far-field waveform characteristic of large bipolar events (LBEs) occurred in winter thunderstorms in Japan and compared the field-to-current conversion factors (FCCFs) of LBEs with that of the lightning cloud-to-ground (CG) return stroke (RS) in summer thunderstorm. As for the physical process of LBEs, Wu et al. (2014) considered that LBEs may be very similar to the typical lightning RS (RS-like process) or caused by an initial continuous current pulse (ICC-like process) in upward lightning flashes. We assume that the lightning channel length of LBEs ranges from 500 m to 1000 m, and the height of tall object struck by LBEs is from 100 m to 300 m. By using the bouncing wave model, we found that only when the injected current waveform of LBEs is characterized with a symmetric Gaussian pulse, the simulated far-field waveform of LBEs both for RS-like process and ICC-like process is similar to that observed by Wu et al. (2014). For striking tall objects with heights from 100 m and 300 m, the FCCFs of LBEs are positively correlated with its channel length and derivatives of injected current waveform, and the FCCF for RS-like process is about similar to that for ICC-like process. However, the FCCFs of LBEs are very different from lightning RS in summer thunderstorm; that is to say, the FCCFs developed for the well-known lightning RS in summer thunderstorm are not suitable for LBEs.

  7. Influence of light-activation protocol on methacrylate resin-composite evaluated by dynamic mechanical analysis and degree of conversion.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Maria Cecília C; Pistor, Vinícius; Mauler, Raquel S; Lima, Débora A N L; Marchi, Giselle M; Aguiar, Flávio H B

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of conversion (DC) and to identify the viscoelastic properties: storage modulus (E'), loss modulus (E"), tangent delta (tan δ), and glass transition temperature (T g ) of a microhybrid resin-composite light-activated by three different protocols. A Filtek Z250 (3 M ESPE) shade A3 was inserted in a Teflon mold (21 mm × 5 mm × 1 mm for viscoelastic properties; and 5 mm × 1 mm for DC) and light-activated according to the following light-activation protocols: (S) 1,000 mW/cm(2) × 19 s, (HP) 1,400 mW/cm(2) × 14 s, and (PE) 3,200 mW/cm(2) × 6 s, all set up to deliver 19 J/cm(2). Viscoelastic properties was assessed by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) (n = 3), performed in single cantilever clamped mode. DC (n = 5) was measured by FTIR on top (T) and bottom (B) surfaces, and the data was submitted to a split-plot one-way ANOVA. For DC, there was a significant effect for surface factor and light-activation protocols factor. Top surface showed higher DC than B in all experimental conditions. Light-activation protocols S and HP resulted in higher DC than PE and were similar between them. Viscoelastic properties (E', E", tan δ, T g ) were not affected by light-activation protocols. It could be concluded that light-activation protocols influenced DC but not influenced the viscoelastic properties. PMID:24740520

  8. Budget impact analysis of conversion from cyclosporine to sirolimus as immunosuppressive medication in renal transplantation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Foroutan, Naghmeh; Rasekh, Hamid R; Salamzadeh, Jamshid; Jamshidi, Hamid R; Nafar, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine budget impact of conversion from cyclosporine (CsA) to sirolimus (SRL) in renal transplant therapy (RTT) from the perspective of insurance organizations in Iran. Methods An Excel-based model was developed to determine cost of RTT, comparing current CsA based therapy to an mTOR inhibitor-based therapy regimen. Total cost included both cost of immunosuppressive agents and relative adverse events. The inputs were derived from database of Ministry of Health and insurance organizations, hospital and pharmacy based registries, and available literature that were varied through a one-way sensitivity analysis. According to the model, there were almost 17,000 patients receiving RTT in Iran, out of which about 2,200 patients underwent the operation within the study year. The model was constructed based on the results of a local RCT, in which test and control groups received CsA, SRL, and steroids over the first 3 months posttransplantation and, from the fourth month on, CsA, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and steroids were used in the CsA group and SRL, MMF, and steroids were administered in the SRL group, respectively. Results The estimated cost of RTT with CsA was US$4,850,000 versus US$4,300,000 receiving SRL. These costs corresponded to the cost saving of almost US$550,000 for the payers. Conclusion To evaluate the financial consequence of adding mTOR inhibitors to the insurers’ formulary, in the present study, a budget impact analysis was conducted on sirolimus. Fewer cases of costly adverse events along with lower required doses of MMF related to SRL based therapies were major reasons for this saving budgetary impact. PMID:24159260

  9. A Monte Carlo Study of Recovery of Weak Factor Loadings in Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ximenez, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    The recovery of weak factors has been extensively studied in the context of exploratory factor analysis. This article presents the results of a Monte Carlo simulation study of recovery of weak factor loadings in confirmatory factor analysis under conditions of estimation method (maximum likelihood vs. unweighted least squares), sample size,…

  10. Adenovirus-mediated expression of myogenic differentiation factor 1 (MyoD) in equine and human dermal fibroblasts enables their conversion to caffeine-sensitive myotubes.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Fuente, Marta; Martin-Duque, Pilar; Vassaux, Georges; Brown, Susan C; Muntoni, Francesco; Terracciano, Cesare M; Piercy, Richard J

    2014-03-01

    Several human and animal myopathies, such as malignant hyperthermia (MH), central core disease and equine recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis (RER) are confirmed or thought to be associated with dysfunction of skeletal muscle calcium regulation. For some patients in whom the genetic cause is unknown, or when mutational analysis reveals genetic variants with unclear pathogenicity, defects are further studied through use of muscle histopathology and in vitro contraction tests, the latter in particular, when assessing responses to ryanodine receptor agonists, such as caffeine. However, since muscle biopsy is not always suitable, researchers have used cultured cells to model these diseases, by examining calcium regulation in myotubes derived from skin, following forced expression of muscle-specific transcription factors. Here we describe a novel adenoviral vector that we used to express equine MyoD in dermal fibroblasts. In permissive conditions, transduced equine and human fibroblasts differentiated into multinucleated myotubes. We demonstrate that these cells have a functional excitation-calcium release mechanism and, similarly to primary muscle-derived myotubes, respond in a dose-dependent manner to increasing concentrations of caffeine. MyoD-induced conversion of equine skin-derived fibroblasts offers an attractive method for evaluating calcium homeostasis defects in vitro without the need for invasive muscle biopsy. PMID:24342283