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Sample records for cooked meat fish

  1. Heterocyclic amines: Mutagens/carcinogens produced during cooking of meat and fish.

    PubMed

    Sugimura, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Nagao, Minako

    2004-04-01

    Research leading to the discovery of a series of mutagenic and carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs) was inspired by the idea that smoke produced during cooking of food, especially meat or fish, might be carcinogenic. More than ten kinds of HCAs, actually produced by cooking or heating of meat or fish, have now been isolated and their structures determined, most being previously unregistered compounds. They are highly mutagenic towards Salmonella typhimurium in the presence of S9 mix and are also mutagenic in vitro and in vivo toward mammalian cells. HCAs have now been chemically synthesized in quantity and subjected to long-term animal testing. When HCAs were fed in the diet, rodents developed cancers in many organs, including the colon, breast and prostate, and one HCA produced hepatomas in monkeys. The lesions exhibited alteration in genes including Apc, beta-catenin and Ha-ras, and these changes provide clues to the induction mechanisms. The HCAs are oxidized to hydroxyamino derivatives by cytochrome P450s, and further converted to ester forms by acetyltransferase and sulfotransferase. Eventually, they produce DNA adducts through the formation of N-C bonds at guanine bases. There are HCA-sensitive and resistant strains of rodents and a search for the responsible genes is now under way. While the content of HCAs in dishes consumed in ordinary life is low and not sufficient in itself to explain human cancer, the coexistence of many other mutagens/carcinogens of either autobiotic or xenobiotic type and the possibility that HCAs induce genomic instability and heightened sensitivity to tumor promoters suggest that avoidance of exposure to HCAs or reduction of HCAs' biological effects as far as possible are to be highly recommended. Usage of microwave ovens for cooking and supplementation of the diet, for example with soy-isoflavones, which have been found to suppress the occurrence of HCA-induced breast cancers, should be encouraged. Advice to the general public

  2. Meat, Poultry and Fish

    MedlinePlus

    ... Select meat substitutes such as dried beans, peas, lentils or tofu (soybean curd) in entrees, salads or ... one-cup serving of cooked beans, peas or lentils, or soybean curd (tofu) can replace a 2- ...

  3. Determination of advanced glycation endproducts in cooked meat products.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gengjun; Smith, J Scott

    2015-02-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), a pathogenic factor implicated in diabetes and other chronic diseases, are produced in cooked meat products. The objective of this study was to determine the AGE content, as measured by Nε-carboxymethyllysine (CML) levels, in cooked chicken, pork, beef and fish (salmon and tilapia) prepared by three common cooking methods used by U.S. consumers: frying, baking, and broiling. The CML was detected in all the cooked samples, but the levels were dependent on types of meat, cooking conditions, and the final internal temperature. Broiling and frying at higher cooking temperature produced higher levels of CML, and broiled beef contained the highest CML content (21.8μg/g). Baked salmon (8.6μg/g) and baked tilapia (9.7μg/g) contained less CML as compared to the other muscle food samples. PMID:25172699

  4. Factors influencing internal color of cooked meats.

    PubMed

    Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Joseph, Poulson; Hunt, Melvin C

    2016-10-01

    This manuscript overviews the pertinent research on internal color of uncured cooked meats, biochemical processes involved in meat cookery, and fundamental mechanisms governing myoglobin thermal stability. Heat-induced denaturation of myoglobin, responsible for the characteristic dull-brown color of cooked meats, is influenced by a multitude of endogenous (i.e., pH, muscle source, species, redox state) and exogenous (i.e., packaging, ingredients, storage) factors. The interactions between these factors critically influence the internal cooked color and can confuse the consumers, who often perceive cooked color to be a reliable indicator for doneness and safety. While certain phenomena in cooked meat color are cosmetic in nature, others can mislead consumers and result in foodborne illnesses. Research in meat color suggests that processing technologies and cooking practices in industry as well as households influence the internal cooked color. Additionally, the guidelines of many international public health and regulatory authorities recommend using meat thermometers to determine safe cooking endpoint temperature and to ensure product safety. PMID:27131513

  5. Red discoloration of fully cooked poultry meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red or bloody appearance of fully cooked poultry meat is a severe defect. Methods for inducing discoloration for further study, including control of and causes of red discoloration were determined. Cooked retail parts (n=274) showed approximately 11% discoloration and 0.4% bloodiness. To induce r...

  6. Diet and Cancer Are Cooked Meats Involved

    SciTech Connect

    LLNL - University of California Television

    2008-05-01

    Diet has been associated with differences in cancer rates in human populations for many years. Mark Knize presents the latest research on cancer causes including work performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory investigating some interesting chemical products created when meat is cooked and how to reduce them. Series: Science on Saturday [10/2006] [Health and Medicine] [Science] [Show ID: 11542

  7. Diet and Cancer Are Cooked Meats Involved

    ScienceCinema

    LLNL - University of California Television

    2009-09-01

    Diet has been associated with differences in cancer rates in human populations for many years. Mark Knize presents the latest research on cancer causes including work performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory investigating some interesting chemical products created when meat is cooked and how to reduce them. Series: Science on Saturday [10/2006] [Health and Medicine] [Science] [Show ID: 11542

  8. Cooling of cooked RTE meats and computer simulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clostridium perfringens is a spore-forming pathogen that causes foodborne outbreaks associated with cooked or partially cooked meat and poultry products regulated by USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). The spores, activated during cooking, may germinate, outgrow, and multiply in meat or...

  9. Cooking and grinding reduces the cost of meat digestion.

    PubMed

    Boback, Scott M; Cox, Christian L; Ott, Brian D; Carmody, Rachel; Wrangham, Richard W; Secor, Stephen M

    2007-11-01

    The cooking of food is hypothesized to have played a major role in human evolution partly by providing an increase in net energy gain. For meat, cooking compromises the structural integrity of the tissue by gelatinizing the collagen. Hence, cooked meat should take less effort to digest compared to raw meat. Likewise, less energy would be expended digesting ground meat compared to intact meat. We tested these hypotheses by assessing how the cooking and/or grinding of meat influences the energy expended on its digestion, absorption, and assimilation (i.e., specific dynamic action, SDA) using the Burmese python, Python molurus. Pythons were fed one of four experimental diets each weighing 25% of the snake's body mass: intact raw beef, intact cooked beef, ground raw beef, and ground cooked beef. We measured oxygen consumption rates of snakes prior to and up to 14 days following feeding and calculated SDA from the extra oxygen consumed above standard metabolic rate. Postprandial peak in oxygen consumption, the scope of peak rates, and SDA varied significantly among meal treatments. Pythons digesting raw or intact meals exhibited significantly larger postprandial metabolic responses than snakes digesting the cooked ground meals. We found cooking to decrease SDA by 12.7%, grinding to decrease SDA by 12.4%, and the combination of the two (cooking and grinding) to have an additive effect, decreasing SDA by 23.4%. These results support the hypothesis that the consumption of cooked meat provides an energetic benefit over the consumption of raw meat. PMID:17827047

  10. Ohmic cooking of whole beef muscle - Optimisation of meat preparation.

    PubMed

    Zell, Markus; Lyng, James G; Cronin, Denis A; Morgan, Desmond J

    2009-04-01

    Uniform ohmic heating of solid foods primarily depends on the uniformity of electrolyte distribution within the product. Different preparation techniques were tested in an attempt to ensure an even salt dispersion within a full beef muscle (biceps femoris). Meat pieces were soaked, injected and tumbled using a range of procedures before ohmic cooking at pasteurization temperatures. A final preparation method (multi-injection (five points) with a 3% salt solution followed by 16h tumbling) was validated. Selected quality parameters of the ohmically cooked products were compared to steam cooked products. Ohmically heated meat had a significantly (P<0.05) uniform lighter and less red colour. Cook loss was significantly lower (P<0.05) in ohmic samples and in relation to tenderness ohmic heated samples were tougher (P<0.05) though the difference was only 5.08N. Comparable cook values were attained in the ohmic and conventionally cooked products. PMID:20416569

  11. Concentration of Umami Compounds in Pork Meat and Cooking Juice with Different Cooking Times and Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Rotola-Pukkila, Minna K; Pihlajaviita, Seija T; Kaimainen, Mika T; Hopia, Anu I

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the concentrations of umami compounds in pork loins cooked at 3 different temperatures and 3 different lengths of cooking times. The pork loins were cooked with the sous vide technique. The free amino acids (FAAs), glutamic acid and aspartic acid; the 5'-nucleotides, inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) and adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP); and corresponding nucleoside inosine of the cooked meat and its released juice were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Under the experimental conditions used, the cooking temperature played a more important role than the cooking time in the concentration of the analyzed compounds. The amino acid concentrations in the meat did not remain constant under these experimental conditions. The most notable effect observed was that of the cooking temperature and the higher amino acid concentrations in the released juice of meat cooked at 80 °C compared with 60 and 70 °C. This is most likely due to the heat induced hydrolysis of proteins and peptides releasing water soluble FAAs from the meat into the cooking juice. In this experiment, the cooking time and temperature had no influence on the IMP concentrations observed. However, the AMP concentrations increased with the increasing temperature and time. This suggests that the choice of time and temperature in sous vide cooking affects the nucleotide concentration of pork meat. The Sous vide technique proved to be a good technique to preserve the cooking juice and the results presented here show that cooking juice is rich in umami compounds, which can be used to provide a savory or brothy taste. PMID:26524113

  12. Meat-cooking mutagens and risk of renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, C R; Schwartz, K L; Colt, J S; Dong, L M; Ruterbusch, J J; Purdue, M P; Cross, A J; Rothman, N; Davis, F G; Wacholder, S; Graubard, B I; Chow, W H; Sinha, R

    2011-01-01

    Background: High-temperature cooked meat contains two families of carcinogens, heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Given the kidneys' role in metabolism and urinary excretion of these compounds, we investigated meat-derived mutagens, as well as meat intake and cooking methods, in a population-based case–control study conducted in metropolitan Detroit and Chicago. Methods: Newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the renal parenchyma (renal cell carcinoma (RCC)) cases (n=1192) were frequency matched on age, sex, and race to controls (n=1175). The interviewer-administered Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) included queries for meat-cooking methods and doneness with photographic aids. Levels of meat mutagens were estimated using the DHQ in conjunction with the CHARRED database. Results: The risk of RCC increased with intake of barbecued meat (Ptrend=0.04) and the PAH, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval, highest vs lowest quartile: 1.50 (1.14, 1.95), Ptrend=0.001). With increasing BaP intake, the risk of RCC was more than twofold in African Americans and current smokers (Pinteraction<0.05). We found no association for HCAs or overall meat intake. Conclusion: BaP intake, a PAH in barbecued meat, was positively associated with RCC. These biologically plausible findings advocate further epidemiological investigation into dietary intake of BaP and risk of RCC. PMID:21897389

  13. Developing a heme iron database for meats according to meat type, cooking method and doneness level

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Amanda J.; Harnly, James M.; Ferrucci, Leah M.; Risch, Adam; Mayne, Susan T.; Sinha, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    Background Animal studies have demonstrated that iron may be related to carcinogenesis, and human studies found that heme iron can increase the formation of N-nitroso compounds, which are known carcinogens. Objectives One of the postulated mechanisms linking red meat intake to cancer risk involves iron. Epidemiologic studies attempt to investigate the association between heme iron intake and cancer by applying a standard factor to total iron from meat. However, laboratory studies suggest that heme iron levels in meat vary according to cooking method and doneness level. We measured heme iron in meats cooked by different cooking methods to a range of doneness levels to use in conjunction with a food frequency questionnaire to estimate heme iron intake. Methods Composite meat samples were made to represent each meat type, cooking method and doneness level. Heme iron was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Results Steak and hamburgers contained the highest levels of heme iron, pork and chicken thigh meat had slightly lower levels, and chicken breast meat had the lowest. Conclusions Although heme iron levels varied, there was no clear effect of cooking method or doneness level. We outline the methods used to create a heme iron database to be used in conjunction with food frequency questionnaires to estimate heme iron intake in relation to disease outcome. PMID:23459329

  14. Growth potential of Clostridium perfringens during cooling of cooked meats.

    PubMed

    Taormina, Peter J; Dorsa, Warren J

    2004-07-01

    Many meat-based food products are cooked to temperatures sufficient to inactivate vegetative cells of Clostridium perfringens, but spores of this bacterium can survive, germinate, and grow in these products if sufficient time, temperature, and other variables exist. Because ingestion of large numbers of vegetative cells can lead to concomitant sporulation, enterotoxin release in the gastrointestinal tract, and diarrhea-like illness, a necessary food safety objective is to ensure that not more than acceptable levels of C. perfringens are in finished products. As cooked meat items cool they will pass through the growth temperature range of C. perfringens (50 to 15 degrees C). Therefore, an important step in determining the likely level of C. perfringens in the final product is the estimation of growth of the pathogen during cooling of the cooked product. Numerous studies exist dealing with just such estimations, yet consensual methodologies, results, and conclusions are lacking. There is a need to consider the bulk of C. perfringens work relating to cooling of cooked meat-based products and attempt to move toward a better understanding of the true growth potential of the organism. This review attempts to summarize observations made by researchers and highlight variations in experimental approach as possible explanations for different outcomes. An attempt is also made here to identify and justify optimal procedures for conducting C. perfringens growth estimation in meat-based cooked food products during cooling. PMID:15270517

  15. Predictive Modeling of Pathogen Growth in Cooked Meats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thippareddi, Harshavardhan; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan; Korasapati, Nageswara Rao; Sanchez-Plata, Marcos X.

    Thermal processing or cooking of food products has been adopted for centuries as a method of food preservation. Enhancement of product quality parameters such as color, flavor, and texture probably contributed to the adoption of the method for a variety of products. Today, cooking or thermal processing is one of the most commonly used unit operation in the food industry. The significant advantages to cooking of meat and poultry products include extension of shelf life, desirable organoleptic properties, enhanced economic value, and assurance of safety of the products.

  16. Peach skin powder inhibits oxidation in cooked turkey meat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Han, I; Bridges, W C; Dawson, P L

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the antioxidant activity of peach skin and test the antioxidant effect of peach skin powder on cooked ground turkey meat during 12 d of refrigerated storage. Antioxidant activity of 3 cultivars of peaches grown in South Carolina was first evaluated by 3 antioxidant assays. The peach variety O'Henry showed the greatest antioxidant effect and therefore was used for further study. Two levels of peach skin powder (0.5%, 1%) and 0.01% butylated hydroxylanisole (BHA) were applied to ground turkey meat. Oxidation of cooked turkey meat was measured by detection of hexanal using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results indicated that all levels of peach skin powder used in this study had an antioxidant effect on ground turkey with a greater effect at the higher concentration. O'Henry peach skin powder was as effective as BHA in preventing oxidation at the levels tested. PMID:27252372

  17. Physicochemical properties of foal meat as affected by cooking methods.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M; Cittadini, Aurora; Munekata, Paulo E; Domínguez, Rubén

    2015-10-01

    The present study deals with the effect of four different cooking techniques (roasting, grilling, microwave baking and frying with olive oil) on physicochemical parameters (cooking loss, WHC, texture and colour) and lipid oxidation (by TBARS measurement) of foal meat. Thermal treatments induced water loss (P<0.001), being lower in foal steaks cooked in the grill (25.8%) and higher in foal samples cooked in the microwave (39.5%). As it was expected, all the cooking methods increased TBARS index, since high temperature during cooking seems to cause an increase of the lipid oxidation in foal steaks. Statistical analysis displayed that WHC was affected (P<0.001) by thermal treatment, since the smallest WHC values were observed in samples from microwave treatment. Thermal treatment also caused a significant (P<0.001) increase in the force needed to cut the foal steaks. Regarding colour parameter, cooking led to an increase of L*-value (lightness) and b*-value (yellowness), while a*-value (redness) markedly decreased in all samples. PMID:26042921

  18. Validation of a combi oven cooking method for preparation of chicken breast meat for quality assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quality assessment of cooked meat can be significantly affected by cooking techniques. A combi oven is a relatively new cooking technology in the U.S. market. However, there was lack of published information about its effect on quality measurements of chicken meat. The objective of this study was...

  19. Storage shelf-life and consumer acceptance of pre-cooked reindeer meat products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential for production of premium reindeer meat in Alaska is high and pre-cooked reindeer meat products are of great interest to producers and processors. There has been limited work on process, development and consumer acceptance of pre-cooked reindeer meat. Our objective was to assess consu...

  20. Low temperature cooking of pork meat - Physicochemical and sensory aspects.

    PubMed

    Becker, André; Boulaaba, Annika; Pingen, Sylvia; Krischek, Carsten; Klein, Günter

    2016-08-01

    Low-temperature cooking is increasingly used in the food sector. This study compared three different low temperature heating methods and one conventional cooking procedure of pork meat in a combi steamer with special emphasis on sensory parameters. Low temperature, long time (LTLT) treatments over 20h at 53°C or 58°C (LTLT 53°C or 58°C) showed considerable effects on meat tenderization. Heating to a core temperature of 60°C (low temperature method=LT) at 60°C oven temperature resulted in less tender but clearly juicier meat. LTLT 53°C and LT were evaluated as being equally acceptable by the panelists. The tenderest meat (LTLT 58°C) was mainly rejected because of a crumbly and dry mouth feeling. Conventional heating to a core temperature of 80°C at 180°C oven temperature resulted in low eating quality due to high toughness and low juiciness. PMID:27060409

  1. Optical and Chemical Characterization of Aerosols Produced from Cooked Meats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedziela, R. F.; Foreman, E.; Blanc, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    Cooking processes can release a variety compounds into the air immediately above a cooking surface. The distribution of compounds will largely depend on the type of food that is being processed and the temperatures at which the food is prepared. High temperatures release compounds from foods like meats and carry them away from the preparation surface into cooler regions where condensation into particles can occur. Aerosols formed in this manner can impact air quality, particularly in urban areas where the amount of food preparation is high. Reported here are the results of laboratory experiments designed to optically and chemically characterize aerosols derived from cooking several types of meats including ground beef, salmon, chicken, and pork both in an inert atmosphere and in synthetic air. The laboratory-generated aerosols are studied using a laminar flow cell that is configured to accommodate simultaneous optical characterization in the mid-infrared and collection of particles for subsequent chemical analysis by gas chromatography. Preliminary optical results in the visible and ultra-violet will also be presented.

  2. Meats and Meat Cookery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on meats and meat cookery is designed to help the Marine cook to identify, handle, process, and serve meats, poultry, fish, and shellfish. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students and a study guide (guidelines to complete…

  3. Postmortem Biochemistry of Meat and Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultin, Herbert O.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses structural and chemical features of muscle tissue. Emphasizes chemical and physical changes which occur during processing and storage and how these changes affect the eating quality of meat and fish. (JN)

  4. URINARY MUTAGENICITY AS A BIOMARKER OF COOKED-MEAT-ASSOCIATED MUTAGENS AND RISK FOR COLORECTAL ADENOMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary Mutagenicity as a Biomarker of Cooked-Meat-Associated Mutagens and Risk for Colorectal Adenoma

    In a controlled feeding study involving 60 subjects, we have investigated urinary mutagenicity as a biomarker of exposure to cooked-meat-associated mutagens. In a separa...

  5. Determination of Cooking Yields and Nutrient Retention Factors of Choline in Meat Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    USDA’s recent research shows that meat products are good sources of choline. During cooking, nutrient levels are affected by moisture and fat losses and may be reduced by heating. To determine the impact of cooking on choline retention in meats, four nationwide composite samples of beef, bacon, cure...

  6. Cooking methods and the formation of PhIP (2-Amino, 1-methyl, 6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine) in the crust of the habitually consumed meat in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Reartes, Gabriela Angelina; Di Paola Naranjo, Romina Daniela; Eynard, Aldo Renato; Muñoz, Sonia Edith

    2016-06-01

    Content of carcinogenic molecules like, 2-Amino, 1-methyl, 6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine in meals is one of the main mutagenic substances formed during meat cooking, and it can be used as a dietary exposure marker. Our objective was to estimate the amount of PhIP consumed from habitual Argentinean diet, rich in red meats, comparing different cooking procedures and meat type. Samples (n = 240) of lean and fatty beef, chicken, pork, and fish were cooked using different methods: griddle, grill, sauté pan, and oven. Samples were: Overcooked, or cooked with a microbiologically suitable or "healthy technique" (HT). The PhIP was determined by HPLC-MS. Meats cooked using HT formed little crust amounts and PhIP was below the detection levels. In overcooked meats, large amounts of crust were formed in lean meats, fatty beef, fatty chicken and baked pork. PhIP was measured in lean meats sauted or cooked on a griddle, a method reaching temperatures until 250 °C.It was estimated that Argentine people eats about 12,268.0 ng/day of PhIP being these values above those tolerated limits for total dietary heterocyclic amines in some developed countries. Hence, cooking small meat portions, at medium temperature, avoiding prolonged cooking and preferring baked lean meats could be recommended as a healthier habit. PMID:27059246

  7. URINARY MUTAGENESIS AS AN EXPOSURE BIOMARKER OF COOKED-MEAT-ASSOCIATED MUTAGENS: INFLUENCE OF COOKING TEMPERATURE, PHENOTYPE, AND GENOTYPE IN A CONTROLLED METABOLIC FEEDING STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    We evaluated urinary mutagenicity and selected phenotypes and genotypes in 60 subjects in a metabolic feeding study in which meat cooked at low temperature (100oC) was consumed for 1 week followed by meat cooked at high temperature (250oC) the second week. Meat coo...

  8. Microstructure and physical changes in the Mexican cooked lamb meat barbacoa made with chilled and frozen meat.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Solís, Joaquín; Figueroa-Rodríguez, Katia A; Figueroa-Sandoval, Benjamín; Hernández-Rosas, Francisco; Hernández-Cazares, Aleida S

    2016-08-01

    Longissimus dorci (LD) samples of different origin (imported and domestic) with pre-treatments (imported meat stored at -18°C for 6months, domestic meat stored at -18°C for 10days, and domestic meat stored at 4°C for 24h) were cooked as barbacoa and frozen using two treatments (air blast and liquid immersion) and then evaluated after 30days of storage. The results showed that the origin and pre-treatment of meat affected L*, a*, instrumental texture and microstructure; that the storage time affected pH, aw, b* and microstructure; and that the freezing treatments did not affect the meat. Overall, the frozen cooked lamb dish barbacoa could present some problems at the conservation stage due to an increase in pH, aw and changes in microstructure; however, the physical traits (color and texture) remained mostly unchanged and depended more on the quality of the raw meat. PMID:27093350

  9. Meat, Fish, and Poultry Processing Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litchfield, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of industrial wastes, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes studies on: (1) meat industry wastes; (2) fish-processing waste treatment; and (3) poultry-processing waste treatment. A list of 76 references is also presented. (HM)

  10. Wine industry residues extracts as natural antioxidants in raw and cooked chicken meat during frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Selani, M M; Contreras-Castillo, C J; Shirahigue, L D; Gallo, C R; Plata-Oviedo, M; Montes-Villanueva, N D

    2011-07-01

    The effect of Isabel (IGE) and Niagara (NGE) grape seed and peel extracts on lipid oxidation, instrumental colour, pH and sensory properties of raw and cooked processed chicken meat stored at -18°C for nine months was evaluated. The pH of raw and cooked samples was not affected by the addition of grape extracts. IGE and NGE were effective in inhibiting the lipid oxidation of raw and cooked chicken meat, with results comparable to synthetic antioxidants. The extracts caused alterations in colour, as evidenced by the instrumental (darkening and lower intensity of red and yellow colour) and sensory results of cooked samples. In the sensory evaluation of odour and flavour, IGE produced satisfactory results, which did not differ from synthetic antioxidants. These findings suggest that the IGE and NGE are effective in retarding lipid oxidation of raw and cooked chicken meat during frozen storage. PMID:21342750

  11. A test of the mutagenicity of cooked meats in vivo.

    PubMed

    Heddle, J A; Knize, M G; Dawod, D; Zhang, X B

    2001-03-01

    There is a correlation between intestinal cancer and diets high in meat, so fried beef, chicken, lamb, pork and fish were tested for their ability to induce mutations in the small intestine of mice. The mice were bred to be heterozygous at the Dlb-1 locus so that loss of the dominant Dlb-1 b allele by mutation could be detected. Mice were fed the AIN-76A diet (which contains 50% of the calories in the form of sucrose) or an isocaloric diet in which the sucrose was replaced by meat or fish, for 5 or 9 weeks. Manifestation of mutants requires approximately 1 week in this system, so this corresponds to an effective exposure of 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. There was no significant difference in the weights of animals on the different diets, and no difference in mutant frequency. Several food mutagens were present, but at low levels. These results, when considered in the light of tests of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine and amino(alpha)carboline at much higher doses (Zhang,X.-B., Tao,K.S., Urlando,C., Shaver-Walker,P. and Heddle,J.A. (1996) MUTAGENESIS:, 11, 43-48), indicate that there is no highly mutagenic compound missed by previous testing with bacterial assays and that mixtures of heterocyclic amines at low levels do not show great synergy. PMID:11230550

  12. Predictive model for growth of Clostridium perfringens during cooling of cooked uncured meat and poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparison of C. perfringens spore germination and outgrowth in cooked uncured products during cooling for different meat species is presented. Cooked, uncured product was inoculated with C. perfringens spores and vacuum packaged. For the isothermal experiments, all samples were incubated in a wat...

  13. Comparison of objective texture measurements in raw and cooked wooden breast meat.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broiler breast meat exhibiting the wooden breast condition is characterized as having an abnormally hard or rigid texture. The efficacy of using objective texture measurements to characterize the texture attributes of breast meat exhibiting this condition before and after cooking are not well under...

  14. Effects of Broiler Pectoralis Major Size on Sensory Descriptive Flavor and Texture Profiles of Cooked Meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing breast muscle mass has been the focus of chicken genetic selection in meat line for decades. The practice results in the investigation of effects of growth rates or body weight on sensory quality of cooked chicken breast meat. The objective of the present study was to compare sensory desc...

  15. The Effect of Thawing Condition for Frozen Fish Meats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Shuji; Osako, Kazufumi; Watanabe, Manabu; Suzuki, Toru

    The influence of thawing speed on denaturation of muscle protein and quality of several kinds frozen fish meat was studied by measuring Ca-ATPase activity, drip loss, and microscopic observation. Frozen bigeye tuna, chub mackerel, alaska pollack and yellow tail meat thawed at 10°C by air (slow thawing) and water (rapid thawing). Ca-ATPase activity of slow thawed fishes meat decreased than it of rapid thawed fishes meat. On the other hand drip loss of slow thawed fishes meat increased than it of rapid thawed fishes meat. Decreasing of Ca-ATPase activity showed a good linear relation to increasing of drip loss. Further, from microscopic observation, it was confirmed that muscle cells of slow thawed fishes meat were disrupted than it of rapid thawed samples. Therefore,it was suggested that rapid warming on thawing process is better to inhibit protein denaturation and drip loss.

  16. Quantification of peptides released during in vitro digestion of cooked meat.

    PubMed

    Sayd, T; Chambon, C; Santé-Lhoutellier, V

    2016-04-15

    We aimed to identify and quantify the peptides generated during in vitro digestion of cooked meat by liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometer. A total of 940 non-redundant peptides in the gastric compartment and 989 non-redundant peptides in the intestinal compartment were quantified and identified. Among the 71 different proteins identified, 43 meat proteins were found in the two digestive compartments, 20 proteins were specific to the gastric compartment and 8 proteins to the intestinal compartment. In terms of estimation, the proteins involved in muscle contraction and structure were preferentially enzymatically hydrolyzed in the small intestine. The effect of cooking provided different but less clear patterns of digestion. To the best of our knowledge, this constitutes the highest number of peptides identified in beef meat digests and provides a comprehensive database for meat protein digestion associated with cooking conditions. Such quantitative and qualitative differences may have important nutritional consequences. PMID:26675873

  17. Changes in Meat Quality Characteristics of the Sous-vide Cooked Chicken Breast during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the changes in meat quality characteristics of the sous vide cooked chicken breast during refrigerated storage at 4℃ for 14 d between before and after sous-vide cooking. Cooking loss and shear force were significantly increased, whereas expressible drip was significantly decreased along with reduction in the water holding capacity in both of two groups. Redness of meat juice was significantly (p<0.05) increased during storage, and considerably increased in the refrigerated samples after sous-vide cooked at the 7 to 10 d. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was significantly increased and was higher in the refrigerator stored chicken breast samples after sous-vide cooking. The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) value was significantly increased in both groups, but the VBN value of the stored raw meat sample before sous-vide cooking was increased at an early storage, while the VBN value of the stored sample after sous-vide cooking was increased gradually in this study. Total viable counts and coliform counts were significantly decreased during storage, and coliforms were not detected after 7 d of storage in both groups. Salmonella spp. was not detected during the whole studied period. The outcome of this research can provide preliminary data that could be used to apply for further study of chicken breast using sous-vide cooking method that could be attractive to consumers. PMID:26877635

  18. Changes in Meat Quality Characteristics of the Sous-vide Cooked Chicken Breast during Refrigerated Storage.

    PubMed

    Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Ji-Han; Ahn, Su-Jin; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the changes in meat quality characteristics of the sous vide cooked chicken breast during refrigerated storage at 4℃ for 14 d between before and after sous-vide cooking. Cooking loss and shear force were significantly increased, whereas expressible drip was significantly decreased along with reduction in the water holding capacity in both of two groups. Redness of meat juice was significantly (p<0.05) increased during storage, and considerably increased in the refrigerated samples after sous-vide cooked at the 7 to 10 d. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was significantly increased and was higher in the refrigerator stored chicken breast samples after sous-vide cooking. The volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) value was significantly increased in both groups, but the VBN value of the stored raw meat sample before sous-vide cooking was increased at an early storage, while the VBN value of the stored sample after sous-vide cooking was increased gradually in this study. Total viable counts and coliform counts were significantly decreased during storage, and coliforms were not detected after 7 d of storage in both groups. Salmonella spp. was not detected during the whole studied period. The outcome of this research can provide preliminary data that could be used to apply for further study of chicken breast using sous-vide cooking method that could be attractive to consumers. PMID:26877635

  19. Dietary supplemented and meat-added antioxidants effect on the lipid oxidative stability of refrigerated and frozen cooked chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Avila-Ramos, F; Pro-Martínez, A; Sosa-Montes, E; Cuca-García, J Manuel; Becerril-Pérez, C; Figueroa-Velasco, J L; Ruiz-Feria, C A; Hernández-Cázares, A S; Narciso-Gaytán, C

    2013-01-01

    The oxidation of fatty acids decreases the quality and shelf-life of meats. To reduce this process, dietary supplemented and meat-added antioxidants were evaluated on the lipid oxidative stability of cooked chicken meat. Broilers were fed 2 levels of vitamin E (10 or 100 mg•kg(-1) of feed; VE-10 and VE-100, respectively) or oregano essential oil (100 mg•kg(-1) of feed; OR-100). Additionally, honey (3%) or butylated hydroxytoluene (0.02%; BHT) were added to chicken meat from the control treatment (VE-10). Breast meat was ground, formed into patties, and cooked on electric grills until it reached an internal temperature of 74°C. Cooked meat was cooled at room temperature, packaged, and stored under refrigeration for 9 d (4°C) or frozen for 45 d (-20°C). The 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance test was used to quantify malondialdehyde (MDA) values in the meat. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures design, 5 treatments with 12 replications each, and the least squares means were compared with 4 orthogonal contrasts. The results showed that the meat of the VE-10 treatment had higher values of MDA (P ≤ 0.05) compared with the other antioxidant treatments in all the storage days. There were no differences (P ≥ 0.05) in MDA values between the dietary supplemented and meat-added antioxidant treatments. The meat added with honey had lower MDA values than the one with BHT (P ≤ 0.05). Meat of the VE-100 treatment showed lower MDA values than the one of OR-100 (P ≤ 0.05) in most storage days. In conclusion, supplementation of 10 mg•kg(-1) of vitamin E to the diet resulted in a higher development of lipid oxidation in the meat. Both dietary supplemented or meat-added antioxidants had similar effects on the lipid oxidative stability. The addition of honey maintained longer the lipid oxidative stability of the meat than BHT. Finally, dietary supplementation of vitamin E at the same level of oregano oil, 100 mg•kg(-1), resulted in a higher antioxidant

  20. Bioaccessibility of Pb from Ammunition in Game Meat Is Affected by Cooking Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mateo, Rafael; Baos, Ana R.; Vidal, Dolors; Camarero, Pablo R.; Martinez-Haro, Monica; Taggart, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The presence of lead (Pb) ammunition residues in game meat has been widely documented, yet little information exists regarding the bioaccessibility of this Pb contamination. We study how cooking treatment (recipe) can affect Pb bioaccessibility in meat of animals hunted with Pb ammunition. Methodology/Principal Findings We used an in vitro gastrointestinal simulation to study bioaccessibility. The simulation was applied to meat from red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) hunted with Pb shot pellets and cooked using various traditional Spanish game recipes involving wine or vinegar. Total Pb concentrations in the meat were higher in samples with visible Pb ammunition by X-ray (mean±SE: 3.29±1.12 µg/g w.w.) than in samples without this evidence (1.28±0.61 µg/g). The percentage of Pb that was bioaccessible within the simulated intestine phase was far higher in meat cooked with vinegar (6.75%) and wine (4.51%) than in uncooked meat (0.7%). Risk assessment simulations using our results transformed to bioavailability and the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic model (IEUBK; US EPA) show that the use of wine instead of vinegar in cooking recipes may reduce the percentage of children that would be expected to have >10 µg/dl of Pb in blood from 2.08% to 0.26% when game meat represents 50% of the meat in diet. Conclusions/Significance Lead from ammunition in game meat is more bioaccessible after cooking, especially when using highly acidic recipes. These results are important because existing theoretical models regarding Pb uptake and subsequent risk in humans should take such factors into account. PMID:21264290

  1. Quality of cooked ground buffalo meat treated with the crude extracts of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Suchandra; Biswas, Subhasish; Bhattacharyya, Debasish; Das, Sudip Kumar; Khan, Anupam

    2012-04-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the physico-chemical, microbial and organoleptic qualities of cooked ground buffalo meat (GBM), treated with, 1, 1.5 and 2% levels of aqueous solution of crude extract of drumstick (Moringa oleifera) leaves. The meat samples treated with 1.5% crude extract of drumstick leaves significantly (P < 0.05) improved meat pH and water holding capacity (WHC) and lowered cooking loss and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value as compared to control and other treated samples. Microbial load in terms of Total Plate Count (TPC) was found to be decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in treated samples. No significant (P > 0.05) difference was observed in juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability scores between the treated meat samples. PMID:23572848

  2. Microbial evaluation of Spanish potato omelette and cooked meat samples in University restaurants.

    PubMed

    Soriano, J M; Rico, H; Moltó, J C; Mañes, J

    2000-09-01

    The focus of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of Spanish potato omelette and cooked meat samples including pork loin, chicken croquettes, long pork sausage, chicken breast, and meatballs from University restaurants. Microbiological analyses of Spanish potato omelette and cooked meat samples resulted in aerobic plate counts from <1.00 to 2.90 and from <1.00 to 6.04 log10 CFU g(-1), respectively. Total coliforms ranged from <3 to 43 most probable number (MPN) g(-1) and from <3 to >2,400 MPN g(-1) for Spanish potato omelette and meat products, respectively. Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive staphylococci, and Lancefield group-D streptococci were detected in 1.7%, 3.5%, and 12.9% of Spanish potato omelette samples, respectively. For cooked meat samples, 8.8%, 7.6%, and 24.6% contained E. coli, coagulase-positive staphylococci, and Lancefield group-D streptococci, respectively. E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Shigella spp. were not detected. Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae, and Serratia spp. were isolated from Spanish potato omelette samples. For cooked meat samples, C. freundii, E. cloacae, and Aeromonas hydrophila were detected. The results suggest that some handling practices should require more attention, and as a consequence, a hazard analysis and critical control point program should be developed and implemented. PMID:10983805

  3. Effect of different fat level on microwave cooking properties of goat meat patties.

    PubMed

    Das, Arun K; Rajkumar, V

    2013-12-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of various fat levels on the cooking and sensory properties of goat meat patties cooked by microwave energy. Goat meat patties were prepared with refined vegetable oil to get fat level of 5, 10, 15 and 20%. Each patty was cooked in a microwave oven with full power (700 W) operating at 2450 MHz to an internal temperature of 75-80 °C. pH value of raw patties with 5% fat level were lower compared to patties with 10, 15 and 20% fat level. Fat level did not affect emulsion stability of batter but it decreased as fat level increased. Microwave cooking time decreased as fat levels increased. With an increase in fat contents, protein and moisture in raw patties decreased and in cooked meat patties with 5% fat had higher protein and moisture content than those with more fat. Patties with 5% level showed lower cooking loss than other fat level. Water activity of patties was affected by fat level and patties with 15 and 20% fat had lower water activity than patties with 5 and 10% fat. As fat level increased, shear force value decreased indicating soft texture. Subjective colour evaluation indicated that 5% patties were darker and redder than patties with more fat. Sensory analysis revealed that goat meat patties with 5 and 10% fat had less flavour and juicer than patties with 15 and 20% fat. Goat meat patties with 20% fat were the juiciest. Tenderness and oiliness increased significantly with an increase in fat level. Patties with 15% fat were rated higher overall palatability than others. PMID:24426036

  4. Assessing the performance of Clostridium perfringens cooling models for cooked, uncured meat and poultry products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heat-resistant spores of C. perfringens may germinate and multiply in cooked meat and poultry products if the rate and extent of cooling does not occur in a timely manner. Therefore, six cooling models (PMP 7.0 broth model; PMIP Uncured Beef, Chicken, and Pork Models; Smith-Schaffner (version 3); a...

  5. A New Automated Microwave Heating Process for Cooking and Pasteurization of Microwaveable Foods Containing Raw Meats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new microwave heating process was developed for cooking microwaveable foods containing raw meats. A commercially available inverter-based microwave oven was modified for pasteurization of mechanically tenderized beef, inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 (~ 5 log cfu/g) and packaged in a 12 o...

  6. Near-Infrared Surface Pasteurization to Eliminate Listeria monocytogenes on Cooked Chicken Breast Meat Surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to develop and evaluate a near-infrared (NIR) surface pasteurization process for decontamination of cooked ready-to-eat (RTE) meats to eliminate Listeria monocytogenes. An infrared heating device equipped with two fast-acting NIR-generating quartz lamps, an infrar...

  7. Occurrence of heterocyclic amines in several home-cooked meat dishes of the Spanish diet.

    PubMed

    Busquets, R; Bordas, M; Toribio, F; Puignou, L; Galceran, M T

    2004-03-25

    Heterocyclic amines (HAs) were determined in several of the most frequently eaten meat dishes in Spain such as fried beef hamburger, fried pork loin, fried chicken breast, fried pork sausages, griddled chicken breast, griddled lamb steak and griddled beef steak. All of the products tested were household cooked. The HAs were analysed in the selected meat dishes using an analytical method based on solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. DMIP, MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, Norharman, Harman, PhIP, Trp-P-1, AalphaC and MeAalphaC were the amines most frequently found at concentrations of up to 47 ng g(-1) of cooked meat. Glu-P-2, IQ, MeIQ, Glu-P-1, 7,8-DiMeIQx and Trp-P-2 were only found in a few of the meat dishes and their concentrations were lower than 1 ng g(-1) of cooked meat. The highest amounts of HAs, especially PhIP and DMIP, were formed in fried chicken breast and the lowest were formed in fried beef hamburger and in fried pork sausages. Daily intake of HAs in Spain was estimated at 606 ng of mutagenic HAs per capita and day, DMIP and PhIP being the main contributors. PMID:15035999

  8. Effect of different cooking methods on lipid oxidation and formation of volatile compounds in foal meat.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Rubén; Gómez, María; Fonseca, Sonia; Lorenzo, José M

    2014-06-01

    The influence of four different cooking methods (roasting, grilling, microwaving and frying) on cooking loss, lipid oxidation and volatile profile of foal meat was studied. Cooking loss were significantly (P<0.001) affected by thermal treatment, being higher (32.5%) after microwaving and lower after grilling (22.5%) and frying (23.8%). As expected, all the cooking methods increased TBARs content, since high temperature during cooking causes increased oxidation in foal steaks, this increase was significantly (P<0.001) higher when foal steaks were microwaved or roasted. The four different cooking methods led to increased total volatile compounds (between 366.7 and 633.1AU×10(6)/g dry matter) compared to raw steaks (216.4AU×10(6)/g dry matter). The roasted steaks showed the highest volatile content, indicating that increased cooking temperature increases the formation of volatile compounds. Aldehydes were the most abundant compounds in cooked samples, with amounts of 217.2, 364.5, 283.5 and 409.1AU×10(6)/g dry matter in grilled, microwaved, fried and roasted samples, respectively, whereas esters were the most abundant compounds in raw samples, with mean amounts of 98.8AU×10(6)/g dry matter. PMID:24583332

  9. Turmeric and black pepper spices decrease lipid peroxidation in meat patties during cooking

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanjun; Henning, Susanne M.; Lee, Ru-Po; Huang, Jianjun; Zerlin, Alona; Li, Zhaoping; Heber, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Spices are rich in natural antioxidants and have been shown to be potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation during cooking of meat. Turmeric contains unique conjugated curcuminoids with strong antioxidant activity. Piperine, one of the main constituents of black pepper, is known to increase the bioavailability of curcuminoids in mouse and human studies when consumed with turmeric. We investigated whether adding black pepper to turmeric powder may further inhibit lipid peroxidation when added to meat patties prior to cooking. The addition of black pepper to turmeric significantly decreased the lipid peroxidation in hamburger meat. When investigating the antioxidant activity of the main chemical markers, we determined that piperine did not exhibit any antioxidant activity. Therefore, we conclude that other black pepper ingredients are responsible for the increased antioxidant activity of combining black pepper with turmeric powder. PMID:25582173

  10. Turmeric and black pepper spices decrease lipid peroxidation in meat patties during cooking.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Henning, Susanne M; Lee, Ru-Po; Huang, Jianjun; Zerlin, Alona; Li, Zhaoping; Heber, David

    2015-05-01

    Spices are rich in natural antioxidants and have been shown to be potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation during cooking of meat. Turmeric contains unique conjugated curcuminoids with strong antioxidant activity. Piperine, one of the main constituents of black pepper, is known to increase the bioavailability of curcuminoids in mouse and human studies when consumed with turmeric. We investigated whether adding black pepper to turmeric powder may further inhibit lipid peroxidation when added to meat patties prior to cooking. The addition of black pepper to turmeric significantly decreased the lipid peroxidation in hamburger meat. When investigating the antioxidant activity of the main chemical markers, we determined that piperine did not exhibit any antioxidant activity. Therefore, we conclude that other black pepper ingredients are responsible for the increased antioxidant activity of combining black pepper with turmeric powder. PMID:25582173

  11. Modeling cooking of chicken meat in industrial tunnel ovens with the Flory-Rehner theory.

    PubMed

    van der Sman, R G M

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we present a numerical model describing the heat and mass transport during the cooking of chicken meat in industrial tunnels. The mass transport is driven by gradients in the swelling pressure, which is described by the Flory-Rehner theory, which relates to the water holding capacity (WHC). For cooking temperatures up to boiling point and practical relevant cooking times, the model renders good prediction of heat and mass transport and the total loss of moisture. We have shown that for cooking temperatures above boiling point, the model has to be extended with the dynamic growth of capillary water (drip) channels. Furthermore, we discuss that the Flory-Rehner theory provides the proper physical basis for describing the change of the WHC by a wide variety of factors like salt and pH. PMID:23618650

  12. Detection and quantification of 4(5)-methylimidazole in cooked meat.

    PubMed

    Karim, Faris; Smith, J Scott

    2015-02-01

    4(5)-Methylimidazole (4-MeI) is a nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compound found in class III and IV ammoniated caramel colors, a group of additives widely used in the food industry. A suspected carcinogen and neurotoxin and efforts are underway to limit its presence in foods. Several methods have been developed to detect and quantitate 4-MeI in different food matrices, including roasted coffee, beer, soft drinks, and soy sauce; however, no methods are available to measure 4-MeI in cooked meat and meat products containing lipids and high levels of interfering nitrogen compounds, such as amino acids and peptides. A rapid method using 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer (pH 5) as an extraction solvent followed by derivatization with isobutylchloroformate and gas chromatograph mass-spectrometry was developed to quantify 4-MeI in cooked meat products with added caramel colors containing 4-MeI. Selected ion monitoring mode was used to monitor 4-MeI ions fragments. In the 8 commercial meat products tested, 4-MeI levels ranged from 0.041 to 1.015 mg/kg, with recovery of 94.76% to 103.94%. In addition, a matrix-matched calibration performed by analyzing a spiked cooked meat sample indicated no significant difference (P > 0.05), which means the meat matrix had no effect on the developed method. This method proved useful in analyzing 4-MeI in meat products with added caramel color containing 4-MeI. PMID:25603986

  13. Effects of citric acid, cucumis powder and pressure cooking on quality attributes of goat meat curry.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Raj; Mendiratta, S K; Mane, B G

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, comparative effects of marination in citric acid (1 %), spray of cucumis powder (2 %) and pressure cooking (at 15 psi) were observed on quality attributes of goat meat curry. Significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed in pH of citric acid treated samples compared to other samples. Significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed in protein and soluble collagen content of meat curry treated with pressure as compared to other treated samples including control. Cooking yield was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in control samples. The significant difference was observed in chewiness and gumminess at (p < 0.05) level and hardness at (p < 0.01) level within and between the various treatment groups. However, overall values were higher in control samples. Similarly, shear force value was significantly (p < 0.05) higher for control compared to treated samples. The significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed in various sensory attributes of goat meat curry and pressure treated cooked meat curry was highly preferred followed by cucumis powder, citric acid and control samples. PMID:25745255

  14. Combined heat transfer and kinetic models to predict cooking loss during heat treatment of beef meat.

    PubMed

    Kondjoyan, Alain; Oillic, Samuel; Portanguen, Stéphane; Gros, Jean-Bernard

    2013-10-01

    A heat transfer model was used to simulate the temperature in 3 dimensions inside the meat. This model was combined with a first-order kinetic models to predict cooking losses. Identification of the parameters of the kinetic models and first validations were performed in a water bath. Afterwards, the performance of the combined model was determined in a fan-assisted oven under different air/steam conditions. Accurate knowledge of the heat transfer coefficient values and consideration of the retraction of the meat pieces are needed for the prediction of meat temperature. This is important since the temperature at the center of the product is often used to determine the cooking time. The combined model was also able to predict cooking losses from meat pieces of different sizes and subjected to different air/steam conditions. It was found that under the studied conditions, most of the water loss comes from the juice expelled by protein denaturation and contraction and not from evaporation. PMID:23747627

  15. The effect of high pressure at subzero temperature on proteins solubility, drip loss and texture of fish (cod and salmon) and mammal's (pork and beef) meat.

    PubMed

    Malinowska-Pańczyk, Edyta; Walecka, Marta; Pawłowicz, Roman; Tylingo, Robert; Kołodziejska, Ilona

    2014-07-01

    One of the possibilities of using high-pressure technique in inactivation of microorganism is conducting this process at subzero temperature. However, for its practical application in meat preservation the appropriate properties of meat should be maintained. Therefore, the aim of this work was to examine the effect of pressure at subzero temperature (without freezing of water) on proteins and texture of mammal's and cold-adapted fish meat. The data showed that cod and salmon meat proteins were more susceptible to pressure-induced denaturation/aggregation than beef and pork proteins. Glucose and saccharose exerted protective effect on fish meat proteins treated with pressure of 111 MPa(tc) and -10 degrees C but not at 193 MPa(tc) and -20 degrees C. The pressure treatment under the latter conditions increased cook loss of fish meat but not of mammal's meat. However, after cooking the hardness of all kinds of pressurized meat was at the same level as that for unpressurized cooked samples. PMID:23751552

  16. Industrial wastes: meat, fish and poultry processing wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Litchfield, J.H.

    1980-06-01

    This article is a review of meat, fish and poultry processing wastes. Reviews on slaughterhouse and packinghouse wastewater treatment methods were mentioned together with processes for protein recovery from wastewater and wastewater treatment sludges.

  17. Meat-, fish-, and poultry-processing wastes. [Industrial wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Litchfield, J.H.

    1982-06-01

    A review of the literature dealing with the effectiveness of various waste processing methods for meat-, fish,-, and poultry-processing wastes is presented. Activated sludge processes, anaerobic digestion, filtration, screening, oxidation ponds, and aerobic digestion are discussed.

  18. Taste-active compound levels in Korean native chicken meat: The effects of bird age and the cooking process.

    PubMed

    Jayasena, Dinesh D; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Yong, Hae In; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-08-01

    The effects of bird age and the cooking process on the levels of several taste-active compounds, including inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP), glutamic acid, cysteine, reducing sugars, as well as oleic, linoleic, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA), in the breast and leg meats from a certified meat-type commercial Korean native chicken (KNC) strain (Woorimatdag) were investigated. KNC cocks were raised under similar standard conditions at a commercial chicken farm, and breast and leg meats from birds of various ages (10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 wk; 10 birds/age group) were obtained. After raw and cooked meat samples were prepared, they were analyzed for the aforementioned taste-active compounds. Compared to the leg meat, KNC breast meat had higher levels of IMP, arachidonic acid, and DHA, but lower levels of the other taste-active compounds (P < 0.05). KNC meat lost significant amounts of all the taste-active compounds, excluding oleic and linoleic acids, during the cooking process (P < 0.05). However, bird age only had a minor effect on the levels of these taste-active compounds. The results of this study provide useful information regarding the levels of taste-active compounds in KNC meat from birds of different ages, and their fate during the cooking process. This information could be useful for selection and breeding programs, and for popularizing native chicken meat. PMID:26049798

  19. Influences of muscle composition and structure of pork from different breeds on stability and textural properties of cooked meat emulsion.

    PubMed

    Sorapukdee, Supaluk; Kongtasorn, Chananya; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop

    2013-06-01

    The influences of composition and structure of meats from different pig breeds, including Duroc (D), Large White (LW), Landrace (LR), two-way cross (LR×LW) and three-way cross (D×[LR×LW]) on stability and textural characteristics of cooked meat emulsions were studied by using partial least squares (PLS) regression. Compared to other pig breeds, cooked meat emulsion from LW exhibited superior properties as indicated by lower water and fat released as well as higher chewiness, gumminess, cohesiveness, resilience, springiness and hardness. The univariate analyses of those selected properties indicated a significant correlation with higher contents of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins, smaller muscle fibre diameter and lower myofibril fragmentation of LW meat, as compared to other breeds. Therefore properties of cooked pork emulsion were influenced by composition and structure of meat, which varied according to the pig breeds. PMID:23411322

  20. Meat intake, cooking methods, dietary carcinogens, and colorectal cancer risk: findings from the Colorectal Cancer Family Registry.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Amit D; Kim, Andre; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Potter, John D; Cotterchio, Michelle; Le Marchand, Loic; Stern, Mariana C

    2015-06-01

    Diets high in red meat and processed meats are established colorectal cancer (CRC) risk factors. However, it is still not well understood what explains this association. We conducted comprehensive analyses of CRC risk and red meat and poultry intakes, taking into account cooking methods, level of doneness, estimated intakes of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) that accumulate during meat cooking, tumor location, and tumor mismatch repair proficiency (MMR) status. We analyzed food frequency and portion size data including a meat cooking module for 3364 CRC cases, 1806 unaffected siblings, 136 unaffected spouses, and 1620 unaffected population-based controls, recruited into the CRC Family Registry. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for nutrient density variables were estimated using generalized estimating equations. We found no evidence of an association between total nonprocessed red meat or total processed meat and CRC risk. Our main finding was a positive association with CRC for pan-fried beefsteak (P(trend) < 0.001), which was stronger among MMR deficient cases (heterogeneity P = 0.059). Other worth noting associations, of borderline statistical significance after multiple testing correction, were a positive association between diets high in oven-broiled short ribs or spareribs and CRC risk (P(trend) = 0.002), which was also stronger among MMR-deficient cases, and an inverse association with grilled hamburgers (P(trend) = 0.002). Our results support the role of specific meat types and cooking practices as possible sources of human carcinogens relevant for CRC risk. PMID:25846122

  1. Relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire with a meat-cooking and heterocyclic amine module.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, Marie; Mittl, Beth; Curtin, Jane; Carroll, Ray; Potischman, Nancy; Caporaso, Neil; Sinha, Rashmi

    2004-02-01

    The nutrient and heterocyclic amine (HCA) intake of 165 healthy participants was assessed using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), which included a meat-cooking practices module. A database containing the HCA [2-amino-3,8-dimethylimadazo [4,5-f] quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimadazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP)] composition of various types of meat, cooked by different methods and to varying degrees, was developed and validated in conjunction with this module. The relative validity of dietary and HCA intake estimated by the FFQ was investigated using multiple food diaries (3 sets of 4 nonconsecutive day diaries completed over a 3-month period) as the reference method. Crude correlation coefficients of HCA intake assessed by the FFQ and food diaries were 0.43 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.30-0.55] for MeIQx and 0.22 (95% CI 0.07-0.36) for PhIP intake. Deattenuated correlations were 0.60 (95% CI 0.49-0.69) and 0.36 (95% CI 0.22-0.49), respectively. Absolute MeIQx and PhIP intake was, however, underestimated by the FFQ (21.9 and 78.1 ng/day) compared with the food diaries (34.9 and 263.8 ng/day). The FFQ underestimated total red meat intake, the percentage of consumers, and the median intake of roast/baked and microwaved red meat. PhIP intake was severely underestimated by the FFQ and was most likely because of an underestimation of the percentage of people who cooked chicken using PhIP-producing cooking methods such as broiling and pan-frying. Additionally, the FFQ overestimated the percentage of consumers of baked chicken, a cooking method that produces less PhIP. In conclusion, although the FFQ and meat module underestimated absolute MeIQx and PhIP intake, its ability to rank individuals according to intake was acceptable. PMID:14973110

  2. Phage inactivation of foodborne pathogens on cooked and raw meat.

    PubMed

    Bigwood, T; Hudson, J A; Billington, C; Carey-Smith, G V; Heinemann, J A

    2008-04-01

    Phages infecting Salmonella Typhimurium PT160 and Campylobacter jejuni were added at a low or high (10 or 10(4)) multiplicity of infection (MOI) to either low or high (<100 or 10(4)cm(-2)) densities of host bacteria inoculated onto raw and cooked beef, and incubated at 5 and 24 degrees C to simulate refrigerated and room temperature storage. Counts of host bacteria were made throughout the incubation period, with phages being counted at the first and last sampling times. Host inactivation was variable and depended on the incubation conditions and food type. Significant host inactivations of the order of 2-3 log(10)cm(-2) at 5 degrees C and >5.9 log(10)cm(-2) at 24 degrees C were achieved compared to phage-free controls using the Salmonella phage under optimal conditions (high host cell density and MOI). These results alongside those already published indicate that phages may be useful in the control for foodborne pathogens. PMID:18206783

  3. Fate of polybrominated diphenyl ethers during cooking of fish in a new model cooking apparatus and a household microwave.

    PubMed

    Bendig, Paul; Hägele, Florian; Blumenstein, Marina; Schmidt, Jasmin; Vetter, Walter

    2013-07-10

    Fish is a major source of human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Because fish is mainly consumed after cooking, this measure may alter the pattern and amounts of PBDEs that are finally consumed. To investigate this issue, we developed a model cooking apparatus consisting of a small glass bowl and a beaker glass with an exhaust fitted with a polyurethane foam filter connected to a water jet pump. In this model cooking apparatus, fish (1 g) and/or sunflower oil (0.2/0.4 g) spiked with three PBDE congeners was cooked for 30 min. Small amounts of the semi-volatile PBDEs were evaporated from the fish (BDE-47 < BDE-15), while the non-volatile BDE-209 was partly transformed. Additional experiments in a household microwave provided similar results, except that no transformation was observed for BDE-209. The model cooking apparatus proved to be well-suited to study the fate of polyhalogenated compounds in fish during cooking. PMID:23772916

  4. Design and testing of small scale fish meat bone separator useful for fish processing.

    PubMed

    Ali Muhammed, M; Manjunatha, N; Murthy, K Venkatesh; Bhaskar, N

    2015-06-01

    The present study relates to the food processing machinery and, more specifically machine for producing boneless comminuted meat from raw fish fillet. This machine is of belt and drum type meat bone separator designed for small scale fish processing in a continuous mode. The basic principal involved in this machine is compression force. The electric geared motor consists of 1HP and the conveyor belt has a linear velocity of 19 to 22 m min(-1), which was sufficient to debone the fish effectively. During the meat bone separation trials an efficiency up to 75 % on dressed fish weight basis was observed and with a capacity to separate 70 kg h(-1) of meat from fish at the machine speed of 25 rpm. During the trials, it was demonstrated that there was no significant change in the proximate composition of comminuted fish meat when compared to unprocessed fish meat. This design has a greater emphasis on hygiene, provision for cleaning-in-place (CIP) and gives cost effective need and reliability for small scale industries to produce fish meat in turn used for their value added products. PMID:26028734

  5. Assessing the Performance of Clostridium perfringens Cooling Models for Cooked, Uncured Meat and Poultry Products.

    PubMed

    Mohr, T B; Juneja, V K; Thippareddi, H H; Schaffner, D W; Bronstein, P A; Silverman, M; Cook, L V

    2015-08-01

    Heat-resistant spores of Clostridium perfringens may germinate and multiply in cooked meat and poultry products when the rate and extent of cooling does not occur in a timely manner. Therefore, six cooling models (PMP 7.0 broth model; PMIP uncured beef, chicken, and pork models; Smith-Schaffner version 3; and UK IFR ComBase Perfringens Predictor) were evaluated for relative performance in predicting growth of C. perfringens under dynamic temperature conditions encountered during cooling of cooked, uncured meat and poultry products. The predicted growth responses from the models were extensively compared with those observed in food. Data from 188 time-temperature cooling profiles (176 for single-rate exponential cooling and 12 for dual-rate exponential cooling) were collected from 17 independent sources (16 peer-reviewed publications and one report) for model evaluation. Data were obtained for a variety of cooked products, including meat and poultry slurries, ground meat and poultry products with and without added ingredients (e.g., potato starch, sodium triphosphate, and potassium tetrapyrophosphate), and processed products such as ham and roast beef. Performance of the models was evaluated using three sets of criteria, and accuracy was defined within a 1- to 2-log range. The percentages of accurate, fail-safe, or fail-dangerous predictions for each cooling model differed depending on which criterion was used to evaluate the data set. Nevertheless, the combined percentages of accurate and fail-safe predictions based on the three performance criteria were 34.66 to 42.61% for the PMP 7.0 beef broth model, 100% for the PMIP cooling models for uncured beef, uncured pork and uncured chicken, 80.11 to 93.18% for the Smith-Schaffner cooling model, and 74.43 to 85.23% for the UK IFR ComBase Perfringens Predictor model during single-rate exponential chilling. Except for the PMP 7.0 broth model, the other five cooling models (PMIP, Smith-Schaffner, and UK IFR ComBase) are

  6. Volatile organic compound analysis in wood combustion and meat cooking emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinska, B.; McDonald, J.

    1999-07-01

    Residential wood combustion and meat cooking emissions were each analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOC). Emissions were diluted 60--100 times, cooled to ambient temperature, and allowed 80 seconds for condensation prior to collection with the aid of a DRI-constructed dilution stack sampler. Fireplace and wood-stove emissions testing was conducted at the DRI facilities. Wood type, wood moisture, burn rate, and fuel load were varied for different experiments. Meat emissions testing was conducted at the CE-CERT stationary emissions lab, University of California, Riverside. Meat type, fat content, and cooking appliance were changed in different tests. VOCs were collected using stainless-steel 6 L canisters and Tenax cartridges, whereas for carbonyl compound collection 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-impregnated C{sub 18} SepPack cartridges were used. Analysis of VOC collected with canisters and Tenax cartridges was conducted by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) and by GC/FID/ECD (flame ionization detection/electron capture detection). DNPH-impregnated cartridges were analyzed for fourteen C{sub 1}--C{sub 7} carbonyl compounds, using the HPLC method. The results of these measurements are discussed.

  7. Detection of the end point temperature of thermal denatured protein in fish and chicken meat through SDS-PAGE electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hongwei; Mao, Mao; Liang, Chengzhu; Lin, Chao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2009-03-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was applied in the detection of the end point temperature (EPT) of thermal denatured protein in fish and meat in this study. It was also used in studying the thermal denatured temperature range of proteins in salmon and chicken meat. The results show that the temperature ranges of denatured proteins were from 65°C to 75°C, and these temperature ranges were influenced by the processing methods. Through SDS-PAGE, the features of repeated heating thermal denatured proteins under the same temperature and processing time were studied. The electrophoresis patterns of thermal denatured proteins determined through repeated heating at the same temperature did not exhibit any change. For the detection of cooked fish and meat samples, they were subjected to applying the SDS-PAGE method, which revealed an EPT ranging from 60°C to 80°C.

  8. Developing a heme iron database for meats according to meat type, cooking method and doneness level

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Animal studies have demonstrated that iron may be related to carcinogenesis, and human studies found that heme iron can increase the formation of N-nitroso compounds, which are known carcinogens. Objectives: One of the postulated mechanisms linking red meat intake to cancer risk involves...

  9. Effects of pale, normal, and dark chicken breast meat on microstructure, extractable proteins, and cooking of marinated fillets.

    PubMed

    Barbut, S; Zhang, L; Marcone, M

    2005-05-01

    The effects of chicken breast meat lightness value (L*) on microstructure, protein extraction, and marinating and tumbling was investigated. Pale soft, and exudative (PSE) meat (L* = 57.7, pH 5.72) showed significantly lower salt soluble protein extraction with less heavy myosin chains compared with dark, firm, and dry (DFD) meat (L* = 44.8, pH 6.27). The PSE meat showed larger intercellular spaces among muscle fibers and bundles compared with normal and DFD meat. Marinated and tumbled PSE breast fillets had higher unbound brine compared with the other meats. Further cooking resulted in lower yield and higher shear force values for the PSE meat compared with normal and DFD fillets. PMID:15913193

  10. Bioactive Peptides from Muscle Sources: Meat and Fish

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Joseph Thomas; Ross, Reynolds Paul; Bolton, Declan; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Stanton, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive peptides have been identified in a range of foods, including plant, milk and muscle, e.g., beef, chicken, pork and fish muscle proteins. Bioactive peptides from food proteins offer major potential for incorporation into functional foods and nutraceuticals. The aim of this paper is to present an outline of the bioactive peptides identified in the muscle protein of meat to date, with a focus on muscle protein from domestic animals and fish. The majority of research on bioactives from meat sources has focused on angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory and antioxidant peptides. PMID:22254123

  11. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, Iron Content and Lipid Oxidation of Raw and Cooked Meat of Korean Native Chickens and Other Poultry

    PubMed Central

    Muhlisin; Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Jae Ho; Choi, Ji Hye; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to observe antioxidant enzyme activity, iron content and lipid oxidation of Korean native chickens and other poultry. The breast and thigh meat of three Korean native chicken breeds including Woorimatdak, Hyunin black and Yeonsan ogye, and three commercial poultry breeds including the broiler, White Leghorn and Pekin duck (Anasplatyrhyncos domesticus) were studied. The analyses of the antioxidant enzymes activity, iron content and lipid oxidation were performed in raw and cooked samples. The activity of catalase (CAT) in the thigh meat was higher than that of the breast meat of three Korean native chickens and the broiler, respectively. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the uncooked thigh meat of three Korean native chickens was higher than that of the breasts. The breast meat of Woorimatdak and Pekin duck had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity than the others, while only the thigh meat of Pekin duck had the highest activity. Cooking inactivated CAT and decreased the activity of GPx and SOD. The thigh meat of Woorimatdak, White Leghorn, Yeonsan ogye and Hyunin black contained more total iron than the breast meat of those breeds. The heme-iron lost during cooking ranged from 3.2% to 14.8%. It is noted that the thigh meat had higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values than the breast in all chicken breeds. Though Woorimatdak showed higher antioxidant enzyme activity and lower released-iron percentage among Korean native chickens, no differences were found on lipid oxidation. We confirm that the dark meat of poultry exhibited higher antioxidant enzyme activity and contained more iron than the white meat. PMID:26954148

  12. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, Iron Content and Lipid Oxidation of Raw and Cooked Meat of Korean Native Chickens and Other Poultry.

    PubMed

    Muhlisin; Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Jae Ho; Choi, Ji Hye; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to observe antioxidant enzyme activity, iron content and lipid oxidation of Korean native chickens and other poultry. The breast and thigh meat of three Korean native chicken breeds including Woorimatdak, Hyunin black and Yeonsan ogye, and three commercial poultry breeds including the broiler, White Leghorn and Pekin duck (Anasplatyrhyncos domesticus) were studied. The analyses of the antioxidant enzymes activity, iron content and lipid oxidation were performed in raw and cooked samples. The activity of catalase (CAT) in the thigh meat was higher than that of the breast meat of three Korean native chickens and the broiler, respectively. The activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the uncooked thigh meat of three Korean native chickens was higher than that of the breasts. The breast meat of Woorimatdak and Pekin duck had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity than the others, while only the thigh meat of Pekin duck had the highest activity. Cooking inactivated CAT and decreased the activity of GPx and SOD. The thigh meat of Woorimatdak, White Leghorn, Yeonsan ogye and Hyunin black contained more total iron than the breast meat of those breeds. The heme-iron lost during cooking ranged from 3.2% to 14.8%. It is noted that the thigh meat had higher thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values than the breast in all chicken breeds. Though Woorimatdak showed higher antioxidant enzyme activity and lower released-iron percentage among Korean native chickens, no differences were found on lipid oxidation. We confirm that the dark meat of poultry exhibited higher antioxidant enzyme activity and contained more iron than the white meat. PMID:26954148

  13. THERMAL INACTIVATION D AND Z VALUES OF SALMONELLA AND LISTERIA INNOCUA IN FULLY COOKED AND VACUUM PACKAGED CHICKEN BREAST MEAT DURING POSTCOOK HEAT TREATMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to determine thermal inactivation D and z values of Salmonella and Listeria innouca in fully cooked and vacuum packaged chicken breast meat. Fully cooked chicken breast meat products that were obtained from three different sources with differing formulations were uniformly in...

  14. Cooking temperature is a key determinant of in vitro meat protein digestion rate: investigation of underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bax, Marie-Laure; Aubry, Laurent; Ferreira, Claude; Daudin, Jean-Dominique; Gatellier, Philippe; Rémond, Didier; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique

    2012-03-14

    The present study aimed to evaluate the digestion rate and nutritional quality of pig muscle proteins in relation to different meat processes (aging, mincing, and cooking). Under our experimental conditions, aging and mincing had little impact on protein digestion. Heat treatments had different temperature-dependent effects on the meat protein digestion rate and degradation potential. At 70 °C, the proteins underwent denaturation that enhanced the speed of pepsin digestion by increasing enzyme accessibility to protein cleavage sites. Above 100 °C, oxidation-related protein aggregation slowed pepsin digestion but improved meat protein overall digestibility. The digestion parameters defined here open new insights on the dynamics governing the in vitro digestion of meat protein. However, the effect of cooking temperature on protein digestion observed in vitro needs to be confirmed in vivo. PMID:22335241

  15. Capillarity proposed as the predominant mechanism of water and fat stabilization in cooked comminuted meat batters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenjie; Lanier, Tyre C; Osborne, Jason A

    2016-01-01

    Fat- and nonfat-containing meat gels structurally became coarser and porous by partial substitution of whey protein isolate for myofibrillar protein, creating a weaker texture plus greater cook loss (CL: fat+water) and expressible water (EW). Microstructure examinations revealed a tendency for fat to coalesce during cooking of the more coarse-structured gels. This tendency was unaffected by fat pre-emulsification prior to addition, arguing against a strong role of an interfacial protein film in stabilizing fat. Instead, a gel structure with evenly distributed small pores leads to lower CL and EW, thus controlling both water- and fat- holding since fat cannot readily permeate small water-filled hydrophilic pores. Only when large pores or continuous fissures are structurally present can water be released, allowing liquid fat to also migrate and coalesce. This changes the current paradigm of understanding regarding the mechanism of fat/water-holding in comminuted meat products: gel capillarity (gel structure), not fat emulsifying ability of protein, is the likely determining factor. PMID:26340743

  16. Antioxidant Effect of Extracts from the Coffee Residue in Raw and Cooked Meat.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Hee; Ahn, Dong Uk; Eun, Jong Bang; Moon, Sun Hee

    2016-01-01

    The residue of ground coffee obtained after the brewing process (spent coffee) still contains various functional components with high antioxidant capacity and health benefits, but no attempts have been made to use it as a resource to produce value-added food ingredients. This study evaluates the antioxidant activity of ethanol or hot water extracts from the residues of coffee after brewing. An extraction experiment was carried out using the conventional solid-liquid methods, including ethanol and water as the extraction media at different temperatures and liquid/solid ratios. The antioxidant activity of extracts was tested for total phenolic compound (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) using oil emulsion and raw/cooked meat systems. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethanol extracts with heating (HEE) and without heating (CEE) were higher than that of the hot water extracts (WE). The highest DPPH value of HEE and CEE at 1000 ppm was 91.22% and 90.21%, respectively. In oil emulsion and raw/cooked systems, both the water and ethanol extracts had similar antioxidant effects to the positive control (BHA), but HEE and CEE extracts showed stronger antioxidant activities than WE extract. These results indicated that the ethanol extracts of coffee residue have a strong antioxidant activity and have the potential to be used as a natural antioxidant in meat. PMID:27384587

  17. Proteomic Investigation of Protein Profile Changes and Amino Acid Residue Level Modification in Cooked Lamb Meat: The Effect of Boiling.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tzer-Yang; Morton, James D; Clerens, Stefan; Dyer, Jolon M

    2015-10-21

    Hydrothermal treatment (heating in water) is a common method of general food processing and preparation. For red-meat-based foods, boiling is common; however, how the molecular level effects of this treatment correlate to the overall food properties is not yet well-understood. The effects of differing boiling times on lamb meat and the resultant cooking water were here examined through proteomic evaluation. The longer boiling time was found to result in increased protein aggregation involving particularly proteins such as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, as well as truncation in proteins such as in α-actinin-2. Heat-induced protein backbone cleavage was observed adjacent to aspartic acid and asparagine residues. Side-chain modifications of amino acid residues resulting from the heating, including oxidation of phenylalanine and formation of carboxyethyllysine, were characterized in the cooked samples. Actin and myoglobin bands from the cooked meat per se remained visible on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, even after significant cooking time. These proteins were also found to be the major source of observed heat-induced modifications. This study provides new insights into molecular-level modifications occurring in lamb meat proteins during boiling and a protein chemistry basis for better understanding the effect of this common treatment on the nutritional and functional properties of red-meat-based foods. PMID:26381020

  18. Meat intake, cooking methods, dietary carcinogens, and colorectal cancer risk: findings from the Colorectal Cancer Family Registry

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Amit D; Kim, Andre; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Potter, John D; Cotterchio, Michelle; Le Marchand, Loic; Stern, Mariana C

    2015-01-01

    Diets high in red meat and processed meats are established colorectal cancer (CRC) risk factors. However, it is still not well understood what explains this association. We conducted comprehensive analyses of CRC risk and red meat and poultry intakes, taking into account cooking methods, level of doneness, estimated intakes of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) that accumulate during meat cooking, tumor location, and tumor mismatch repair proficiency (MMR) status. We analyzed food frequency and portion size data including a meat cooking module for 3364 CRC cases, 1806 unaffected siblings, 136 unaffected spouses, and 1620 unaffected population-based controls, recruited into the CRC Family Registry. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for nutrient density variables were estimated using generalized estimating equations. We found no evidence of an association between total nonprocessed red meat or total processed meat and CRC risk. Our main finding was a positive association with CRC for pan-fried beefsteak (Ptrend < 0.001), which was stronger among MMR deficient cases (heterogeneity P = 0.059). Other worth noting associations, of borderline statistical significance after multiple testing correction, were a positive association between diets high in oven-broiled short ribs or spareribs and CRC risk (Ptrend = 0.002), which was also stronger among MMR-deficient cases, and an inverse association with grilled hamburgers (Ptrend = 0.002). Our results support the role of specific meat types and cooking practices as possible sources of human carcinogens relevant for CRC risk. PMID:25846122

  19. Effects of Tannic Acid on Lipid and Protein Oxidation, Color, and Volatiles of Raw and Cooked Chicken Breast Meat during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hijazeen, Marwan; Lee, Eun Joo; Mendonca, Aubrey; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of tannic acid (TA) on the oxidative stability and the quality characteristics of ground chicken breast meat. Five treatments including (1) control (none added), (2) 2.5 ppm TA, (3) 5 ppm TA, (4) 10 ppm TA, and (5) 5 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) were added to boneless, skinless ground chicken breast meat, and used for both raw and cooked meat studies. For the raw meat study, the ground chicken breast meat was packaged in oxygen-permeable bags and stored at 4 °C for 7 days. For the cooked study, raw ground meat samples were vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags, cooked in-bag to the internal temperature of 75 °C, re-packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, and then stored. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, color, and volatiles (cooked meat only) at 0, 3, and 7 days of storage. Raw meats with 10 ppm of TA added had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower lipid and protein oxidation than other treatments during storage. In addition, TA at 10 ppm level maintained the highest color a*- and L*-values during storage. Cooked chicken breast meat with 5 and 10 ppm TA added produced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower amounts of off-odor volatiles than other treatments. Among the volatile compounds, the amount of hexanal increased rapidly during storage for cooked meat. However, meats with 5 and 10 ppm TA added showed the lowest amount of hexanal and other aldehydes related to lipid oxidation, indicating a strong antioxidant effect of TA in cooked chicken breast meat. Furthermore, the differences in aldehydes among the treatments were bigger in cooked than in raw meat, indicating that the antioxidant effect of TA in cooked meat was greater than that in raw meat. Therefore, TA at >5 ppm can be used as a good natural preservative in cooked chicken meat to maintain its quality during storage. PMID:27304971

  20. Effects of Tannic Acid on Lipid and Protein Oxidation, Color, and Volatiles of Raw and Cooked Chicken Breast Meat during Storage.

    PubMed

    Al-Hijazeen, Marwan; Lee, Eun Joo; Mendonca, Aubrey; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of tannic acid (TA) on the oxidative stability and the quality characteristics of ground chicken breast meat. Five treatments including (1) control (none added), (2) 2.5 ppm TA, (3) 5 ppm TA, (4) 10 ppm TA, and (5) 5 ppm butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) were added to boneless, skinless ground chicken breast meat, and used for both raw and cooked meat studies. For the raw meat study, the ground chicken breast meat was packaged in oxygen-permeable bags and stored at 4 °C for 7 days. For the cooked study, raw ground meat samples were vacuum-packaged in oxygen-impermeable vacuum bags, cooked in-bag to the internal temperature of 75 °C, re-packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, and then stored. Both raw and cooked meats were analyzed for lipid and protein oxidation, color, and volatiles (cooked meat only) at 0, 3, and 7 days of storage. Raw meats with 10 ppm of TA added had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower lipid and protein oxidation than other treatments during storage. In addition, TA at 10 ppm level maintained the highest color a*- and L*-values during storage. Cooked chicken breast meat with 5 and 10 ppm TA added produced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower amounts of off-odor volatiles than other treatments. Among the volatile compounds, the amount of hexanal increased rapidly during storage for cooked meat. However, meats with 5 and 10 ppm TA added showed the lowest amount of hexanal and other aldehydes related to lipid oxidation, indicating a strong antioxidant effect of TA in cooked chicken breast meat. Furthermore, the differences in aldehydes among the treatments were bigger in cooked than in raw meat, indicating that the antioxidant effect of TA in cooked meat was greater than that in raw meat. Therefore, TA at >5 ppm can be used as a good natural preservative in cooked chicken meat to maintain its quality during storage. PMID:27304971

  1. Microwave sensing for meat and fish structure evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerjon, S.; Damez, J. L.

    2007-04-01

    Monitoring changes in muscle structure during the ageing of bovine meat and quality loss due to fish freezing are major industrial challenges. During ageing, bovine muscle becomes tender through muscle fibre deterioration, and full control of this process is essential. Conversely, degradation of fish muscle, often due to long storage or a freezing cycle, lowers quality. To improve competitiveness, and to respond to consumer quality demand, muscle structure needs to be evaluated in-line. We present here a polarimetric microwave method (10-24 GHz) consisting in free space and contact reflection coefficient measurements using a horn antenna and rectangular probes, respectively. This method is based on the measurement of dielectric properties of tissues parallel and perpendicular to muscle fibre directions. The dielectric properties of structured tissues such as muscles are anisotropic, but during processing structural disorganization reduces this anisotropy. The method is illustrated by the discrimination of fresh and frozen-thawed fish fillets and by monitoring of meat ageing.

  2. Meat and Fish Freshness Inspection System Based on Odor Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Najam ul; Ejaz, Naveed; Ejaz, Waleed; Kim, Hyung Seok

    2012-01-01

    We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish) stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective was to identify the decayed item using the developed electronic nose. Additionally, we tested the electronic nose using three pattern classification algorithms (artificial neural network, support vector machine and k-nearest neighbor), and compared them based on accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The results demonstrate that the k-nearest neighbor algorithm has the highest accuracy. PMID:23202222

  3. Dietary lipid source and vitamin E effect on lipid oxidation stability of refrigerated fresh and cooked chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Narciso-Gaytán, C; Shin, D; Sams, A R; Keeton, J T; Miller, R K; Smith, S B; Sánchez-Plata, M X

    2010-12-01

    The fatty acid composition of chicken muscle may affect the lipid oxidation stability of the meat, particularly when subjecting the meat to thermal processing and storage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diet effect on lipid oxidation stability of fresh and cooked chicken meat. Six hundred broilers were raised for a 6-wk feeding period and were assigned to 8 treatments with 3 repetitions. Broilers were fed a basal corn-soybean meal diet, including 5% of either animal-vegetable, lard, palm kernel, or soybean (SB) oil, each supplemented with a low (33 mg/kg) or high (200 to 400 mg/kg) level of vitamin E. Fresh breast and thigh meat and skin were packaged and refrigerated (4°C) for 15 d. Breast and thigh meat were frozen (-20°C) and stored for ~6 mo and then thawed, deboned, ground, and formed into patties of 150 g each. Patties were cooked (74°C), cooled, packaged, and stored in refrigeration for 6 d. The lipid oxidation development of the products was determined using the TBA reactive substances analysis. The results showed that the lipid oxidation development, in both fresh chicken parts and cooked meat patties, was influenced by the interaction of either dietary lipid source or vitamin E level with storage time. Fresh breast meat showed no susceptibility to lipid oxidation, but thigh meat and skin presented higher (P < 0.05) malonaldehyde values in the SB oil treatment, starting at d 10 of storage. In cooked patties, during the entire storage time, the SB oil showed the highest (P < 0.05) lipid oxidation development compared with the other treatments. Regarding vitamin E, in both fresh parts and cooked meat patties, in most sampling days the high supplemented level showed lower (P < 0.05) malonaldehyde values than the control treatment. In conclusion, the lipid oxidation stability of chicken meat is influenced by the lipid source and vitamin E level included in the diet upon storage time and processing of the meat. PMID:21076113

  4. Meat processing and colon carcinogenesis: cooked, nitrite-treated, and oxidized high-heme cured meat promotes mucin-depleted foci in rats

    PubMed Central

    Santarelli, Raphaëlle L; Vendeuvre, Jean-Luc; Naud, Nathalie; Taché, Sylviane; Guéraud, Françoise; Viau, Michelle; Genot, Claude; Corpet, Denis E; Pierre, Fabrice H F

    2010-01-01

    Processed meat intake is associated with colorectal cancer risk, but no experimental study supports the epidemiologic evidence. To study the effect of meat processing on carcinogenesis promotion, we first did a 14-day study with 16 models of cured meat. Studied factors, in a 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 design, were muscle color (a proxy for heme level), processing temperature, added nitrite, and packaging. Fischer 344 rats were fed these 16 diets, and we evaluated fecal and urinary fat oxidation and cytotoxicity, three biomarkers of heme-induced carcinogenesis promotion. A principal component analysis allowed for selection of four cured meats for inclusion into a promotion study. These selected diets were given for 100 days to rats pretreated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Colons were scored for preneoplastic lesions: aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and mucin-depleted foci (MDF). Cured meat diets significantly increased the number of ACF/colon compared with a no-meat control diet (P = 0.002). Only the cooked nitrite-treated and oxidized high heme meat significantly increased the fecal level of apparent total N-nitroso compounds (ATNC) and the number of MDF per colon compared with the no-meat control diet (P < 0.05). This nitrite-treated and oxidized cured meat specifically increased the MDF number compared with similar non nitrite-treated meat (P = 0.03) and with similar non oxidized meat (P = 0.004). Thus, a model cured meat, similar to ham stored aerobically, increased the number of preneoplastic lesions, which suggests colon carcinogenesis promotion. Nitrite treatment and oxidation increased this promoting effect, which was linked with increased fecal ATNC level. This study could lead to process modifications to make non promoting processed meat. PMID:20530708

  5. Analysis and Optimization of the Production Process of Cooked Sausage Meat Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, L.; Rauh, C.; Delgado, A.

    2010-09-01

    In the production of cooked sausages a critical step for product quality is the cutting process, where the comminuting and mixing of meat, fat, ice and spices are carried out. These processes take usually place in bowl cutters, which main control parameters are the working time, knife geometry (shape and sharpness) and rotational velocities of the knives and the bowl. The choice of the geometry and sharpness of the knives influences not only the meat matrix properties (mechanical, rheological, etc.) and, as a consequence, the sensory value of the sausages (size of connective tissue particles, water binding, etc.), but also the energetic demand for the production. However, the cutting process proves to be understood only fragmentarily due to the complex colloid chemical and mechanical behavior of the product. This is documented on the one hand by numerous knife types on the market, extremely empirical approach during determination of geometry and process parameters in practice as well as, on the other hand, by contradictory statements and explanation approaches of observed phenomena present in literature. The present contribution applies numerical simulations to analyze thermo fluid mechanical phenomena, e.g. shear stresses, during the cutting process of the non-Newtonian meat matrix. Combining these results with selected experimental investigations from literature, e.g. sensory properties, knife geometry, velocity of the knife and bowl, improvements of the cutting and mixing process are proposed using cognitive algorithms (Artificial neural networks) aiming at an optimization regarding energy and time demand and product quality.

  6. Comparisons of sensory descriptive flavor and texture profiles of cooked broiler breast fillets categorized by raw meat color lightness values

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three replicate trials were conducted to compare sensory descriptive profiles of cooked broiler breast fillets categorized by raw meat color lightness or CIELAB L* values (L*). In each trial, 20 light, 20 dark and 30 random fillets (42d old birds and deboned at 6-8h postmortem) were obtained from a...

  7. Using a 3D profiler and infrared camera to monitor oven loading in fully cooked meat operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, John; Giorges, Aklilu

    2009-05-01

    Ensuring meat is fully cooked is an important food safety issue for operations that produce "ready to eat" products. In order to kill harmful pathogens like Salmonella, all of the product must reach a minimum threshold temperature. Producers typically overcook the majority of the product to ensure meat in the most difficult scenario reaches the desired temperature. A difficult scenario can be caused by an especially thick piece of meat or by a surge of product into the process. Overcooking wastes energy, degrades product quality, lowers the maximum throughput rate of the production line and decreases product yield. At typical production rates of 6000lbs/hour, these losses from overcooking can have a significant cost impact on producers. A wide area 3D camera coupled with a thermal camera was used to measure the thermal mass variability of chicken breasts in a cooking process. Several types of variability are considered including time varying thermal mass (mass x temperature / time), variation in individual product geometry and variation in product temperature. The automatic identification of product arrangement issues that affect cooking such as overlapping product and folded products is also addressed. A thermal model is used along with individual product geometry and oven cook profiles to predict the percentage of product that will be overcooked and to identify products that may not fully cook in a given process.

  8. Preliminary investigation on the relationship of Raman spectra of sheep meat with shear force and cooking loss.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Heinar; Scheier, Rico; Hopkins, David L

    2013-01-01

    A prototype handheld Raman system was used as a rapid non-invasive optical device to measure raw sheep meat to estimate cooked meat tenderness and cooking loss. Raman measurements were conducted on m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum samples from two sheep flocks from two different origins which had been aged for five days at 3-4°C before deep freezing and further analysis. The Raman data of 140 samples were correlated with shear force and cooking loss data using PLS regression. Both sample origins could be discriminated and separate correlation models yielded better correlations than the joint correlation model. For shear force, R(2)=0.79 and R(2)=0.86 were obtained for the two sites. Results for cooking loss were comparable: separate models yielded R(2)=0.79 and R(2)=0.83 for the two sites. The results show the potential usefulness of Raman spectra which can be recorded during meat processing for the prediction of quality traits such as tenderness and cooking loss. PMID:22981122

  9. A survey of commercially available broilers marketed as organic, free-range, and conventional broilers for cooked meat yields, meat composition, and relative value.

    PubMed

    Husak, R L; Sebranek, J G; Bregendahl, K

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this survey was to investigate qualitative and quantitative properties of meat from organic, free-range, and conventional broilers as currently provided to consumers. Fifteen broilers from 4 suppliers of each type were evaluated for raw meat yield, cooked meat yield, proximate composition, pH, color, lipid oxidation, fatty acid composition, and sensory attributes. Organic broilers yielded more dark (thigh) meat (P < 0.05) than free-range or conventional, when compared on a raw-meat basis, but conventional and free-range broilers yielded more (P < 0.05) cooked light (breast) meat than organic. Protein content of organic breast and thigh meat was greater (P < 0.05) than conventional in the raw and the cooked meat comparisons. The pH of breast meat from organic broilers was higher (P < 0.05) than free-range or conventional. Organic breast and thigh meat was less yellow (P < 0.05) than free-range or conventional. Fatty acid analysis showed that organic breasts and thighs were lower (P < 0.05) in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and higher (P < 0.05) in polyunsaturated fatty acids than free-range and conventional broilers. Shear force measurements were less (P < 0.05) for both breast and thigh meat from conventional broilers relative to free-range and organic broilers. Sensory panel results indicated that thighs from conventional broilers were more tender (P < 0.05) and less chewy (P < 0.05) than thighs from free-range and organic broilers, whereas other sensory properties did not differ. At the time of the study, March through May of 2006, the average retail prices for US broilers were USD 3.19, USD 2.78, and USD 1.29 per pound (USD 7.03, USD 6.13, and USD 2.84/kg) for organic, free-range, and conventional, respectively. Whereas a difference in the fatty acid composition was the largest difference observed between retail broilers in this survey, it is important to note that diets and production environments within the study were not controlled

  10. Biomonitoring the Cooked Meat Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methy-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine in Canine Fur

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Dan; Neuman, Zachary L.; Modiano, Jaime F.; Turesky, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4, 5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) that is formed during the cooking of meat, poultry, and fish. PhIP is a rodent carcinogen and thought to contribute to several diet-related cancers in humans. PhIP is present in the hair of human omnivores but not in the hair of vegetarians. We have now identified PhIP in the fur of fourteen out of sixteen healthy dogs consuming different brands of commercial pet food. The levels of PhIP in canine fur varied by over 85-fold and were comparable to the levels of PhIP present in human hair. However, high density fur containing PhIP covers a very high proportion of the body surface area of dogs, whereas high density terminal hair primarily covers the scalp and pubis body surface area of humans. These findings signify that the exposure and bioavailability of PhIP are high in canines. A potential role for PhIP in the etiology of canine cancer should be considered. PMID:22906298

  11. Biomonitoring the cooked meat carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine in canine fur.

    PubMed

    Gu, Dan; Neuman, Zachary L; Modiano, Jaime F; Turesky, Robert J

    2012-09-12

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) that is formed during the cooking of meat, poultry, and fish. PhIP is a rodent carcinogen and is thought to contribute to several diet-related cancers in humans. PhIP is present in the hair of human omnivores but not in the hair of vegetarians. We have now identified PhIP in the fur of 14 out of 16 healthy dogs consuming different brands of commercial pet food. The levels of PhIP in canine fur varied by over 85-fold and were comparable to the levels of PhIP present in human hair. However, high density fur containing PhIP covers a very high proportion of the body surface area of dogs, whereas high density terminal hair primarily covers the scalp and pubis body surface area of humans. These findings signify that the exposure and bioavailability of PhIP are high in canines. A potential role for PhIP in the etiology of canine cancer should be considered. PMID:22906298

  12. Relationship between the solubility, dosage and antioxidant capacity of carnosic acid in raw and cooked ground buffalo meat patties and chicken patties.

    PubMed

    Naveena, B M; Vaithiyanathan, S; Muthukumar, M; Sen, A R; Kumar, Y Praveen; Kiran, M; Shaju, V A; Chandran, K Ramesh

    2013-10-01

    Antioxidant capacity of oil soluble and water dispersible carnosic acid (CA) extracted from dried rosemary leaves using HPLC was evaluated at two different dosages (22.5 ppm vs 130 ppm) in raw and cooked ground buffalo meat patties and chicken patties. Irrespective of total phenolic content, CA extracts reduced (p<0.05) the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) by 39%-47% and 37%-40% in cooked buffalo meat and chicken patties at lower dosage (22.5 ppm) relative to control samples. However, at higher dosage (130 ppm) the TBARS values were reduced (p<0.05) by 86%-96% and 78%-87% in cooked buffalo meat and chicken patties compared to controls. The CA extracts were also effective in inhibiting (p<0.05) peroxide value and free fatty acids in cooked buffalo meat and chicken patties. The CA extracts when used at higher dosage, were also effective in stabilizing raw buffalo meat color. PMID:23743029

  13. Effect of storage and cooking on the fatty acid profile of omega-3 enriched eggs and pork meat marketed in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Douny, Caroline; El Khoury, Rawad; Delmelle, Julien; Brose, François; Degand, Guy; Moula, Nassim; Farnir, Frédéric; Clinquart, Antoine; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2015-01-01

    The fatty acids (FA) profile was determined in n-3 enriched (Columbus™) Belgian eggs and pork in order to evaluate to what extent the n-3 fatty acids, which are very sensitive to oxidation, are resistant to storage or cooking. In standard eggs or pork, no change of the fatty acid profile was observed after storage or cooking without culinary fat, as well as in Columbus™ eggs and pork after storage. Some cooking processes (eggs in custard and meat in oven) induced a slight significant loss of n-3 fatty acids in Columbus™ eggs or pork (11.1% in fat from eggs cooked in custard vs. 15.3% in raw Columbus™ eggs and 11.0% in fat from oven cooked meat vs. 11.6% in raw Columbus™ meat). As expected, when Columbus™ pork is cooked with culinary fat, its fatty acid profile is modified according to the nature of the fat used. PMID:25838892

  14. Effect of storage and cooking on the fatty acid profile of omega-3 enriched eggs and pork meat marketed in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Douny, Caroline; El Khoury, Rawad; Delmelle, Julien; Brose, François; Degand, Guy; Moula, Nassim; Farnir, Frédéric; Clinquart, Antoine; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2015-03-01

    The fatty acids (FA) profile was determined in n-3 enriched (Columbus™) Belgian eggs and pork in order to evaluate to what extent the n-3 fatty acids, which are very sensitive to oxidation, are resistant to storage or cooking. In standard eggs or pork, no change of the fatty acid profile was observed after storage or cooking without culinary fat, as well as in Columbus™ eggs and pork after storage. Some cooking processes (eggs in custard and meat in oven) induced a slight significant loss of n-3 fatty acids in Columbus™ eggs or pork (11.1% in fat from eggs cooked in custard vs. 15.3% in raw Columbus™ eggs and 11.0% in fat from oven cooked meat vs. 11.6% in raw Columbus™ meat). As expected, when Columbus™ pork is cooked with culinary fat, its fatty acid profile is modified according to the nature of the fat used. PMID:25838892

  15. Effect of cooking method on carnosine and its homologues, pentosidine and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance contents in beef and turkey meat.

    PubMed

    Peiretti, Pier Giorgio; Medana, Claudio; Visentin, Sonja; Dal Bello, Federica; Meineri, Giorgia

    2012-05-01

    Commercial samples of beef and turkey meat were prepared by commonly used cooking methods with standard cooking times: (1) broiled at 200°C for 10min, (2) broiled at a medium temperature (140°C) for 10min, (3) cooked by microwave (MW) for 3min and then grilled (MW/grill) for 7min, (4) cooked in a domestic microwave oven for 10min, and (5) boiled in water for 10min. The raw and cooked meats were then analysed to determine the carnosine, anserine, homocarnosine, pentosidine, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) contents. It was observed that boiling beef caused a loss of approximately 50% of the carnosine, probably because of the high water solubility of carnosine and its homologues; cooking by microwave caused a medium loss of the anti-oxidants of approximately 20%; cooking by MW/grill led to a reduction in carnosine of approximately 10%. As far as the anserine and homocarnosine contents were concerned, a greater loss was observed for the boiling method (approximately 70%) while, for the other cooking methods, the value ranged from 30% to 70%. The data oscillate more for the turkey meat: the minimum carnosine decrease was observed in the cases of MW/grill and broiling at high temperature (25%). Analogously, the anserine and homocarnosine contents decreased slightly in the case of MW/grill and broiling at a high temperature (2-7%) and by 10-30% in the other cases. No analysed meat sample showed any traces of pentosidine above the instrumental determination limits. The cooked beef showed an increased TBARS value compared to the raw meat, and the highest values were found when the beef was broiled at a high temperature, cooked by microwave or boiled in water. The TBARS value of the turkey meat decreased for all the cooking methods in comparison to the TBARS value of the fresh meat. PMID:26434266

  16. The Effects of Cooking Process and Meat Inclusion on Pet Food Flavor and Texture Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Kadri; Gibson, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Aldrich, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The pet food industry is an important portion of the food and feed industries in the US. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cooking method (baking or extrusion), meat inclusion (0 or 20%), and extrusion thermal to mechanical energy ratios (low, medium, and high) effects on sensory and volatile properties of pet foods, and (2) to determine associations among sensory and volatile characteristics of baked and extruded pet foods. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the pet food samples. It was found that baked samples were lighter in color (2.0-2.6 baked vs. 3.5-4.3 extruded, color intensity scale 0-15), and had lower levels of attributes that indicated rancidity (i.e., fishy flavor; 0.3-0.6 baked, 0.6-1.5 extruded, scale 0-15), whereas extruded pet foods were more cohesive in mass, more friable, hard, and crisp, but less powdery than baked samples. Fresh meat inclusion tended to decrease bitterness and increase fishy flavor and cohesiveness of pet foods. High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles. The main volatile compounds included aldehydes, such as hexanal and heptanal, ketones, and alcohols. Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan. Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods. PMID:26480040

  17. The Effects of Cooking Process and Meat Inclusion on Pet Food Flavor and Texture Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Koppel, Kadri; Gibson, Michael; Alavi, Sajid; Aldrich, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The results of this research indicate that processing (baked vs. extruded) plays an important role in determining pet food product texture. In addition, raw ingredients (fresh meat vs. meal-based) did not consistently affect product sensory characteristics. These results may help pet food technologists better understand factors that affect palatability. Abstract The pet food industry is an important portion of the food and feed industries in the US. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cooking method (baking or extrusion), meat inclusion (0 or 20%), and extrusion thermal to mechanical energy ratios (low, medium, and high) effects on sensory and volatile properties of pet foods, and (2) to determine associations among sensory and volatile characteristics of baked and extruded pet foods. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the pet food samples. It was found that baked samples were lighter in color (2.0–2.6 baked vs. 3.5–4.3 extruded, color intensity scale 0–15), and had lower levels of attributes that indicated rancidity (i.e., fishy flavor; 0.3–0.6 baked, 0.6–1.5 extruded, scale 0–15), whereas extruded pet foods were more cohesive in mass, more friable, hard, and crisp, but less powdery than baked samples. Fresh meat inclusion tended to decrease bitterness and increase fishy flavor and cohesiveness of pet foods. High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles. The main volatile compounds included aldehydes, such as hexanal and heptanal, ketones, and alcohols. Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan. Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods. PMID:26480040

  18. Effects of vitamin E and organic selenium on oxidative stability of omega-3 enriched dark chicken meat during cooking.

    PubMed

    Perez, T I; Zuidhof, M J; Renema, R A; Curtis, J M; Ren, Y; Betti, M

    2010-03-01

    The influence of vitamin E and selenomethionine (SeMet) on lipid oxidation in frozen-raw and cooked omega-3 enriched dark chicken meat was evaluated. Feed was supplemented with 2 levels of vitamin E (250 and 50 IU/kg of feed) and selenium (0.1 mg of sodium selenite/kg of feed and 0.3 mg of SeMet/kg of feed). An extruded linseed product was used as the alpha-linolenic acid source. Fatty acid (FA) profile, oxysterols, and thiobarbituric reactive acid substances (TBARs) were analyzed in frozen-raw, boiled, pan-fried, and roasted meat. After 6 mo of storage, oxysterols in frozen-raw meat remained stable with either high or low levels of dietary antioxidants. During cooking, high levels of vitamin E reduced oxysterol formation, whereas high levels of SeMet were inconsistent and even increased oxysterols during roasting. TBARs in frozen-raw meat stored for 6 mo were inhibited by high levels of either antioxidant. Conversely, no protective effect during cooking was observed at this time of storage. After 12 mo at -30 degrees C no antioxidant protection was observed. PMID:20492263

  19. Effects of various cooking methods and food components on bioaccessibility of mercury from fish.

    PubMed

    Ouédraogo, Ousséni; Amyot, Marc

    2011-11-01

    Fish consumption is the main source of human exposure to mercury. Studies from specific human populations have reported Hg levels lower than those modeled from consumption data. These discrepancies between expected and measured Hg levels may be explained by differences in dietary habits such as cooking methods and food components on fish Hg bioavailability. We assessed the effects of three cooking methods (no cooking, frying and boiling) and of the co-ingestion of selected food items (tea, coffee and corn starch) on Hg bioaccessibility in three fish species (tuna, shark and mackerel) containing between 1 and 4 μg/g dry weight of Hg. We used in vitro techniques simulating human digestion and each experiment was repeated three times with at least three different individuals for each fish species. For all fish species, Hg concentrations (dry weight) in boiled fish were slightly but not significantly higher than those in fried or raw fish. Boiling and frying reduced Hg bioaccessibility by 40% and 60%, respectively, compared to raw fish Hg bioaccessibility. Black coffee as well as green and black tea significantly reduced raw fish Hg bioaccessibility by 50-60%, whereas, corn starch did not. The combined effect of cooking and addition of tea or coffee led to very low levels of Hg bioaccessibility. This study suggests that Hg bioaccessibilty from fish can be modified by cooking and by the co-ingestion of tea and coffee. These results should be further validated in vitro with different fish species before proceeding with in vivo approaches using animal models. PMID:22014585

  20. Red meat and poultry, cooking practices, genetic susceptibility and risk of prostate cancer: results from a multiethnic case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Mariana C.

    2012-01-01

    Red meat, processed and unprocessed, has been considered a potential prostate cancer (PCA) risk factor; epidemiological evidence, however, is inconclusive. An association between meat intake and PCA may be due to potent chemical carcinogens that are generated when meats are cooked at high temperatures. We investigated the association between red meat and poultry intake and localized and advanced PCA taking into account cooking practices and polymorphisms in enzymes that metabolize carcinogens that accumulate in cooked meats. We analyzed data for 1096 controls, 717 localized and 1140 advanced cases from the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study, a multiethnic, population-based case–control study. We examined nutrient density-adjusted intake of red meat and poultry and tested for effect modification by 12 SNPs and 2 copy number variants in 10 carcinogen metabolism genes: GSTP1, PTGS2, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, EPHX1, CYP1B1, UGT1A6, NAT2, GSTM1 and GSTT1. We observed a positive association between risk of advanced PCA and high intake of red meat cooked at high temperatures (trend P = 0.026), cooked by pan-frying (trend P = 0.035), and cooked until well-done (trend P = 0.013). An inverse association was observed for baked poultry and advanced PCA risk (trend P = 0.023). A gene-by-diet interaction was observed between an SNP in the PTGS2 gene and the estimated levels of meat mutagens (interaction P = 0.008). Our results support a role for carcinogens that accumulate in meats cooked at high temperatures as potential PCA risk factors, and may support a role for heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in PCA etiology. PMID:22822096

  1. Effects of meat cooking, and of ingested amount, on protein digestion speed and entry of residual proteins into the colon: a study in minipigs.

    PubMed

    Bax, Marie-Laure; Buffière, Caroline; Hafnaoui, Noureddine; Gaudichon, Claire; Savary-Auzeloux, Isabelle; Dardevet, Dominique; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Rémond, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The speed of protein digestion impacts on postprandial protein anabolism. After exercise or in the elderly, fast proteins stimulate protein synthesis more efficiently than slow proteins. It has been shown that meat might be a source of fast proteins. However, cooking temperature, acting on the macrostructure and microstructure of the meat could affect both the speed, and efficiency, of protein digestion. This study aims to evaluate, in vivo, the effect of meat cooking on digestion parameters, in the context of a complete meal. Six minipigs fitted with an ileal cannula and an arterial catheter were used. In order to measure the true ileal digestibility, tested meat was obtained from a calf, the muscle proteins of which were intrinsically labelled with (15)N-amino acids. Three cooking temperatures (60, 75 and 95°C; core temperature for 30 min), and three levels of intake (1, 1.45, and 1.90 g protein/kg body weight) were tested. Following meat ingestion, ileal digesta and arterial blood were collected over a 9-h period. The speed of digestion, evaluated from the kinetics of amino acid appearance in blood within the first 3 h, was greater for the cooking temperature of 75°C, than for 60 or 95°C. The true ileal digestibility, which averaged 95%, was not affected by cooking temperature or by the level of meat intake. The amino acid composition of the digesta flowing at the ileum was not affected by cooking temperature. These results show that cooking temperature can modulate the speed of meat protein digestion, without affecting the efficiency of the small intestinal digestion, and consequently the entry of meat protein residues into the colon. PMID:23593443

  2. EFFECTS OF COMMONLY USED COOKING PRACTICES ON TOTAL MERCURY CONCENTRATION IN FISH AND THEIR IMPACT ON EXPOSURE ASSESSMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of cooking practices commonly used by Native Americans on total mercury concentrations in fish were investigated. A preparation factor relating mercury concentrations in fish as prepared for consumption to mercury concentration data as measured in typical environmenta...

  3. Species-specific identification of adulteration in cooked mutton Rista (a Kashmiri Wazwan cuisine product) with beef and buffalo meat through multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, M. Mansoor; Salahuddin, Mir; Mantoo, Imtiyaz A.; Adil, Sheikh; Jalal, Henna; Pal, M. Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Meat adulteration is a serious problem in the meat industry and needs to be tackled to ensure the authenticity of meat products and protect the consumers from being the victims. In view of such likely problem in indigenous meat products of Kashmiri cuisine (Wazwan), the present work was performed to study the detection of beef and buffalo meat in cooked mutton Rista by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) based multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method under laboratory conditions. Materials and Methods: Three experimental trials were conducted wherein the products were prepared from pure mutton, beef and buffalo meat, and their admixtures in the ratios of 60:20:20, 80:10:10, 90:05:05 and 98:01:01, respectively. Results: The primers used in the study amplified the cyt b gene fragments of sizes 124 bp, 472 bp and 585 bp for buffalo, cattle and sheep, respectively. It was possible to detect cattle and buffalo meat at the level of 1% in the mixed meat cooked Rista. The multiplex PCR successfully amplified cyt b gene fragments of mtDNA of the target species and thus produced characteristic band pattern for each species. The band intensities of cattle and buffalo in the mixed meat Rista progressively decreased corresponding to their decreasing level from 20% to 1%. Processing, cooking (moist heating) and non-meat formulation ingredients had no effect on detection of meat species adulteration. Conclusion: The multiplex PCR procedure standardized and developed in this study is simple, efficient, sensitive, reliable and highly specific for detecting falsification of cooked mutton product with beef and buffalo meat up to 1% level. PMID:27057103

  4. Antimicrobial effect of natural preservatives in a cooked and acidified chicken meat model.

    PubMed

    Lemay, Marie-Josée; Choquette, Julie; Delaquis, Pascal J; Claude, Gariépy; Rodrigue, Natalie; Saucier, Linda

    2002-10-25

    The inhibitory effect of Microgard 100, Microgard 300, nisin, Alta 2002, Perlac 1902, sodium lactate and essential oil of mustard on microorganisms experimentally inoculated was screened in an acidified chicken meat model (pH = 5.0) and stored for 2 weeks at a none restrictive growth temperature of 22 degrees C. All antimicrobials tested were used at the highest concentration recommended by their manufacturer. Sausage batter made with mechanically deboned chicken was inoculated with a mixed culture of Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Brochothrix thermosphacta CRDAV452, and a protective culture Lactobacillus alimentarius BJ33 (FloraCan L-2). A final cell concentration of 3-4 log CFU g (-1) was targeted after cooking at a core temperature of 55 degrees C for each microorganism in order to assess cell count variation effectively. Composition, water activity (a(w)), pH and redox potential of the sausage model was also evaluated. The E. coli population decreased steadily during storage and was close or below detection level (< 1 log CFU g (-1)) for all treatments, including the control, after 14 days. Sodium lactate was most effective against B. thermosphacta; population was 4 log lower than the control after 14 days of storage. When essential oil of mustard was used, aerobic mesophilic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria were significantly lower than the control after 2 days of storage (P < or = 0.05). The other antimicrobial agents tested had no significant effect on the aerobic mesophilic bacteria, E. coli, B. thermosphacta and lactic acid bacteria counts, when compared to the control. PMID:12227640

  5. Low Temperature Storage of Red-Meat Fish-III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Takeo; Inaba, Minoru

    In order to find out a suitable method for freezing and storage of chub mackerel, a kind of fatty fish, the round fish were frozen experimentally by liquid nitrogen spraying metho d (LN2-freezing) and usual contact freezing as a control experiment, and stored at -10, - 20 and -40°C for 6 months. Quality change of the fish meat during frozen storage was checked using indices such as pH, POV and VBN. The quality was also evaluated by histological observation and sensory score. Results are as follows : (l)The present data did not always show the superiority of ultra-rapid freezing with LN2 in quality of frozen-stored chub mackerel as compared with contact freezing, regardless of storage temperature. (2) It seemd to be necessary to store fatty chub mackerel at a temperature below -20°C, such as -25 - -30°C being advisable. (3) Quality of chub mackerel was observed to change more markedly than that of sardine tested already during frozen storage.

  6. 21 CFR Appendix D to Part 101 - Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish D Appendix D to Part 101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Pt. 101, App. D Appendix D to Part 101—Nutrition...

  7. 21 CFR Appendix D to Part 101 - Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish D Appendix D to Part 101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Pt. 101, App. D Appendix D to Part 101—Nutrition...

  8. 21 CFR Appendix D to Part 101 - Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish D Appendix D to Part 101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Pt. 101, App. D Appendix D to Part 101—Nutrition...

  9. 21 CFR Appendix D to Part 101 - Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish D Appendix D to Part 101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Pt. 101, App. D Appendix D to Part 101—Nutrition...

  10. 21 CFR Appendix D to Part 101 - Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nutrition Facts for Cooked Fish D Appendix D to Part 101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Pt. 101, App. D Appendix D to Part 101—Nutrition...

  11. Effect of inulin, β-Glucan and their mixtures on emulsion stability, color and textural parameters of cooked meat batters.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, D; Barbut, S

    2013-07-01

    The effects of fat level (20.0, 12.5 and 5.0%), Inulin (gel-IG, and powder-IP) and β-Glucan (βG) on emulsion stability, color, textural characteristics and microstructure of cooked meat batters were investigated. Reducing fat to 5.0% increased cooking loss and decreased emulsion stability, lightness, hardness and fracturability of cooked emulsions. Inulin, βG, and their mixtures were used as fat replacers in low fat formulations. Adding IP provided better emulsion stability compared to IG, which had no significant effect on stability. IP also produced harder (27-34 N) low fat products with a high fracturability (26-29 N). On the contrary, emulsions containing IG resulted in creamy and softer characteristics. The results were supported by light micrographs, which indicated that appropriate addition of IG and βG mixtures (3%-IG & 0.3%-βG, 6%-IG & 0.6%-βG) could compensate for some of the changes brought about by fat reduction, and maintained several of the textural characteristics of the product as well as reducing cook loss. PMID:23567131

  12. Fatty acid composition of cooked chicken meat and chicken meat products as influenced by price range at retail.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Rachael A; Rymer, Caroline; Givens, D I

    2013-06-01

    The primary objective was to determine fatty acid composition of skinless chicken breast and leg meat portions and chicken burgers and nuggets from the economy price range, standard price range (both conventional intensive rearing) and the organic range from four leading supermarkets. Few significant differences in the SFA, MUFA and PUFA composition of breast and leg meat portions were found among price ranges, and supermarket had no effect. No significant differences in fatty acid concentrations of economy and standard chicken burgers were found, whereas economy chicken nuggets had higher C16:1, C18:1 cis, C18:1 trans and C18:3 n-3 concentrations than had standard ones. Overall, processed chicken products had much higher fat contents and SFA than had whole meat. Long chain n-3 fatty acids had considerably lower concentrations in processed products than in whole meat. Overall there was no evidence that organic chicken breast or leg meat had a more favourable fatty acid composition than had meat from conventionally reared birds. PMID:23411307

  13. Fate of Salmonella enterica in a mixed ingredient salad containing lettuce, cheddar cheese, and cooked chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Bovo, Federica; De Cesare, Alessandra; Manfreda, Gerardo; Bach, Susan; Delaquis, Pascal

    2015-03-01

    Food service and retail sectors offer consumers a variety of mixed ingredient salads that contain fresh-cut vegetables and other ingredients such as fruits, nuts, cereals, dairy products, cooked seafood, cooked meat, cured meats, or dairy products obtained from external suppliers. Little is known about the behavior of enteric bacterial pathogens in mixed ingredient salads. A model system was developed to examine the fate of Salmonella enterica (inoculum consisting of S. enterica serovars Agona, Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Brandenberg, and Kentucky) on the surface of romaine lettuce tissues incubated alone and in direct contact with Cheddar cheese or cooked chicken. S. enterica survived but did not grow on lettuce tissues incubated alone or in contact with Cheddar cheese for 6 days at either 6 or 14°C. In contrast, populations increased from 2.01 ± 0.22 to 9.26 ± 0.22 CFU/cm(2) when lettuce washed in water was incubated in contact with cooked chicken at 14°C. Populations on lettuce leaves were reduced to 1.28 ± 0.14 CFU/cm(2) by washing with a chlorine solution (70 ppm of free chlorine) but increased to 8.45 ± 0.22 CFU/cm(2) after 6 days at 14°C. Experimentation with a commercial product in which one third of the fresh-cut romaine lettuce was replaced with inoculated lettuce revealed that S. enterica populations increased by 4 log CFU/g during storage for 3 days at 14°C. These findings indicate that rapid growth of bacterial enteric pathogens may occur in mixed ingredient salads; therefore, strict temperature control during the manufacture, distribution, handling, and storage of these products is critical. PMID:25719871

  14. Sensory quality of broiler breast meat influenced by low atmospheric pressure stunning, deboning time and cooking methods.

    PubMed

    Schilling, M W; Radhakrishnan, V; Vizzier-Thaxton, Y; Christensen, K; Williams, J B; Joseph, P

    2015-06-01

    Stunning method (low atmospheric pressure stunning, LAPS and electrical stunning, ES), deboning time (0.75 h and 4 h), and cooking method (baking, frying, and sous vide) were evaluated for their impact on the descriptive sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of breast meat (n=576, 144 birds per stunning × deboning time combination). Sensory evaluation was conducted by trained descriptive (n=8) and consumer (n=185) panels. On average, no differences (P>0.05) existed in the sensory acceptability of fried and sous vide cooked broiler breast treatment combinations. However, for oven-baking, the LAPS treatment that was deboned at 4 h was more acceptable (P<0.05) than other treatments and the ES and LAPS 4 h samples had greater (P<0.05) acceptability for texture than their ES and LAPS 0.75 h counterparts. Since consumers were highly variable in their liking of chicken breast treatments, consumers were grouped into clusters for each cooking method based on liking and preference. Cluster analysis data revealed that the largest groups of consumers liked (score≥6.0) all chicken breast treatments, but a larger proportion of consumers liked the 4 h LAPS and ES treatments when compared to the 0.75 h LAPS and ES treatments for all cooking methods. In addition, the consumers who indicated that baked chicken breast was highly acceptable preferred (P<0.05) 4 h LAPS over the 4 h ES samples. Based on sensory results, chicken breast meat from all stunning and deboning method combinations was highly acceptable to the majority of consumers, but the LAPS 4 h treatment had enhanced sensory characteristics when baked. PMID:25834250

  15. Effects of dietary oregano essential oil and vitamin E on the lipid oxidation stability of cooked chicken breast meat.

    PubMed

    Avila-Ramos, F; Pro-Martínez, A; Sosa-Montes, E; Cuca-García, J M; Becerril-Pérez, C M; Figueroa-Velasco, J L; Narciso-Gaytán, C

    2012-02-01

    The antioxidant effect of oregano essential oil and vitamin E was evaluated in cooked chicken breast meat. In total, 480 broilers were randomly assigned to 6 treatments and 4 replications. Broilers were raised with a corn-soybean meal diet including either crude soybean oil or acidulated soybean oil soapstock, each supplemented with vitamin E at 10 or 100 mg or oregano essential oil at 100 mg/kg of feed. At 42 d, broilers were slaughtered and their breast meat was prepared into strips (1.5 × 10 cm) or patties (150 g). Fatty acid composition of the muscle was determined. For lipid oxidation stability, both meat strips and patties were cooked to an internal temperature of 74°C and malonaldehyde contents were assessed during 0, 3, 6, and 9 d of storage at 4°C. Each storage day had 4 replications per treatment. The meat lipid oxidative stability was estimated by content of malonaldehyde values. Results showed that feed consumption, weight gain, and feed conversion were not affected by the dietary oils or antioxidants, except for the mortality in acidulated soybean oil soapstock with the 10-mg vitamin E treatment. The fatty acid composition of the meat was similar between the 2 diets given the same antioxidant supplement. The oxidation stability of meat lipids in both types of meats showed a significant (P < 0.05) interaction between oils, antioxidants, and storage time. In the crude soybean oil oil diet, the malonaldehyde value in the 10-mg vitamin E treatment was the highest, followed by oregano essential oil, and then the 100-mg vitamin E treatment at 9 d of storage, whereas the value of oregano essential oil in the acidulated soybean oil soapstock diet was the highest, followed by the 10-mg vitamin E, and then the 100-mg vitamin E treatment during the 9 d of storage. In conclusion, the dietary oils and antioxidants used can be included in broiler diets without negative effects on their productivity. The antioxidant effect of vitamin E was higher with a higher

  16. Liquid chromatographic determination of folate monoglutamates in fish, meat, egg, and dairy products consumed in Finland.

    PubMed

    Vahteristo, L T; Ollilainen, V; Varo, P

    1997-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method with fluorescence and UV detection was used to determine the folate contents of fish, meat, fish and meat products, chicken, eggs, and milk consumed in Finland. 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate, tetrahydrofolate, 5-formyltetrahydrofolate, 10-formylfolic acid, and folic acid from 24 commodities obtained from supermarkets, retail stores, and different outlets in the Helsinki area were analyzed. Pooled samples were extracted at pH 6.0 in the presence of antioxidants and deconjugated with hog kidney deconjugase. Very low levels of folates were detected in meat and meat products. Fresh fish, fish sticks, and chicken meat contained reasonable amounts (3-13 micrograms/100 g) of tetrahydrofolate and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. Egg yolk contained high concentrations of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (140-150 micrograms/100 g); 10-formylfolic acid was also detected (14-17 micrograms/100 g). Between-species differences in folate monoglutamate distributions were observed. The highest levels of tetrahydrofolate, > 5 micrograms/100 g, were found in chicken meat and fillets of rainbow trout, whitefish, and baltic herring. Tetrahydrofolate was most abundant in fresh fish. LC was well suited for analyzing folate compositions of meat, fish, and other foods of animal origin. Recovery of added folates ranged from 49 to 96%. PMID:9086593

  17. A comparison of Oregon pellet and fish-meat diets for administration of sulfamethazine to Chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, D.F.; Fryer, J.L.; Pilcher, K.S.

    1967-01-01

    The absorption of sulfamethazine by yearling spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was compared when administered in the Oregon Pellet and a fish-meat diet. The pelleted diet delivered the drug to the fish approximately twice as efficiently as the fish-meat diet. Dosage levels are recommended for both diets, and the efficacy of administering drugs in fish feed is discussed.

  18. Effect of dietary meat and fish on endogenous nitrosation, inflammation and genotoxicity of faecal water.

    PubMed

    Joosen, Annemiek M C P; Lecommandeur, Emmanuelle; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Aspinall, Sue M; Kap, Lisanne; Rodwell, Sheila A

    2010-05-01

    N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been associated with reduced colon tumorigenesis. However, their association with colorectal cancer incidence is not conclusive. We investigated the influence of isocaloric replacement of red meat with fatty fish on endogenous nitrosation, inflammation and genotoxicity of faecal water in apparently healthy human volunteers on controlled diets. Fourteen volunteers consumed a high red meat, a combined red meat/fish and a high fish diet for 8 days each. Faecal homogenates were analysed for haem, nitroso compounds (NOC) and calprotectin and associated supernatants for genotoxicity. Both faecal NOC and haem excretion decreased with more fish and less meat in the diet. Nitrosyl iron (FeNO) was the main contributor to total NOC on all diets. The proportion of other NOC increased with more fish and less meat in the diet (P = 0.01), resulting in a non-statistically significant decrease in the proportion of FeNO on the fish diet. There was no statistically significant difference in faecal calprotectin (P = 0.54) and faecal water-induced DNA strand breaks and oxidized purines and pyrimidines between the diets (P > 0.36). Increasing fish intake and reducing the intake of red meat does not seem to have an effect on inflammation and faecal water-induced (oxidative) DNA damage; however, it does reduce the formation of mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic NOC and may as such beneficially affect colorectal risk. PMID:20106932

  19. Bioaccumulation of metals in fish of Salmonidae family and the impact on fish meat quality.

    PubMed

    Alibabić, Vildana; Vahcić, Nada; Bajramović, Melisa

    2007-08-01

    The study was aimed at determining the levels of metals in water samples and muscles of the fish caught in the Una River basin, located in the northwestern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina. For that purpose, three fish species: Brown Trout (Salmo trutta m. fario), Grayling (Thymallus thymallus) and Californian Trout (Salmo gairdneri), together with stem water samples, were analyzed for metal concentrations (Pb, Hg, Cd, As, Mn, Ni, Cu, Cr, Se, Co, Sn, Zn, Fe, Ca, P) during a 2-year period. The fish was captured using electric fishing, nets or fishing equipment. The capture was undertaken on three sites (the river source, the middle flow and the river mouth) of each of the five biggest rivers belonging to the Una River basin (Unac, Krusnica, Sana, Klokot, and Una). The concentrations of metals in each sample were determined via atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In the tested waters, the presence of Mn in concentrations higher than permitted (0.07 mg/l) had been detected. In the tested meat, the following average concentrations of metals (mg/kg) had been found: Pb (0.67), Cd (0.06), Mn (0.65), Ni (0.15), Cu (0.79), Cr (1.05), Se (0.03), Zn (8.92), Fe (5.40), Ca (14.68), and P (10.85). The correlation between Mn concentrations identified in the tested waters and those identified in the meat of Brown Trout was revealed to be statistically significant, which confirms that, over time, bioaccumulation of metals took place. Even though the results were not indicative of contamination, they strongly suggest that constant monitoring of the ecosystems in reference should be implemented. PMID:17171264

  20. Fat and fatty acid composition of cooked meat from UK retail chickens labelled as from organic and non-organic production systems.

    PubMed

    Dalziel, Courtney J; Kliem, Kirsty E; Givens, D Ian

    2015-07-15

    This study compared fat and fatty acids in cooked retail chicken meat from conventional and organic systems. Fat contents were 1.7, 5.2, 7.1 and 12.9 g/100 g cooked weight in skinless breast, breast with skin, skinless leg and leg with skin respectively, with organic meat containing less fat overall (P<0.01). Meat was rich in cis-monounsaturated fatty acids, although organic meat contained less than did conventional meat (1850 vs. 2538 mg/100 g; P<0.001). Organic meat was also lower (P<0.001) in 18:3 n-3 (115 vs. 180 mg/100 g) and, whilst it contained more (P<0.001) docosahexaenoic acid (30.9 vs. 13.7 mg/100 g), this was due to the large effect of one supermarket. This system by supermarket interaction suggests that poultry meat labelled as organic is not a guarantee of higher long chain n-3 fatty acids. Overall there were few major differences in fatty acid contents/profiles between organic and conventional meat that were consistent across all supermarkets. PMID:25722144

  1. Low-fat meat sausages with fish oil: optimization of milk proteins and carrageenan contents using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, L; Andrés, S C; Califano, A N

    2014-03-01

    Response surface methodology was used to analyze the effect of milk proteins and 2:1 κ:ι-carrageenans on cooking loss (CL), weight lost by centrifugation (WLC) and texture attributes of low-fat meat sausages with pre-emulsified fish oil. A central-composite design was used to develop models for the objective responses. Changes in carrageenans affected more the responses than milk proteins levels. Convenience functions were calculated for CL, WLC, hardness, and springiness of the product. Responses were optimized simultaneously minimizing CL and WLC; ranges for hardness and springiness corresponded to commercial products (20 g of pork fat/100 g). The optimum corresponded to 0.593 g of carrageenans/100 g and 0.320 g of milk proteins and its total lipid content was 6.3 g/100 g. This formulation was prepared and evaluated showing a good agreement between predicted and experimental responses. These additives could produce low-fat meat sausages with pre-emulsified fish oil with good nutritional quality and similar characteristics than traditional ones. PMID:24342180

  2. Effect of irradiation on Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine and Nε-carboxyethyl-lysine formation in cooked meat products during storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ligang; He, Zhiyong; Zeng, Maomao; Zheng, Zongping; Chen, Jie

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of irradiation on Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) and Nε-carboxyethyl-lysine (CEL) formation in cooked red and white meats during storage. The results showed that irradiation did not affect CML/CEL formation (0 weeks). After 6 weeks, CML/CEL contents in the irradiated samples exhibited a higher growth rate than the non-irradiated samples, especially the red meat. The results of electron spin resonance spectrometry and 2-Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances suggested irradiation had induced free-radical reactions and accelerated lipid oxidation during storage. A linear correlation (r=0.810-0.906, p<0.01) was found between the loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids content and increase of CML/CEL content in the irradiated samples after 0 and 6 weeks of storage. The results indicate that irradiation-induced lipid oxidation promotes CML/CEL formation, and CML/CEL formation by the lipid oxidation pathways may be an important pathway for CML/CEL accumulation in irradiated meat products during storage.

  3. Evaluating the performance of a new model for predicting the growth of Clostridium perfringens in cooked, uncured meat and poultry products under isothermal, heating, and dynamically cooling conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clostridium perfringens Type A is a significant public health threat and may germinate, outgrow, and multiply during cooling of cooked meats. This study evaluates a new C. perfringens growth model in IPMP Dynamic Prediction using the same criteria and cooling data in Mohr and others (2015), but inc...

  4. Differences in nutrient composition and choice of side dishes between red meat and fish dinners in Norwegian adults

    PubMed Central

    Myhre, Jannicke Borch; Løken, Elin Bjørge; Wandel, Margareta; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2016-01-01

    Background Food-based dietary guidelines often recommend increased consumption of fish and reduced intake of red and processed meat. However, little is known about how changing the main protein source from red meat to fish may influence the choice of side dishes. Objective To investigate whether side dish choices differed between red meat and fish dinners. Moreover, to compare intakes of macronutrients and selected micronutrients in red meat and fish dinners and to see whether whole-day intakes of these nutrients differed between days with red meat dinners and days with fish dinners. Design Data were collected in a cross-sectional nationwide Norwegian dietary survey using two non-consecutive telephone-administered 24-h recalls. The recalls were conducted approximately 4 weeks apart. In total, 2,277 dinners from 1,517 participants aged 18–70 were included in the analyses. Results Fish dinners were more likely to include potatoes and carrots than red meat dinners, whereas red meat dinners more often contained bread, tomato sauce, and cheese. Red meat dinners contained more energy and iron; had higher percentages of energy (E%) from fat, saturated fat, and monounsaturated fat; and a lower E% from protein and polyunsaturated fat than fish dinners. Fish dinners contained more vitamin D, β-carotene, and folate than red meat dinners. Similar differences were found when comparing whole-day intakes of the same nutrients on days with red meat versus fish dinners. Conclusion Fish dinners were accompanied by different side dishes than red meat dinners. With regard to nutrient content, fish dinners generally had a healthier profile than red meat dinners. However, iron intake was higher for red meat dinners. Information about associated foods will be useful both for developing public health guidelines and when studying associations between dietary factors and health outcomes. PMID:26781818

  5. Substitutions of red meat, poultry and fish and risk of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Würtz, Anne M L; Hansen, Mette D; Tjønneland, Anne; Rimm, Eric B; Schmidt, Erik B; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne U

    2016-05-01

    Red meat has been suggested to be adversely associated with risk of myocardial infarction (MI), but previous studies have rarely taken replacement foods into consideration. We aimed to investigate optimal substitutions between and within the food groups of red meat, poultry and fish for MI prevention. We followed up 55 171 women and men aged 50-64 years with no known history of MI at recruitment. Diet was assessed by a validated 192-item FFQ at baseline. Adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for specified food substitutions of 150 g/week. During a median follow-up time of 13·6 years, we identified 656 female and 1694 male cases. Among women, the HR for replacing red meat with fatty fish was 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·89), whereas the HR for replacing red meat with lean fish was 1·00 (95 % CI 0·89, 1·14). Similarly, replacing poultry with fatty but not lean fish was inversely associated with MI: the HR was 0·81 (95 % CI 0·67, 0·98) for fatty fish and was 1·08 (95 % CI 0·92, 1·27) for lean fish. The HR for replacing lean with fatty fish was 0·75 (95 % CI 0·60, 0·94). Replacing processed with unprocessed red meat was not associated with MI. Among men, a similar pattern was found, although the associations were not statistically significant. This study suggests that replacing red meat, poultry or lean fish with fatty fish is associated with a lower risk of MI. PMID:26949151

  6. Effects of different cooking methods on fatty acid profiles in four freshwater fishes from the Laurentian Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Neff, Margaret R; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Braekevelt, Eric; Arts, Michael T

    2014-12-01

    Fish is often promoted as a healthy part of the human diet due its high content of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Previous studies have shown that cooked fish can have different fatty acid profiles than raw fillets, depending on the cooking method and fish species. In this study, the fatty acid content of broiled, baked or fried skinless, boneless fillets of four fish species from the tributaries of the Great Lakes, or connecting rivers, was compared to fatty acid profiles in raw sections from the same fillet. Cooking treatments had little effect on n-3 fatty acid content; however, fried treatments generally had higher n-6 and MUFA content, which is likely a result of the cooking oil used (canola). Broiling or baking is generally the most healthy option presented in this study, as these methods result in lower levels of less-favourable fatty acids; however, the choice of cooking oil may also influence the overall fatty acid content in cooked fish. PMID:24996368

  7. Effects of Broiler Pectoralis Major Size on Sensory Descriptive Flavor and Texture Profiles of Cooked Meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four trials were conducted to compare sensory descriptive profiles of cooked broiler breast fillets categorized by fillet (pectoralis major) size. In each trial, 20 large fillets, 20 medium fillets and 20 small fillets (deboned at 6-8h postmortem from 6-week old birds) were obtained from a commercia...

  8. Impact of Added Encapsulated Phosphate Level on Lipid Oxidation Inhibition during the Storage of Cooked Ground Meat.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, B; Şimşek, A; Claus, J R; Atılgan, E; Bilecen, D

    2016-02-01

    The effect of levels (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4%, 0.5%) of added encapsulated (e) phosphate (sodium tripolyphosphate, STP; sodium hexametaphosphate, HMP; sodium pyrophosphate, SPP) on lipid oxidation inhibition during storage (0, 1, and 7 d) of ground meat (chicken, beef) was evaluated. The use of eSTP and eSPP resulted in lower and higher cooking loss (CL) compared to eHMP, respectively (P < 0.05). Increasing encapsulated phosphate level (PL) enhanced the impact of phosphates on CL in both chicken and beef samples (P < 0.05). Encapsulated STP increased pH, whereas eSPP decreased pH (P < 0.05). pH was not affected by PL. The highest orthophosphate (OP) was obtained with eSTP, followed by eSPP and eHMP (P < 0.05). The level of OP determined in both chicken and beef samples increased (P < 0.05) during storage. Increasing PL caused an increase in OP (P < 0.05). The highest reduction rate in the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and LPO for both meat species were obtained with eSPP, followed by eSTP and eHMP (P < 0.05). Increasing PL resulted in lower TBARS and LPO (P < 0.05). Findings suggest that encapsulated phosphates can be a strategy to inhibit lipid oxidation for the meat industry and the efficiency of encapsulated phosphates on lipid oxidation inhibition can be enhanced by increasing PL. PMID:26753985

  9. Assessment of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes level in ready-to-cook poultry meat: effect of various high pressure treatments and potassium lactate concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lerasle, M; Guillou, S; Simonin, H; Anthoine, V; Chéret, R; Federighi, M; Membré, J-M

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a probabilistic model in order to determine the contamination level of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-cook poultry meat, after a high pressure (HP) treatment. The model included four steps: i) Reception of raw meat materials, mincing and mixing meat, ii) Partitioning and packaging into 200-g modified atmosphere packs, iii) High pressure treatment of the meat, and iv) Storage in chilled conditions until the end of the shelf-life. The model excluded the cooking step and consumption at consumer's home as cooking practices and heating times are highly variable. The initial contamination level of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes was determined using data collected in meat primary processing plants. The effect of HP treatment and potassium lactate on microbial reduction was assessed in minced meat, using a full factorial design with three high pressure treatments (200, 350 and 500 MPa), three holding times (2, 8 and 14 min) and two potassium lactate concentrations (0 or 1.8% w/w). The inactivation curves fitted with a Weibull model highlighted that the inactivation rate was significantly dependent on the HP treatment. From the literature, it was established that Salmonella was not able to grow in the presence of lactate, under modified atmosphere and chilled conditions whereas the growth of L. monocytogenes was determined using an existing model validated in poultry (available in Seafood Spoilage and Safety Predictor software, V. 3.1). Once implemented in the Excel add-in @Risk, the model was run using Monte Carlo simulation. The probability distribution of contamination levels was determined for various scenarios. For an average scenario such as an HP treatment of 350 MPa for 8 min, of 200 g minced meat containing 1.8% lactate (pH 6.1; aw 0.96), conditioned under 50% CO2, the prevalence rate of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes, after a 20-day storage at 6 °C was estimated to be 4.1% and 7.1%, respectively. The

  10. Identification and quantification of turkey meat adulteration in fresh, frozen-thawed and cooked minced beef by FT-NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Alamprese, Cristina; Amigo, José Manuel; Casiraghi, Ernestina; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-11-01

    This work aims at the development of a method based on FT-NIR spectroscopy and multivariate analysis for the identification and quantification of minced beef meat adulteration with turkey meat. Samples were analyzed as raw, frozen-thawed and cooked. Different multivariate regression and class-modeling strategies were evaluated. PLS regression models with R(2) in prediction higher than 0.884 and RMSEP lower than 10.8% were developed. PLS-DA applied to discriminate each type of sample in two classes (adulteration threshold=20%) showed values of sensitivity and specificity in prediction higher than 0.84 and 0.76, respectively. Thus, the study demonstrates that FT-NIR spectroscopy coupled with suitable chemometric strategies is a reliable tool for the identification and quantification of minced beef adulteration with turkey meat not only in fresh products, but also in frozen-thawed and cooked samples. This achievement is of crucial importance in the meat industry due to the increasing number of processed meat products, in which technological treatments can mask a possible inter-species adulteration. PMID:27337677

  11. Antilisterial properties of marinades during refrigerated storage and microwave oven reheating against post-cooking inoculated chicken breast meat.

    PubMed

    Fouladkhah, Aliyar; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Nychas, George-John; Sofos, John N

    2013-02-01

    This study evaluated growth of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated on cooked chicken meat with different marinades and survival of the pathogen as affected by microwave oven reheating. During aerobic storage at 7 °C, on days 0, 1, 2, 4, and 7, samples were reheated by microwave oven (1100 W) for 45 or 90 s and analyzed microbiologically. L. monocytogenes counts on nonmarinated (control) samples increased (P < 0.05) from 2.7 ± 0.1 (day-0) to 6.9 ± 0.1 (day-7) log CFU/g during storage. Initial (day-0) pathogen counts of marinated samples were <0.5 log CFU/g lower than those of the control, irrespective of marinating treatment. At 7 d of storage, pathogen levels on samples marinated with tomato juice were not different (P ≥ 0.05; 6.9 ± 0.1 log CFU/g) from those of the control, whereas for samples treated with the remaining marinades, pathogen counts were 0.7 (soy sauce) to 2.0 (lemon juice) log CFU/g lower (P < 0.05) than those of the control. Microwave oven reheating reduced L. monocytogenes counts by 1.9 to 4.1 (45 s) and >2.4 to 5.0 (90 s) log CFU/g. With similar trends across different marinates, the high levels of L. monocytogenes survivors found after microwave reheating, especially after storage for more than 2 d, indicate that length of storage and reheating time need to be considered for safe consumption of leftover cooked chicken. PMID:23311403

  12. Characterization of primary organic aerosol emissions from meat cooking, trash burning, and motor vehicles with high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometry and comparison with ambient and chamber observations.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Claudia; Huffman, Alex; Cubison, Michael J; Aiken, Allison C; Docherty, Kenneth S; Kimmel, Joel R; Ulbrich, Ingrid M; Hannigan, Michael; Jimenez, Jose L

    2009-04-01

    Organic aerosol (OA) emissions from motor vehicles, meat-cooking and trash burning are analyzed here using a high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). High resolution data show that aerosols emitted by combustion engines and plastic burning are dominated by hydrocarbon-like organic compounds. Meat cooking and especially paper burning emissions contain significant fractions of oxygenated organic compounds; however, their unit-resolution mass spectral signatures are very similar to those from ambient hydrocarbon-like OA, and very different from the mass spectra of ambient secondary or oxygenated OA (OOA). Thus, primary OA from these sources is unlikelyto be a significant direct source of ambient OOA. There are significant differences in high-resolution tracer m/zs that may be useful for differentiating some of these sources. Unlike in most ambient spectra, all of these sources have low total m/z 44 and this signal is not dominated by the CO2+ ion. All sources have high m/z 57, which is low during high OOA ambient periods. Spectra from paper burning are similar to some types of biomass burning OA, with elevated m/z 60. Meat cooking aerosols also have slightly elevated m/z 60, whereas motor vehicle emissions have very low signal at this m/z. PMID:19452899

  13. Protein digestibility evaluations of meat and fish substrates using laboratory, avian and ileally cannulated dog assays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fish and meat protein serves as important protein sources in the human and companion animal diets: however, limited information is available on differences in protein quality. Pollock fillet, and salmon fillet, beef loin, pork loin and chicken breast, were evaluated for protein quality and amino aci...

  14. Effect of cooking and in vitro digestion on the stability of co-enzyme Q10 in processed meat products.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Brian D; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Hamill, Ruth; Kerry, Joseph P

    2014-05-01

    The use of CoQ10 fortification in the production of a functional food has been demonstrated in the past but primarily for dairy products. This study aimed to determine the bio-accessibility of CoQ10 in processed meat products, beef patties and pork breakfast sausages, fortified with CoQ10. Both the patties and sausages were fortified with a micellarized form of CoQ10 to enhance solubility to a concentration of 1mg/g of sample (NovaSolQ®). An assay was developed combining in vitro digestion and HPLC analysis to quantify the CoQ10 present in fortified products (100mg/g). The cooking retention level of CoQ10 in the products was found to be 74±1.42% for patties and 79.69±0.75% for sausages. The digestibility for both products ranged between 93% and 95%, sausages did have a higher digestibility level than patties but this was not found to be significant (P<0.01). PMID:24360438

  15. Maintenance of raw and cooked ready-to-eat product quality of infused poultry meats with selected plant extracts during electron beam irradiation and after storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rababah, Taha

    The purpose of this study included: preparing plant extracts and evaluating these extracts for total phenolics and antioxidant activities (AA); infusing extract/combination that demonstrates superior AA into chicken breast and irradiating at 3.0 kGy; evaluating the physicochemical properties of irradiated and non-irradiated raw and cooked chicken breast at 5°C for 12 days and -20°C for 9 months; and selecting the extracts that demonstrated desirable AA, infusing these extracts into chicken breast and evaluating head-space volatiles, and conducting sensory evaluation. The total phenolic content and AA of the plant extracts ranged from 24.8 to 92.5 mg/g dry material (conjugated diene of methyl linoleate) and 3.4 to 86.3%, respectively. The AA of plant extracts using oxidative stability instrument were 4.6 to 10.2 h (Induction time). Green tea and grape seed extracts had the highest AA within several plant extracts, and were selected to retard lipid oxidation in further studies. Fresh boneless and skinless chicken breast meats were vacuum infused with varying concentrations of antioxidants: Green tea and grape seed extracts alone/in combination and tert-butylhydroquinone. The results showed that irradiation had no significant effect on pH, water holding capacity, but increased the redness and carbonyls in raw meats (p < 0.05). Irradiation increased shear force, hardness, and chewiness of cooked meats. Infusion of plant extracts into meats increased lightness and decreased redness as well as hardness and shear force. Irradiation increased TBARS, hexanal, and pentanal values in raw and cooked meats. Addition of plant extracts decreased the amount of TBARS, hexanal, pentanal, and carbonyl values. Similar results were observed when the samples were stored at -20°C for 9 months. Descriptive sensory flavor results showed that irradiation did not affect the flavor attributes. Consumer, descriptive, and instrumental results showed that irradiation increased toughness

  16. Digestion of cooked meat proteins is slightly affected by age as assessed using the dynamic gastrointestinal TIM model and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Denis, S; Sayd, T; Georges, A; Chambon, C; Chalancon, S; Santé-Lhoutellier, V; Blanquet-Diot, S

    2016-06-15

    In humans, meat ensures the supply of proteins with high nutritional value and indispensable amino acids. The main goal of the present study was to compare the degradation of meat proteins in adult and elderly digestive conditions. Cooked meat was subjected to in vitro digestion in the dynamic multi-compartmental TIM (TNO gastroIntestinal Model) system. Digestibility and bioaccessibility were determined using nitrogen balance and digestion products were identified using mass spectrometry. The TIM model was adapted according to in vivo data to mimic the specific digestive conditions of elderly people. Meat protein digestibility and bioaccessibility were around 96 and 60% respectively and were not influenced by age (P > 0.05). As much as 800 peptides were identified in the duodenal and jejunal compartments issued from 50 meat proteins with a percentage of coverage varying from 13 to 69%. Six proteins, mainly from the cytosol, were differentially hydrolyzed under the adult and elderly digestive conditions. Pyruvate kinase was the only protein clearly showing a delay in its degradation under elderly digestive conditions. This study provides significant insights into the understanding of meat protein dynamic digestion. Such data will be helpful to design in vivo studies aiming to evaluate dietary strategies that can attenuate muscle mass loss and more generally maintain a better quality of life in the elderly population. PMID:27185090

  17. Heavy metals in marine fish meat and consumer health: a review.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Adina C; O'Neill, Bernadette; Sigge, Gunnar O; Kerwath, Sven E; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2016-01-15

    The numerous health benefits provided by fish consumption may be compromised by the presence of toxic metals and metalloids such as lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury, which can have harmful effects on the human body if consumed in toxic quantities. The monitoring of metal concentrations in fish meat is therefore important to ensure compliance with food safety regulations and consequent consumer protection. The toxicity of these metals may be dependent on their chemical forms, which requires metal speciation processes for direct measurement of toxic metal species or the identification of prediction models in order to determine toxic metal forms from measured total metal concentrations. This review addresses various shortcomings in current knowledge and research on the accumulation of metal contaminants in commercially consumed marine fish globally and particularly in South Africa, affecting both the fishing industry as well as fish consumers. PMID:26238481

  18. Meat, fish, and colorectal cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into cancer and nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Norat, Teresa; Bingham, Sheila; Ferrari, Pietro; Slimani, Nadia; Jenab, Mazda; Mazuir, Mathieu; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Clavel, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kesse, Emmanuelle; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Nieters, Alexandra; Linseisen, Jakob; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Tountas, Yannis; Berrino, Franco; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Engeset, Dagrun; Lund, Eiliv; Skeie, Guri; Ardanaz, Eva; González, Carlos; Navarro, Carmen; Quirós, J Ramón; Sanchez, María-José; Berglund, Göran; Mattisson, Irene; Hallmans, Göran; Palmqvist, Richard; Day, Nicholas E.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy J.; San Joaquin, Miguel; Hémon, Bertrand; Saracci, Rodolfo; Kaaks, Rudolf; Riboli, Elio

    2005-01-01

    Background Current evidence suggests that high red meat intake is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. High fish intake may be associated with a decreased risk, but the existing evidence is less convincing. Methods We prospectively followed 478 040 men and women from 10 European countries who were free of cancer at enrollment between 1992 and 1998. Information on diet and lifestyle was collected at baseline. After a mean follow-up of 4.8 years, 1329 incident colorectal cancers were documented. We examined the relationship between intakes of red and processed meat, poultry, and fish and colorectal cancer risk using a proportional hazards model adjusted for age, sex, energy (nonfat and fat sources), height, weight, work-related physical activity, smoking status, dietary fiber and folate, and alcohol consumption, stratified by center. A calibration substudy based on 36 994 subjects was used to correct hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for diet measurement errors. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Colorectal cancer risk was positively associated with intake of red and processed meat (highest [>160 g/day] versus lowest [<20 g/day] intake, HR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.96 to 1.88; Ptrend=.03) and inversely associated with intake of fish (>80 g/day versus <10 g/day, HR = 0.69, 95 % CI = 0.54 to 0.88; Ptrend<.001), but was not related to poultry intake. Correcting for measurement error strengthened the associations between colorectal cancer and red and processed meat intake (per 100-g increase HR = 1.25, 95% CI =1.09 to 1.41, Ptrend= .001 and HR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.19 to 2.02, Ptrend= .001 before and after calibration, respectively) and forfish (per 100 g increase HR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.57 to 0.87, Ptrend<.001 and HR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.27 to 0.77, Ptrend= .003; before and after correction, respectively). In this study population, the absolute risk of development of colorectal cancer within 10 years for a study subject aged 50 years was 1

  19. Effect of refrigerated and frozen storage on the survival of Campylobacter jejuni in cooked chicken meat breast.

    PubMed

    Eideh, Ala'a M F; Al-Qadiri, Hamzah M

    2011-01-01

    This experimental work aimed to examine the survivability of Campylobacter jejuni in cooked chicken breast under several conditions: storage for 1, 3, and 7 d at refrigerated temperatures (4 °C) and for 20 d at frozen temperatures (-18 °C). In addition, storage at ambient temperature (26 to 28 °C) was involved. Chicken samples were inoculated with a mixed culture of C. jejuni strains (ATCC: 29428 and 33219) of known concentrations (50 and 500 CFU/g). Bacterial cells were recovered and enumerated using standard procedure (Preston method). Bacteria were not detected in the majority of samples stored at ambient temperature. Refrigeration reduced survivals in 95, 90, and 77.5% for samples inoculated with 500 CFU/g and kept for 1, 3, and 7 d, respectively. The maximum reduction reached 1 log(10) cycle for all refrigeration durations. It was observed that bacteria died in 17.5% of samples kept for 7 d at 4 °C. However, survivors in samples inoculated with 50 CFU/g were not detected in 50, 65, and 55% of samples kept for 1, 3, and 7 d, respectively. Freezing rendered survivors not detectable in 70% of samples inoculated with 50 CFU/g, while survived viable counts were reduced in 92.5% of samples inoculated with 500 CFU/g. These findings suggested that C. jejuni could be killed or just sublethally injured with or without reduction in viable counts under the investigated storage temperatures, which may indicate the ability of this bacterium to survive in chicken meat stored under refrigerated and frozen conditions. PMID:21535688

  20. Utilization of byproducts and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish processing industries: a review.

    PubMed

    Jayathilakan, K; Sultana, Khudsia; Radhakrishna, K; Bawa, A S

    2012-06-01

    India is bestowed with vast livestock wealth and it is growing at the rate of 6% per annum. The contribution of livestock industry including poultry and fish is increasing substantially in GDP of country which accounts for >40% of total agricultural sector and >12% of GDP. This contribution would have been much greater had the animal by-products been also efficiently utilized. Efficient utilization of by-products has direct impact on the economy and environmental pollution of the country. Non-utilization or under utilization of by-products not only lead to loss of potential revenues but also lead to the added and increasing cost of disposal of these products. Non-utilization of animal by-products in a proper way may create major aesthetic and catastrophic health problems. Besides pollution and hazard aspects, in many cases meat, poultry and fish processing wastes have a potential for recycling raw materials or for conversion into useful products of higher value. Traditions, culture and religion are often important when a meat by-product is being utilized for food. Regulatory requirements are also important because many countries restrict the use of meat by-products for reasons of food safety and quality. By-products such as blood, liver, lung, kidney, brains, spleen and tripe has good nutritive value. Medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of by-product are also highlighted in this review. Waste products from the poultry processing and egg production industries must be efficiently dealt with as the growth of these industries depends largely on waste management. Treated fish waste has found many applications among with which the most important are animal feed, biodiesel/biogas, dietectic products (chitosan), natural pigments (after extraction) and cosmetics (collagen). Available information pertaining to the utilization of by-products and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish and their processing industries has been reviewed here. PMID:23729848

  1. Evaluation of Salmonella thermal inactivation model validity for slow cooking of whole-muscle meat roasts in a pilot-scale oven.

    PubMed

    Breslin, T J; Tenorio-Bernal, M I; Marks, B P; Booren, A M; Ryser, E T; Hall, N O

    2014-11-01

    Sublethal heating can increase subsequent thermal resistance of bacteria, which may compromise the validity of thermal process validations for slow-roasted meats. Therefore, this research evaluated the accuracy of a traditional log-linear inactivation model, developed via prior laboratory-scale isothermal tests, and a novel path-dependent model accounting for sublethal injury, applied to pilot-scale slow cooking of whole-muscle roasts. Irradiated turkey breasts, beef rounds, and pork loins were inoculated with an eight-serovar Salmonella cocktail via vacuum tumble marination in a salt-phosphate marinade. The resulting initial Salmonella population in the geometric center (core) was 7.0, 6.3, and 6.3 log CFU/g for turkey, beef, and pork, respectively. Seven different cooking schedules representing industry practices were evaluated in a pilot-scale, moist-air convection oven. Core temperatures recorded during cooking were used to calculate lethality real-time via the log-linear model. The path-dependent model reduced the bias (mean residual) and root mean square error by 4.24 and 4.60 log CFU/g respectively, in turkey; however, the new model did not reduce the prediction error in beef or pork. Overall, results demonstrated that slow-cooked roasts, processed to a computed lethality at or near that required by the regulatory performance standards, as calculated with a state-dependent model, may be underprocessed. PMID:25364923

  2. Food Safety When Cooking

    MedlinePlus

    ... running water; do not rinse raw meat or poultry before cooking. 2. Separate . Keep raw meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs (and their juices and shells) ... fresh produce than you use for raw meat, poultry, and seafood. Or, cut the fresh produce first, ...

  3. Evaluating the Performance of a New Model for Predicting the Growth of Clostridium perfringens in Cooked, Uncured Meat and Poultry Products under Isothermal, Heating, and Dynamically Cooling Conditions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lihan

    2016-07-01

    Clostridium perfringens type A is a significant public health threat and its spores may germinate, outgrow, and multiply during cooling of cooked meats. This study applies a new C. perfringens growth model in the USDA Integrated Pathogen Modeling Program-Dynamic Prediction (IPMP Dynamic Prediction) Dynamic Prediction to predict the growth from spores of C. perfringens in cooked uncured meat and poultry products using isothermal, dynamic heating, and cooling data reported in the literature. The residual errors of predictions (observation-prediction) are analyzed, and the root-mean-square error (RMSE) calculated. For isothermal and heating profiles, each data point in growth curves is compared. The mean residual errors (MRE) of predictions range from -0.40 to 0.02 Log colony forming units (CFU)/g, with a RMSE of approximately 0.6 Log CFU/g. For cooling, the end point predictions are conservative in nature, with an MRE of -1.16 Log CFU/g for single-rate cooling and -0.66 Log CFU/g for dual-rate cooling. The RMSE is between 0.6 and 0.7 Log CFU/g. Compared with other models reported in the literature, this model makes more accurate and fail-safe predictions. For cooling, the percentage for accurate and fail-safe predictions is between 97.6% and 100%. Under criterion 1, the percentage of accurate predictions is 47.5% for single-rate cooling and 66.7% for dual-rate cooling, while the fail-dangerous predictions are between 0% and 2.4%. This study demonstrates that IPMP Dynamic Prediction can be used by food processors and regulatory agencies as a tool to predict the growth of C. perfringens in uncured cooked meats and evaluate the safety of cooked or heat-treated uncured meat and poultry products exposed to cooling deviations or to develop customized cooling schedules. This study also demonstrates the need for more accurate data collection during cooling. PMID:27259065

  4. Oceanographic conditions structure forage fishes into lipid-rich and lipid-poor communities in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abookire, A.A.; Piatt, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Forage fishes were sampled with a mid-water trawl in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA, from late July to early August 1996 to 1999. We sampled 3 oceanographically distinct areas of lower Cook Inlet: waters adjacent to Chisik Island, in Kachemak Bay, and near the Barren Islands. In 163 tows using a mid-water trawl, 229437 fishes with fork length <200 mm were captured. More than 39 species were captured in lower Cook Inlet, but Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, juvenile Pacific herring Clupea pallasi, and juvenile walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma comprised 97.5% of the total individuals. Both species richness and species diversity were highest in warm, low-salinity, weakly stratified waters near Chisik Island. Kachemak Bay, which had thermohaline values between those found near Chisik Island and the Barren Islands, had an intermediate value of species richness. Species richness was lowest at the Barren Islands, an exposed region that regularly receives oceanic, upwelled water from the Gulf of Alaska. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) was used to compute axes of species composition based on an ordination of pairwise site dissimilarities. Each axis was strongly rank-correlated with unique groups of species and examined separately as a function of environmental parameters (temperature, salinity, depth), area, and year. Oceanographic parameters accounted for 41 and 12% of the variability among forage fishes indicated by Axis 1 and Axis 2, respectively. Axis 1 also captured the spatial variability in the upwelled area of lower Cook Inlet and essentially contrasted the distribution of species among shallow, nearshore (sand lance, herring) and deep, offshore (walleye pollock) habitats. Axis 2 captured the spatial variability in forage fish communities from the north (Chisik Island) to the south (Barren Islands) of lower Cook Inlet and essentially contrasted a highly diverse community dominated by salmonids and osmerids (warmer, less saline) with a fish

  5. Oceanographic conditions structure forage fishes into lipid-rich and lipid-poor communities in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abookire, A.A.; Piatt, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Forage fishes were sampled with a mid-water trawl in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA, from late July to early August 1996 to 1999. We sampled 3 oceanographically distinct areas of lower Cook Inlet: waters adjacent to Chisik Island, in Kachemak Bay, and near the Barren Islands. In 163 tows using a mid-water trawl, 229 437 fishes with fork length <200 mm were captured. More than 39 species were captured in lower Cook Inlet, but Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, juvenile Pacific herring Clupea pallasi, and juvenile walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma comprised 97.5% of the total individuals. Both species richness and species diversity were highest in warm, low-salinity, weakly stratified waters near Chisik Island. Kachemak Bay, which had thermohaline values between those found near Chisik Island and the Barren Islands, had an intermediate value of species richness. Species richness was lowest at the Barren Islands, an exposed region that regularly receives oceanic, upwelled water from the Gulf of Alaska. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) was used to compute axes of species composition based on an ordination of pairwise site dissimilarities. Each axis was strongly rank-correlated with unique groups of species and examined separately as a function of environmental parameters (temperature, salinity, depth), area, and year. Oce??anographie parameters accounted for 41 and 12% of the variability among forage fishes indicated by Axis 1 and Axis 2, respectively. Axis 1 also captured the spatial variability in the upwelled area of lower Cook Inlet and essentially contrasted the distribution of species among shallow, nearshore (sand lance, herring) and deep, offshore (walleye pollock) habitats. Axis 2 captured the spatial variability in forage fish communities from the north (Chisik Island) to the south (Barren Islands) of lower Cook Inlet and essentially contrasted a highly diverse community dominated by salmonids and osmerids (warmer, less saline) with a fish

  6. Effects of dressing and cooking on DDT concentrations in certain fish from Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinert, Robert E.; Stewart, Donald; Seagran, Harry L.

    1972-01-01

    Concentrations of DDT residues were highest in parts of the body with the highest oil content in four species of fish from Lake Michigan: yellow perch (Perca flavescens), bloater (Coregonus hoyi), lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Dressing reduced the DDT residues and oil content by more than 90% in yellow perch but had little effect in the other three species. The concentration of DDT residues in bloaters was changed little by smoking but was reduced 64–72% by other methods of cooking: from 8.0 ppm (raw) to 2.2 ppm after frying in corn oil; from 10.7 to 3.9 ppm after frying in lard; and from 9.1 to 3.2 ppm after broiling. The concentration of DDT residues in fillets of yellow perch changed only from 0.3 ppm (raw) to 0.4 or 0.5 ppm after baking, frying, or broiling.

  7. Antioxidative and antihypertensive activities of pig meat before and after cooking and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion: Comparison between Italian autochthonous pig Suino Nero Lucano and a modern crossbred pig.

    PubMed

    Simonetti, Amalia; Gambacorta, Emilio; Perna, Annamaria

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare antioxidative and antihypertensive activities of Longissimus dorsi muscle from Suino Nero Lucano (SNL) and a modern crossbred (CG) pigs, before and after cooking and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Pig meat showed antioxidative and antihypertensive activities, heat treatment decreased the thiols content but at the same time increased angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity, and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion enhanced the biological activity of meat. Autochthonous SNL meat showed a higher nutraceutical quality compared to CG meat, highlighting a greater potential beneficial physiological effect on human health. The results of this study indicate that the pig meat, in particular autochthonous pig meat, may be considered a functional food since it is a good source of antioxidative and antihypertensive peptides. PMID:27374572

  8. Effects of Different End-Point Cooking Temperatures on the Efficiency of Encapsulated Phosphates on Lipid Oxidation Inhibition in Ground Meat.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, B; Şimşek, A; Claus, J R; Atılgan, E; Aktaş, N

    2015-10-01

    Effects of 0.5% encapsulated (e) phosphates (sodium tripolyphosphate, STP; sodium hexametaphosphate, HMP; sodium pyrophosphate, SPP) on lipid oxidation during storage (0, 1, and 7 d) of ground meat (chicken, beef) after being cooked to 3 end-point cooking temperatures (EPCT; 71, 74, and 77 °C) were evaluated. The use of STP or eSTP resulted in lower (P < 0.05) cooking loss (CL) compared to encapsulated or unencapsulated forms of HMP and SPP. Increasing EPCT led to a significant increase in CL (P < 0.05). Both STP and eSTP increased pH, whereas SPP and eSPP decreased pH (P < 0.05). The higher orthophosphate (OP) was obtained with STP or SPP compared to their encapsulated counterparts (P < 0.05). The lowest OP was determined in samples with HMP or eHMP (P < 0.05). A 77 °C EPCT resulted in lower OP in chicken compared to 74 and 71 °C (P < 0.05), dissimilar to beef, where EPCT did not affect OP. In encapsulated or unencapsulated form, using STP and SPP enhanced reduction in TBARS and lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) compared with HMP (P < 0.05). Regardless of the phosphate type, more effective lipid oxidation inhibition was achieved by the use of encapsulated forms (P < 0.05). Increasing EPCT resulted in lower TBARS in beef and higher LPO values in both beef and chicken samples (P < 0.05). Findings suggest that encapsulated phosphates can be a strategy to inhibit lipid oxidation for meat industry and the efficiency of encapsulated phosphates on lipid oxidation inhibition can be enhanced by lowering EPCT. PMID:26317488

  9. The effect of two methods of cooking and cooling on Clostridium welchii and other bacteria in meat

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, R. G. A.; Kendall, Margaret; Hobbs, Betty C.

    1972-01-01

    A comparison was made of beef cooked in conventional and moist air (Rapidaire) ovens. In both large (ca. 4·5 kg.) and small (ca. 2·7 kg.) joints, spores of Clostridium welchii survived after cooking but vegetative cells, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus, did not, regardless of the type of oven used. Cooling at room temperature after cooking permitted growth of Cl. welchii. Although some multiplication also occurred in the centre of large roasts cooled under refrigeration, the viable counts were considered too low to constitute a potential health risk. PMID:4341997

  10. Analysing and modelling the growth behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes on RTE cooked meat products after a high pressure treatment at 400 MPa.

    PubMed

    Hereu, A; Dalgaard, P; Garriga, M; Aymerich, T; Bover-Cid, S

    2014-09-01

    Various predictive models are available for high pressure inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in food, but currently available models do not consider the growth kinetics of surviving cells during the subsequent storage of products. Therefore, we characterised the growth of L. monocytogenes in sliced cooked meat products after a pressurization treatment. Two inoculum levels (10(7) or 10(4) CFU/g) and two physiological states before pressurization (freeze-stressed or cold-adapted) were evaluated. Samples of cooked ham and mortadella were inoculated, high pressure processed (400 MPa, 5 min) and subsequently stored at 4, 8 and 12 °C. The Logistic model with delay was used to estimate lag phase (λ) and maximum specific growth rate (μmax) values from the obtained growth curves. The effect of storage temperature on μmax and λ was modelled using the Ratkowsky square root model and the relative lag time (RLT) concept. Compared with cold-adapted cells the freeze-stressed cells were more pressure-resistant and showed a much longer lag phase during growth after the pressure treatment. Interestingly, for high-pressure inactivation and subsequent growth, the time to achieve a concentration of L. monocytogenes 100-fold (2-log) higher than the cell concentration prior to the pressure treatment was similar for the two studied physiological states of the inoculum. Two secondary models were necessary to describe the different growth behaviour of L. monocytogenes on ready-to-eat cooked ham (lean product) and mortadella (fatty product). This supported the need of a product-oriented approach to assess growth after high pressure processing. The performance of the developed predictive models for the growth of L. monocytogenes in high-pressure processed cooked ham and mortadella was evaluated by comparison with available data from the literature and by using the Acceptable Simulation Zone approach. Overall, 91% of the relative errors fell into the Acceptable Simulation Zone. PMID

  11. Use of rRNA gene restriction patterns to evaluate lactic acid bacterium contamination of vacuum-packaged sliced cooked whole-meat product in a meat processing plant.

    PubMed Central

    Björkroth, K J; Korkeala, H J

    1997-01-01

    Molecular typing was applied to an in-plant lactic acid bacterium (LAB) contamination analysis of a vacuum-packaged sliced cooked whole-meat product. A total of 982 LAB isolates from the raw mass, product, and the environment at different production stages were screened by restriction endonuclease (EcoRI and HindIII) analysis. rRNA gene restriction patterns were further determined for different strains obtained from each source. These patterns were used for recognizing the spoilage-causing LAB strains from the product on the sell-by day and tracing the sources and sites of spoilage LAB contamination during the manufacture. LAB typing resulted in 71 different ribotypes, of which 27 were associated with contamination routes. Raw material was distinguished as the source of the major spoilage strains. Contamination of the product surfaces after cooking was shown to be airborne. The removal of the product from the cooking forms was localized as a major site of airborne LAB contamination. Food handlers and some surfaces in contact with the product during the manufacture were also contaminated with the spoilage strains. Some LAB strains were also able to resist cooking in the core of the product bar. These strains may have an effect on the product shelf life by contaminating the slicing machine. The air in the slicing department and adjacent cold room contained very few LAB. Surface-mediated contamination was detected during the slicing and packaging stages. Food handlers also carried strains later found in the packaged product. Molecular typing provided useful information revealing the LAB contamination sources and sites of this product. The production line will be reorganized in accordance with these results to reduce spoilage LAB contamination. PMID:9023922

  12. Effect of high-energy electron irradiation of chicken meat on thiobarbituric acid values, shear values, odor, and cooked yield

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, J.L.; Owens, S.L.; Tesch, S.; Hannah, K.W. )

    1990-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether electron-beam irradiation would affect shear values, yield, odor, and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of chicken tissues. Broiler breasts (pectoralis superficialis) and whole thighs were irradiated with an electron-beam accelerator at levels to produce adsorbed doses of 100, 200, and 300 krads on the surface of the sample. The thigh samples were stored for 2, 4, and 8 days before testing for TBA values. The depth to which the radiation had penetrated the pectoralis superficialis muscle was also determined. Radiation penetrated 22 mm into slices of pectoralis superficialis muscle when 100 krad was absorbed by the surface of the tissue. The dose absorbed beneath the tissue surface to a depth of 10 mm was larger than the dose absorbed at the surface. The absorbed dose decreased as the depth of penetration increased. For cooked breast tissue, the shear values and moisture content were not affected by the absorbed radiation. Cooking losses of aged breast tissue were not affected by irradiation, but cooking losses were reduced in breast tissue that had not been aged. Irradiating uncooked thigh and uncooked breast samples produced a characteristic odor that remained after the thighs were cooked but was not detectable after the breast samples were cooked. With two exceptions, no significantly different TBA values were found that could be attributed to irradiation.

  13. Development of meat-bone separator for small scale fish processing.

    PubMed

    Bibwe, Bhushan R; Hiregoudar, Sharanakumar; Nidoni, Udaykumar R; Anantachar, M; Shrestha, Bijay

    2013-08-01

    The belt and drum type meat-bone separator was developed for small-scale fish processing and evaluated using Tilapia fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) in terms of capacity, yield, percentage yield, bone content, colour and power consumption. It consists of a perforated drum (3 mm), single phase electric motor, speed reduction gear box and drive system. The machine was evaluated using two food grade belt viz., natural rubber (Belt A-35 shore) and canvas belt (Belt B-65 shore) for three drum speeds. The machine capacity was in the range of 45.59 to 68.54 kg h(-1) for belt A with a yield of 1.148, 1.069 and 1.066 kg, and 49.13 to 78.13 kg h(-1) for belt B with a yield of 1.253, 1.312 and 1.269 kg at drum speeds of 14, 20 and 24 rpm, respectively. For belt A, the highest yield (1.148 kg) was obtained at 14 rpm drum speed which was 63.78% on dressed weight basis and for belt B, the highest yield (1.312 kg) was obtained at 20 rpm drum speed which was 72.89% on dressed weight basis. The increased number of passes for meat recovery increased the chances of insertion of bone fragments into minced meat and decreased the colour values (L-a-b). The total energy consumption did not vary significantly. PMID:24425979

  14. Effect of six different cooking techniques in the nutritional composition of two fish species previously selected as optimal for renal patient's diet.

    PubMed

    Castro-González, Isabel; Maafs-Rodríguez, Ana Gabriela; Pérez-Gil Romo, Fernando

    2015-07-01

    Benefits of fish consumption are widely known, but there is little information about nutrient values of raw and cooked fish. The aim was to study the impact that six cooking techniques have on the nutritional composition of two fish species with low content of adverse nutrients in renal diet. Raw and steamed, foiled with aluminum, foiled with banana leaf, gas oven-baked, microwave oven-coked and fried lightly samples were chemically analyzed to determine their protein, phosphorus and lipid content. Crevalle jack: all methods increased lipid and protein content and fatty acids (FA) varied in all cooking methods. Phosphorus decreased in the steamed and microwave oven-cooked samples. Red drum: foiled and fried lightly increased lipid content compared to the raw sample. FA concentration changed in all cooking methods. Protein increased with every technique and phosphorus decreased in the steamed and gas oven-baked samples. Renal patients should preferably consume crevalle jack steamed or microwave oven-cooked and red drum steamed or gas oven-baked. PMID:26139884

  15. Effect of modified atmosphere and temperature abuse on the growth from spores and cereulide production of Bacillus weihenstephanensis in a cooked chilled meat sausage.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Line; Budde, Birgitte Bjørn; Koch, Anette Granly; Klingberg, Trine Danø

    2009-04-15

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the germination and growth of toxin producing psychrotolerant Bacillus spp is not well described. A model agar system mimicking a cooked meat product was used in initial experiments. Incubation at refrigeration temperature of 8 degrees C for 5 weeks of 26 Bacillus weihenstephanensis including two emetic toxin (cereulide) producing strains showed that B. weihenstephanensis is sensitive to MAP containing CO2. The sensitivity to 20% CO2 was dependent on strain and oxygen level, being increased when oxygen was excluded from the MAP. Growth from spores was observed at the earliest within 2 weeks when 20% CO2 was combined with 2% O2 and in 3 weeks when combined with "0"% O2 (the remaining atmosphere was made up from N2). Results were validated in a cooked meat sausage model for two non-emetic and one emetic B. weihenstephanensis strain. The packaging film oxygen transfer rates (OTR) were 1.3 and 40 ml/m(2)/24 h and the atmospheres were 2% O2/20% CO2 and "0"% O2/20% CO2. Oxygen availability had a large impact on the growth from spores in the MAP meat sausage, only the most oxygen restricted condition (OTR of 1.3 ml/m(2)/24 h and "0"% O2/20 % CO2 inhibited growth of the three strains during 4 weeks storage at 8 degrees C. Cereulide production was undetectable during storage at 8 degrees C irrespective of choice of the MAP (quantified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry). MAP storage at 8 degrees C for 1 and 3 weeks followed by opening of packages and temperature abuse for 1.5 h daily at 20 degrees C during 1 week resulted in increased cell counts and variable cereulide production in the meat sausage. A pre-history at 8 degrees C for 1 week in MAP with OTR of 1.3 or 40 ml/m(2)/24 h and 2% O2 resulted in cereulide concentrations of 0.816-1.353 microg/g meat sausage, while a pre-history under the most oxygen restricted condition (OTR of 1.3 ml/m(2)/24 h, "0"% O2/20 % CO2 resulted in minimal

  16. 9 CFR 94.4 - Cured or cooked meat from regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... regulations in 9 CFR 327.2; must meet all other applicable requirements of the Federal Meat Inspection Act and regulations thereunder (9 CFR Chapter III); and must have been approved by the Administrator in accordance... 0579-0015) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 94.2, see the List of...

  17. 9 CFR 94.4 - Cured or cooked meat from regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... regulations in 9 CFR 327.2; must meet all other applicable requirements of the Federal Meat Inspection Act and regulations thereunder (9 CFR Chapter III); and must have been approved by the Administrator in accordance... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  18. 9 CFR 94.4 - Cured or cooked meat from regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... regulations in 9 CFR 327.2; must meet all other applicable requirements of the Federal Meat Inspection Act and regulations thereunder (9 CFR Chapter III); and must have been approved by the Administrator in accordance... 0579-0015) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 94.2, see the List of...

  19. 9 CFR 94.4 - Cured or cooked meat from regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... regulations in 9 CFR 327.2; must meet all other applicable requirements of the Federal Meat Inspection Act and regulations thereunder (9 CFR Chapter III); and must have been approved by the Administrator in accordance... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  20. 9 CFR 94.4 - Cured or cooked meat from regions where rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... regulations in 9 CFR 327.2; must meet all other applicable requirements of the Federal Meat Inspection Act and regulations thereunder (9 CFR Chapter III); and must have been approved by the Administrator in accordance... SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM...

  1. Use of Dual Electromagnetic Radiation Technology to Reduce Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes Risk on Cooked and Packaged Meat Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pathogenic bacteria including Salmonella and Listeria can potentially contaminate ready-to-eat meats. These bacteria compromise the safety of our food supply. The objective of this research was to develop and test new low temperature pasteurization technology for packaged or thermally sensitive food...

  2. Effect of dry-air chilling on sensory descriptive profiles of cooked broiler breast meat deboned four hours after the initiation of chilling.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, H; Savage, E M; Smith, D P; Berrang, M E

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a dry air-chilling (AC) method on sensory texture and flavor descriptive profiles of broiler pectoralis major (fillet) and pectoralis minor (tender). The profiles of the muscles immersion-chilled and deboned at the same postmortem time and the profiles of the muscles hot-boned (or no chill) were used for the comparison. A total of 108 eviscerated carcasses (6-wk-old broilers) were obtained from a commercial processing line before the chillers. Carcasses were transported to a laboratory facility where they were either i) chilled by a dry AC method (0.7 degrees C, 150 min in a cold room), ii) chilled by immersion chilling (IC; 0.3 degrees C, 50 min in a chiller), or iii) not chilled (9 birds per treatment per replication). Both IC and AC fillets and tenders were removed from the bone at 4 h after the initiation of chilling (approximately 4.75 h postmortem) in a processing area (18 degrees C). The no-chill muscles were removed immediately upon arrival. The sensory properties (21 attributes) of cooked broiler breast meat were evaluated by trained panelists using 0- to 15-point universal intensity scales. The average intensity scores of the 9 flavor attributes analyzed ranged from 0.9 to 4.0. Regardless of breast muscle type, there were no significant differences in sensory flavor descriptive profiles between the 3 treatments. The average intensity scores of the 12 texture attributes ranged from 1.5 to 7.5 and there were no significant differences between the AC and IC samples. The average intensity scores of the texture attributes, cohesiveness, hardness, cohesiveness of mass, rate of breakdown, and chewiness of the no chill fillets and tenders were significantly higher than those of either of the chilled samples. These results demonstrate that chicken breast meat from AC retains sensory flavor profile characteristics but AC results in sensory texture profile differences when compared with no-chill meat. Sensory

  3. Meat Processing Plant Microbiome and Contamination Patterns of Cold-Tolerant Bacteria Causing Food Safety and Spoilage Risks in the Manufacture of Vacuum-Packaged Cooked Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Rahkila, Riitta; Ali, Javeria; Rousu, Juho; Björkroth, K. Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Refrigerated food processing facilities are specific man-made niches likely to harbor cold-tolerant bacteria. To characterize this type of microbiota and study the link between processing plant and product microbiomes, we followed and compared microbiota associated with the raw materials and processing stages of a vacuum-packaged, cooked sausage product affected by a prolonged quality fluctuation with occasional spoilage manifestations during shelf life. A total of 195 samples were subjected to culturing and amplicon sequence analyses. Abundant mesophilic psychrotrophs were detected within the microbiomes throughout the different compartments of the production plant environment. However, each of the main genera of food safety and quality interest, e.g., Leuconostoc, Brochothrix, and Yersinia, had their own characteristic patterns of contamination. Bacteria from the genus Leuconostoc, commonly causing spoilage of cold-stored, modified-atmosphere-packaged foods, were detected in high abundance (up to >98%) in the sausages studied. The same operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were, however, detected in lower abundances in raw meat and emulsion (average relative abundance of 2% ± 5%), as well as on the processing plant surfaces (<4%). A completely different abundance profile was found for OTUs phylogenetically close to the species Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. These OTUs were detected in high abundance (up to 28%) on the processing plant surfaces but to a lesser extent (<1%) in raw meat, sausage emulsion, and sausages. The fact that Yersinia-like OTUs were found on the surfaces of a high-hygiene packaging compartment raises food safety concerns related to their resilient existence on surfaces. PMID:26231646

  4. Meat Processing Plant Microbiome and Contamination Patterns of Cold-Tolerant Bacteria Causing Food Safety and Spoilage Risks in the Manufacture of Vacuum-Packaged Cooked Sausages.

    PubMed

    Hultman, Jenni; Rahkila, Riitta; Ali, Javeria; Rousu, Juho; Björkroth, K Johanna

    2015-10-01

    Refrigerated food processing facilities are specific man-made niches likely to harbor cold-tolerant bacteria. To characterize this type of microbiota and study the link between processing plant and product microbiomes, we followed and compared microbiota associated with the raw materials and processing stages of a vacuum-packaged, cooked sausage product affected by a prolonged quality fluctuation with occasional spoilage manifestations during shelf life. A total of 195 samples were subjected to culturing and amplicon sequence analyses. Abundant mesophilic psychrotrophs were detected within the microbiomes throughout the different compartments of the production plant environment. However, each of the main genera of food safety and quality interest, e.g., Leuconostoc, Brochothrix, and Yersinia, had their own characteristic patterns of contamination. Bacteria from the genus Leuconostoc, commonly causing spoilage of cold-stored, modified-atmosphere-packaged foods, were detected in high abundance (up to >98%) in the sausages studied. The same operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were, however, detected in lower abundances in raw meat and emulsion (average relative abundance of 2%±5%), as well as on the processing plant surfaces (<4%). A completely different abundance profile was found for OTUs phylogenetically close to the species Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. These OTUs were detected in high abundance (up to 28%) on the processing plant surfaces but to a lesser extent (<1%) in raw meat, sausage emulsion, and sausages. The fact that Yersinia-like OTUs were found on the surfaces of a high-hygiene packaging compartment raises food safety concerns related to their resilient existence on surfaces. PMID:26231646

  5. The behaviour of the protein complex throughout the technological process in the production of cooked cold meats.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, G; Rivaldi, P

    2008-12-01

    Protein composition was examined in order to find markers that could be useful in technology optimization. The behaviour of sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar proteins during the processing of roast pork was studied at the various processing steps, utilising some electrophoretic (SDS-PAGE, 2DE and IEF) and thermometric (DSC) techniques and evaluating the content of amino acids produced. The relevance of desmin as a marker of structural modification was emphasised. The extraction of myofibrillar proteins by brine, the formation of a protein network at 62°C and the evaluation of the exudate produced during cooking are the crucial steps that should be monitored when a new industrial process is to be optimised. PMID:22063848

  6. Safety and quality parameters of ready-to-cook minced pork meat products supplemented with Helianthus tuberosus L. tubers fermented by BLIS producing lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Stimbirys, Arturas; Bartkiene, Elena; Siugzdaite, Jurate; Augeniene, Dovile; Vidmantiene, Daiva; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Maruska, Audrius; Stankevicius, Mantas; Cizeikiene, Dalia

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of additives of Jerusalem artichoke (JA), fermented with P. acidilactici KTU05-7, P. pentosaceus KTU05-9, L. sakei KTU05-6, on the quality and safety parameters of ready - to cook - minced pork (RCMP). Fermented JA additives reduced pH of the meat products and decreased water holding capacity (WHC) from 2.01 till 2.93 %. Concentrations of biogenic amines in RCMP with additives of the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) - fermented JA were significantly lower comparing with control sample. The number of pathogenic bacteria in artificially contaminated meat samples was significantly reduced in case of LAB-fermented JA additives. The highest antimicrobial activity was obtained using P. acidilactici fermented JA additives. The amounts of microbial pathogens E. coli and Ent. faecalis, S. aureus and Streptococcus spp. were determined 3.41, 3.38, 3,96 and 4.74 log CFU/g correspondingly, whereas without LAB-fermented JA additives were 8.94, 7.75, 8.82 and 8.58 log CFU/g, correspondingly. A possibility to improve sensory properties (flavor) of RCMP using LAB fermented JA additives was investigated. The composition of volatile compounds of RCMP without additive and with LAB-fermented JA additives was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of sensory evaluation of meat products supplemented with fermented JA additives revealed specific odor, which is pleasant and acceptable for consumers might be explainable that LAB-fermented JA additives have shown considerable differences mainly due to the accumulation of volatiles such as toluene, ethylbenzene, decane, undecane, 2 methyl undecane. N-morpholinomethyl-isopropyl-sulfide, 6-undecilamine and N,N-dimethyl-1-pentadecanamine were not determined in RCMP with LAB-fermented JA additives. The results obtained show, that P. acidilactici fermented JA 5 % additive is most suitable for the RCMP processing in order to prevent microbiological spoilage, increase

  7. Strategies to predict and improve eating quality of cooked beef using carcass and meat composition traits in Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Mateescu, R G; Oltenacu, P A; Garmyn, A J; Mafi, G G; VanOverbeke, D L

    2016-05-01

    Product quality is a high priority for the beef industry because of its importance as a major driver of consumer demand for beef and the ability of the industry to improve it. A 2-prong approach based on implementation of a genetic program to improve eating quality and a system to communicate eating quality and increase the probability that consumers' eating quality expectations are met is outlined. The objectives of this study were 1) to identify the best carcass and meat composition traits to be used in a selection program to improve eating quality and 2) to develop a relatively small number of classes that reflect real and perceptible differences in eating quality that can be communicated to consumers and identify a subset of carcass and meat composition traits with the highest predictive accuracy across all eating quality classes. Carcass traits, meat composition, including Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), intramuscular fat content (IMFC), trained sensory panel scores, and mineral composition traits of 1,666 Angus cattle were used in this study. Three eating quality indexes, EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3, were generated by using different weights for the sensory traits (emphasis on tenderness, flavor, and juiciness, respectively). The best model for predicting eating quality explained 37%, 9%, and 19% of the variability of EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3, and 2 traits, WBSF and IMFC, accounted for most of the variability explained by the best models. EATQ1 combines tenderness, juiciness, and flavor assessed by trained panels with 0.60, 0.15, and 0.25 weights, best describes North American consumers, and has a moderate heritability (0.18 ± 0.06). A selection index (I= -0.5[WBSF] + 0.3[IMFC]) based on phenotypic and genetic variances and covariances can be used to improve eating quality as a correlated trait. The 3 indexes (EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3) were used to generate 3 equal (33.3%) low, medium, and high eating quality classes, and linear combinations of traits that

  8. Consumption of fish and meats and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    PubMed Central

    Fedirko, V.; Trichopolou, A.; Bamia, C.; Duarte-Salles, T.; Trepo, E.; Aleksandrova, K.; Nöthlings, U.; Lukanova, A.; Lagiou, P.; Boffetta, P.; Trichopoulos, D.; Katzke, V. A.; Overvad, K.; Tjønneland, A.; Hansen, L.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Fagherazzi, G.; Bastide, N.; Panico, S.; Grioni, S.; Vineis, P.; Palli, D.; Tumino, R.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Peeters, P. H.; Skeie, G.; Engeset, D.; Parr, C. L.; Jakszyn, P.; Sánchez, M. J.; Barricarte, A.; Amiano, P.; Chirlaque, M.; Quirós, J. R.; Sund, M.; Werner, M.; Sonestedt, E.; Ericson, U.; Key, T. J.; Khaw, K. T.; Ferrari, P.; Romieu, I.; Riboli, E.; Jenab, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background While higher intake of fish and lower consumption of red/processed meats have been suggested to play a protective role in the etiology of several cancers, prospective evidence for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is limited, particularly in Western European populations. Methods The associations of fish and meats with HCC risk were analyzed in the EPIC cohort. Between 1992 and 2010, 191 incident HCC were identified among 477 206 participants. Baseline diet was assessed using validated dietary questionnaires. A single 24-h diet recall from a cohort subsample was used for calibration. Multivariable proportional hazard regression was utilized to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). In a nested case–control subset (HCC = 122), HBV/HCV status and liver function biomarkers were measured. Results HCC risk was inversely associated with intake of total fish (per 20 g/day increase, HR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.74–0.95 and HR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.69–0.97 before and after calibration, respectively). This inverse association was also suggested after adjusting for HBV/HCV status and liver function score (per 20-g/day increase, RR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.66–1.11 and RR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.50–1.09, respectively) in a nested case–control subset. Intakes of total meats or subgroups of red/processed meats, and poultry were not associated with HCC risk. Conclusions In this large European cohort, total fish intake is associated with lower HCC risk. PMID:23670094

  9. Antioxidant Effectiveness of Vegetable Powders on the Lipid and Protein Oxidative Stability of Cooked Turkey Meat Patties: Implications for Health

    PubMed Central

    Duthie, Garry; Campbell, Fiona; Bestwick, Charles; Stephen, Sylvia; Russell, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Lipid and protein oxidation decreases the shelf-life of foods and may result in formation of end-products potentially detrimental for health. Consumer pressure to decrease the use of synthetic phenolic antioxidants has encouraged identification of alternative compounds or extracts from natural sources. We have assessed whether inclusion of dried vegetable powders improves the oxidative stability of turkey meat patties. Such powders are not only potentially-rich sources of phenolic antioxidants, but also may impart additional health benefits, as inadequate vegetable consumption is a risk factor for heart disease and several cancers. In an accelerated oxidation system, six of eleven vegetable powders significantly (p < 0.05) improved oxidative stability of patties by 20%–30% (spinach < yellow pea < onion < red pepper < green pea < tomato). Improved lipid oxidative stability was strongly correlated with the decreased formation of protein carbonyls (r = 0.747, p < 0.01). However, improved lipid stability could not be ascribed to phenolic acids nor recognized antioxidants, such as α- and γ-tocopherol, despite their significant (p < 0.01) contribution to the total antioxidant capacity of the patties. Use of chemically complex vegetable powders offers an alternative to individual antioxidants for increasing shelf-life of animal-based food products and may also provide additional health benefits associated with increased vegetable intake. PMID:23595133

  10. Antioxidant effectiveness of vegetable powders on the lipid and protein oxidative stability of cooked Turkey meat patties: implications for health.

    PubMed

    Duthie, Garry; Campbell, Fiona; Bestwick, Charles; Stephen, Sylvia; Russell, Wendy

    2013-04-01

    Lipid and protein oxidation decreases the shelf-life of foods and may result in formation of end-products potentially detrimental for health. Consumer pressure to decrease the use of synthetic phenolic antioxidants has encouraged identification of alternative compounds or extracts from natural sources. We have assessed whether inclusion of dried vegetable powders improves the oxidative stability of turkey meat patties. Such powders are not only potentially-rich sources of phenolic antioxidants, but also may impart additional health benefits, as inadequate vegetable consumption is a risk factor for heart disease and several cancers. In an accelerated oxidation system, six of eleven vegetable powders significantly (p < 0.05) improved oxidative stability of patties by 20%-30% (spinach < yellow pea < onion < red pepper < green pea < tomato). Improved lipid oxidative stability was strongly correlated with the decreased formation of protein carbonyls (r = 0.747, p < 0.01). However, improved lipid stability could not be ascribed to phenolic acids nor recognized antioxidants, such as α- and γ-tocopherol, despite their significant (p < 0.01) contribution to the total antioxidant capacity of the patties. Use of chemically complex vegetable powders offers an alternative to individual antioxidants for increasing shelf-life of animal-based food products and may also provide additional health benefits associated with increased vegetable intake. PMID:23595133

  11. Dietary Intakes of Red Meat, Poultry, and Fish During High School and Risk of Colorectal Adenomas in Women

    PubMed Central

    Nimptsch, Katharina; Bernstein, Adam M.; Giovannucci, Edward; Fuchs, Charles S.; Willett, Walter C.; Wu, Kana

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent diet may be etiologically relevant for colorectal carcinogenesis. We examined the association between meat and fish intakes during adolescence and the risk of colorectal adenomas later in life among 19,771 women participating in the Nurses' Health Study II. Subjects had completed a validated food frequency questionnaire in 1998 (when aged 34–51 years) about their diets during high school and subsequently underwent at least 1 lower-bowel endoscopy during the study period (1998–2007). During this period, 1,494 subjects were diagnosed with colorectal adenomas. Intake of red meat during adolescence was not associated with colorectal adenoma risk when comparing those in the highest versus lowest category of intake (odds ratio (OR) = 1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81, 1.35). Similarly, intake of fish during adolescence was not associated with colorectal adenoma risk (OR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.78, 1.17). Intake of poultry during adolescence was associated with a lower risk of total colorectal (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.64, 0.99), distal (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.51, 0.99), rectal (OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.90), and advanced (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.38, 0.93) adenomas. Replacement of 1 serving per day of red meat with 1 serving per day of poultry or fish was associated with 41% and 35% decreased risks for rectal adenomas and advanced adenomas, respectively. Our findings do not suggest an association between red meat intake during adolescence and colorectal adenomas later in life, but higher poultry intake during this time was associated with a lower risk of colorectal adenomas. PMID:23785116

  12. The Electronic Nose: A Protocol To Evaluate Fresh Meat Flavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isoppo, S.; Cornale, P.; Barbera, S.

    2009-05-01

    An Electronic Nose, comprising 10 MOS, was used to carry out meat aroma measurements in order to define an analytical protocol. Every meat sample (Longissimus Dorsi) was tested before, during and after cooking in oven (at 165° C for 600 seconds). Analysis took place in these three steps because consumers perceive odor when they buy (raw aroma), cook (cooking aroma) and eat meat (cooked aroma). Therefore these tests permitted to obtain a protocol useful to measure aroma daily perceived by meat eater.

  13. Non-invasive analytical technology for the detection of contamination, adulteration, and authenticity of meat, poultry, and fish: a review.

    PubMed

    Kamruzzaman, Mohammed; Makino, Yoshio; Oshita, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    The requirement of real-time monitoring of food products has encouraged the development of non-destructive measurement systems. Hyperspectral imaging is a rapid, reagentless, non-destructive analytical technique that integrates traditional spectroscopic and imaging techniques into one system to attain both spectral and spatial information from an object that cannot be achieved with either digital imaging or conventional spectroscopic techniques. Recently, this technique has emerged as one of the most powerful and inspiring techniques for assessing different meat species and building chemical images to show the distribution maps of constituents in a direct and easy manner. After presenting a brief description of the fundamentals of hyperspectral imaging, this paper reviews the potential applications of hyperspectral imaging for detecting the adulteration, contamination, and authenticity of meat, poultry, and fish. These applications envisage that hyperspectral imaging can be considered as a promising non-invasive analytical technique for predicting the contamination, adulteration, and authenticity of meat, poultry, and fish in a real-time mode. PMID:25467447

  14. Improvement of turkey breast meat quality and cooked gel functionality using hot-boning, quarter sectioning, crust-freeze-air-chilling and cold-batter-mincing technologies.

    PubMed

    Lee, H C; Erasmus, M A; Swanson, J C; Hong, H G; Kang, I

    2016-01-01

    The effect of rapid carcass chilling on breast meat quality was evaluated using commercial (COMM) and random-bred (RB) turkeys. Immediately after slaughter, 48 turkeys from COMM or RB line were randomly subjected to one of four chilling methods: 1) water-immersion chilling (WIC) of the carcasses at 0°C ice slurry, 2) WIC after temperature abuse (TA) of the carcasses at 40°C for 30 min (TA-WIC), 3) hot-boning, quarter sectioning, and crust-freeze-air-chilling (HB-(1)/4CFAC) of breast fillets at -12°C, and 4) HB-(1)/4CFAC of fillets after TA of carcasses (TA-HB-(1)/4CFAC). The TA increased carcass and fillet temperatures by ∼1.3 and ∼4.1°C, respectively, regardless of turkey line, whereas HB-(1)/4CFAC of fillets required 28 and 33% of carcass chilling time for COMM and RB, respectively. During chilling, COMM breast pH rapidly reduced from 6.04 to 5.82, resulting in a significantly lower pH than RB after chilling (P < 0.05), whereas COMM R-value sharply increased from 1.17 to 1.43, causing no difference from RB (P > 0.05). Significantly higher L* value and cooking yield (P < 0.05) were seen in the samples of TA and WIC than those of no TA and HB-(1)/4CFAC, respectively, with no difference observed between COMM and RB fillets (P > 0.05). Higher values of hardness, gumminess, and chewiness were found for RB, no TA, and HB-(1)/4CFAC gels than COMM, TA, and WIC, respectively. These results generally indicated that protein quality and textural properties of turkey fillets were improved, regardless of strains or temperature abuse, using HB-(1)/4CFAC technology. PMID:26527709

  15. Serum Uric Acid Concentrations in Meat Eaters, Fish Eaters, Vegetarians and Vegans: A Cross-Sectional Analysis in the EPIC-Oxford Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Julie A.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Appleby, Paul N.; Key, Timothy J.; Travis, Ruth C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Circulating concentrations of uric acid may be affected by dietary components such as meat, fish and dairy products, but only a few studies have compared uric acid concentrations among individuals who exclude some or all of these foods from their diet. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in serum uric acid concentrations between meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans. Subjects and Methods A sample of 670 men and 1,023 women (424 meat eaters, 425 fish eaters, 422 vegetarians and 422 vegans, matched on age and sex) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Oxford cohort were included in this cross-sectional analysis. Diet was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and serum concentrations of uric acid were measured. Mean concentrations of uric acid by diet group were calculated after adjusting for age, body mass index, calcium and alcohol intake. Results In both men and women, serum uric acid concentrations differed significantly by diet group (p<0.0001 and p = 0.01, respectively). The differences between diet groups were most pronounced in men; vegans had the highest concentration (340, 95% confidence interval 329–351 µmol/l), followed by meat eaters (315, 306–324 µmol/l), fish eaters (309, 300–318 µmol/l) and vegetarians (303, 294–312 µmol/l). In women, serum uric acid concentrations were slightly higher in vegans (241, 234–247 µmol/l) than in meat eaters (237, 231–242 µmol/l) and lower in vegetarians (230, 224–236 µmol/l) and fish eaters (227, 221–233 µmol/l). Conclusion Individuals consuming a vegan diet had the highest serum concentrations of uric acid compared to meat eaters, fish eaters and vegetarians, especially in men. Vegetarians and individuals who eat fish but not meat had the lowest concentrations of serum uric acid. PMID:23418557

  16. Combined effects of marinating and γ-irradiation in ensuring safety, protection of nutritional value and increase in shelf-life of ready-to-cook meat for immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Ben Fadhel, Yosra; Leroy, Valentin; Dussault, Dominic; St-Yves, France; Lauzon, Martine; Salmieri, Stéphane; Jamshidian, Majid; Vu, Dang Khanh; Lacroix, Monique

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combining marinating and γ-irradiation at doses of 1, 1.5 and 3kGy on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium and Clostridium sporogenes in raw meat packed under vacuum and stored at 4°C and to estimate its safety and shelf-life. Further, the effect of combined treatments on sensorial, nutritional values (lipid oxidation, concentration of thiamin and riboflavin) and color was evaluated. The study demonstrated that the use of marinade in combination with a low dose of γ-irradiation (1.5kGy) could act in synergy to reduce to undetectable level of pathogenic bacteria and increase the shelf-life of ready-to-cook meat loin without affecting its sensorial and nutritional quality. PMID:27043970

  17. Meat, dairy and plant proteins alter bacterial composition of rat gut bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yingying; Lin, Xisha; Zhao, Fan; Shi, Xuebin; Li, He; Li, Yingqiu; Zhu, Weiyun; Xu, Xinglian; Lu, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2015-01-01

    Long-term consumption of red meat has been considered a potential risk to gut health, but this is based on clinic investigations, excessive intake of fat, heme and some injurious compounds formed during cooking or additions to processed meat products. Whether intake of red meat protein affects gut bacteria and the health of the host remains unclear. In this work, we compared the composition of gut bacteria in the caecum, by sequencing the V4-V5 region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene, obtained from rats fed with proteins from red meat (beef and pork), white meat (chicken and fish) and other sources (casein and soy). The results showed significant differences in profiles of gut bacteria between the six diet groups. Rats fed with meat proteins had a similar overall structure of caecal bacterial communities separated from those fed non-meat proteins. The beneficial genus Lactobacillus was higher in the white meat than in the red meat or non-meat protein groups. Also, rats fed with meat proteins and casein had significantly lower levels of lipopolysaccharide-binding proteins, suggesting that the intake of meat proteins may maintain a more balanced composition of gut bacteria, thereby reducing the antigen load and inflammatory response in the host. PMID:26463271

  18. Meat, dairy and plant proteins alter bacterial composition of rat gut bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yingying; Lin, Xisha; Zhao, Fan; Shi, Xuebin; Li, He; Li, Yingqiu; Zhu, Weiyun; Xu, Xinglian; Li, Chunbao; Lu, Chunbao; Zhou, Guanghong

    2015-01-01

    Long-term consumption of red meat has been considered a potential risk to gut health, but this is based on clinic investigations, excessive intake of fat, heme and some injurious compounds formed during cooking or additions to processed meat products. Whether intake of red meat protein affects gut bacteria and the health of the host remains unclear. In this work, we compared the composition of gut bacteria in the caecum, by sequencing the V4-V5 region of 16S ribosomal RNA gene, obtained from rats fed with proteins from red meat (beef and pork), white meat (chicken and fish) and other sources (casein and soy). The results showed significant differences in profiles of gut bacteria between the six diet groups. Rats fed with meat proteins had a similar overall structure of caecal bacterial communities separated from those fed non-meat proteins. The beneficial genus Lactobacillus was higher in the white meat than in the red meat or non-meat protein groups. Also, rats fed with meat proteins and casein had significantly lower levels of lipopolysaccharide-binding proteins, suggesting that the intake of meat proteins may maintain a more balanced composition of gut bacteria, thereby reducing the antigen load and inflammatory response in the host. PMID:26463271

  19. Retail Meat Cutting I. Apprentice Meat Cutter Related Training. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale H., Ed.

    Intended as a first-year curriculum for apprentice meat cutters, this text focuses on retail meat cutting. Topics covered in the 24 chapters are background and purpose of apprenticeship, job preparation, general layout of the meat department, operational procedures, beef structure and evaluation, retail cuts and cooking methods, beef forequarter:…

  20. Effects of low carbohydrate diets high in red meats or poultry, fish and shellfish on plasma lipids and weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Cassady, Bridget A; Charboneau, Nicole L; Brys, Emily E; Crouse, Kristin A; Beitz, Donald C; Wilson, Ted

    2007-01-01

    Background Low carbohydrate diets (LCDs) have been demonstrated to be effective tools for promoting weight loss and an improved plasma lipid profile. Such diets are often associated with increased meat consumption, either poultry, fish, and shellfish (PFS), which are generally high in polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) or red meats (RM), generally high in saturated fat (SFA). The fatty acid profile and content of a diet may influence the plasma lipid profile of humans. This study examined whether the type of meat consumed could influence the outcome of an LCD. Methods Moderately obese subjects consumed two different LCDs as part of a weight loss regimen: 1) a diet high in foods of mammalian origin (RM) intended to contain more SFA, or 2) a diet high in PFS intended to contain more PUFA. Diet dependent changes in body weight, nutritional intake, and plasma lipids were evaluated during a 28 day study period. Results Both diets were associated with significant weight loss after 28 days, -5.26 ± 0.84 kg and -5.74 ± 0.63 kg for RM and PFS groups, respectively. The PFS diet was associated with a significantly higher intake of PUFA and cholesterol. Despite high cholesterol and fat intakes, neither diet was associated with significant changes in plasma cholesterol or the plasma lipoprotein cholesterol profile. While plasma triglycerides were reduced in both groups, the effect was only statistically significant for the PFS diet. PMID:17974023

  1. Metabolic profiles of male meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans from the EPIC-Oxford cohort12

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Julie A; Rinaldi, Sabina; Ferrari, Pietro; Carayol, Marion; Achaintre, David; Scalbert, Augustin; Cross, Amanda J; Gunter, Marc J; Fensom, Georgina K; Appleby, Paul N; Key, Timothy J; Travis, Ruth C

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human metabolism is influenced by dietary factors and lifestyle, environmental, and genetic factors; thus, men who exclude some or all animal products from their diet might have different metabolic profiles than meat eaters. Objective: We aimed to investigate differences in concentrations of 118 circulating metabolites, including acylcarnitines, amino acids, biogenic amines, glycerophospholipids, hexose, and sphingolipids related to lipid, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism between male meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians, and vegans from the Oxford arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Design: In this cross-sectional study, concentrations of metabolites were measured by mass spectrometry in plasma from 379 men categorized according to their diet group. Differences in mean metabolite concentrations across diet groups were tested by using ANOVA, and a false discovery rate–controlling procedure was used to account for multiple testing. Principal component analysis was used to investigate patterns in metabolic profiles. Results: Concentrations of 79% of metabolites differed significantly by diet group. In the vast majority of these cases, vegans had the lowest concentration, whereas meat eaters most often had the highest concentrations of the acylcarnitines, glycerophospholipids, and sphingolipids, and fish eaters or vegetarians most often had the highest concentrations of the amino acids and a biogenic amine. A clear separation between patterns in the metabolic profiles of the 4 diet groups was seen, with vegans being noticeably different from the other groups because of lower concentrations of some glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. Conclusions: Metabolic profiles in plasma could effectively differentiate between men from different habitual diet groups, especially vegan men compared with men who consume animal products. The difference in metabolic profiles was mainly explained by the lower concentrations of

  2. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal b...

  3. Four Models Including Fish, Seafood, Red Meat and Enriched Foods to Achieve Australian Dietary Recommendations for n-3 LCPUFA for All Life-Stages.

    PubMed

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Baghurst, Katrine; Meyer, Barbara J

    2015-10-01

    Populations are not meeting recommended intakes of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). The aim was (i) to develop a database on n-3 LCPUFA enriched products; (ii) to undertake dietary modelling exercise using four dietary approaches to meet the recommendations and (iii) to determine the cost of the models. Six n-3 LCPUFA enriched foods were identified. Fish was categorised by n-3 LCPUFA content (mg/100 g categories as "excellent" "good" and "moderate"). The four models to meet recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes were (i) fish only; (ii) moderate fish (with red meat and enriched foods); (iii) fish avoiders (red meat and enriched foods only); and (iv) lacto-ovo vegetarian diet (enriched foods only). Diets were modelled using the NUTTAB2010 database and n-3 LCPUFA were calculated and compared to the Suggested Dietary Targets (SDT). The cost of meeting these recommendations was calculated per 100 mg n-3 LCPUFA. The SDT were achieved for all life-stages with all four models. The weekly food intake in number of serves to meet the n-3 LCPUFA SDT for all life-stages for each dietary model were: (i) 2 "excellent" fish; (ii) 1 "excellent" and 1 "good" fish, and depending on life-stage, 3-4 lean red meat, 0-2 eggs and 3-26 enriched foods; (iii) 4 lean red meat, and 20-59 enriched foods; (iv) 37-66 enriched foods. Recommended intakes of n-3 LCPUFA were easily met by the consumption of fish, which was the cheapest source of n-3 LCPUFA. Other strategies may be required to achieve the recommendations including modifying the current food supply through feeding practices, novel plant sources and more enriched foods. PMID:26492269

  4. Four Models Including Fish, Seafood, Red Meat and Enriched Foods to Achieve Australian Dietary Recommendations for n-3 LCPUFA for All Life-Stages

    PubMed Central

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Baghurst, Katrine; Meyer, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    Populations are not meeting recommended intakes of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA). The aim was (i) to develop a database on n-3 LCPUFA enriched products; (ii) to undertake dietary modelling exercise using four dietary approaches to meet the recommendations and (iii) to determine the cost of the models. Six n-3 LCPUFA enriched foods were identified. Fish was categorised by n-3 LCPUFA content (mg/100 g categories as “excellent” “good” and “moderate”). The four models to meet recommended n-3 LCPUFA intakes were (i) fish only; (ii) moderate fish (with red meat and enriched foods); (iii) fish avoiders (red meat and enriched foods only); and (iv) lacto-ovo vegetarian diet (enriched foods only). Diets were modelled using the NUTTAB2010 database and n-3 LCPUFA were calculated and compared to the Suggested Dietary Targets (SDT). The cost of meeting these recommendations was calculated per 100 mg n-3 LCPUFA. The SDT were achieved for all life-stages with all four models. The weekly food intake in number of serves to meet the n-3 LCPUFA SDT for all life-stages for each dietary model were: (i) 2 “excellent” fish; (ii) 1 “excellent” and 1 “good” fish, and depending on life-stage, 3–4 lean red meat, 0–2 eggs and 3–26 enriched foods; (iii) 4 lean red meat, and 20–59 enriched foods; (iv) 37–66 enriched foods. Recommended intakes of n-3 LCPUFA were easily met by the consumption of fish, which was the cheapest source of n-3 LCPUFA. Other strategies may be required to achieve the recommendations including modifying the current food supply through feeding practices, novel plant sources and more enriched foods. PMID:26492269

  5. Mutagenic activity of heterocyclic amines in cooked foods

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, J.S.; Knize, M.G.; Dolbeare, F.A.

    1993-01-19

    Mutagenic heterocyclic amines are generated in foods when they are cooked at temperatures over 150[degrees]C. These compounds are present from 0.1 to 50 ppb depending on the food and the cooking conditions. These heterocyclic amines are not only present in cooked red meat, fish, chicken, and in baked and fried foods derived from grain. Mutagenicity of fried beef hamburgers cooked at 230[degrees]C is 800 [plus minus] 37 TA98 revertants per gram cooked weight. We measured 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo(4,5-flquinoxaline (MelQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-flquinoxaline (DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-flquinoline (IQ) formation at this temperature and found 3.0 [plus minus] 2.0,1.0 [plus minus] 0.18, and 0.06 [plus minus] 0.03 ng/g, respectively. 2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was found at a higher concentration of 9.6 ng/g. We have shown these heterocyclic amines are capable of producing both reverse and forward mutations in Salmonella bacteria and forward mutations in Chinese Hamster Cells.

  6. Mutagenic activity of heterocyclic amines in cooked foods

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, J.S.; Knize, M.G.; Dolbeare, F.A.

    1993-01-19

    Mutagenic heterocyclic amines are generated in foods when they are cooked at temperatures over 150{degrees}C. These compounds are present from 0.1 to 50 ppb depending on the food and the cooking conditions. These heterocyclic amines are not only present in cooked red meat, fish, chicken, and in baked and fried foods derived from grain. Mutagenicity of fried beef hamburgers cooked at 230{degrees}C is 800 {plus_minus} 37 TA98 revertants per gram cooked weight. We measured 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo(4,5-flquinoxaline (MelQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-flquinoxaline (DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-flquinoline (IQ) formation at this temperature and found 3.0 {plus_minus} 2.0,1.0 {plus_minus} 0.18, and 0.06 {plus_minus} 0.03 ng/g, respectively. 2-amino-l-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was found at a higher concentration of 9.6 ng/g. We have shown these heterocyclic amines are capable of producing both reverse and forward mutations in Salmonella bacteria and forward mutations in Chinese Hamster Cells.

  7. Final cook temperature monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, John; Matthews, Michael; Glasco, Marc

    2006-04-01

    Fully cooked, ready-to-eat products represent one of the fastest growing markets in the meat and poultry industries. Modern meat cooking facilities typically cook chicken strips and nuggets at rates of 6000 lbs per hour, and it is a critical food safety issue to ensure the products on these lines are indeed fully cooked. Common practice now employs oven technicians to constantly measure final cook temperature with insertion-type thermocouple probes. Prior research has demonstrated that thermal imagery of chicken breasts and other products can be used to predict core temperature of products leaving an oven. In practice, implementation of a system to monitor core temperature can be difficult for several reasons. First, a wide variety of products are typically produced on the same production line and the system must adapt to all products. Second, the products can be often hard to find because they often leave the process in random order and may be touching or even overlapping. Another issue is finite measurement time which is typically only a few seconds. Finally, the system is subjected to a rigorous sanitation cycle and must hold up under wash down conditions. To address these problems, a calibrated 320x240 micro-bolometer camera was used to monitor the temperature of formed, breaded poultry products on a fully cooked production line for a period of one year. The study addressed the installation and operation of the system as well as the development of algorithms used to identify the product on a cluttered conveyor belt. It also compared the oven tech insertion probe measurements to the non-contact monitoring system performance.

  8. Effect of grilling and baking on physicochemical and textural properties of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish burger.

    PubMed

    Bainy, Eduarda Molardi; Bertan, Larissa Canhadas; Corazza, Marcos Lucio; Lenzi, Marcelo Kaminski

    2015-08-01

    The influence of two common cooking methods, grilling and baking, on chemical composition, water retention, fat retention, cooking yield, diameter reduction, expressible water, color and mechanical texture of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish burgers was investigated. Texture analyses were performed using a Warner-Bratzler test. The fish burger had a softer texture with a lower shear force than other meat products reported in the literature. There were no significant differences in proximate composition, diameter reduction, fat retention and expressible water between the grilled and oven-baked fish burgers. Cooking methods did not affect the cooking times and cooking rates. Warner-Bratzler parameters and color were significantly influenced by the cooking method. Grilling contributed to a shear force and work of shearing increase due to the lower cooking yield and water retention. Raw burgers had the highest L* (69.13 ± 0.96) and lowest b* (17.50 ± 0.75) values. Results indicated that baking yielded a product with better cooking characteristics, such as a desired softer texture with lower shear values (4.01 ± 0.54) and increased water retention (95.82 ± 0.77). Additionally, the baked fish burgers were lighter (higher L*) and less red (lower a*) than the grilled ones. PMID:26243932

  9. Dietary Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) and Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) supplementation to growing rabbits: effects on raw and cooked meat quality, nutrient true retention and oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Dalle Zotte, Antonella; Cullere, Marco; Sartori, Alberto; Szendrő, Zsolt; Kovàcs, Melinda; Giaccone, Valerio; Dal Bosco, Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    The study evaluated the effect of Spirulina and Thyme dietary supplementation on rabbit meat quality, nutrient true retention and protection against oxidative stress. Rabbits in the control group (C-C) received a non-supplemented pellet throughout the experiment (5-11weeks of age). In the other groups, the pellet contained 5% Spirulina (S), 3% Thyme (T), or both (ST) for either the entire (groups S-S, T-T, ST-ST) or only the final part of the growing period (8-11weeks: groups C-S, C-T, C-ST). Spirulina supplementation increased the γ-linolenic acid content of rabbit meat, whereas Thyme improved the oxidative stability of raw and freeze-dried meat. PMID:24908377

  10. The energetic significance of cooking.

    PubMed

    Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

    2009-10-01

    While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance. PMID:19732938

  11. The use of genetic engineering techniques to improve the lipid composition in meat, milk and fish products: a review.

    PubMed

    Świątkiewicz, S; Świątkiewicz, M; Arczewska-Włosek, A; Józefiak, D

    2015-04-01

    The health-promoting properties of dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) for humans are well-known. Products of animal-origin enriched with n-3 LCPUFAs can be a good example of functional food, that is food that besides traditionally understood nutritional value may have a beneficial influence on the metabolism and health of consumers, thus reducing the risk of various lifestyle diseases such as atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. The traditional method of enriching meat, milk or eggs with n-3 LCPUFA is the manipulation of the composition of animal diets. Huge progress in the development of genetic engineering techniques, for example transgenesis, has enabled the generation of many kinds of genetically modified animals. In recent years, one of the aims of animal transgenesis has been the modification of the lipid composition of meat and milk in order to improve the dietetic value of animal-origin products. This article reviews and discusses the data in the literature concerning studies where techniques of genetic engineering were used to create animal-origin products modified to contain health-promoting lipids. These studies are still at the laboratory stage, but their results have demonstrated that the transgenesis of pigs, cows, goats and fishes can be used in the future as efficient methods of production of healthy animal-origin food of high dietetic value. However, due to high costs and a low level of public acceptance, the introduction of this technology to commercial animal production and markets seems to be a distant prospect. PMID:25500170

  12. Chinese Cooking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  13. Effect of dry-air chilling on sensory descriptive profiles of cooked broiler breast meat deboned four hours after the initiation of chilling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air chilled chicken products are gaining popularity in the USA. It has been claimed that air chilling (AC) results in improved tenderness and flavor of broiler meat compared with immersion chilling (IC). However, there is a lack of published sensory study results to support the claims. The objecti...

  14. Solvent microextraction-flame atomic absorption spectrometry (SME-FAAS) for determination of ultratrace amounts of cadmium in meat and fish samples.

    PubMed

    Goudarzi, Nasser

    2009-02-11

    A simple, low cost and highly sensitive method based on solvent microextraction (SME) for separation/preconcentration and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was proposed for the determination of ultratrace amounts of cadmium in meat and fish samples. The analytical procedure involved the formation of a hydrophobic complex by mixing the analyte solution with an ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) solution. In suitable conditions, the complex of cadmium-APDC entered the micro organic phase, and thus, separation of the analyte from the matrix was achieved. Under optimal chemical and instrumental conditions, a detection limit (3 sigma) of 0.8 ng L(-1) and an enrichment factor of 93 were achieved. The relative standard deviation for the method was found to be 2.2% for Cd. The interference effects of some anions and cations were also investigated. The developed method has been applied to the determination of trace Cd in meat and fish samples. PMID:19138082

  15. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  16. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  17. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  18. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  19. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued...

  20. Incidence of Aeromonas spp. infection in fish and chicken meat and its related public health hazards: A review

    PubMed Central

    Praveen, Praveen Kumar; Debnath, Chanchal; Shekhar, Shashank; Dalai, Nirupama; Ganguly, Subha

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas is recognized to cause a variety of diseases in man. In humans, they are associated with intestinal and extra-intestinal infections. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins, and antibiotic resistance against different antibiotics. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. Comprehensive enteric disease surveillance strategies, prevention and education are essential for meeting the challenges in the years ahead. It is important for us to promote the value of enteric cultures when patients have a gastrointestinal illness or bloody diarrhea or when multiple cases of enteric disease occur after a common exposure. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors, such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins. It has been established that aerolysin is a virulence factor contributing to the pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Fish and chicken play an important role in the transmission of this pathogen to humans. In the present study, the high prevalence of toxin-producing strains was found among the Aeromonas isolates. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. The present review was constructed with a view to highlight the zoonotic importance of Aeromonas pathogen in fish and chicken meat. PMID:27051177

  1. Incidence of Aeromonas spp. infection in fish and chicken meat and its related public health hazards: A review.

    PubMed

    Praveen, Praveen Kumar; Debnath, Chanchal; Shekhar, Shashank; Dalai, Nirupama; Ganguly, Subha

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas is recognized to cause a variety of diseases in man. In humans, they are associated with intestinal and extra-intestinal infections. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins, and antibiotic resistance against different antibiotics. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. Comprehensive enteric disease surveillance strategies, prevention and education are essential for meeting the challenges in the years ahead. It is important for us to promote the value of enteric cultures when patients have a gastrointestinal illness or bloody diarrhea or when multiple cases of enteric disease occur after a common exposure. With the growing importance of Aeromonas as an emerging pathogen, it is important to combat this organism. It is indisputable that Aeromonas strains may produce many different putative virulence factors, such as enterotoxins, hemolysins or cytotoxins. It has been established that aerolysin is a virulence factor contributing to the pathogenesis of Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Fish and chicken play an important role in the transmission of this pathogen to humans. In the present study, the high prevalence of toxin-producing strains was found among the Aeromonas isolates. The ability of these bacteria to grow competitively at 5°C may be indicative of their potential as a public health hazard. The present review was constructed with a view to highlight the zoonotic importance of Aeromonas pathogen in fish and chicken meat. PMID:27051177

  2. Technological, physico-chemical and sensory properties of raw and cooked meat batter incorporated with various levels of cold milled flaxseed powder.

    PubMed

    Yogesh, K; Langoo, B A; Sharma, S K; Yadav, D N

    2015-03-01

    Flaxseed has been proven for its multidimensional health benefits and can be used for development of emulsion type functional meat products. In view of this the incorporation of cold milled flaxseed powder (FSP) in meat batter at level 1-5 % was investigated. The results revealed that incorporation significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the total fluid release (TFR), fat release (FR) and water release (WR) of raw meat batter. The surface and internal color values were differed significantly (P < 0.05) among treatments at initial as well as during refrigerated storage period. Texture values especially hardness and chewiness values were found less (P < 0.05) in FSP treated samples and textural properties in FSP treated samples were not deteriorated during storage as compared to control samples. Thus incorporation of FSP had some beneficial effects on physico-chemical properties and textural properties which were also stable during storage period. However the redness values and sensory scores were observed less in FSP treated samples. PMID:25745231

  3. Plant essential oils and allied volatile fractions as multifunctional additives in meat and fish-based food products: a review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils are concentrated aromatic volatile compounds derived from botanicals by distillation or mechanical pressing. They play multiple, crucial roles as antioxidants, food pathogen inhibitors, shelf-life enhancers, texture promoters, organoleptic agents and toxicity-reducing agents. For their versatility, they appear promising as food preservatives. Several research findings in recent times have validated their potential as functional ingredients in meat and fish processing. Among the assortment of bioactive compounds in the essential oils, p-cymene, thymol, eugenol, carvacrol, isothiocyanate, cinnamaldehyde, cuminaldehyde, linalool, 1,8-cineol, α-pinene, α-terpineol, γ-terpinene, citral and methyl chavicol are most familiar. These terpenes (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) and phenolics (alcohols, esters, aldehydes and ketones) have been extracted from culinary herbs such as oregano, rosemary, basil, coriander, cumin, cinnamon, mint, sage and lavender as well as from trees such as myrtle, fir and eucalyptus. This review presents essential oils as alternatives to conventional chemical additives. Their synergistic actions with modified air packaging, irradiation, edible films, bacteriocins and plant byproducts are discussed. The decisive roles of metabolic engineering, microwave technology and metabolomics in quality and quantity augmentation of essential oil are briefly mooted. The limitations encountered and strategies to overcome them have been illuminated to pave way for their enhanced popularisation. The literature has been mined from scientific databases such as Pubmed, Pubchem, Scopus and SciFinder. PMID:25893282

  4. Characterization of Cooking-Related Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedziela, R. F.; Blanc, L. E.

    2010-12-01

    The temperatures at which food is cooked are usually high enough to drive oils and other organic compounds out of materials which are being prepared for consumption. As these compounds move away from the hot cooking surface and into the atmosphere, they can participate in chemical reactions or condense to form particles. Given the high concentration of cooking in urban areas, cooking-related aerosols likely contribute to the overall amount of particulate matter on a local scale. Reported here are results for the mid-infrared optical characterization of aerosols formed during the cooking of several meat and vegetable samples in an inert atmosphere. The samples were heated in a novel aerosol generator that is designed to collect particles formed immediately above the cooking surface and inject them into a laminar aerosol flow cell. Preliminary results for the chemical processing of cooking-related aerosols in synthetic air will also be presented.

  5. Anti-rancidity effect of essential oils, application in the lipid stability of cooked turkey meat patties and potential implications for health.

    PubMed

    Loizzo, Monica R; Tundis, Rosa; Menichini, Francesco; Duthie, Garry

    2015-02-01

    Twenty-three commercial essential oils were tested for their anti-rancidity effect and potential implications to prolong the induction time of corn oil and extend the shelf life of cooked turkey patties. Moreover, the potential health benefit was investigated through DPPH, ABTS, β-carotene bleaching, FRAP, and α-amylase inhibitory assays. Essential oils' composition was investigated by GC-MS. Cumin, thyme, clove, and cinnamon oils improved oxidative stability and increased the induction time of the corn oil 1.5-3 fold. Clove and cinnamon oils were particularly effective in delaying lipid oxidation of cooked turkey patties (time of induction 11.04 and 9.43 h) compared with the plain burger (5.04 h). Both oils are also characterized by a potent radical scavenging activity in ABTS test (IC(50) values of 1.43 and 2.05 μg/ml for cinnamon and clove, respectively). In the α-amylase inhibitory assay, cumin and grape fruits were the most potent with IC(50) values of 21.88 and 23.95 μg/ml, respectively. PMID:25265207

  6. Serum concentrations of cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, and apolipoprotein B in a total of 1 694 meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Kathryn E; Crowe, Francesca L; Appleby, Paul N; Schmidt, Julie A; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to describe serum lipid concentrations, including apolipoproteins A-I and B, in different diet groups. METHODS A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 424 meat-eaters, 425 fish-eaters, 423 vegetarians, and 422 vegans, matched on sex and age, from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Oxford cohort. Serum concentrations of total, and HDL cholesterol, as well as apolipoproteins A-I and B were measured, and serum non-HDL cholesterol was calculated. RESULTS Vegans had the lowest BMI, and the highest and lowest intakes of polyunsaturated and saturated fat, respectively. After adjustment for age, alcohol and physical activity, compared to meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians, serum concentrations of total and non-HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B were significantly lower in vegans. Serum apolipoprotein A-I concentrations did not differ between the diet groups. In males, the mean serum total cholesterol concentration was 0.87 nmol/L lower in vegans than in meat-eaters; after further adjustment for BMI this difference was 0.76 nmol/L. In females, the difference in total cholesterol between these two groups was 0.60 nmol/L, and after further adjustment for BMI was 0.55 nmol/L. CONCLUSIONS In this study, which included a large number of vegans, serum total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations were lower in vegans compared to meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians. A small proportion of the observed differences in serum lipid concentrations was explained by differences in BMI, but a large proportion is most likely due to diet. PMID:24346473

  7. Effect of dietary fat sources and zinc and selenium supplements on the composition and consumer acceptability of chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Bou, R; Guardiola, F; Barroeta, A C; Codony, R

    2005-07-01

    A factorial design was used to study the effect of changes in broiler feed on the composition and consumer acceptability of chicken meat. One week before slaughter, 1.25% dietary fish oil was removed from the feed and replaced by other fat sources (animal fat or linseed oil) or we continued with fish oil, and diets were supplemented with Zn (0, 300, or 600 mg/kg), and Se (0 or 1.2 mg/kg as sodium selenite or 0.2 mg/kg as Se-enriched yeast). The changes in dietary fat led to distinct fatty acid compositions of mixed raw dark and white chicken meat with skin. The fish oil diet produced meat with the highest eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) content, whereas the linseed oil diet led to meat with the highest content in total n-3 polyunsaturated acids (PUFA), especially linolenic acid. However, meat from animals on the animal fat diet was still rich in very long-chain n-3 PUFA. Se content was affected by Se and Zn supplements. Se content increased with Zn supplementation. However, only Se from the organic source led to a significant increase in this mineral in meat compared with the control. Consumer acceptability scores and TBA values of cooked dark chicken meat after 74 d or after 18 mo of frozen storage were not affected by any of the dietary factors studied. PMID:16050130

  8. Effect of refrigerated storage on the quality characteristics of microwave cooked chicken seekh kababs extended with different non-meat proteins.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Zuhaib Fayaz; Pathak, Vikas; Fayaz, Hina

    2013-10-01

    Storage quality of chicken seekh kababs extended with different legumes at optimum level viz. 15% cowpea, 15% green gram and 10% black bean were assessed in terms of physico-chemical, proximate, microbiological and sensory properties under aerobic packaging conditions at refrigeration temperature (4 ± 1°C). The chicken seekh kababs were prepared from spent hens meat by low power microwave method and extended with optimum level of different legume (hydrated 1:1 w/w) pastes replacing lean meat in the formulation. The chicken seekh kababs formulated without any extender served as control and were compared with extended chicken seekh kababs. The kababs were aerobically packaged in low density polyethylene (LDPE) pouches and were analyzed at a regular interval of 0, 7, 14 and 21 days during refrigerated storage at 4 ± 1°C. The results indicated a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in moisture content of the kababs whereas the fat and ash content increased significantly (p < 0.05) over the period of storage. Protein percentage showed a non-significant (p > 0.05) increase and almost all the sensory attributes showed a declining trend with advancement of storage. Total plate count and psychrophillic count also increased significantly (p < 0.05) whereas coliforms were not detected throughout the period of storage. The products were acceptable throughout the storage period. PMID:24425999

  9. Let's Cook!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Diane

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author reports on a project which is teaching young parents, most of them from disadvantaged backgrounds, the skills they need to shop and cook healthily on a tight budget. In 2006, the Food Standards Agency (FSA) commissioned the National Federation of Women's Institutes (NFWI) to run "Let's Cook!", a three-year project to…

  10. Formation of Malondialdehyde, 4-Hydroxynonenal, and 4-Hydroxyhexenal during in Vitro Digestion of Cooked Beef, Pork, Chicken, and Salmon.

    PubMed

    Steppeler, Christina; Haugen, John-Erik; Rødbotten, Rune; Kirkhus, Bente

    2016-01-20

    Red meat high in heme iron may promote the formation of potentially genotoxic aldehydes during lipid peroxidation in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) equivalents measured by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method was determined during in vitro digestion of cooked red meat (beef and pork), as well as white meat (chicken) and fish (salmon), whereas analysis of 4-hydroxyhexenal (HHE) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) was performed during in vitro digestion of cooked beef and salmon. Comparing products with similar fat contents indicated that the amount of unsaturated fat and not total iron content was the dominating factor influencing the formation of aldehydes. It was also shown that increasing fat content in beef products caused increasing concentrations of MDA equivalents. The highest levels, however, were found in minced beef with added fish oil high in unsaturated fat. This study indicates that when ingested alone, red meat products low in unsaturated fat and low in total fat content contribute to relatively low levels of potentially genotoxic aldehydes in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26654171

  11. 21 CFR 133.125 - Cold-pack cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... meats. 133.125 Section 133.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND..., vegetables, or meats. (a) Cold-pack cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats or mixtures of these is the... cooked or canned meat. (3) When the added fruits, vegetables, or meats contain fat, the method...

  12. 21 CFR 133.125 - Cold-pack cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... meats. 133.125 Section 133.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND..., vegetables, or meats. (a) Cold-pack cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats or mixtures of these is the... cooked or canned meat. (3) When the added fruits, vegetables, or meats contain fat, the method...

  13. 21 CFR 133.176 - Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., or meats. 133.176 Section 133.176 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... properly prepared cooked or canned meat. (2) When the added fruits, vegetables, or meats contain fat,...

  14. 21 CFR 133.125 - Cold-pack cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... meats. 133.125 Section 133.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND..., vegetables, or meats. (a) Cold-pack cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats or mixtures of these is the... cooked or canned meat. (3) When the added fruits, vegetables, or meats contain fat, the method...

  15. 21 CFR 133.176 - Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., or meats. 133.176 Section 133.176 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... properly prepared cooked or canned meat. (2) When the added fruits, vegetables, or meats contain fat,...

  16. 21 CFR 133.176 - Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., or meats. 133.176 Section 133.176 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... properly prepared cooked or canned meat. (2) When the added fruits, vegetables, or meats contain fat,...

  17. 21 CFR 133.125 - Cold-pack cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... meats. 133.125 Section 133.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND..., vegetables, or meats. (a) Cold-pack cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats or mixtures of these is the... cooked or canned meat. (3) When the added fruits, vegetables, or meats contain fat, the method...

  18. 21 CFR 133.176 - Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., or meats. 133.176 Section 133.176 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... properly prepared cooked or canned meat. (2) When the added fruits, vegetables, or meats contain fat,...

  19. 21 CFR 133.125 - Cold-pack cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... meats. 133.125 Section 133.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND..., vegetables, or meats. (a) Cold-pack cheese food with fruits, vegetables, or meats or mixtures of these is the... cooked or canned meat. (3) When the added fruits, vegetables, or meats contain fat, the method...

  20. 21 CFR 133.176 - Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., or meats. 133.176 Section 133.176 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized cheese spread with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... properly prepared cooked or canned meat. (2) When the added fruits, vegetables, or meats contain fat,...

  1. Effect of thawing methods on cook yield of frozen broiler breast fillets deboned at different postmortem times

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of thawing conditions on weight loss or cook yield of frozen red meat has been intensively studied and results varied with meat types. There is a lack of information about the effect of thawing methods on cook yield of frozen white meat. The objective of the present study was to invest...

  2. Effect of ohmic treatment on quality characteristic of meat: a review.

    PubMed

    Yildiz-Turp, G; Sengun, I Y; Kendirci, P; Icier, F

    2013-03-01

    Ohmic cooking, a well-known electro-heating technique, provides an alternative method for cooking meat products due to its ability for rapid heat generation. Ohmic heating uses the resistance of meat products to convert the electric energy into heat. The rate of heat generation depends on the voltage gradient applied and the electrical conductivity of the meat product. The advantages of ohmic cooking over conventional heating include shorter processing times, higher yields, and less power consumption while still maintaining the colour and nutritional value of meat products. In recent years, ohmic cooking has increasingly drawn interest from the meat industry as a method to ensure the quality and the safety of meat products. The present paper reviews the effects of ohmic cooking on the physical, chemical, sensory, and microbiological quality characteristics and toxicological properties of meat and meat products. PMID:23273448

  3. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the control. When the concentration of pork head meat was increased from 0% to 20%, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and pH of frankfurters were increased, while the lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters were decreased. Ash contents, cohesiveness, color, and tenderness of sensory characteristics of frankfurters added with different amounts of pork meat or pork head meat were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those of the control or there treatments. Frankfurters in T4 (frankfurter with 30% pork meat + 20% pork head) had the lowest (p<0.05) hardness and gumminess. The hardness and gumminess of frankfurters in other treatments were not significantly different (p>0.05) from that in the control. Frankfurters with higher pork head meat concentrations had lower flavor, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores. Therefore, replacing pork meat with pork head meat in the formulation could successfully produce results similar to those of control frankfurters. The best results were obtained when 10% pork head meat was used to replace pork meat. PMID:27621683

  4. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the control. When the concentration of pork head meat was increased from 0% to 20%, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and pH of frankfurters were increased, while the lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters were decreased. Ash contents, cohesiveness, color, and tenderness of sensory characteristics of frankfurters added with different amounts of pork meat or pork head meat were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those of the control or there treatments. Frankfurters in T4 (frankfurter with 30% pork meat + 20% pork head) had the lowest (p<0.05) hardness and gumminess. The hardness and gumminess of frankfurters in other treatments were not significantly different (p>0.05) from that in the control. Frankfurters with higher pork head meat concentrations had lower flavor, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores. Therefore, replacing pork meat with pork head meat in the formulation could successfully produce results similar to those of control frankfurters. The best results were obtained when 10% pork head meat was used to replace pork meat. PMID:27621683

  5. Evaluation of Escherichia coli biotype 1 as a surrogate for Escherichia coli O157:H7 for cooking, fermentation, freezing, and refrigerated storage in meat processes.

    PubMed

    Keeling, Carisa; Niebuhr, Steven E; Acuff, Gary R; Dickson, James S

    2009-04-01

    Five Escherichia coli biotype I isolates were compared with E. coli O157:H7 under four common meat processing conditions. The processes that were evaluated were freezing, refrigerating, fermentation, and thermal inactivation. For each study, at least one surrogate organism was not statistically different when compared with E. coli O157:H7. However, the four studies did not consistently show the same isolate as having this agreement. The three studies that involved temperature as a method of controlling or reducing the E. coli population all had at least one possible surrogate in common. In the fermentation study, only one isolate (BAA-1429) showed no statistical difference when compared with E. coli O157:H7. However, the population reductions that were observed indicated the isolates BAA-1427 and BAA-1431 would overestimate the surviving E. coli O157:H7 population in a fermented summer sausage. When all of the data from all of the surrogates were examined, it was found that isolates BAA-1427, BAA-1429, and BAA-1430 would be good surrogates for all four of the processes that were examined in this study. There was no statistical difference noted between these three isolates and E. coli O157:H7 in the refrigeration study. These isolates resulted in smaller population reductions than did E. coli O157:H7 in the frozen, fermentation, and thermal inactivation studies. This would indicate that these isolates would overpredict the E. coli O157:H7 population in these three instances. This overprediction results in an additional margin of safety when using E. coli biotype 1 as a surrogate. PMID:19435219

  6. Comparison of cook loss, shear force, and sensory descriptive profiles of broiler breast fillets cooked from a frozen state and cooked after freeze/thaw

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four replications were conducted to compare quality measurements, cook loss, shear force, and sensory quality profiles of cooked broiler breast meat (pectoralis major) prepared directly from a frozen state and prepared after freeze/thaw. In each replication, fresh broiler fillets (removed from carca...

  7. Dietary exposure of Canadians to perfluorinated carboxylates and perfluorooctane sulfonate via consumption of meat, fish, fast foods, and food items prepared in their packaging.

    PubMed

    Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Pepper, Karen; Seymour, Carol; Moisey, John; Bronson, Roni; Cao, Xu-Liang; Dabeka, Robert W

    2007-04-18

    Human exposure to perfluorinated compounds is a worldwide phenomenon; however, routes of human exposure to these compounds have not been well-characterized. Fifty-four solid food composite samples collected as part of the Canadian Total Diet Study (TDS) were analyzed for perfluorocarboxylates and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) using a methanol extraction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. Foods analyzed included fish and seafood, meat, poultry, frozen entrées, fast food, and microwave popcorn collected from 1992 to 2004 and prepared as for consumption. Nine composites contained detectable levels of perfluorinated compounds-four meat-containing, three fish and shellfish, one fast food, and one microwave popcorn. PFOS and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) were detected the most frequently; concentrations ranged from 0.5 to 4.5 ng/g. The average dietary intake of total perfluorocarboxylates and PFOS for Canadians was estimated to be 250 ng/day, using results from the 2004 TDS composites. A comparison with intakes of perfluorocarboxylates and PFOS via other routes (air, water, dust, treated carpeting, and apparel) suggested that diet is an important source of these compounds. There was a substantial margin of exposure between the toxicological points of reference and the magnitude of dietary intake of perfluorinated compounds for Canadians >/= 12 years old. PMID:17381114

  8. Method to Biomonitor the Cooked Meat Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine in Dyed Hair by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Orbitrap High Resolution Multistage Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingshu; Yonemori, Kim; Le Marchand, Loïc; Turesky, Robert J

    2015-06-16

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in cooked meat. The use of naturally colored hair containing PhIP can serve as a long-term biomarker of exposure to this carcinogen. However, the measurement of PhIP in dyed hair, a cosmetic treatment commonly used by the adult population, is challenging because the dye process introduces into the hair matrix a complex mixture of chemicals that interferes with the measurement of PhIP. The high-resolution scanning features of the Orbitrap Fusion mass spectrometer were employed to biomonitor PhIP in dyed hair. Because of the complexity of chemicals in the hair dye, the consecutive reaction monitoring of PhIP at the MS(3) scan stage was employed to selectively remove the isobaric interferences. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of PhIP was 84 parts-per-trillion (ppt) employing 50 mg of hair. Calibration curves were generated in dyed hair matrixes and showed good linearity (40-1000 pg PhIP/g hair) with a goodness-of-fit regression value of r(2) > 0.9978. The within-day (between-day) coefficients of variation were 7.7% (17%) and 5.4% (6.1%), respectively, with dyed hair samples spiked with PhIP at 200 and 600 ppt. The levels of PhIP accrued in dyed hair from volunteers on a semicontrolled feeding study who ingested known levels of PhIP were comparable to the levels of PhIP accrued in hair of subjects with natural hair color. The method was successfully employed to measure PhIP in nondyed and dyed hair biospecimens of participants in a case-control study of colorectal adenoma on their regular diet. PMID:25969997

  9. A Method to Biomonitor the Cooked Meat Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in Dyed Hair by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Orbitrap High Resolution Multistage Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jingshu; Yonemori, Kim; Le Marchand, Loïc; Turesky, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in cooked meat. The use of naturally colored hair containing PhIP can serve as a long-term biomarker of exposure to this carcinogen. However, the measurement of PhIP in dyed hair, a cosmetic treatment commonly used by the adult population, is challenging because the dye process introduces a complex mixture of chemicals into the hair matrix, which interfere with the measurement of PhIP. The high-resolution scanning features of the Orbitrap Fusion™ mass spectrometer were employed to biomonitor PhIP in dyed hair. Because of the complexity of chemicals in the hair dye, the consecutive reaction monitoring of PhIP at the MS3 scan stage was employed to selectively remove the isobaric interferences. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of PhIP was 84 parts-per-trillion (ppt) employing 50 mg hair. Calibration curves were generated in dyed hair matrices and showed good linearity (40 to 1000 pg PhIP/g hair) with a goodness-of-fit regression value r2 > 0.9978. The within-day (between-day) coefficients of variation were 7.7% (17%) and 5.4% (6.1%), respectively, with dyed hair samples spiked with PhIP at 200 and 600 ppt. The levels of PhIP accrued in dyed hair from volunteers on a semi-controlled feeding study who ingested known levels of PhIP were comparable to the levels of PhIP accrued in hair of subjects with natural hair color. The method was successfully employed to measure PhIP in non-dyed and dyed hair biospecimens of participants in a case-control study of colorectal adenoma on their regular diet. PMID:25969997

  10. Changes in Moisture, Protein, and Fat Content of Fish and Rice Flour Coextrudates during Single-Screw Extrusion Cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Sukumar Bandyopadhyay; A. S. Bawa

    2013-02-01

    Changes in proximate composition of fish and rice flour coextrudates like moisture, protein, and fat content were studied with respect to extrusion process v ariables like barrel temperature, x1 (100–200 degrees C); screw speed, x2 (70–110 rpm); fish content of the feed, x3 (5–45 percent); and feed moisture content, x4 (20–60 percent). Experiments were conducted at five levels of the process variables based on rotatable experimental design. Response surface models (RSM) were developed that adequately described the changes in moisture, protein, and fat content of the extrudates based on the coeff icient of determination (R2) values of 0.95, 0.99, and 0.94. ANOVA analysis indicated that extrudate moisture content was influenced by x4, protein content by x1 and x3, and fat content by x3 and x4 at P < 0.001. Trends based on response surf ace plots indicated that the x1 of about 200 degrees C, x2 of about 90 rpm, x3 of about 25%, and x4 of about 20% minimized the moisture in the extrudates. Protein content was maximized at x1 of 100 degrees C, x2 > 80 rpm, x3 of about 45 percent, and x4 > 50 percent, and fat content was minimized at x1 of about 200 degrees C, x2 of about 85–95 rpm, x3 < 15 percent, and x4 of about >50 percent. Optimized process variables based on a genetic algorithm (GA) for minimum moisture and fat content and maximum protein content were x1 = 199.86, x2 = 109.86, x3 = 32.45, x4 = 20.03; x1 = 199.71, x2 = 90.09, x3 = 15.27, x4 = 58.47; and x1 = 102.97, x2 = 107.67, x3 = 44.56, x4 = 59.54. The predicted values were 17.52 percent, 0.57 percent, and 46.65 percent. Based on the RSM and GA analy sis, extrudate moisture and protein content was influenced by x1, x3, and x4 and fat content by x2, x3, and x4.

  11. Plasma concentrations and intakes of amino acids in male meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans: a cross-sectional analysis in the EPIC-Oxford cohort

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, J A; Rinaldi, S; Scalbert, A; Ferrari, P; Achaintre, D; Gunter, M J; Appleby, P N; Key, T J; Travis, R C

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: We aimed to investigate the differences in plasma concentrations and in intakes of amino acids between male meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in the Oxford arm of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Subjects/Methods: This cross-sectional analysis included 392 men, aged 30–49 years. Plasma amino acid concentrations were measured with a targeted metabolomic approach using mass spectrometry, and dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Differences between diet groups in mean plasma concentrations and intakes of amino acids were examined using analysis of variance, controlling for potential confounding factors and multiple testing. Results: In plasma, concentrations of 6 out of 21 amino acids varied significantly by diet group, with differences of −13% to +16% between meat-eaters and vegans. Concentrations of methionine, tryptophan and tyrosine were highest in fish-eaters and vegetarians, followed by meat-eaters, and lowest in vegans. A broadly similar pattern was seen for lysine, whereas alanine concentration was highest in fish-eaters and lowest in meat-eaters. For glycine, vegans had the highest concentration and meat-eaters the lowest. Intakes of all 18 dietary amino acids differed by diet group; for the majority of these, intake was highest in meat-eaters followed by fish-eaters, then vegetarians and lowest in vegans (up to 47% lower than in meat-eaters). Conclusions: Men belonging to different habitual diet groups have significantly different plasma concentrations of lysine, methionine, tryptophan, alanine, glycine and tyrosine. However, the differences in plasma concentrations were less marked than and did not necessarily mirror those seen for amino acid intakes. PMID:26395436

  12. Clostridium perfringens in Meat and Meat Products

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Herbert E.; Angelotti, Robert

    1965-01-01

    A total of 262 specimens of meat and meat dishes were examined for the presence of Clostridium perfringens. Of this total, 161 were raw, unprocessed beef, veal, lamb, pork, or chicken; 101 were processed meats and meat dishes. C. perfringens was isolated from 113 (43.1%) of these specimens. The highest percentage of contamination (82%) was found in veal cuts, and the lowest (4.7%) in sliced sandwich meats and spreads. Only 2 of the 113 isolates were shown to produce heat-resistant spores, which indicates a very low incidence (0.8%) of contamination. These findings indicate that outbreaks of C. perfringens food-borne disease in the Cincinnati area are caused principally by the contamination of the food with vegetative cells or spores of the organism after cooking. Studies of the effects of various holding temperatures on the growth of C. perfringens indicated that, in the range of 5 to 15 C, no multiplication would occur, but that viable cells would still be present at the end of a 5-day holding period. Extremely rapid growth occurred at temperatures around 45 C, and complete inhibition of growth was accomplished between 49 and 52 C. PMID:14325274

  13. Feeding soy or fish meal to Alaskan reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) - effects on animal performance and meat quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fourteen reindeer were used to compare the effects of two different reindeer diets containing soybean meal (SBM) or fishmeal (WFM) as protein source) on animal growth performance, feed efficiency and ultimate meat quality. No significant difference was observed in overall weight gain between the WFM...

  14. 9 CFR 315.2 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; utilization for food purposes after cooking. 315.2 Section 315.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  15. 9 CFR 381.150 - Requirements for the production of fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... fully cooked poultry products and partially cooked poultry breakfast strips. 381.150 Section 381.150... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Entry of Articles Into Official Establishments;...

  16. 21 CFR 73.140 - Toasted partially defatted cooked cottonseed flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.140 Toasted partially defatted cooked cottonseed flour. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive toasted partially defatted cooked...; the cooked meats are cooled, ground, and reheated to obtain a product varying in shade from light...

  17. 21 CFR 133.168 - Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., or meats. 133.168 Section 133.168 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... vegetable; any properly prepared cooked or canned meat. (3) When the added fruits, vegetables, or...

  18. 21 CFR 133.168 - Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., or meats. 133.168 Section 133.168 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... vegetable; any properly prepared cooked or canned meat. (3) When the added fruits, vegetables, or...

  19. 21 CFR 133.168 - Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., or meats. 133.168 Section 133.168 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... vegetable; any properly prepared cooked or canned meat. (3) When the added fruits, vegetables, or...

  20. 21 CFR 133.168 - Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., or meats. 133.168 Section 133.168 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... vegetable; any properly prepared cooked or canned meat. (3) When the added fruits, vegetables, or...

  1. 21 CFR 133.168 - Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., or meats. 133.168 Section 133.168 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... fruits, vegetables, or meats. (a) Pasteurized blended cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats, or... vegetable; any properly prepared cooked or canned meat. (3) When the added fruits, vegetables, or...

  2. Power ultrasound in meat processing.

    PubMed

    Alarcon-Rojo, A D; Janacua, H; Rodriguez, J C; Paniwnyk, L; Mason, T J

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasound has a wide range of applications in various agricultural sectors. In food processing, it is considered to be an emerging technology with the potential to speed up processes without damaging the quality of foodstuffs. Here we review the reports on the applications of ultrasound specifically with a view to its use in meat processing. Emphasis is placed on the effects on quality and technological properties such as texture, water retention, colour, curing, marinating, cooking yield, freezing, thawing and microbial inhibition. After the literature review it is concluded that ultrasound is a useful tool for the meat industry as it helps in tenderisation, accelerates maturation and mass transfer, reduces cooking energy, increases shelf life of meat without affecting other quality properties, improves functional properties of emulsified products, eases mould cleaning and improves the sterilisation of equipment surfaces. PMID:25974043

  3. Carcinogens formed when Meat is Cooked

    SciTech Connect

    Felton, J S; Salmon, C P; Knize, M G

    2003-05-30

    Diet has been associated with varying cancer rates in human populations for many years, yet the causes of the observed variation in cancer patterns have not been adequately explained (Wynder et al. 1977). Along with the effect of diet on human cancer incidence is the strong evidence that mutations are the initiating events in the cancer process (Vogelstein et al. 1992). Foods, when heated, are a good source of genotoxic carcinogens that very likely are a cause for some of these events(Doll et al. 1981). These carcinogens fall into two chemical classes: heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). There is ample evidence that many of these compounds are complete carcinogens in rodents(El-Bayoumy et al. 1995; Ohgaki et al. 1991). Heterocyclic aromatic amines are among the most potent mutagenic substances ever tested in the Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity test (Wakabayashi et al. 1992). Both classes of carcinogen cause tumors in rodents at multiple sites, (El-Bayoumy et al. 1995; Ohgaki et al. 1991) many of which are common tumor sites in people on a Western diet. An HAA, PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine), and a PAH, B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene), of comparable carcinogenic potency caused mammary gland tumors in a feeding study in female rats (El-Bayoumy et al. 1995). In addition, PhIP has recently been shown to cause carcinomas in the prostate of the male rat (Shirai et al. 1997). Complementing the rodent cancer studies are numerous human case-control and prospective studies suggesting a relationship between overheated beef, chicken, and lamb, and cancer of the colon, breast, prostate, and stomach (Sinha et al. 1999; Ward et al. 1997; Zheng et al. 1998).

  4. Identification of benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-diol 9,10-epoxide N2-deoxyguanosine in human lung adenocarcinoma cells exposed to cooking oil fumes from frying fish under domestic conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, S C; Jenq, S N; Kang, Z C; Lee, H

    2000-10-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death among women in Taiwan. Epidemiological studies of lung cancer in Chinese women indicate that factors other than cigarette smoking are related to lung cancer risk. One such factor may be exposure to carcinogens formed during the cooking of food. The carcinogenic compounds in oil smoke particulates from Chinese cooking practice have not yet been characterized. To reveal the relationship between the high mortality rate of lung cancer in Chinese women and exposure to cooking oil fumes (COF), DNA adduct formation, induced by COF collected from frying fish under domestic conditions, was assessed in human lung adenocarcinoma CL-3 cell lines using the (32)P-postlabeling assay. DNA adduct levels were induced by COF in CL-3 cells in a dose-dependent manner. DNA adducts with a diagonal radioactive zone (DRZ) were observed when CL-3 cells were treated with COF. Surprisingly, only one spot of the DNA adduct profile was in the DRZ. The DNA adduct was analyzed by HPLC coupled with an on-line radioactive detector. The retention time of the major DNA adduct corresponded to that of authentic benzo[a]pyrene 7,8-diol 9, 10-epoxide N2-deoxyguanonsine (BPDE-N2-dG). Moreover, the mass spectrum of the major DNA adduct in CL-3 cells was confirmed to be BPDE-N2-dG by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. In conclusion, BPDE-N2-dG adduct formation in human lung cells supports epidemiological findings of an association between cooking fume exposure and lung cancer in Chinese women. PMID:11080053

  5. Meat Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This publication provides an introduction to meat processing for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in four chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the meat processing industry and the techniques of meat processing and butchering. The first chapter introduces the meat processing industry and…

  6. Effect of radiation processing on meat tenderisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanatt, Sweetie R.; Chawla, S. P.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-06-01

    The effect of radiation processing (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy) on the tenderness of three types of popularly consumed meat in India namely chicken, lamb and buffalo was investigated. In irradiated meat samples dose dependant reduction in water holding capacity, cooking yield and shear force was observed. Reduction in shear force upon radiation processing was more pronounced in buffalo meat. Protein and collagen solubility as well as TCA soluble protein content increased on irradiation. Radiation processing of meat samples resulted in some change in colour of meat. Results suggested that irradiation leads to dose dependant tenderization of meat. Radiation processing of meat at a dose of 2.5 kGy improved its texture and had acceptable odour.

  7. Mutagenicity of modelled-heat-treated meat extracts: Mutagenicity assay, analysis and mechanism of mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2015-11-01

    Cooking of meat usually aims in producing microbiologically safe food suitable for human consumption. However, doing so at such high temperatures may produce some cooking toxicants or mutagens. The objectives of this study were to investigate the mutagenicity of modelled-heat-treated meat after different cooking methods (boiling, pan-frying and charcoal grilling) using Ames Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay. In addition, the content of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in the meat extracts prepared under different cooking methods were measured using HPLC. In a trial to investigate the causes behind the mutagenicity of different meat extracts, HepG2 cell line was exposed to different modelled-heat-treated meat extracts. mRNA expression levels of various phase I and II xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) were examined using real time PCR. The results obtained declared that pan-fried and charcoal grilled-meat extracts significantly induced production of histidine+ revertants in the Ames mutagenicity assay. Grilled-meat extracts had the highest residual concentrations of B[a]P followed by pan-fried-meat, boiled meat and raw meat extracts, respectively. Induction of XMEs especially CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and NQO1 may contribute to the mutagenic ability of these extracts. It is highly advisable to control cooking temperature, time and method in order to reduce cooked-meat mutagens. PMID:26753243

  8. Effect of sample preparation method on sensory quality of cooked chicken breast fillets processed for food service

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicken fillets (Pectoralis major) are one of popular items for food service. In the store, especially in fast food service stores, ready-to-cook meat products are commonly stored in freezers before use. The frozen meat can be cooked either directly from a frozen stage or after thawing. However, the...

  9. Control of Thermal Meat Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffis, Carl L.; Osaili, Tareq M.

    The recent growth of the market for ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry products has led to serious concern over foodborne illnesses due to the presence of pathogens, particularly Salmonella spp, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in meat and poultry products. Emphasis has been placed on thermal processing since heat treatment is still considered the primary means of eliminating foodborne pathogens from raw meat and poultry products (Juneja, Eblen, & Ransom, 2001). Inadequate time/temperature exposure during cooking is a contributing factor in food poisoning outbreaks. Optimal heat treatment is required not only to destroy pathogenic microorganisms in meat and poultry products but also to maintain desirable food quality and product yield.

  10. Food control by applied biochemistry of marine organisms: Comparison of proteins and metabolites from fish and invertebrate muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehbein, H.

    1995-03-01

    Most fishery products consist of muscle tissue from fish and invertebrates. Differences in the molecular structure and in metabolism of muscles can be utilized to characterize and identify various seafood. Creatine and arginine were found to be useful for the differentiation between imitation crab/shrimp meat and real crustacean meat. Octopine served as an indicator for the meat of cephalopods and mussels. In order to identify the animal species of a fishery product, several electrophoretic methods were used. It depended on the type of product, whether sarcoplasmic or myofibrillar proteins were better suited. Raw products were best analysed by isoelectric focusing of sarcoplasmic proteins. Two types of sarcoplasmic calcium-binding proteins, parvalbumins of fish and soluble calcium-binding proteins of invertebrates, were especially useful for species identification. Due to their thermal stability, these proteins gave species-specific patterns for cooked products, too. Two other techniques were also investigated: urea gel isoelectric focusing, and sodium dodecyl sulphate — polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These methods were applied in the analysis of products where the sarcoplasmic proteins had been removed by washing steps, i.e. imitation crab meat made from surimi, and of other raw and cooked products. The myosin light chains gave protein patterns that were characteristic for many species. Paramyosin, which is absent from vertebrate muscle, indicated the presence of mollusc muscle. It was shown that the determination, of arginine kinase activity enabled differentiation between raw fish muscle and invertebrate muscles.