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Sample records for coolant pipe stainless

  1. Fracture mechanics evaluation for at typical PWR primary coolant pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.; Shimizu, S.; Ogata, Y.

    1997-04-01

    For the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan, cast duplex stainless steel which is excellent in terms of strength, corrosion resistance, and weldability has conventionally been used. The cast duplex stainless steel contains the ferrite phase in the austenite matrix and thermal aging after long term service is known to change its material characteristics. It is considered appropriate to apply the methodology of elastic plastic fracture mechanics for an evaluation of the integrity of the primary coolant piping after thermal aging. Therefore we evaluated the integrity of the primary coolant piping for an initial PWR plant in Japan by means of elastic plastic fracture mechanics. The evaluation results show that the crack will not grow into an unstable fracture and the integrity of the piping will be secured, even when such through wall crack length is assumed to equal the fatigue crack growth length for a service period of up to 60 years.

  2. Crack stability analysis of low alloy steel primary coolant pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.; Kameyama, M.; Urabe, Y.

    1997-04-01

    At present, cast duplex stainless steel has been used for the primary coolant piping of PWRs in Japan and joints of dissimilar material have been applied for welding to reactor vessels and steam generators. For the primary coolant piping of the next APWR plants, application of low alloy steel that results in designing main loops with the same material is being studied. It means that there is no need to weld low alloy steel with stainless steel and that makes it possible to reduce the welding length. Attenuation of Ultra Sonic Wave Intensity is lower for low alloy steel than for stainless steel and they have advantageous inspection characteristics. In addition to that, the thermal expansion rate is smaller for low alloy steel than for stainless steel. In consideration of the above features of low alloy steel, the overall reliability of primary coolant piping is expected to be improved. Therefore, for the evaluation of crack stability of low alloy steel piping to be applied for primary loops, elastic-plastic future mechanics analysis was performed by means of a three-dimensioned FEM. The evaluation results for the low alloy steel pipings show that cracks will not grow into unstable fractures under maximum design load conditions, even when such a circumferential crack is assumed to be 6 times the size of the wall thickness.

  3. Defect characterization in pipe-to-pipe welds in large diameter stainless steel piping

    SciTech Connect

    Rawl, D.E. Jr.; West, S.L.; Wheeler, D.A.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Metallurgical evaluation of pipe-to-pipe welds in large-diameter, Type 304 stainless steel piping used to construct the moderator/coolant water systems for Savannah River Site reactors has demonstrated that small weld defects found in this 1950-vintage system do not compromise the integrity of the system. The weld defects were too small for detection by the pre-service standard radiographic inspection, but were found through systematic ultrasonic testing (UT) and penetrant testing (PT) evaluations of piping that had been removed during upgrades to the piping system. The defects include lack of weld penetration, slag inclusions, and other weld metal discontinuities. These discontinuities typically did not propagate during more than 35 years of service. The defects examined were too small and isolated to degrade the mechanical properties of the pipe-to-pipe weldments and therefore did not compromise the integrity of the piping system. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  4. 73. View of line of stainless steel coolant storage tanks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. View of line of stainless steel coolant storage tanks for bi-sodium sulfate/water coolant solution at first floor of transmitter building no. 102. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  5. PIPING FOR COOLANT WATER IS INSTALLED INSIDE REACTOR STRUCTURE PRIOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PIPING FOR COOLANT WATER IS INSTALLED INSIDE REACTOR STRUCTURE PRIOR TO EMBEDMENT IN CONCRETE. HIGHER PIPE IS INLET; THE OTHER, THE OUTLET LOOP. INLET PIPE WILL CONNECT TO TOP SECTION OF REACTOR VESSEL. INL NEGATIVE NO. 1287. Unknown Photographer, 1/18/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  6. Probability of failure in BWR reactor coolant piping: Volume 1, Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, G.S.; Chou, C.K.

    1989-03-01

    This report summarizes a probabilistic reliability evaluation of BWR reactor coolant piping performed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). In this evaluation, LLNL estimated the probability of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) in the main steam, feedwater, and recirculation loop piping of a representative Mark I BWR plant. Two causes of pipe break were considered: crack growth at welded joints, and the earthquake-induced failure of supports for piping and components. A probabilistic fracture mechanics model, including intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in Types 304 and 316NG stainless steels, was used to estimate the probability of crack-induced pipe break. The probability of pipe break indirectly caused by support failure was estimated by applying reliability techniques to supports for ''heavy components'' such as the reactor pressure vessel, as well as to conventional pipe supports such as spring hangers and snubbers. Our probabilistic fracture mechanics evaluation found that the probability of crack-induced DEGB in main steam, feedwater and, if IGSCC is not a factor, recirculation piping is very low. In ISGCC-susceptible Type 304SS piping, stress corrosion dominates the probability of DEGB due mainly to cracks that initiate during the first few years of plant life; replacing Type 304 piping with IGSCC-resistant Type 316NG lowers DEGB probabilities by several orders of magnitude. We also found that the probability of pipe break caused by seismically-induced support failure is low regardless of whether ''heavy component'' supports or conventional pipe supports are being considered. 23 refs., 34 figs., 16 tabs.

  7. Probabilistic analyses of failure in reactor coolant piping. [Double-ended guillotine break

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, G.S.

    1984-07-20

    LLNL is performing probabilistic reliability analyses of PWR and BWR reactor coolant piping for the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. Specifically, LLNL is estimating the probability of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) in the reactor coolant loop piping in PWR plants, and in the main stream, feedwater, and recirculation piping of BWR plants. In estimating the probability of DEGB, LLNL considers two causes of pipe break: pipe fracture due to the growth of cracks at welded joints (direct DEGB), and pipe rupture indirectly caused by the seismically-induced failure of critical supports or equipment (indirect DEGB).

  8. Effects of LWR coolant environments on fatigue lives of austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Gavenda, D.J.

    1997-07-01

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code fatigue design curves for structural materials do not explicitly address the effects of reactor coolant environments on fatigue life. Recent test data indicate a significant decrease in fatigue life of pressure vessel and piping materials in light water reactor (LWR) environments. Fatigue tests have been conducted on Types 304 and 316NG stainless steel in air and LWR environments to evaluate the effects of various material and loading variables, e.g., steel type, strain rate, dissolved oxygen (DO) in water, and strain range, on fatigue lives of these steels. The results confirm the significant decrease in fatigue life in water. The environmentally assisted decrease in fatigue life depends both on strain rate and DO content in water. A decrease in strain rate from 0.4 to 0.004%/s decreases fatigue life by a factor of {approx} 8. However, unlike carbon and low-alloy steels, environmental effects are more pronounced in low-DO than in high-DO water. At {approx} 0.004%/s strain rate, reduction in fatigue life in water containing <10 ppb D is greater by a factor of {approx} 2 than in water containing {ge} 200 ppb DO. Experimental results have been compared with estimates of fatigue life based on the statistical model. The formation and growth of fatigue cracks in austenitic stainless steels in air and LWR environments are discussed.

  9. A metallurgical evaluation of stress corrosion cracking in large diameter stainless steel piping

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, D.A.; Rawl, D.E. Jr.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing (UT) of the stainless steel piping in the primary coolant water system of SRS reactors indicates the presence of short, partly-through-wall stress corrosion cracks in the heat-affected zone of approximately 7% of the circumferential pipe welds. These cracks are thought to develop by intergranular nucleation and mixed mode propagation. Metallographic evaluations have confirmed the UT indications of crack size and provided evidence that crack growth involved the accumulation of chloride inside the growing crack. It is postulated that the development of an oxygen depletion cell inside the crack results in the migration of chloride ions to the crack tip to balance the accumulation of positively charged metallic ions. The results of this metallurgicial evaluation, combined with structural assessments of system integrity, support the existence of leak-before-break conditions in the SRS reactor piping system. 13 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Probability of pipe fracture in the primary coolant loop of a PWR plant. Volume 6: failure mode analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, R.D.

    1981-09-01

    Material properties and failure criteria were evaluated to assess the requirements for double-ended guillotine break in the primary coolant loop of the Zion Unit 1 pressurized water reactor. The properties of the 316 stainless steel piping materials were obtained from the literature. Statistical distributions of both the tensile and fracture properties at room and operating temperatures were developed. Yield and ultimate strength tensile properties were combined to estimate the material flow strength. The flow strength and fracture properties were used in the various failure models analyzed. Linear-elastic, elastic-plastic, and fully plastic fracture models were compared, and the governing fracture criterion was determined. For the particular case studied, the fully plastic flow requirement was found to be the controlling fracture criterion leading to a double-ended guillotine pipe break.

  11. Development of cryogenic thermal control heat pipes. [of stainless steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The development of thermal control heat pipes that are applicable to the low temperature to cryogenic range was investigated. A previous effort demonstrated that stainless steel axially grooved tubing which met performance requirements could be fabricated. Three heat pipe designs utilizing stainless steel axially grooved tubing were fabricated and tested. One is a liquid trap diode heat pipe which conforms to the configuration and performance requirements of the Heat Pipe Experiment Package (HEPP). The HEPP is scheduled for flight aboard the Long Duration Flight Exposure Facility (LDEF). Another is a thermal switch heat pipe which is designed to permit energy transfer at the cooler of the two identical legs. The third thermal component is a hybrid variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP). The design incorporates both a conventional VCHP system and a liquid trap diode. The design, fabrication and thermal testing of these heat pipes is described. The demonstrated heat pipe behavior including start-up, forward mode transport, recovery after evaporator dry-out, diode performance and variable conductance control are discussed.

  12. Lifetest investigations with stainless steel/water heat pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muenzel, W. D.; Kraehling, H.

    Life tests were conducted on water heat pipes, made from four different alloys of stainless steel, at operation temperatures of 120, 160, 220, and 320 C in a reflux boiler mode for more than 20,000 hr. Other parameters varied during the tests included capillary structure, pretreatment and cleaning of the components, additional oxidation of the inner surface, filling procedures, amoung of liquid change, the number of ventings, and the duration of the reaction runs. The best results were obtained with pipes containing stainless steels with molybdenum alloy additions and with carbon contents of greater than 0.03%; with components which formed a protective surface layer; with the use of double-distilled water that had been ultrasonically degassed; with repeated ventings during the initial reaction run of 500 hr minimum duration; and with the addition of gaseous oxygen into the heat pipe during the reaction run with subsequent venting.

  13. Photoelectrochemical protection of stainless alloys from the stress-corrosion cracking in BWR primary coolant environment

    SciTech Connect

    Akashi, Masatsune; Iso-o, Hiroyuki; Kubota, Nobuhiko; Fukuda, Takanori; Ayabe, Muneo; Hirano, Kenji

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of counteracting or preventing the stress-corrosion cracking in the BWR core internals by the photoelectrochemical method has been examined. For the purpose TiO{sub 2} semiconductor is noted for its capability of photo electrochemically inducing the water-oxidizing anodic reaction in low enough potential domain if supplied with a light of a wavelength shorter than 410 nm. This paper offers an empirical proof by showing that Type 304 stainless steel and Alloy 600 stainless alloy that have been plasma-spray coated with TiO{sub 2} film will do quite well in environments of BWR primary coolant.

  14. TRITIUM LABORATORY, TRA666, INTERIOR. COOLANT LOOP PIPING DETAIL AND CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRITIUM LABORATORY, TRA-666, INTERIOR. COOLANT LOOP PIPING DETAIL AND CONTROL VALVE EQUIPMENT ALONG EAST WALL. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD30-2-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 6/2001 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. Sensitization and IGSCC susceptibility prediction in stainless steel pipe weldments

    SciTech Connect

    Atteridge, D.G.; Simmons, J.W.; Li, Ming; Bruemmer, S.M.

    1991-11-01

    An analytical model, based on prediction of chromium depletion, has been developed for predicting thermomechanical effects on austenitic stainless steel intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) susceptibility. Model development and validation is based on sensitization development analysis of over 30 Type 316 and 304 stainless steel heats. The data base included analysis of deformation effects on resultant sensitization development. Continuous Cooling sensitization behavior is examined and modelled with and without strain. Gas tungsten are (GTA) girth pipe weldments are also characterized by experimental measurements of heat affected zone (HAZ) temperatures, strains and sensitization during/after each pass; pass by pass thermal histories are also predicted. The model is then used to assess pipe chemistry changes on IGSCC resistance.

  16. Evaluation of manual ultrasonic inspection of cast stainless steel piping

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T.T.

    1984-05-01

    Two studies have attempted to determine the degree of inspectability of centrifugally cast stainless steel (CCSS) pipe. In one study, Westinghouse examined the reliability of ultrasonic test methods in the detection of mechanical fatigue cracks. The second study was an NRC-sponsored Pipe Inspection Round Robin (PIRR) test conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The Westinghouse study reported that 80% detection was achieved for mechanical fatigue cracks having 20% throughwall depth. The PNL study reported that less than 30% detection was achieved for thermal fatigue cracks ranging from 5% to 50% through-wall. A cooperative program between PNL and Westinghouse was conducted to resolve the differences between the two studies. The program was designed as a limited round robin. Detection experiments were performed on samples from both the PNL and Westinghouse studies. The data reported here indicate that flaw type (thermal fatigue versus mechanical fatigue) was a significant factor in detection. Mechanical fatigue cracks were more easily detected than thermal fatigue cracks. The data conclusively show that manual ultrasonic inspection cannot size flaws in cast stainless steel material. The study recommends that ultrasonic inspection of cast stainless steel pipe be continued because cracks caused by some failure mechanisms (i.e., mechanical fatigue cracks) have proven to be detectable.

  17. Fracture properties evaluation of stainless steel piping for LBB applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.J.; Seok, C.S.; Chang, Y.S.

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the material properties of SA312 TP316 and SA312 TP304 stainless steels and their associated welds manufactured for shutdown cooling line and safety injection line of nuclear generating stations. A total of 82 tensile tests and 58 fracture toughness tests on specimens taken from actual pipes were performed and the effect of various parameters such as the pipe size, the specimen orientation, the test temperature and the welding procedure on the material properties are discussed. Test results show that the effect of the test temperature on the fracture toughness was significant while the effects of the pipe size and the specimen orientation on the fracture toughness were negligible. The material properties of the GTAW weld metal was in general higher than those of the base metal.

  18. 76 FR 64106 - Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipe From Korea and Taiwan; Scheduling of Expedited Five-Year...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... COMMISSION Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipe From Korea and Taiwan; Scheduling of Expedited Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipe From Korea and... duty orders on certain welded stainless steel pipe (specifically ASTM A-312 pipe) from Korea and...

  19. Assessment of Crack Detection in Heavy-Walled Cast Stainless Steel Piping Welds Using Advanced Low-Frequency Ultrasonic Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2007-03-01

    Studies conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in Richland, Washington, have focused on assessing the effectiveness and reliability of novel approaches to nondestructive examination (NDE) for inspecting coarse-grained, cast stainless steel reactor components. The primary objective of this work is to provide information to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the effectiveness and reliability of advanced NDE methods as related to the inservice inspection of safety-related components in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This report provides progress, recent developments, and results from an assessment of low frequency ultrasonic testing (UT) for detection of inside surface-breaking cracks in cast stainless steel reactor piping weldments as applied from the outside surface of the components. Vintage centrifugally cast stainless steel piping segments were examined to assess the capability of low-frequency UT to adequately penetrate challenging microstructures and determine acoustic propagation limitations or conditions that may interfere with reliable flaw detection. In addition, welded specimens containing mechanical and thermal fatigue cracks were examined. The specimens were fabricated using vintage centrifugally cast and statically cast stainless steel materials, which are typical of configurations installed in PWR primary coolant circuits. Ultrasonic studies on the vintage centrifugally cast stainless steel piping segments were conducted with a 400-kHz synthetic aperture focusing technique and phased array technology applied at 500 kHz, 750 kHz, and 1.0 MHz. Flaw detection and characterization on the welded specimens was performed with the phased array method operating at the frequencies stated above. This report documents the methodologies used and provides results from laboratory studies to assess baseline material noise, crack detection, and length-sizing capability for low-frequency UT in cast stainless steel piping.

  20. Probability of failure in BWR reactor coolant piping: Guillotine break indirectly induced by earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, G.S.; Campbell, R.D.; Ravindra, M.K.

    1986-12-01

    The requirements to design nuclear power plants for the effects of an instantaneous double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) of the reactor coolant piping have led to excessive design costs, interference with normal plant operation and maintenance, and unnecessary radiation exposure of plant maintenance personnel. This report describes an aspect of the NRC/Lawrence Livermore National laboratory-sponsored research program aimed at investigating whether the probability of DEGB in Reactor Coolant Loop Piping of nuclear power plants is acceptably small such that the requirements to design for the DEGB effects (e.g., provision of pipe whip restraints) may be removed. This study estimates the probability of indirect DEGB in Reactor Coolant piping as a consequence of seismic-induced structural failures within the containment of the GE supplied boiling water reactor at the Brunswick nuclear power plant. The median probability of indirect DEGB was estimated to be 2 x 10/sup -8/ per year. Using conservation assumptions, the 90% subjective probability value (confidence) of P/sub DEGB/ was found to be less than 5 x 10/sup -7/ per year.

  1. Fracture toughness evaluations of TP304 stainless steel pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Rudland, D.L.; Brust, F.W.; Wilkowski, G.M.

    1997-02-01

    In the IPIRG-1 program, the J-R curve calculated for a 16-inch nominal diameter, Schedule 100 TP304 stainless steel (DP2-A8) surface-cracked pipe experiment (Experiment 1.3-3) was considerably lower than the quasi-static, monotonic J-R curve calculated from a C(T) specimen (A8-12a). The results from several related investigations conducted to determine the cause of the observed toughness difference are: (1) chemical analyses on sections of Pipe DP2-A8 from several surface-cracked pipe and material property specimen fracture surfaces indicate that there are two distinct heats of material within Pipe DP2-A8 that differ in chemical composition; (2) SEN(T) specimen experimental results indicate that the toughness of a surface-cracked specimen is highly dependent on the depth of the initial crack, in addition, the J-R curves from the SEN(T) specimens closely match the J-R curve from the surface-cracked pipe experiment; (3) C(T) experimental results suggest that there is a large difference in the quasi-static, monotonic toughness between the two heats of DP2-A8, as well as a toughness degradation in the lower toughness heat of material (DP2-A8II) when loaded with a dynamic, cyclic (R = {minus}0.3) loading history.

  2. Failure probability estimate of Type 304 stainless steel piping

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W L; Awadalla, N G; Sindelar, R L; Mehta, H S; Ranganath, S; General Electric Co., San Jose, CA )

    1989-01-01

    The primary source of in-service degradation of the SRS production reactor process water piping is intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). IGSCC has occurred in a limited number of weld heat affected zones, areas known to be susceptible to IGSCC. A model has been developed to combine crack growth rates, crack size distributions, in-service examination reliability estimates and other considerations to estimate the pipe large-break frequency. This frequency estimates the probability that an IGSCC crack will initiate, escape detection by ultrasonic (UT) examination, and grow to instability prior to extending through-wall and being detected by the sensitive leak detection system. These four factors estimate the occurrence of several conditions that must coexist in order for a crack to lead to a large break of the process piping. When evaluated for the SRS production reactors, they produce an extremely low break frequency. The objective of this paper is to present the assumptions, methodology, results and conclusion of a probabilistic evaluation for the direct failure of the primary coolant piping resulting from normal operation and seismic loads. This evaluation was performed to support the ongoing PRA effort and to complement deterministic analyses addressing the credibility of a double-ended guillotine break. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Measurement of Coolant in a Flat Heat Pipe Using Neutron Radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuta, Kei; Saito, Yasushi; Goshima, Takashi; Tsutsui, Toshio

    A newly developed flat heat pipe FGHPTM (Morex Kiire Co.) was experimentally investigated by using neutron radiography. The test sample of the FGHP heat spreader was 65 × 65 × 2 mm3 composed of several etched copper plates and pure water was used as the coolant. Neutron radiography was performed at the E-2 port of the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR). The coolant distributions in the wick area of the FGHP and its heat transfer characteristics were measured at heating conditions. Experimental results show that the coolant distributions depend slightly on its installation posture and that the liquid thickness in the wick region remains constant with increasing heat input to the FGHP. In addition, it is found that the wick surface does not dry out even in the vertical posture at present experimental conditions.

  4. Challenges and Capabilities for Inspection of Cast Stainless Steel Piping

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2007-12-31

    Studies conducted at the Pacific N¬orthwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, have focused on developing and evaluating the reliability of nondestructive examination (NDE) approaches for inspecting coarse-grained, cast stainless steel reactor components. The objective of this work is to provide information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) on the utility, effec¬tiveness and limitations of NDE techniques as related to the inservice inspec¬tion of primary system piping components in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This paper describes results from recent assessments built upon early work with low frequency ultrasonic testing (UT) coupled with synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) signal processing, and has subsequently evolved into an approach using low frequency phased array technology as applied from the outer diameter surface of the piping. In addition, eddy current examination as performed from the inner diameter surface of these piping welds is also reported. Cast stainless steel (CSS) pipe specimens were examined that contain thermal and mechanical fatigue cracks located close to the weld roots and have inside/outside surface geometrical conditions that simulate several PWR primary piping weldments and configurations. In addition, segments of vintage centrifugally cast piping were also examined to understand inherent acoustic noise and scattering due to grain structures and determine consistency of UT responses from different locations. The advanced UT methods were applied from the outside surface of these specimens using automated scanning devices and water coupling. The phased array approach was implemented with a modified instrument operating at low frequencies and composite volumetric images of the samples were generated with 500 kHz, 750 kHz, and 1.0 MHz arrays. Eddy current studies were conducted on the inner diameter surface of these piping welds using a commercially available instrument and a

  5. 75 FR 70908 - Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 22107 (April 27, 2010). The period of review (``POR'') is September 5... International Trade Administration Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic... of the antidumping duty order on circular welded austenitic stainless pressure pipe from the...

  6. 78 FR 62583 - Welded Stainless Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 78 FR 35253 (June 12, 2013). On September 19, 2013, more than 25... International Trade Administration Welded Stainless Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist... stainless pressure pipe from Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.\\1\\ The notice...

  7. 75 FR 53714 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... imports of stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan (53 FR 9787). On February 23, 1993, Commerce... on imports of stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan (65 FR 11766... Japan, Korea, and Taiwan (70 FR 61119). The Commission is now conducting third reviews to...

  8. 75 FR 76025 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... party responded to the sunset review notice of initiation by the applicable deadline * * *'' (75 FR... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, Korea, and Taiwan AGENCY: United States... stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings from Japan, Korea, and Taiwan would be likely to lead...

  9. 75 FR 27987 - Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipes From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea, 60 FR 10064, 10065... International Trade Administration Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipes From the Republic of Korea: Final... welded stainless steel pipes (WSSP) from the Republic of Korea (Korea). This review covers one...

  10. 77 FR 24459 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy: Final Results of... stainless steel butt-weld pipe fittings (SSBW pipe fittings) from Italy.\\1\\ This review covers two... results remain unchanged from the preliminary results of review. \\1\\ See Stainless Steel Butt-Weld...

  11. 76 FR 38688 - Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipe From Korea and Taiwan; Institution of a Five-Year Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... ASTM A-312 stainless steel pipe from Korea (57 FR 62301) and Taiwan (57 FR 62300). Following first five... ASTM A-312 stainless steel pipe from Korea and Taiwan (71 FR 53412, September 11, 2006). The Commission... as all welded stainless steel pipes and pressure tubes, excluding grade 409 tubes and...

  12. NDE Assessments of Cast Stainless Steel Reactor Piping Components

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Anderson, Michael T.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Mathews, Royce

    2006-02-01

    Studies conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, have focused on developing and evaluating the effectiveness and reliability of novel NDE approaches for the inspection of coarse-grained, cast stainless steel reactor components. The primary objective of this work is to provide information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) on the utility, effectiveness and reliability of ultrasonic testing (UT) and eddy current testing (ET) inspection techniques as related to the in-service inspection of primary piping components in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This paper describes recent developments and results from assessments of three different NDE approaches including an ultrasonic phased array inspection methodology, an eddy current testing technique and a low-frequency ultrasonic inspection methodology coupled with a synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT). Westinghouse Owner’s Group (WOG) cast stainless steel pipe segments with thermal and mechanical fatigue cracks located close to the weld roots, were used for assessing the inspection methods. ET studies were conducted on the inner diameter (ID) surface of piping specimens while the ultrasonic inspection methods were performed from the outer diameter (OD) surface of the specimens. The ET technique employed a ZETEC MIZ-27SI Eddy Current instrument and a ZETEC Z0000857-1 cross point spot probe with an operating frequency of 250 kHz. On some samples where noise levels were high, degaussing of the sample resulted in significant improvements. The phased array approach was implemented using an RD Tech Tomoscan III system operating at 1 MHz and composite volumetric images of the samples were generated. The low-frequency ultrasonic method employs a zone-focused, multi-incident angle; inspection protocol (operating at 250-450 kHz) coupled with a synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) for improved signal-to-noise and advanced imaging

  13. Probability of pipe fracture in the primary coolant loop of a PWR Plant. Volume 6. Failure mode analysis load combination program. Project I, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, R.D.

    1981-06-01

    Material properties and failure criteria were evaluated to assess the requirements for double-ended guillotine break in the primary coolant loop of the Zion Unit 1 pressurized water reactor. The properties of the 316 stainless steel piping materials were obtained from the literature. Statistical distributions of both the tensile and fracture properties at room and operating temperatures were developed. Yield and ultimate strength tensile properties were combined to estimate the material flow strength. The flow strength and fracture properties were used in the various failure models analyzed. Linear-elastic, elastic-plastic, and fully plastic fracture models were compared, and the governing fracture criterion was determined. For the particular case studied, the fully plastic requirement was found to be the controlling fracture criterion leading to a double-ended guillotine pipe break.

  14. Failure probability estimate of Type 304 stainless steel piping

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.L.; Awadalla, N.G.; Sindelar, R.L.; Mehta, H.S.; Ranganath, S.; General Electric Co., San Jose, CA )

    1989-01-01

    The primary source of in-service degradation of the SRS production reactor process water piping is intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). IGSCC has occurred in a limited number of weld heat affected zones, areas known to be susceptible to IGSCC. A model has been developed to combine crack growth rates, crack size distributions, in-service examination reliability estimates and other considerations to estimate the pipe large-break frequency. This frequency estimates the probability that an IGSCC crack will initiate, escape detection by ultrasonic (UT) examination, and grow to instability prior to extending through-wall and being detected by the sensitive leak detection system. These events are combined as the product of four factors: (1) the probability that a given weld heat affected zone contains IGSCC, (2) the conditional probability, given the presence of IGSCC, that the cracking will escape detection during UT examination, (3) the conditional probability, given a crack escapes detection by UT, that it will not grow through-wall and be detected by leakage, and (4) the conditional probability, given a crack is not detected by leakage, that it grows to instability prior to the next UT exam. These four factors estimate the occurrence of several conditions that must coexist in order for a crack to lead to a large break of the process water piping. When evaluated for the SRS production reactors, they produce an extremely low break frequency. The objective of this paper is to present the assumptions, methodology, results and conclusions of a probabilistic evaluation for the direct failure of the primary coolant piping resulting from normal operation and seismic loads. This evaluation was performed to support the ongoing PRA effort and to complement deterministic analyses addressing the credibility of a double-ended guillotine break.

  15. Automated GMA welding of austenitic stainless steel pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Tahash, G.J.

    1996-12-31

    The study focused on reducing weld cycle times of rotatable subassemblies (spools) using automated welding equipment. A unique automatic Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) system was used to produce a series of pipe to pipe welds on 141 mm (5 in.) schedule 80 seamless stainless steel pipe. After manual tack welding, the adaptive control system welded the root pass of the argon gas backed open vee groove circumferential butt joints in the IG rotated position with short circuiting transfer GMAW. The fill and cover passes were welded automatically with spray transfer GMAW. Automatic welding cycle times were found to be 50--80 percent shorter than the current techniques of roll welding with Shielded Metal Arc Welding and manual Gas Tungsten Arc Welding. Weld costs ({Brit_pounds}/m), including amortization, for the various systems were compared. The cost of automated GMA welds was virtually equivalent to the most competitive methods while depositing 75% more filler metal per year. Also investigated were metallurgical effects generated by weld thermal cycling, and the associated effects on mechanical properties of the weld joint. Mechanical properties of the welds met or exceeded those of the base metal. Sensitization of the pipe did not occur in the heat affected zone (HAZ), based on the absence of evidence of intergranular attack in modified Strauss corrosion tests and despite the fact of interpass temperatures well above recommended maximums. Cooling rates of 3--5 C/s in the heat affected zone of the four pass welds were measured by thermocouple technique and found to be within the non-sensitizing range for this alloy.

  16. Probability of pipe failure in the reactor coolant loops of Babcock and Wilcox PWR plants. Volume 1. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, G.S.; Chou, C.K.

    1986-05-01

    As part of its reevaluation of the double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) of reactor coolant piping as a design basis event for nuclear power plants, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) contracted the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to estimate the probability of occurrence of a DEGB, and to assess the effect that earthquakes have on DEGB probability. This report describes an evaluation of reactor coolant loop piping in PWR plants having nuclear steam supply systems designed by Babcock and Wilcox. Two causes of pipe break were considered: pipe fracture due to the growth of cracks at welded joints (''direct'' DEGB), and pipe rupture indirectly caused by failure of heavy component supports due to an earthquake (''indirect'' DEGB). Unlike in earlier evaluations of Westinghouse and Combustion Engineering reactor coolant loop piping, in which the probability of direct DEGB had been explicitly estimated using a probabilistic fracture mechanics model, no detailed fracture mechanics calculations were performed. Instead, a comparison of relevant plant data, mainly reactor coolant loop stresses, for one representative B and W plant with equivalent information for Westinghouse and C-E systems inferred that the probability of direct DEGB should be similarly low (less than le-10 per reactor year). The probability of indirect DEGB, on the other hand, was explicitly estimated for two representative plants. The results of this study indicate that the probability of a DEGB form either cause is very low for reactor coolant loop piping in these specific plants and, because of similarity in design, infer that the probability of DEGB is generally very low in B and W reactor coolant loop piping. The NRC should therefore consider eliminating DEGB as a design basis event in favor of more realistic criteria. 13 refs., 9 tabs.

  17. Additional requirements for leak-before-break application to primary coolant piping in Belgium

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel, G.

    1997-04-01

    Leak-Before-Break (LBB) technology has not been applied in the first design of the seven Pressurized Water Reactors the Belgian utility is currently operating. The design basis of these plants required to consider the dynamic effects associated with the ruptures to be postulated in the high energy piping. The application of the LBB technology to the existing plants has been recently approved by the Belgian Safety Authorities but with a limitation to the primary coolant loop. LBB analysis has been initiated for the Doel 3 and Tihange 2 plants to allow the withdrawal of some of the reactor coolant pump snubbers at both plants and not reinstall some of the restraints after steam generator replacement at Doel 3. LBB analysis was also found beneficial to demonstrate the acceptability of the primary components and piping to the new conditions resulting from power uprating and stretch-out operation. LBB analysis has been subsequently performed on the primary coolant loop of the Tihange I plant and is currently being performed for the Doel 4 plant. Application of the LBB to the primary coolant loop is based in Belgium on the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission requirements. However the Belgian Safety Authorities required some additional analyses and put some restrictions on the benefits of the LBB analysis to maintain the global safety of the plant at a sufficient level. This paper develops the main steps of the safety evaluation performed by the Belgian Safety Authorities for accepting the application of the LBB technology to existing plants and summarizes the requirements asked for in addition to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission rules.

  18. Electrochemical behaviour of stainless steel in PWR primary coolant conditions: Effects of radiolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzeau, Benoist; Perrin, Stéphane; Corbel, Catherine; Simon, Dominique; Feron, Damien

    2011-12-01

    Few data are available in the literature on the role of the water radiolysis on the corrosion of stainless steel core components in PWR operating conditions (300 °C, 155 bar). The present approach uses a high energy proton beam to control the production of radiolytic species at the interface between a stainless steel sample and water in a high temperature and high pressure (HP-HT) electrochemical cell working in the range 25 °C/1 bar-300 °C/90 bar. The cell is designed to record the free corrosion potential of the AISI 316L/water interface mounted in line with a cyclotron delivering the proton beam. The evolution of the potential is compared before, during and after the proton irradiation. The first results are obtained with an aqueous solution containing boron, lithium and dissolved hydrogen, as in PWR primary coolant circuit. The stainless steel/water interfaces are irradiated between 25 °C and 300 °C with protons emerging at 22 MeV at the interface. The flux is varied by five orders of magnitude, from 6.6 × 10 11 to 6.6 × 10 15 H + m -2 s -1. The evolution of the free corrosion potential is highly dependent on the temperature and/or pressure. For a given temperature and pressure, it evolves with the flux and the ageing of the AISI 316L/water interfaces. An important role of the temperature of irradiation on the electrochemical response was observed. These results give a better understanding of the role of radiolysis on stainless steel corrosion in high temperature conditions.

  19. Correlation of analysis with high level vibration test results for primary coolant piping

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H. ); Costello, J.F. )

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic tests on a modified 1/2.5-scale model of pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary coolant piping were performed using a large shaking table at Tadotsu, Japan. The High Level Vibration Test (HLVT) program was part of a cooperative study between the United States (Nuclear Regulatory Commission/Brookhaven National Laboratory, NRC/BNL) and Japan (Ministry of International Trade and Industry/Nuclear Power Engineering Center). During the test program, the excitation level of each test run was gradually increased up to the limit of the shaking table and significant plastic strains, as well as cracking, were induced in the piping. To fully utilize the test results, NRC/BNL sponsored a project to develop corresponding analytical predictions for the nonlinear dynamic response of the piping for selected test runs. The analyses were performed using both simplified and detailed approaches. The simplified approaches utilize a linear solution and an approximate formulation for nonlinear dynamic effects such as the use of a deamplification factor. The detailed analyses were performed using available nonlinear finite element computer codes, including the MARC, ABAQUS, ADINA and WECAN codes. A comparison of various analysis techniques with the test results shows a higher prediction error in the detailed strain values in the overall response values. A summary of the correlation analyses was presented before the BNL. This paper presents a detailed description of the various analysis results and additional comparisons with test results.

  20. Correlation of analysis with high level vibration test results for primary coolant piping

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Costello, J.F.

    1992-05-01

    Dynamic tests on a modified 1/2.5-scale model of pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary coolant piping were performed using a large shaking table at Tadotsu, Japan. The High Level Vibration Test (HLVT) program was part of a cooperative study between the United States (Nuclear Regulatory Commission/Brookhaven National Laboratory, NRC/BNL) and Japan (Ministry of International Trade and Industry/Nuclear Power Engineering Center). During the test program, the excitation level of each test run was gradually increased up to the limit of the shaking table and significant plastic strains, as well as cracking, were induced in the piping. To fully utilize the test results, NRC/BNL sponsored a project to develop corresponding analytical predictions for the nonlinear dynamic response of the piping for selected test runs. The analyses were performed using both simplified and detailed approaches. The simplified approaches utilize a linear solution and an approximate formulation for nonlinear dynamic effects such as the use of a deamplification factor. The detailed analyses were performed using available nonlinear finite element computer codes, including the MARC, ABAQUS, ADINA and WECAN codes. A comparison of various analysis techniques with the test results shows a higher prediction error in the detailed strain values in the overall response values. A summary of the correlation analyses was presented before the BNL. This paper presents a detailed description of the various analysis results and additional comparisons with test results.

  1. FEM Analysis and Experimental Verification of the Integral Forging Process for AP1000 Primary Coolant Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shenglong; Yu, Xiaoyi; Yang, Bin; Zhang, Mingxian; Wu, Huanchun

    2016-08-01

    AP1000 primary coolant pipes must be manufactured by integral forging technology according to the designer—Westinghouse Electric Co. The characteristics of these large, special-shaped pipes create nonuniform temperatures, effective stress, and effective strain during shaping of the pipes. This paper presents a three-dimensional finite element simulation (3D FEM) of the integral forging process, and qualitatively evaluates the likelihood of forging defects. By analyzing the evolution histories of the three field variables, we concluded that the initial forging temperature should be strictly controlled within the interval 1123 K to 1423 K (850 °C to 1150 °C) to avoid second-phase precipitation. In the hard deformation zones, small strains do not contribute to recrystallization resulting in coarse grains. Conversely, in the free deformation zone, the large strains can contribute to the dynamic recrystallization, favoring grain refinement and closure of voids. Cracks are likely to appear, however, on the workpiece surface when forging leads to large deformations. Based on the simulation results, an eligible workpiece with good mechanical properties, few macroscopic defects, and favorable grain size has been successfully forged by experiments at an industrial scale, which validates the FEM simulation.

  2. 78 FR 45271 - Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... Commission, Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register of May 24, 2013 (78 FR 31574... COMMISSION Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam Determination On the... injured by reason of imports from Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of welded stainless steel pressure...

  3. Probability of failure in BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) reactor coolant piping: Volume 2, Pipe failure induced by crack growth and failure of intermediate supports

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, T.; Bumpus, S.E.; Chinn, D.J.; Mensing, R.W.; Holman, G.S.

    1989-03-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) contracted with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to conduct a study to determine if the probability of occurrence of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) in the major coolant piping systems of nuclear power plants is large enough to warrant the current stringent design requirements of designing against the postulated effects of a DEGB. The study includes both the PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) and the BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) plants in the United States. Following the study of PWR plants, a study of BWR reactor coolant piping was performed. The Brunswick Steam Electric Plant at Southport, North Carolina was selected as the pilot plant for the BWR evaluation. The probability of pipe failure in three major coolant pipings was assessed: the recirculation loops, the primary steam lines, and the main feedwater lines. In the case of recirculation loops, both the existing and a proposed replacement system were studied. A probabilistic fracture mechanics approach was used in this study to estimate the crack growth and to assess the crack stability in the piping systems throughout the lifetime of the plant. The effects of the failure of intermediate pipe supports were also examined. The results of the assessment indicated that the probability of occurrence of DEGB due to crack growth and instability is small if the problem of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) is resolved by the use of the replacement system. 33 refs., 41 figs., 32 tabs.

  4. Probability of pipe failure in the reactor coolant loops of Combustion Engineering PWR plants. Volume 1. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, G.S.; Lo, T.; Chou, C.K.

    1985-01-01

    As part of its reevaluation of the double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) as a design requirement for reactor coolant piping, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) contracted with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to estimate the probability of occurrence of a DEGB, and to assess the effect that earthquakes have on DEGB probability. This report describes a probabilistic evaluation of reactor coolant loop piping in PWR plants having nuclear steam supply systems designed by Combustion Engineering. Two causes of pipe break were considered: pipe fracture due to the growth of cracks at welded joints (direct DEGB), and pipe rupture indirectly caused by failure of component supports due to an earthquake (indirect DEGB). The probability of direct DEGB was estimated using a probabilistic fracture mechanics model. The probability of indirect DEGB was estimated by estimating support fragility and then convolving fragility with seismic hazard. The results of this study indicate that the probability of a DEGB from either cause is very low for reactor coolant loop piping in these plants, and that NRC should therefore consider eliminating DEGB as a design basis in favor of more realistic criteria.

  5. Probability of pipe failure in the reactor coolant loops of Westinghouse PWR Plants. Volume 1. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, G.S.; Chou, C.K.

    1985-07-01

    As part of its reevaluation of the double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) of reactor coolant loop piping as a design basis event for nuclear power plants, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) contracted with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to estimate the probability of occurrence probability. This report describes a probabilistic evaluation of reactor coolant loop piping in PWR plants having nuclear steam supply systems designed by Westinghouse. Two causes of pipe break were considered: pipe fracture due to the growth of cracks at welded joints (''direct'' DEGB), and pipe rupture indirectly caused by failure of component supports due to an earthquake (''indirect'' DEGB). The probability of direct DEGB was estimated using a probabilistic fracture mechanics model. The probability of indirect DEGB was estimated by estimating support fragility and then convolving fragility and seismic hazard. The results of this study indicate that the probability of a DEGB from either cause is very low for reactor coolant loop piping in these plants, and that NRC should therefore consider eliminating DEGB as a design basis event in favor of more realistic criteria. 17 refs., 15 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Corrosion performance of martensitic stainless steel seamless pipe for linepipe application

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Mitsuo; Miyata, Yukio; Toyooka, Takaaki; Murase, Fumio

    1999-11-01

    The corrosion performance of two types of weldable martensitic stainless steel seamless pipe for pipeline application is investigated. 11Cr steel pipe developed for sweet environment gives better resistance to CO{sub 2} corrosion than the 13Cr martensitic stainless steel for OCTG. 12Cr steel pipe developed for light sour environment shows good SSC resistance in a mild sour environment and superior CO{sub 2} corrosion resistance at high temperature and high CO{sub 2} partial pressure condition. The suitable condition for the 11Cr steel pipe and the 12Cr steel pipe in sweet environment, and the critical pH and H{sub 2}S partial pressure for the 12Cr steel pipe welded joint in sour environment are clarified. Both welded joints have superior resistance to hydrogen embrittlement under the cathodic protection condition in sea water.

  7. Failure probability of PWR reactor coolant loop piping. [Double-ended guillotine break

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, T.; Woo, H.H.; Holman, G.S.; Chou, C.K.

    1984-02-01

    This paper describes the results of assessments performed on the PWR coolant loop piping of Westinghouse and Combustion Engineering plants. For direct double-ended guillotine break (DEGB), consideration was given to crack existence probability, initial crack size distribution, hydrostatic proof test, preservice inspection, leak detection probability, crack growth characteristics, and failure criteria based on the net section stress failure and tearing modulus stability concept. For indirect DEGB, fragilities of major component supports were estimated. The system level fragility was then calculated based on the Boolean expression involving these fragilities. Indirect DEGB due to seismic effects was calculated by convolving the system level fragility and the seismic hazard curve. The results indicate that the probability of occurrence of both direct and indirect DEGB is extremely small, thus, postulation of DEGB in design should be eliminated and replaced by more realistic criteria.

  8. Probability of pipe failure in the reactor coolant loops of Combustion Engineering PWR plants. Volume 2. Pipe failure induced by crack growth

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, T.Y.; Mensing, R.W.; Woo, H.H.; Holman, G.S.

    1984-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine if the probability of occurrence of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) in the primary coolant piping warrants the current design requirements that safeguard against the effect of DEGB. This report describes the results of an assessment of reactor coolant loop piping systems designed by Combustion Engineering, Inc. A probabilistic fracture mechanics approach was used to estimate the crack growth and to assess the crack stability in the piping throughout the lifetime of the plant. The results of the assessment indicate that the probability of occurrence of DEGB due to crack growth and instability is extremely small, which supports the argument that the postulation of DEGB in design should be eliminated and replaced with more reasonable criteria.

  9. Review of Failure Probability Calculations for HFIR Primary Coolant System Piping

    SciTech Connect

    Simonen, Fredric A.

    2001-10-31

    During July 2001, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory was requested by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Facilities Management, Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology, Germantown, Maryland, to review calculations of piping failure probabilities for the High Flux Test Reactor (HFIR) located at and operated by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of the failure probability calculations was to estimate the probabilities of large leaks (>1500 gpm) that are of sufficient size to disable the primary coolant system of HFIR to the extent that there is a potential for core damage. PNNL reviewed the computational methods and the inputs to the calculations along with an evaluation of potential failure mechanisms not explicitly addressed by the ORNL calculations. The review concluded that the calculated failure probabilities even with consideration of uncertainties in the calculations and of other potential failure mechanisms provide a high level of confidence that failure frequencies are less than the stated goal of 10-6 piping failures per year.

  10. Characterization of corrosion scale formed on stainless steel delivery pipe for reclaimed water treatment.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yong; Liu, Shuming; Smith, Kate; Yu, Kanghua; Hu, Hongying; Jiang, Wei; Li, Yuhong

    2016-01-01

    To reveal corrosion behavior of stainless steel delivery pipe used in reclaimed water treatment, this research focused on the morphological, mineralogical and chemical characteristics of stainless steel corrosion scale and corroded passive film. Corrosion scale and coupon samples were taken from a type 304 pipe delivering reclaimed water to a clear well in service for more than 12 years. Stainless steel corrosion scales and four representative pipe coupons were investigated using mineralogy and material science research methods. The results showed corrosion scale was predominantly composed of goethite, lepidocrocite, hematite, magnetite, ferrous oxide, siderite, chrome green and chromite, the same as that of corroded pipe coupons. Hence, corrosion scale can be identified as podiform chromite deposit. The loss of chromium in passive film is a critical phenomenon when stainless steel passive film is damaged by localized corrosion. This may provide key insights toward improving a better comprehension of the formation of stainless steel corrosion scale and the process of localized corrosion. The localized corrosion behavior of stainless steel is directly connected with reclaimed water quality parameters such as residual chlorine, DO, Cl(-) and SO4(2-). In particular, when a certain amount of residual chlorine in reclaimed water is present as an oxidant, ferric iron is the main chemical state of iron minerals. PMID:26605686

  11. Arrangement for connecting a fiber-reinforced plastic pipe to a stainless steel flange

    DOEpatents

    Allais, Arnaud; Hoffmann, Ernst

    2008-02-05

    Arrangement for connecting a fiber-reinforced plastic pipe (18) to a stainless steel flange (12, 16), in which the end of the fiber-reinforced plastic pipe (18) is accommodated in a ring-shaped groove (12a, 16a) in the flange (12, 16), the groove conforming to the dimensions of the fiber-reinforced plastic pipe (18), where the gap remaining between the end of the fiber-reinforced plastic pipe (18) and the ring-shaped groove (12a, 16a) is filled with a sealant (19).

  12. 76 FR 78614 - Welded ASTM A-312 Stainless Steel Pipe From South Korea and Taiwan: Continuation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 38613 (July 1, 2011). \\1\\ See Antidumping Duty Order and Clarification of Final Determination: Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipes From Korea, 57 FR 62301 (December 30... Stainless Steel Pipe From the Republic of Korea, 60 FR 10064 (February 23, 1995); and Amended...

  13. Probability of pipe failure in the reactor coolant loops of Westinghouse PWR plants. Volume 4. Pipe failure induced by crack growth in west coast plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chinn, D.J.; Holman, G.S.; Lo, T.Y.; Mensing, R.W.

    1985-07-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to conduct a study to determine if the probability of occurrence of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) in primary coolant piping warrants the current design requirements that safeguard against the effecs of such a break. This report assesses the reactor-coolant-loop piping system of west coast Westinghouse plants. The results indicate that directly induced DEGB is an unlikely event in the west coast Westinghouse plants. For the Trojan plant, leak is far more likely than a direct DEGB. Further, earthquakes have very little effect on the probabilities of leak and direct DEGB. At the Diablo Canyon plant, the increase in postulated seismic levels due to reevaluation of the site to account for the Hosgri Fault has caused directly induced DEGB failure probability to be dependent on earthquake occurrences. The resulting direct DEGB failure probability is still much lower than the indirect DEGB failure probability for Diablo Canyon.

  14. Probabilistic based design rules for intersystem LOCAS in ABWR piping

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, A.G.; Wesley, D.A.

    1993-05-01

    A methodology has been developed for probability-based standards for low-pressure piping systems that are attached to the reactor coolant loops of advanced light water reactors (ALWRs) which could experience reactor coolant loop temperatures and pressures because of multiple isolation valve failures. This accident condition is called an intersystem loss-of-coolant accident (ISLOCA). The methodology was applied to various sizes of carbon and stainless steel piping designed to advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) temperatures and pressures.

  15. 76 FR 76437 - Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipe From Korea and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... reviews on July 1, 2011 (76 FR 38688) and determined on October 4, 2011, that it would conduct expedited reviews (76 FR 64106, October 17, 2011). The Commission transmitted its determination in these reviews to... COMMISSION Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipe From Korea and Taiwan Determination On the basis of the...

  16. 76 FR 17819 - Circular Welded Austenitic Stainless Pressure Pipe From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... Stainless Pressure Pipe from the People's Republic of China, 74 FR 11351 (March 17, 2009). \\2\\ See... Administrative Review, 75 FR 9162 (March 1, 2010). The Department received a timely request for an administrative... Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocation in Part, 75 FR 22107 (April 27, 2010). The Department...

  17. 75 FR 973 - Certain Welded Stainless Steel Pipes From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... Welded Stainless Steel Pipes from Korea, 57 FR 62301 (Dec. 30, 1992), as amended in Notice of Amended... Korea, 60 FR 10064 (Feb. 23, 1995) (Amended Final Determination and Order). On December 1, 2008, the... Request Administrative Review, 73 FR 72764 (Dec. 1, 2008). On December 29, 2008, the Department received...

  18. Technical report on material selection and processing guidelines for BWR coolant pressure boundary piping. Draft report. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Hazelton, W.S.

    1986-06-01

    This report updates and supersedes the technical positions NRC established in NUREG-0313, ''Technical Report on Material Selection and Processing Guidelines for BWR Coolant Pressure Boundary Piping,'' published in July 1977, and its subsequent revision published in July 1980. This report sets forth the NRC staff's revised acceptable methods to control the intergranular stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of BWR ASME Code Class 1, 2, and 3 pressure boundary piping and safe ends. For piping that does not fully comply with the material selection, testing, and processing guideline combinations of this document, varying degrees of augmented inservice inspection will be required, pursuant to 10 CFR 50.55a(g)(6)(ii). This revision also includes guidance regarding crack evaluation and weld overlay repair methods for long term operation or for continuing interim operation of plants until a more permanent solution is implemented.

  19. Estimates of margins in ASME Code strength values for stainless steel nuclear piping

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, A.G.

    1995-11-01

    The margins in the ASME Code stainless steel allowable stress values that can be attributed to the variations in material strength are evaluated for nuclear piping steels. Best-fit curves were calculated for the material test data that were used to determine allowable stress values for stainless steels in the ASME Code, supplemented by more recent data, to estimate the mean stresses. The mean yield stresses (on which the stainless steel S{sub m} values are based) from the test data are about 15 to 20% greater than the ASME Code yield stress values. The ASME Code yield stress values are estimated to approximately coincide with the 97% confidence limit from the test data. The mean and 97% confidence limit values can be used in the probabilistic risk assessments of nuclear piping.

  20. Superfluid Helium Testing of a Stainless Steel to Titanium Piping Transition Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soyars, W.; Basti, A.; Bedeschi, F.; Budagov, J.; Foley, M.; Harms, E.; Klebaner, A.; Nagaitsev, S.; Sabirov, B.

    2010-04-01

    Stainless steel-to-titanium bimetallic transitions have been fabricated with an explosively bonded joint. This novel joining technique was conducted by the Russian Federal Nuclear Center, working under contract for the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. These bimetallic transitions are being considered for use in future superconducting radio-frequency cavity cryomodule assemblies. This application requires cryogenic testing to demonstrate that this transition joint remains leak-tight when sealing superfluid helium. To simulate a titanium cavity vessel connection to a stainless steel service pipe, bimetallic transition joints were paired together to fabricate piping assemblies. These piping assemblies were then tested in superfluid helium conditions at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory test facilities. The transition joint test program will be described. Fabrication experience and test results will be presented.

  1. Superfluid helium testing of a stainless steel to titanium piping transition joint

    SciTech Connect

    Soyars, W.; Basti, A.; Bedeschi, F.; Budagov, J.; Foley, M.; Harms, E.; Klebaner, A.; Nagaitsev, S.; Sabirov, B.; Dubna, JINR

    2009-11-01

    Stainless steel-to-titanium bimetallic transitions have been fabricated with an explosively bonded joint. This novel joining technique was conducted by the Russian Federal Nuclear Center, working under contract for the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. These bimetallic transitions are being considered for use in future superconducting radio-frequency cavity cryomodule assemblies. This application requires cryogenic testing to demonstrate that this transition joint remains leak-tight when sealing superfluid helium. To simulate a titanium cavity vessel connection to a stainless steel service pipe, bimetallic transition joints were paired together to fabricate piping assemblies. These piping assemblies were then tested in superfluid helium conditions at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory test facilities. The transition joint test program will be described. Fabrication experience and test results will be presented.

  2. PBF Reactor Building (PER620). Piping in basement fills space. Secondary ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Reactor Building (PER-620). Piping in basement fills space. Secondary coolant flowed through carbon steel pipe; primary coolant, through stainless steel. Photographer: Larry Page. Date: April 30, 1970. INEEL negative no. 70-2080 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. Advanced radiator concepts utilizing honeycomb panel heat pipes (stainless steel)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischman, G. L.; Tanzer, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of fabricating and processing moderate temperature range heat pipes in a low mass honeycomb sandwich panel configuration for highly efficient radiator fins for the NASA space station was investigated. A variety of honeycomb panel facesheet and core-ribbon wick concepts were evaluated within constraints dictated by existing manufacturing technology and equipment. Concepts evaluated include: type of material, material and panel thicknesses, wick type and manufacturability, liquid and vapor communication among honeycomb cells, and liquid flow return from condenser to evaporator facesheet areas. In addition, the overall performance of the honeycomb panel heat pipe was evaluated analytically.

  4. Modeling of residual stress mitigation in austenitic stainless steel pipe girth weldment

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Atteridge, D.G.; Anderson, W.E.; West, S.L.

    1994-03-01

    This study provides numerical procedures to model 40-cm-diameter, schedule 40, Type 304L stainless steel pipe girth welding and a newly proposed post-weld treatment. The treatment can be used to accomplish the goal of imparting compressive residual stresses at the inner surface of a pipe girth weldment to prevent/retard the intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of the piping system in nuclear reactors. This new post-weld treatment for mitigating residual stresses is cooling stress improvement (CSI). The concept of CSI is to establish and maintain a certain temperature gradient across the pipe wall thickness to change the final stress state. Thus, this process involves sub-zero low temperature cooling of the inner pipe surface of a completed girth weldment, while simultaneously keeping the outer pipe surface at a slightly elevated temperature with the help of a certain heating method. Analyses to obtain quantitative results on pipe girth welding and CSI by using a thermo-elastic-plastic finite element model are described in this paper. Results demonstrate the potential effectiveness of CSI for introducing compressive residual stresses to prevent/retard IGSCC. Because of the symmetric nature of CSI, it shows great potential for industrial application.

  5. Corrosion of stainless steel piping in a high manganese fresh water

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, R.E.; Lutey, R.W.; Musick, J.; Pinnow, K.E.; Tuthill, A.H.

    1996-07-01

    In March of 1993, about two years after startup in early 1991, pinhole leaks were found in the 16 in. (406 mm) type 304L stainless steel (UNS S30403) raw water piping at the Brunswick-Topsham Water District (BTWD) Potable Water Treatment Plant (PWTP) in Brunswick, Maine. The low chloride manganese-containing well water is chlorinated in the pump house. After reaching the plant, the raw water is handled in type 304L stainless steel (UNS S30403) piping. It was initially felt that the corrosion might be the microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) type corrosion described by Tverberg, Pinnow, and Redmerski. Investigation showed that the role of manganese and chlorine differed, in important respects, from that described by Tverberg et. al., and that heat tint scale may have played a significant role in the corrosion that occurred at the BTWD plant.

  6. Effects of LWR coolant environments on fatigue lives of austenitic stainless steels.

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O. K.

    1998-01-13

    Fatigue tests have been conducted on Types 304 and 316NG stainless steels to evaluate the effects of various material and loading variables, e.g., steel type, strain rate, dissolved oxygen (DO) in water, and strain range, on the fatigue lives of these steels. The results confirm significant decreases in fatigue life in water. Unlike the situation with ferritic steels, environmental effects on Types 304 and 316NG stainless steel are more pronounced in low-DO than in high-DO water. Experimental results have been compared with estimates of fatigue life based on a statistical model. The formation and growth of fatigue cracks in air and water environments are discussed.

  7. Transient Response to Rapid Cooling of a Stainless Steel Sodium Heat Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mireles, Omar R.; Houts, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Compact fission power systems are under consideration for use in long duration space exploration missions. Power demands on the order of 500 W, to 5 kW, will be required for up to 15 years of continuous service. One such small reactor design consists of a fast spectrum reactor cooled with an array of in-core alkali metal heat pipes coupled to thermoelectric or Stirling power conversion systems. Heat pipes advantageous attributes include a simplistic design, lack of moving parts, and well understood behavior. Concerns over reactor transients induced by heat pipe instability as a function of extreme thermal transients require experimental investigations. One particular concern is rapid cooling of the heat pipe condenser that would propagate to cool the evaporator. Rapid cooling of the reactor core beyond acceptable design limits could possibly induce unintended reactor control issues. This paper discusses a series of experimental demonstrations where a heat pipe operating at near prototypic conditions experienced rapid cooling of the condenser. The condenser section of a stainless steel sodium heat pipe was enclosed within a heat exchanger. The heat pipe - heat exchanger assembly was housed within a vacuum chamber held at a pressure of 50 Torr of helium. The heat pipe was brought to steady state operating conditions using graphite resistance heaters then cooled by a high flow of gaseous nitrogen through the heat exchanger. Subsequent thermal transient behavior was characterized by performing an energy balance using temperature, pressure and flow rate data obtained throughout the tests. Results indicate the degree of temperature change that results from a rapid cooling scenario will not significantly influence thermal stability of an operating heat pipe, even under extreme condenser cooling conditions.

  8. 75 FR 68324 - Certain Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Japan, South Korea and Taiwan; Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 53664 (September 1, 2010) (Initiation Notice). Because no interested domestic... Less Than Fair Value; Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe and Tube Fittings From Japan, 53 FR 9787 (March 25... Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Korea, 58 FR 11029 (February 23, 1993). The Department published...

  9. 77 FR 42697 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines: Continuation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... Orders: Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines, 66 FR 11257 (February 23, 2001). \\2\\ See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 67412 (November 1, 2011... Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines, 77 FR 39735 (July 5, 2012),...

  10. Corrosion of stainless steel piping in high manganese fresh water

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, R.E.; Lutey, R.W.; Musick, J.; Pinnow, K.E.; Tuthill, A.H.

    1996-09-01

    A potable water treatment plant, designed to reduce manganese and iron in well water, experienced leaks in the 16 in. (406 mm) raw water headers about nine months after startup. The material, type 304 (UNS 30403) stainless steel, was purchased to American Society of Testing Materials specification A 778, with additional stipulations governing internal finish, the use of filler metal, and pickling for scale removal. Laboratory screenings of deposits for bacteria revealed some potentially additive corrosive effects from microbial action. However, the correlation of corrosion with the presence or absence of heat tint in the heat-affected zone of the circumferential welds prevailed as a primary cause of the corrosion observed beneath an adherent manganese-iron deposit in a low chloride, high manganese, raw water.

  11. Study of Compatibility of Stainless Steel Weld Joints with Liquid Sodium-Potassium Coolants for Fission Surface Power Reactors for Lunar and Space Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Grossbeck, Martin; Qualls, Louis

    2015-07-31

    To make a manned mission to the surface of the moon or to Mars with any significant residence time, the power requirements will make a nuclear reactor the most feasible source of energy. To prepare for such a mission, NASA has teamed with the DOE to develop Fission Surface Power technology with the goal of developing viable options. The Fission Surface Power System (FSPS) recommended as the initial baseline design includes a liquid metal reactor and primary coolant system that transfers heat to two intermediate liquid metal heat transfer loops. Each intermediate loop transfers heat to two Stirling heat exchangers that each power two Stirling converters. Both the primary and the intermediate loops will use sodium-potassium (NaK) as the liquid metal coolant, and the primary loop will operate at temperatures exceeding 600°C. The alloy selected for the heat exchangers and piping is AISI Type 316L stainless steel. The extensive experience with NaK in breeder reactor programs and with earlier space reactors for unmanned missions lends considerable confidence in using NaK as a coolant in contact with stainless steel alloys. However, the microstructure, chemical segregation, and stress state of a weld leads to the potential for corrosion and cracking. Such failures have been experienced in NaK systems that have operated for times less than the eight year goal for the FSPS. For this reason, it was necessary to evaluate candidate weld techniques and expose welds to high-temperature, flowing NaK in a closed, closely controlled system. The goal of this project was to determine the optimum weld configuration for a NaK system that will withstand service for eight years under FSPS conditions. Since the most difficult weld to make and to evaluate is the tube to tube sheet weld in the intermediate heat exchangers, it was the focus of this research. A pumped loop of flowing NaK was fabricated for exposure of candidate weld specimens at temperatures of 600°C, the expected

  12. Elastic-plastic characterization of a cast stainless steep pipe elbow material

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, J.A.; Hackett, E.M.; Roe, C.

    1992-01-01

    Tests conducted in Japan as part of the High Level Vibration Test (HLVT) program for reactor piping systems revealed fatigue crack growth in a cast stainless steel pipe elbow. The material tested was equivalent to ASME SA-351CF8M. The David Taylor Research Center (DTRC) was tasked to developed the appropriate material property data to characterize cyclic deformation, cyclic elastic-plastic crack growth and ductile tearing resistance in the pipe elbow material. It was found that the cast stainless steel was very resistant to ductile crack extension. J-R curves essentially followed a blunting behavior to very high J levels. Low cycle fatigue crack growth rate data obtained on this material using a cyclic J integral approach was consistent with the high cycle fatigue crack growth rate and with a standard textbook correlation equation typical for this type of material. Evaluation of crack closure effects was essential to accurately determine the crack driving force for cyclic elastic- plastic crack growth in this material. SEM examination of several of the cyclic J test fracture surfaces indicated that fatigue was the primary mode of fracture with ductile crack extension intervening only during the last few cycles of loading.

  13. Survey of tracking systems and rotary joints for coolant piping. Final report, August 15, 1978-August 14, 1978. [Includes patents

    SciTech Connect

    Furaus, J P; Gruchalla, M E; Sower, G D

    1980-01-01

    Problems were surveyed and evaluated with respect to solar tracking mechanisms and rotary joints for coolant piping. An analytical development of celestial mechanics, one- and two-axis tracking configurations and the effect of tracking accuracy versus collector efficiency are reported. Daily operational requirements and tracking modes were defined and evaluated. A literature and patent search on solar tracking technology was performed. Tracking system and control system performance specifications were determined. Alternative conceptual tracking approaches were defined and a cost and performance evaluation of a mechanical tracking concept was performed. Fluid coupling service specifications were determined. The cost and performance of several types of actuators and error detectors were evaluated with respect to solar tracking mechanisms.

  14. Capabilities of Ultrasonic Phased Arrays for Far-Side Examinations of Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Welds

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2006-10-01

    A study was conducted to assess the ability of advanced ultrasonic techniques to detect and accurately determine the size of flaws from the far-side of wrought austenitic piping welds. Far-side inspections of nuclear system austenitic piping welds are currently performed on a “best effort” basis and do not conform to ASME Code Section XI Appendix VIII performance demonstration requirements for near side inspection. For this study, four circumferential welds in 610mm (24inch) diameter, 36mm (1.42inch) thick ASTM A-358, Grade 304 vintage austenitic stainless steel pipe were examined. The welds were fabricated with varied welding parameters; both horizontal and vertical pipe orientations were used, with air and water backing, to simulate field welding conditions. A series of saw cuts, electro-discharge machined (EDM) notches, and implanted fatigue cracks were placed into the heat affected zones of the welds. The saw cuts and notches ranged in depth from 7.5% to 28.4% through-wall. The implanted cracks ranged in depth from 5% through-wall to 64% through-wall. The welds were examined with phased array technology at 2.0 MHz, and compared to conventional ultrasonic techniques as a baseline. The examinations showed that phased-array methods were able to detect and accurately length-size, but not depth size, the notches and flaws through the welds. The ultrasonic results were insensitive to the different welding techniques used in each weld.

  15. Thermomechanical history measurements on Type 304L stainless steel pipe girth welds

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ming; Atteridge, D.G.; Anderson, W.E.; Turpin, R.; West, S.L.

    1993-12-31

    Thermal and strain histories were recorded for three 40-cm-diameter (16 inch), Type 304L stainless steel (SS), schedule 40 (1.27 cm thickness) pipe girth welds. Two weld groove preparations were standard V grooves while the third was a narrow groove configuration. The welding parameters for the three pipe welds simulated expected field practice as closely as possible. The narrow gap weld was completed in four continuous passes while the other two welds required six and nine (discontinuous) passes, due to the use of different weld wire diameters. Thermomechanical history measurements were taken on the inner counterbore surface, encompassing the weld centerline and heat-affected zone (HAZ), as well as 10 cm of inner counterbore surface on either side of the weld centerline; a total of 47 data acquisition instruments were used for each weld. These instruments monitored: (1) weld shrinkages parallel to the pipe axis; (2) surface temperatures; (3) surface strains parallel to weld centerline; and (4) radial deformations. Results show that the weld and HAZ experienced cyclic deformation in the radial direction during welding, indicating that the final residual stress distribution in multi-pass pipe weldments is not axisymmetric. Measured radial and axial deformations were smaller for the narrow gap groove than for the standard V grooves, suggesting that the narrow gap groove weldment may have lower residual stress levels than the standard V groove weldments. This study provides the experimental database and a guideline for further computational modeling work.

  16. Residual stress variation due to piping processes of austenitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihara, R.; Hashimoto, T.; Mochizuki, M.

    2012-08-01

    In nuclear power plants, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) has been observed near the heat affected zone (HAZ) of the primary loop recirculation pipes made of austenitic stainless steel type 316L. Residual stress is a major cause of SCC. In the joining process of pipes, butt-welding is conducted after machining. Machining is performed to match the inside pipe diameter. Residual stress is generated by both machining and welding. In the case of welding after machining in manufacturing processes of pipes, it appears that residual stress due to machining is varied by the welding thermal cycle. In this study, residual stress variation caused by manufacturing processes was investigated. Residual stress variation was examined by the X-ray diffraction method. The residual stress distribution generated by welding after machining has a local maximum point in the HAZ. The Vickers hardness distribution also has a local maximum point. By the EBSD method, it is clarified that recovery and recrystallization due to welding heat do not occurred in the local maximum point. Residual stress distribution results from the superposition effect of hardening due to machining and welding. The location and value of the local maximum stress are varied by welding conditions. The region of the local maximum stress corresponds to the region where SCC has been observed. Therefore, in addition to a part of the manufacturing processes such as welding or machining, evaluation of all parts of the processes is important to investigate the effect of residual stress distribution on SCC.

  17. Multiple Restart Testing of a Stainless Steel Sodium Heat Pipe Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James; Mireles, Omar; Reid, Robert

    2005-01-01

    A heat pipe cooled reactor is one of several candidate reactor cores being considered for space power and propulsion systems to support future space exploration activities. Long life heat pipe modules. with designs verified through a combination of theoretical analysis and experimental evaluations. would be necessary to establish the viability of this option. A hardware-based program was initiated to begin experimental testing of components to verify compliance of proposed designs. To this end, a number of stainless steel/sodium heat pipe modules have been designed and fabricated to support experimental testing of a Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) project, a 100-kWt core design pursued jointly by the Marshall Space Flight Center and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. One of the SAFE heat pipe modules was successfully subjected to over 200 restarts. examining the behavior of multiple passive freeze/thaw operations. Typical operation included a 1-hour startup to an average evaporator temperature of 1000 K followed by a 15 minute hold at temperature. Nominal maximum input power during the hold period was 1.9 kW. Between heating cycles the module was cooled to less than 325 K, returning the sodium to a frozen state in preparation fop the next startup cycle.

  18. Probability of pipe fracture in the primary coolant loop of a PWR plant. Volume 8. Pipe fracture indirectly induced by an earthquake. Load Combination Program, Project I final report

    SciTech Connect

    Streit, R.D.

    1981-06-01

    This volume considers the probability that a double-ended guillotine break in the primary coolant loop of a pressurized water reactor occurs simultaneously with (and is indirectly caused by) a seismic event. The pipe break is a consequence of a seismically initiated failure in a system other than the primary piping itself. Events studied that can lead to an indirectly induced pipe break include structural and mechanical failures, missile impact, pressure transients, jet impingement, fire, and explosion. Structural failures of the supports for the reactor pressure vessel, reactor coolant pump, and steam generator have the highest probability of causing a double-ended pipe break. Furthermore, we found that structural failure of the containment dome and failure of the reactor coolant pump flywheel have the highest potential for a missile-caused pipe break. Since structural failure proved to be a major factor, we developed a model to estimate the probability of structural failure; this model is based on the engineering factors of safety and seismic hazard. preliminary results indicate that the probability of a double-ended pipe break indirectly caused by a seismic event during the plant life is on the order of 10/sup -9/.

  19. Instability predictions for circumferentially cracked Type-304 stainless steel pipes under dynamic loading. Volume 2. Appendixes. Final report. [BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Zahoor, A.; Wilkowski, G.; Abou-Sayed, I.; Marschall, C.; Broek, D.; Sampath, S.; Rhee, H.; Ahmad, J.

    1982-04-01

    This report provides methods to predict margins of safety for circumferentially cracked Type 304 stainless steel pipes subjected to applied bending loads. An integrated combination of experimentation and analysis research was pursued. Two types of experiments were performed: (1) laboratory-scale tests on center-cracked panels and bend specimens to establish the basic mechanical and fracture properties of Type 304 stainless steel, and (2) full-scale pipe fracture tests under quasi-static and dynamic loadings to assess the analysis procedures. Analyses were based upon the simple plastic collapse criterion, a J-estimation procedure, and elastic-plastic large-deformation finite element models.

  20. Instability predictions for circumferentially cracked Type-304 stainless-steel pipes under dynamic loading. Final report. [BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Zahoor, A.; Wilkowski, G.; Abou-Sayed, I.; Marschall, C.; Broek, D.; Sampath, S.; Rhee, H.; Ahmad, J.

    1982-04-01

    This report provides methods to predict margins of safety for circumferentially cracked Type 304 stainless steel pipes subjected to applied bending loads. An integrated combination of experimentation and analysis research was pursued. Two types of experiments were performed: (1) laboratory-scale tests on center-cracked panels and bend specimens to establish the basic mechanical and fracture properties of Type 304 stainless steel, and (2) full-scale pipe fracture tests under quasi-static and dynamic loadings to assess the analysis procedures. Analyses were based upon the simple plastic collapse criterion, a J-estimation procedure, and elastic-plastic large-deformation finite element models.

  1. A Comparison of Ultrasonic Flaw Responses as Observed through Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Welds

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess ultrasonic techniques for detection and sizing of flaws from the opposite side of wrought austenitic piping welds. A series of stainless steel specimens with implanted flaws were examined using phased-array ultrasonic probes. These examinations were conducted from both sides of the full-penetration structural piping welds, with emphasis on comparing the responses from the far-side inspection. The types of flaws examined include thermal fatigue cracks, saw cuts, and service-induced intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCC). The flaws were examined using three phased-array probes: a 2-MHz shear-wave probe, a 1.5-MHz longitudinal-wave probe, and a “mini” 2-MHz longitudinal-wave probe. The sound fields for each probe were modeled in stainless steel to assure proper insonification at the depths and angles used in the tests. This paper describes the results of the sound field modeling, and compares the responses of the various flaws from the near and far side of the welds.

  2. [Corrosion of stainless steel 201, 304 and 316L in the simulated sewage pipes reactor].

    PubMed

    Bao, Guo-Dong; Zuo, Jian-E; Wang, Ya-Jiao; Gan, Li-Li

    2014-08-01

    The corrosion behavior of stainless steel 201, 304 and 316L which would be used as sewer in-situ rehabilitation materials was studied in the simulated sewage pipes reactor. The corrosion potential and corrosion rate of these three materials were studied by potentiodynamic method on the 7th, 14th, 21st, 56th day under two different conditions which were full immersion condition or batch immersion condition with a 2-day cycle. The electrode process was studied by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) on the 56th day. The microstructure and composition of the corrosion pitting were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) on the 56th day. The results showed that 304 and 316L had much better corrosion resistance than 201 under both conditions. 304 and 316L had much smaller corrosion rate than 201 under both conditions. The corrosion resistance of all three kinds of stainless steel under the batch immersion condition was much better than those under the full immersion condition. The corrosion rate of all three kinds of stainless steel under the batch immersion condition was much smaller than those under the full immersion condition. Point pitting corrosion was formed on the surfaces of 304 and 316L. In comparison, a large area of corrosion was formed in the surface of 201. PMID:25338372

  3. Through Weld Inspection of Wrought Stainless Steel Piping Using Phased-Array Ultrasonic Probes.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2004-08-05

    A study was conducted to assess the ability of phased-array ultrasonic techniques to detect and accurately determine the size of flaws from the far-side of wrought austenitic piping welds. Far-side inspections of these welds are currently performed on a “best effort” basis and do not conform to ASME Code Section XI Appendix VIII performance demonstration requirements. For this study, four circumferential welds in 610mm diameter, 36mm thick ASTM A-358, Grade 304 vintage austenitic stainless steel pipe were examined. The welds were fabricated with varied welding parameters; both horizontal and vertical pipe orientations were used, with air and water backing, to simulate field welding conditions. A series of saw cuts, electro-discharge machined (EDM) notches, and implanted fatigue cracks were placed into the heat affected zones of the welds. The saw cuts and notches range in depth from 7.5% to 28.4% through-wall. The implanted cracks ranged in depth from 5% through wall to 64% through wall. The welds were examined with two phased-array probes, a 2.0 MHz transmit-receive longitudinal wave array and a 2.0 MHz transmit-receive shear wave array. These examinations showed that both phased-array transducers were able to detect and accurately length-size, but not depth size, all of the notches and flaws through the welds. The phased-array results were not strongly affected by the different welding techniques used in each weld.

  4. 77 FR 18266 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines; Revised...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... the conduct of the expedited subject five- year reviews (77 FR 10773, February 23, 2012). The... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines;...

  5. 77 FR 10773 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines; Scheduling of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... to its notice of institution (76 FR 67473, November 1, 2011) of the subject five-year reviews was.... See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly revised Commission's Handbook on E-Filing, available on... COMMISSION Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines; Scheduling...

  6. Capabilities of Ultrasonic Techniques for the Far-Side Examination of Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Welds.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2006-02-01

    A study was conducted to assess the ability of advanced ultrasonic techniques to detect and accurately determine the size of flaws from the far-side of wrought austenitic piping welds. Far-side inspections of nuclear system piping welds are currently performed on a “best effort” basis and do not conform to ASME Code Section XI Appendix VIII performance demonstration requirements. For this study, four circumferential welds in 610mm diameter, 36mm thick ASTM A-358, Grade 304 vintage austenitic stainless steel pipe were examined. The welds were fabricated with varied welding parameters; both horizontal and vertical pipe orientations were used, with air and water backing, to simulate field welding conditions. A series of saw cuts, electro-discharge machined (EDM) notches, and implanted fatigue cracks were placed into the heat affected zones of the welds. The saw cuts and notches ranged in depth from 7.5% to 28.4% through-wall. The implanted cracks ranged in depth from 5% through-wall to 64% through-wall. The welds were examined with phased array technology at 2.0 MHz, and with low-frequency/Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT) methods in the 250-400 kHz regime. These results were compared to conventional ultrasonic techniques as a baseline. The examinations showed that both phased-array and low-frequency/SAFT were able to detect and accurately length-size, but not depth size, the notches and flaws through the welds. The ultrasonic results were insensitive to the different welding techniques used in each weld.

  7. Application of 3-dimensional radiation transport codes to the analysis of the CRBR prototypic coolant pipe chaseway neutron streaming experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Chatani, K. )

    1992-08-01

    This report summarizes the calculational results from analyses of a Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) prototypic coolant pipe chaseway neutron streaming experiment Comparisons of calculated and measured results are presented, major emphasis being placed on results at bends in the chaseway. Calculations were performed with three three-dimensional radiation transport codes: the discrete ordinates code TORT and the Monte Carlo code MORSE, both developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the discrete ordinates code ENSEMBLE, developed by Japan. The calculated results from the three codes are compared (1) with previously-calculated DOT3.5 two-dimensional results, (2) among themselves, and (3) with measured results. Calculations with TORT used both the weighted-difference and nodal methods. Only the weighted-difference method was used in ENSEMBLE. When the calculated results were compared to measured results, it was found that calculation-to-experiment (C/E) ratios were good in the regions of the chaseway where two-dimensional modeling might be difficult and where there were no significant discrete ordinates ray effects. Excellent agreement was observed for responses dominated by thermal neutron contributions. MORSE-calculated results and comparisons are described also, and detailed results are presented in an appendix.

  8. Sensitivity of the magnetization curves of different austenitic stainless tube and pipe steels to mechanical fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niffenegger, M.; Leber, H. J.

    2008-07-01

    In meta-stable austenitic stainless steels, fatigue is accompanied by a partial strain-induced transformation of paramagnetic austenite to ferromagnetic martensite [G.B. Olsen, M. Cohen, Kinetics of strain induced martensite nucleation, Metall. Trans. 6 (1975) 791-795]. The associated changes of magnetic properties as the eddy current impedance, magnetic permeability or the remanence field may serve as an indication for the degree of fatigue and therefore the remaining lifetime of a component, even though the exact causal relationship between martensite formation and fatigue is not fully understood. However, measuring these properties by magnetic methods may be limited by the low affinity for strain-induced martensite formation. Thus other methods have to be found which are able to detect very small changes of ferromagnetic contents. With this aim the influence of cyclic strain loading on the magnetization curves of the austenitic stainless tube and pipe steels TP 321, 347, 304L and 316L is analysed in the present paper. The measured characteristic magnetic properties, which are the saturation magnetization, residual magnetization, coercive field and the field dependent permeability (AC-magnetization), are sensitive to fatigue and the corresponding material changes (martensitic transformation). In particular, the AC-magnetization was found to be very sensitive to small changes of the amount of strain induced martensite and therefore also to the degree of fatigue. Hence we conclude that applying magnetic minor loops are promising for the non-destructive evaluation of fatigue in austenitic stainless steel, even if a very small amount of strain induced martensite is formed.

  9. Analysis of delta-ferrite data from production stainless steel pipe welds

    SciTech Connect

    Hebble, T.L.; Canonico, D.A.; Edmonds, D.P.; Goodwin, G.M.; Nanstad, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    An American Society of Mechanical Engineers task group on stainless steel weld materials was organized to determine the need for ferrite measurements of production welds required by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.31 (Rev. 1). The task group studied paired ferrite measurements (i.e., calculated and measured ferrite numbers (FNs) for the material qualifications versus measured ferrite numbers for corresponding production welds (PWs)). Our purpose was to compare delta-ferrite content as measured in the filler metal weld qualification pad with that in the resultant PW. Welds made predominantly by three common processes (submerged arc, shielded metal arc, and gas tungsten arc) were included in the study. Weld metals investigated included types 308, 308L, 316, and 316L stainless steel. An initial evaluation of the paired ferrite measurements was made by the task group, and specific conclusions and recommendations were made. We describe the analysis of the data and the conclusions drawn. The data base consisted of a heterogeneous collection of 1449 paired ferrite measurements for several forms and combinations of types 304 and 316 stainless steel pipe qualification pad and production welds. Qualification pad values ranged from 5 to 15 FN, and corresponding values for the PWs ranged from 2.3 to 17.5 FN. Only two PW ferrite numbers were less than 3. For qualification weld ferrite numbers less than 14, the median PW ferrite number was in reasonable agreement. However, the results show a wide scatter. As a result of this analysis and the task group evaluation, we concluded that the requirements of Regulatory Guide 1.31 on the measurement of ferrite in PWs are not necessary and that a ferrite number of 5 in the qualification welds will, in most cases, result in PW ferrite contents greater than 3 FN.

  10. Capabilities of Ultrasonic Techniques for Far-Side Examinations of Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Welds.

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the ability of advanced ultrasonic techniques to detect and accurately length-size flaws from the far-side of wrought austenitic piping welds. Far-side inspections of nuclear system piping welds are currently performed on a “best effort” basis and do not conform to ASME Code Section XI Appendix VIII performance demonstration requirements. For this study, austenitic stainless steel specimens with flaws located on the far-side of full penetration structural welds were used. The welds were fabricated with varied welding parameters to simulate as-built conditions in the components, and were examined with phased array technology at 2.0 MHz, and low-frequency/Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT) methods in the 250-400 kHz regime. These results were compared to conventional ultrasonic techniques as a baseline. The examinations showed that both phased-array and low-frequency/SAFT were able to reliably detect and length-size, but not depth size, notches and implanted fatigue cracks through the welds.

  11. Generation of the Ultrasonic Guided Waves in a Seamless Stainless Steel Pipe Using an Array Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young H.; Song, Sung-Jin; Park, Joon-Soo; Jeon, Jin Hong; Kim, Jae-Hee; Eom, Heung-Sup; Im, Kwang Hee

    2005-04-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves have been widely employed for the long range inspection of structures such as plates, rods and pipes. In ultrasonic guided waves, however, there are numerous modes with different wave velocities, so that the generation and detection of the appropriate wave mode of the guided wave is one of key techniques in the application of guided waves. In the present work, mode tuning using an array transducer was investigated with the hardware implements to generate ultrasonic guided waves in a seamless stainless steel pipe. For this purpose, 8-channel ultrasonic pulser/receiver and their controller which enables sequential activation of each channels with given time delay were developed. A series of experiments was carried out in order to demonstrate the feasibility of dynamic tuning of modes by hardware: tuning the mode of the generated guided wave, group velocity measurement, tuned receiving and mode identification. As a result, the selective tuning of wave mode can be achieved by changing the time interval between adjacent elements of an array transducer.

  12. Generation of the Ultrasonic Guided Waves in a Seamless Stainless Steel Pipe Using an Array Transducer

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young H.; Song, Sung-Jin; Park, Joon-Soo; Jeon, Jin Hong; Kim, Jae-Hee; Eom, Heung-Sup; Im, Kwang Hee

    2005-04-09

    Ultrasonic guided waves have been widely employed for the long range inspection of structures such as plates, rods and pipes. In ultrasonic guided waves, however, there are numerous modes with different wave velocities, so that the generation and detection of the appropriate wave mode of the guided wave is one of key techniques in the application of guided waves. In the present work, mode tuning using an array transducer was investigated with the hardware implements to generate ultrasonic guided waves in a seamless stainless steel pipe. For this purpose, 8-channel ultrasonic pulser/receiver and their controller which enables sequential activation of each channels with given time delay were developed. A series of experiments was carried out in order to demonstrate the feasibility of dynamic tuning of modes by hardware: tuning the mode of the generated guided wave, group velocity measurement, tuned receiving and mode identification. As a result, the selective tuning of wave mode can be achieved by changing the time interval between adjacent elements of an array transducer.

  13. Progress in the Reliable Inspection of Cast Stainless Steel Reactor Piping Components

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, Steven R.; Anderson, Michael T.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.

    2005-12-31

    Studies conducted at the Pacific N¬orthwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington, have focused on assessing the effectiveness and reliability of novel NDE approaches for the inspection of coarse-grained, cast stainless steel reactor components. The primary objective of this work is to provide information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US NRC) on the utility, effec¬tiveness and reliability of ultrasonic testing (UT) and eddy current testing (ET) inspection techniques as related to the inservice ultrasonic inspec¬tion of primary piping components in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This paper describes progress, recent developments and results from assessments of three different NDE approaches including ultrasonic phased array inspection techniques, eddy current testing for surface-breaking flaws, and a low-frequency ultrasonic inspection methodology coupled with a synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT). Westinghouse Owner’s Group (WOG) cast stainless steel pipe segments with thermal and mechanical fatigue cracks, PNNL samples containing thermal fatigue cracks and several blank spool pieces were used for assessing the inspection methods. Eddy current studies were conducted on the inner diameter (ID) surface of piping specimens while the ultrasonic inspection methods were applied from the outer diameter (OD) surface of the specimens. The eddy current technique employed a Zetec MIZ-27SI Eddy Current instrument and a Zetec Z0000857-1 cross point spot probe with an operating frequency of 250 kHz. In order to reduce noise effects, degaussing of a subset of the samples resulted in noticeable improvements. The phased array approach was implemented using an R/D Tech Tomoscan III system operating at 1 MHz, providing composite volumetric images of the samples. The low-frequency ultrasonic method employs a zone-focused, multi-incident angle inspection protocol (operating at 250-500 kHz) coupled with SAFT for improved signal

  14. 76 FR 67673 - Welded ASTM A-312 Stainless Steel Pipe From South Korea and Taiwan: Final Results of Expedited...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ...On July 1, 2011, the Department of Commerce (the Department) initiated sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on welded ASTM A-312 stainless steel pipe from South Korea and Taiwan, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act). The Department has conducted expedited (120-day) sunset reviews for both orders pursuant to section 751(c)(3)(B) of the Act and 19......

  15. Residual Stresses Due to Circumferential Girth Welding of Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarak, Farzan

    Welding, as a joining method in fabrication of engineering products and structural elements, has a direct influence on thermo-mechanical behavior of components in numerous structural applications. Since these thermo-mechanical behaviors have a major role in the life of welding components, predicting thermo-mechanical effects of welding is a major factor in designing of welding components. One of the major of these effects is generation of residual stresses due to welding. These residual stresses are not the causes of failure in the components solely, but they will add to external loads and stresses in operating time. Since, experimental methods are time consuming and expensive, computational simulation of welding process is an effective method to calculate these residual stresses. This investigation focuses on the evaluation of residual stresses and distortions due to circumferential girth welding of austenitic stainless steel pipes using the commercial finite element software ESI Visual-Environment and SYSWELDRTM to simulate welding process. Of particular importance is the comparison of results from three different types of mechanics models: 1) Axisymmetric, 2) Shell, and 3) Full 3-D.

  16. Low temperature sensitization of type 304 stainless steel pipe weld heat affected zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Charles G.; Caligiuri, Robert D.; Eiselstein, Lawrence E.; Wing, Sharon S.; Cubicciotti, Daniel

    1987-08-01

    Large-diameter Type 304 stainless steel pipe weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) was investigated to determine the rate at which low temperature sensitization (LTS) can occur in weld HAZ at nuclear reactor operating temperatures and to determine the effects of LTS on the initiation and propagation of intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCC). The level of sensitization was determined with the electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (EPR) test, and IGSCC susceptibility was determined with constant extension rate tests (CERT) and actively loaded compact tension (CT) tests. Substructural changes and carbide compositions were analyzed by electron microscopy. Weld HAZ was found to be susceptible to IGSCC in the as-welded condition for tests conducted in 8-ppm-oxygen, high-purity water at 288 °C. For low oxygen environments ( i.e., 288 °C/0.2 ppm O2 or 180 °C/1.0 ppm O2), IGSCC susceptibility was detected only in weld HAZ that had been sensitized at temperatures from 385 °C to 500 °C. Lower temperature heat treatments did not produce IGSCC. The microscopy studies indicate that the lack of IGSCC susceptibility from LTS heat treatments below 385 °C is a result of the low chromium-to-iron ratio in the carbide particles formed at grain boundaries. Without chromium enrichment of carbides, no chromium depleted zone is produced to enhance IGSCC susceptibility.

  17. Laboratory testing on welded duplex stainless steel line pipe internal corrosion resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Condanni, D.; Barteri, M.

    1996-12-01

    Duplex 22% Cr stainless steel (ss) was recommended, at the basic design stage, as the most cost-performing material for intrafield flowlines conveying multiphase sour production from subsea well-heads to production platform. Due to aggressiveness of the production environment [H{sub 2}S partial pressure (pH{sub 2}S) = 14 mbar, CO{sub 2} partial pressure (pCO{sub 2}) = 40 bar, NaCl = 100 g/l, T = 135 C], and partially to the lack of definitive information on the corrosion resistance of welded duplex, some laboratory testing was deemed necessary and performed. The paper presents testing results dealing with localized corrosion and sulfide stress cracking (SSC) resistance of base material and girth-welded seamless tubes 22% Cr duplex, both wrought and centrifugally cast. The last one was considered because of possible procurement difficulties of the first one when required in small quantities and large diameters as in the case of production manifolds. It is concluded that the material can be used in the test environment as girth weld line pipe provided suitable welding technique is adopted.

  18. Probability of pipe failure in the reactor coolant loops of Combustion Engineering PWR Plants. Volume 3. Double-ended guillotine break indirectly induced by earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindra, M.K.; Campbell, R.D.; Kennedy, R.P.; Banon, H.

    1985-01-01

    The requirements to design nuclear power plants for the effects of an instantaneous double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) of reactor coolant loop (RCL) piping have led to excessive design costs, interference of normal plant operation and maintenance, and unnecessary radiation exposure of plant maintenance personnel. This report describes an aspect of the NRC/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory sponsored research program aimed at investigating whether the probability of DEGB in RCL Piping of nuclear power plants is acceptably small and the requirements to design for the DEGB effects (e.g., provision of pipe whip restraints) may be removed. This study estimated the probability of indirect DEGB in RCL piping as a consequence of seismic-induced structural failures within the containment of Combustion Engineering supplied pressurized water reactor nuclear power plants in the United States. The median probability of indirect DEGB was estimated to be in the range of 10/sup -6/ per year for older plants, and less than 10/sup -8/ per year for modern plants; using very conservative assumptions, the 90% subjective probability value (confidence) of P/sub DEGB/ was found to be less than 5 x 10/sup -5/ per year for older plants and less than 3 x 10/sup -7/ per year for modern plants.

  19. Probability of pipe failure in the reactor coolant loops of Babcock and Wilcox PWR plants. Volume 2. Guillotine break indirectly induced by earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindra, M.K.; Campbell, R.D.; Kipp, T.R.; Sues, R.H.

    1985-07-01

    The requirements to design nuclear power plants for the effects of an instantaneous double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) of the reactor coolant loop (RCL) piping have led to excessive design costs, interference with normal plant operation and maintenance, and unnecessary radiation exposure of plant maintenance personnel. This report describes an aspect of the NRC/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory sponsored research program aimed at exploring whether the probability of DEGB in RCL Piping of nuclear power plants is acceptably small and the requirements to design for the DEGB effects (e.g., provision of pipe whip restraints) may be removed. This study estimates the probability of indirect DEGB in RCL piping as a consequence of seismic-induced structural failures within the containment of Babcock and Wilcox supplied pressurized water reactor nuclear power plants in the United States. The median probability of indirect DEGB was estimated to range between 6 x 10/sup -11/ and 1 x 10/sup -7/ per year. Using very conservative assumptions, the 90% subjective probability value (confidence) of P/sub DEGB/ was found to be less than 1 x 10/sup -5/ per year. 19 refs., 19 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Probability of pipe failure in the reactor coolant loop of Westinghouse PWR plants. Volume 3. Guillotine break indirectly induced by earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindra, M.K.; Campbell, R.D.; Kennedy, R.P.; Banon, H.

    1985-02-01

    The requirements to design nuclear power plants for the effects of an instantaneous double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) of reactor coolant loop (RCL) piping have led to excessive design costs, interference of normal plant operation and maintenance, and unnecessary radiation exposure of plant maintenance personnel. This report describes an aspect of the NRC/Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory sponsored research program aimed at investigating whether the probability of DEGB in RCL piping of nuclear power plants is acceptably small and the requirements to design for the DEGB effects (e.g., provision of pipe whip restraints) may be removed. This study estimated the probability of indirect DEGB in RCL piping as a consequence of seismic-induced structural failures within the containment of Westinghouse supplied pressurized water reactor nuclear power plants in the United States. The median probability of indirect DEGB was estimated to be about 3x10/sup -6/ per year with a 10% to 90% subjective probability range approximately from 1x10/sup -7/ per year to 5x10/sup -5/ per year.

  1. Probability of pipe fracture in the primary coolant loop of a PWR plant. Volume 9. PRAISE computer code user's manual. Load Combination Program Project I final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, E.Y.

    1981-06-01

    The PRAISE (Piping Reliability Analysis Including Seismic Events) computer code estimates the influence of earthquakes on the probability of failure at a weld joint in the primary coolant system of a pressurized water reactor. Failure, either a through-wall defect (leak) or a complete pipe severance (a large-LOCA), is assumed to be caused by fatigue crack growth of an as-fabricated interior surface circumferential defect. These defects are assumed to be two-dimensional and semi-elliptical in shape. The distribution of initial crack sizes is a function of crack depth and aspect ratio. PRAISE treats the inter-arrival times of operating transients either as a constant or exponentially distributed according to observed or postulated rates. Leak rate and leak detection models are also included. The criterion for complete pipe severance is exceedance of a net section critical stress. Earthquakes of various intensity and arbitrary occurrence times can be modeled. PRAISE presently assumes that exactly one initial defect exists in the weld and that the earthquake of interest is the first earthquake experienced at the reactor. PRAISE has a very modular structure and can be tailored to a variety of crack growth and piping reliability problems. Although PRAISE was developed on a CDC-7600 computer, it was, however, coded in standard FORTRAN IV and is readily transportable to other machines.

  2. AN ULTRASONIC PHASED ARRAY EVALUATION OF INTERGRANULAR STRESS CORROSION CRACK (IGSCC) DETECTION IN AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL PIPING WELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Anderson, Michael T.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.

    2010-07-22

    Research is being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to assess the effectiveness and reliability of advanced nondestructive examination (NDE) methods for the inspection of light water reactor (LWR) components and challenging material/component configurations. This study assessed the effectiveness of far-side inspections on wrought stainless steel piping with austenitic welds, as found in thin-walled, boiling water reactor (BWR) component configurations, for the detection and characterization of intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCC).

  3. An experimental study on the performance of a stainless steel-water loop heat pipe under natural cooling condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiwei; Cen, Jiwen; Jiang, Fangming; Zhu, Xiong

    2014-02-01

    Aiming to improve the thermal characteristics of modern electronics, we experimentally study the performance of a stainless steel/water loop heat pipe (LHP) under natural cooling condition. The LHP heat transfer performance, including start-up performance, temperature oscillation and total thermal resistance at different heat loads and with different incline angles have been investigated systematically. Experimental results show that at an optimal heat load (i.e. 60 W) and with the LHP being inclined 60° to the horizontal plane, the total thermal resistance is lowered to be ˜0.24 K/W, and the temperature of evaporator could be controlled steadily at around 90°C.

  4. Case Study: Pitting and Stress Corrosion Cracking in Heat-Affected Zone of Welded Underground 304 Stainless Steel Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawancy, H. M.; Al-Hadhrami, Luai. M.

    2012-08-01

    A jacketed underground pipeline made of 304 stainless steel tubing to transport utility water in a petrochemical plant at ambient temperature was perforated after few months of operation. Perforation started preferentially at the outer bottom surface of the pipe in the weld heat-affected zones where the insulating coating was damaged. Detailed microstructural characterization was carried out to determine the cause of failure using optical metallography, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Experimental results indicated that the failure occurred by interaction between the outer bottom surface of the pipe and surrounding environment leading to pitting and stress corrosion cracking in the presence of chloride ions. This could have been aided by residual welding stresses and the characteristic low stacking fault energy of the material.

  5. Sodium Based Heat Pipe Modules for Space Reactor Concepts: Stainless Steel SAFE-100 Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James J.; Reid, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    A heat pipe cooled reactor is one of several candidate reactor cores being considered for advanced space power and propulsion systems to support future space exploration applications. Long life heat pipe modules, with designs verified through a combination of theoretical analysis and experimental lifetime evaluations, would be necessary to establish the viability of any of these candidates, including the heat pipe reactor option. A hardware-based program was initiated to establish the infrastructure necessary to build heat pipe modules. This effort, initiated by Los Alamos National Laboratory and referred to as the Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) project, set out to fabricate and perform non-nuclear testing on a modular heat pipe reactor prototype that can provide 100 kilowatt from the core to an energy conversion system at 700 C. Prototypic heat pipe hardware was designed, fabricated, filled, closed-out and acceptance tested.

  6. Probability of pipe fracture in the primary coolant loop of a PWR plant. Volume 1. Summary, Load Combination Program. Project I final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, S.; Streit, R.D.; Chou, C.K.

    1981-06-01

    This report summarizes work performed to establish a technical basis for the NRC to use in reassessing its requirement that earthquake and large loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) loads be combined in the design of nuclear power plants. A systematic probabilistic approach is used to treat the random nature of earthquake and transient loading and to estimate the probability of large LOCAs that are directly and indirectly induced by earthquakes. A large LOCA is defined in this report as a double-ended guillotine break of the primary reactor coolant loop piping (the hot leg, cold leg, and crossover) of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Unit 1 of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant, a four-loop PWR, is the demonstration plant used in this study. To estimate the probability of a large LOCA directly induced by earthquakes, only fatigue crack growth resulting from the combined effects of thermal, pressure, seismic, and other cyclic loads is considered. Fatigue crack growth is simulated by a deterministic fracture mechanics model with stochastic inputs of initial crack size distribution, material properties, stress histories, and leak detection probability. Results of the simulation indicate that the probability of a double-ended guillotine break, either with or without earthquake, is very small (on the order of 10/sup -12/). The probability of a leak was found to be several orders of magnitude greater than that of a large LOCA, complete pipe rupture. A limited investigation involving engineering judgment of a double-ended guillotine break indirectly induced by an earthquake is also reported.

  7. Decontaminating and Melt Recycling Tritium Contaminated Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E.A.

    1995-04-03

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and several university and industrial partners are evaluating recycling radioactively contaminated stainless steel. The goal of this program is to recycle contaminated stainless steel scrap from US Department of Energy national defense facilities. There is a large quantity of stainless steel at the DOE Savannah River Site from retired heavy water moderated Nuclear material production reactors (for example heat exchangers and process water piping), that will be used in pilot studies of potential recycle processes. These parts are contaminated by fission products, activated species, and tritium generated by neutron irradiation of the primary reactor coolant, which is heavy (deuterated) water. This report reviews current understanding of tritium contamination of stainless steel and previous studies of decontaminating tritium exposed stainless steel. It also outlines stainless steel refining methods, and proposes recommendations based on this review.

  8. Surface preparation for non-destructive detection of surface cracks in stainless steel and carbon steel piping

    SciTech Connect

    Funderburg, I.M.

    1996-07-01

    Engineers within the chemical process industries are among other things, charged with the task of determining the reliability of piping and equipment. As part of this evaluation, the surfaces of process equipment and piping are often examined for evidence of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) or other tightly closed surface cracks. Presently there is no consensus as to which is the ``best`` technique for preparing and inspecting carbon steel and stainless steel vessels or piping for surface cracks. The specific concern within industry is that Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) might go undetected if the surface preparation closes over such tight cracks. This paper presents results of a study, MTI commissioned to collect additional data, examine the literature, and interview industrial materials engineers, independent inspection specialists, non-destructive examination consultants, and other representatives of industries that have equipment which must be inspected for surface cracks. Discussed are the differing surface preparation techniques used, the use of standards for evaluating the effectiveness of the techniques, and what is felt to be the ``Key Learnings`` from the investigation.

  9. Measurements of the helium propagation at 4.4 K in a 480 m long stainless steel pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Hseuh, H.C.; Wallen, E.

    1997-12-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), with two concentric rings 3.8 km in circumference, uses superconducting magnets to focus the high energy beams. Each sextant of RHIC will have continuous cryostats up to 480 m in length housing the magnets and the cold beam pipes. For an acceptable lifetime of the stored beam, the pressure in the cold beam pipe will be < 10{sup {minus}11} Torr. The characteristics of He pressure front propagation due to He leaks will be of importance for beam lifetimes and for vacuum monitoring due to the high vapor pressure of He at 4.4 K, even with small surface coverage. The travel of the He pressure fronts along a 480 m long, 6.9 cm I.D. stainless steel beam pipe cooled to 4.4 K has recently been measured during the RHIC first sextant test. The experiment was carried out over a 12-day period by bleeding in a calibrated He leak of 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} Torr{center_dot}l/s (20 C) while measuring the He pressures along this 480 m cold tube at {approximately} 30 m intervals. The measured speed of the pressure fronts and the pressure profiles are summarized and compared with the calculated ones.

  10. Measurements of the helium propagation at 4.4 K in a 480 m long stainless steel pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Hseuh, H.C.; Wallen, E.

    1998-05-01

    The relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC), with two concentric rings 3.8 km in circumference, uses superconducting magnets to focus the high energy beams. Each sextant of RHIC will have continuous cryostats up to 480 m in length housing the magnets and the cold beam pipes. For an acceptable lifetime of the stored beam, the pressure in the cold beam pipe will be {lt}10{sup {minus}11} Torr. The characteristics of He pressure front propagation due to He leaks will be of importance for beam lifetimes and for vacuum monitoring due to the high vapor pressure of He at 4.4 K, even with small surface coverage. The travels of the He pressure fronts along a 480 m long, 6.9 cm I.D. stainless steel beam pipe cooled to 4.4 K have recently been measured during the RHIC first sextant test. The experiment was carried out over a 12-day period by bleeding in a calibrated He leak of 3{times}10{sup {minus}5}Torrl/s (20{degree}C) while measuring the He pressures along this 480 m cold tube at approximately 30 m intervals. The measured speed of the pressure fronts and the pressure profiles are summarized and compared with the calculated ones. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Vacuum Society.}

  11. Through Weld Inspection of Wrought Stainless Steel Piping Using Phased Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2004-12-31

    Outline: Discuss far-side weld problem and phased array techniques applied. Describe laboratory work on flawed piping specimens using L- and S-wave arrays and provide synopsis of results. Discuss conclusions ofr capability of phased array as applied to austenitic welds. Research Approach: Evaluate phased arrays on unifornly-welded piping specimens. Apply best methods to non-uniform welds. Correlate acoustic responses as function of weld microstructures.

  12. On the shape of stress corrosion cracks in sensitized Type 304 SS in Boiling Water Reactor primary coolant piping at 288 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Kwon; Kramer, Daniel; Macdonald, Digby D.

    2014-11-01

    Evolution of the shape of surface cracks in sensitized Type 304 SS in Boiling Water Reactor primary coolant circuit piping at the reactor operating temperature of 288 °C is explored as a function of various environmental variables, such as electrochemical potential (ECP), solution conductivity, flow velocity, and multiplier for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) standard exchange current density (SECD), using the coupled environment fracture model (CEFM). For this work, the CEFM was upgraded by incorporating Shoji's model for calculating the crack tip strain rate and more advanced expressions were used for estimating the stress intensity factor for semi-elliptical surface cracks. This revised CEFM accurately predicts the dependence of the crack growth rate on stress intensity factor and offers an alternative explanation for the development of semi-elliptical cracks than that provided by fracture mechanics alone. The evolution of surface crack semi-elliptical shape depends strongly upon various environmental variables identified above, and the CEFM predicts that the minor axis of the ellipse should be oriented perpendicular to the surface, in agreement with observation. The development of the observed semi-elliptical cracks with the minor axis perpendicular to the surface is therefore attributed to the dependence of the crack growth rate on the electrochemical crack length.

  13. Reactor Materials Program - Baseline Material Property Handbook - Mechanical Properties of 1950's Vintage Stainless Steel Weldment Components, Task Number 89-23-A-1

    SciTech Connect

    Stoner, K.J.

    1999-11-05

    The Process Water System (primary coolant) piping of the nuclear production reactors constructed in the 1950''s at Savannah River Site is comprised primarily of Type 304 stainless steel with Type 308 stainless steel weld filler. A program to measure the mechanical properties of archival PWS piping and weld materials (having approximately six years of service at temperatures between 25 and 100 degrees C) has been completed. The results from the mechanical testing has been synthesized to provide a mechanical properties database for structural analyses of the SRS piping.

  14. Pulsed eddy current differential probe to detect the defects in a stainless steel pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angani, C. S.; Park, D. G.; Kim, C. G.; Leela, P.; Kishore, M.; Cheong, Y. M.

    2011-04-01

    Pulsed eddy current (PEC) is an electromagnetic nondestructive technique widely used to detect and quantify the flaws in conducting materials. In the present study a differential Hall-sensor probe which is used in the PEC system has been fabricated for the detection of defects in stainless steel pipelines. The differential probe has an exciting coil with two Hall-sensors. A stainless steel test sample with electrical discharge machining (EDM) notches under different depths of 1-5 mm was made and the sample was laminated by plastic insulation having uniform thickness to simulate the pipelines in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The driving coil in the probe is excited by a rectangular current pulse and the resultant response, which is the difference of the two Hall-sensors, has been detected as the PEC probe signal. The discriminating time domain features of the detected pulse such as peak value and time to zero are used to interpret the experimental results with the defects in the test sample. A feature extraction technique such as spectral power density has been devised to infer the PEC response.

  15. Ultrasonic Flaw Detection of Cracks and Machined Flaws as Observed Through Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Welds

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Diaz, Aaron A.

    2009-07-01

    Piping welds in the pressure boundary of light water reactors (LWRs) are subject to a volumetric examination based on Section XI of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Due to access limitations and high background radiation levels, the technique used is primarily ultrasonic rather than radiographic. Many of the austenitic welds in safety-related piping systems provide limited access to both sides of the weld, so a far-side examination is necessary. Historically, far-side inspections have performed poorly because of the coarse and elongated grains that make up the microstructures of austenitic weldments. The large grains cause the ultrasound to be scattered, attenuated, and redirected. Additionally, grain boundaries or weld geometry may reflect coherent ultrasonic echoes, making flaw detection and discrimination a more challenging endeavor. Previous studies conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on ultrasonic far-side examinations in austenitic piping welds involved the application of conventional transducers, use of low-frequency Synthetic Aperture Focusing Techniques (SAFT), and ultrasonic phased-array (PA) methods on specimens containing implanted thermal fatigue cracks and machined reflectors [1-2]. From these studies, PA inspection provided the best results, detecting nearly all of the flaws from the far side. These results were presented at the Fifth International Conference on NDE in Relation to Structural Integrity for Nuclear and Pressurised Components in 2006. This led to an invitation to examine field-removed specimens containing service-induced intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCC) at the Electric Power Research Institute’s (EPRI) Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Center, in Charlotte, North Carolina. Results from this activity are presented.

  16. Improvements in Low-Frequency, Ultrasonic Phased-Array Evaluation for Thick Section Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Components

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Crawford, Susan L.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Moran, Traci L.

    2010-12-01

    Research is being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assess the effectiveness and reliability of advanced nondestructive examination (NDE) methods for the inspection of light water reactor (LWR) components. A primary objective of this work is to evaluate various NDE methods to assess their ability to detect, localize, and size cracks in coarse-grained steel components. This particular study focused on the evaluation of custom-designed, low-frequency (500 kHz) phased-array (PA) probes for examining welds in thick-section cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) piping. In addition, research was conducted to observe ultrasonic sound field propagation effects from known coarse-grained microstructures found in parent CASS material. The study was conducted on a variety of thick-wall, coarse-grained CASS specimens that were previously inspected by an older generation 500-kHz PA-UT probe and acquisition instrument configuration. This comparative study describes the impact of the new PA probe design on flaw detection and sizing in a low signal-to-noise environment. The set of Pressurized Water Reactor Owners Group (PWROG) CASS specimens examined in this study are greater than 50.8-mm (2.0-in.) thick with documented flaws and microstructures. These specimens are on loan to PNNL from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) NDE Center in Charlotte, North Carolina. The flaws contained within these specimens are thermal fatigue cracks (TFC) or mechanical fatigue cracks (MFC) and range from 13% to 42% in through-wall extent. In addition, ultrasonic signal continuity was evaluated on two CASS parent material ring sections by examining the edge-of-pipe response (corner geometry) for regions of signal loss.

  17. Effects of phosphate addition on biofilm bacterial communities and water quality in annular reactors equipped with stainless steel and ductile cast iron pipes.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun-Jung; Choi, Young-June; Ro, Hee-Myong; Ka, Jong-Ok

    2012-02-01

    The impact of orthophosphate addition on biofilm formation and water quality was studied in corrosion-resistant stainless steel (STS) pipe and corrosion-susceptible ductile cast iron (DCI) pipe using cultivation and culture-independent approaches. Sample coupons of DCI pipe and STS pipe were installed in annular reactors, which were operated for 9 months under hydraulic conditions similar to a domestic plumbing system. Addition of 5 mg/L of phosphate to the plumbing systems, under low residual chlorine conditions, promoted a more significant growth of biofilm and led to a greater rate reduction of disinfection by-products in DCI pipe than in STS pipe. While the level of THMs (trihalomethanes) increased under conditions of low biofilm concentration, the levels of HAAs (halo acetic acids) and CH (chloral hydrate) decreased in all cases in proportion to the amount of biofilm. It was also observed that chloroform, the main species of THM, was not readily decomposed biologically and decomposition was not proportional to the biofilm concentration; however, it was easily biodegraded after the addition of phosphate. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences of 102 biofilm isolates revealed that Proteobacteria (50%) was the most frequently detected phylum, followed by Firmicutes (10%) and Actinobacteria (2%), with 37% of the bacteria unclassified. Bradyrhizobium was the dominant genus on corroded DCI pipe, while Sphingomonas was predominant on non-corroded STS pipe. Methylobacterium and Afipia were detected only in the reactor without added phosphate. PCR-DGGE analysis showed that the diversity of species in biofilm tended to increase when phosphate was added regardless of the pipe material, indicating that phosphate addition upset the biological stability in the plumbing systems. PMID:22367933

  18. Technical Letter Report Assessment of Ultrasonic Phased Array Testing for Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Pressurizer Surge Line Piping Welds and Thick Section Primary System Cast Piping Welds JCN N6398, Task 2A

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Morra, Marino; Crawford, Susan L.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2008-07-21

    Research is being conducted for the NRC at PNNL to assess the effectiveness and reliability of advanced NDE methods for the inspection of LWR components. The scope of this research encompasses primary system pressure boundary materials including cast austenitic stainless steels (CASS), dissimilar metal welds (DMWs), piping with corrosion-resistant cladding, weld overlays, and far-side examinations of austenitic piping welds. A primary objective of this work is to evaluate various NDE methods to assess their ability to detect, localize, and size cracks in coarse-grained steel components. This interim technical letter report (TLR) provides a synopsis of recent investigations at PNNL aimed at evaluating the capabilities of phased-array (PA) ultrasonic testing (UT) methods as applied to the inspection of CASS welds in nuclear reactor piping. A description of progress, recent developments and interim results are provided.

  19. Effects of thermal aging on fracture toughness and charpy-impact strength of stainless steel pipe welds.

    SciTech Connect

    Gavenda, D. J.; Michaud, W. F.; Galvin, T. M.; Burke, W. F.; Chopra, O. K.; Energy Technology

    1996-06-05

    The degradation of fracture toughness, tensile, and Charpy-impact properties of Type 308 stainless steel (SS) pipe welds due to thermal aging has been characterized at room temperature and 290 C. Thermal aging of SS welds results in moderate decreases in Charpy-impact strength and fracture toughness. For the various welds in this study, upper-shelf energy decreased by 50-80 J/cm{sup 2}. The decrease in fracture toughness J-R curve or JIC is relatively small. Thermal aging had little or no effect on the tensile strength of the welds. Fracture properties of SS welds are controlled by the distribution and morphology of second-phase particles. Failure occurs by the formation and growth of microvoids near hard inclusions; such processes are relatively insensitive to thermal aging. The ferrite phase has little or no effect on the fracture properties of the welds. Differences in fracture resistance of the welds arise from differences in the density and size of inclusions. Mechanical-property data from the present study are consistent with results from other investigations. The existing data have been used to establish minimum expected fracture properties for SS welds.

  20. Heat Pipe Materials Compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eninger, J. E.; Fleischman, G. L.; Luedke, E. E.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental program to evaluate noncondensable gas generation in ammonia heat pipes was completed. A total of 37 heat pipes made of aluminum, stainless steel and combinations of these materials were processed by various techniques, operated at different temperatures and tested at low temperature to quantitatively determine gas generation rates. In order of increasing stability are aluminum/stainless combination, all aluminum and all stainless heat pipes. One interesting result is the identification of intentionally introduced water in the ammonia during a reflux step as a means of surface passivation to reduce gas generation in stainless-steel/aluminum heat pipes.

  1. Field test and evaluation of electropolishing and preoxidation processes for Type-316 stainless steel nuclear-grade piping. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Spalaris, C.N.; Wang, M.J.

    1985-03-01

    Pretreatment of BWR replacement recirculation piping by electropolishing or preoxidation greatly reduces radiation buildup. Now, examination of full-scale samples pretreated by both processes shows that neither treatment degrades the integrity of the pipe steel or lessens its resistance to stress corrosion cracking.

  2. Probability of pipe fracture in the primary coolant loop of a PWR plant. Volume 5. Probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis. Load Combination Program Project I final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.O.; Lim, E.Y.; Dedhia, D.D.

    1981-06-01

    The primary purpose of the Load Combination Program covered in this report is to estimate the probability of a seismic induced LOCA in the primary piping of a commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR). Best estimates, rather than upper bound results are desired. This was accomplished by use of a fracture mechanics model that employs a random distribution of initial cracks in the piping welds. Estimates of the probability of cracks of various sizes initially existing in the welds are combined with fracture mechanics calculations of how these cracks would grow during service. This then leads to direct estimates of the probability of failure as a function of time and location within the piping system. The influence of varying the stress history to which the piping is subjected is easily determined. Seismic events enter into the analysis through the stresses they impose on the pipes. Hence, the influence of various seismic events on the piping failure probability can be determined, thereby providing the desired information.

  3. Dry Flowing Abrasive Decontamination Technique for Pipe Systems with Swirling Air Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Kameo, Yutaka; Nakashima, Mikio; Hirabayashi, Takakuni

    2003-10-15

    A dry abrasive decontamination method was developed for removing radioactive corrosion products from surfaces of coolant pipe systems in decommissioning of a nuclear power plant. Erosion behavior of inside surfaces of stainless and carbon steel pipes by a swirling air flow containing alumina or cast-iron grit abrasive was studied. Erosion depths of the test pipes were approximately proportional to an abrasive concentration in air and an exponent of flow rate of airstream. The experimental results indicated that the present method could keep satisfactory erosion ability of abrasives even for a large-size pipe. The present method was successfully applied to {sup 60}Co-contaminated specimens sampled from a pipe of the water cleanup system of the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor.

  4. 76 FR 67473 - Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and The Philippines; Institution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ...), and part 207, subparts A, D, E, and F (19 CFR part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847... Philippines (66 FR 11257). Following five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission, effective December 11...-weld pipe fittings from Italy, Malaysia, and the Philippines (71 FR 71530). The Commission is...

  5. Technical Letter Report Assessment of Ultrasonic Phased Array Inspection Method for Welds in Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Pressurizer Surge Line Piping JCN N6398, Task 1B

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Mathews, Royce; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2009-07-28

    Research is being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assess the effectiveness and reliability of advanced nondestructive examination (NDE) methods for the inspection of light water reactor components. The scope of this research encompasses primary system pressure boundary materials including cast austenitic stainless steels (CASS); dissimilar metal welds; piping with corrosion-resistant cladding; weld overlays, inlays and onlays; and far-side examinations of austenitic piping welds. A primary objective of this work is to evaluate various NDE methods to assess their ability to detect, localize, and size cracks in coarse-grained steel components. In this effort, PNNL supports cooperation with Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA) to assess reliable inspection of CASS materials. The NRC Project Manager has established a cooperative effort with the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN). CEA, under funding from IRSN, are supporting collaborative efforts with the NRC and PNNL. Regarding its work on the NDE of materials, CEA is providing its modeling software (CIVA) in exchange for PNNL offering expertise and data related to phased-array detection and sizing, acoustic attenuation, and back scattering on CASS materials. This collaboration benefits the NRC because CEA performs research and development on CASS for Électricité de France (EdF). This technical letter report provides a summary of a technical evaluation aimed at assessing the capabilities of phased-array (PA) ultrasonic testing (UT) methods as applied to the inspection of welds in CASS pressurizer (PZR) surge line nuclear reactor piping. A set of thermal fatigue cracks (TFCs) was implanted into three CASS PZR surge-line specimens (pipe-to-elbow welds) that were fabricated using vintage CASS materials formed in the 1970s, and flaw responses from these cracks were used to evaluate detection and sizing

  6. Double-ended break probability estimate for the 304 stainless steel main circulation piping of a production reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, H.S.; Daugherty, W.L.; Awadalla, N.G.; Sindelar, R.L.

    1991-12-31

    The large break frequency resulting from intergranular stress corrosion cracking in the main circulation piping of the Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors has been estimated. Four factors are developed to describe the likelihood that a crack exists that is not identified by ultrasonic inspection, and that grows to instability prior to growing through-wall and being detected by the ensuing leakage. The estimated large break frequency is 3.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} per reactor-year.

  7. Double-ended break probability estimate for the 304 stainless steel main circulation piping of a production reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, H.S. ); Daugherty, W.L.; Awadalla, N.G.; Sindelar, R.L. )

    1991-01-01

    The large break frequency resulting from intergranular stress corrosion cracking in the main circulation piping of the Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors has been estimated. Four factors are developed to describe the likelihood that a crack exists that is not identified by ultrasonic inspection, and that grows to instability prior to growing through-wall and being detected by the ensuing leakage. The estimated large break frequency is 3.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} per reactor-year.

  8. Coolant line hydrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, M.D.; Kipp, W.G.

    1987-03-17

    This patent describes a hydrometer unit for connection in an automobile coolant flow line comprising: a tubular fitting adapted to be connected to the coolant flow line; a coolant receiving chamber means connected to the tubular fitting for receiving coolant from the tubular fitting; and indicating float elements contained within the coolant receiving chamber means and adapted to rise therein individually as a function of the specific gravity of the coolant. The coolant receiving chamber means includes a closure cap which when connected to the tubular fitting forms a coolant receiving chamber, retaining means for retaining the indicating float elements within the coolant receiving chamber, a viewing window member of a substantially clear material through which the float elements can be visually observed within the coolant receiving chamber means, and air venturi means located within the coolant receiving chamber means for automatically removing air which may collect within the coolant chamber means.

  9. Ultrasonic Phased Array Evaluations Of Implanted And In-Situ Grown Flaws In Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Pressurizer Surge Line Piping

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Moran, Traci L.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2011-07-31

    A set of circumferentially oriented thermal fatigue cracks (TFCs) were implanted into three cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) pressurizer (PZR) surge-line specimen welds (pipe-to-elbow configuration) that were salvaged from a U.S. commercial nuclear power plant that had not been operated. Thus, these welds were fabricated using vintage CASS materials that were formed in the 1970s. Additionally, in-situ grown TFCs were placed in the adjacent CASS base material of one of these specimens. Ultrasonic phased-array responses from both types of flaws (implanted and in-situ grown) were analyzed for detection and characterization based on sizing and signal-to-noise determination. Multiple probes were employed covering the 0.8 to 2.0 MHz frequency range. To further validate the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) findings, an independent in-service inspection (ISI) supplier evaluated the flaws with their American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code, Section XI, Appendix VIII-qualified procedure. The results obtained by PNNL personnel compared favorably to the ISI supplier results. All examined flaws were detected and sized within the ASME Code-allowable limits.

  10. PRAISE-C. LWR Piping Reliability Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, G.S.

    1992-01-13

    PRAISE-C is a probabilistic fracture mechanics code used to estimate the probability of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) in light water reactor piping due to the growth of cracks at welded joints. Pipe failures are considered to occur as the result of crack-like defects either introduced during fabrication, or that initiate after plant operation has begun, and that escape detection during inspections. PRAISE was developed to estimate the influence of earthquakes on the probability of failure at a weld joint in the primary coolant system of a pressurized water reactor. An initial hydrostatic proof test, pre-service non-destructive inspection, and periodic in-service inspection can be simulated. PRAISE treats the inter-arrival times of operating transients, such as system heatup and cooldown, either as constant or exponentially distributed according to observed or postulated rates. Leak rate and leak detection models are also included. Earthquakes of varying intensity and arbitrary occurrence times can be modeled. PRAISE-C extends the capabilities of PRAISE-B to include a tearing instability failure criterion for carbon steels and an advanced probabilistic model of stress corrosion cracking in stainless steels (Type 304, Type 316NG nuclear grade) used for BWR reactor coolant piping. The stress corrosion model is semi-empirical in nature and is based on experimental and field data. The model considers crack initiation, including the number, time, and location of initiated cracks, in addition to the effect of stress corrosion on crack growth rates. Various phenomena are considered, including environment (i.e., coolant temperature, dissolved oxygen content, level of impurities), applied loads, residual stresses, material type, and degree of sensitization.

  11. Ultrasonic Phased Array Sound Field Mapping Through Large-Bore Coarse Grained Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel (CASS) Piping Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Prowant, Matthew S.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Hathaway, John E.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2012-04-16

    A sound field beam mapping exercise was conducted to further understand the effects of coarse grained microstructures found in CASS materials on phased array ultrasonic wave propagation. Laboratory measurements were made on three CASS specimens with different microstructures; the specimens were polished and etched to reveal measurable grain sizes, shapes and orientations. Three longitudinal, phased array probes were fixed on a specimen's outside diameter with the sound field directed toward one end (face) of the pipe segment over a fixed range of angles. A point receiver was raster scanned over the surface of the specimen face generating a sound field image. A slice of CASS material was then removed from the specimen end and the beam mapping exercise repeated. The sound fields acquired were analyzed for spot size, coherency, and beam redirection. Analyses were conducted between the resulting sound fields and the microstructural characteristics of each specimen.

  12. Differential pulsed eddy current sensor for the detection of wall thinning in an insulated stainless steel pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angani, C. S.; Park, D. G.; Kim, G. D.; Kim, C. G.; Cheong, Y. M.

    2010-05-01

    A differential probe which is used in the pulsed eddy current (PEC) system has been fabricated for the detection of wall thinning of insulated pipelines in a nuclear power plant (NPP). The differential PEC probe consists of two hall sensors in a differential arrangement. The tested sample is a stainless steel of thickness variation from 1 to 5 mm, the flat side of the sample is laminated by a plastic insulation having a uniform thickness to simulate the pipelines in NPP. The PEC response to varying metal thickness was measured at various thicknesses of insulations on the tested sample. The time-domain feature such as peak value of the detected pulse is used to interpret the thickness of the test sample. The signal analysis technique, such as power spectrum density, is applied to obtain an optimum parameter to describe the wall thinning of pipeline steel. This technique can be used as a potential tool to detect the corrosion or the wall thinning of the pipelines without removing the insulation.

  13. Effects of thermal aging on fracture toughness and Charpy-impact strength of stainless steel pipe welds

    SciTech Connect

    Gavenda, D.J.; Michaud, W.F.; Galvin, T.M.; Burke, W.F.; Chopra, O.K.

    1996-05-01

    Degradation of fracture toughness, tensile, and Charpy-impact properties of Type 304 and 304/308 SS pipe welds due to thermal aging was studied at room temperature and 290 C. Thermal aging of SS welds results in moderate decreases in charpy-impact strength and fracture toughness. Upper-shelf energy decreased by 50-80 J/cm{sup 2}. Decrease in fracture toughness J-R curve or J{sub IC} is relatively small. Thermal aging had no or little effect on tensile strength of the welds. Fracture properties of SS welds are controlled by the distribution and morphology of second-phase particles. Failure occurs by formation and growth of microvoids near hard inclusions; such processes are relatively insensitive to thermal aging. The ferrite phase has little or no effect on fracture properties of the welds. Differences in fracture resistance of the welds arise from differences in the density and size of inclusions. Mechanical-property data from the present study are consistent with results from other investigations. The existing data have been used to establish minimum expected fracture properties for SS welds.

  14. New alloys for pressure vessels and piping

    SciTech Connect

    Prager, M.; Cantzler, C. )

    1990-01-01

    This book describes new alloys for pressure vessels and piping applications. Topics include: Cr-Mo-Si alloys, HAZ liquation cracking in lean 316 stainless steels, copper bearing stainless steels, and Ni-Cr-W-Mo alloys.

  15. A review of the effects of coolant environments on the fatigue life of LWR structural materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.

    2009-04-01

    The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code specifies design curves for the fatigue life of structural materials in nuclear power plants. However, the effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments were not explicitly considered in the development of the design curves. The existing fatigue-strain-versus-life ({var_epsilon}-N) data indicate potentially significant effects of LWR coolant environments on the fatigue resistance of pressure vessel and piping steels. Under certain environmental and loading conditions, fatigue lives in water relative to those in air can be a factor of 15 lower for austenitic stainless steels and a factor of {approx}30 lower for carbon and low-alloy steels. This paper reviews the current technical basis for the understanding of the fatigue of piping and pressure vessel steels in LWR environments. The existing fatigue {var_epsilon}-N data have been evaluated to identify the various material, environmental, and loading parameters that influence fatigue crack initiation and to establish the effects of key parameters on the fatigue life of these steels. Statistical models are presented for estimating fatigue life as a function of material, loading, and environmental conditions. An environmental fatigue correction factor for incorporating the effects of LWR environments into ASME Code fatigue evaluations is described. This paper also presents a critical review of the ASME Code fatigue design margins of 2 on stress (or strain) and 20 on life and assesses the possible conservatism in the current choice of design margins.

  16. Decontaminating Aluminum/Ammonia Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Internal gas slugs reduced or eliminated. Manufacturing method increases efficiency of aluminum heat pipes in which ammonia is working fluid by insuring pipe filled with nearly pure charge of ammonia. In new process heat pipe initially closed with stainless-steel valve instead of weld so pipe put through several cycles of filling, purging, and accelerated aging.

  17. Short cracks in piping and piping welds

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkowski, G.M.; Brust, F.; Francini, R.; Ghadiali, N.; Kilinski, T.; Krishnaswamy, P.; Landow, M.; Marschall, C.W.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P. )

    1992-04-01

    This is the second semiannual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds research program. The program began in March 1990 and will extend for 4 years. The intent of this program is to verify and improve fracture analyses for circumferentially cracked large-diameter nuclear piping with crack sizes typically used in leak-before-break analyses or in-service flaw evaluations. Only quasi-static loading rates are evaluated since the NRC's International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) program is evaluating the effects of seismic loading rates on cracked piping systems. Progress for through-wall-cracked pipe involved (1) conducting a 28-inch diameter stainless steel SAW and 4-inch diameter French TP316 experiments, (2) conducting a matrix of FEM analyses to determine GE/EPRI functions for short TWC pipe, (3) comparison of uncracked pipe maximum moments to various analyses and FEM solutions, (4) development of a J-estimation scheme that includes the strength of both the weld and base metals. Progress for surface-cracked pipe involved (1) conducting two experiments on 6-inch diameter pipe with d/t = 0.5 and {Theta}/{pi} = 0.25 cracks, (2) comparisons of the pipe experiments to Net-Section-Collapse predictions, and (3) modification of the SC.TNP and SC.TKP J-estimation schemes to include external surface cracks.

  18. Mechanical properties of 1950's vintage Type 304 stainless steel weldment components

    SciTech Connect

    Stoner, K.J.; Sindelar, R.L.; Awadalla, N.G. ); Hawthorne, J.R.; Hiser, A.L.; Cullen, W.H. )

    1990-01-01

    The primary coolant piping systems of the nuclear production reactors constructed in the 1950's at Savannah River Site are comprised of Type 304 stainless steel. A program has been completed which assessed the material properties of archival large diameter piping having approximately six years of service at temperatures between 25 and 125{degree}C. An extensive database of mechanical properties was produced for examination of material variability and to provide properties for engineering analysis, including piping fracture resistance assessment. Tensile properties, Charpy-V notch ductility, and elastic-plastic fracture toughness were established for base metal, weld metal and weld heat-affected-zone (HAZ) materials. A total of 375 mechanical specimens representing ASTM L-C and C-L orientations were tested at temperatures of 25 or 125{degree}C. The effect of dynamic loading on tensile and fracture toughness properties was also explored. The time-to-specimen maximum load ({approx}80 milliseconds) was chosen to simulate a seismic loading event. The mechanical properties of the vintage piping material were found typical of those of recently-produced commercial melts of Type 304 stainless steel piping and are consistent with ASME Code Section II design values. The toughness properties of welds fabricated by the Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding process (multipass, Type 308 stainless steel filler), were found similar to the base materials, yielding a high fracture resistance. Practical applications of the mechanical properties database in piping fracture assessments are illustrated with the methodology for an elastic-plastic analysis. 10 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Analysis of Pressurized Water Reactor Primary Coolant Leak Events Caused by Thermal Fatigue

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, Corwin Lee; Shah, Vikram Naginbhai; Galyean, William Jospeh

    1999-09-01

    We present statistical analyses of pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary coolant leak events caused by thermal fatigue, and discuss their safety significance. Our worldwide data contain 13 leak events (through-wall cracking) in 3509 reactor-years, all in stainless steel piping with diameter less than 25 cm. Several types of data analysis show that the frequency of leak events (events per reactor-year) is increasing with plant age, and the increase is statistically significant. When an exponential trend model is assumed, the leak frequency is estimated to double every 8 years of reactor age, although this result should not be extrapolated to plants much older than 25 years. Difficulties in arresting this increase include lack of quantitative understanding of the phenomena causing thermal fatigue, lack of understanding of crack growth, and difficulty in detecting existing cracks.

  20. PRAISE-C. LWR Piping Reliability Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Eyberger, L.

    1992-01-13

    PRAISE-C is a probabilistic fracture mechanics code used to estimate the probability of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) in light water reactor piping due to the growth of cracks at welded joints. Pipe failures are considered to occur as the result of crack-like defects either introduced during fabrication, or that initiate after plant operation has begun, and that escape detection during inspections. PRAISE was developed to estimate the influence of earthquakes on the probability of failure at a weld joint in the primary coolant system of a pressurized water reactor. An initial hydrostatic proof test, pre-service non-destructive inspection, and periodic in-service inspection can be simulated. PRAISE treats the inter-arrival times of operating transients, such as system heatup and cooldown, either as constant or exponentially distributed according to observed or postulated rates. Leak rate and leak detection models are also included. Earthquakes of varying intensity and arbitrary occurrence times can be modeled. PRAISE-C extends the capabilities of PRAISE-B to include a tearing instability failure criterion for carbon steels (supplementing the original net section stress criterion used for austenitic materials), and an advanced probabilistic model of stress corrosion cracking in stainless steels (Type 304, Type 316NG nuclear grade) used for BWR reactor coolant piping. The stress corrosion model is semi-empirical in nature and is based on experimental and field data. The model considers crack initiation, including the number, time, and location of initiated cracks, in addition to the effect of stress corrosion on crack growth rates. Various phenomena are considered, including environment, applied loads, residual stresses, material type, and degree of sensitization. By allowing cracks to initiate after reactor operation has begun, the simulation is not restricted to the original single crack assumption.

  1. Method for protecting stainless steel pipe and the like in geothermal brine service from stress corrosion cracking, and articles made thereby

    SciTech Connect

    Amend, W.E.; Kitz, K.R.

    1990-08-21

    This patent describes a method for protecting a stainless steel flow-conducting component used in hot geothermal brine service from chloride stress corrosion caused by contact of geothermal brine with an exterior surface of the component. It comprises: thermally coating the exterior surface with a metal having an electrode potential more negative than that of the stainless steel being protected.

  2. Mechanism and estimation of fatigue crack initiation in austenitic stainless steels in LWR environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O. K.; Energy Technology

    2002-08-01

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. Figures I-9.1 through I-9.6 of Appendix I to Section III of the Code specify fatigue design curves for structural materials. However, the effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves. Existing fatigue strain-vs.-life ({var_epsilon}-N) data illustrate potentially significant effects of LWR coolant environments on the fatigue resistance of pressure vessel and piping steels. This report provides an overview of fatigue crack initiation in austenitic stainless steels in LWR coolant environments. The existing fatigue {var_epsilon}-N data have been evaluated to establish the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters (such as steel type, strain range, strain rate, temperature, dissolved-oxygen level in water, and flow rate) on the fatigue lives of these steels. Statistical models are presented for estimating the fatigue {var_epsilon}-N curves for austenitic stainless steels as a function of the material, loading, and environmental parameters. Two methods for incorporating environmental effects into the ASME Code fatigue evaluations are presented. The influence of reactor environments on the mechanism of fatigue crack initiation in these steels is also discussed.

  3. Review of environmental effects on fatigue crack growth of austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Shack, W.J.; Kassner, T.F.

    1994-05-01

    Fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking of piping, pressure vessel cladding, and core components in light water reactors are potential concerns to the nuclear industry and regulatory agencies. The degradation processes include intergranular stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steel (SS) piping in boiling water reactors (BWRs), and propagation of fatigue or stress corrosion cracks (which initiate in sensitized SS cladding) into low-alloy ferritic steels in BWR pressure vessels. Crack growth data for wrought and cast austenitic SSs in simulated BWR water, developed at Argonne National Laboratory under US Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsorship over the past 10 years, have been compiled into a data base along with similar data obtained from the open literature. The data were analyzed to develop corrosion-fatigue curves for austenitic SSs in aqueous environments corresponding to normal BWR water chemistries, for BWRs that add hydrogen to the feedwater, and for pressurized water reactor primary-system-coolant chemistry.

  4. Thermal Aging Phenomena in Cast Duplex Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, T. S.; Yang, Y.; Overman, N. R.; Busby, J. T.

    2016-02-01

    Cast stainless steels (CASSs) have been extensively used for the large components of light water reactor (LWR) power plants such as primary coolant piping and pump casing. The thermal embrittlement of CASS components is one of the most serious concerns related to the extended-term operation of nuclear power plants. Many past researches have concluded that the formation of Cr-rich α'-phase by Spinodal decomposition of δ-ferrite phase is the primary mechanism for the thermal embrittlement. Cracking mechanism in the thermally-embrittled duplex stainless steels consists of the formation of cleavage at ferrite and its propagation via separation of ferrite-austenite interphase. This article intends to provide an introductory overview on the thermal aging phenomena in LWR-relevant conditions. Firstly, the thermal aging effect on toughness is discussed in terms of the cause of embrittlement and influential parameters. An approximate analysis of thermal reaction using Arrhenius equation was carried out to scope the aging temperatures for the accelerated aging experiments to simulate the 60 and 80 years of services. Further, an equilibrium precipitation calculation was performed for model CASS alloys using the CALPHAD program, and the results are used to describe the precipitation behaviors in duplex stainless steels. These results are also to be used to guide an on-going research aiming to provide knowledge-based conclusive prediction for the integrity of the CASS components of LWR power plants during the service life extended up to and beyond 60 years.

  5. Thermal Aging Phenomena in Cast Duplex Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Byun, T. S.; Yang, Y.; Overman, N. R.; Busby, J. T.

    2015-11-12

    We used cast stainless steels (CASSs)for the large components of light water reactor (LWR) power plants such as primary coolant piping and pump casing. The thermal embrittlement of CASS components is one of the most serious concerns related to the extended-term operation of nuclear power plants. Many past researches have concluded that the formation of Cr-rich alpha-phase by Spinodal decomposition of delta-ferrite phase is the primary mechanism for the thermal embrittlement. Cracking mechanism in the thermally-embrittled duplex stainless steels consists of the formation of cleavage at ferrite and its propagation via separation of ferrite-austenite interphase. This article intends to provide an introductory overview on the thermal aging phenomena in LWR-relevant conditions. Firstly, the thermal aging effect on toughness is discussed in terms of the cause of embrittlement and influential parameters. Moreover, an approximate analysis of thermal reaction using Arrhenius equation was carried out to scope the aging temperatures for the accelerated aging experiments to simulate the 60 and 80 years of services. Further, an equilibrium precipitation calculation was performed for model CASS alloys using the CALPHAD program, and the results are used to describe the precipitation behaviors in duplex stainless steels. Our results are also to be used to guide an on-going research aiming to provide knowledge-based conclusive prediction for the integrity of the CASS components of LWR power plants during the service life extended up to and beyond 60 years.

  6. Machine coolant waste reduction by optimizing coolant life. Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Pallansch, J.

    1995-08-01

    The project was designed to study the following: A specific water-soluble coolant (Blasocut 2000 Universal) in use with a variety of machines, tools, and materials; Coolant maintenance practices associated with three types of machines; Health effects of use and handling of recycled coolant; Handling practices for chips and waste coolant; Chip/coolant separation; and Oil/water separation.

  7. Effect of material heat treatment on fatigue crack initiation in austenitic stainless steels in LWR environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O. K.; Alexandreanu, B.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

    2005-07-31

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the design of Class 1 components of nuclear power plants. Figures I-9.1 through I-9.6 of Appendix I to Section III of the Code specify design curves for applicable structural materials. However, the effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves. The existing fatigue strain-vs.-life ({var_epsilon}-N) data illustrate potentially significant effects of LWR coolant environments on the fatigue resistance of pressure vessel and piping steels. Under certain environmental and loading conditions, fatigue lives of austenitic stainless steels (SSs) can be a factor of 20 lower in water than in air. This report presents experimental data on the effect of heat treatment on fatigue crack initiation in austenitic Type 304 SS in LWR coolant environments. A detailed metallographic examination of fatigue test specimens was performed to characterize the crack morphology and fracture morphology. The key material, loading, and environmental parameters and their effect on the fatigue life of these steels are also described. Statistical models are presented for estimating the fatigue {var_epsilon}-N curves for austenitic SSs as a function of material, loading, and environmental parameters. Two methods for incorporating the effects of LWR coolant environments into the ASME Code fatigue evaluations are presented.

  8. NUCLEAR REACTOR COOLANT

    DOEpatents

    Colichman, E.L.

    1959-10-20

    The formation of new reactor coolants which suppress polymerization resulting from pyrolytic and radiation decomposition is described. The coolants consist of polyphenyls and condensed ring compounds having from two to about four carbon rings and from 0.1 to about 5% of beryllium or magnesium dispersed in the hydrocarbon.

  9. NUCLEAR REACTOR COOLANT

    DOEpatents

    Colichman, E.L.

    1959-10-20

    The formation of new reactor coolants which suppress polymerization resulting from pyrolitic and radiation decomposition is described. The coolants consist of polyphenyls and condensed ring compounds having from two to about four carbon rings and from 0.1 to about 10% of an alkall metal dispersed in the hydrocarbon.

  10. Design and analysis of megawatt-class heat-pipe reactor concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, D.; Kapernick, R.

    2012-07-01

    There is growing interest in finding an alternative to diesel-powered systems at locations removed from a reliable electrical grid. One promising option is a 1- to 10-MW mobile reactor system, that could provide robust, self-contained, and long-term ({>=} 5 years) power in any environment. The reactor and required infrastructure could be transported to any location within one or a few standard transport containers. Heat pipe reactors, using alkali metal heat pipes, are perfectly suited for mobile applications because their nature is inherently simpler, smaller, and more reliable than 'traditional' reactors that rely on pumped coolant through the core. This paper examines a heat pipe reactor that is fabricated and shipped as six identical core segments. Each core segment includes a heat-pipe-to-gas heat exchanger that is coupled to the condenser end of the heat pipes. The reference power conversion system is a CO{sub 2}-Brayton system. The segments by themselves are deeply subcritical during transport, and they would be locked into an operating configuration (with control inserted) at the final destination. Two design options are considered: a near-term option and an advanced option. The near-term option is a 5-MWt concept that uses uranium-dioxide fuel, a stainless-steel structure, and potassium as the heat-pipe working fluid. The advanced option is a 15-MWt concept that uses uranium-nitride fuel, a molybdenum/TZM structure, and sodium as the heat-pipe working fluid. The materials used in the advanced option allow for higher temperatures and power densities, and enhanced power throughput in the heat pipes. Higher powers can be obtained from both concepts by increasing the core size and the number of heat pipes. (authors)

  11. Flexible Heat Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bienert, W. B.; Wolf, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Narrow Tube carries 10 watts or more to moving parts. Heat pipe 12 inches long and diameter of 0.312 inch (7.92mm). Bent to minimum radius of 2.5 blocks. Flexible section made of 321 stainless steel tubing (Cajon Flexible Tubing or equivalent). Evaporator and condenser made of oxygen free copper. Working fluid methanol.

  12. Performance map of a heat pipe charged with ammonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, J.

    1970-01-01

    Test results are presented which describe dryout in type-304 stainless steel heat pipes when ammonia is the working fluid. Graph compares heat transfer capabilities of both ammonia and water. Heat pipe apparatus and performance are described.

  13. Stress-corrosion cracking in BWR and PWR piping

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, R.W.

    1983-07-01

    Intergranular stress-corrosion cracking of weld-sensitized wrought stainless steel piping has been an increasingly ubiquitous and expensive problem in boiling-water reactors over the last decade. In recent months, numerous cracks have been found, even in large-diameter lines. A number of potential remedies have been developed. These are directed at providing more resistant materials, reducing weld-induced stresses, or improving the water chemistry. The potential remedies are discussed, along with the capabilities of ultrasonic testing to find and size the cracks and related safety issues. The problem has been much less severe to date in pressurized-water reactors, reflecting the use of different materials and much lower coolant oxygen levels.

  14. Potassium Rankine cycle vapor chamber (heat pipe) radiator study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrels, E. E.; Killen, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    A structurally integrated vapor chamber fin (heat pipe) radiator is defined and evaluated as a potential candidate for rejecting waste heat from the potassium Rankine cycle powerplant. Several vapor chamber fin geometries, using stainless steel construction, are evaluated and an optimum is selected. A comparison is made with an operationally equivalent conduction fin radiator. Both radiators employ NaK-78 in the primary coolant loop. In addition, the Vapor Chamber Fin (VCF) radiator utilizes sodium in the vapor chambers. Preliminary designs are developed for the conduction fin and VCF concepts. Performance tests on a single vapor chamber were conducted to verify the VCF design. A comparison shows the conduction fin radiator easier to fabricate, but heavier in weight, particularly as meteoroid protection requirements become more stringent. While the analysis was performed assuming the potassium Rankine cycle powerplant, the results are equally applicable to any system radiating heat to space in the 900 to 1400 F temperature range.

  15. MACHINE COOLANT WASTE REDUCTION BY OPTIMIZING COOLANT LIFE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Machine shops use coolants to improve the life and function of machine tools. hese coolants become contaminated with oils with use, and this contamination can lead to growth of anaerobic bacteria and shortened coolant life. his project investigated methods to extend coolant life ...

  16. Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Huebotter, P.R.; McLennan, G.A.

    1984-08-30

    The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

  17. Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Huebotter, Paul R.; McLennan, George A.

    1985-01-01

    The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

  18. Heat pipe manufacturing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, F.

    1974-01-01

    Heat pipe manufacturing methods are examined with the goal of establishing cost effective procedures that will ultimately result in cheaper more reliable heat pipes. Those methods which are commonly used by all heat pipe manufacturers have been considered, including: (1) envelope and wick cleaning, (2) end closure and welding, (3) mechanical verification, (4) evacuation and charging, (5) working fluid purity, and (6) charge tube pinch off. The study is limited to moderate temperature aluminum and stainless steel heat pipes with ammonia, Freon-21 and methanol working fluids. Review and evaluation of available manufacturers techniques and procedures together with the results of specific manufacturing oriented tests have yielded a set of recommended cost-effective specifications which can be used by all manufacturers.

  19. Cryogenic thermal diode heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alario, J.

    1979-01-01

    The development of spiral artery cryogenic thermal diode heat pipes was continued. Ethane was the working fluid and stainless steel the heat pipe material in all cases. The major tasks included: (1) building a liquid blockage (blocking orifice) thermal diode suitable for the HEPP space flight experiment; (2) building a liquid trap thermal diode engineering model; (3) retesting the original liquid blockage engineering model, and (4) investigating the startup dynamics of artery cryogenic thermal diodes. An experimental investigation was also conducted into the wetting characteristics of ethane/stainless steel systems using a specially constructed chamber that permitted in situ observations.

  20. Environmentally Friendly Coolant System

    SciTech Connect

    David Jackson Principal Investigator

    2011-11-08

    Energy reduction through the use of the EFCS is most improved by increasing machining productivity. Throughout testing, nearly all machining operations demonstrated less land wear on the tooling when using the EFCS which results in increased tool life. These increases in tool life advance into increased productivity. Increasing productivity reduces cycle times and therefore reduces energy consumption. The average energy savings by using the EFCS in these machining operations with these materials is 9%. The advantage for end milling stays with flood coolant by about 6.6% due to its use of a low pressure pump. Face milling and drilling are both about 17.5% less energy consumption with the EFCS than flood coolant. One additional result of using the EFCS is improved surface finish. Certain machining operations using the EFCS result in a smoother surface finish. Applications where finishing operations are required will be able to take advantage of the improved finish by reducing the time or possibly eliminating completely one or more finishing steps and thereby reduce their energy consumption. Some machining operations on specific materials do not show advantages for the EFCS when compared to flood coolants. More information about these processes will be presented later in the report. A key point to remember though, is that even with equivalent results, the EFCS is replacing petroleum based coolants whose production produces GHG emissions and create unsafe work environments.

  1. Thermal Aging Phenomena in Cast Duplex Stainless Steels

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Byun, T. S.; Yang, Y.; Overman, N. R.; Busby, J. T.

    2015-11-12

    We used cast stainless steels (CASSs)for the large components of light water reactor (LWR) power plants such as primary coolant piping and pump casing. The thermal embrittlement of CASS components is one of the most serious concerns related to the extended-term operation of nuclear power plants. Many past researches have concluded that the formation of Cr-rich alpha-phase by Spinodal decomposition of delta-ferrite phase is the primary mechanism for the thermal embrittlement. Cracking mechanism in the thermally-embrittled duplex stainless steels consists of the formation of cleavage at ferrite and its propagation via separation of ferrite-austenite interphase. This article intends to providemore » an introductory overview on the thermal aging phenomena in LWR-relevant conditions. Firstly, the thermal aging effect on toughness is discussed in terms of the cause of embrittlement and influential parameters. Moreover, an approximate analysis of thermal reaction using Arrhenius equation was carried out to scope the aging temperatures for the accelerated aging experiments to simulate the 60 and 80 years of services. Further, an equilibrium precipitation calculation was performed for model CASS alloys using the CALPHAD program, and the results are used to describe the precipitation behaviors in duplex stainless steels. Our results are also to be used to guide an on-going research aiming to provide knowledge-based conclusive prediction for the integrity of the CASS components of LWR power plants during the service life extended up to and beyond 60 years.« less

  2. 92. View of transmitter building no. 102 first floor coolant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    92. View of transmitter building no. 102 first floor coolant process water tanks (sodium bisulfate solution), stainless steel, for electronic systems cooling in transmitter and MIP rooms. RCA Services Company 29 September, 1960, official photograph BMEWS Project by unknown photograph, Photographic Services, Riverton, NJ, BMEWS, clear as negative no. A-1226 - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  3. Improvements in 500-kHz Ultrasonic Phased-Array Probe Designs for Evaluation of Thick Section Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Welds

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Susan L.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.; Diaz, Aaron A.

    2011-02-01

    PNNL has been studying and performing confirmatory research on the inspection of piping welds in coarse-grained steels for over 30 years. More recent efforts have been the application of low frequency phased array technology to this difficult to inspect material. The evolution of 500 kHz PA probes and the associated electronics and scanning protocol are documented in this report. The basis for the probe comparisons are responses from one mechanical fatigue crack and two thermal fatigue cracks in large-bore cast mockup specimens on loan from the Electric Power Research Institution. One of the most significant improvements was seen in the use of piezo-composite elements in the later two probes instead of the piezo-ceramic material used in the prototype array. This allowed a reduction in system gain of 30 dB and greatly reduced electronic noise. The latest probe had as much as a 5 dB increase in signal to noise, adding to its flaw discrimination capability. The system electronics for the latest probe were fully optimized for a 500 kHz center frequency, however significant improvements were not observed in the center frequency of the flaw responses. With improved scanner capabilities, smaller step sizes were used, allowing both line and raster data improvements to be made with the latest probe. The small step sizes produce high resolution images that improve flaw discrimination and, along with the increased signal-to-noise ratio inherent in the latest probe design, enhanced detection of the upper regions of the flaw make depth sizing more plausible. Finally, the physical sizes of the probes were progressively decreased allowing better access to the area of interest on specimens with weld crowns, and the latest probe was designed with non-integral wedges providing flexibility in focusing on different specimen geometries.

  4. Reactor coolant pump flywheel

    SciTech Connect

    Finegan, John Raymond; Kreke, Francis Joseph; Casamassa, John Joseph

    2013-11-26

    A flywheel for a pump, and in particular a flywheel having a number of high density segments for use in a nuclear reactor coolant pump. The flywheel includes an inner member and an outer member. A number of high density segments are provided between the inner and outer members. The high density segments may be formed from a tungsten based alloy. A preselected gap is provided between each of the number of high density segments. The gap accommodates thermal expansion of each of the number of segments and resists the hoop stress effect/keystoning of the segments.

  5. Stainless steel to titanium bimetallic transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaluzny, J. A.; Grimm, C.; Passarelli, D.

    2015-12-01

    In order to use stainless steel piping in an LCLS-II (Linac Coherent Light Source Upgrade) cryomodule, stainless steel to titanium bimetallic transitions are needed to connect the stainless steel piping to the titanium cavity helium vessel. Explosion bonded stainless steel to titanium transition pieces and bimetallic transition material samples have been tested. A sample transition tube was subjected to tests and x-ray examinations between tests. Samples of the bonded joint material were impact and tensile tested at room temperature as well as liquid helium temperature. The joint has been used successfully in horizontal tests of LCLS-II cavity helium vessels and is planned to be used in LCLS-II cryomodules. Results of material sample and transition tube tests will be presented. Operated by Fermi Research Alliance, LLC under Contract No. De-AC02-07CH11359 with the United States Department of Energy.

  6. Stainless Steel to Titanium Bimetallic Transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaluzny, J. A.; Grimm, C.; Passarelli, D.

    2015-01-01

    In order to use stainless steel piping in an LCLS-II (Linac Coherent Light Source Upgrade) cryomodule, stainless steel to titanium bimetallic transitions are needed to connect the stainless steel piping to the titanium cavity helium vessel. Explosion bonded stainless steel to titanium transition pieces and bimetallic transition material samples have been tested. A sample transition tube was subjected to tests and x-ray examinations between tests. Samples of the bonded joint material were impact and tensile tested at room temperature as well as liquid helium temperature. The joint has been used successfully in horizontal tests of LCLS-II cavity helium vessels and is planned to be used in LCLS-II cryomodules. Results of material sample and transition tube tests will be presented.

  7. Seismic fragility analysis of buried steel piping at P, L, and K reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Wingo, H.E.

    1989-10-01

    Analysis of seismic strength of buried cooling water piping in reactor areas is necessary to evaluate the risk of reactor operation because seismic events could damage these buried pipes and cause loss of coolant accidents. This report documents analysis of the ability of this piping to withstand the combined effects of the propagation of seismic waves, the possibility that the piping may not behave in a completely ductile fashion, and the distortions caused by relative displacements of structures connected to the piping.

  8. Heat pipe thermal conditioning panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.; Loose, J. D.; Mccoy, K. E.

    1974-01-01

    Thermal control of electronic hardware and experiments on future space vehicles is critical to proper functioning and long life. Thermal conditioning panels (cold plates) are a baseline control technique in current conceptual studies. Heat generating components mounted on the panels are typically cooled by fluid flowing through integral channels within the panel. However, replacing the pumped fluid coolant loop within the panel with heat pipes offers attractive advantages in weight, reliability, and installation. This report describes the development and fabrication of two large 0.76 x 0.76 m heat pipe thermal conditioning panels to verify performance and establish the design concept.

  9. Coolant mixing and distribution in a transparent reactor model

    SciTech Connect

    Fanning, M.W.; Haury, G.; Pflug, L.; Rothe, P.H.

    1983-11-01

    Following a small break loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor, coolant water may be injected at high pressure to help cool the core. This paper reports the results of tests which determined the mixing and distribution of the coolant in a 1/5-scale transparent model of the reactor. The model components included the reactor vessel, cold leg pipe, pump, and loop seal with steam generator and hot leg simulators completing the flow loop. Tests were conducted for a no-refill condition with constant liquid inventory in the facility and zero flow of the primary water. Salt water, dyed red was used for the coolant water to create prototypical density differences in this atmospheric facility. Steady state fluid distribution was determined from flow and density measurements and complete mass balances. Interpretation of the quantitative results was aided by extensive flow visualization studies which include still photographs and motion picture films for all tests. The test parameters included the fluid density ratio, the flow rate of coolant water, and the flow rate of primary water injected in the vessel downcomer to simulate a natural circulation flow through vent valves between the reactor core and the downcomer. Four locations of the small break were tested.

  10. Pipe support

    DOEpatents

    Pollono, Louis P.

    1979-01-01

    A pipe support for high temperature, thin-walled piping runs such as those used in nuclear systems. A section of the pipe to be supported is encircled by a tubular inner member comprised of two walls with an annular space therebetween. Compacted load-bearing thermal insulation is encapsulated within the annular space, and the inner member is clamped to the pipe by a constant clamping force split-ring clamp. The clamp may be connected to pipe hangers which provide desired support for the pipe.

  11. Technical Letter Report, An Evaluation of Ultrasonic Phased Array Testing for Reactor Piping System Components Containing Dissimilar Metal Welds, JCN N6398, Task 2A

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, Aaron A.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2009-11-30

    Research is being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to assess the effectiveness and reliability of advanced nondestructive examination (NDE) methods for the inspection of light-water reactor components. The scope of this research encom¬passes primary system pressure boundary materials including dissimilar metal welds (DMWs), cast austenitic stainless steels (CASS), piping with corrosion-resistant cladding, weld overlays, inlays and onlays, and far-side examinations of austenitic piping welds. A primary objective of this work is to evaluate various NDE methods to assess their ability to detect, localize, and size cracks in steel components that challenge standard and/or conventional inspection methodologies. This interim technical letter report provides a summary of a technical evaluation aimed at assessing the capabilities of phased-array (PA) ultrasonic testing (UT) methods as applied to the inspection of small-bore DMW components that exist in the reactor coolant systems (RCS) of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Operating experience and events such as the circumferential cracking in the reactor vessel nozzle-to-RCS hot leg pipe at V.C. Summer nuclear power station, identified in 2000, show that in PWRs where primary coolant water (or steam) are present under normal operation, Alloy 82/182 materials are susceptible to pressurized water stress corrosion cracking. The extent and number of occurrences of DMW cracking in nuclear power plants (domestically and internationally) indicate the necessity for reliable and effective inspection techniques. The work described herein was performed to provide insights for evaluating the utility of advanced NDE approaches for the inspection of DMW components such as a pressurizer surge nozzle DMW, a shutdown cooling pipe DMW, and a ferritic (low-alloy carbon steel)-to-CASS pipe DMW configuration.

  12. Piping inspection round robin

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, P.G.; Doctor, S.R.

    1996-04-01

    The piping inspection round robin was conducted in 1981 at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quantify the capability of ultrasonics for inservice inspection and to address some aspects of reliability for this type of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The round robin measured the crack detection capabilities of seven field inspection teams who employed procedures that met or exceeded the 1977 edition through the 1978 addenda of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section 11 Code requirements. Three different types of materials were employed in the study (cast stainless steel, clad ferritic, and wrought stainless steel), and two different types of flaws were implanted into the specimens (intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCCs) and thermal fatigue cracks (TFCs)). When considering near-side inspection, far-side inspection, and false call rate, the overall performance was found to be best in clad ferritic, less effective in wrought stainless steel and the worst in cast stainless steel. Depth sizing performance showed little correlation with the true crack depths.

  13. Pipe Dreams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milshtein, Amy

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of attention to plumbing in college facilities, offering examples from various campuses. Addresses preventive maintenance, technology, and piping materials, including the debate between cast iron and PVC for drain pipes. (EV)

  14. Integrity of the reactor coolant boundary of the European pressurized water reactor (EPR)

    SciTech Connect

    Goetsch, D.; Bieniussa, K.; Schulz, H.; Jalouneix, J.

    1997-04-01

    This paper is an abstract of the work performed in the frame of the development of the IPSN/GRS approach in view of the EPR conceptual safety features. EPR is a pressurized water reactor which will be based on the experience gained by utilities and designers in France and in Germany. The reactor coolant boundary of a PWR includes the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), those parts of the steam generators (SGs) which contain primary coolant, the pressurizer (PSR), the reactor coolant pumps (RCPs), the main coolant lines (MCLs) with their branches as well as the other connecting pipes and all branching pipes including the second isolation valves. The present work covering the integrity of the reactor coolant boundary is mainly restricted to the integrity of the main coolant lines (MCLs) and reflects the design requirements for the main components of the reactor coolant boundary. In the following the conceptual aspects, i.e. design, manufacture, construction and operation, will be assessed. A main aspect is the definition of break postulates regarding overall safety implications.

  15. Design of Refractory Metal Heat Pipe Life Test Environment Chamber, Cooling System, and Radio Frequency Heating System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. J.; Bragg-Sitton, S. M.; Reid, R. S.; Stewart, E. T.; Davis, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    A series of 16 Mo-44.5%Re alloy/sodium heat pipes will be experimentally tested to examine heat pipe aging. To support this evaluation, an environmental test chamber and a number of auxiliary subsystems are required. These subsystems include radio frequency (RF) power supplies/inductive coils, recirculation water coolant loops, and chamber gas conditioning. The heat pipes will be grouped, based on like power and gas mixture requirements, into three clusters of five units each, configured in a pentagonal arrangement. The highest powered heat pipe will be tested separately. Test chamber atmospheric purity is targeted at <0.3 ppb oxygen at an approximate operating pressure of 76 torr (.1.5 psia), maintained by active purification (oxygen level is comparable to a 10(exp -6) torr environment). Treated water will be used in two independent cooling circuits to remove .85 kW. One circuit will service the RF hardware while the other will maintain the heat pipe calorimetry. Initial procedures for the startup and operation of support systems have been identified. Each of these subsystems is outfitted with a variety of instrumentation, integrated with distributed real-time controllers and computers. A local area network provides communication between all devices. This data and control network continuously monitors the health of the test hardware, providing warning indicators followed by automatic shutdown should potentially damaging conditions develop. During hardware construction, a number of checkout tests.many making use of stainless steel prototype heat pipes that are already fabricated.will be required to verify operation.

  16. Evaluation of aging of cast stainless steel components

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.M.

    1991-02-01

    Cast stainless steel is used extensively in nuclear reactors for primary-pressure-boundary components such as primary coolant pipes, elbows, valves, pumps, and safe ends. These components are, however, susceptible to thermal aging embrittlement in light water reactors because of the segregation of Cr atoms from Fe and Ni by spinodal decomposition in ferrite and the precipitation of Cr-rich carbides on ferrite/austenite boundaries. A recent advance in understanding the aging kinetics is presented. Aging kinetics are strongly influenced by the synergistic effects of other metallurgical reactions that occur in parallel with spinodal decomposition, i.e., clustering of Ni, Mo, and Si solute atoms and the nucleation and growth of G-phase precipitates in the ferrite phase. A number of methods are outlined for estimating aging embrittlement under end-of-life of life-extension conditions, depending on several factors such as degree of permissible conservatism, availability of component archive material, and methods of estimating and verifying the activation energy of aging. 33 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Superfluid Helium Heat Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gully, P.

    This paper reports on the development and the thermal tests of three superfluid helium heat pipes. Two of them are designed to provide a large transport capacity (4 mW at 1.7 K). They feature a copper braid located inside a 6 mm outer diameter stainless tube fitted with copper ends for mechanical anchoring. The other heat pipe has no copper braid and is designed to get much smaller heat transport capacity (0.5 mW) and to explore lower temperature (0.7 - 1 K). The copper braid and the tube wall is the support of the Rollin superfluid helium film in which the heat is transferred. The low filling pressure makes the technology very simple with the possibility to easily bend the tube. We present the design and discuss the thermal performance of the heat pipes tested in the 0.7 to 2.0 K temperature range. The long heat pipe (1.2 m with copper braid) and the short one (0.25 m with copper braid) have similar thermal performance in the range 0.7 - 2.0 K. At 1.7 K the long heat pipe, 120 g in weight, reaches a heat transfer capacity of 6.2 mW and a thermal conductance of 600 mW/K for 4 mW transferred power. Due to the pressure drop of the vapor flow and Kapitza thermal resistance, the conductance of the third heat pipe dramatically decreases when the temperature decreases. A 3.8 mW/K is obtained at 0.7 K for 0.5 mW transferred power.

  18. Heat pipe wick with structural enhancement

    DOEpatents

    Andraka, Charles E.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Moreno, James B.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Showalter, Steven K.; Moss, Timothy A.

    2003-11-18

    Heat pipe wick structure wherein a stout sheet of perforated material overlays a high performance wick material such as stainless steel felt affixed to a substrate. The inventive structure provides a good flow path for working fluid while maintaining durability and structural stability independent of the structure (or lack of structure) associated with the wick material. In one described embodiment, a wick of randomly laid .about.8 micron thickness stainless steel fibers is sintered to a metal substrate and a perforated metal overlay.

  19. Corrosion of structural materials by lead-based reactor coolants.

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, D. P.; Leibowitz, L.; Maroni, V. A.; McDeavitt, S. M.; Raraz, A. G.

    2000-11-16

    Advanced nuclear reactor design has, in recent years, focused increasingly on the use of heavy-liquid-metal coolants, such as lead and lead-bismuth eutectic. Similarly, programs on accelerator-based transmutation systems have also considered the use of such coolants. Russian experience with heavy-metal coolants for nuclear reactors has lent credence to the validity of this approach. Of significant concern is the compatibility of structural materials with these coolants. We have used a thermal convection-based test method to allow exposure of candidate materials to molten lead and lead-bismuth flowing under a temperature gradient. The gradient was deemed essential in evaluating the behavior of the test materials in that should preferential dissolution of components of the test material occur we would expect dissolution in the hotter regions and deposition in the colder regions, thus promoting material transport. Results from the interactions of a Si-rich mild steel alloy, AISI S5, and a ferritic-martensitic stainless steel, HT-9, with the molten lead-bismuth are presented.

  20. Proposed reactor coolant density monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Mackley, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    Until now there has been no feasible method of monitoring coolant density in the environment of an operating reactor core. By analysis of output from self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) in the core of the Loss of Fluid Test (LOFT) Reactor, the author has successfully estimated local coolant densities under post-scram conditions during a large break loss of coolant transient. The model used for estimation is not fully explained by published principles on the interaction of gamma rays with SPNDs. However, based on the success of the model, the author proposes employing self powered gamma detectors (SPGDs) to monitor reactor coolant density and discusses areas of experimental work to establish the best conditions for this application. 9 refs., 12 figs.

  1. Review of environmental effects on fatigue crack growth of austenitic stainless steels.

    SciTech Connect

    Shack, W. J.; Kassner, T. F.; Energy Technology

    1994-07-11

    Fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking of piping, pressure vessel cladding, and core components in light water reactors are potential concerns to the nuclear industry and regulatory agencies. The degradation processes include intergranular stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steel (SS) piping in boiling water reactors (BWRs), and propagation of fatigue or stress corrosion cracks (which initiate in sensitized SS cladding) into low-alloy ferritic steels in BWR pressure vessels. Crack growth data for wrought and cast austenitic SSs in simulated BWR water, developed at Argonne National Laboratory under US Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsorship over the past 10 years, have been compiled into a data base along with similar data obtained from the open literature. The data were analyzed to develop corrosion-fatigue curves for austenitic SSs in aqueous environments corresponding to normal BWR water chemistries, for BWRs that add hydrogen to the feedwater, and for pressurized water reactor primary-system-coolant chemistry. The corrosion-fatigue data and curves in water were compared with the air line in Section XI of the ASME Code.

  2. Robotic inspection of PWR coolant pump casing welds

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, W.R.; Alford, J.W.; Davis, J.B.

    1997-12-01

    As of January 1, 1995, the Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate began requiring more thorough inspections of cast stainless-steel components in nuclear power plants, including pressurized water reactor (PWR) reactor coolant pump (RCP) casings. The examination requirements are established by fracture mechanics analyses of component weldments and demonstrated test system detection capabilities. This may include full volumetric inspection or some portion thereof. Ringhals station is a four-unit nuclear power plant, owned and operated by the Swedish State Power Board, Vattenfall. Unit 1 is a boiling water reactor. Units 2, 3, and 4 are Westinghouse-designed PWRs, ranging in size from 795 to 925 MW. The RCP casings at the PWR units are made of cast stainless steel and contain four circumferential welds that require inspection. Due to the thickness of the casings at the weld locations and configuration and surface conditions on the outside diameter of the casings, remote inspection from the inside diameter of the pump casing was mandated.

  3. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Phoenix Refrigeration Systems, Inc.'s heat pipe addition to the Phoenix 2000, a supermarket rooftop refrigeration/air conditioning system, resulted from the company's participation in a field test of heat pipes. Originally developed by NASA to control temperatures in space electronic systems, the heat pipe is a simple, effective, heat transfer system. It has been used successfully in candy storage facilities where it has provided significant energy savings. Additional data is expected to fully quantify the impact of the heat pipes on supermarket air conditioning systems.

  4. A Novel Pre-cooling System for a Cryogenic Pulsating Heat Pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dong; Liu, Huiming; Gong, Linghui; Xu, Xiangdong; Li, Laifeng

    To reduce the influence of the pipe material on the measurement of effective thermal conductivity, the pipe of a cryogenic pulsating heat pipe is generally made of stainless steel. Because of the low thermal conductivity of stainless steel, the pre-cooling of the evaporator in cryogenic pulsating heat pipe using helium as working fluid at 4.2 K is a problem. We designed a mechanical-thermal switch between the cryocooler and the evaporator, which was on during the pre-cooling process and off during the test process. By using the pre-cooling system, the cool down time of the cryogenic pulsating heat pipe was reduced significantly.

  5. Treatment of mixed waste coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Kidd, S.; Bowers, J.S.

    1995-09-01

    The primary processes used at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for treatment of radioactively contaminated machine coolants are industrial waste treatment and in situ carbon adsorption. These two processes simplify approaches to meetings the sanitary sewer discharge limits and subsequent Land Disposal REstriction criteria for hazardous and mixed wastes (40 CFR 268). Several relatively simple technologies are used in industrial water treatment. These technologies are considered {open_quotes}Best Demonstrated Available Technologies,{close_quotes} or BDAT, by the Environmental Protection Agency. The machine coolants are primarily aqueous and contain water soluble oil consisting of ethanol amine emulsifiers derived from fatty acids, both synthetic and natural. This emulsion carries away metal turnings from a part being machined on a lathe or other machining tool. When the coolant becomes spent, it contains chlorosolvents carried over from other cutting operations as well as a fair amount of tramp oil from machine bearings. This results in a mutiphasic aqueous waste that requires treatment of metal and organic contaminants. During treatment, any dissolved metals are oxidized with hydrogen peroxide. Once oxidized, these metals are flocculated with ferric sulfate and precipitated with sodium hydroxide, and then the precipitate is filtered through diatomaceous earth. The emulsion is broken up by acidifying the coolant. Solvents and oils are adsorbed using powdered carbon. This carbon is easily separated from the remaining coolant by vacuum filtration.

  6. Treatment of mixed waste coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Kidd, S.; Bowers, J.S.

    1995-02-01

    The primary processes used at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for treatment of radioactively contaminated machine coolants are industrial waste treatment and in situ carbon adsorption. These two processes simplify approaches to meeting the sanitary sewer discharge limits and subsequent Land Disposal Restriction criteria for hazardous and mixed wastes (40 CFR 268). Several relatively simple technologies are used in industrial water treatment. These technologies are considered Best Demonstrated Available Technologies, or BDAT, by the Environmental Protection Agency. The machine coolants are primarily aqueous and contain water soluble oil consisting of ethanol amine emulsifiers derived from fatty acids, both synthetic and natural. This emulsion carries away metal turnings from a part being machined on a lathe or other machining tool. When the coolant becomes spent, it contains chlorosolvents carried over from other cutting operations as well as a fair amount of tramp oil from machine bearings. This results in a multiphasic aqueous waste that requires treatment of metal and organic contaminants. During treatment, any dissolved metals are oxidized with hydrogen peroxide. Once oxidized, these metals are flocculated with ferric sulfate and precipitated with sodium hydroxide, and then the precipitate is filtered through diatomaceous earth. The emulsion is broken up by acidifying the coolant. Solvents and oils are adsorbed using powdered carbon. This carbon is easily separated from the remaining coolant by vacuum filtration.

  7. 1996 Coolant Flow Management Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hippensteele, Steven A. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    The following compilation of documents includes a list of the 66 attendees, a copy of the viewgraphs presented, and a summary of the discussions held after each session at the 1996 Coolant Flow Management Workshop held at the Ohio Aerospace Institute, adjacent to the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio on December 12-13, 1996. The workshop was organized by H. Joseph Gladden and Steven A. Hippensteele of NASA Lewis Research Center. Participants in this workshop included Coolant Flow Management team members from NASA Lewis, their support service contractors, the turbine engine companies, and the universities. The participants were involved with research projects, contracts and grants relating to: (1) details of turbine internal passages, (2) computational film cooling capabilities, and (3) the effects of heat transfer on both sides. The purpose of the workshop was to assemble the team members, along with others who work in gas turbine cooling research, to discuss needed research and recommend approaches that can be incorporated into the Center's Coolant Flow Management program. The workshop was divided into three sessions: (1) Internal Coolant Passage Presentations, (2) Film Cooling Presentations, and (3) Coolant Flow Integration and Optimization. Following each session there was a group discussion period.

  8. Evaluation of commercially-available spacecraft-type heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, W. B.; Tower, L. K.

    1978-01-01

    As part of an effort to develop reliable, cost effective spacecraft thermal control heat pipes, life tests on 30 commercially available heat pipes in 10 groups of different design and material combinations were conducted. Results for seven groups were reported herein. Materials are aluminum and stainless steel, and working fluids are methanol and ammonia. The formation of noncondensible gas was observed for times exceeding 11,000 hours. The heat transport capacities of the pipes were also determined.

  9. Arterial gas occlusions in operating heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saaski, E. W.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of noncondensable gases on high performance arterial heat pipes has been investigated both analytically and experimentally. Models have been generated which characterize the dissolution of gases in condensate and the diffusional loss of dissolved gases from condensate in arterial flow. These processes, and others, have been used to postulate stability criteria for arterial heat pipes. Experimental observations of gas occlusions were made using a stainless steel heat pipe equipped with viewing ports, and the working fluids methanol and ammonia with the gas additives helium, argon, and xenon. Observations were related to gas transport models.

  10. Pipe crawlers: Versatile adaptations for real applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hapstack, M.; Talarek, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    A problem at the Savannah River Site requires the unique application of a pipe crawler. A number of stainless steel pipes buried in concrete require ultrasonic inspection of the heat affected zones of the welds for detection of flaws or cracks. The paper describes the utilization of an inch-worm motion pipe crawler which negotiates a 90 degree reducing elbow with significant changes in diameter and vertical sections before entering the area of concern. After a discussion of general considerations and problem description, special requirements to meet the objectives and the design approach regarding the tractor, control system, instrument carriage, and radiation protection are discussed. 2 refs., 11 figs. (MB)

  11. Vacuum pipe for e/sup +/e/sup -/ interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hoard, C.T.

    1982-10-01

    The design, fabrication and testing of the beryllium vacuum chamber within the Mark II detector at SLAC is described. The Be chamber encloses one interaction point of the PEP circulating ring and is a part of its beam pipe. The Be chamber is captured within the Secondary Vertex Detector (SVD), a drift chamber, which is in turn centered in the Mark II drift chamber. Both ends of the beryllium pipe are brazed to aluminum/stainless transitions for connection to stainless steel bellows. A concentric radiation-screen liner of titanium foil runs the full length of the beryllium pipe.

  12. Pipe connector

    DOEpatents

    Sullivan, Thomas E.; Pardini, John A.

    1978-01-01

    A safety test facility for testing sodium-cooled nuclear reactor components includes a reactor vessel and a heat exchanger submerged in sodium in the tank. The reactor vessel and heat exchanger are connected by an expansion/deflection pipe coupling comprising a pair of coaxially and slidably engaged tubular elements having radially enlarged opposed end portions of which at least a part is of spherical contour adapted to engage conical sockets in the ends of pipes leading out of the reactor vessel and in to the heat exchanger. A spring surrounding the pipe coupling urges the end portions apart and into engagement with the spherical sockets. Since the pipe coupling is submerged in liquid a limited amount of leakage of sodium from the pipe can be tolerated.

  13. Long life coolant pump technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Design concepts were investigated to improve space system coolant pump technology to be suitable for mission durations of two years and greater. These design concepts included an improved bearing system for the pump rotating elements, consisting of pressurized conical bearings. This design was satisfactorily endurance tested as was a new prototype pump built using various other improved design concepts. Based upon an overall assessment of the results of the program it is concluded that reliable coolant pumps can be designed for three year space missions.

  14. Heat pipe radiators for space. [vacuum tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    An optimized flight-weight prototype fluid-header panel (heatpipe radiator system) was tested in a vacuum environment over a wide range of coolant inlet temperatures, coolant flow rates, and environmental absorbed heat fluxes. The maximum performance of the system was determined. Results are compared with earlier data obtained on a smaller fluid-header feasibility panel, and computer predictions. Freeze-thaw tests are described and the change in thaw recovery time due to the addition of a low-freezing point feeder heat pipe is evaluated. Experimental panel fin-temperature distributions are compared with calculated results.

  15. Vertical reactor coolant pump instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    The investigation conducted at the Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah Nuclear Power Plant to determine and correct increasing vibrations in the vertical reactor coolant pumps is described. Diagnostic procedures to determine the vibration causes and evaluate the corrective measures taken are also described.

  16. Piping Flexibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A NASA computer program aids Hudson Engineering Corporation, Houston, Texas, in the design and construction of huge petrochemical processing plants like the one shown, which is located at Ju'aymah, Saudi Arabia. The pipes handling the flow of chemicals are subject to a variety of stresses, such as weight and variations in pressure and temperature. Hudson Engineering uses a COSMIC piping flexibility analysis computer program to analyze stresses and unsure the necessary strength and flexibility of the pipes. This program helps the company realize substantial savings in reduced engineering time.

  17. Piping Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Burns & McDonnell provide architectural and engineering services in planning, design and construction of a wide range of projects all over the world. In design analysis, company regularly uses COSMIC computer programs. In computer testing piping design of a power plant, company uses Pipe Flexibility Analysis Program (MEL-21) to analyze stresses due to weight, temperature, and pressure found in proposed piping systems. Individual flow rates are put into the computer, then computer calculates the pressure drop existing across each component; if needed, design corrections or adjustments can be made and rechecked.

  18. Doubled-ended breaks in reactor primary piping. [Guillotine breaks

    SciTech Connect

    Holman, G.S.

    1984-10-01

    Results indicate that the probability of double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) in the reactor coolant loop piping of Westinghouse and Combustion Engineering plants is extremely low. It is recommended that the NRC seriously consider eliminating DEGB as a design basis event for reactor coolant loop piping in Westinghouse plants. Pipe whip restraints on reactor coolant loop piping could then be excluded or removed, and the requirement to design supports to withstand asymmetric blowdown loads could be eliminated. It is also recommended that the current requirement to couple safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) and DEGB be eliminated. Recognizing however that seismically induced support failure is the weak link in the DEGB evaluation, it is recommended that the strength of component supports, currently designed for the combination of SSE plus DEGB, not be reduced. The study indicates that the probability of DEGB in reactor coolant loop piping is sufficiently low under all plant conditions, including seismic events, to justify eliminating it entirely as a basis for plant design.

  19. Is stainless steel really "stainless"?

    PubMed

    Porteous, Joan

    2011-06-01

    Initial purchase and replacement costs for surgical instrumentation are significant components in today's operating room budgets. OR staff and medical device reprocessing personnel work together as a team to ensure effective management of this valuable commodity. The purpose of this article is to discuss the composition of stainless steel surgical instruments, to identify processes to minimize damage to instruments caused by staining, corrosion, and pitting, and to utilize that information to describe effective measures to manage instrumentation in both the OR and reprocessing areas. PMID:21823503

  20. Occurrence of nonylphenol and bisphenol A in household water pipes made of different materials.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yang-Chen; Chen, Huei-Wen; Chen, Wen-Ling; Chen, Chia-Yang; Wang, Gen-Shuh

    2015-10-01

    We assessed the occurrence of nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in tap water supplied through polyvinyl chloride (PVC), stainless steel, and galvanized pipes. Water samples were collected from selected households in Taipei and Kaohsiung (Northern and Southern Taiwan, respectively) in different seasons to elucidate the effects of pipeline materials and ambient temperatures on NP and BPA concentrations in tap water. We detected higher concentrations of NP in tap water from households using PVC pipes (64-195 ng/L) than from those using stainless steel pipes (17-44 ng/L) and galvanized pipes (27-96 ng/L). To verify that water can absorb NP and BPA from PVC pipes, we sealed Milli-Q and tap water in PVC and stainless steel pipes to assess the potential release of NP and BPA from the pipes into the water. Both NP and BPA concentrations initially increased with contact time in the PVC pipes, and the concentration profiles during the retention appeared to be more strongly affected by ambient temperatures. Concentration variations in the stainless steel pipes were smaller than those in the PVC pipes. PMID:27624744

  1. Stainless steel recycle FY94 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Imrich, K.J.

    1994-10-28

    The Materials Technology Section (MTS) of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was asked to demonstrate the practicality of recycling previously contaminated stainless steel components such as reactor heat exchanger heads, process water piping and slug buckets into 208 liters (55 gallon) drums and 2.8 cubic meter (100 ft{sup 3}) storage boxes. Radioactively contaminated stainless steel scrap will be sent to several industrial partners where it will be melted, decontaminated/cast into ingots, and rolled into plate and sheet and fabricated into the drums and boxes. As part of this recycle initiative, MTS was requested to demonstrate that radioactively contaminated Type 304L stainless steel could be remelted and cast to meet the applicable ASTM specification for fabrication of drums and boxes. In addition, MTS was requested to develop the technical basis of melt decontamination and establish practicality of using this approach for value added products. The findings presented in this investigation lead to the following conclusions: recycle of 18 wt% Cr-8 wt% Ni alloy can be achieved by melting Type 304 stainless steel in a air vacuum induction furnace; limited melt decontamination of the contaminated stainless steel was achieved, surface contamination was removed by standard decontamination techniques; carbon uptake in the as-cast ingots resulted from the graphite susceptor used in this experiment and is unavoidable with this furnace configuration. A new furnace optimized for melting stainless steel has been installed and is currently being tested for use in this program.

  2. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than $57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was $28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

  3. 37. REDUCTION PLANT DRYER Stainless steel screen cylinder, encased ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. REDUCTION PLANT - DRYER Stainless steel screen cylinder, encased within an outer steel shell (top half missing). As fish were tumbled by the rotating screen, they were cooked and dried by live steam piped into the dryer through overhead pipes. The dryer is mounted on a slight angle, aiding the process by moving the drying fish towards the exhaust end of the dryer. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  4. Stainless Steel Round Robin Test: Centrifugally cast stainless steel screening phase

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, D.J.; Doctor, S.R.; Heasler, P.G.; Burck, E.

    1987-10-01

    This report presents the results of the Centrifugally Cast Stainless Steel Round Robin Test (CCSSRRT). The CCSSRRT is the first phase of an effort to investigate and improve the capability and reliability of NDE inspections of light water reactor piping systems. This phase was a screening test to identify the most promising procedures presently available for CCSS. The next phase will be an in-depth program to evaluate the capability and reliability of inservice inspections (ISI) for piping. In the CCSSRRT, 15 centrifugally cast stainless steel pipe sections containing welds and laboratory-grown thermal fatigue cracks in both columnar and equiaxed base material were used. These pipe specimens were inspected by a total of 18 teams from Europe and the United States using a variety of NDE techniques, mostly ultrasonic (UT). The inspections were carried out at the team's facilities and included inspections from both sides of the weld and inspections restricted to one side of the weld. The results of the CCSSRRT make it apparent that a more detailed study on the capability and reliability of procedures to inspect stainless steel materials is needed to better understand the specific material and flaw properties and how they affect the outcome of an inspection.

  5. Cast Stainless Steel Ferrite and Grain Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Ruud, Clayton O.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Meyer, Ryan M.; Mathews, Royce; Diaz, Aaron A.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2012-09-01

    In-service inspection requirements dictate that piping welds in the primary pressure boundary of light-water reactors be subject to a volumetric examination based on the rules contained within the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI. The purpose of the inspection is the reliable detection and accurate sizing of service-induced degradation and/or material flaws introduced during fabrication. The volumetric inspection is usually carried out using ultrasonic testing (UT) methods. However, the varied metallurgical macrostructures and microstructures of cast austenitic stainless steel piping and fittings, including statically cast stainless steel and centrifugally cast stainless steel (CCSS), introduce significant variations in the propagation and attenuation of ultrasonic energy. These variations complicate interpretation of the UT responses and may compromise the reliability of UT inspection. A review of the literature indicated that a correlation may exist between the microstructure and the delta ferrite content of the casting alloy. This paper discusses the results of a recent study where the goal was to determine if a correlation existed between measured and/or calculated ferrite content and grain structure in CCSS pipe.

  6. Failure investigation of eddystone main steam piping

    SciTech Connect

    DeLong, J.F.; Bynum, J.E.; Daikoku, T.; Ellis, F.V.; Haneda, H.; Rafiee, M.H.; Siddall, W.F.

    1985-10-01

    In March 1983, personnel at Philadelphia Electric's Eddystone No. 1 power plant discovered a through wall leak in the main steam outlet piping. This pipe was designed to carry steam at a pressure of 5300 psi (36,538 kPa) and a temperature of 1210F(654C). The pipe was made of 316 stainless steel and had been operated approximately 130,000 hours at the time that failure was discovered. Subsequent inspection revealed that many OD cracks existed in this piping system. This paper details the investigation into the cause of the failure. The following elements are highlighted: the in-place metallography which successfully used the plastic replica technique; the elasticplastic stress analysis and life prediction techniques carried out to assess probable failure modes and loadings; and the experimental stress analysis which was conducted to confirm analytical hypotheses.

  7. Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Heat Pipes were originally developed by NASA and the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory during the 1960s to dissipate excessive heat build- up in critical areas of spacecraft and maintain even temperatures of satellites. Heat pipes are tubular devices where a working fluid alternately evaporates and condenses, transferring heat from one region of the tube to another. KONA Corporation refined and applied the same technology to solve complex heating requirements of hot runner systems in injection molds. KONA Hot Runner Systems are used throughout the plastics industry for products ranging in size from tiny medical devices to large single cavity automobile bumpers and instrument panels.

  8. Pipe gripper

    DOEpatents

    Moyers, S.M.

    1975-12-16

    A device for gripping the exterior surface of a pipe or rod is described which has a plurality of wedges, each having a concave face which engages the outer surface of the pipe and each having a smooth face opposing the concave face. The wedges are seated on and their grooved concave faces are maintained in circular alignment by tapered axial segments of an opening extending through a wedge-seating member. The wedges are allowed to slide across the tapered axial segments so that such a sliding movement acts to vary the diameter of the circular alignment.

  9. Piping Connector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    A complex of high pressure piping at Stennis Space Center carries rocket propellants and other fluids/gases through the Center's Component Test Facility. Conventional clamped connectors tend to leak when propellant lines are chilled to extremely low temperatures. Reflange, Inc. customized an existing piping connector to include a secondary seal more tolerant of severe thermal gradients for Stennis. The T-Con connector solved the problem, and the company is now marketing a commercial version that permits testing, monitoring or collecting any emissions that may escape the primary seal during severe thermal transition.

  10. Cryogenic piping material selection for the Component Test Facility (CTF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Cyr, William W.

    1991-01-01

    The anticipated high cost of the 8500 psi cryogenic and 15,000 psi gas piping systems used in the CTF at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center led to the consideration of high-strength materials for these piping systems. Based on years of satisfactory service using austenitic stainless steels in cryogenic applications, particularly for hydrogen service, consideration was limited to the austenitic stainless steels. Attention was focused on alternatives to the 304/304L grades of stainless steel traditionally used in these applications. This paper discusses the various considerations that resulted in the decision to continue using 304/304L for the cryogenic piping and the selection of the nitrogen-strengthened 21Cr-6Ni-9Mn alloy (UNS S21903) for the high-pressure gas systems at the CTF.

  11. Experiments on rehabilitation of radioactive metallic waste (RMW) of reactor stainless steels of Siberian chemical plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolpakov, G. N.; Zakusilov, V. V.; Demyanenko, N. V.; Mishin, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    Stainless steel pipes, used to cool a reactor plant, have a high cost, and after taking a reactor out of service they must be buried together with other radioactive waste. Therefore, the relevant problem is the rinse of pipes from contamination, followed by returning to operation.

  12. Strengthening of σ phase in a Fe20Cr9Ni cast austenite stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.Q.; Han, J.; Yang, B.; Wang, X.T.

    2013-10-15

    The strengthening mechanism of σ phase in a Fe20Cr9Ni cast austenite stainless steel used for primary coolant pipes of nuclear power plants has been investigated. The yield and ultimate tensile strengths of aged specimens increased comparing with those of the unaged ones. It was found that the increase of strengths is due to the hard and brittle (σ + γ{sub 2}) structure which decomposed from α phase in the steel. Fracture surfaces of specimens after in situ tensile test showed that the inhibition of (σ + γ{sub 2}) structure on the dislocation movements was more significant than ferrite although cracks started predominately at σ/γ{sub 2} interfaces. The (σ + γ{sub 2}) structure behaves like a fiber reinforced composite material. - Highlights: • The strengthening mechanism of σ phase in a Fe20Cr9Ni CASS is investigated. • The yield and ultimate tensile strengths increase with increasing of σ phase. • The increase of strengths is due to hard and brittle (σ + γ{sub 2}) structure. • The (σ + γ{sub 2}) structure in CASS behaves like a fibre reinforced composite material. • The σ/γ{sub 2} and α/σ/γ{sub 2} boundaries hinder the movement of dislocation.

  13. Phase transformations in aged CF 8 and CF 8M stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, J.; Miller, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanical properties of CF 8 and CF 8M cast stainless steels used for the primary coolant pipes in pressurized light-water nuclear reactors (service temperature about 300C) may be degraded by extended aging at 300 to 400C. Of particular concern is the dramatic loss in impact properties to approximately 15% of the initial value. The cast steels have a duplex microstructure consisting of austenite (el) with 15 to 20% delta-ferrite. The ferrite increases the yield strength and reduces the susceptibility to hot cracking. During aging, the ferrite decomposes spinodally into a fine scaled interconnected network of iron-rich phase and chromium-enriched ' phase. In addition, fine particles of G-phase, a complex silicide, are formed in the ferrite. In some cases, extensive carbide formation at el-delta interfaces occurs. These fine scale phase transformations are believed to be responsible for the degradation of mechanical properties. This paper describes the results of microstructural analysis by atom-probe field-ion microscopy and analytical electron microscopy which provide a powerful combination for a complete characterization of these steels for reliable structure-property correlations.

  14. Mechanical properties of 1950's vintage 304 stainless steel weldment components after low temperature neutron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.L.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.; Thomas, J.K. ); Hawthorne, J.R.; Hiser, A.L. ); Lott, R.A.; Begley, J.A.; Shogan, R.P. . Science and Technology Center)

    1991-01-01

    The reactor vessels of the nuclear production reactors at the Savannah River Site (SRS) were constructed in the 1950's from Type 304 stainless steel plates welded with Type 308 stainless steel filler using the multipass metal inert gas process. An irradiated mechanical properties database has been developed for the vessel with materials from archival primary coolant system piping irradiated at low temperatures (75 to 150{degrees}C) in the State University of New York at Buffalo reactor (UBR) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) to doses of 0.065 to 2.1 dpa. Fracture toughness, tensile, and Charpy-V impact properties of the weldment components (base, weld, and weld heat-affected-zone (HAZ)) have been measured at temperatures of 25{degrees}C and 125{degrees}C in the L-C and C-L orientations for materials in both the irradiated and unirradiated conditions for companion specimens. Fracture toughness and tensile properties of specimens cut from an SRS reactor vessel sidewall with doses of 0.1 and 0.5 dpa were also measured at temperatures of 25 and 125{degrees}C. The irradiated materials exhibit hardening with loss of work hardenability and a reduction in toughness relative to the unirradiated materials. The HFIR-irradiated materials show an increase in yield strength between about 20% and 190% with a concomitant tensile strength increase between about 15% to 30%. The elastic-plastic fracture toughness parameters and Charpy-V energy absorption both decrease and show only a slight sensitivity to dose. The irradiation-induced decrease in the elastic-plastic fracture toughness (J{sub def} at 1 mm crack extension) is between 20% to 65%; the range of J{sub 1C} values are 72.8 to 366 kJ/m{sup 2} for the irradiated materials. Similarly, Charpy V-notch results show a 40% to 60% decrease in impact energies.

  15. Mechanical properties of 1950`s vintage 304 stainless steel weldment components after low temperature neutron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.L.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.; Thomas, J.K.; Hawthorne, J.R.; Hiser, A.L.; Lott, R.A.; Begley, J.A.; Shogan, R.P.

    1991-12-31

    The reactor vessels of the nuclear production reactors at the Savannah River Site (SRS) were constructed in the 1950`s from Type 304 stainless steel plates welded with Type 308 stainless steel filler using the multipass metal inert gas process. An irradiated mechanical properties database has been developed for the vessel with materials from archival primary coolant system piping irradiated at low temperatures (75 to 150{degrees}C) in the State University of New York at Buffalo reactor (UBR) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) to doses of 0.065 to 2.1 dpa. Fracture toughness, tensile, and Charpy-V impact properties of the weldment components (base, weld, and weld heat-affected-zone (HAZ)) have been measured at temperatures of 25{degrees}C and 125{degrees}C in the L-C and C-L orientations for materials in both the irradiated and unirradiated conditions for companion specimens. Fracture toughness and tensile properties of specimens cut from an SRS reactor vessel sidewall with doses of 0.1 and 0.5 dpa were also measured at temperatures of 25 and 125{degrees}C. The irradiated materials exhibit hardening with loss of work hardenability and a reduction in toughness relative to the unirradiated materials. The HFIR-irradiated materials show an increase in yield strength between about 20% and 190% with a concomitant tensile strength increase between about 15% to 30%. The elastic-plastic fracture toughness parameters and Charpy-V energy absorption both decrease and show only a slight sensitivity to dose. The irradiation-induced decrease in the elastic-plastic fracture toughness (J{sub def} at 1 mm crack extension) is between 20% to 65%; the range of J{sub 1C} values are 72.8 to 366 kJ/m{sup 2} for the irradiated materials. Similarly, Charpy V-notch results show a 40% to 60% decrease in impact energies.

  16. Method of manufacturing a heat pipe wick with structural enhancement

    DOEpatents

    Andraka, Charles E.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Moreno, James B.; Rawlinson, K. Scott; Showalter, Steven K.; Moss, Timothy A.

    2006-10-24

    Heat pipe wick structure wherein a stout sheet of perforated material overlays a high performance wick material such as stainless steel felt affixed to a substrate. The inventive structure provides a good flow path for working fluid while maintaining durability and structural stability independent of the structure (or lack of structure) associated with the wick material. In one described embodiment, a wick of randomly laid .about.8 micron thickness stainless steel fibers is sintered to a metal substrate and a perforated metal overlay.

  17. INHIBITING THE POLYMERIZATION OF NUCLEAR COOLANTS

    DOEpatents

    Colichman, E.L.

    1959-10-20

    >The formation of new reactor coolants which contain an additive tbat suppresses polymerization of the primary dissoclation free radical products of the pyrolytic and radiation decomposition of the organic coolants is described. The coolants consist of polyphenyls and condensed ring compounds having from two to about four carbon rings and from 0.1 to 5% of a powdered metal hydride chosen from the group consisting of the group IIA and IVA dispersed in the hydrocarbon.

  18. Organic coolant for ARIES-III

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, D.K. ); Sviatoslavsky, I.; Sawan, M. ); Gierszewski, P. ); Hollies, R. ); Sharafat, S. ); Herring, S. )

    1991-04-01

    ARIES-III is a D-He{sub 3} reactor design study. It is found that the organic coolant is well suited for the D-He{sub 3} reactor. This paper discusses the unique features of the D-He{sub 3} reactor, and the reason that the organic coolant is compatible with those features. The problems associated with the organic coolant are also discussed. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. New portable pipe wall thickness measuring technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascente, Joseph E.

    1998-03-01

    One of the biggest inspection challenges facing many of the process industries; namely the petrochemical, refining, fossil power, and pulp and paper industries is: How to effectively examine their insulated piping? While there are a number of failure mechanisms involved in various process piping systems, piping degradation through corrosion and erosion are by far the most prevalent. This degradation can be in the form of external corrosion under insulation, internal corrosion through a variety of mechanisms, and internal erosion caused by the flow of the product through the pipe. Refineries, chemical plants and electrical power plants have MANY thousands of miles of pipe that are insulated to prevent heat loss or heat absorption. This insulation is often made up of several materials, with calcium based material being the most dense. The insulating material is usually wrapped with an aluminum or stainless steel outer wrap. Verification of wall thickness of these pipes can be accomplished by removing the insulation and doing an ultrasound inspection or by taking x- rays at a tangent to the edge of the pipe through the insulation. Both of these processes are slow and expensive. The time required to obtain data is measured in hours per meter. The ultrasound method requires that the insulation be plugged after the inspection. The surface needs to be cleaned or the resulting data will not be accurate. The tangent x-ray only shows two thicknesses and requires that the area be roped off because of radiation safety.

  20. Probabilistic assessment of decoupling loss-of-coolant accident and earthquake in nuclear power plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, S.C.; Harris, D.O.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes a research project conducted at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to establish a technical basis for reassessing the requirement of combining large loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) and earthquake loads in nuclear power plant design. A large LOCA is defined herein as a double-ended guillotine break of the primary reactor coolant loop piping (the hot leg, cold leg, and crossover) of a pressureized water reactor (PWR). A systematic probability approach has been employed to estimate the probability of a large LOCA directly and indirectly induced by earthquakes. The probability of a LOCA directly induced by earthquakes was assessed by a numerical simulation of pipe rupture of a reactor coolant system. The simulation employed a deterministic fracture mechanics model which dictates the fatigue growth of pre-existing cracks in the pipe. The simulation accounts for the stochastic nature of input elements such as the initial crack size distribution, the crack occurrence rate, crack and leak detection probabilities as functions of crack size, plant transient occurrence rates, the seismic hazard, stress histories, and crack growth model parameters. Effects on final results due to variation an uncertainty of input elements were assessed by a limited sensitivity study. Results of the simulation indicate that the probability of a double-ended guillotine break, either with or without an earthquake, is very small (on the orer of 10/sup -12/). The probability of a leak was found to be several orders of magnitudes greater than that of a complete break.

  1. Impact of working fluids on gravitational heat pipe performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jobb, Marián; Kosa, Ľuboš; Nosek, Radovan; Malcho, Milan

    2016-06-01

    Performance heat pipes depends on several parameters. This article deals with the performance of heat pipes, depending on the working fluid and operating temperature. There is described the essential function of the heat pipe manufacturing process. Stainless heat pipes were made of material AISI 304 and filled with a distilled water and solution of distilled water with silver nitrate, up to 20% of the heat pipe inner volume. Measurements were carried at an operating temperature of 40 °C to 90 °C. The performance was measured on the experimental device. Presented results show the progress of individual measurements and the effect of operating parameters and working fluid on the performance of heat pipes.

  2. Pipe overpack container for trasuranic waste storage and shipment

    DOEpatents

    Geinitz, Richard R.; Thorp, Donald T.; Rivera, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    A Pipe Overpack Container for transuranic waste storage and shipment. The system consists of a vented pipe component which is positioned in a vented, insulated 55 gallon steel drum. Both the vented pipe component and the insulated drum are capable of being secured to prevent the contents from leaving the vessel. The vented pipe component is constructed of 1/4 inch stainless steel to provide radiation shielding. Thus, allowing shipment having high Americium-241 content. Several Pipe Overpack Containers are then positioned in a type B, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approved, container. In the current embodiment, a TRUPACT-II container was employed and a maximum of fourteen Pipe Overpack Containers were placed in the TRUPACT-II. The combination received NRC approval for the shipment and storage of transuranic waste.

  3. An Overview of Long Duration Sodium Heat Pipe Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Ernst, Donald M.; Lindemuth, James E.; Sanzi, James L.; Geng, Steven M.; Zuo, Jon

    2004-02-01

    High temperature heat pipes are being evaluated for use in energy conversion applications such as fuel cells, gas turbine re-combustors, and Stirling cycle heat sources; with the resurgence of space nuclear power, additional applications include reactor heat removal elements and radiator elements. Long operating life and reliable performance are critical requirements for these applications. Accordingly long-term materials compatibility is being evaluated through the use of high temperature life test heat pipes. Thermacore, Inc. has carried out several sodium heat pipe life tests to establish long term operating reliability. Four sodium heat pipes have recently demonstrated favorable materials compatibility and heat transport characteristics at high operating temperatures in air over long time periods. A 316L stainless steel heat pipe with a sintered porous nickel wick structure and an integral brazed cartridge heater has successfully operated at 650C to 700C for over 115,000 hours without signs of failure. A second 316L stainless steel heat pipe with a specially-designed Inconel 601 rupture disk and a sintered nickel powder wick has demonstrated over 83,000 hours at 600C to 650C with similar success. A representative one-tenth segment Stirling Space Power Converter heat pipe with an Inconel 718 envelope and a stainless steel screen wick has operated for over 41,000 hours at nearly 700C. A hybrid (i.e. gas-fired and solar) heat pipe with a Haynes 230 envelope and a sintered porous nickel wick structure was operated for about 20,000 hours at nearly 700C without signs of degradation. These life test results collectively have demonstrated the potential for high temperature heat pipes to serve as reliable energy conversion system components for power applications that require long operating lifetime with high reliability. Detailed design specifications, operating history, and test results are described for each of these sodium heat pipes. Lessons learned and future life

  4. An Overview of Long Duration Sodium Heat Pipe Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Ernst, Donald M.; Lindemuth, James E.; Sanzi, James L.; Geng, Steven M.; Zuo, Jon

    2004-01-01

    High temperature heat pipes are being evaluated for use in energy conversion applications such as fuel cells, gas turbine re-combustors, and Stirling cycle heat sources; with the resurgence of space nuclear power, additional applications include reactor heat removal elements and radiator elements. Long operating life and reliable performance are critical requirements for these applications. Accordingly long-term materials compatibility is being evaluated through the use of high temperature life test heat pipes. Thermacore International, Inc., has carried out several sodium heat pipe life tests to establish long term operating reliability. Four sodium heat pipes have recently demonstrated favorable materials compatibility and heat transport characteristics at high operating temperatures in air over long time periods. A 3l6L stainless steel heat pipe with a sintered porous nickel wick structure and an integral brazed cartridge heater has successfully operated at 650 to 700 C for over 115,000 hours without signs of failure. A second 3l6L stainless steel heat pipe with a specially-designed Inconel 60 I rupture disk and a sintered nickel powder wick has demonstrated over 83,000 hours at 600 to 650 C with similar success. A representative one-tenth segment Stirling Space Power Converter heat pipe with an Inconel 718 envelope and a stainless steel screen wick has operated for over 41 ,000 hours at nearly 700 0c. A hybrid (i.e. gas-fired and solar) heat pipe with a Haynes 230 envelope and a sintered porous nickel wick structure was operated for about 20,000 hours at nearly 700 C without signs of degradation. These life test results collectively have demonstrated the potential for high temperature heat pipes to serve as reliable energy conversion system components for power applications that require long operating lifetime with high reliability, Detailed design specifications, operating hi story, and test results are described for each of these sodium heat pipes. Lessons

  5. Gas release driven dynamics in research reactors piping

    SciTech Connect

    Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov; Roloff-Bock, Iris; Schlicht, Gerhard

    2006-07-01

    Analysis of the physical and chemical processes of radiolysis gas production, air absorption, diffusion controlled gas release and transport in the coolant cleaning system of the research reactor FRM II, which is now being in routine power operation in Munich, Germany, lead to the following conclusions: 1) The steady state pressure distribution in the siphon pipe allows that the horizontal part of the siphon pipe is filled with air. The air is isolated by about 1 m water column from the main pipe of the coolant cleaning system (CCS). This is a stable steady state. It has two positive impacts on the normal operation of the CCS: (a) there is effectively no bypass flow; (b) The air can not be transported through the pipe and therefore no deterioration of the pump performance is expected from the function of the siphon pipe. 2) Radiolysis gas production for coolant, that initially does not contain dissolved air, does not lead to any problem for the system. The gases are dissolved in the coolant at 2.2 bar and are not released for pressures reduction to about 1 bar, which is the minimum pressure in the CCS. 3) Assuming hypothetically a radiolysis gas production for coolant, which initially does contain dissolved air close to its saturation, leads to gas slug formation and its transport up to the pump. This could reduce the pump head and could lead to distortion of the normal operation. Systematic measurement of the hydrogen in the primary system at 100% power indicated, that this state is not realized in the system. The observed H{sub 2} concentration was between 0.016 e-6 and 0.380 e-6 which is of no concern at all. (authors)

  6. Neutron imaging of alkali metal heat pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Kihm, Ken; Kirchoff, Eric; Golden, Matt; Rosenfeld, J.; Rawal, S.; Pratt, D.; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Walker, Lakeisha MH; Voisin, Sophie; Hussey, Dan

    2013-01-01

    High-temperature heat pipes are two-phase, capillary driven heat transfer devices capable of passively providing high thermal fluxes. Such a device using a liquid-metal coolant can be used as a solution for successful thermal management on hypersonic flight vehicles. Imaging of the liquid-metal coolant inside will provide valuable information in characterizing the detailed heat and mass transport. Neutron imaging possesses an inherent advantage from the fact that neutrons penetrate the heat pipe metal walls with very little attenuation, but are significantly attenuated by the liquid metal contained inside. Using the BT-2 beam line at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, Maryland, preliminary efforts have been conducted on a nickel-sodium heat pipe. The contrast between the attenuated beam and the background is calculated to be approximately 3%. This low contrast requires sacrifice in spatial or temporal resolution so efforts have since been concentrated on lithium (Li) which has a substantially larger neutron attenuation cross section. Using the CG-1D beam line at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the first neutron images of high-temperature molybdenum (Mo)-Li heat pipes have been achieved. The relatively high neutron cross section of Li allows for the visualization of the Li working fluid inside the heat pipes. The evaporator region of a gravity assisted cylindrical heat pipe prototype 25 cm long was imaged from start-up to steady state operation up to approximately 900 C. In each corner of the square bore inside, the capillary action raises the Li meniscus above the bulk Li pool in the evaporator region. As the operational temperature changes, the meniscus shapes and the bulk meniscus height also changes. Furthermore, a three-dimensional tomographic image is also reconstructed from the total of 128 projection images taken 1.4o apart in which the Li had

  7. Neutron Imaging of Alkali Metal Heat Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kihm, K.; Kirchoff, E.; Golden, M.; Rosenfeld, J.; Rawal, S.; Pratt, D.; Swanson, A.; Bilheux, H.; Walker, L.; Voisin, S.; Hussey, D. S.; Jacobson, D. L.

    High-temperature heat pipes are two-phase, capillary driven heat transfer devices capable of passively providing high thermal fluxes. Such a device using a liquid-metal coolant can be used as a solution for successful thermal management on hypersonic flight vehicles. Imaging of the liquid-metal coolant inside will provide valuable information in characterizing the detailed heat and mass transport. Neutron imaging possesses an inherent advantage from the fact that neutrons penetrate the heat pipe metal walls with very little attenuation, but are significantly attenuated by the liquid metal contained inside. Using the BT-2 beam line at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, Maryland, preliminary efforts have been conducted on a nickel-sodium heat pipe. The contrast between the attenuated beam and the background is calculated to be approximately 3%. This low contrast requires sacrifice in spatial or temporal resolution so efforts have since been concentrated on lithium (Li) which has a substantially larger neutron attenuation cross section. Using the CG-1D beam line at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the first neutron images of high-temperature molybdenum (Mo)-Li heat pipes have been achieved. The relatively high neutron cross section of Li allows for the visualization of the Li working fluid inside the heat pipes. The evaporator region of a gravity assisted cylindrical heat pipe prototype 25 cm long was imaged from start-up to steady state operation up to approximately 900 °C. In each corner of the square bore inside, the capillary action raises the Li meniscus above the bulk Li pool in the evaporator region. As the operational temperature changes, the meniscus shapes and the bulk meniscus height also changes. Furthermore, a three-dimensional tomographic image is also reconstructed from the total of 128 projection images taken 1.4o apart in which the Li had

  8. Short cracks in piping and piping welds. Semiannual report, October 1990--March 1991: Volume 1, No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkowski, G.M.; Brust, F.; Francini, R.; Ghadiali, N.; Kilinski, T.; Krishnaswamy, P.; Landow, M.; Marschall, C.W.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P.

    1992-04-01

    This is the second semiannual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds research program. The program began in March 1990 and will extend for 4 years. The intent of this program is to verify and improve fracture analyses for circumferentially cracked large-diameter nuclear piping with crack sizes typically used in leak-before-break analyses or in-service flaw evaluations. Only quasi-static loading rates are evaluated since the NRC`s International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) program is evaluating the effects of seismic loading rates on cracked piping systems. Progress for through-wall-cracked pipe involved (1) conducting a 28-inch diameter stainless steel SAW and 4-inch diameter French TP316 experiments, (2) conducting a matrix of FEM analyses to determine GE/EPRI functions for short TWC pipe, (3) comparison of uncracked pipe maximum moments to various analyses and FEM solutions, (4) development of a J-estimation scheme that includes the strength of both the weld and base metals. Progress for surface-cracked pipe involved (1) conducting two experiments on 6-inch diameter pipe with d/t = 0.5 and {Theta}/{pi} = 0.25 cracks, (2) comparisons of the pipe experiments to Net-Section-Collapse predictions, and (3) modification of the SC.TNP and SC.TKP J-estimation schemes to include external surface cracks.

  9. Heat pipe technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A bibliography of heat pipe technology to provide a summary of research projects conducted on heat pipes is presented. The subjects duscussed are: (1) heat pipe applications, (2) heat pipe theory, (3) design and fabrication, (4) testing and operation, (5) subject and author index, and (6) heat pipe related patents.

  10. Cleaning of uranium vs machine coolant formulations

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, S.S.; Byrd, V.R.; Simandl, R.F.

    1984-10-01

    This study compares methods for cleaning uranium chips and the residues left on chips from alternate machine coolants based on propylene glycol-water mixtures with either borax, ammonium tetraborate, or triethanolamine tetraborate added as a nuclear poison. Residues left on uranium surfaces machined with perchloroethylene-mineral oil coolant and on surfaces machined with the borax-containing alternate coolant were also compared. In comparing machined surfaces, greater chlorine contamination was found on the surface of the perchloroethylene-mineral oil machined surfaces, but slightly greater oxidation was found on the surfaces machined with the alternate borax-containing coolant. Overall, the differences were small and a change to the alternate coolant does not appear to constitute a significant threat to the integrity of machined uranium parts.

  11. Gas generation test data and life tests of low temperature heat pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, A. S.; Brown, J. R.; Chang, W. S.; Ponnappan, R.

    1990-06-01

    Functional life tests of thirty low-temperature heat pipes of different design, manufacture, fluid, and envelope combinations are continuing beyond 70,000 hours at Wright Research and Development Center. As originally configured by NASA Lewis Research Center, the intent of this research is to evaluate the commercial heat pipes for long-life applications in spacecraft. Aluminum and stainless steel heat pipes with ammonia, methanol, and refrigerant-21 are being tested in vacuum chambers at 60 C average operating temperature. Tests for gas indicate that considerable amount of noncondensibles accumulate in the aluminum/ammonia heat pipes compared to stainless steel/ammonia pipes. Serious performance deterioration has been observed in three pipes, while the remaining are functioning normally.

  12. Updated pipe break analysis for Advanced Neutron Source Reactor conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Wendel, M.W.; Chen, N.C.J.; Yoder, G.L.

    1994-04-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source Reactor (ANSR) is a research reactor to be built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory that will supply the highest continuous neutron flux levels of any reactor in the world. It uses plate-type fuel with high-mass-flux and highly subcooled heavy water as the primary coolant. The Conceptual Safety Analysis for the ANSR was completed in June 1992. The thermal-hydraulic pipe-break safety analysis (performed with a specialized version of RELAP5/MOD3) focused primarily on double-ended guillotine breaks of the primary piping and some core-damage mitigation options for such an event. Smaller, instantaneous pipe breaks in the cold- and hot-leg piping were also analyzed to a limited extent. Since the initial analysis for the conceptual design was completed, several important changes to the RELAP5 input model have been made reflecting improvements in the fuel grading and changes in the elevation of the primary coolant pumps. Also, a new philosophy for pipe-break safety analysis (similar to that adopted for the New Production Reactor) accentuates instantaneous, limited flow area pipe-break accidents in addition to finite-opening-time, double-ended guillotine breaks of the major coolant piping. This paper discloses the results of the most recent instantaneous pipe-break calculations.

  13. Corrosion resistant process piping changes in economics

    SciTech Connect

    Lain, E.H. Jr.

    1996-07-01

    In recent years, the process piping industry has seen dramatic changes occur in corrosion resistant materials. Some changes have occurred in the form of new and modified materials becoming available. However, the most dramatic changes have occurred in the pricing of some older and well known materials. These economic changes have been dramatic and quick, so much so that the old established budget pricing ``rules of thumb`` used for many years to estimate piping projects are no longer valid. In many instances, the prices of some premium metals (titanium, for example) are now on a comparatively equal basis even with high alloys when all factors including densities, special fabrication requirements and service life are taken into account. The purpose of this paper is to discuss some commonly encountered corrosion resistant piping materials, a brief summary of their chemical and mechanical properties and usage. However, the focus of the paper presented will be economic. It will detail the current raw material prices for high alloys including duplex stainless steels, nickel and nickel alloys, Hastelloys+, as well as the reactive metals, zirconium and titanium. In addition, a typical fabricated piping spool in various diameters will be estimated for all of the above metals and the results plotted in graphical format for quick comparison. Last, a quick method will be presented to estimate as fabricated piping costs if the base material price for pipe is known.

  14. New video probe sees gas pipe abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Swenson, P. )

    1992-04-01

    This paper reports that initial results indicate the PLS 3000 pipeline inspection system can significantly reduce the time and cost required to locate and repair leaks in low-pressure natural gas distribution system without interrupting the flow of gas. The system uses a sealed miniature color TV probe into live low-pressure piping to see the leak and other piping problems, such as water infiltration, pipe distortions, structural cracks, broken or misaligned service connections and the presence of foreign matter. The camera is housed in a sealed stainless steel probe that is 1.96-in in diameter and 5.7-in. long. It can travel up to 6000 linear ft in 3- 4- and 6-in piping from a single 3-ft by 5-ft excavation. The probe enters the pipe through a patented Easy Dual Access fitting. The fitting allows the technician to cut into the pipe, remove the coupon and insert the camera probe under sealed conditions. At the conclusion of the examination, the technician seals the access hole with a gasketed steel band clamp.

  15. High resolution guided wave pipe inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velichko, Alexander; Wilcox, Paul D.

    2009-03-01

    Commercial guided wave inspection systems provide rapid screening of pipes, but limited sizing capability for small defects. However, accurate detection and sizing of small defects is essential for assessing the integrity of inaccessible pipe regions where guided waves provide the only possible inspection mechanism. In this paper an array-based approach is presented that allows guided waves to be focused on both transmission and reception to produce a high resolution image of a length of pipe. In the image, it is shown that a signal to coherent noise ratio of over 40 dB with respect to the reflected signal from a free end of pipe can be obtained, even taking into account typical levels of experimental uncertainty in terms of transducer positioning, wave velocity etc. The combination of an image with high resolution and a 40 dB dynamic range enables the detection of very small defects. It also allows the in-plane shape of defects over a certain size to be observed directly. Simulations are used to estimate the detection and sizing capability of the system for crack-like defects. Results are presented from a prototype system that uses EMATs to fully focus pipe guided wave modes on both transmission and reception in a 12 inch diameter stainless steel pipe. The 40 dB signal to coherent noise ratio is obtained experimentally and a 2 mm diameter (0.08 wavelengths) half-thickness hole is shown to be detectable.

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF PIPES USING ELECTRET ION CHAMBERS

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    The decontamination and characterization of large-bore pipe is difficult because of the various geometries and diameters of pipe and its different material types. A robust decontamination system must be capable of adapting to different pipe diameters (p-eject scope is 6 inches to 24 inches), cleaning surfaces with various surface conditions and material types (i.e., painted, rusted, carbon steel, or stainless steel) and be cost-effective to operate and maintain. The characterization system must be capable of handling the different pipe parameters and detecting contamination on the inside and outside surfaces. It must also operate in a cost-effective manner. Current technology options do not provide a robust system to meet these objectives. The purpose of this project is to verify the need for this technology through determining quantities of pipe available for decontamination (completed FY97), perform a technology screening process to select technologies for decontamination (completed FY97) and characterization (completed FY98), perform treatability studies to collect required performance data (completed FY97), and design and fabricate a prototype system to decontaminate and characterize the internal and external surfaces of large-bore pipe. A field-mobile system capable of performing decontamination and characterization operations will be the main deliverable for this project. A summary of activities completed during FY97 is provided to understand the project development and implementation process.

  17. Flow boiling test of GDP replacement coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S.H.

    1995-08-01

    The tests were part of the CFC replacement program to identify and test alternate coolants to replace CFC-114 being used in the uranium enrichment plants at Paducah and Portsmouth. The coolants tested, C{sub 4}F{sub 10} and C{sub 4}F{sub 8}, were selected based on their compatibility with the uranium hexafluoride process gas and how well the boiling temperature and vapor pressure matched that of CFC-114. However, the heat of vaporization of both coolants is lower than that of CFC-114 requiring larger coolant mass flow than CFC-114 to remove the same amount of heat. The vapor pressure of these coolants is higher than CFC-114 within the cascade operational range, and each coolant can be used as a replacement coolant with some limitation at 3,300 hp operation. The results of the CFC-114/C{sub 4}F{sub 10} mixture tests show boiling heat transfer coefficient degraded to a minimum value with about 25% C{sub 4}F{sub 10} weight mixture in CFC-114 and the degree of degradation is about 20% from that of CFC-114 boiling heat transfer coefficient. This report consists of the final reports from Cudo Technologies, Ltd.

  18. IMPLEMENTATION OF SEISMIC STOPS IN PIPING SYSTEMS.

    SciTech Connect

    BEZLER,P.

    1993-02-01

    Commonwealth Edison has submitted a request to NRC to replace the snubbers in the Reactor Coolant Bypass Line of Byron Station -Unit 2 with gapped pipe supports. The specific supports intended for use are commercial units designated ''Seismic Stops'' manufactured by Robert L. Cloud Associates, Inc. (RLCA). These devices have the physical appearance of snubbers and are essentially spring supports incorporating clearance gaps sized for the Byron Station application. Although the devices have a nonlinear stiffness characteristic, their design adequacy is demonstrated through the use of a proprietary linear elastic piping analysis code ''GAPPIPE'' developed by RLCA. The code essentially has all the capabilities of a conventional piping analysis code while including an equivalent linearization technique to process the nonlinear spring elements. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has assisted the NRC staff in its evaluation of the RLCA implementation of the equivalent linearization technique and the GAPPIPE code. Towards this end, BNL performed a detailed review of the theoretical basis for the method, an independent evaluation of the Byron piping using the nonlinear time history capability of the ANSYS computer code and by result comparisons to the RLCA developed results, an assessment of the adequacy of the response estimates developed with GAPPIPE. Associated studies included efforts to verify the ANSYS analysis results and the development of bounding calculations for the Byron Piping using linear response spectrum methods.

  19. Implementation of Seismic Stops in Piping Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bezler, P.; Simos, N.; Wang, Y.K.

    1993-02-01

    Commonwealth Edison has submitted a request to NRC to replace the snubbers in the Reactor Coolant Bypass Line of Byron Station-Unit 2 with gapped pipe supports. The specific supports intended for use are commercial units designated ''Seismic Stops'' manufactured by Robert L. Cloud Associates, Inc. (RLCA). These devices have the physical appearance of snubbers and are essentially spring supports incorporating clearance gaps sized for the Byron Station application. Although the devices have a nonlinear stiffness characteristic, their design adequacy is demonstrated through the use of a proprietary linear elastic piping analysis code ''GAPPIPE'' developed by RLCA. The code essentially has all the capabilities of a conventional piping analysis code while including an equivalent linearization technique to process the nonlinear spring elements. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has assisted the NRC staff in its evaluation of the RLCA implementation of the equivalent Linearization technique and the GAPPIPE code. Towards this end, BNL performed a detailed review of the theoretical basis for the method, an independent evaluation of the Byron piping using the nonlinear time history capability of the ANSYS computer code and by result comparisons to the RLCA developed results, an assessment of the adequacy of the response estimates developed with GAPPIPE. Associated studies included efforts to verify the ANSYS analysis results and the development of bounding calculations for the Byron Piping using linear response spectrum methods.

  20. Bi-coolant flat plate solar collector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chon, W. Y.; Green, L. L.

    The feasibility study of a flat plate solar collector which heats air and water concurrently or separately was carried out. Air flows above the collector absorber plate, while water flows in tubes soldered or brazed beneath the plate. The collector efficiencies computed for the flow of both air and water are compared with those for the flow of a single coolant. The results show that the bi-coolant collector efficiency computed for the entire year in Buffalo, New York is higher than the single-coolant collector efficiency, although the efficiency of the water collector is higher during the warmer months.

  1. Coolant mass flow equalizer for nuclear fuel

    DOEpatents

    Betten, Paul R.

    1978-01-01

    The coolant mass flow distribution in a liquid metal cooled reactor is enhanced by restricting flow in sub-channels defined in part by the peripheral fuel elements of a fuel assembly. This flow restriction, which results in more coolant flow in interior sub-channels, is achieved through the use of a corrugated liner positioned between the bundle of fuel elements and the inner wall of the fuel assembly coolant duct. The corrugated liner is expandable to accommodate irradiation induced growth of fuel assembly components.

  2. Computing Flows Of Coolants In Turbomachines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meitner, P. L.

    1994-01-01

    Coolant Passage Flow (CPF) computer code developed to predict accurately coolant flow and heat transfer inside turbomachinery cooling passages (either radial or axial blading). Computes flow in one-inlet/one-outlet passage of any shape. Calculates rate of flow of coolant, temperature, pressure, velocity, and heat-transfer coefficients along passage. Integrates one-dimensional momentum and energy equations along defined flow path, taking into account change in area, addition or subtraction of mass, pumping, friction, and transfer of heat. Written in FORTRAN IV.

  3. PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA605. AERIAL TAKEN WHILE SEVERAL PIPE TRENCHES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA-605. AERIAL TAKEN WHILE SEVERAL PIPE TRENCHES REMAINED OPEN. CAMERA FACES EASTERLY. NOTE DUAL PIPES BETWEEN REACTOR BUILDING AND NORTH SIDE OF PROCESS WATER BUILDING. PIPING NEAR WORKING RESERVOIR HEADS FOR RETENTION RESERVOIR. PIPE FROM DEMINERALIZER ENTERS MTR FROM NORTH. SEE ALSO TRENCH FOR COOLANT AIR DUCT AT SOUTH SIDE OF MTR AND LEADING TO FAN HOUSE AND STACK. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2966-A. Unknown Photographer, 7/31/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. Design characteristics of a heat pipe test chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Karl W.; Jang, J. Hoon; Yu, Juin S.

    1992-01-01

    LeRC has designed a heat pipe test facility which will be used to provide data for validating heat pipe computer codes. A heat pipe test chamber that uses helium gas for enhancing heat transfer was investigated. The conceptual design employs the technique of guarded heating and guarded cooling to facilitate accurate measurements of heat transfer rates to the evaporator and from the condenser. The design parameters are selected for a baseline heat pipe made of stainless steel with an inner diameter of 38.10 mm and a wall thickness of 1.016 mm. The heat pipe operates at a design temperature of 1000 K with an evaporator radial heat flux of 53 W/sq. cm.

  5. Authors's reply to `Generation of surface degraded layer on austenitic stainless steel piping exposed to flowing sodium in a loop: inter comparison of long term exposure data', by S. Rajendran Pillai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Vaidehi; Ganesan, V.; Borgstedt, H. U.

    2004-09-01

    This is an elaborate author's reply to a comment `Generation of surface degraded layer on austenitic steel piping exposed to flowing sodium in a loop: inter comparison of long term exposure data' by S. Rajendran Pillai appearing in this proceedings. The basic misunderstanding as seen in the above comment about the mass loss due to sodium exposure, which is reflected throughout the above comment, has been explained in detail in this reply for better understanding of the phenomenon. It is precisely mentioned and understood that Thorley and Tyzack model deals with complete mass loss and not mere degradation. The total mass loss corresponds to mass loss due to wall thinning and that due to degraded layer formation. Though Thorley and Tyzack model is the most pioneering model in the field of sodium corrosion, the inadequacies of this model for materials without molybdenum such as SS 304 with very long exposure in sodium is clearly brought out in this paper. This model has been successfully applied to calculate life of clad tubes, which have relatively short stay in reactor core. Yoshida models are highlighted and compared with our experimental results. Yoshida models are not valid below certain durations owing to the empirical nature of such expressions. Thorley and Tyzack model can be used for SS 316 LN as this alloy contains molybdenum and nitrogen both of which imparts corrosion resistance in sodium. What is required is that one needs to establish the extent to which this model can be applied for materials exposed to high temperatures and very long durations. The details are discussed in this reply.

  6. Coolant passage heat transfer with rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajek, T. J.; Higgins, A. W.

    1985-10-01

    The objective is to develop a heat transfer and pressure drop data base, computational fluid dynamic techniques, and correlations for multi-pass rotating coolant passages with and without flow turbulators. The experimental effort is focused on the simulation of configurations and conditions expected in the blades of advanced aircraft high pressure turbines. With the use of this data base, the effects of Coriolis and buoyancy forces on the coolant side flow can be included in the design of turbine blades.

  7. Ultrasonic pipe assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Graham H.; Morrow, Valerie L.; Levie, Harold; Kane, Ronald J.; Brown, Albert E.

    2003-12-23

    An ultrasonic pipe or other structure assessment system includes an ultrasonic transducer positioned proximate the pipe or other structure. A fluid connection between the ultrasonic transducer and the pipe or other structure is produced. The ultrasonic transducer is moved relative to the pipe or other structure.

  8. Shield For Flexible Pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponton, Michael K.; Williford, Clifford B.; Lagen, Nicholas T.

    1995-01-01

    Cylindrical shield designed to fit around flexible pipe to protect nearby workers from injury and equipment from damage if pipe ruptures. Designed as pressure-relief device. Absorbs impact of debris ejected radially from broken flexible pipe. Also redirects flow of pressurized fluid escaping from broken pipe onto flow path allowing for relief of pressure while minimizing potential for harm.

  9. Dynamic tests of cracked pipe components

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, D.A.; Heald, J.D.; Sharma, S.R.

    1984-02-01

    Dynamic tests were conducted involving notched sections of 4-in. (10-cm) stainless steel and Inconel-600 pipe. The specimen was a four-point bending beam with end masses sized to give an elastic first-mode frequency near that of typical field installed piping systems (15 Hz). Specimens were loaded using sinewave excitation at this first mode natural frequency. Specimen response was compared to predictions from an elastic-plastic dynamic analysis previously developed on this program. In addition, specimen loads at failure were compared to those predicted from a net section collapse failure criterion. The results confirmed that the elasticplastic dynamic analysis adequately predicted the dynamic response of flawed pipes under seismic-type excitation. Furthermore, net section collapse does not occur under dynamic loading conditions which simulate natural frequencies of asinstalled light water reactor piping systems. Finally, a net section collapse criterion yields conservative estimates of the load capacity of flawed pipe sections provided crack growth is properly accounted for.

  10. Analysis of Flow in Pilot Operated Safety and Relief Valve of Nuclear Reactor Coolant System

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Soon-Bum; Lee, Dong-Won; Kim, In-Goo; Ahn, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Hho-Jung

    2004-07-01

    When the POSRV equipped in a nuclear power plant opens in instant by a failure in coolant system of PWR, a moving shock wave generates, and propagates downstream of the valve, inducing a complicated unsteadiness. The moving shock wave may exert severe load to the structure. In this connection, a method of gradual opening of the valve is used to reduce the load acting on the wall at the downstream of the POSRV. In the present study, experiments and calculations are performed to investigate the detail unsteady flow at the various pipe units and the effect of valve opening time on the flow downstream of the valve. In calculation by using of air as working fluid, 2-dimensional, unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved by finite volume method. It was found that when the incident shock wave passes through the pipe unit, it may experience diffraction, reflection and interaction with a vortex. Furthermore, the geometry of the pipe unit affects the reflection type of shock wave and changes the load acting on the wall of pipe unit. It was also turned out that the maximum force acting on the wall of the pipe unit becomes in order of T-junction, 108 deg. elbow and branch in magnitude, respectively. And, the results obtained that show that the rapid pressure rise due to the moving shock wave by instant POSRV valve opening is attenuated by employing the gradual opening. (authors)

  11. Utilizing clad piping to improve process plant piping integrity, reliability, and operations

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravarti, B.

    1996-07-01

    During the past four years carbon steel piping clad with type 304L (UNS S30403) stainless steel has been used to solve the flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) problem in nuclear power plants with exceptional success. The product is designed to allow ``like for like`` replacement of damaged carbon steel components where the carbon steel remains the pressure boundary and type 304L (UNS S30403) stainless steel the corrosion allowance. More than 3000 feet of piping and 500 fittings in sizes from 6 to 36-in. NPS have been installed in the extraction steam and other lines of these power plants to improve reliability, eliminate inspection program, reduce O and M costs and provide operational benefits. This concept of utilizing clad piping in solving various corrosion problems in industrial and process plants by conservatively selecting a high alloy material as cladding can provide similar, significant benefits in controlling corrosion problems, minimizing maintenance cost, improving operation and reliability to control performance and risks in a highly cost effective manner. This paper will present various material combinations and applications that appear ideally suited for use of the clad piping components in process plants.

  12. Nuclear reactor loss of coolant protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Loose, R.A.

    1986-03-18

    A pressurized water reactor system is described of a nuclear power plant having a water storage tank for providing emergency coolant water and means provided external to the containment vessel, for use in the event of a primary loss of coolant situation, to circulate emergency water as a coolant by withdrawal through a wall of the containment vessel and return the same back through the wall of the containment vessel and passing the water through a heat exchange means prior to use as a coolant for the reactor core. The improvement described here consists of: an enslosure, the interior of which is sealed to the atmosphere, positioned adjacent to and exterior of a wall of the containment vessel; an inlet conduit, enclosed within a sealed outer casing, communicating between the interior of the containment vessel and the interior of the enclosure; an exhaust conduit, enclosed within a sealed outer casing, communicating between the interior of the enclosure and the interior of the containment vessel; a rupture disc on the inlet conduit within the enclosure, such that failure of the exhaust conduit within the enclosure will produce an increase of the pressure within the enclosure and above a predetermined pressure will fracture the rupture disc, and will circulate the coolant within the enclosure; and means within the interior of the enclosure for pumping coolant from the interior of the containment vessel through the inlet conduit, and back to the interior of the containment vessel through the exhaust conduit; whereby if either of the conduits should fail, coolant will be collected within the enclosure and sealed to the atmosphere.

  13. Supertough Stainless Bearing Steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Gregory B.

    1995-01-01

    Composition and processing of supertough stainless bearing steel designed with help of computer-aided thermodynamic modeling. Fracture toughness and hardness of steel exceeds those of other bearing steels like 440C stainless bearing steel. Developed for service in fuel and oxidizer turbopumps on Space Shuttle main engine. Because of strength and toughness, also proves useful in other applications like gears and surgical knives.

  14. Investigation on critical heat flux of flow in pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Senyuan

    1990-08-01

    This paper experimentally and theoretically investigates the critical heat flux of flow in pipes. From the analysis of the boiling mechanism and processing by means of the analogy principle of two-phase flow, a criterion equation to express critical heat flux has been derived. Correlated with six different coolants, 355 experimental data, the constant A and exponents K, m, and n are obtained. With a dimensionless correction term to calculate the effect on the varying slotted height of the cooling jacket, the previous equation will be a general equation to calculate the critical heat flux of flow in pipes.

  15. Martensitic stainless steel seamless linepipe with superior weldability and CO{sub 2} corrosion resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Miyata, Y.; Kimura, M.; Koseki, T.; Toyooka, T.; Murase, F.

    1997-08-01

    Two types of new martensitic stainless steel with good weldability and superior corrosion resistance have been developed for line pipe application. Both steels are suitable for welding without preheating owing to lowering C and N contents, and they show good low temperature toughness in welds without PWHT. One is applied to sweet environments. It gives better resistance to CO{sub 2} corrosion than the 13Cr martensitic stainless steel for OCTG. Lowering C and addition of Ni contribute to reduction of general corrosion rate in the CO{sub 2} environment. The addition of Cu improves the pitting resistance. The other is applied to light sour environments. It gives good SSC resistance in welds owing to the improvement of the pitting resistance due to Mo addition. The seamless pipes of these martensitic stainless steels are applicable as substitutes for a part of duplex stainless steel flow lines.

  16. Flexible ocean upwelling pipe

    DOEpatents

    Person, Abraham

    1980-01-01

    In an ocean thermal energy conversion facility, a cold water riser pipe is releasably supported at its upper end by the hull of the floating facility. The pipe is substantially vertical and has its lower end far below the hull above the ocean floor. The pipe is defined essentially entirely of a material which has a modulus of elasticity substantially less than that of steel, e.g., high density polyethylene, so that the pipe is flexible and compliant to rather than resistant to applied bending moments. The position of the lower end of the pipe relative to the hull is stabilized by a weight suspended below the lower end of the pipe on a flexible line. The pipe, apart from the weight, is positively buoyant. If support of the upper end of the pipe is released, the pipe sinks to the ocean floor, but is not damaged as the length of the line between the pipe and the weight is sufficient to allow the buoyant pipe to come to a stop within the line length after the weight contacts the ocean floor, and thereafter to float submerged above the ocean floor while moored to the ocean floor by the weight. The upper end of the pipe, while supported by the hull, communicates to a sump in the hull in which the water level is maintained below the ambient water level. The sump volume is sufficient to keep the pipe full during heaving of the hull, thereby preventing collapse of the pipe.

  17. A Comparison of Coolant Options for Brayton Power Conversion Heat Rejection Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Siamidis, John; Mason, Lee

    2006-01-20

    This paper describes potential heat rejection design concepts for Brayton power conversion systems. Brayton conversion systems are currently under study by NASA for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and surface power applications. The Brayton Heat Rejection Subsystem (HRS) must dissipate waste heat generated by the power conversion system due to inefficiencies in the thermal-to-electric conversion process. Sodium potassium (NaK) and H2O are two coolant working fluids that have been investigated in the design of a pumped loop and heat pipe space HRS. In general NaK systems are high temperature (300 to 1000 K) low pressure systems, and H2O systems are low temperature (300 to 600 K) high pressure systems. NaK is an alkali metal with health and safety hazards that require special handling procedures. On the other hand, H2O is a common fluid, with no health hazards and no special handling procedures. This paper compares NaK and H2O for the HRS pumped loop coolant working fluid. A detailed excel analytical model, HRS{sub O}pt, was developed to evaluate the various HRS design parameters. It is capable of analyzing NaK or H2O coolant, parallel or series flow configurations, and numerous combinations of other key parameters (heat pipe spacing, diameter and radial flux, radiator facesheet thickness, fluid duct system pressure drop, system rejected power, etc.) of the HRS. This paper compares NaK against water for the HRS coolant working fluid with respect to the relative mass, performance, design and implementation issues between the two fluids.

  18. A Comparison of Coolant Options for Brayton Power Conversion Heat Rejection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siamidis, John; Mason, Lee S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes potential heat rejection design concepts for Brayton power conversion systems. Brayton conversion systems are currently under study by NASA for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and surface power applications. The Brayton Heat Rejection Subsystem (HRS) must dissipate waste heat generated by the power conversion system due to inefficiencies in the thermal-to-electric conversion process. Sodium potassium (NaK) and H2O are two coolant working fluids that have been investigated in the design of a pumped loop and heat pipe space HRS. In general NaK systems are high temperature (300 to 1000 K) low pressure systems, and H2O systems are low temperature (300 to 600 K) high pressure systems. NaK is an alkali metal with health and safety hazards that require special handling procedures. On the other hand, H2O is a common fluid, with no health hazards and no special handling procedures. This paper compares NaK and H2O for the HRS pumped loop coolant working fluid. A detailed Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA) analytical model, HRS_Opt, was developed to evaluate the various HRS design parameters. It is capable of analyzing NaK or H2O coolant, parallel or series flow configurations, and numerous combinations of other key parameters (heat pipe spacing, diameter and radial flux, radiator facesheet thickness, fluid duct system pressure drop, system rejected power, etc.) of the HRS. This paper compares NaK against water for the HRS coolant working fluid with respect to the relative mass, performance, design and implementation issues between the two fluids.

  19. A Comparison of Coolant Options for Brayton Power Conversion Heat Rejection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.; Siamidis, John

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes potential heat rejection design concepts for Brayton power conversion systems. Brayton conversion systems are currently under study by NASA for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and surface power applications. The Brayton Heat Rejection Subsystem (HRS) must dissipate waste heat generated by the power conversion system due to inefficiencies in the thermal-to-electric conversion process. Sodium potassium (NaK) and H2O are two coolant working fluids that have been investigated in the design of a pumped loop and heat pipe space HRS. In general NaK systems are high temperature (300 to 1000 K) low pressure systems, and H2O systems are low temperature (300 to 600 K) high pressure systems. NaK is an alkali metal with health and safety hazards that require special handling procedures. On the other hand, H2O is a common fluid, with no health hazards and no special handling procedures. This paper compares NaK and H20 for the HRS pumped loop coolant working fluid. A detailed Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, WA) analytical model, HRS_Opt, was developed to evaluate the various HRS design parameters. It is capable of analyzing NaK or H2O coolant, parallel or series flow configurations, and numerous combinations of other key parameters (heat pipe spacing, diameter and radial flux, radiator facesheet thickness, fluid duct system pressure drop, system rejected power, etc.) of the HRS. This paper compares NaK against water for the HRS coolant working fluid with respect to the relative mass, performance, design and implementation issues between the two fluids.

  20. Cesium heat-pipe thermostat

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, F.; Song, D.; Sheng, K.; Wu, J.; Yi, X.; Yu, Z.

    2013-09-11

    In this paper the authors report a newly developed Cesium Heat-Pipe Thermostat (Cs HPT) with the operation range of 400 °C to 800 °C. The working medium is cesium (Cs) of 99.98% purity and contains no radioisotope. A Cs filing device is developed which can prevent Cs being in contact with air. The structural material is stainless steel. A 5000 h test has been made to confirm the compatibility between cesium and stainless steel. The Cs HPT has several thermometer wells of 220mm depth with different diameters for different sizes of thermometers. The temperature uniformity of the Cs HPT is 0.06 °C to 0.20 °C. A precise temperature controller is used to ensure the temperature fluctuation within ±0.03 °C. The size of Cs HPT is 380mm×320mm×280mm with foot wheels for easy moving. The thermostat has been successfully used for the calibration of industrial platinum resistance thermometers and thermocouples.

  1. Application of LBB to high energy piping systems in operating PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Swamy, S.A.; Bhowmick, D.C.

    1997-04-01

    The amendment to General Design Criterion 4 allows exclusion, from the design basis, of dynamic effects associated with high energy pipe rupture by application of leak-before-break (LBB) technology. This new approach has resulted in substantial financial savings to utilities when applied to the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) primary loop piping and auxiliary piping systems made of stainless steel material. To date majority of applications pertain to piping systems in operating plants. Various steps of evaluation associated with the LBB application to an operating plant are described in this paper.

  2. Reusable pipe flange covers

    DOEpatents

    Holden, James Elliott; Perez, Julieta

    2001-01-01

    A molded, flexible pipe flange cover for temporarily covering a pipe flange and a pipe opening includes a substantially round center portion having a peripheral skirt portion depending from the center portion, the center portion adapted to engage a front side of the pipe flange and to seal the pipe opening. The peripheral skirt portion is formed to include a plurality of circumferentially spaced tabs, wherein free ends of the flexible tabs are formed with respective through passages adapted to receive a drawstring for pulling the tabs together on a back side of the pipe flange.

  3. Failure analysis of a Stirling engine heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas J.; Cairelli, James E.; Khalili, Kaveh

    1989-01-01

    Failure analysis was conducted on a heat pipe from a Stirling Engine test rig which was designed to operate at 1073 K. Premature failure had occurred due to localized overheating at the leading edge of the evaporator fin. It was found that a crack had allowed air to enter the fin and react with the sodium coolant. The origin of the crack was found to be located at the inner surface of the Inconel 600 fin where severe intergranular corrosion had taken place.

  4. Specialist meeting on leak before break in reactor piping and vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholome, G.; Bazant, E.; Wellein, R.

    1997-04-01

    A series of research projects sponsored by the Federal Minister for Education, Science, Research and Technology, Bonn are summarized and compared to utility, manufacturer, and vendor tests. The purpose of the evaluation was to experimentally verify Leak-before-Break behavior, confirm the postulation of fracture preclusion for piping (straight pipe, bends and branches), and quantify the safety margin against massive failure. The results are applicable to safety assessment of ferritic and austenitic piping in primary and secondary nuclear power plant circuits. Moreover, because of the wide range of the test parameters, they are also important for the design and assessment of piping in other technical plant. The test results provide justification for ruling out catastrophic fractures, even on pipes of dimensions corresponding to those of a main coolant pipe of a pressurized water reactor plant on the basis of a mechanical deterministic safety analysis in correspondence with the Basis Safety Concept (Principle of Fracture Exclusion).

  5. Assessment of circumferentially complex-cracked pipe subjected to bending

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, G.; Papaspyropoulos, V.

    1986-10-01

    In this study the validity of various analyses to predict crack initiation, maximum load, and the corresponding displacements for 6.625-inch (168-mm) diameter circumferentially complex-cracked pipe under pure bending was assessed. The results of six pipe fracture experiments on three materials (SA-376 TP304 stainless steel, Inconel 600, and A106 Grade B carbon steel) were used to verify the accuracy of these analytical predictions. Three different sets of analyses were conducted. First, the experimental pipe fracture data were compared with net-section-collapse predicted loads. These comparisons showed that some of the complex-cracked pipes failed at loads 23 to 33% below net-section-collapse predicted loads. Second, J-resistance (J-R) curves were calculated from each pipe experiment using the eta-factor method. These results revealed that the J-R curves from the complex-cracked pipe experiments were significantly less than J-R curves from 0.5T compact (tension) specimens. Furthermore, the pipe J-R curves decreased systematically with increasing ratios of surface crack depth to pipe wall thickness. Third, predictions of loads and displacements in each experiment were made using four different J-estimation schemes. Good agreement was obtained between the predictions and the experimental data up to maximum load. Once past maximum load, however, the J-estimation schemes overpredicted loads and displacements.

  6. Drag reduction in turbulent pipe flow by applied electric potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waskaas, Magne; Daujotis, Vytautas; Wolden, Kjell; Raudonis, Rimantas; Plausinaitis, Deivis

    2006-11-01

    A novel approach to drag reduction is presented on the basis of applied positive electric potentials to a pipe. This has been studied by measuring the pressure drop over a 13.1 m epoxy-coated pipe made of carbon steel, through which water was flowing under conditions of constant flow rate. Potentials were applied between the pipe and the counter electrode located at the pipe inlet. The results show a decrease in the pressure drop (up to 2%) when positive electric DC-potentials in the range 0.6 -- 1.6V were applied to the pipe. However, no significant changes was obtained for applied potentials in the ranges of 0 to 0.6 V, 1.6 to 2.0 V or 0 to -2.0 V. Waterflow through an epoxy coated turbine pipe (length 1562 m, diameter 1 m, total fall 380 m) in a hydroelectric power plant has also been studied. A 1.1 V potential was applied between the pipe and the manlock (made of stainless steel and electrically insulated from the pipe). Results show that the head loss decreased from 45.9 m to 39.8 m at maximum flow rate, which corresponds to a 1.8% increase in the electricity production. Although small, the effect represents the possibility of significant cost savings. The mechanism by which the drag is reduced is not currently understood.

  7. Molecular Design for Cryogenic Magnetic Coolants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Liang; Chen, Yan-Cong; Tong, Ming-Liang

    2016-04-01

    The area of molecular magnetic coolants has developed rapidly in recent years. A large number of competitive candidates have been reported, with the cooling performances chasing each other. In this account, four explicit strategies, namely, increasing ground-state spin, reducing magnetic anisotropy, weakening magnetic interactions, and lowering the molecular weight, are proposed from the theoretical viewpoint towards improving the magnetocaloric effect (MCE). According to this guidance, these successful strategies are discussed to pursue excellent magnetic coolants. This is accompanied by a discussion of the representative examples reported by our group. The magnetic entropy change increases from one compound to another, which in the most pronounced cases is suggestive of being the largest MCE in magnetic coolants. PMID:26929130

  8. Lead Coolant Test Facility Development Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Paul A. Demkowicz

    2005-06-01

    A workshop was held at the Idaho National Laboratory on May 25, 2005, to discuss the development of a next generation lead or lead-alloy coolant test facility. Attendees included representatives from the Generation IV lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR) program, Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, and several universities. Several participants gave presentations on coolant technology, existing experimental facilities for lead and lead-alloy research, the current LFR design concept, and a design by Argonne National Laboratory for an integral heavy liquid metal test facility. Discussions were focused on the critical research and development requirements for deployment of an LFR demonstration test reactor, the experimental scope of the proposed coolant test facility, a review of the Argonne National Laboratory test facility design, and a brief assessment of the necessary path forward and schedule for the initial stages of this development project. This report provides a summary of the presentations and roundtable discussions.

  9. Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds. Semiannual report, October 1991--March 1992: Volume 2, No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkowski, G.M.; Brust, F.; Francini, R.; Ghadiali, N.; Kilinski, T.; Krishnaswamy, P.; Landow, M.; Marschall, C.W.; Rahman, S.; Scott, P.

    1993-05-01

    This is the fourth semiannual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds research program. This 4-Year program began in March 1990. The overall objective of this program is to verify and improve fracture analyses for circumferentially cracked large-diameter nuclear piping with crack sizes typically used in leak-before-break analyses or inservice flaw evaluations. Progress during this reporting period involved: (1) completing two through-wall-cracked pipe experiments and supplementary material property data, (2) an internal circumferential surface-cracked pipe experiment was completed which showed that the R/t effects on the Net-Section-Collapse Predicted loads for surface-cracked pipe to be independent of crack size, (3) the anisotropy investigation showed that pipe dimensions may be as important in determining the out-of-plane crack growth angle as the anisotropy of the toughness, (4) we initiated a probabilistic analysis of LBB to assess the potential changes in the leakage detection criteria in NRC Reg Guide 1.45, and (5) other efforts involved a sensitivity study on the effect of thermal aging of cast stainless steel on the moment-carrying capacity of the pipe as a function of time.

  10. On-Line Coolant Chemistry Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    LM Bachman

    2006-07-19

    Impurities in the gas coolant of the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) can provide valuable indications of problems in the reactor and an overall view of system health. By monitoring the types and amounts of these impurities, much can be implied regarding the status of the reactor plant. However, a preliminary understanding of the expected impurities is important before evaluating prospective detection and monitoring systems. Currently, a spectroscopy system is judged to hold the greatest promise for monitoring the impurities of interest in the coolant because it minimizes the number of entry and exit points to the plant and provides the ability to detect impurities down to the 1 ppm level.

  11. Coolant monitoring apparatus for nuclear reactors

    DOEpatents

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A system for monitoring coolant conditions within a pressurized vessel. A length of tubing extends outward from the vessel from an open end containing a first line restriction at the location to be monitored. The flowing fluid is cooled and condensed before passing through a second line restriction. Measurement of pressure drop at the second line restriction gives an indication of fluid condition at the first line restriction. Multiple lengths of tubing with open ends at incremental elevations can measure coolant level within the vessel.

  12. Experimental investigations on sodium-filled heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorner, S.; Reiss, F.; Schretzmann, K.

    1977-01-01

    The possibilities of producing heat pipes and, especially, the necessary capillary structures are discussed. Several types of heat pipes were made from stainless steel and tested at temperatures between 400 and 1055 deg C. The thermal power was determined by a calorimeter. Results indicate: bubble-free evaporation of sodium from rectangular open chennels is possible with a heat flux of more than 1,940 W/sq cm at 1055 C. The temperature drop along the tube could be measured only at low temperatures. A subdivided heat pipe worked against the gravitational field. A heat pipe with a capillary structure made of a rolled screen was supported by rings and bars operated at 250 W/sq cm heat flux in the evaporating region.

  13. Thermohydraulic responses of a water-cooled tokamak fusion DEMO to loss-of-coolant accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, M.; Tobita, K.; Someya, Y.; Utoh, H.; Sakamoto, Y.; Gulden, W.

    2015-11-01

    Major in- and ex-vessel loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) of a water-cooled tokamak fusion DEMO reactor have been analysed. Analyses have identified responses of the DEMO systems to these accidents and pressure loads to confinement barriers for radioactive materials. As for the in-VV LOCA, we analysed the multiple double-ended break of the first wall cooling pipes around the outboard toroidal circumference. As for the ex-VV LOCA, we analysed the double-ended break of the primary cooling pipe. The thermohydraulic analysis results suggest that the in- and ex-vessel LOCAs crucially threaten integrity of the primary and final confinement barriers, respectively. Mitigations of the loads to the confinement barriers are also discussed.

  14. Heat pipe flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollendorf, S.

    1973-01-01

    OAO 3 heat pipe flight experiments to check out weightlessness behavior are reported. Tested were a hollow channel screen system with helical grooves, a heat pipe with a wicking system of horizontal grooves, and a spiral artery pipe with multichannel fluid return to the evaporator. Flight experiment data proved that all heat pipe geometries containing wicking systems provided uninterrupted fluid return to the condensators during weightlessness and sufficient cooling for isothermalizing optical instruments onboard OAO.

  15. Heat pipes. [technology utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The development and use of heat pipes are described, including space requirements and contributions. Controllable heat pipes, and designs for automatically maintaining a selected constant temperature, are discussed which would add to the versatility and usefulness of heat pipes in industrial processing, manufacture of integrated circuits, and in temperature stabilization of electronics.

  16. Singing Corrugated Pipes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1974-01-01

    Presents theoretical and experimental observations made with a musical toy called Hummer consisting of a corrugated flexible plastic tube about three-feet long and one-inch diam open at both ends. Included are descriptions of three new instruments: the Water Pipe, the Gas-Pipe Corrugahorn Bugle, and the Gas-Pipe Blues Corrugahorn. (CC)

  17. Seawater piping systems designed with AISI 316 and RCP anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Valen, S.; Johnsen, R.; Gartland, P.O.; Drugli, J.M.

    1999-11-01

    Internal cathodic protection by resistor controlled anodes--Resistor controlled Cathodic Protection (RCP)--has been introduced as an alternative method for the prevention of localized corrosion of seawater transportation systems. More than 1000 RCP anodes have been installed in seawater piping systems made from highly alloyed stainless steel which previously had suffered from corrosion. The application of cheaper stainless steels like AISI 316 in combination with RCP anodes results in significant cost savings for the seawater system, and a few systems have been installed. This paper gives a short review of the theoretical background, and a presentation of the experience from some of the installations with these materials and RCP.

  18. NGNP Reactor Coolant Chemistry Control Study

    SciTech Connect

    Brian Castle

    2010-11-01

    The main focus of this paper is to identify the most desirable ranges of impurity levels in the primary coolant to optimize component life in the primary circuit of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), which will either be a prismatic block or pebble bed reactor.

  19. A siphon method of determining resistivities of thin heat-pipe wicks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzoff, S.

    1978-01-01

    A simple siphon method is described for determining the resistivities of thin heat pipe wicks as a function of the pressure difference between the liquid in the wick and the vapor above it. The method was applied to wicks of one layer and two layers of 100 mesh (40 per centimeter) stainless steel screens diffusion bonded to stainless steel substrates. Some possible improvements in the method are suggested.

  20. Design criteria for Waste Coolant Processing Facility and preliminary proposal 722 for Waste Coolant Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-27

    This document contains the design criteria to be used by the architect-engineer (A-E) in the performance of Titles 1 and 2 design for the construction of a facility to treat the biodegradable, water soluble, waste machine coolant generated at the Y-12 plant. The purpose of this facility is to reduce the organic loading of coolants prior to final treatment at the proposed West Tank Farm Treatment Facility.

  1. Use of advanced composite pipe technology to design seawater systems on open type offshore production platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, R.H.; Griffin, S.A.; Pang, S.S.; Cundy, V.A.

    1993-12-31

    Since the 1950`s composite pipe has been considered a viable alternative to carbon steel, stainless steel and copper-nickel pipe in sea water applications. The most obvious benefit of utilizing composite pipe for offshore applications is its excellent corrosion resistance. Case histories exceeding twenty years have been reported in the Gulf of Mexico. A typical example is a water flood system installed by Exxon in block 16 in 1970. In order to utilize composite piping systems for offshore applications more extensively, design procedures, failure criteria, new advanced pipe design, and fire characteristics have been identified. This information can assist the engineer in working within the guidelines established by major industrial groups and regulatory bodies such as The International Maritime Organization, Health Safety Executive, Norwegian Petroleum Directorate and The American Petroleum Directorate. The results of this program has led to the installation of over 3,660 m of advanced composite pipe on the new Corvette Class coastal destroyer.

  2. Improvised source of water coolant for ultrasonic scaler: an appropriate technology in underserved communities.

    PubMed

    Ibiyemi, Olushola; Taiwo, Juliana O; Oke, Gbemisola A

    2012-10-01

    Traditionally dental plaque, calculus and stains have been removed by scaling and polishing manually with hand instruments such as curettes, chisels, hoes and scalers. However, ultrasonic scaling is becoming the preferred method of initial periodontal treatment and maintenance, due to improved patient and operator comfort. Ultrasonic scaling can be performed effectively using pipe-borne water as coolant. However, such a water supply is unavailable in many rural dental clinics, especially in underserved communities in Nigeria. This article reports on an improvised source of water coolant, designed and fabricated to make modern, easy and effective plaque control available to people in communities where there is no pipe-borne water. The device will improve operator efficiency in tooth cleaning and patient compliance with treatment. Due to its simple design but effective function, the device is ideal for use in Nigeria's primary healthcare delivery program, offering enhanced preventive and curative services to remote, rural and semi-urban populations. In doing so oral health can be improved with a reduction in the incidence of oral diseases. PMID:23276120

  3. Parametric study on maximum transportable distance and cost for thermal energy transportation using various coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Su-Jong Yoon; Piyush Sabharwall

    2014-07-01

    The operation temperature of advanced nuclear reactors is generally higher than commercial light water reactors and thermal energy from advanced nuclear reactor can be used for various purposes such as district heating, desalination, hydrogen production and other process heat applications, etc. The process heat industry/facilities will be located outside the nuclear island due to safety measures. This thermal energy from the reactor has to be transported a fair distance. In this study, analytical analysis was conducted to identify the maximum distance that thermal energy could be transported using various coolants such as molten-salts, helium and water by varying the pipe diameter and mass flow rate. The cost required to transport each coolant was also analyzed. The coolants analyzed are molten salts (such as: KClMgCl2, LiF-NaF-KF (FLiNaK) and KF-ZrF4), helium and water. Fluoride salts are superior because of better heat transport characteristics but chloride salts are most economical for higher temperature transportation purposes. For lower temperature water is a possible alternative when compared with He, because low pressure He requires higher pumping power which makes the process very inefficient and economically not viable for both low and high temperature application.

  4. 65. FIRE SUPPRESSION PIPES BEHIND FLAME BUCKET. PIPES TO UMBILICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. FIRE SUPPRESSION PIPES BEHIND FLAME BUCKET. PIPES TO UMBILICAL MAST IN LOWER LEFT CORNER; PIPES TO LAUNCHER IN UPPER LEFT CORNER; PIPES TO FLAME BUCKET IN LOWER RIGHT CORNER OF PHOTOGRAPH. POTABLE WATER PIPING IN UPPER RIGHT CORNER OF PHOTO. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  5. Dynamics and stability of pipes conveying fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.O. . Inst. of Applied Mechanics); Chen, K.C. )

    1994-02-01

    This paper deals with the dynamics and stability of simply supported pipes conveying fluid, where the fluid has a small harmonic component of flow velocity superposed on a constant mean value. The perturbation techniques and the method of averaging are used to convert the nonautonomous system into an autonomous one and determine the stability boundaries. Post-bifurcation analysis is performed for the parametric points in the resonant regions where the axial force, which is induced by the transverse motion of the pipe due to the fixed-span ends and contributes nonlinearities to the equations of motion, is included. For the undamped system, linear analysis is inconclusive about stability and there does not exist nontrivial solution in the resonant regions. For the damped system, it is found that the original stable system remains stable when the pulsating frequency increased cross the stability boundary and becomes unstable when the pulsating frequency decreases across the stability boundary. Practical applications of such a problem are vibrations of heat exchangers, liquid-fuel rocket piping, and nuclear reactor coolant channels.

  6. Solar dynamic heat rejection technology. Task 2: Heat pipe radiator development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    League, Mark; Alario, Joe

    1988-01-01

    This report covers the design, fabrication, and test of several dual slot heat pipe engineering development units. The following dual-slot heat pipes were fabricated and tested: two 6-ft. aluminum heat pipes; a 20-ft. aluminum heat pipe; and a 20-ft. aluminum heat pipe with a four-leg evaporator section. The test results of all four test articles are presented and compared to the performance predicted by the design software. Test results from the four-leg article are incomplete. The methodology for fabricating stainless steel dual slot heat pipes was also studied by performing a tool life test with different single point cutters, and these results are also presented. Although the dual-slot heat pipe has demonstrated the potential to meet the requirements for a high capacity radiator system, uncertainties with the design still exist. The startup difficulties with the aluminum test articles must be solved, and a stainless steel/methanol heat pipe should be built and tested.

  7. Coolant passage heat transfer with rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajek, T. J.; Wagner, J.; Johnson, B. V.

    1986-10-01

    In current and advanced gas turbine engines, increased speeds, pressures and temperatures are used to reduce specific fuel consumption and increase thrust/weight ratios. Hence, the turbine airfoils are subjected to increased heat loads escalating the cooling requirements to satisfy life goals. The efficient use of cooling air requires that the details of local geometry and flow conditions be adequately modeled to predict local heat loads and the corresponding heat transfer coefficients. The objective of this program is to develop a heat transfer and pressure drop data base, computational fluid dynamic techniques and correlations for multi-pass rotating coolant passages with and without flow turbulators. The experimental effort is focused on the simulation of configurations and conditions expected in the blades of advanced aircraft high pressure turbines. With the use of this data base, the effects of Coriolis and buoyancy forces on the coolant side flow can be included in the design of turbine blades.

  8. Articles comprising ferritic stainless steels

    DOEpatents

    Rakowski, James M.

    2016-06-28

    An article of manufacture comprises a ferritic stainless steel that includes a near-surface region depleted of silicon relative to a remainder of the ferritic stainless steel. The article has a reduced tendency to form an electrically resistive silica layer including silicon derived from the steel when the article is subjected to high temperature oxidizing conditions. The ferritic stainless steel is selected from the group comprising AISI Type 430 stainless steel, AISI Type 439 stainless steel, AISI Type 441 stainless steel, AISI Type 444 stainless steel, and E-BRITE.RTM. alloy, also known as UNS 44627 stainless steel. In certain embodiments, the article of manufacture is a fuel cell interconnect for a solid oxide fuel cell.

  9. Chromium-Makes stainless steel stainless

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kropschot, S.J.; Doebrich, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Chromium, a steely-gray, lustrous, hard metal that takes a high polish and has a high melting point, is a silvery white, hard, and bright metal plating on steel and other material. Commonly known as chrome, it is one of the most important and indispensable industrial metals because of its hardness and resistance to corrosion. But it is used for more than the production of stainless steel and nonferrous alloys; it is also used to create pigments and chemicals used to process leather.

  10. Miniature Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Small Business Innovation Research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to Thermacore Inc. have fostered the company work on devices tagged "heat pipes" for space application. To control the extreme temperature ranges in space, heat pipes are important to spacecraft. The problem was to maintain an 8-watt central processing unit (CPU) at less than 90 C in a notebook computer using no power, with very little space available and without using forced convection. Thermacore's answer was in the design of a powder metal wick that transfers CPU heat from a tightly confined spot to an area near available air flow. The heat pipe technology permits a notebook computer to be operated in any position without loss of performance. Miniature heat pipe technology has successfully been applied, such as in Pentium Processor notebook computers. The company expects its heat pipes to accommodate desktop computers as well. Cellular phones, camcorders, and other hand-held electronics are forsible applications for heat pipes.

  11. Piping inspection instrument carriage

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, W.T.; Treanor, R.C.

    1993-09-20

    This invention is comprised of a pipe inspection instrument carriage for use with a pipe crawler or other locomotion means for performing internal inspections of piping surfaces. The carriage has a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly and a central support connecting the two assemblies and for mounting an instrument arm having inspection instruments. The instrument arm has means mounted distally thereon for axially aligning the inspection instrumentation and means for extending the inspection instruments radially outward to operably position the inspection instruments on the piping interior. Also, the carriage has means for rotating the central support and the front leg assembly with respect to the rear leg assembly so that the inspection instruments azimuthally scan the piping interior. The instrument carriage allows performance of all piping inspection operations with a minimum of moving parts, thus decreasing the likelihood of performance failure.

  12. Deployable Heat Pipe Radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, F.

    1975-01-01

    A 1.2- by 1.8-m variable conductance heat pipe radiator was designed, built, and tested. The radiator has deployment capability and can passively control Freon-21 fluid loop temperatures under varying loads and environments. It consists of six grooved variable conductance heat pipes attached to a 0.032-in. aluminum panel. Heat is supplied to the radiator via a fluid header or a single-fluid flexible heat pipe header. The heat pipe header is an artery design that has a flexible section capable of bending up to 90 degrees. Radiator loads as high as 850 watts were successfully tested. Over a load variation of 200 watts, the outlet temperature of the Freon-21 fluid varied by 7 F. An alternate control system was also investigated which used a variable conductance heat pipe header attached to the heat pipe radiator panel.

  13. The application and field experience of high strength 12% Cr centrifugally cast pipe for gas gathering system

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshitake, A.; Teraoka, M.; Torigoe, T.; Amako, S.

    1995-10-01

    Centrifugal cast method is one of the processes to provide high quality seamless pipe. The advantages of the process are (1) heavy wall pipe can be manufactured (2) relatively flexible in material selection for manufacturing pipe. For sweet corrosion environment caused by CO{sub 2} where carbon steels can not be used, centrifugally cast 12% Cr martensitic stainless steel pipes and fittings have been developed. One of the key factors of this material applied to pipeline is the weldability, especially high hardness of the welds or its heat affected zone which causes for brittle rupture as well as stress corrosion cracking of the pipeline. Cast 12% Cr pipe which has high strength with low hardness even at the weld joint has been developed. Besides of the development of straight pipe, several types of fittings have been developed. These pipes and fittings have been used for natural gas gathering lines and booster compression lines in sweet corrosion service.

  14. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, Donald M.

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  15. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, D.M.

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe is described for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  16. Evaluation of engine coolant recycling processes: Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, W.H.

    1999-08-01

    Engine coolant recycling continues to provide solutions to both economic and environmental challenges often faced with the disposal of used engine coolant. General Motors` Service Technology Group (STG), in a continuing effort to validate the general practice of recycling engine coolants, has conducted an in-depth study on the capabilities of recycled coolants. Various recycling processes ranging from complex forms of fractional distillation to simple filtration were evaluated in this study to best represent the current state of coolant recycling technology. This study incorporates both lab and (limited) fleet testing to determine the performance capabilities of the recycled coolants tested. While the results suggest the need for additional studies in this area, they reveal the true capabilities of all types of engine coolant recycling technologies.

  17. External artery heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gernert, Nelson J. (Inventor); Ernst, Donald M. (Inventor); Shaubach, Robert M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An improved heat pipe with an external artery. The longitudinal slot in the heat pipe wall which interconnects the heat pipe vapor space with the external artery is completely filled with sintered wick material and the wall of the external artery is also covered with sintered wick material. This added wick structure assures that the external artery will continue to feed liquid to the heat pipe evaporator even if a vapor bubble forms within and would otherwise block the liquid transport function of the external artery.

  18. Introduction to Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. NCTS 21070-15. Course Description: This course will present operating principles of the heat pipe with emphases on the underlying physical processes and requirements of pressure and energy balance. Performance characterizations and design considerations of the heat pipe will be highlighted. Guidelines for thermal engineers in the selection of heat pipes as part of the spacecraft thermal control system, testing methodology, and analytical modeling will also be discussed.

  19. Internal pipe attachment mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Bast, Richard M.; Chesnut, Dwayne A.; Henning, Carl D.; Lennon, Joseph P.; Pastrnak, John W.; Smith, Joseph A.

    1994-01-01

    An attachment mechanism for repairing or extending fluid carrying pipes, casings, conduits, etc. utilizing one-way motion of spring tempered fingers to provide a mechanical connection between the attachment mechanism and the pipe. The spring tempered fingers flex to permit insertion into a pipe to a desired insertion depth. The mechanical connection is accomplished by reversing the insertion motion and the mechanical leverage in the fingers forces them outwardly against the inner wall of the pipe. A seal is generated by crushing a sealing assembly by the action of setting the mechanical connection.

  20. Internal pipe attachment mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Bast, R.M.; Chesnut, D.A.; Henning, C.D.; Lennon, J.P.; Pastrnak, J.W.; Smith, J.A.

    1994-12-13

    An attachment mechanism is described for repairing or extending fluid carrying pipes, casings, conduits, etc. utilizing one-way motion of spring tempered fingers to provide a mechanical connection between the attachment mechanism and the pipe. The spring tempered fingers flex to permit insertion into a pipe to a desired insertion depth. The mechanical connection is accomplished by reversing the insertion motion and the mechanical leverage in the fingers forces them outwardly against the inner wall of the pipe. A seal is generated by crushing a sealing assembly by the action of setting the mechanical connection. 6 figures.

  1. Underground radial pipe network

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.L.

    1984-04-24

    The network, useful in conducting fluids to underground sites, is an assembly of flexible pipes or tubes, suspended from and connected to a drill pipe. The flexible pipes, assembled in a bundle, are spring biased to flare outwardly in an arcuate manner when a releasable cap on the distal end of the bundle is removed. The assembled bundle is inserted into and lowered down a bore hole. When the cap is released, the pipes flare radially and outwardly. Fluid, pumped into and through the assembly, can be directed into the underground formation for various purposes.

  2. Heat pipe investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshburn, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    The OAO-C spacecraft has three circular heat pipes, each of a different internal design, located in the space between the spacecraft structural tube and the experiment tube, which are designed to isothermalize the structure. Two of the pipes are used to transport high heat loads, and the third is for low heat loads. The test problems deal with the charging of the pipes, modifications, the mobile tilt table, the position indicator, and the heat input mechanisms. The final results showed that the techniques used were adequate for thermal-vacuum testing of heat pipes.

  3. Pipe crawler apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hovis, Gregory L.; Erickson, Scott A.; Blackmon, Bruce L.

    2002-01-01

    A pipe crawler apparatus particularly useful for 3-inch and 4-inch diameter pipes is provided. The pipe crawler apparatus uses a gripping apparatus in which a free end of a piston rod is modified with a bearing retaining groove. Bearings, placed within the groove, are directed against a camming surface of three respective pivoting support members. The non-pivoting ends of the support members carry a foot-like gripping member that, upon pivoting of the support member, engages the interior wall of the pipe.

  4. Heat Pipe Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, William B.; Simon, Justin I.; Webb, A. Alexander G.

    2014-01-01

    When volcanism dominates heat transport, a terrestrial body enters a heat-pipe mode, in which hot magma moves through the lithosphere in narrow channels. Even at high heat flow, a heat-pipe planet develops a thick, cold, downwards-advecting lithosphere dominated by (ultra-)mafic flows and contractional deformation at the surface. Heat-pipes are an important feature of terrestrial planets at high heat flow, as illustrated by Io. Evidence for their operation early in Earth's history suggests that all terrestrial bodies should experience an episode of heat-pipe cooling early in their histories.

  5. Design of Refractory Metal Life Test Heat Pipe and Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. J.; Reid, R. S.; Bragg-Sitton, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    Heat pipe life tests have seldom been conducted on a systematic basis. Typically, one or more heat pipes are built and tested for an extended period at a single temperature with simple condenser loading. Results are often reported describing the wall material, working fluid, test temperature, test duration, and occasionally the nature of any failure. Important information such as design details, processing procedures, material assay, power throughput, and radial power density are usually not mentioned. We propose to develop methods to generate carefully controlled data that conclusively establish heat pipe operating life with material-fluid combinations capable of extended operation. The test approach detailed in this Technical Publication will use 16 Mo-44.5%Re alloy/sodium heat pipe units that have an approximate12-in length and 5/8-in diameter. Two specific test series have been identified: (1) Long-term corrosion rates based on ASTM-G-68-80 (G-series) and (2) corrosion trends in a cross-correlation sequence at various temperatures and mass fluences based on a Fisher multifactor design (F-series). Evaluation of the heat pipe hardware will be performed in test chambers purged with an inert purified gas (helium or helium/argon mixture) at low pressure (10-100 torr) to provide thermal coupling between the heat pipe condenser and calorimeter. The final pressure will be selected to minimize the potential for voltage breakdown between the heat pipe and radio frequency (RF) induction coil (RF heating is currently the planned method of powering the heat pipes). The proposed calorimeter is constructed from a copper alloy and relies on a laminar flow water-coolant channel design to absorb and transport energy

  6. Analysis of experiments on stainless steel flux welds

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkowski, G.; Ahmad, J.; Brust, F.; Guerrieri, D.; Kramer, G.; Kulhowvick, G.; Landow, M.; Marschall, C.; Nakagaki, M.; Papaspyropoulos, V.

    1987-04-01

    This report describes experimental and analytical efforts to evaluate fracture of stainless steel flux-welded pipe. Seven pipe fracture experiments (four with through-wall circumferential cracks and three with circumferential internal surface cracks) were conducted at 550/sup 0/F (288/sup 0/C). Material characterization efforts involved laboratory specimen tests to assess specimen size effects, effects of solution-annealing, and crack-growth behavior in the HAZ, along the fusion line, and in the weld metal. Efforts involved assessing the net-section-collapse analysis, the plastic-zone screening criterion, inherent safety margins in the IWB-3640 flux weld analysis, through-wall-cracked pipe predictive J-estimation schemes for LBB analyses, eta-factor J-R curves calculated from the pipe experiments for comparison to C(T) specimen results, and finite element analysis of C(T) specimens and one pipe experiment. This report also evaluates the technical significance of these results and their significance relative to licensing decisions.

  7. Cold Start of a Radiator Equipped with Titanium-Water Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Sanzi, James L.; Siamidis, John

    2008-01-01

    Radiator panels utilizing titanium-water heat pipes are being considered for lunar applications. A traditional sandwich structure is envisioned where heat pipes are embedded between two high thermal conductivity face sheets. The heat pipe evaporators are to be thermally connected to the heat source through one or more manifolds containing coolant. Initial radiator operation on the lunar surface would likely follow a cold soak where the water in the heat pipes is purposely frozen. To achieve heat pipe operation, it will be necessary to thaw the heat pipes. One option is to allow the sunlight impinging on the surface at sunrise to achieve this goal. Testing was conducted in a thermal vacuum chamber to simulate the lunar sunrise and additional modeling was conducted to identify steady-state and transient response. It was found that sunlight impinging on the radiator surface at sunrise was insufficient to solely achieve the goal of thawing the water in the heat pipes. However, starting from a frozen condition was accomplished successfully by applying power to the evaporators. Start up in this fashion was demonstrated without evaporator dryout. Concern is raised over thawing thermosyphons, vertical heat pipes operating in a gravity field, with no wick in the condenser section. This paper presents the results of the simulated cold start study and identifies future work to support radiator panels equipped with titanium-water heat pipes.

  8. Sensitization of stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagy, James P.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this experiment is to determine the corrosion rates of 18-8 stainless steels that have been sensitized at various temperatures and to show the application of phase diagrams. The laboratory instructor will assign each student a temperature, ranging from 550 C to 1050 C, to which the sample will be heated. Further details of the experimental procedure are detailed.

  9. Welding of Stainless Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, H; Johnson, Lawrence

    1929-01-01

    It would appear that welds in some stainless steels, heat-treated in some practicable way, will probably be found to have all the resistance to corrosion that is required for aircraft. Certainly these structures are not subjected to the severe conditions that are found in chemical plants.

  10. A technique for making clean holes in metallic piping and components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecker, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    Testing was conducted to develop a technique of providing clean holes in process piping or in a metal surface accessible from one side only without disassembling the system. The method was performed on sample pieces of piping and worked successfully with no contaminants being found on the inside of the pipe. The materials tested were Inconel 600, 304 stainless steel, Hastelloy X, and ASTM-A53 black steel. The technique was developed such that it could be done in the field with hand-held power tools and a portable tungsten inert gas welding machine.

  11. Analysis of Loss-of-Coolant Accidents in the NBSR

    SciTech Connect

    Baek J. S.; Cheng L.; Diamond, D.

    2014-05-23

    This report documents calculations of the fuel cladding temperature during loss-of-coolant accidents in the NBSR. The probability of a pipe failure is small and procedures exist to minimize the loss of water and assure emergency cooling water flows into the reactor core during such an event. Analysis in the past has shown that the emergency cooling water would provide adequate cooling if the water filled the flow channels within the fuel elements. The present analysis is to determine if there is adequate cooling if the water drains from the flow channels. Based on photographs of how the emergency water flows into the fuel elements from the distribution pan, it can be assumed that this water does not distribute uniformly across the flow channels but rather results in a liquid film flowing downward on the inside of one of the side plates in each fuel element and only wets the edges of the fuel plates. An analysis of guillotine breaks shows the cladding temperature remains below the blister temperature in fuel plates in the upper section of the fuel element. In the lower section, the fuel plates are also cooled by water outside the element that is present due to the hold-up pan and temperatures are lower than in the upper section. For small breaks, the simulation results show that the fuel elements are always cooled on the outside even in the upper section and the cladding temperature cannot be higher than the blister temperature. The above results are predicated on assumptions that are examined in the study to see their influence on fuel temperature.

  12. These Pipes Are "Happening"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The author is blessed with having the water pipes for the school system in her office. In this article, the author describes how the breaking of the pipes had led to a very worthwhile art experience for her students. They practiced contour and shaded drawing techniques, reviewed patterns and color theory, and used their reasoning skills--all while…

  13. Heat pipe methanator

    DOEpatents

    Ranken, William A.; Kemme, Joseph E.

    1976-07-27

    A heat pipe methanator for converting coal gas to methane. Gravity return heat pipes are employed to remove the heat of reaction from the methanation promoting catalyst, transmitting a portion of this heat to an incoming gas pre-heat section and delivering the remainder to a steam generating heat exchanger.

  14. Extendable pipe crawler

    DOEpatents

    Hapstack, Mark

    1991-01-01

    A pipe crawler having a front leg assembly and a back leg assembly connected together by two air cylinders, each leg assembly having four extendable legs and a pair of actuators for sliding the extendable legs radially outward to increase the range of the legs when the pipe crawler enters a section of a pipe having a larger diameter. The crawler crawls by "inchworm"-like motion, the front leg assembly and back leg assembly alternately engaging and disengaging the wall of the pipe to hold the pipe crawler as the air cylinders alternately advance the front leg assembly and bring up the rear leg assembly. The pair of actuators of each leg assembly are parallel, adjacent and opposing acting so that each slides two adjacent extendable legs radially outward.

  15. Extendable pipe crawler

    DOEpatents

    Hapstack, M.

    1991-05-28

    A pipe crawler is described having a front leg assembly and a back leg assembly connected together by two air cylinders, each leg assembly having four extendable legs and a pair of actuators for sliding the extendable legs radially outward to increase the range of the legs when the pipe crawler enters a section of a pipe having a larger diameter. The crawler crawls by inchworm'-like motion, the front leg assembly and back leg assembly alternately engaging and disengaging the wall of the pipe to hold the pipe crawler as the air cylinders alternately advance the front leg assembly and bring up the rear leg assembly. The pair of actuators of each leg assembly are parallel, adjacent and opposing acting so that each slides two adjacent extendable legs radially outward. 5 figures.

  16. Cryogenic-coolant He-4-superconductor interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caspi, S.; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, Y. I.; Allen, R. J.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    1978-01-01

    The thermodynamic and thermal interaction between a type 2 composite alloy and cryo-coolant He4 was studied with emphasis on post quench phenomena of formvar coated conductors. The latter were investigated using a heater simulation technique. Overall heat transfer coefficients were evaluated for the quench onset point. Heat flux densities were determined for phenomena of thermal switching between a peak and a recovery value. The study covered near saturated liquid, pressurized He4, both above and below the lambda transition, and above and below the thermodynamic critical pressure. In addition, friction coefficients for relative motion between formvar insulated conductors were determined.

  17. Secondary coolant circuit for nuclear-reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Brachet, A.

    1981-10-06

    A secondary coolant circuit for a nuclear-reactor of the liquid metal cooled type is described. The circuit comprises at least one intermediate exchanger mounted in the vessel of said reactor, Also included is a steam-generator for the exchange of calories between the secondary liquid-metal flowing through said secondary circuit and water-steam, at least one pump for circulating said secondary sodium and one tank for storing said secondary liquid-metal andrecovering those products generated by a possible liquid-metal-water reaction in said steam-generator.

  18. Nuclear fuel assembly with coolant conducting tube

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlap, T. G.; Cearley, J. E.; Jameson, W. G. Jr.; Mefford, C. R.; Nelson, H. L.

    1983-12-13

    In a nuclear fuel assembly having a coolant conducting or water tube which also retains the spacers in axial position, the fuel rods experience greater axial growth with exposure than the water tube creating a risk that the water tube might become disengaged from the supporting tie plates. An arrangement for preventing such disengagement is described including lengthened end plug shanks for the water tube, a protective boss surrounding the lower end plug shank to protect it from flow induced vibration, a conical seat for the lower end plug and an arrangement for limiting upward movement of the water tube.

  19. Finite element residual stress analysis of induction heating bended ferritic steel piping

    SciTech Connect

    Kima, Jong Sung; Kim, Kyoung-Soo; Oh, Young-Jin; Chang, Hyung-Young; Park, Heung-Bae

    2014-10-06

    Recently, there is a trend to apply the piping bended by induction heating process to nuclear power plants. Residual stress can be generated due to thermo-mechanical mechanism during the induction heating bending process. It is well-known that the residual stress has important effect on crack initiation and growth. The previous studies have focused on the thickness variation. In part, some studies were performed for residual stress evaluation of the austenitic stainless steel piping bended by induction heating. It is difficult to find the residual stresses of the ferritic steel piping bended by the induction heating. The study assessed the residual stresses of induction heating bended ferriticsteel piping via finite element analysis. As a result, it was identified that high residual stresses are generated on local outersurface region of the induction heating bended ferritic piping.

  20. Guided waves based diagnostic imaging of circumferential cracks in small-diameter pipe.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kehai; Wu, Zhanjun; Jiang, Youqiang; Wang, Yishou; Zhou, Kai; Chen, Yingpu

    2016-02-01

    To improve the safety and reliability of pipeline structures, much work has been done using ultrasonic guided waves methods for pipe inspection. Though good for evaluating the defects in the pipes, most of the methods lack the capability to precisely identify the defects in the pipe features like welds or supports. Therefore, a novel guided wave based cross-sectional diagnostic imaging algorithm was developed to improve the ability of circumferential cracks identification in the pipe features. To ensure the accuracy of the imaging, an angular profile-based frequency selection method is presented. As validation, the approach was employed to identify the presence and location of a small circumferential crack with 1.13% cross sectional area (CSA) in the welding zone of a 48 mm diameter type 304 stainless steel pipe. Accurate identification results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the developed approach. PMID:26548527

  1. Design and demonstration of a high-temperature, deployable, membrane heat-pipe radiator element

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo, V.L.; Keddy, E.S.; Merrigan, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Demonstration of a high-temperature, deployable, membrane heat-pipe radiator element has been conducted. Membrane heat pipes offer the potential for compact storage, ease of transportation, self-deployment, and a high specific radiator performance (kg/kW) for use in thermal reflection systems of space nuclear power plants. A demonstration heat pipe 8-cm wide and 100-cm long was fabricated. The heat pipe containment and wick structure were made of stainless steel and sodium used as the working fluid. The tests demonstrated passive deployment of the high-temperature membrane radiator, simulating a single segment in a flat array, at a temperature of 800 K. Details of test procedures and results of the tests are presented in this paper together with a discussion of the design and development of a full-scale, segmented high-temperature, deployable membrane heat pipe. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Fracture evaluations of fusion line cracks in nuclear pipe bimetallic welds

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, P.; Francini, R.; Rahman, S.; Rosenfield, A.; Wilkowski, G.

    1995-04-01

    In both BWRs and PWRs there are many locations where carbon steel pipe or components are joined to stainless steel pipe or components with a bimetallic weld. The objective of the research described in this report was to assess the accuracy of current fracture analyses for the case of a crack along a carbon steel to austenitic weld fusion line. To achieve the program objective, material property data and data from a large-diameter pipe fracture experiment were developed to assess current analytical methods. The bimetallic welds evaluated in this program were bimetallic welds obtained from a cancelled Combustion Engineering plant. The welds joined sections of the carbon steel cold-leg piping system to stainless steel safe ends that were to be welded to stainless steel pump housings. The major conclusion drawn as a result of these efforts was that the fracture behavior of the bimetallic weld evaluated in this program could be evaluated with reasonable accuracy using the strength and toughness properties of the carbon steel pipe material in conjunction with conventional elastic-plastic fracture mechanics or limit-load analyses. This may not be generally true for all bimetallic welds, as discussed in this report.

  3. A Heated Tube Facility for Rocket Coolant Channel Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James M.; Pease, Gary M.; Meyer, Michael L.

    1995-01-01

    The capabilities of a heated tube facility used for testing rocket engine coolant channels at the NASA Lewis Research Center are presented. The facility uses high current, low voltage power supplies to resistively heat a test section to outer wall temperatures as high as 730 C (1350 F). Liquid or gaseous nitrogen, gaseous helium, or combustible liquids can be used as the test section coolant. The test section is enclosed in a vacuum chamber to minimize heat loss to the surrounding system. Test section geometry, size, and material; coolant properties; and heating levels can be varied to generate heat transfer and coolant performance data bases.

  4. Piping stress handbook. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Helguero, V.

    1986-01-01

    This abridged volume contains the following: Coefficients of thermal expansion. Allowable stress range for ANSI/ASME Power Piping Code B31.1. Stress intensification and flexibility factors. Pressure and stress ratios. Design criteria for allowable loads, moment, and stresses. Properties of pipe. Weight and dimensions of pipe and components. Pipe support selection and design. Fundamentals of expansion joints. Index.

  5. Experimenting with a "Pipe" Whistle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Olga

    2012-01-01

    A simple pipe whistle can be made using pieces of PVC pipe. The whistle can be used to measure the resonant frequencies of open or closed pipes. A slightly modified version of the device can be used to also investigate the interesting dependence of the sound frequencies produced on the orifice-to-edge distance. The pipe whistle described here…

  6. Flexible ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, C.F.; Howard, B.D.

    1994-01-01

    Pipe crawlers, pipe inspection {open_quotes}rabbits{close_quotes} and similar vehicles are widely used for inspecting the interior surfaces of piping systems, storage tanks and process vessels for damaged or flawed structural features. This paper describes the design of a flexible, modular ultrasonic pipe inspection apparatus.

  7. An electrohydrodynamic heat pipe.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    A heat pipe of new design, using an electrode structure to orient and guide the dielectric liquid phase flow, is proposed. Analysis indicates that the operation of the electrohydrodynamic heat pipe is in direct analogy to capillary devices, with the polarization force acting in place of capillarity. Advantages of these new heat pipes include greatly reduced liquid friction, electrohydrodynamically enhanced evaporation and condensation heat transfer, and a possible voltage-controlled on/off feature. Preliminary calculations indicate that relatively high performance devices are possible.

  8. Electrohydrodynamic heat pipes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. B.

    1973-01-01

    An electrohydrodynamic heat pipe of radical design is proposed which substitutes polarization electrohydrodynamic force effects for capillarity in collecting, guiding, and pumping a condensate liquid phase. The discussed device is restricted to the use of dielectric liquids as working fluids. Because of the relatively poor thermal transport properties of these liquids, capillary heat pipes using these liquids have not been high performance devices. The employment of the electrohydrodynamic concept should enhance this performance and help fill the performance gap that exists in the temperature range from 250 F to 750 F for 'conventional' capillary heat pipes.

  9. Gas pipe explorer robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A gas pipe explorer formed of a plurality of connecting elements, and an articulation element between the connected elements. The connected elements include drive capabilities, and the articulation element allows the connected elements to traverse gas pipes of arbitrary shapes and sizes. A sensor may sends the characteristics of the gas pipe, and the communication element may send back those sends characteristics. The communication can be wired, over a tether connecting the device to a remote end. Alternatively, the connection can be wireless, driven by either a generator or a battery.

  10. Methods for incorporating effects of LWR coolant environment into ASME code fatigue evaluations.

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O. K.

    1999-04-15

    The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. Appendix I to Section HI of the Code specifies design fatigue curves for structural materials. However, the effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves. Recent test data illustrate potentially significant effects of LWR environments on the fatigue resistance of carbon and low-alloy steels and austenitic stainless steels (SSs). Under certain loading and environmental conditions, fatigue lives of carbon and low-alloy steels can be a factor of {approx}70 lower in an LWR environment than in air. These results raise the issue of whether the design fatigue curves in Section III are appropriate for the intended purpose. This paper presents the two methods that have been proposed for incorporating the effects of LWR coolant environments into the ASME Code fatigue evaluations. The mechanisms of fatigue crack initiation in carbon and low-alloy steels and austenitic SSs in LWR environments are discussed.

  11. In-vessel ITER tubing failure rates for selected materials and coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, T.D.; Cadwallader, L.C.

    1994-03-01

    Several materials have been suggested for fabrication of ITER in-vessel coolant tubing: beryllium, copper, Inconel, niobium, stainless steel, titanium, and vanadium. This report generates failure rates for the materials to identify the best performer from an operational safety and availability perspective. Coolant types considered in this report are helium gas, liquid lithium, liquid sodium, and water. Failure rates for the materials are generated by including the influence of ITER`s operating environment and anticipated tubing failure mechanisms with industrial operating experience failure rates. The analyses define tubing failure mechanisms for ITER as: intergranular attack, flow erosion, helium induced swelling, hydrogen damage, neutron irradiation embrittlement, cyclic fatigue, and thermal cycling. K-factors, multipliers, are developed to model each failure mechanism and are applied to industrial operating experience failure rates to generate tubing failure rates for ITER. The generated failure rates identify the best performer by its expected reliability. With an average leakage failure rate of 3.1e-10(m-hr){sup {minus}1}and an average rupture failure rate of 3.1e-11(m-hr){sup {minus}1}, titanium proved to be the best performer of the tubing materials. The failure rates generated in this report are intended to serve as comparison references for design safety and optimization studies. Actual material testing and analyses are required to validate the failure rates.

  12. Degraded piping program: Phase II: Sixth program report, October 1986--September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkowski, G.M.; Ahmad, J.; Barnes, C.R.; Brust, F.; Ghadiali, N.; Guerrieri, D.; Kramer, G.; Landow, M.; Marschall, C.W.; Nakagaki, M.; Olson, R.; Papaspyropoulos, V.; Rosenfeld, M.; Scott, P.

    1988-04-01

    Presented herein is an Annual Report of the US NRC's Degraded Piping Program---Phase II. This is the sixth program report on this program. Prior reports were semiannual reports. The intent of this program is to experimentally validate and enhance available analytical methods for evaluating the mechanical behavior of nuclear power plant piping containing circumferentially oriented defects. Fifty-seven pipe experiments have been conducted to date. These and approximately fifty additional pipe experiments from other programs have been analyzed. In the analytical effort, a screening criterion has been developed to show when the net-section-collapse analysis is valid. This shows that even though materials such as stainless steel can fail at less than net-section-collapse loads if the pipe diameter is sufficiently large. Numerous predictive J-estimation schemes have been evaluated and modified. A finite length surface-cracked pipe estimation scheme has also been developed and incorporated into a computer code called NRCPIPE. This code provides a convenient way of analyzing cracked pipe with a number of currently accepted analytical methods. Supporting research efforts involve investigating geometry effects on J-R curves, as well as characterizing the material properties for each pipe tested. The significance of all of the efforts to date relative to pipe fracture analyses and flaw assessment criteria are discussed.

  13. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2005-07-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. Bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple castiron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs with the pipe in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, minimize excavation, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of old cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct safe repair operations on live mains.

  14. AutoPIPE Extract Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, Barbara E.

    1993-07-02

    The AutoPIPE Extract Program (APEX) provides an interface between CADAM (Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing) Release 21 drafting software and the AutoPIPE, Version 4.4, piping analysis program. APEX produces the AutoPIPE batch input file that corresponds to the piping shown in a CADAM model. The card image file contains header cards, material cards, and pipe cross section cards as well as tee, bend, valve, and flange cards. Node numbers are automatically generated. APEX processes straight pipe, branch lines and ring geometries.

  15. Improved Thin, Flexible Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Gernert, Nelson J.; Sarraf, David B.; Wollen, Peter J.; Surina, Frank C.; Fale, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Flexible heat pipes of an improved type are fabricated as layers of different materials laminated together into vacuum- tight sheets or tapes. In comparison with prior flexible heat pipes, these flexible heat pipes are less susceptible to leakage. Other advantages of these flexible heat pipes, relative to prior flexible heat pipes, include high reliability and greater ease and lower cost of fabrication. Because these heat pipes are very thin, they are highly flexible. When coated on outside surfaces with adhesives, these flexible heat pipes can be applied, like common adhesive tapes, to the surfaces of heat sinks and objects to be cooled, even if those surfaces are curved.

  16. AutoPIPE Extract Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1993-07-02

    The AutoPIPE Extract Program (APEX) provides an interface between CADAM (Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing) Release 21 drafting software and the AutoPIPE, Version 4.4, piping analysis program. APEX produces the AutoPIPE batch input file that corresponds to the piping shown in a CADAM model. The card image file contains header cards, material cards, and pipe cross section cards as well as tee, bend, valve, and flange cards. Node numbers are automatically generated. APEX processes straightmore » pipe, branch lines and ring geometries.« less

  17. Consequences of pipe ruptures in metal fueled, liquid metal cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, F.E.

    1990-01-01

    The capability to simulate pipe ruptures has recently been added to the SASSYS-1 LMR systems analysis code. Using this capability, the consequences of severe pipe ruptures in both loop-type and pool-type reactors using metal fuel were investigated. With metal fuel, if the control rods scram then either type of reactor can easily survive a complete double-ended break of a single pipe; although, as might be expected, the consequences are less severe for a pool-type reactor. A pool-type reactor can even survive a protected simultaneous breaking of all of its inlet pipes without boiling of the coolant or melting of the fuel or cladding. 2 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Evaluation of tantalum 316 stainless steel transition joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    Tubular transition joints providing a metallurgically bonded connection between tantalum and 316 stainless steel pipe sections were comparatively evaluated for durability under thermal cycling conditions approximating the operation of a SNAP-8 mercury boiler. Both coextruded and vacuum brazed transition joints of 50mm (2 inch) diameter were tested by thermal cycling 100 times between 730 C and 120 C(1350 F and 250 F) in a high vacuum environment. The twelve evaluated transition joints survived the full test sequence without developing leaks, although liquid penetrant bond line indications eventually developed in all specimens. The brazed transition joints exhibited the best dimensional stability and bond line durability.

  19. Outgassing characteristics and microstructure of an electropolished stainless steel surface

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimura, N.; Sato, T.; Adachi, S.; Kanazawa, T. )

    1990-03-01

    Outgassing characteristics of an electropolished stainless steel (304) pipe wall were investigated by an isolation method. The free outgassing rate after an {ital in} {ital situ} bakeout (150 {degree}C, 20 h) was estimated as low as 1.6{times}10{sup {minus}12} Pa l s{sup {minus}1}cm{sup {minus}2}. After the {ital in} {ital situ} bakeout, H{sub 2} molecules were steadily evolved from the pipe wall, whereas most of CO, C, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} molecules were emitted from the operating mass spectrometer and Bayard--Alpert gauge with incandescent filaments. Auger depth profile analysis revealed that the oxide layer of an electropolished surface was cleaner, thinner, and finer in microstructure than that of a buff-polished surface. This is the reason why an electropolished surface showed a very low outgassing rate.

  20. An electrohydrodynamic heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. B.

    1972-01-01

    Dielectric liquid for transfer of heat provides liquid flow from the condenser section to the evaporator section in conventional heat pipes. Working fluid is guided or pumped by an array of wire electrodes connected to a high-voltage source.

  1. Miniature pipe crawler tractor

    DOEpatents

    McKay, Mark D.; Anderson, Matthew O.; Ferrante, Todd A.; Willis, W. David

    2000-01-01

    A pipe crawler tractor may comprise a half tractor assembly having a first base drive wheel, a second base drive wheel, and a top drive wheel. The drive wheels are mounted in spaced-apart relation so that the top drive wheel is positioned between the first and second base drive wheels. The mounting arrangement is also such that the first and second base drive wheels contact the inside surface of the pipe at respective first and second positions and so that the top drive wheel contacts the inside surface of the pipe at a third position, the third position being substantially diametrically opposed to the first and second positions. A control system connected to the half tractor assembly controls the rotation of the first base wheel, the second base wheel, and the top drive wheel to move the half tractor assembly within the pipe.

  2. Heat pipe development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bienart, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this program was to investigate analytically and experimentally the performance of heat pipes with composite wicks--specifically, those having pedestal arteries and screwthread circumferential grooves. An analytical model was developed to describe the effects of screwthreads and screen secondary wicks on the transport capability of the artery. The model describes the hydrodynamics of the circumferential flow in triangular grooves with azimuthally varying capillary menisci and liquid cross-sections. Normalized results were obtained which give the influence of evaporator heat flux on the axial heat transport capability of the arterial wick. In order to evaluate the priming behavior of composite wicks under actual load conditions, an 'inverted' glass heat pipe was designed and constructed. The results obtained from the analysis and from the tests with the glass heat pipe were applied to the OAO-C Level 5 heat pipe, and an improved correlation between predicted and measured evaporator and transport performance were obtained.

  3. Heat Pipe Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The heat pipe was developed to alternately cool and heat without using energy or any moving parts. It enables non-rotating spacecraft to maintain a constant temperature when the surface exposed to the Sun is excessively hot and the non Sun-facing side is very cold. Several organizations, such as Tropic-Kool Engineering Corporation, joined NASA in a subsequent program to refine and commercialize the technology. Heat pipes have been installed in fast food restaurants in areas where humid conditions cause materials to deteriorate quickly. Moisture removal was increased by 30 percent in a Clearwater, FL Burger King after heat pipes were installed. Relative humidity and power consumption were also reduced significantly. Similar results were recorded by Taco Bell, which now specifies heat pipe systems in new restaurants in the Southeast.

  4. Loss-of-coolant accident mitigation for the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, N.C.J.; Wendel, M.W.; Yoder, G.L. Jr.

    1994-09-01

    A RELAP5 Advanced Neutron Source Reactor system model has been developed for the conceptual design safety analysis. Three major regions modeled are the core, the heat exchanger loops, and letdown/pressurizing system. The model has been used to examine design alternatives for mitigation of loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) transients. The safety margins to the flow excursion limit and critical heat flux are presented. The results show that the core can survive an instantaneous double-ended guillotine of the core outlet piping break (610 mm-diameter) provided a cavitating venturi is employed. RELAP5 calculations were also used to determine the effects of using a non-instantaneous break opening times. Both break opening time and break formation characteristics were included in these parametric calculations. Accumulator optimization studies were also performed which suggest that an optimum accumulator bubble size exists which improves system performance under some break scenarios.

  5. Silicon Heat Pipe Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, Karl Y.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Sunada, Eric T.; Bae, Youngsam; Miller, Jennifer R.; Beinsford, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    Improved methods of heat dissipation are required for modern, high-power density electronic systems. As increased functionality is progressively compacted into decreasing volumes, this need will be exacerbated. High-performance chip power is predicted to increase monotonically and rapidly with time. Systems utilizing these chips are currently reliant upon decades of old cooling technology. Heat pipes offer a solution to this problem. Heat pipes are passive, self-contained, two-phase heat dissipation devices. Heat conducted into the device through a wick structure converts the working fluid into a vapor, which then releases the heat via condensation after being transported away from the heat source. Heat pipes have high thermal conductivities, are inexpensive, and have been utilized in previous space missions. However, the cylindrical geometry of commercial heat pipes is a poor fit to the planar geometries of microelectronic assemblies, the copper that commercial heat pipes are typically constructed of is a poor CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) match to the semiconductor die utilized in these assemblies, and the functionality and reliability of heat pipes in general is strongly dependent on the orientation of the assembly with respect to the gravity vector. What is needed is a planar, semiconductor-based heat pipe array that can be used for cooling of generic MCM (multichip module) assemblies that can also function in all orientations. Such a structure would not only have applications in the cooling of space electronics, but would have commercial applications as well (e.g. cooling of microprocessors and high-power laser diodes). This technology is an improvement over existing heat pipe designs due to the finer porosity of the wick, which enhances capillary pumping pressure, resulting in greater effective thermal conductivity and performance in any orientation with respect to the gravity vector. In addition, it is constructed of silicon, and thus is better

  6. Freezable heat pipe

    DOEpatents

    Ernst, Donald M.; Sanzi, James L.

    1981-02-03

    A heat pipe whose fluid can be repeatedly frozen and thawed without damage to the casing. An additional part is added to a conventional heat pipe. This addition is a simple porous structure, such as a cylinder, self-supporting and free standing, which is dimensioned with its diameter not spanning the inside transverse dimension of the casing, and with its length surpassing the depth of maximum liquid.

  7. Neurophysiology of pipe flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkley, Dwight

    2014-11-01

    This work explores the connection between the transition to turbulence in pipe flow and the dynamics of excitable media, as exemplified by nerve cells. The primary goal is to leverage years of extensive analysis of neural systems to understand the dynamics of transitional turbulence. To demonstrate the predictive nature of the approach, model simulations will be presented for puffs in pipe flow for cases not previously studied experimentally.

  8. Transpiration cooling using air as a coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Kikkawa, Shinzo; Senda, Mamoru; Sakagushi, Katsuji; Shibutani, Hideki )

    1993-02-01

    Transpiration cooling is one of the most effective techniques for protecting a surface exposed to a high-temperature gas stream. In the present paper, the transpiration cooling effectiveness was measured under steady state. Air as a coolant was transpired from the surface of a porous plate exposed to hot gas stream, and the transpiration rate was varied in the range of 0.001 [approximately] 0.006. The transpiration cooling effectiveness was evaluated by measuring the temperature of the upper surface of the plate. Also, a theoretical study was performed and it was clarified that the effectiveness increases with increasing transpiration rate and heat-transfer coefficient of the upper surface. Further, the effectiveness was expressed as a function of the blowing parameter only. The agreement between the experimental results and theoretical ones was satisfactory.

  9. Testing of organic acids in engine coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, T.W.

    1999-08-01

    The effectiveness of 30 organic acids as inhibitors in engine coolants is reported. Tests include glassware corrosion of coupled and uncoupled metals. FORD galvanostatic and cyclic polarization electrochemistry for aluminum pitting, and reserve alkalinity (RA) measurements. Details of each test are discussed as well as some general conclusions. For example, benzoic acid inhibits coupled metals well but is ineffective on cast iron when uncoupled. In benzoic acid inhibits coupled metals well but is ineffective on cast iron when uncoupled. In general, the organic acids provide little RA when titrated to a pH of 5.5, titration to a pH of 4.5 can result in precipitation of the acid. Trends with respect to acid chain length are reported also.

  10. Power module assemblies with staggered coolant channels

    DOEpatents

    Herron, Nicholas Hayden; Mann, Brooks S; Korich, Mark D

    2013-07-16

    A manifold is provided for supporting a power module assembly with a plurality of power modules. The manifold includes a first manifold section. The first face of the first manifold section is configured to receive the first power module, and the second face of the first manifold section defines a first cavity with a first baseplate thermally coupled to the first power module. The first face of the second manifold section is configured to receive the second power module, and the second face of the second manifold section defines a second cavity with a second baseplate thermally coupled to the second power module. The second face of the first manifold section and the second face of the second manifold section are coupled together such that the first cavity and the second cavity form a coolant channel. The first cavity is at least partially staggered with respect to second cavity.

  11. Fabrication Flaw Density and Distribution in Piping Weldments

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, Steven R.

    2009-09-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission supported the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop empirical data on the density and distribution of fabrication flaws in nuclear reactor components. These data are needed to support probabilistic fracture mechanics calculations and studies on component structural integrity. PNNL performed nondestructive examination inspections and destructive testing on archived piping welds to determine the fabrication flaw size and distribution characteristics of the flaws in nuclear power plant piping weldments. Eight different processes and product forms in piping weldments were studied including wrought stainless steel and dissimilar metal weldments. Parametric analysis using an exponential fit was performed on the data. Results were created as a function of the through-wall size of the fabrication flaws as well as the length distribution. The results are compared and contrasted with those developed for reactor pressure vessel processes and product forms. The most significant findings were that the density of fabrication flaws versus through-wall size was higher in piping weldments than that for the reactor pressure vessel weldments, and the density of fabrication flaws versus through-wall size in both reactor pressure vessel weld repairs and piping weldments were greater than the density in the original weldments. Curves showing these distributions are presented.

  12. Heat pipe dynamic behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Issacci, F.; Roche, G. L.; Klein, D. B.; Catton, I.

    1988-01-01

    The vapor flow in a heat pipe was mathematically modeled and the equations governing the transient behavior of the core were solved numerically. The modeled vapor flow is transient, axisymmetric (or two-dimensional) compressible viscous flow in a closed chamber. The two methods of solution are described. The more promising method failed (a mixed Galerkin finite difference method) whereas a more common finite difference method was successful. Preliminary results are presented showing that multi-dimensional flows need to be treated. A model of the liquid phase of a high temperature heat pipe was developed. The model is intended to be coupled to a vapor phase model for the complete solution of the heat pipe problem. The mathematical equations are formulated consistent with physical processes while allowing a computationally efficient solution. The model simulates time dependent characteristics of concern to the liquid phase including input phase change, output heat fluxes, liquid temperatures, container temperatures, liquid velocities, and liquid pressure. Preliminary results were obtained for two heat pipe startup cases. The heat pipe studied used lithium as the working fluid and an annular wick configuration. Recommendations for implementation based on the results obtained are presented. Experimental studies were initiated using a rectangular heat pipe. Both twin beam laser holography and laser Doppler anemometry were investigated. Preliminary experiments were completed and results are reported.

  13. Automatic coolant flow control device for a nuclear reactor assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hutter, E.

    1984-01-27

    A device which controls coolant flow through a nuclear reactor assembly comprises a baffle means at the exit end of said assembly having a plurality of orifices, and a bimetallic member in operative relation to the baffle means such that at increased temperatures said bimetallic member deforms to unblock some of said orifices and allow increased coolant flow therethrough.

  14. Component evaluation for intersystem loss-of-coolant accidents in advanced light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, A.G.

    1994-07-01

    Using the methodology outlined in NUREG/CR-5603 this report evaluates (on a probabilistic basis) design rules for components in ALWRs that could be subjected to intersystem loss-of-coolant accidents (ISLOCAs). The methodology is intended for piping elements, flange connections, on-line pumps and valves, and heat exchangers. The NRC has directed that the design rules be evaluated for BWR pressures of 7.04 MPa (1025 psig), PWR pressures of 15.4 MPa (2235 psig), and 177{degrees}C (350{degrees}F), and has established a goal of 90% probability that system rupture will not occur during an ISLOCA event. The results of the calculations in this report show that components designed for a pressure of 0.4 of the reactor coolant system operating pressure will satisfy the NRC survival goal in most cases. Specific recommendations for component strengths for BWR and PWR applications are made in the report. A peer review panel of nationally recognized experts was selected to review and critique the initial results of this program.

  15. Effects of rotation on coolant passage heat transfer. Volume 1: Coolant passages with smooth walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajek, T. J.; Wagner, J. H.; Johnson, B. V.; Higgins, A. W.; Steuber, G. D.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to investigate heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics of rotating multipass passages, for configurations and dimensions typical of modern turbine blades. The immediate objective was the generation of a data base of heat transfer and pressure loss data required to develop heat transfer correlations and to assess computational fluid dynamic techniques for rotating coolant passages. Experiments were conducted in a smooth wall large scale heat transfer model.

  16. Radiant energy receiver having improved coolant flow control means

    DOEpatents

    Hinterberger, H.

    1980-10-29

    An improved coolant flow control for use in radiant energy receivers of the type having parallel flow paths is disclosed. A coolant performs as a temperature dependent valve means, increasing flow in the warmer flow paths of the receiver, and impeding flow in the cooler paths of the receiver. The coolant has a negative temperature coefficient of viscosity which is high enough such that only an insignificant flow through the receiver is experienced at the minimum operating temperature of the receiver, and such that a maximum flow is experienced at the maximum operating temperature of the receiver. The valving is accomplished by changes in viscosity of the coolant in response to the coolant being heated and cooled. No remotely operated valves, comparators or the like are needed.

  17. Heat Pipe Integrated Microsystems

    SciTech Connect

    Gass, K.; Robertson, P.J.; Shul, R.; Tigges, C.

    1999-03-30

    The trend in commercial electronics packaging to deliver ever smaller component packaging has enabled the development of new highly integrated modules meeting the demands of the next generation nano satellites. At under ten kilograms, these nano satellites will require both a greater density electronics and a melding of satellite structure and function. Better techniques must be developed to remove the subsequent heat generated by the active components required to-meet future computing requirements. Integration of commercially available electronics must be achieved without the increased costs normally associated with current generation multi chip modules. In this paper we present a method of component integration that uses silicon heat pipe technology and advanced flexible laminate circuit board technology to achieve thermal control and satellite structure. The' electronics/heat pipe stack then becomes an integral component of the spacecraft structure. Thermal management on satellites has always been a problem. The shrinking size of electronics and voltage requirements and the accompanying reduction in power dissipation has helped the situation somewhat. Nevertheless, the demands for increased onboard processing power have resulted in an ever increasing power density within the satellite body. With the introduction of nano satellites, small satellites under ten kilograms and under 1000 cubic inches, the area available on which to place hot components for proper heat dissipation has dwindled dramatically. The resulting satellite has become nearly a solid mass of electronics with nowhere to dissipate heat to space. The silicon heat pipe is attached to an aluminum frame using a thermally conductive epoxy or solder preform. The frame serves three purposes. First, the aluminum frame provides a heat conduction path from the edge of the heat pipe to radiators on the surface of the satellite. Secondly, it serves as an attachment point for extended structures attached to

  18. Photodesorption from stainless steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mesarwi, A.; Ignatiev, A.

    1988-01-01

    The photodesorption by low-energy photons from three types of stainless steels is examined. For all these systems both CO and CO2 were observed to photodesorb with high yields: about 0.001 molecules/photon for CO2 and about 0.0001 molecules/photon for CO at 250 nm. The observed threshold energies were found to be the same for all systems at E0 = 2.92 eV for CO2 and E0 = 2.92-3.10 eV for CO.

  19. Probabilistic pipe fracture evaluations for leak-rate-detection applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, S.; Ghadiali, N.; Paul, D.; Wilkowski, G.

    1995-04-01

    Regulatory Guide 1.45, {open_quotes}Reactor Coolant Pressure Boundary Leakage Detection Systems,{close_quotes} was published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in May 1973, and provides guidance on leak detection methods and system requirements for Light Water Reactors. Additionally, leak detection limits are specified in plant Technical Specifications and are different for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). These leak detection limits are also used in leak-before-break evaluations performed in accordance with Draft Standard Review Plan, Section 3.6.3, {open_quotes}Leak Before Break Evaluation Procedures{close_quotes} where a margin of 10 on the leak detection limit is used in determining the crack size considered in subsequent fracture analyses. This study was requested by the NRC to: (1) evaluate the conditional failure probability for BWR and PWR piping for pipes that were leaking at the allowable leak detection limit, and (2) evaluate the margin of 10 to determine if it was unnecessarily large. A probabilistic approach was undertaken to conduct fracture evaluations of circumferentially cracked pipes for leak-rate-detection applications. Sixteen nuclear piping systems in BWR and PWR plants were analyzed to evaluate conditional failure probability and effects of crack-morphology variability on the current margins used in leak rate detection for leak-before-break.

  20. Corrosion resistance of stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, C.P.

    1995-12-31

    This book reviews the mechanisms and forms of corrosion and examines the corrosion of stainless steels and similar chromium-bearing nickel containing higher alloys, detailing various corrosive environments including atmospheric and fire-side corrosion, corrosion by water and soil, and corrosion caused by particular industrial processes. It provides information on specific groups and grades of stainless steels; summarizes typical applications for specific stainless alloys; describes common corrosion problems associated with stainless steels; presents the acceptable isocorrosion parameters of concentration and temperature for over 250 chemicals for which stainless steels are the preferred materials of construction; discusses product forms and their availability; elucidates fabrication, welding, and joining techniques; and covers the effects of pickling and passivation.

  1. Nondestructive techniques for assaying fuel debris in piping at Three Mile Island Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Vinjamuri, K.; McIsaac, C.V.; Beller, L.S.; Isaacson, L.; Mandler, J.W.; Hobbins, R.R. Jr.

    1981-11-01

    Four major categories of nondestructive techniques - ultrasonic, passive gamma ray, infrared detection, and remote video examination - have been determined to be feasible for assaying fuel debris in the primary coolant system of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) Reactor. Passive gamma ray detection is the most suitable technique for the TMI-2 piping; however, further development of this technique is needed for specific application to TMI-2.

  2. BWR pipe crack remedies evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Shack, W.J.; Kassner, T.F.; Maiya, P.S.; Park, J.Y.; Ruther, W.E.

    1986-10-01

    This paper presents results on: (a) the influence of simulated BWR environments on the stress-corrosion-craking (SCC) susceptibility of Types 304, 316NG, and 347 stainless (SS); (b) fracture-mechanics crack-growth-rate measurements on these materials and weld overlay specimens in different environments; and (c) residual stress measurements and metallographic evaluations of conventional pipe weldments treated by a mechanical-stress-improvement process (MSIP) as well as those produced by a narrow-gap welding procedure. Crack initiation studies on Types 304 and 316NG SS under crevice and non-crevice conditions in 289/sup 0/C water containing 0.25 ppM dissolved oxygen with low sulfate concentrations indicate that SCC initiates at very low strains (<3%) in the nuclear grade material. Crack growth measurements on fracture-mechanics-type specimens, under low-frequency cyclic loading, show that the Type 316NG steel cracks at a somewhat lower rate (approx.40%) than sensitized Type 304 SS in an impurity environment with 0.25 ppM dissolved-oxygen; however, the latter material stops cracking when sulfate is removed from the water. Crack growth in both materials ceases under simulated hydrogen-water chemistry conditions (<5 ppB oxygen) even with 100 ppB sulfate present in the water. An unexpected result was obtained in the test on a weld overlay specimen in the impurity environment, viz., the crack grew to the overlay interface at a nominal rate, branched at 90/sup 0/ in both directions, and then grew at high rate (parallel to the nominal applied load). Residual stress measurements on MSIP-treated weldments and those produced by a narrow-gap welding procedure indicate that these techniques produce compressive stresses over most of the inner surface near the weld and heat-affected zones.

  3. Explosive Welding of Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtseva, Olga

    2007-06-01

    For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water (perturbations, which are moving in the axial direction with sound velocity, should not reach the layer end boundaries for 5-7 circulations of shock waves in the radial direction). Linear dimension of the water layer from the zone of pipe coupling along axis in each direction is >= 2R, where R is the internal radius of pipe. Model experiments with pipes having radii R = 57 mm confirmed results of the calculations and the possibility in principle to weld pipes by explosion with use of water as filler. Reduction of pipe diameter after dynamic loading and explosive welding was ˜2%.

  4. Wedgethread pipe connection

    DOEpatents

    Watts, John D.

    2003-06-17

    Several embodiments of a wedgethread pipe connection are disclosed that have improved makeup, sealing, and non-loosening characteristics. In one embodiment, an open wedgethread is disclosed that has an included angle measured in the gap between the stab flank and the load flank to be not less than zero, so as to prevent premature wedging between mating flanks before the position of full makeup is reached, as does occur between trapped wedgethreads wherein the included angle is less than zero. The invention may be used for pipe threads large or small, as a flush joint, with collars, screwed into plates or it may even be used to reversibly connect such as solid posts to base members where a wide makeup torque range is desired. This Open wedgethread, as opposed to trapped wedgethreads, provides a threaded pipe connection that: is more cost-effective; can seal high pressure gas; can provide selectively a connection strength as high as the pipe strength; assures easy makeup to the desired position of full makeup within a wide torque range; may have a torque strength as high as the pipe torque strength; is easier to manufacture; is easier to gage; and is less subject to handling damage.

  5. Remotely operated pipe connector

    DOEpatents

    Josefiak, Leonard J.; Cramer, Charles E.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely assembling and disassembling a Graylock type coctor between a pipe and a closure for the pipe includes a base and a receptacle on the base for the closure. The pipe is moved into position vertically above the closure by a suitable positioning device such that the flange on the pipe is immediately adjacent and concentric with the flange on the closure. A moving device then moves two semicircular collars from a position free of the closure to a position such that the interior cam groove of each collar contacts the two flanges. Finally, a tensioning device automatically allows remote tightening and loosening of a nut and bolt assembly on each side of the collar to cause a seal ring located between the flanges to be compressed and to seal the closure. Release of the pipe and the connector is accomplished in the reverse order. Preferably, the nut and bolt assembly includes an elongate shaft portion on which a removable sleeve is located.

  6. ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Coolant Remediation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Russell H.; Holt, Mike

    2005-01-01

    The IATCS coolant has experienced a number of anomalies in the time since the US Lab was first activated on Flight 5A in February 2001. These have included: 1) a decrease in coolant pH, 2) increases in inorganic carbon, 3) a reduction in phosphate buffer concentration, 4) an increase in dissolved nickel and precipitation of nickel salts, and 5) increases in microbial concentration. These anomalies represent some risk to the system, have been implicated in some hardware failures and are suspect in others. The ISS program has conducted extensive investigations of the causes and effects of these anomalies and has developed a comprehensive program to remediate the coolant chemistry of the on-orbit system as well as provide a robust and compatible coolant solution for the hardware yet to be delivered. The remediation steps include changes in the coolant chemistry specification, development of a suite of new antimicrobial additives, and development of devices for the removal of nickel and phosphate ions from the coolant. This paper presents an overview of the anomalies, their known and suspected system effects, their causes, and the actions being taken to remediate the coolant.

  7. Reclamation and disposal of water-based machining coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, which is operated by the Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division for the Department of Energy under US government contract W-7405-eng-26, currently uses about 10{sup 6} L/yr (260,000 gal/yr) of water-based coolants in its machining operations. These coolants are disposed of in a 110,000-L (29,000-gal) activated sludge reactor. The reactor has oxidized an average of 38.6 kg of total organic carbon (TOC) per day with an overall efficiency of 90%. The predominant bacteria in the reactor have been identified once each year for the past three years. Six primary types of water-based coolants are currently used in the machine shops. In order to reduce the coolant usage rate, efforts are being made to introduce one universal coolant into the shops. By using a biocide to limit bacterial deterioration and using a filter and centrifuge system to remove dirt and tramp oils from the coolant, the coolant discard rate can be greatly reduced. 1 tab.

  8. Reactor materials program process water piping: K Reactor indirect failure probability

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.L.

    1988-05-09

    The hypothetical maximum rate loss of coolant accident (LOCA) for the Savannah River Production Reactors is the abrupt double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) of a large process water pipe. This accident is not considered credible in light of the low applied stresses and the inherent ductility of the piping material. The Reactor Materials Program was initiated to provide the technical basis for an alternate, credible design basis accident. The major thrust of this program is to develop an alternate maximum rate LOCA by deterministic means. Additionally, the probability of a DEGB is being determined; to show that in addition to being mechanistically implausible, a DEGB is also highly improbable. The probability of a DEGB of the piping has been evaluated in two parts: failure by direct means, and indirectly-induced failure. Failure by direct means can be credibly postulated to occur as an undetected crack grows to the point of instability, causing a large pipe break. Indirect failure of the piping can be triggered by an earthquake which causes other reactor components or the reactor building to fall on the piping or pull it from its anchor points. The indirect failure of the piping in K reactor is the subject of this report. 5 refs.

  9. Low Frequency Phased Array Techniques for Crack Detection in Cast Austenitic Piping Welds: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Michael T.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    Studies conducted at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington have focused on developing and evaluating the reliability of nondestructive testing (NDT) approaches for coarse-grained stainless steel reactor components. The objective of this work is to provide information to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on the utility, effectiveness and limitation of NDT techniques as related to inservice testing of primary system piping components in pressurized water reactors. We examined cast stainless steel pipe specimens containing thermal and mechanical fatigue cracks located close to the weld roots and having inner and outer diameter surface geometrical conditions that simulate several water reactor primary piping configurations. In addition, segments of vintage centrifugally cast piping were examined to characterize the inherent acoustic noise and scattering caused by grain structures and to determine the consistency of ultrasonic responses when propagating through differing microstructures. Advanced ultrasonic phased array techniques were applied from the outside surface of these specimens using automated scanning devices and water coupling. The phased array approach was implemented with a modified instrument operating at low frequencies, and composite volumetric images of the specimens were generated. Results from laboratory studies for assessing crack detection effectiveness in cast stainless steel as a function of frequency are discussed in this paper.

  10. Heat Pipe Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The heat pipe, a sealed chamber whose walls are lined with a "wick," a thin capillary network containing a working fluid in liquid form was developed for a heat distribution system for non-rotating satellites. Use of the heat pipe provides a continuous heat transfer mechanism. "Heat tubes" that improve temperature control in plastics manufacturing equipment incorporated the heat pipe technology. James M. Stewart, an independent consultant, patented the heat tubes he developed and granted a license to Kona Corporation. The Kona Nozzle for heaterless injection molding gets heat for its operation from an external source and has no internal heating bands, reducing machine maintenance and also eliminating electrical hazards associated with heater bands. The nozzles are used by Eastman Kodak, Bic Pen Corporation, Polaroid, Tupperware, Ford Motor Company, RCA, and Western Electric in the molding of their products.

  11. Apparatus for inspecting piping

    DOEpatents

    Zollingger, W.T.; Appel, D.K.; Park, L.R.

    1995-03-21

    An inspection rabbit is described for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON{trademark}). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system. 6 figures.

  12. Apparatus for inspecting piping

    DOEpatents

    Zollingger, W. Thor; Appel, D. Keith; Park, Larry R.

    1995-01-01

    An inspection rabbit for inspecting piping systems having severe bends therein. The rabbit consists of a flexible, modular body containing a miniaturized eddy current inspection probe, a self-contained power supply for proper operation of the rabbit, an outer surface that allows ease of movement through piping systems and means for transmitting data generated by the inspection device. The body is preferably made of flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing or, alternatively, silicone rubber with a shrink wrapping of polytetrafluoroethylene (TEFLON.RTM.). The body is formed to contain the power supply, preferably a plurality of batteries, and a spool of communication wire that connects to a data processing computer external to the piping system.

  13. Heat-pipe Earth.

    PubMed

    Moore, William B; Webb, A Alexander G

    2013-09-26

    The heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and vertical tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a heat-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface heat transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining heat sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in heat-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The heat-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics. PMID:24067709

  14. Composite drill pipe

    DOEpatents

    Leslie, James C.; Leslie, II, James C.; Heard, James; Truong, Liem , Josephson; Marvin , Neubert; Hans

    2008-12-02

    A composite pipe segment is formed to include tapered in wall thickness ends that are each defined by opposed frustoconical surfaces conformed for self centering receipt and intimate bonding contact within an annular space between corresponding surfaces of a coaxially nested set of metal end pieces. The distal peripheries of the nested end pieces are then welded to each other and the sandwiched and bonded portions are radially pinned. The composite segment may include imbedded conductive leads and the axial end portions of the end pieces are shaped to form a threaded joint with the next pipe assembly that includes a contact ring in one pipe assembly pierced by a pointed contact in the other to connect the corresponding leads across the joint.

  15. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  16. Apparatus for moving a pipe inspection probe through piping

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W. Thor; Appel, D. Keith; Lewis, Gregory W.

    1995-01-01

    A method and apparatus for controllably moving devices for cleaning or inspection through piping systems, including piping systems with numerous piping bends therein, by using hydrostatic pressure of a working fluid introduced into the piping system. The apparatus comprises a reservoir or other source for supplying the working fluid to the piping system, a launch tube for admitting the device into the launcher and a reversible, positive displacement pump for controlling the direction and flow rate of the working fluid. The device introduced into the piping system moves with the flow of the working fluid through the piping system. The launcher attaches to the valved ends of a piping system so that fluids in the piping system can recirculate in a closed loop. The method comprises attaching the launcher to the piping system, supplying the launcher with working fluid, admitting the device into the launcher, pumping the working fluid in the direction and at the rate desired so that the device moves through the piping system for pipe cleaning or inspection, removing the device from the launcher, and collecting the working fluid contained in the launcher.

  17. Apparatus for moving a pipe inspection probe through piping

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.; Appel, D.K.; Lewis, G.W.

    1995-07-18

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for controllably moving devices for cleaning or inspection through piping systems, including piping systems with numerous piping bends therein, by using hydrostatic pressure of a working fluid introduced into the piping system. The apparatus comprises a reservoir or other source for supplying the working fluid to the piping system, a launch tube for admitting the device into the launcher and a reversible, positive displacement pump for controlling the direction and flow rate of the working fluid. The device introduced into the piping system moves with the flow of the working fluid through the piping system. The launcher attaches to the valved ends of a piping system so that fluids in the piping system can recirculate in a closed loop. The method comprises attaching the launcher to the piping system, supplying the launcher with working fluid, admitting the device into the launcher, pumping the working fluid in the direction and at the rate desired so that the device moves through the piping system for pipe cleaning or inspection, removing the device from the launcher, and collecting the working fluid contained in the launcher. 8 figs.

  18. Reactor coolant pump monitoring and diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, R.M.; Gross, K.C.; Walsh, M. ); Humenik, K.E. )

    1990-01-01

    In order to reliably and safely operate a nuclear power plant, it is necessary to continuously monitor the performance of numerous subsystems to confirm that the plant state is within its prescribed limits. An important function of a properly designed monitoring system is the detection of incipient faults in all subsystems (with the avoidance of false alarms) coupled with an information system that provides the operators with fault diagnosis, prognosis of fault progression and recommended (either automatic or prescriptive) corrective action. In this paper, such a system is described that has been applied to reactor coolant pumps. This system includes a sensitive pattern-recognition technique based upon the sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) that detects incipient faults from validated signals, an expert system embodying knowledge bases on pump and sensor performance, extensive hypertext files containing operating and emergency procedures as well as pump and sensor information and a graphical interface providing the operator with easily perceived information on the location and character of the fault as well as recommended corrective action. This system is in the prototype stage and is currently being validated utilizing data from a liquid-metal cooled fast reactor (EBR-II). 3 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Corrosion problems with aqueous coolants, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Diegle, R B; Beavers, J A; Clifford, J E

    1980-04-11

    The results of a one year program to characterize corrosion of solar collector alloys in aqueous heat-transfer media are summarized. The program involved a literature review and a laboratory investigation of corrosion in uninhibited solutions. It consisted of three separate tasks, as follows: review of the state-of-the-art of solar collector corrosion processes; study of corrosion in multimetallic systems; and determination of interaction between different waters and chemical antifreeze additives. Task 1 involved a comprehensive review of published literature concerning corrosion under solar collector operating conditions. The reivew also incorporated data from related technologies, specifically, from research performed on automotive cooling systems, cooling towers, and heat exchangers. Task 2 consisted of determining the corrosion behavior of candidate alloys of construction for solar collectors in different types of aqueous coolants containing various concentrations of corrosive ionic species. Task 3 involved measuring the degradation rates of glycol-based heat-transfer media, and also evaluating the effects of degradation on the corrosion behavior of metallic collector materials.

  20. Steam as turbine blade coolant: Experimental data generation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmsen, B.; Engeda, A.; Lloyd, J.R.

    1995-10-01

    Steam as a coolant is a possible option to cool blades in high temperature gas turbines. However, to quantify steam as a coolant, there exists practically no experimental data. This work deals with an attempt to generate such data and with the design of an experimental setup used for the purpose. Initially, in order to guide the direction of experiments, a preliminary theoretical and empirical prediction of the expected experimental data is performed and is presented here. This initial analysis also compares the coolant properties of steam and air.

  1. Longer life for glyco-based stationary engine coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Hohlfeld, R.

    1996-07-01

    Large, stationary diesel engines used to compress natural gas that is to be transported down pipelines generate a great deal of heat. Unless this heat is dissipated efficiently, it will eventually cause an expensive breakdown. Whether the coolant uses ethylene glycol or propylene glycol, the two major causes of glycol degradation are heat and oxidation. The paper discusses inhibitors that enhance coolant service life and presents a comprehensive list of do`s and don`ts for users to gain a 20-year coolant life.

  2. Turbomachine injection nozzle including a coolant delivery system

    DOEpatents

    Zuo, Baifang

    2012-02-14

    An injection nozzle for a turbomachine includes a main body having a first end portion that extends to a second end portion defining an exterior wall having an outer surface. A plurality of fluid delivery tubes extend through the main body. Each of the plurality of fluid delivery tubes includes a first fluid inlet for receiving a first fluid, a second fluid inlet for receiving a second fluid and an outlet. The injection nozzle further includes a coolant delivery system arranged within the main body. The coolant delivery system guides a coolant along at least one of a portion of the exterior wall and around the plurality of fluid delivery tubes.

  3. Method for removing cesium from a nuclear reactor coolant

    DOEpatents

    Colburn, Richard P.

    1986-01-01

    A method of and system for removing cesium from a liquid metal reactor coolant including a carbon packing trap in the primary coolant system for absorbing a major portion of the radioactive cesium from the coolant flowing therethrough at a reduced temperature. A regeneration subloop system having a secondary carbon packing trap is selectively connected to the primary system for isolating the main trap therefrom and connecting it to the regeneration system. Increasing the temperature of the sodium flowing through the primary trap diffuses a portion of the cesium

  4. Modeling Reactor Coolant Systems Thermal-Hydraulic Transients

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-10-05

    RELAP5/MOD3.2* is used to model reactor coolant systems during postulated accidents. The code models the coupled behavior of the reactor coolant system and the core for loss-of-coolant accidents and operational transients such as anticipated transients without scram, loss of offsite power, loss of feedwater, and loss of flow. A generic modeling approach is used that permits simulating a variety of thermal-hydraulic systems. Control system and secondary system components are included to allow modeling of themore » plant controls, turbines, condensers, and secondary feedwater systems.« less

  5. Vacuum Bellows, Vacuum Piping, Cryogenic Break, and Copper Joint Failure Rate Estimates for ITER Design Use

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader

    2010-06-01

    The ITER international project design teams are working to produce an engineering design in preparation for construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) tokamak. During the course of this work, questions have arisen in regard to safety barriers and equipment reliability as important facets of system design. The vacuum system designers have asked several questions about the reliability of vacuum bellows and vacuum piping. The vessel design team has asked about the reliability of electrical breaks and copper-copper joints used in cryogenic piping. Research into operating experiences of similar equipment has been performed to determine representative failure rates for these components. The following chapters give the research results and the findings for vacuum system bellows, power plant stainless steel piping (amended to represent vacuum system piping), cryogenic system electrical insulating breaks, and copper joints.

  6. The rotating heat pipe - Implementation as a uniform-temperature heat source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limoges, R. F.

    1981-11-01

    A wickless rotating heat pipe, if properly controlled, is a uniform heat source. The data presented are based on work done with 12.7 cm diameter x 76 cm long rotating heat pipes operating between 120 and 140 C. The major areas reviewed are: materials of fabrication, working fluids, sealing, temperature control, heaters, and safety. The optimum rotating heat pipe defined by these studies is fabricated of type 304 stainless steel, uses water as the working fluid, is sealed with welded joints, and utilizes a pressure switch and a fast-response quartz lamp for temperature control. Surface-temperature control of + or - 0.15 C and temperature uniformity within 0.8 C are obtained. Results of experiments designed to study the effects of hydrogen in the enclosed volume of the heat pipe are presented.

  7. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  8. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-04-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast-iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1--Program Management and Task 2--were completed in prior quarters while Task 3--Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast iron test pipe segments. Efforts in this quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4--8, with significant progress made in each. Task 4 (Design, Fabricate and Test Patch Setting Robotic Train) progressed to the design of the control electronics and pneumatic system to inflate the bladder robotic patch setting module. Task 5 (Design & Fabricate Pipe-Wall Cleaning Robot Train with Pan/Zoom/Tilt Camera) continued with additional in-pipe testing required to

  9. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M. Kothari, Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-01-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple cast iron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1--Program Management and Task 2--were completed in prior quarters while Task 3--Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast iron test pipe segments. Efforts in this quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4--8, with significant progress made in each. Task 4 (Design, Fabricate and Test Patch Setting Robotic Train) progressed to the design of the control electronics and pneumatic system to inflate the bladder robotic patch setting module. Task 5 (Design & Fabricate Pipe-Wall Cleaning Robot Train with Pan/Zoom/Tilt Camera) continued with additional in-pipe testing required to

  10. SEALING LARGE-DIAMETER CAST-IRON PIPE JOINTS UNDER LIVE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran M Kothari; Gerard T. Pittard

    2004-07-01

    Utilities in the U.S. operate over 75,000 km (47,000 miles) of old cast-iron pipes for gas distribution. The bell-and-spigot joints that connect pipe sections together tend to leak as these pipes age. Current repair practices are costly and highly disruptive. The objective of this program is to design, test and commercialize a robotic system capable of sealing multiple castiron bell and spigot joints from a single pipe entry point. The proposed system will perform repairs while the pipe remains in service by traveling through the pipe, cleaning each joint surface, and installing a stainless-steel sleeve lined with an epoxy-impregnated felt across the joint. This approach will save considerable time and labor, avoid traffic disruption, and eliminate any requirement to interrupt service to customers (which would result in enormous expense to utilities). Technical challenges include: (1) repair sleeves must compensate for diametric variation and eccentricity of cast-iron pipes; (2) the assembly must travel long distances through pipes containing debris; (3) the pipe wall must be effectively cleaned in the immediate area of the joint to assure good bonding of the sleeve; and (4) an innovative bolt-on entry fitting is required to conduct repair operations on live mains. The development effort is divided into eleven tasks. Task 1 (Program Management) and Task 2 (Establishment of Detailed Design Specifications) were completed in prior quarters while Task 3 (Design and Fabricate Ratcheting Stainless-Steel Repair Sleeves) has progressed to installing prototype sleeves in cast iron test pipe segments. Efforts in this quarter continued to focus on Tasks 4-8, with significant progress made in each. Task 4 (Design, Fabricate and Test Patch Setting Robotic Train) progressed to the design of the control electronics and pneumatic system to inflate the bladder robotic patch setting module. Task 5 (Design & Fabricate Pipe-Wall Cleaning Robot Train with Pan/Zoom/Tilt Camera

  11. Heat transfer in pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbach, T.

    1985-01-01

    The heat transfer from hot water to a cold copper pipe in laminar and turbulent flow condition is determined. The mean flow through velocity in the pipe, relative test length and initial temperature in the vessel were varied extensively during tests. Measurements confirm Nusselt's theory for large test lengths in laminar range. A new equation is derived for heat transfer for large starting lengths which agrees satisfactorily with measurements for large starting lengths. Test results are compared with the new Prandtl equation for heat transfer and correlated well. Test material for 200- and to 400-diameter test length is represented at four different vessel temperatures.

  12. Heat pipe cooled probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, C. J. (Inventor); Couch, L. M.

    1984-01-01

    The basic heat pipe principle is employed to provide a self-contained passively cooled probe that may be placed into a high temperature environment. The probe consists of an evaporator region of a heat pipe and a sensing instrument. Heat is absorbed as the working fluid evaporates in the probe. The vapor is transported to the vapor space of the condenser region. Heat is dissipated from the condenser region and fins causing condensation of the working fluid, which returns to the probe by gravity and the capillary action of the wick. Working fluid, wick and condenser configurations and structure materials can be selected to maintain the probe within an acceptable temperature range.

  13. Pyrosequencing analysis of bacterial communities in biofilms from different pipe materials in a city drinking water distribution system of East China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hongxing; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yan; Liu, Shuai; Lou, Liping; Cheng, Dongqing; He, Xiaofang; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Qiu, Shangde; Fu, Liusong; Liu, Jingqing; Hu, Baolan

    2015-12-01

    Biofilms in drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) could cause several types of problems, such as the deterioration of water quality, corrosion of pipe walls, and potential proliferation of opportunistic pathogens. In this study, ten biofilm samples from different pipe materials, including ductile cast iron pipe (DCIP), gray cast iron pipe (GCIP), galvanized steel pipe (GSP), stainless steel clad pipe (SSCP), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), were collected from an actual DWDS to investigate the effect of pipe material on bacterial community. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and culture-based method were used to quantify bacteria. 454 pyrosequencing was used for bacterial community analysis. The results showed that the numbers of total bacteria and culturable heterotrophic bacteria from iron pipes were higher than that in PVC, while the numbers of Shigella and vibrios were low in biofilms from iron pipes. Bacterial community analysis showed that Hyphomicrobium or Desulfovibrio were the predominant microorganism in iron pipes, whereas Sphingomonas or Pseudomonas were dominant in other types of pipe. This study revealed differences in bacterial communities in biofilms among different pipe materials, and the results were useful for pipeline material selection in DWDSs. PMID:26311220

  14. Switch to duplex stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Quik, J.M.A.; Geudeke, M.

    1994-11-01

    Duplex stainless steels contain approximately equal proportions of ferrite and austenite. These stainless steels have become an established material of construction in the chemical process industries (CPI). Duplexes offer benefits over austenitic stainless steels and carbon steels because of their higher strength, and good toughness and ductility, in combination with equivalent resistance to general corrosion, as well as better resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. Additionally, duplex materials have thermal-conductivity and thermal-expansion coefficients similar to those of ferritic materials, are tough at low (sub-zero) temperatures, and have a high resistance to erosion and abrasion. In some of the highly corrosive environments encountered in the CPI, the super duplex stainless steels offer cost-effective options not possible with the standard austenitic stainless steels. The initial applications were almost exclusively as heat exchanger tubing in water-cooled service. In recent times, duplex stainless steels have been used in the oil, gas, and chemical industries. Examples include service in sweet and mildly sour corrosive environments, on offshore platforms where weight savings can be realized, and as a replacement for standard austenitic stainless steel in chemical-processing plants.

  15. Pipe Drafting with CAD. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smithson, Buddy

    This teacher's guide contains nine units of instruction for a course on computer-assisted pipe drafting. The course covers the following topics: introduction to pipe drafting with CAD (computer-assisted design); flow diagrams; pipe and pipe components; valves; piping plans and elevations; isometrics; equipment fabrication drawings; piping design…

  16. Stainless steel display evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopper, Darrel G.; Meyer, Frederick M.; Longo, Sam J.; Trissell, Terry L.

    2007-04-01

    Active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) technology is one candidate to become a low power alternative in some applications to the currently dominant, active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD), technology. Furthermore, fabrication of the AMOLED on stainless steel (SS) foil rather than the traditional glass substrate, while presenting a set of severe technical challenges, opens up the potential for displays that are both lighter and less breakable. Also, transition to an SS foil substrate may enable rollable displays - large when used but small for stowage within gear already worn or carried or installed. Research has been initiated on AMOLED/SS technology and the first 320 x 240 color pixel 4-in. demonstration device has been evaluated in the AFRL Display Test and Evaluation Laboratory. Results of this evaluation are reported along with a research roadmap.

  17. Deployable heat-pipe radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, F.

    1978-01-01

    Loop temperatures are controlled effectively under varying load conditions. Radiator has four separate pieces of hardware: heat-pipe panel, flexible heat-pipe leader, heat exchanger, fluid header. Single-fluid transport capacities of about 850 watts, corresponding to 51,000 watt-inches, have been achieved in 90 degree bend orientation of heat-pipe header.

  18. Welding tritium exposed stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Kanne, W.R. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    Stainless steels that are exposed to tritium become unweldable by conventional methods due to buildup of decay helium within the metal matrix. With longer service lives expected for tritium containment systems, methods for welding on tritium exposed material will become important for repair or modification of the systems. Solid-state resistance welding and low-penetration overlay welding have been shown to mitigate helium embrittlement cracking in tritium exposed 304 stainless steel. These processes can also be used on stainless steel containing helium from neutron irradiation, such as occurs in nuclear reactors.

  19. Reusable high-temperature heat pipes and heat pipe panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A reusable, durable heat pipe which is capable of operating at temperatures up to about 3000 F in an oxidizing environment and at temperatures above 3000 F in an inert or vacuum environment is produced by embedding a refractory metal pipe within a carbon-carbon composite structure. A reusable, durable heat pipe panel is made from an array of refractory-metal pipes spaced from each other. The reusable, durable, heat-pipe is employed to fabricate a hypersonic vehicle leading edge and nose cap.

  20. EVALUATION OF FILTRATION AND DISTILLATION METHODS FOR RECYCLING AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This evaluation addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues involved in recycling automotive engine coolants at a New Jersey Department of Transportation garage. he specific recycling units evaluated are based on the technologies of filtration and distilla...

  1. Transient two-phase performance of LOFT reactor coolant pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.H.; Modro, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    Performance characteristics of Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor coolant pumps under transient two-phase flow conditions were obtained based on the analysis of two large and small break loss-of-coolant experiments conducted at the LOFT facility. Emphasis is placed on the evaluation of the transient two-phase flow effects on the LOFT reactor coolant pump performance during the first quadrant operation. The measured pump characteristics are presented as functions of pump void fraction which was determined based on the measured density. The calculated pump characteristics such as pump head, torque (or hydraulic torque), and efficiency are also determined as functions of pump void fractions. The importance of accurate modeling of the reactor coolant pump performance under two-phase conditions is addressed. The analytical pump model, currently used in most reactor analysis codes to predict transient two-phase pump behavior, is assessed.

  2. INVESTIGATION OF CLEANER TECHNOLOGIES TO MINIMIZE AUTOMOTIVE COOLANT WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the State of New Jersey evaluated chemical filtration and distillation technologies designed to recycle automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. These evaluations addressed the product quality, waste reduction and econo...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1063 - Coolant tank tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... greater, plus the maximum working pressure of the system; and (b) For a tank with a nonmetallic liner the... specimen liner must be conducted with the coolant at operating temperature. Induction System...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1063 - Coolant tank tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... greater, plus the maximum working pressure of the system; and (b) For a tank with a nonmetallic liner the... specimen liner must be conducted with the coolant at operating temperature. Induction System...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1063 - Coolant tank tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... greater, plus the maximum working pressure of the system; and (b) For a tank with a nonmetallic liner the... specimen liner must be conducted with the coolant at operating temperature. Induction System...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1063 - Coolant tank tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... greater, plus the maximum working pressure of the system; and (b) For a tank with a nonmetallic liner the... specimen liner must be conducted with the coolant at operating temperature. Induction System...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1063 - Coolant tank tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... greater, plus the maximum working pressure of the system; and (b) For a tank with a nonmetallic liner the... specimen liner must be conducted with the coolant at operating temperature. Induction System...

  8. 46 CFR 154.503 - Piping and piping system components: Protection from movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Piping and piping system components: Protection from..., Construction and Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.503 Piping and piping system components... cause stresses that exceed the design stresses, the piping and piping system components and cargo...

  9. 46 CFR 154.503 - Piping and piping system components: Protection from movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Piping and piping system components: Protection from..., Construction and Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.503 Piping and piping system components... cause stresses that exceed the design stresses, the piping and piping system components and cargo...

  10. 46 CFR 154.503 - Piping and piping system components: Protection from movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Piping and piping system components: Protection from..., Construction and Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.503 Piping and piping system components... cause stresses that exceed the design stresses, the piping and piping system components and cargo...

  11. 46 CFR 154.503 - Piping and piping system components: Protection from movement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piping and piping system components: Protection from..., Construction and Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.503 Piping and piping system components... cause stresses that exceed the design stresses, the piping and piping system components and cargo...

  12. Heat pipe investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshburn, J. P.

    1973-01-01

    Techniques associated with thermal-vacuum and bench testing, along with flight testing of the OAO-C spacecraft heat pipes are outlined, to show that the processes used in heat transfer design and testing are adequate for good performance evaluations.

  13. Aeronautical tubes and pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauclair, N.

    1984-12-01

    The main and subcomponent French suppliers of aircraft tubes and pipes are discussed, and the state of the industry is analyzed. Quality control is essential for tubes with regard to their i.d. and metallurgical compositions. French regulations do not allow welded seam tubes in hydraulic circuits unless no other form is available, and then rustproofed steel must be installed. The actual low level of orders for any run of tubes dictates that the product is only one of several among the manufacturers' line. Automation, both in NDT and quality control, assures that the tubes meet specifications. A total of 10 French companies participate in the industry, serving both civil and military needs, with some companies specializing only in titanium, steel, or aluminum materials. Concerns wishing to enter the market must upgrade their equipment to meet the higher aeronautical specifications and be prepared to furnish tubes and pipes that serve both functional and structural purposes simultaneously. Additionally, pipe-bending machines must also perform to tight specifications. Pipes can range from 0.2 mm exterior diameter to 40 mm, with wall thicknesses from 0.02 mm to 3 mm. A chart containing a list of manufacturers and their respective specifications and characteristics is presented, and a downtrend in production with reduction of personnel is noted.

  14. Explosive Welding of Pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drennov, Oleg; Drennov, Andrey; Burtseva, Olga

    2013-06-01

    For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. Explosive welding of cylindrical surfaces is performed by launching of welded layer along longitudinal axis of construction. During this procedure, it is required to provide reliable resistance against radial convergent strains. The traditional method is application of fillers of pipe cavity, which are dense cylindrical objects having special designs. However, when connecting pipes consecutively in pipelines by explosive welding, removal of the fillers becomes difficult and sometimes impossible. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water (perturbations, which are moving in the axial direction with sound velocity, should not reach the layer end boundaries for 5-7 circulations of shock waves in the radial direction). Linear dimension of the water layer from the zone of pipe coupling along axis in each direction is >= 2R, where R is the internal radius of pipe.

  15. Cryogenic material properties of stainless steel tube-to-flange welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siewert, T. A.; McCowan, C. N.; Vigliotti, D. P.

    The mechanical properties of stainless steel tube-to-flange welds for a cryogenic piping application were measured. A planar specimen was developed to duplicate the constraint, loading and heat-sink properties of the circular joint, while reducing preparation time and cost. Specimens were evaluated containing welds between the tube material (21 Cr-6Ni-9Mn) and the three stainless steels being considered for the flange materials: type 304L, type 316L and 21 Cr-6Ni-9Mn. The mechanical property tests consisted of three phases: simple tensile testing to failure, tensile testing of notched specimens (where the notch simulated fabrication flaws) and fatigue testing of notched specimens for the 4 × 10 4 cycle design life of the structure. The type 316L stainless steel flange produced welds with the best combination of strength and ductility at 295 and 4 K in all three phases of testing.

  16. Reactor Materials Program electrochemical potential measurements by ORNL with unirradiated and irradiated stainless steel specimens

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, E.W.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1993-07-01

    Effect of irradiation of stainless steel on electrochemical potential (ECP) was investigated by measurements in dilute HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} solutions, conditions simulating reactor moderator. The electrodes were made from unirradiated/irradiated, unsensitized/sensitized specimens from R-reactor piping. Results were inconclusive because of budgetary restrictions. The dose rate may have been too small to produce a significant radiolytic effect. Neither the earlier CERT corrosion susceptibility tests nor the present ECP measurements showed a pronounced effect of irradiation on susceptibility of the stainless steel to IGSCC; this is confirmed by the absence in the stainless steel of the SRS reactor tanks (except for the C Reactor tank knuckle area).

  17. Select the right materials for tanks and piping

    SciTech Connect

    Glein, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    There are an increasing number of materials available to meet today`s corrosion needs for tanks and piping. Decisions are made upfront that will determine operating costs and success for up to 20 years of service. Knowing the materials, their cost, and their capabilities are essential to effective decision-making. Here, the author reviews alternative metallic and nonmetallic materials for storage tanks and piping. Information will be summarized for the installed cost of purchase and other life-cycle factors and costs. The data were gathered from a review of past technical papers on cost, current vendor prices of storage tanks and piping, and interviews with plant maintenance and engineering personnel. Pricing information is presented for: Storage tanks (shop fabricated)--1,000--40,000 gal; and process piping (shop prefabricated flanged spools)--2- and 6-in. dia. A selected number of metallic and nonmetallic materials were reviewed. Metals representative of three distinct cost and performance levels are included: carbon steel; stainless steel Type 316L; and alloy C276. For thermosetting materials, glass-fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) using a vinylester resin (VER) was chosen. The following thermoplastic liner materials were chosen: polyvinyl chloride (PVC); polypropylene (PP); polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF); and fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP).

  18. Optimized Coolant-Flow Diverter For Increased Bearing Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subbaraman, Maria R.; Butner, Myles F.

    1995-01-01

    Coolant-flow diverter for rolling-element bearings in cryogenic turbopump designed to enhance cooling power of flow in contact with bearings and thereby reduce bearing wear. Delivers jets of coolant as close as possible to hot spots at points of contact between balls and race. Also imparts swirl that enhances beneficial pumping effect. Used with success in end ball bearing of high-pressure-oxidizer turbopump.

  19. Hydrodynamics of large-scale fuel-coolant interactions. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Baines, M.; Board, S.J.; Buttery, N.E.

    1980-06-01

    The analogy between thermal reactive and chemical reactive flows suggests that all propagating thermal explosions have a detonation-like (i.e., shock) structure. A vapor detonation model, which allows for thermal disequilibrium in the coolant, is developed. It is suggested that similar nonequilibrium effects may limit the efficiency of UO/sub 2/-sodium system, however, because of high conductivity of the coolant. 34 refs.

  20. Investigation of cleaner technologies to minimize automotive coolant wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in cooperation with the State of New Jersey evaluated chemical filtration and distillation technologies designed to recycle automotive and heavy-duty engine coolants. These evaluations addressed the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues. In addition, the authors examined the potential for substituting propylene glycol for ethylene glycol based engine coolant formulations. (Copyright (c) 1993 Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd.)

  1. Development of integrated insulation joint for cooling pipe in tokamak reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, Satoshi; Abe, Tetsuya; Kawamura, Masashi; Yamazaki, Seiichiro

    1994-08-01

    In a tokamak fusion reactor, an electrically insulated part is needed for an in-vessel piping system in order to break an electric circuit loop. When a closed loop is formed in the piping system, large induced electromagnetic forces during a plasma disruption (rapid plasma current quench) could give damages on the piping system. Ceramic brazing joint is a conventional method for the electric circuit break, but an application to the fusion reactor is not feasible due to its brittleness. Here, a stainless steel / ceramics / stainless steel functionally gradient material (FGM) has been proposed and developed as an integrated insulation joint of the piping system. Both sides of the joint can be welded to the main pipes, and expected to be reliable even in the fusion reactor environment. When the FGM joint is manufactured by way of a sintering process, a residual thermal stress is the key issue. Through detailed computations of the residual thermal stress and several trial productions, tubular elements of FGM joints have been successfully manufactured.

  2. Heat Pipes Cool Power Magnetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, I.; Chester, M.; Luedke, E.

    1983-01-01

    Configurations originally developed for space use are effective in any orientation. Heat pipes integrated into high-power, high-frequency, highvoltage spaceflight magnetics reduce weight and improve reliability by lowering internal tempertures. Two heat pipes integrated in design of power transformer cool unit in any orientation. Electrostatic shield conducts heat from windings to heat pipe evaporator. Technology allows dramatic reductions in size and weight, while significantly improving reliability. In addition, all attitude design of heat pipes allows operation of heat pipes independent of local gravity forces.

  3. Brazing titanium to stainless steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batista, R. I.

    1980-01-01

    Titanium and stainless-steel members are usually joined mechanically for lack of any other effective method. New approach using different brazing alloy and plating steel member with nickel resolves problem. Process must be carried out in inert atmosphere.

  4. Construction and testing of ceramic fabric heat pipe with water working fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoniak, Zenen I.; Webb, Brent J.; Bates, James M.; Cooper, Matthew F.

    1991-01-01

    A prototype ceramic fabric/titanium water heat pipe has been constructed and tested; it transported 25 to 80 W of power at 423 K. Component development and testing is continuing with the aim of providing an improved prototype, with a 38 micron stainless steel liner covered by a biaxially-braided Nextel (trademark) sleeve that is approximately 300 microns thick. This fabric has been tested to 800 K, and its emittance is about 0.5 at that temperature. Advanced versions of the water heat pipe will probably require a coating over the ceramic fabric in order to increase this emittance to the 0.8 to 0.9 range.

  5. Accelerated life tests of specimen heat pipe from Communication Technology Satellite (CTS) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, L. K.; Kaufman, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    A gas-loaded variable conductance heat pipe of stainless steel with methanol working fluid identical to one now on the CTS satellite was life tested in the laboratory at accelerated conditions for 14 200 hours, equivalent to about 70 000 hours at flight conditions. The noncondensible gas inventory increased about 20 percent over the original charge. The observed gas increase is estimated to increase operating temperature by about 2.2 C, insufficient to harm the electronic gear cooled by the heat pipes in the satellite. Tests of maximum heat input against evaporator elevation agree well with the manufacturer's predictions.

  6. Ratchetting in pressurized pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rider, R. J.; Harvey, S. J.; Charles, I. D.

    1994-04-01

    The plastic deformation of thin-walled cylinders has been experimentally examined for the loading conditions of +/- 1% axial strain with hoop stresses of approximately 0, 1/4, 1/2 and 3/4 of the initial uniaxial yield stress. Two materials similar to those used in the pipework of PWR nuclear plant in the U.K. have been tested, namely 304S11 stainless steel and En6 low-carbon steel. The results of the tests were to be compared with the allowable stresses and deformations specified in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III. The code specifies that a prescribed combination of primary stresses must not exceed 1.5S(sub m), where S(sub m) is a stress value defined for each material. The results indicate that the limit of 1.5S(sub m) is excessively low for both materials and that in particular, the stainless steel could tolerate 5S(sub m). Although the En6 steel is more prone to ratchetting than the stainless steel, the results suggest that it too could tolerate a higher primary stress than the code allows. Both materials are shown to satisfy the proposed ASME ratchet strain limit of 5% hoop strain after 10 cycles of +/- 1% axial strain range, for any value of internal pressure.

  7. Degraded Piping Program - Phase II. Semiannual report, October 1985-March 1986. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkowski, G.M.; Ahmad, J.; Barnes, C.R.; Brust, F.; Guerrieri, D.; Kiefner, J.; Kramer, G.; Kulhowvick, G.; Landow, M.; Marschall, C.W.

    1986-09-01

    The efforts in this report are broken into nine work packages related to pipe-fracture research efforts and three work packages that are supporting research efforts. The pipe-fracture efforts involve only circumferential crack orientations. Forty-two pipe experiments have been conducted to date, with all but two at 550/sup 0/F (288/sup 0/C). Approximately 42 additional pipe experiments from other programs were also analyzed. In the analysis effort, a screening criterion was developed to show when the net-section-collapse analysis is valid. This shows that even wrought stainless steel can fail at less than net-section-collapse loads if the pipe diameter is sufficiently large. Numerous predictive J-estimation schemes have been evaluated and modified. A finite length surface cracked pipe estimation scheme has also been developed. Finite element analyses of specimens with welds suggest that the size of the weld relative to the specimen of structure size can affect the deformation J values. Supporting research efforts involve geometry effects on J-R curves, as well as characterizing the material properties for each pipe tested.

  8. Degraded Piping Program: Phase 2, Semiannual report, April 1986-September 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkowski, G.M.; Ahmad, J.; Barnes, C.R.; Brust, F.; Guerrieri, D.; Kiefner, J.; Kramer, G.; Kulhowvick, G.; Landow, M.; Marschall, C.W.

    1987-04-01

    Presented herein is the Fifth Semiannual Report of the US NRC's Degraded Piping Program - Phase II. The intent of this program is to experimentally validate and enhance available analytical methods for evaluating the mechanical behavior of nuclear power plant piping containing circumferentially-oriented defects. Fifty-one pipe experiments have been conducted to date. These and approximately 42 additional pipe experiments from other programs have been analyzed. In the analytical effort, a screening criterion has been developed to show when the net-section-collapse analysis is valid. This shows that even tough materials such as stainless steel can fail at less than net-section-collapse loads if the pipe diameter is sufficiently large. Numerous predictive J-estimation schemes have been evaluated and modified. A finite length surface cracked pipe estimation scheme has also been developed. Finite element analyses of specimens with welds suggest that the size of the weld relative to the specimen or structure size can affect the deformation J values. Supporting research efforts involve investigating geometry effects on J-R curves, as well as characterizing the material properties for each pipe tested.

  9. Post-Test Analysis of a 10-Year Sodium Heat Pipe Life Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Locci, Ivan E.; Sanzi, James L.; Hull, David R.; Geng, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    High-temperature heat pipes are being evaluated for use in energy conversion applications such as fuel cells, gas turbine re-combustors, Stirling cycle heat sources; and with the resurgence of space nuclear power both as reactor heat removal elements and as radiator elements. Long operating life and reliable performance are critical requirements for these applications. Accordingly, long-term materials compatibility is being evaluated through the use of high-temperature life test heat pipes. Thermacore, Inc., has carried out a sodium heat pipe 10-year life test to establish long-term operating reliability. Sodium heat pipes have demonstrated favorable materials compatibility and heat transport characteristics at high operating temperatures in air over long time periods. A representative one-tenth segment Stirling Space Power Converter heat pipe with an Inconel 718 envelope and a stainless steel screen wick has operated for over 87,000 hr (10 years) at nearly 700 C. These life test results have demonstrated the potential for high-temperature heat pipes to serve as reliable energy conversion system components for power applications that require long operating lifetime with high reliability. Detailed design specifications, operating history, and post-test analysis of the heat pipe and sodium working fluid are described. Lessons learned and future life test plans are also discussed.

  10. Development of Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics Analysis Code for Pipes with Stress Corrosion Cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, Hideo; Arakawa, Manabu; Yamashita, Norimichi; Yoshimura, Shinobu

    Risk-Informed integrity management methodologies have been developed for Japanese nuclear power plants. One of the issues of concern is the reliability assessment of piping with flaws due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC). Therefore, the probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis code has been developed, which can perform the reliability assessment for austenitic stainless steel piping with flaws due to SCC. This paper describes technical basis of this code. This method is based on Monte-Carlo technique considering many sample cases in a piping section, where the initiation and growth of cracks are calculated and piping failures, including leaks and rapture, are evaluated. A notable feature is that multiple cracks can be treated, consequently, assessment of coalescence of cracks and intricate break evaluation of piping section have been included. Moreover, the in-service inspection (ISI) and integrity evaluation by Fitness-for-Service (FFS) code are integrated into the analysis, and the contribution to failure probability decrease can be assessed. Key parameters are determined on a probability basis with the designated probability type throughout the procedure. Size, location and time of crack initiation, coefficients of crack growth due to SCC and factors for piping failure are included in those parameters. With this method the reliability level of the piping through the operation periods can be estimated and the contribution of various parameters including ISI can be quantitatively evaluated.

  11. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) low temperature Heat Pipe Experiment Package (HEPP) flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, Roy; Mccreight, Craig; Brennan, Patrick J.

    1993-01-01

    The Low Temperature Heat Pipe Flight Experiment (HEPP) is a fairly complicated thermal control experiment that was designed to evaluate the performance of two different low temperature ethane heat pipes and a low-temperature (182 K) phase change material. A total of 390 days of continuous operation with an axially grooved aluminum fixed conductance heat pipe and an axially grooved stainless steel heat pipe diode was demonstrated before the data acquisition system's batteries lost power. Each heat pipe had approximately 1 watt applied throughout this period. The HEPP was not able to cool below 188.6 K during the mission. As a result, the preprogrammed transport test sequence which initiates when the PCM temperature drops below 180 K was never exercised, and transport tests with both pipes and the diode reverse mode test could not be run in flight. Also, because the melt temperature of the n-heptane PCM is 182 K, its freeze/thaw behavior could not be tested. Post-flight thermal vacuum tests and thermal analyses have indicated that there was an apparent error in the original thermal analyses that led to this unfortunate result. Post-flight tests have demonstrated that the performance of both heat pipes and the PCM has not changed since being fabricated more than 14 years ago. A summary of HEPP's flight data and post-flight test results are presented.

  12. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) low-temperature Heat Pipe Experiment Package (HEPP) flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, Roy; Mccreight, Craig; Brennan, Patrick J.

    1992-01-01

    The Low Temperature Heat Pipe Flight Experiment (HEPP) is a fairly complicated thermal control experiment that was designed to evaluate the performance of two different low temperature ethane heat pipes and a n-Heptane Phase Change Material (PCM) canister. A total of 388 days of continuous operation with an axially grooved aluminum fixed conductance heat pipe of axially grooved stainless steel heat pipe diode was demonstrated before the EDS batteries lost power. The inability of the HEPP's radiator to cool below 190 K in flight prevented freezing of the PCM and the opportunity to conduct transport tests with the heat pipes. Post flight tests showed that the heat pipes and the PCM are still functioning. This paper presents a summary of the flight data analysis for the HEPP and its related support systems. Pre and post-flight thermal vacuum tests results are presented for the HEPP thermal control system along with individual heat pipe performance and PCM behavior. Appropriate SIG related systems data will also be included along with a 'lessons learned' summary.

  13. Clad piping - a novel approach for solving nuclear plant service water and erosion-corrosion problems

    SciTech Connect

    Chakravarti, B.

    1992-12-31

    This paper discusses the application of clad piping components to solve various nuclear plant corrosion problems, such as service water system corrosion and feedwater/condensate/steam erosion-corrosion. This approach uses a carbon steel piping component which has a metallurgically bonded alloy cladding on the ID. Different alloys are available as cladding, from stainless steels to Inconel 625, so that a specific alloy can be selected based on the service requirements. Clad piping components represent a novel approach, as they provide a mechanism to utilize resistant alloys to solve corrosion problems without affecting the plant design. Clad piping products are designed such that the carbon steel backing acts as the pressure boundary and the cladding the corrosion allowance. By selecting the proper carbon steel backing, the clad product can be engineered to allow {open_quotes}like-for-like{close_quotes} component replacement. The wall thickness, weight and stiffness of the piping would remain essentially the same. The thermal expansion coefficient of the bulk piping also remains the same. Thus, the piping design and layout is wholly unaffected, with no structural reanalysis being required. This paper discusses two applications where clad piping products are being applied for solving nuclear power plant corrosion problems. The first is in solving steam/condensate/feedwater erosion-corrosion. The second application is the utilization of Inconel 625 clad piping products for solving service water system corrosion. Clad piping products solve these problems while improving plant operation and performance by basically providing the benefits of the alloy without any of the accompanying disadvantages of redesign.

  14. Alloy 31, a new 6 moly stainless steel with improved corrosion resistance in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Jasner, M.; Heubner, U.

    1995-10-01

    Alloy 31--UNS N08031--31Ni-27Cr-6.5Mo-1.2Cu-0.2N-balance iron--is an advanced 6 Mo stainless steel with increased chromium and nickel, contents for seawater service. In hot seawater the pitting potential of alloy 31 remains high up to 90 C (194 F). Investigations of resistance to crevice corrosion in real piping systems in natural seawater, both North Sea and Baltic Sea, show that the threshold conditions for alloy 31 in chlorinated seawater (North Sea) are at 40 C and 1 ppm chlorine well superior to the 6 Mo stainless grades being currently in use. In addition, alloy 31 shows an excellent resistance to corrosion versus both hot reducing media (e.g. H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) and hot oxidizing media (e.g. HNO{sub 3}). The combination of high resistance to localized corrosion vs. hot chloride-bearing cooling waters including seawater and aggressive oxidizing and reducing hot corrosive media is a unique feature of alloy 31. Alloy 31 is recommended for the construction of heat exchangers, process coolers and piping systems. The material is supplied in a number of semifinished products such as seamless and welded pipes, fittings, flanges, forged bars, plate, sheet, strip, wire and prefabricated piping systems.

  15. Sealing of a shrouded rotor-stator system with pre-swirl coolant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Oun, Z. B.; Neller, P. H.; Turner, A. B.

    1987-05-01

    Experimental results for a modeled gas turbine rotor-stator system using both preswirled blade coolant and radially outward flowing disc coolant are presented. Although the preswirled coolant flow is found to have little effect on the pressure distribution below the preswirl nozzles, it is shown that considerable contamination of the preswirled coolant by the frictionally heated disc coolant can occur. A clear pressure inversion effect was found when coolant was provided by the preswirl nozzles alone, while the pressure under the rim seal increased with increasing rotational speed. Blade coolant flow increases the sealing flow requirement, except at the lowest flow rates.

  16. Vapor-modulated heat pipe report. Flight data analysis and further development of variable-conductance heat pipes. [design analysis and performance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eninger, J. E.; Fleischman, G. L.; Luedke, E. E.

    1975-01-01

    The design and testing of a heat pipe for spacecraft application is presented. The application in mind calls for heat loads up to 20 watts, a set-point temperature of 294K, and a sink that varies from -220K to nearly as high as the set-point. The overall heat pipe length is 137 cm. Two basically different mechanisms of achieving variable conductance in the pipe by vapor-flow throttling were studied. In one, the thermal resistance between the heat source and sink is due to a saturation-temperature drop corresponding to the vapor-pressure drop developed across the valve. In the other, the pressure difference across the valve induces capillary groove and wick dry out in an evaporation region, and thus results in an increased thermal resistance. This mechanism was selected for fabrication and testing. The pipe is a stainless-steel/methanol two-heat-pipe system. Results are presented and discussed. Engineering drawings and specifications of the pipe are shown.

  17. The impacts of cooling construction on the ability distract the heat of condensation part of the heat pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čaja, A.; Nemec, P.; Malcho, M.; Gavlas, S.

    2013-04-01

    Heat pipes as cooling devices have a high potential. Their power to affect a variety of factors - the vapour pressure, the amount of media work etc. Itis therefore necessary to verify the calculated parameters also practically. To determine the performance of transmitted heat pipe is the best calorimetric method. When it is out of the flow and the temperature difference the cooling part of the heat pipe determines its transmitted power. The contribution is focused on comparison of two types of coolers. The first type is looped capillary cooler for the condenser section. The small diameter capillary is secured high coolant turbulence and hence heat dissipation. The second type is non-contact cooling, where cooling fluid washes direct heat pipe wall.

  18. Apparatus for controlling coolant level in a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Robert D.

    1978-01-01

    A liquid-metal-cooled fast-breeder reactor which has a thermal liner spaced inwardly of the pressure vessel and includes means for passing bypass coolant through the annulus between the thermal liner and the pressure vessel to insulate the pressure vessel from hot outlet coolant includes control ports in the thermal liner a short distance below the normal operating coolant level in the reactor and an overflow nozzle in the pressure vessel below the control ports connected to an overflow line including a portion at an elevation such that overflow coolant flow is established when the coolant level in the reactor is above the top of the coolant ports. When no makeup coolant is added, bypass flow is inwardly through the control ports and there is no overflow; when makeup coolant is being added, coolant flow through the overflow line will maintain the coolant level.

  19. The PEACE PIPE: Recycling nuclear weapons into a TRU storage/shipping container

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, D.; Edstrom, C.; Biddle, K.; Orlowski, R.; Geinitz, R.; Keenan, K.; Rivera, M.

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes results of a contract undertaken by the National Conversion Pilot Project (NCPP) at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) to fabricate stainless steel ``pipe`` containers for use in certification testing at Sandia National Lab, Albuquerque to qualify the container for both storage of transuranic (TRU) waste at RFETS and other DOE sites and shipping of the waste to the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP). The paper includes a description of the nearly ten-fold increase in the amount of contained plutonium enabled by the product design, the preparation and use of former nuclear weapons facilities to fabricate the components, and the rigorous quality assurance and test procedures that were employed. It also describes how stainless steel nuclear weapons components can be converted into these pipe containers, a true ``swords into plowshare`` success story.

  20. Why stainless steel corrodes.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Mary P; Williams, David E; Chater, Richard J; Hutton, Bernie M; McPhail, David S

    2002-02-14

    Stainless steels are used in countless diverse applications for their corrosion resistance. Although they have extremely good general resistance, they are nevertheless susceptible to pitting corrosion. This localized dissolution of an oxide-covered metal in specific aggressive environments is one of the most common and catastrophic causes of failure of metallic structures. The pitting process has been described as random, sporadic and stochastic and the prediction of the time and location of events remains extremely difficult. Many contested models of pitting corrosion exist, but one undisputed aspect is that manganese sulphide inclusions play a critical role. Indeed, the vast majority of pitting events are found to occur at, or adjacent to, such second-phase particles. Chemical changes in and around sulphide inclusions have been postulated as a mechanism for pit initiation but such variations have never been measured. Here we use nanometre-scale secondary ion mass spectroscopy to demonstrate a significant reduction in the Cr:Fe ratio of the steel matrix around MnS particles. These chromium-depleted zones are susceptible to high-rate dissolution that 'triggers' pitting. The implications of these results are that materials processing conditions control the likelihood of corrosion failures, and these data provide a basis for optimizing such conditions. PMID:11845203

  1. Stainless Steel Permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Buchenauer, Dean A.; Karnesky, Richard A.

    2015-09-01

    An understanding of the behavior of hydrogen isotopes in materials is critical to predicting tritium transport in structural metals (at high pressure), estimating tritium losses during production (fission environment), and predicting in-vessel inventory for future fusion devices (plasma driven permeation). Current models often assume equilibrium diffusivity and solubility for a class of materials (e.g. stainless steels or aluminum alloys), neglecting trapping effects or, at best, considering a single population of trapping sites. Permeation and trapping studies of the particular castings and forgings enable greater confidence and reduced margins in the models. For FY15, we have continued our investigation of the role of ferrite in permeation for steels of interest to GTS, through measurements of the duplex steel 2507. We also initiated an investigation of the permeability in work hardened materials, to follow up on earlier observations of unusual permeability in a particular region of 304L forgings. Samples were prepared and characterized for ferrite content and coated with palladium to prevent oxidation. Issues with the poor reproducibility of measurements at low permeability were overcome, although the techniques in use are tedious. Funding through TPBAR and GTS were secured for a research grade quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and replacement turbo pumps, which should improve the fidelity and throughput of measurements in FY16.

  2. CFD modeling of turbulent duct flows for coolant channel analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungewitter, Ronald J.; Chan, Daniel C.

    1993-07-01

    The design of modern liquid rocket engines requires the analysis of chamber coolant channels to maximize the heat transfer while minimizing the coolant flow. Coolant channels often do not remain at a constant cross section or at uniform curvature. New designs require higher aspect ratio coolant channels than previously used. To broaden the analysis capability and to complement standard analysis tools an investigation on the accuracy of CFD predictions for coolant channel flow has been initiated. Validation of CFD capabilities for coolant channel analysis will enhance the capabilities for optimizing design parameters without resorting to extensive experimental testing. The eventual goal is to use CFD to determine the flow fields of unique coolant channel designs and therefore determine critical heat transfer coefficients. In this presentation the accuracy of a particular CFD code is evaluated for turbulent flows. The first part of the presentation is a comparison of numerical results to existing cold flow data for square curved ducts (NASA CR-3367, 'Measurements of Laminar and Turbulent Flow in a Curved Duct with Thin Inlet Boundary Layers'). The results of this comparison show good agreement with the relatively coarse experimental data. The second part of the presentation compares two cases of higher aspect ratio channels (AR=2.5,10) to show changes in axial and secondary flow strength. These cases match experimental work presently in progress and will be used for future validation. The comparison shows increased secondary flow strength of the higher aspect ratio case due to the change in radius of curvature. The presentation includes a test case with a heated wall to demonstrate the program's capability. The presentation concludes with an outline of the procedure used to validate the CFD code for future design analysis.

  3. Cryogenic thermal absorptance measurements on small-diameter stainless steel tubing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, James; Jahromi, Amir; Canavan, Edgar; DiPirro, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI) on the James Webb Space Telescope includes a mechanical cryocooler which cools its detectors to their 6 K operating temperature. The coolant gas flows through several meters of small-diameter stainless steel tubing, which is exposed to thermal radiation from its environment. Over much of its length this tubing is gold-plated to minimize the absorption of this radiant heat. In order to confirm that the cryocooler will meet MIRI's requirements, the thermal absorptance of this tubing was measured as a function of its environment temperature. We describe the measurement technique and present the results.

  4. Drill pipe protector development

    SciTech Connect

    Thomerson, C.; Kenne, R.; Wemple, R.P.

    1996-03-01

    The Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO), formed in the early 1980s by the geothermal industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Division, sponsors specific development projects to advance the technologies used in geothermal exploration, drilling, and production phases. Individual GDO member companies can choose to participate in specific projects that are most beneficial to their industry segment. Sandia National Laboratories is the technical interface and contracting office for the DOE in these projects. Typical projects sponsored in the past have included a high temperature borehole televiewer, drill bits, muds/polymers, rotary head seals, and this project for drill pipe protectors. This report documents the development work of Regal International for high temperature geothermal pipe protectors.

  5. Explosive welding of pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drennov, O.; Burtseva, O.; Kitin, A.

    2006-08-01

    For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water. Model experiments with pipes having radii R = 57 mm confirmed results of the calculations and the possibility in principle to weld pipes by explosion with use of water as filler.

  6. Heat Pipes For Alyeska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The heat pipes job is to keep the arctic ground frozen. The permafrost soil alternately freezes and thaws with seasonal temperature changes causing surface dislocations and problems for the builders. In winter, a phenomenon called frost-heaving uplifts the soil. It is something like the creation of highway potholes by the freezing of rainwater below the roadbed, but frost-heaving exerts a far greater force. Thawing of the frost in the summer causes the soil to settle unevenly. Therefore it is necessary to keep the soil in a continually frozen state so the pipeline won't rupture. To solve this problem, McDonnell Douglas Corp. applied heat pipe principles in the design of the vertical supports that hold up the pipeline.

  7. Heat Pipe Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Solar Fundamentals, Inc.'s hot water system employs space-derived heat pipe technology. It is used by a meat packing plant to heat water for cleaning processing machinery. Unit is complete system with water heater, hot water storage, electrical controls and auxiliary components. Other than fans and a circulating pump, there are no moving parts. System's unique design eliminates problems of balancing, leaking, corroding, and freezing.

  8. Electrohydrodynamic heat pipe research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. B.; Perry, M. P.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical applications to electrohydrodynamic heat pipe (EHDHP) research are presented. Two problems in the research which are discussed are the prediction of the effective thermal conductance of an EHDHP with threaded grooves for fluid distribution to the evaporator of an EHDHP. Hydrodynamic equations are included along with a discussion of boundary conditions and burn-out conditions. A discussion of the theoretical and experimental results is presented.

  9. Guidable pipe plug

    DOEpatents

    Glassell, Richard L.; Babcock, Scott M.; Lewis, Benjamin E.

    2001-01-01

    A plugging device for closing an opening defined by an end of a pipe with sealant comprises a cap, an extension, an inner seal, a guide, and at least one stop. The cap has an inner surface which defines a chamber adapted for retaining the sealant. The chamber is dimensioned slightly larger than the end so as to receive the end. The chamber and end define a gap therebetween. The extension has a distal end and is attached to the inner surface opposite the distal end. The inner seal is attached to the extension and sized larger than the opening. The guide is positioned forward of the inner seal and attached to the distal end. The guide is also dimensioned to be inserted into the opening. The stop is attached to the extender, and when the stop is disposed in the pipe, the stop is movable with respect to the conduit in one direction and also prevents misalignment of the cap with the pipe. A handle can also be included to allow the cap to be positioned robotically.

  10. Light Pipe Thermophotovoltaics (LTPV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    2007-02-01

    In a conventional thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy converter the radiation from the emitter to the photovoltaic (PV) array is transmitted in a vacuum or air where the index of refraction, n = 1. The intensity of the radiation is proportional to n2. Therefore, the incident intensity on the PV array could be greatly increase if the medium between the emitter and the PV array had n > 1. This light pipe TPV (LTPV) concept was introduced by The Quantum Group at the Third National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) TPV Conference in 1997. This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the LTPV concept. The solution of the one-dimensional energy equation that includes both thermal conduction and radiation yields the temperature distribution through the light pipe. Applying the analysis to a zinc selenide (ZnSe) light pipe yielded the following result. For an emitter temperature of 1000K the convertible radiation(photon energy >PV bandgap energy) that reaches the photovoltaic(PV) cell is 1 W/cm2. At the same emitter temperature, a conventional TPV converter would have 1/8 W/cm2 of convertible radiation. Thus, the LTPV concept makes possible lower temperature operation than current TPV converters.

  11. Nuclear criticality safety assessment of the proposed CFC replacement coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, W.C.; Dyer, H.R.

    1993-12-01

    The neutron multiplication characteristics of refrigerant-114 (R-114) and proposed replacement coolants perfluorobutane (C{sub 4}F{sub 10}) and cycloperfluorobutane C{sub 4}F{sub 8}) have been compared by evaluating the infinite media multiplication factors of UF{sub 6}/H/coolant systems and by replacement calculations considering a 10-MW freezer/sublimer. The results of these comparisons demonstrate that R-114 is a neutron absorber, due to its chlorine content, and that the alternative fluorocarbon coolants are neutron moderators. Estimates of critical spherical geometries considering mixtures of UF{sub 6}/HF/C{sub 4}F{sub 10} indicate that the flourocarbon-moderated systems are large compared with water-moderated systems. The freezer/sublimer calculations indicate that the alternative coolants are more reactive than R-114, but that the reactivity remains significantly below the condition of water in the tubes, which was a limiting condition. Based on these results, the alternative coolants appear to be acceptable; however, several follow-up tasks have been recommended, and additional evaluation will be required on an individual equipment basis.

  12. Stagnation region gas film cooling: Effects of dimensionless coolant temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonnice, M. A.; Lecuyer, M. R.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to mode the film cooling performance for a turbine vane leading edge using the stagnation region of a cylinder in cross flow. Experiments were conducted with a single row of spanwise angled (25 deg) coolant holes for a range of the coolant blowing ratio and dimensionless coolant temperature with free stream-to-wall temperature ratio approximately 1.7 and Re sub D = 90000. the cylindrical test surface was instrumented with miniature heat flux gages and wall thermocouples to determine the percentage reduction in the Stanton number as a function of the distance downstream from injection (x/d sub 0) and the location between adjacent holes (z/S). Data from local heat flux measurements are presented for injection from a single row located at 5 deg, 22.9 deg, 40.8 deg, from stagnation using a hole spacing ratio of S/d = 5. The film coolant was injected with T sub c T sub w with a dimensionless coolant temperature in the range 1.18 or equal to theta sub c or equal to 1.56. The data for local Stanton Number Reduction (SNR) showed a significant increase in SNR as theta sub c was increased above 1.0.

  13. Reactor coolant seal testing under station blackout conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Marsi, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Failures of reactor coolant pump (RCP) seals that could result in a significant loss-of-coolant inventory are of current concern to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Particular attention is being focused on seal behavior during station blackout conditions, when failure of on-site emergency diesel generators occurs simultaneously with loss of all off-site alternating current power. Under these conditions, both seal injection flow and component cooling water flow are lost, and the RCP seals are exposed to full reactor coolant temperature. Overheating of elastomeric components and flashing of coolant across the sealing faces can cause unacceptably high leakage rates, with potential catastrophic consequences. A test program has been conducted that subjects full-scale seal cartridges to typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) coolant system steady-state and transient operation conditions including associated dynamic shaft motions. A special test segment was developed to evaluate seal operation under station blackout conditions. The test program successfully mirrored the severity of an actual loss-of-seal cooling water event under station blackout conditions, and the Byron Jackson{reg sign} N-9000 seal cartridge maintained its integrity.

  14. Diesel engine coolant analysis, new application for established instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.P.; Lukas, M.; Lynch, B.K.

    1998-09-01

    Rotating disk electrode (RDE) arc emission spectrometers are used in many commercial, industrial and military laboratories throughout the world to analyze millions of oil and fuel samples each year. In fact, RDE spectrometers have been used exclusively for oil and fuel analysis for so long, that most practitioners have probably forgotten that when RDE spectrometers were first introduced more than 40 years ago, they were also routinely used for aqueous samples. This paper describes recent work to calibrate and modify RDE arc emission spectrometers for the analysis of engine coolant samples; a mixture of approximately 50% water and 50% glycol. The technique has been shown to be effective for the analysis of wear metals, contamination and supplemental coolant additives in ethylene and propylene glycol. A comparison of results for coolant samples measured by both inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and RDE spectrometers will be presented. The data correlates extremely well on new and relatively clean coolants. However, not surprisingly, RDE results are sometimes higher for samples containing particles larger than a few micrometers. This paper suggests that RDE spectrometers are appropriate, and sometimes preferred, for most types of coolants and certain types of aqueous samples. Actual field data is be presented to support the arguments.

  15. Heat pipe technology: A bibliography with abstracts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The annual supplement on heat pipe technology for 1971 is presented. The document contains 101 references with abstracts and 47 patents. The subjects discussed are: (1) heat pipe applications, (2) heat pipe theory, (3) design, development, and fabrication of heat pipes, (4) testing and operation, (5) subject and author index, and (6) heat pipe related patents.

  16. Experimenting with a ``Pipe'' Whistle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Olga

    2012-04-01

    A simple pipe whistle can be made using pieces of PVC pipe. The whistle can be used to measure the resonant frequencies of open or closed pipes. A slightly modified version of the device can be used to also investigate the interesting dependence of the sound frequencies produced on the orifice-to-edge distance. The pipe whistle described here allows students in a physics of music or introductory physics course to study an example of an "edge tone" device that produces discrete sound frequencies. From their textbooks, students likely know about standing waves produced by pipes or strings, as well as the resonant frequencies for open and closed pipes. To go a bit further, they can also learn how the frequency of the sound wave depends on the orifice-to-edge distance of the wind instrument.

  17. Sodium Heat Pipe Module Processing For the SAFE-100 Reactor Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James; Salvail, Pat

    2003-01-01

    To support development and hardware-based testing of various space reactor concepts, the Early Flight Fission-Test Facility (EFF-TF) team established a specialized glove box unit with ancillary systems to handle/process alkali metals. Recently, these systems have been commissioned with sodium supporting the fill of stainless steel heat pipe modules for use with a 100 kW thermal heat pipe reactor design. As part of this effort, procedures were developed and refined to govern each segment of the process covering: fill, leak check, vacuum processing, weld closeout, and final "wet in". A series of 316 stainless steel modules, used as precursors to the actual 321 stainless steel modules, were filled with 35 +/- 1 grams of sodium using a known volume canister to control the dispensed mass. Each module was leak checked to less than10(exp -10) std cc/sec helium and vacuum conditioned at 250 C to assist in the removal of trapped gases. A welding procedure was developed to close out the fill stem preventing external gases from entering the evacuated module. Finally the completed modules were vacuum fired at 750 C allowing the sodium to fully wet the internal surface and wick structure of the heat pipe module.

  18. Sodium Heat Pipe Module Processing For the SAFE-100 Reactor Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, James; Salvail, Pat

    2004-02-01

    To support development and hardware-based testing of various space reactor concepts, the Early Flight Fission-Test Facility (EFF-TF) team established a specialized glove box unit with ancillary systems to handle/process alkali metals. Recently, these systems have been commissioned with sodium supporting the fill of stainless steel heat pipe modules for use with a 100 kW thermal heat pipe reactor design. As part of this effort, procedures were developed and refined to govern each segment of the process covering: fill, leak check, vacuum processing, weld closeout, and final ``wet in''. A series of 316 stainless steel modules, used as precursors to the actual 321 stainless steel modules, were filled with 35 +/-1 grams of sodium using a known volume canister to control the dispensed mass. Each module was leak checked to <10-10 std cc/sec helium and vacuum conditioned at 250 °C to assist in the removal of trapped gases. A welding procedure was developed to close out the fill stem preventing external gases from entering the evacuated module. Finally the completed modules were vacuum fired at 750 °C allowing the sodium to fully wet the internal surface and wick structure of the heat pipe module.

  19. Aging of LAB-based liquid scintillator in stainless steel containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hai-Tao; Yu, Bo-Xiang; Shan, Qing; Ding, Ya-Yun; Du, Bing; Liu, Shu-Tong; Zhang, Xuan; Zhou, Li; Jia, Wen-Bao; Fang, Jian; Ye, Xing-Chen; Hu, Wei; Niu, Shun-Li; Yan, Jia-Qing; Zhao, Hang; Hong, Dao-Jin

    2015-06-01

    Types 316 and 304 stainless steel are two candidates for the storage vessels and piping systems of LAB-based liquid scintillator (LS) in the JUNO experiment. LS aging experiments are carried out at temperatures of 40 °C and 25 °C. After 192 days aging at 40 °C, the attenuation length of LS was reduced by 6% in a glass container, 12% in a type 304 stainless steel tank, and 10% in a type 316 stainless steel tank. At 25 °C in 304 and 316 stainless steel tanks, the attenuation length was reduced by 6% after 307 days. The light yield and the absorption spectrum were practically the same as that of the unaged sample. The concentration of element Fe in the LAB-based LS did not show a clear change. Type 316 and 304 stainless steel can be used as vessels and transportation pipeline material for LAB-based LS. Supported by Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA10010500) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11205183, 11005117, 11225525, 11390384)

  20. Effect of Nb on high-temperature properties for ferritic stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, N.; Kikuchi, M.; Ohmura, K.; Suzuki, T.; Funaki, S.; Hiroshige, I.

    1996-09-15

    In order to improve the efficiency of automobile engines and to reduce their weight, there is a move toward the use of conventional stainless steel sheets and pipes for exhaust manifolds to replace cast iron, the traditional material for this application. The exhaust manifold is used in an environment that includes engine vibrations as well as heating and cooling cycles caused by the travel pattern. Therefore, among high-temperature characteristics, thermal fatigue resistance is an important one that affects the life span of an exhaust manifold. Generally, austenitic steels have higher strength at high temperature than ferritic steels. However, type 304, a typical austenitic stainless steel, has less thermal fatigue resistance than type 430, a typical ferritic stainless steel. This is because austenitic steels have higher coefficient of thermal expansion than ferritic steels. Therefore, to obtain a material with excellent thermal fatigue resistance, it would conceivably be best to attempt to increase the high temperature strength of ferritic stainless steels. The present study centered on improvement of the high-temperature proof strength of ferritic stainless steels. The mechanism of high temperature strengthening by Nb addition, which was shown to be one of the most effective methods to improve proof strength at high temperature, was discussed.

  1. Insulating Cryogenic Pipes With Frost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, J. G.; Bova, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Crystallized water vapor fills voids in pipe insulation. Small, carefully controlled amount of water vapor introduced into dry nitrogen gas before it enters aft fuselage. Vapor freezes on pipes, filling cracks in insulation. Ice prevents gaseous nitrogen from condensing on pipes and dripping on structure, in addition to helping to insulate all parts. Industrial applications include large refrigeration plants or facilities that use cryogenic liquids.

  2. Exploratory Investigation of Transpiration Cooling of a 40 deg Double Wedge using Nitrogen and Helium as Coolants at Stagnation Temperatures from 1,295 deg F to 2,910 deg F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashis, Bernard

    1961-01-01

    An investigation of transpiration cooling has been conducted in the preflight jet of the Langley Pilotless Aircraft Research Station at Wallops Island, Va. The model consisted of a double wedge of 40 deg included angle having a porous stainless-steel specimen inserted flush with the top surface of the wedge. The tests were conducted at a free-stream Mach number of 2.0 for stagnation temperatures ranging from 1,295 F to 2,910 F. Nitrogen and helium were used as coolants and tests were conducted for values ranging from approximately 0.03 to 0.30 percent of the local weight flow rate. The data for both the nitrogen and helium coolants indicated greater cooling effectiveness than that predicted by theory and were in good agreement with the results for an 8 deg cone tested at a stagnation temperature of 600 F. The results indicate that the helium coolant, for the same amount of heat-transfer reduction, requires only about one-fourth to one-fifth the coolant flow weight as the nitrogen coolant.

  3. Cryogenic Heat Pipe Experiment (CRYOHP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, Roy

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the CRYOHP experiment is to conduct a shuttle experiment that demonstrates the reliable operation of two oxygen heat pipes in microgravity. The experiment will perform the following tasks: (1) demonstrate startup of the pipes from the supercritical state; (2) measure the heat transport capacity of the pipes; (3) measure evaporator and condenser film coefficients; and (4) work shuttle safety issues. The approach for the experiment is as follows: (1) fly two axially grooved oxygen heat pipes attached to mechanical stirling cycle tactical coolers; (2) integrate experiment in hitch-hiker canister; and (3) fly on shuttle and control from ground.

  4. Thermostructural applications of heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peeples, M. E.; Reeder, J. C.; Sontag, K. E.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of integrating heat pipes in high temperature structure to reduce local hot spot temperature was evaluated for a variety of hypersonic aerospace vehicles. From an initial list of twenty-two potential applications, the single stage to orbit wing leading edge showed the greatest promise and was selected for preliminary design of an integrated heat pipe thermostructural system. The design consisted of a Hastelloy X assembly with sodium heat pipe passages aligned normal to the wing leading edge. A d-shaped heat pipe cross section was determined to be optimum from the standpoint of structural weight.

  5. Actively controlling coolant-cooled cold plate configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Chainer, Timothy J.; Parida, Pritish R.

    2015-07-28

    A method is provided to facilitate active control of thermal and fluid dynamic performance of a coolant-cooled cold plate. The method includes: monitoring a variable associated with at least one of the coolant-cooled cold plate or one or more electronic components being cooled by the cold plate; and dynamically varying, based on the monitored variable, a physical configuration of the cold plate. By dynamically varying the physical configuration, the thermal and fluid dynamic performance of the cold plate are adjusted to, for example, optimally cool the one or more electronic components, and at the same time, reduce cooling power consumption used in cooling the electronic component(s). The physical configuration can be adjusted by providing one or more adjustable plates within the coolant-cooled cold plate, the positioning of which may be adjusted based on the monitored variable.

  6. Method for removing cesium from a nuclear reactor coolant

    DOEpatents

    Colburn, R.P.

    1983-08-10

    A method of and system for removing cesium from a liquid metal reactor coolant including a carbon packing trap in the primary coolant system for absorbing a major portion of the radioactive cesium from the coolant flowing therethrough at a reduced temperature. A regeneration subloop system having a secondary carbon packing trap is selectively connected to the primary system for isolating the main trap therefrom and connecting it to the regeneration system. Increasing the temperature of the sodium flowing through the primary trap diffuses a portion of the cesium inventory thereof further into the carbon matrix while simultaneously redispersing a portion into the regeneration system for absorption at a reduced temperature by the secondary trap.

  7. A study of high-temperature heat pipes with multiple heat sources and sinks. I - Experimental methodology and frozen startup profiles. II - Analysis of continuum transient and steady-state experimental data with numerical predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faghri, A.; Cao, Y.; Buchko, M.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental profiles for heat pipe startup from the frozen state were obtained, using a high-temperature sodium/stainless steel pipe with multiple heat sources and sinks to investigate the startup behavior of the heat pipe for various heat loads and input locations, with both low and high heat rejection rates at the condensor. The experimental results of the performance characteristics for the continuum transient and steady-state operation of the heat pipe were analyzed, and the performance limits for operation with varying heat fluxes and location are determined.

  8. Uniform corrosion of FeCrAl alloys in LWR coolant environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrani, K. A.; Pint, B. A.; Kim, Y.-J.; Unocic, K. A.; Yang, Y.; Silva, C. M.; Meyer, H. M.; Rebak, R. B.

    2016-10-01

    The corrosion behavior of commercial and model FeCrAl alloys and type 310 stainless steel was examined by autoclave tests and compared to Zircaloy-4, the reference cladding materials in light water reactors. The corrosion studies were carried out in three distinct water chemistry environments found in pressurized and boiling water reactor primary coolant loop conditions for up to one year. The structure and morphology of the oxides formed on the surface of these alloys was consistent with thermodynamic predictions. Spinel-type oxides were found to be present after hydrogen water chemistry exposures, while the oxygenated water tests resulted in the formation of very thin and protective hematite-type oxides. Unlike the alloys exposed to oxygenated water tests, the alloys tested in hydrogen water chemistry conditions experienced mass loss as a function of time. This mass loss was the result of net sum of mass gain due to parabolic oxidation and mass loss due to dissolution that also exhibits parabolic kinetics. The maximum thickness loss after one year of LWR water corrosion in the absence of irradiation was ∼2 μm, which is inconsequential for a ∼300-500 μm thick cladding.

  9. Uniform corrosion of FeCrAl alloys in LWR coolant environments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Terrani, K. A.; Pint, B. A.; Kim, Y. -J.; Unocic, K. A.; Yang, Y.; Silva, C. M.; Meyer, III, H. M.; Rebak, R. B.

    2016-06-29

    In this study, the corrosion behavior of commercial and model FeCrAl alloys and type 310 stainless steel was examined by autoclave tests and compared to Zircaloy-4, the reference cladding materials in light water reactors. The corrosion studies were carried out in three distinct water chemistry environments found in pressurized and boiling water reactor primary coolant loop conditions for up to one year. The structure and morphology of the oxides formed on the surface of these alloys was consistent with thermodynamic predictions. Spinel-type oxides were found to be present after hydrogen water chemistry exposures, while the oxygenated water tests resulted inmore » the formation of very thin and protective hematite-type oxides. Unlike the alloys exposed to oxygenated water tests, the alloys tested in hydrogen water chemistry conditions experienced mass loss as a function of time. This mass loss was the result of net sum of mass gain due to parabolic oxidation and mass loss due to dissolution that also exhibits parabolic kinetics. Finally, the maximum thickness loss after one year of LWR water corrosion in the absence of irradiation was ~2 μm, which is inconsequential for a ~300–500 μm thick cladding.« less

  10. Effects of pipe materials on chlorine-resistant biofilm formation under long-term high chlorine level.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zebing; Wu, Chenguang; Zhong, Dan; Yuan, Yixing; Shan, Lili; Zhang, Jie

    2014-07-01

    Drinking water distribution systems are composed of various pipe materials and may harbor biofilms even in the continuous presence of disinfectants. Biofilms formation on five pipe materials (copper (Cu), polyethylene (PE), stainless steel (STS), cast iron (CI), and concrete-coated polycarbonate (CP)) within drinking water containing 1.20 mg/L free chlorine, was investigated by flow cytometry, heterotrophic plate counts, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis. Results showed that the biofilms formation varied in pipe materials. The biofilm formed on CP initially emerged the highest biomass in 12 days, but CI presented the significantly highest biomass after 28 days, and Cu showed the lowest bacterial numbers before 120 days, while STS expressed the lowest bacterial numbers after 159 days. In the biofilm community structure, Moraxella osloensis and Sphingomonas sp. were observed in all the pipe materials while Bacillus sp. was detected except in the CP pipe and Stenotrophomonas maltophila was found from three pipe materials (Cu, PE, and STS). Other bacteria were only found from one or two pipe materials. It is noteworthy that there are 11 opportunistic pathogens in the 17 classified bacterial strains. This research has afforded crucial information regarding the influence of pipe materials on chlorine-resistant biofilm formation. PMID:24828580

  11. Spectrophotometric Procedure for Fast Reactor Advanced Coolant Manufacture Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrienko, O. S.; Egorov, N. B.; Zherin, I. I.; Indyk, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes a spectrophotometric procedure for fast reactor advanced coolant manufacture control. The molar absorption coefficient of dimethyllead dibromide with dithizone was defined as equal to 68864 ± 795 l·mole-1·cm-1, limit of detection as equal to 0.583 · 10-6 g/ml. The spectrophotometric procedure application range was found to be equal to 37.88 - 196.3 g. of dimethyllead dibromide in the sample. The procedure was used within the framework of the development of the method of synthesis of the advanced coolant for fast reactors.

  12. Code System to Calculate Reactor Coolant System Leak Rate.

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Pat

    1999-10-19

    Version 00 RCSLK9 was developed to analyze the leak tightness of the primary coolant system for any pressurized water reactor (PWR). From given system conditions, water levels in tanks, and certain system design parameters, RCSLK9 calculates the loss of water from the reactor coolant system (RCS) and the increase of water in the leakage collection system during an arbitrary time interval. The program determines the system leak rates and displays or prints a report of the results. During the initial application to a specific reactor, RCSLK9 creates a file of system parameters and saves it for future use.

  13. Code System to Calculate Reactor Coolant System Leak Rate.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1999-10-19

    Version 00 RCSLK9 was developed to analyze the leak tightness of the primary coolant system for any pressurized water reactor (PWR). From given system conditions, water levels in tanks, and certain system design parameters, RCSLK9 calculates the loss of water from the reactor coolant system (RCS) and the increase of water in the leakage collection system during an arbitrary time interval. The program determines the system leak rates and displays or prints a report ofmore » the results. During the initial application to a specific reactor, RCSLK9 creates a file of system parameters and saves it for future use.« less

  14. Evaluation of engine coolants under flow boiling conditions

    SciTech Connect

    McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Stinson, C.; Gollin, M.

    1995-12-31

    An experimental program has been conducted to evaluate the heat transfer performance of two engine coolant mixtures, propylene-glycol/water and ethylene-glycol/water. In each mixture, the concentration was 50-50 by volume. Performance in this situation is defined as the ability to maintain a lower surface temperature for a given flux. The heat transfer regimes considered covered the range from single phase forced convection through saturated flow boiling. Results show that both coolants perform satisfactorily. However, in single phase convection, ethylene-glycol/water is slightly more effective. Conversely, for sub-cooled nucleate boiling and saturated boiling, propylene-glycol/water results in slightly lower metal temperatures.

  15. Plating on stainless steel alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Dini, J.W.; Johnson, H.R.

    1981-09-11

    Quantitative adhesion data are presented for a variety of electroplated stainless steel type alloys. Results show that excellent adhesion can be obtained by using a Wood's nickel strike or a sulfamate nickel strike prior to final plating. Specimens plated after Wood's nickel striking failed in the deposit rather than at the interface between the substrate and the coating. Flyer plate quantitative tests showed that use of anodic treatment in sulfuric acid prior to Wood's nickel striking even further improved adhesion. In contrast activation of stainless steels by immersion or cathodic treatment in hydrochloric acid resulted in very reduced bond strengths with failure always occurring at the interface between the coating and substrate.

  16. Development of Figure of Merits (FOMs) for Intermediate Coolant Characterization and Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Eung Soo Kim; Piyush Sabharwall; Nolan Anderson

    2011-06-01

    This paper focuses on characterization of several coolant performances in the IHTL. There are lots of choices available for the IHTL coolants; gases, liquid metals, molten salts, and etc. Traditionally, the selection of coolants is highly dependent on engineer's experience and decisions. In this decision, the following parameters are generally considered: melting point, vapor pressure, density, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, viscosity, and coolant chemistry. The followings are general thermal-hydraulic requirements for the coolant in the IHTL: (1) High heat transfer performance - The IHTL coolant should exhibit high heat transfer performance to achieve high efficiency and economics; (2) Low pumping power - The IHTL coolant requires low pumping power to improve economics through less stringent pump requirements; (3) Low amount of coolant volume - The IHTL coolant requires less coolant volume for better economics; (4) Low amount of structural materials - The IHTL coolant requires less structural material volume for better economics; (5) Low heat loss - The IHTL requires less heat loss for high efficiency; and (6) Low temperature drop - The IHTL should allow less temperature drop for high efficiency. Typically, heat transfer coolants are selected based on various fluid properties such as melting point, vapor pressure, density, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, viscosity, and coolant chemistry. However, the selection process & results are highly dependent on the engineer's personal experience and skills. In the coolant selection, if a certain coolant shows superior properties with respect to the others, the decision will be very straightforward. However, generally, each coolant material exhibits good characteristics for some properties but poor for the others. Therefore, it will be very useful to have some figures of merits (FOMs), which can represent and quantify various coolant thermal performances in the system of interest. The study summarized in this

  17. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system.

  18. Ceramic heat pipe wick

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidenberg, Benjamin (Inventor); Swanson, Theodore (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A wick for use in a capillary loop pump heat pipe is disclosed. The wick material is an essentially uniformly porous, permeable, open-cell, silicon dioxide/aluminum oxide inorganic ceramic foam having a silica fiber ratio, by weight, of about 78 to 22, respectively, a density of 6 lbs/cu ft, and an average pore size of less than 5 microns. A representative material having these characteristics is Lockheed Missile and Space Company, Inc.'s HTP 6-22. This material is fully compatible with the freons and anhydrous ammonia and allows for the use of these very efficient working fluids, and others, in capillary loops.

  19. Polymeric heat pipe wick

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidenberg, Benjamin

    1988-01-01

    A wick for use in a capillary loop pump heat pipe is described. The wick material is an essentially uniformly porous, permeable, open-cell, polyethylene thermoplastic foam having an ultrahigh average molecular weight of from approximately 1 to 5 million, and an average pore size of about 10 to 12 microns. A representative material having these characteristics is POREX UF, which has an average molecular weight of about 3 million. This material is fully compatible with the FREONs and anhydrous ammonia and allows for the use of these very efficient working fluids in capillary loops.

  20. Heat pipes - Thermal diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aptekar, B. F.; Baum, J. M.; Ivanovskii, M. N.; Kolgotin, F. F.; Serbin, V. I.

    The performance concept and peculiarities of the new type of thermal diode with the trap and with the wick breakage are dealt with in the report. The experimental data were obtained and analysed for the working fluid mass and the volume of the liquid in the wick on the forward-mode limiting heat transfer. The flow rate pulsation of the working fluid in the wick was observed visually on the setup with the transparent wall. The quantitative difference on the data on the investigated thermal diode and on the identical heat pipes without the wick breakage is found experimentally concerning the forward-mode limiting heat transfer.

  1. Beam loss reduction by magnetic shielding using beam pipes and bellows of soft magnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, J.; Ogiwara, N.; Hotchi, H.; Hayashi, N.; Kinsho, M.

    2014-11-01

    One of the main sources of beam loss in high power accelerators is unwanted stray magnetic fields from magnets near the beam line, which can distort the beam orbit. The most effective way to shield such magnetic fields is to perfectly surround the beam region without any gaps with a soft magnetic high permeability material. This leads to the manufacture of vacuum chambers (beam pipes and bellows) with soft magnetic materials. A Ni-Fe alloy (permalloy) was selected for the material of the pipe parts and outer bellows parts, while a ferritic stainless steel was selected for the flanges. An austenitic stainless steel, which is non-magnetic material, was used for the inner bellows for vacuum tightness. To achieve good magnetic shielding and vacuum performances, a heat treatment under high vacuum was applied during the manufacturing process of the vacuum chambers. Using this heat treatment, the ratio of the integrated magnetic flux density along the beam orbit between the inside and outside of the beam pipe and bellows became small enough to suppress beam orbit distortion. The outgassing rate of the materials with this heat treatment was reduced by one order magnitude compared to that without heat treatment. By installing the beam pipes and bellows of soft magnetic materials as part of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex 3 GeV rapid cycling synchrotron beam line, the closed orbit distortion (COD) was reduced by more than 80%. In addition, a 95.5% beam survival ratio was achieved by this COD improvement.

  2. Removal of Pipe Fouling Inside Pipes Using Ultrasonic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Noritoshi; Fujihara, Masaya; Wu, Chaoqun; Satonobu, Jun

    Since fouling generated inside pipes of chemistry plant equipment, shortens “its life”, periodical maintenance such as cleaning or replacement is needed. Therefore, the development of a safe and sanitary method of preventing a corrosion and blockage inside pipes is desired. In this study, a vibration system, composed of a bolt-clamped Langevin transducer and a pipe, was employed to experimentally study the possibility of fouling removal. In the experiment, a flexural vibration was excited in a pipe containing fouling using ultrasonic waves. When the pipe was made to vibrate, with calcium carbonate or starch used as the fouling, it was shown that the fouling was diffused into the air, and except at the node of the flexural vibration, the fouling was removed completely. Also, the result showed that a higher input voltage to the transducer was more effective in removing the fouling.

  3. ATHENA (Advanced Thermal Hydraulic Energy Network Analyzer) simulation of a loss of coolant accident in a space reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, P.A.; Shumway, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    The Advanced Thermal Hydraulic Energy Network Analyzer (ATHENA) code was used to simulate a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a conceptual space reactor design. ATHENA provides the capability of simulating the thermal-hydraulic behavior of the wide variety of systems which are being considered for use in space reactors. Flow loops containing any one of several available working fluids may interact through thermal connections with other loops containing the same or a different working fluid. The code can be used to model special systems such as: heat pipes, point reactor kinetics, plant control systems, turbines, valves, and pumps. This work demonstrates the application of the thermal radiation model which has been recently incorporated into ATHENA and verifies the need for supplemental reactor cooling to prevent reactor fuel damage in the event of a LOCA.

  4. CTS-type variable conductance heat pipes for SEP FM/PPU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoniuk, D.; Luedke, E. E.

    1978-01-01

    The development effort for, and the fabrication and testing of, six CTS-type variable conductance heat pipes is described. The heat pipes are constructed of stainless steel, use methanol as a working fluid, and a nitrogen/helium mixture as the control gas. The wicking structure consists of interior wall grooves, a metal-felt diametral slab wick, and two wire-mesh arteries. The heat pipes are used to cool two Functional Model/Power Processing Units in a Solar Electric Propulsion prototype BIMOD thruster subsystem assembly. The Power Processing Units convert the electric power from a spacecraft solar array system to the voltages required to operate the electric thrusters which are part of the BIMOD assembly.

  5. An analytical and experimental investigation of rotating, non-capillary heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marto, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    An approximate theoretical model is derived for laminar film condensation on the inside of a rotating, truncated cone, and is used to predict the heat transfer performance of rotating, non-capillary heat pipes for a wide variety of parametric conditions. Experimental results are presented for water, ethyl alcohol, and freon-113 in a stainless steel heat pipe rotating to speeds of 2800 rpm. Results show that these devices can be used effectively to transfer large quantities of heat in rotating systems. Predicted results agree to within + or - 20 percent of the experimental data. Dropwise condensation, instead of film condensation, improves heat pipe performance while the presence of non-condensible gases impairs performance.

  6. Residual stresses and stress corrosion cracking in pipe fittings

    SciTech Connect

    Parrington, R.J.; Scott, J.J.; Torres, F.

    1994-06-01

    Residual stresses can play a key role in the SCC performance of susceptible materials in PWR primary water applications. Residual stresses are stresses stored within the metal that develop during deformation and persist in the absence of external forces or temperature gradients. Sources of residual stresses in pipe fittings include fabrication processes, installation and welding. There are a number of methods to characterize the magnitude and orientation of residual stresses. These include numerical analysis, chemical cracking tests, and measurement (e.g., X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, strain gage/hole drilling, strain gage/trepanning, strain gage/section and layer removal, and acoustics). This paper presents 400 C steam SCC test results demonstrating that residual stresses in as-fabricated Alloy 600 pipe fittings are sufficient to induce SCC. Residual stresses present in as-fabricated pipe fittings are characterized by chemical cracking tests (stainless steel fittings tested in boiling magnesium chloride solution) and by the sectioning and layer removal (SLR) technique.

  7. Description and orbit data of variable-conductance heat-pipe system for the communications technology satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedeon, L.

    1979-01-01

    A variable-conductance heat-pipe system (VCHPS) with methanol as the working fluid and a nitrogen and helium mixture as the control gas was used for the thermal control of a 200 W RF traveling wave tube of the Communication Technology Satellite. Three stainless steel heat pipes (one redundant) and an aluminum radiator were designed to transfer 196 watts for an evaporator temperature of 50 C. The system has operated for three years with no noticeable change in performance. On four occasions the heat pipes apparently deprimed. A short time after reducing the tube power, the heat pipes reprimed and the system continued to operate normally. The description, qualification testing, and orbit data of the VCHPS are presented.

  8. Heat Pipe Blocks Return Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eninger, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Metal-foil reed valve in conventional slab-wick heat pipe limits heat flow to one direction only. With sink warmer than source, reed is forced closed and fluid returns to source side through annular transfer wick. When this occurs, wick slab on sink side of valve dries out and heat pipe ceases to conduct heat.

  9. Pipe crawler with stabilizing midsection

    SciTech Connect

    Zollinger, W.T.; Treanor, R.C.

    1993-09-20

    This invention is comprised of a pipe crawler having a midsection that provides the stability and flexibility to allow the pipe crawler to negotiate curved and uneven segments of piping while traveling through piping systems. The pipe crawler comprises a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly, a midsection with a gimbal at each end for connecting the midsection to the front and rear leg assemblies in a flexible manner, and an air cylinder for changing the distance between the front and rear leg assemblies. The pipe crawler moves in ``inch worm`` fashion with the front and rear leg assemblies alternating between an extended and a retracted position as the air cylinder moves the retracted leg assembly forward. The midsection has a plurality of legs extending radially for holding the midsection within a maximum displacement from the piping axis so that the gimbals are not pivoted to extreme angles where they might lock up or seize. When the midsection is displaced sufficiently, its legs with wheels on each end engage the interior surface of the piping and prevent further displacement. Using two gimbals divides the angle between the planes defined by the front and rear leg assemblies which also helps to prevent excessive gimbal pivoting.

  10. Alternate high capacity heat pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voss, F. E.

    1986-01-01

    The performance predictions for a fifty foot heat pipe (4 foot evaporator - 46 foot condensor) are discussed. These performance predictions are supported by experimental data for a four foot heat pipe. Both heat pipes have evaporators with axial groove wick structures and condensers with powder metal external artery wick structures. The predicted performance of a rectangular axial groove/external artery heat pipe operating in space is given. Heat transport versus groove width is plotted for 100, 200 and 300 grooves in the evaporator. The curves show that maximum power is achieved for groove widths from 0.040 to 0.053 as the number of grooves varies from 300 to 100. The corresponding range of maximum power is 3150 to 2400 watts. The relationships between groove width and heat pipe evaporate diameter for 100, 200 and 300 grooves in the evaporator are given. A four foot heat pipe having a three foot condenser and one foot evaporator was built and tested. The evaporator wick structure used axial grooves with rectangular cross sections, and the condenser wick structure used powder metal with an external artery configuration. Fabrication drawings are enclosed. The predicted and measured performance for this heat pipe is shown. The agreement between predicted and measured performance is good and therefore substantiates the predicted performance for a fifty foot heat pipe.

  11. Building a Copper Pipe "Xylophone."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, David R.

    2003-01-01

    Explains how to use the equation for frequency of vibration of a transversely oscillating bar or pipe with both ends free to vibrate to build a simple and inexpensive xylophone from a 3-meter section of copper pipe. The instrument produces a full major scale and can be used to investigate various musical intervals. (Author/NB)

  12. Pipe crawler with stabilizing midsection

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, William T.; Treanor, Richard C.

    1994-01-01

    A pipe crawler having a midsection that provides the stability and flexibty to allow the pipe crawler to negotiate curved and uneven segments of piping while traveling through piping systems. The pipe crawler comprises a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly, a midsection with a gimbal at each end for connecting the midsection to the front and rear leg assemblies in a flexible manner, and an air cylinder for changing the distance between the front and rear leg assemblies. The pipe crawler moves in "inch worm" fashion with the front and rear leg assemblies alternating between an extended and a retracted position as the air cylinder moves the retracted leg assembly forward. The midsection has a plurality of legs extending radially for holding the midsection within a maximum displacement from the piping axis so that the gimbals are not pivoted to extreme angles where they might lock up or seize. When the midsection is displaced sufficiently, its legs with wheels on each end engage the interior surface of the piping and prevent further displacement. Using two gimbals divides the angle between the planes defined by the front and rear leg assemblies which also helps to prevent excessive gimbal pivoting.

  13. Pipe crawler with stabilizing midsection

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.; Treanor, R.C.

    1994-12-27

    A pipe crawler is described having a midsection that provides the stability and flexibility to allow the pipe crawler to negotiate curved and uneven segments of piping while traveling through piping systems. The pipe crawler comprises a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly, a midsection with a gimbal at each end for connecting the midsection to the front and rear leg assemblies in a flexible manner, and an air cylinder for changing the distance between the front and rear leg assemblies. The pipe crawler moves in ''inch worm'' fashion with the front and rear leg assemblies alternating between an extended and a retracted position as the air cylinder moves the retracted leg assembly forward. The midsection has a plurality of legs extending radially for holding the midsection within a maximum displacement from the piping axis so that the gimbals are not pivoted to extreme angles where they might lock up or seize. When the midsection is displaced sufficiently, its legs with wheels on each end engage the interior surface of the piping and prevent further displacement. Using two gimbals divides the angle between the planes defined by the front and rear leg assemblies which also helps to prevent excessive gimbal pivoting. 5 figures.

  14. Options: the JADE reactor and heat transfer by heat pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.E.; Massey, J.V.

    1981-08-10

    The JADE reactor is a new Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) concept which maintains advantages of liquid metal walls and addresses some of their problems. The concept envisions a porous medium, called the jade, of specific geometry lining the reactor cavity. The jade is designed to convert the kinetic energy of the fluid to thermal energy before it reaches the first wall. Finally, its particular geometric shape is used to minimize reaction forces on the first wall due to blow-off caused by soft x-rays and debris, to provide empty spaces for fluid expansion after neutron energy deposition where droplets collide with droplets cancelling their kinetic energies, and to provide large surface areas for rapid condensation of vapor. LLNL also suggested that heat pipes might be used to eliminate portions of the primary or secondary coolant loops, thereby reducing pumping requirements found in current reactor designs.

  15. Residual stresses in a stainless steel - titanium alloy joint made with the explosive technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taran, Yu V.; Balagurov, A. M.; Sabirov, B. M.; Evans, A.; Davydov, V.; Venter, A. M.

    2012-02-01

    Joining of pipes from stainless steel (SS) and titanium (Ti) alloy still experience serious technical problems. Recently, reliable and hermetic joining of SS and Ti pipes has been achieved with the explosive bonding technique in the Russian Federal Nuclear Center. Such adapters are earmarked for use at the future International Linear Collider. The manufactured SS-Ti adapters have excellent mechanical behavior at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures, during high-pressure tests and thermal cycling. We here report the first neutron diffraction investigation of the residual stresses in a SS-Ti adapter on the POLDI instrument at the SINQ spallation source. The strain scanning across the adapter walls into the SS-SS and SS-Ti pipes sections encompassed measurement of the axial, radial and hoop strain components, which were transformed into residual stresses. The full stress information was successfully determined for the three steel pipes involved in the joint. The residual stresses do not exceed 300 MPa in magnitude. All stress components have tensile values close to the adapter internal surface, whilst they are compressive close to the outer surface. The strong incoherent and weak coherent neutron scattering cross-sections of Ti did not allow for the reliable determination of stresses inside the titanic pipe.

  16. Effects of deformation (strain) and heat treatment on grain boundary sensitization and precipitation in austenitic stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Murr, L.E. ); Advani, A.; Shankar, S.; Atteridge, D.G. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1990-03-01

    Sensitization, particularly the degree of sensitization (DOS) in type 316 stainless steel pipe is critically dependent upon the solution anneal of the mill-annealed or commercial material, and is particularly sensitive to los-temperature aging when the starting material is solution annealed between about 1,000{degrees}C and 1,100{degrees}C. It is observed that when the DOS is above about 10 C/cm{sup 2} (quantitative electrochemical photentiokinetic reactivation units in Coulombs/cm{sup 2}), noticeable carbide precipitation occurs in the grain boundaries and increases with increasing DOS. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination of precipitation occurring in type 316 stainless steel pipe grain boundaries has shown them to exhibit many microstructural features that seem to be coincident with grain boundary microstructures, particularly ledges.

  17. Investigation of Stainless Steel Corrosion in Ultrahigh-Purity Water and Steam Systems by Surface Analytical Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xia; Iacocca, Ronald G.; Bustard, Bethany L.; Kemp, Craig A. J.

    2010-02-01

    Stainless steel pipes with different degrees of rouging and a Teflon®-coated rupture disc with severe corrosion were thoroughly investigated by combining multiple surface analytical techniques. The surface roughness and iron oxide layer thickness increase with increasing rouge severity, and the chromium oxide layer coexists with the iron oxide layer in samples with various degrees of rouging. Unlike the rouging observed for stainless steel pipes, the fast degradation of the rupture disc was caused by a crevice corrosion environment created by perforations in the protective Teflon coating. This failure analysis clearly shows the highly corrosive nature of ultrapure water used in the manufacture of pharmaceutical products, and demonstrates some of the unexpected corrosion mechanisms that can be encountered in these environments.

  18. Vapor spill pipe monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini, G. M.; McRae, T. G.

    1983-06-01

    The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote IR gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote IR sensor which measures the gas composition.

  19. Vapor spill pipe monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bianchini, G.M.; McRae, T.G.

    1983-06-23

    The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote ir gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote ir sensor which measures the gas composition.

  20. A Case Study Of Applying Infrared Thermography To Identify A Coolant Leak In A Municipal Ice Skating Rink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Jay R.

    1989-03-01

    This paper deals with the application of infrared imaging radiometry as a diagnostic inspection tool for locating a concealed leak in the refrigeration system supplying glycol coolant to the arena floor of an ice skating rink in a municipal coliseum facility. Scanning approximately 10 miles of black iron tubing embedded in the arena floor resulted in locating a leak within the supply/return side of the system. A secondary disclosure was a restriction to normal coolant flow in some delivery loops caused by sludge build-up. Specific inspection procedures were established to enhance temperature differentials suitable for good thermal imaging. One procedure utilized the temperature and pressure of the city water supply; a second the availability of 130F hot water from the facility's boiler system; and a third the building's own internal ambient temperature. Destructive testing and other data collection equipment confirmed the thermographic findings revealing a section of corrosion damaged pipe. Repair and flushing of the system was quickly completed with a minimum of construction costs and inconvenience. No financial losses were incurred due to the interruption of scheduled revenue events. Probable cause for the shutdown condition was attributed to a flawed installation decision made 15 years earlier during the initial construction stage.