Sample records for cooling flow models

1. Lava Flows on Io: Modelling Cooling After Solidification

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Davies, A. G.; Matson, D. L.; Veeder, G. J.; Johnson, T. V.; Blaney, D. L.

2003-01-01

We have modeled the cooling of lava bodies on Io after solidification of the lava, a process that has been little explored since Carr (1986). With recent estimates of lava flow thicknesses on Io ranging from 1 m to 10 m, the modeling of thermal emission from active volcanism must take into account the cooling behaviour after the solidification of the lava, which we model using a finite-element model. Once a lava body is fully solidified, the surface temperature decreases faster, as heat loss is no longer buffered by release of latent heat. This is significant as observed surface temperature is often the only clue available to determine lava surface age. We also find that cooling from the base of the lava is an important process that accelerates the solidification of a flow and therefore subsequent cooling. It is necessary to constrain the cooling process in order to better understand temperature-area relationships on Io's surface and to carry out stochastic modelling of lava flow emplacement.

2. Concept of CFD model of natural draft wet-cooling tower flow

Hyhlík, T.

2014-03-01

The article deals with the development of CFD model of natural draft wet-cooling tower flow. The physical phenomena taking place within a natural draft wet cooling tower are described by the system of conservation law equations along with additional equations. The heat and mass transfer in the counterflow wet-cooling tower fill are described by model [1] which is based on the system of ordinary differential equations. Utilization of model [1] of the fill allows us to apply commonly measured fill characteristics as shown by [2].The boundary value problem resulting from the fill model is solved separately. The system of conservation law equations is interlinked with the system of ordinary differential equations describing the phenomena occurring in the counterflow wet-cooling tower fill via heat and mass sources and via boundary conditions. The concept of numerical solution is presented for the quasi one dimensional model of natural draft wet-cooling tower flow. The simulation results are shown.

3. Thermal mechanical modeling of cooling history and fracture development in inflationary basalt lava flows

Kattenhorn, Simon A.; Schaefer, Conrad J.

2008-03-01

Thermal-mechanical analyses of isotherms in low-volume basalt flows having a range of aspect ratios agree with inferred isotherm patterns deduced from cooling fracture patterns in field examples on the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho, and highlight the caveats of analytical models of sheet flow cooling when considering low-volume flows. Our field observations show that low-volume lava flows have low aspect ratios (width divided by thickness), typically < 5. Four fracture types typically develop: column-bounding, column-normal, entablature (all of which are cooling fractures), and inflation fractures. Cooling fractures provide a proxy for isotherms during cooling and produce patterns that are strongly influenced by flow aspect ratio. Inflation fractures are induced by lava pressure-driven inflationary events and introduce a thermal perturbation to the flow interior that is clearly evidenced by fracture patterns around them. Inflation fracture growth occurs incrementally due to blunting of the lower tip within viscoelastic basalt, allowing the inflation fracture to pivot open. The final stage of growth involves propagation beyond the blunted tip towards the stress concentration at the tapered tip of a lava core, resulting in penetration of the core that causes quenching of the lava and the formation of a densely fractured entablature. We present numerical models that include the effects of inflation fractures on lava cooling and which support field-based inferences that inflation fractures depress the isotherms in the vicinity of the fracture, cause a subdivision of the lava core, control the location of the final portion of the lava flow to solidify, and cause significant changes in the local cooling fracture orientations. In addition to perturbing isotherms, inflation fractures cause a lava flow to completely solidify in a shorter amount of time than an identically shaped flow that does not contain an inflation fracture.

4. Mergers, cooling flows, and evaporation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sparks, W. B.

1993-01-01

Mergers (the capture of cold gas, especially) can have a profound influence on the hot coronal gas of early-type galaxies and clusters, potentially inducing symptoms hitherto attributed to a cooling flow, if thermal conduction is operative in the coronal plasma. Heat can be conducted from the hot phase into the cold phase, simultaneously ionizing the cold gas to make optical filaments, while locally cooling the coronal gas to mimic a cooling-flow. If there is heat conduction, though, there is no standard cooling-flow since radiative losses are balanced by conduction and not mass deposition. Amongst the strongest observational support for the existence of cooling-flows is the presence of intermediate temperature gas with x-ray emission-line strengths in agreement with cooling-flow models. Here, x-ray line strengths are calculated for this alternative model, in which mergers are responsible for the observed optical and x-ray properties. Since gas around 10(exp 4) K is thermally stable, the cold cloud need not necessarily evaporate and hydrostatic solutions exist. Good agreement with the x-ray data is obtained. The relative strengths of intermediate temperature x-ray emission lines are in significantly better agreement with a simple conduction model than with published cooling-flow models. The good agreement of the conduction model with optical, infrared and x-ray data indicates that significantly more theoretical effort into this type of solution would be profitable.

5. Emergency makeup flow model for the K-reactor cooling water basin

SciTech Connect

Barbour, K.L.

1994-12-31

The Savannah River site installed the K-reactor cooling tower in 1993 to replace river water supplied to a 25-million-gal cooling basin with cooling tower recirculation. The reactor accident safety analysis assumes that cooling water recirculation is lost during the accident and basin level will drop. Emergency river water supply makeup valves will be opened manually to restore basin makeup and level and maintain shutdown safety. A hydraulic model scopes out valve flow response as the valves are opened. Scoping objectives are (a) valve flow rate response, (b) volumetric makeup with time, and (c) total volumetric makeup effect on basin emergency operating operating procedures. Model results could influence basin emergency operating procedures development before actual field test data are obtained.

6. Testing the cooling flow model in the intermediate polar EX Hydrae

Luna, G. J. M.; Raymond, J. C.; Brickhouse, N. S.; Mauche, C. W.; Suleimanov, V.

2015-06-01

We use the best available X-ray data from the intermediate polar EX Hydrae to study the cooling-flow model often applied to interpret the X-ray spectra of these accreting magnetic white dwarf binaries. First, we resolve a long-standing discrepancy between the X-ray and optical determinations of the mass of the white dwarf in EX Hya by applying new models of the inner disk truncation radius. Our fits to the X-ray spectrum now agree with the white dwarf mass of 0.79 M⊙ determined using dynamical methods through spectroscopic observations of the secondary. We use a simple isobaric cooling flow model to derive the emission line fluxes, emission measure distribution, and H-like to He-like line ratios for comparison with the 496 ks Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating observation of EX Hydrae. We find that the H/He ratios are not well reproduced by this simple isobaric cooling flow model and show that while H-like line fluxes can be accurately predicted, fluxes of lower-Z He-like lines are significantly underestimated. This discrepancy suggests that an extra heating mechanism plays an important role at the base of the accretion column, where cooler ions form. We thus explored more complex cooling models, including the change of gravitational potential with height in the accretion column and a magnetic dipole geometry. None of these modifications to the standard cooling flow model are able to reproduce the observed line ratios. While a cooling flow model with subsolar (0.1 ⊙) abundances is able to reproduce the line ratios by reducing the cooling rate at temperatures lower than ~107.3 K, the predicted line-to-continuum ratios are much lower than observed. We discuss and discard mechanisms, such as photoionization, departures from constant pressure, resonant scattering, different electron-ion temperatures, and Compton cooling. Thermal conduction transfers energy from the region above 107 K, where the H-like lines are mostly formed, to the cooler regions where the

7. Modeling and simulation of mixing layer flows for rocket engine film cooling

Dellimore, Kiran Hamilton Jeffrey

Film cooling has been selected for the thermal protection of the composite nozzle extension of the J-2X engine which is currently being developed for the second stage of NASA's next generation launch vehicle, the Ares I rocket. However, several challenges remain in order to achieve effective film cooling of the nozzle extension and to ensure its safe operation. The extreme complexity of the flow (three-dimensional wakes, lateral flows, vorticity, and flow separation) makes predicting film cooling performance difficult. There is also a dearth of useful supersonic film cooling data available for engineers to use in engine design and a lack of maturity of CFD tools to quantitatively match supersonic film cooling data. This dissertation advances the state of the art in film cooling by presenting semi-empirical analytical models which improve the basic physical understanding and prediction of the effects of pressure gradients, compressibility and density gradients on film cooling effectiveness. These models are shown to correlate most experimental data well and to resolve several conflicts in the open literature. The core-to-coolant stream velocity ratio, R, and the Kays acceleration parameter, KP, are identified as the critical parameters needed to understand how pressure gradients influence film cooling performance. The convective Mach number, MC, the total temperature ratio, theta0, and the Mach number of the high speed stream, MHS, are shown to be important when explaining the effects of compressibility and density gradient on film cooling effectiveness. An advance in the simulation of film cooling flows is also presented through the development of a computationally inexpensive RANS methodology capable of correctly predicting film cooling performance under turbulent, subsonic conditions. The subsonic simulation results suggest that it in order to obtain accurate predictions using RANS it is essential to thoroughly characterize the turbulent states at the inlet of

8. Incorporation of cooling-induced crystallization into a 2-dimensional axisymmetric conduit heat flow model

Heptinstall, David; Bouvet de Maisonneuve, Caroline; Neuberg, Jurgen; Taisne, Benoit; Collinson, Amy

2016-04-01

Heat flow models can bring new insights into the thermal and rheological evolution of volcanic 3 systems. We shall investigate the thermal processes and timescales in a crystallizing, static 4 magma column, with a heat flow model of Soufriere Hills Volcano (SHV), Montserrat. The latent heat of crystallization is initially computed with MELTS, as a function of pressure and temperature for an andesitic melt (SHV groundmass starting composition). Three fractional crystallization simulations are performed; two with initial pressures of 34MPa (runs 1 & 2) and one of 25MPa (run 3). Decompression rate was varied between 0.1MPa/° C (runs 1 & 3) and 0.2MPa/° C (run 2). Natural and experimental matrix glass compositions are accurately reproduced by all MELTS runs. The cumulative latent heat released for runs 1, 2 and 3 differs by less than 9% (8.69E5 J/kg*K, 9.32E5 J/kg*K, and 9.49E5 J/kg*K respectively). The 2D axisymmetric conductive cooling simulations consider a 30m-diameter conduit that extends from the surface to a depth of 1500m (34MPa). The temporal evolution of temperature is closely tracked at depths of 10m, 750m and 1400m in the centre of the conduit, at the conduit walls, and 20m from the walls into the host rock. Following initial cooling by 7-15oC at 10m depth inside the conduit, the magma temperature rebounds through latent heat release by 32-35oC over 85-123 days to a maximum temperature of 1002-1005oC. At 10m depth, it takes 4.1-9.2 years for the magma column to cool by 108-131oC and crystallize to 75wt%, at which point it cannot be easily remobilized. It takes 11-31.5 years to reach the same crystallinity at 750-1400m depth. We find a wide range in cooling timescales, particularly at depths of 750m or greater, attributed to the initial run pressure and the dominant latent heat producing crystallizing phase, Albite-rich Plagioclase Feldspar. Run 1 is shown to cool fastest and run 3 cool the slowest, with surface emissivity having the strongest cooling

9. Coarse Grid Modeling of Turbine Film Cooling Flows Using Volumetric Source Terms

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Heidmann, James D.; Hunter, Scott D.

2001-01-01

The recent trend in numerical modeling of turbine film cooling flows has been toward higher fidelity grids and more complex geometries. This trend has been enabled by the rapid increase in computing power available to researchers. However, the turbine design community requires fast turnaround time in its design computations, rendering these comprehensive simulations ineffective in the design cycle. The present study describes a methodology for implementing a volumetric source term distribution in a coarse grid calculation that can model the small-scale and three-dimensional effects present in turbine film cooling flows. This model could be implemented in turbine design codes or in multistage turbomachinery codes such as APNASA, where the computational grid size may be larger than the film hole size. Detailed computations of a single row of 35 deg round holes on a flat plate have been obtained for blowing ratios of 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0, and density ratios of 1.0 and 2.0 using a multiblock grid system to resolve the flows on both sides of the plate as well as inside the hole itself. These detailed flow fields were spatially averaged to generate a field of volumetric source terms for each conservative flow variable. Solutions were also obtained using three coarse grids having streamwise and spanwise grid spacings of 3d, 1d, and d/3. These coarse grid solutions used the integrated hole exit mass, momentum, energy, and turbulence quantities from the detailed solutions as volumetric source terms. It is shown that a uniform source term addition over a distance from the wall on the order of the hole diameter is able to predict adiabatic film effectiveness better than a near-wall source term model, while strictly enforcing correct values of integrated boundary layer quantities.

10. Channel flow modeling of impingement cooling of a rotating turbine blade

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Koo, J. J.

1984-01-01

Local heat transfer distributions in impingement cooling have been measured by Kreatsoulas and Prieser for a range of conditions which model those in actual turbine blades, including the effects of rotation. These data were reported as local Nusselt numbers, but referred to coolant supply conditions. By means of a channel flow modeling of the flow in the supply and impingement passages, the same data are here presented in terms of local Nusselt number distributions such as are used in design. The results in this form are compared to the nonrotating impingement results of Chupp and to the rotating but nonimpingement results of Morris. Rotation reduces the mean Nusselt numbers from these found by Chupp by about 30 percent, and introduces important radial variations which are sensitive to rotation and to leading edge stagger angle.

11. Computing Cooling Flows in Turbines

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gauntner, J.

1986-01-01

Algorithm developed for calculating both quantity of compressor bleed flow required to cool turbine and resulting decrease in efficiency due to cooling air injected into gas stream. Program intended for use with axial-flow, air-breathing, jet-propulsion engines with variety of airfoil-cooling configurations. Algorithm results compared extremely well with figures given by major engine manufacturers for given bulk-metal temperatures and cooling configurations. Program written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution.

12. Measurement of Flow Phenomena in a Lower Plenum Model of a Prismatic Gas-Cooled Reactor

SciTech Connect

Hugh M. McIlroy, Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink

2008-05-01

Mean-velocity-field and turbulence data are presented that measure turbulent flow phenomena in an approximately 1:7 scale model of a region of the lower plenum of a typical prismatic gas-cooled reactor (GCR) similar to a General Atomics Gas-Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GTMHR) design. The data were obtained in the Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and are offered for assessing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This experiment has been selected as the first Standard Problem endorsed by the Generation IV International Forum. This paper reviews the experimental apparatus and procedures, presents a sample of the data set, and reviews the INL Standard Problem. Results concentrate on the region of the lower plenum near its far reflector wall (away from the outlet duct). The flow in the lower plenum consists of multiple jets injected into a confined cross flow - with obstructions. The model consists of a row of full circular posts along its centerline with half-posts on the two parallel walls to approximate flow scaled to that expected from the staggered parallel rows of posts in the reactor design. The model is fabricated from clear, fused quartz to match the refractive-index of the mineral oil working fluid so that optical techniques may be employed for the measurements. The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits optical measurements to determine flow characteristics in complex passages in and around objects to be obtained without locating intrusive transducers that will disturb the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. An advantage of the INL system is its large size, leading to improved spatial and temporal resolution compared to similar facilities at smaller scales. A three-dimensional (3-D) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system was used to collect the data. Inlet jet Reynolds numbers (based on the jet diameter and the time-mean average flow rate) are approximately 4,300 and 12

13. Measurement of Flow Phenomena in a Lower Plenum Model of a Prismatic Gas-Cooled Reactor

SciTech Connect

Hugh M. McIlroy, Jr.; Doanld M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink

2010-02-01

Mean-velocity-field and turbulence data are presented that measure turbulent flow phenomena in an approximately 1:7 scale model of a region of the lower plenum of a typical prismatic gas-cooled reactor (GCR) similar to a General Atomics Gas-Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GTMHR) design. The data were obtained in the Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and are offered for assessing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This experiment has been selected as the first Standard Problem endorsed by the Generation IV International Forum. Results concentrate on the region of the lower plenum near its far reflector wall (away from the outlet duct). The flow in the lower plenum consists of multiple jets injected into a confined cross flow - with obstructions. The model consists of a row of full circular posts along its centerline with half-posts on the two parallel walls to approximate geometry scaled to that expected from the staggered parallel rows of posts in the reactor design. The model is fabricated from clear, fused quartz to match the refractive-index of the working fluid so that optical techniques may be employed for the measurements. The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits optical measurements to determine flow characteristics in complex passages in and around objects to be obtained without locating intrusive transducers that will disturb the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. An advantage of the INL system is its large size, leading to improved spatial and temporal resolution compared to similar facilities at smaller scales. A three-dimensional (3-D) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system was used to collect the data. Inlet jet Reynolds numbers (based on the jet diameter and the time-mean bulk velocity) are approximately 4,300 and 12,400. Uncertainty analyses and a discussion of the standard problem are included. The measurements reveal developing, non-uniform, turbulent flow in the

14. Numerical Modeling of Surface and Volumetric Cooling using Optimal T- and Y-shaped Flow Channels

Kosaraju, Srinivas

2015-11-01

The T- and Y-shaped flow channels can be optimized for reduced pressure drop and pumping power. The results of the optimization are in the form of geometric parameters such as length and diameter ratios of the stem and branch sections. While these flow channels are optimized for minimum pressure drop, they can also be used for surface and volumetric cooling applications such as heat exchangers, air conditioning and electronics cooling. In this paper, we studied the heat transfer characteristics of multiple T- and Y-shaped flow channel configurations using numerical simulations. All configurations are subjected to same pumping power and heat generation constraints and their heat transfer performance is studied.

15. Modeling of skin cooling, blood flow, and optical properties in wounds created by electrical shock

Nguyen, Thu T. A.; Shupp, Jeffrey W.; Moffatt, Lauren T.; Jordan, Marion H.; Jeng, James C.; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

2012-02-01

High voltage electrical injuries may lead to irreversible tissue damage or even death. Research on tissue injury following high voltage shock is needed and may yield stage-appropriate therapy to reduce amputation rate. One of the mechanisms by which electricity damages tissue is through Joule heating, with subsequent protein denaturation. Previous studies have shown that blood flow had a significant effect on the cooling rate of heated subcutaneous tissue. To assess the thermal damage in tissue, this study focused on monitoring changes of temperature and optical properties of skin next to high voltage wounds. The burns were created between left fore limb and right hind limb extremities of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats by a 1000VDC delivery shock system. A thermal camera was utilized to record temperature variation during the exposure. The experimental results were then validated using a thermal-electric finite element model (FEM).

16. A Preliminary Heat Flow Model for Cooling a Batholith near Ica, Peru

Gonzalez, L. U.; Clausen, B. L.; Molano, J. C.; Martinez, A. M.; Poma, O.

2014-12-01

This research models the cooling of a suite in the Linga Super-unit located at the north end of the Arequipa segment in the Cretaceous Peruvian Coastal Batholith. The monzogabbro to granite Linga suite is approximately 50 km long and 15 km wide, with an estimated vertical extent of about 5 km originally intruded to a depth of 3 km. The emplacement was in andesitic volcanics on the west and the Pampahuasi diorite Super-unit on the east and has incorporated earlier gabbroic bodies. The Linga suite is thought to be the result of a sequence of three pulses: an elongate unit to the west then two elliptical units to the northeast and southeast. The data for modeling comes from field observations on internal and external contacts, some well-defined magma chamber walls and roof, pendant and stoped blocks, magma chamber zoning, the nature and distribution of enclaves and xenoliths, magmatic fabric, evidences of magma mingling, rock porosity, mineralogical associations in metamorphic aureoles, extensive mineralization and brecciated conduits, and the types of hydrothermal alteration varying with distance from contacts. More than forty hand samples, thin sections, and geochemical analyses were used to estimate water content, magma and country rock temperature, liquid density, and viscosity. Further data will come from: zircon U-Pb ages for country rock and magma batch timeframes, fluid inclusions for magma pressure and temperature, and δ18O data for source of hydrothermal fluids. Simple heat conduction calculations using MATLAB and HEAT 3D for a single tabular intrusion estimated a cooling time to solidus of about 300 k.y. More complex modeling includes magma convection and multiple intrusions. Extensive veining and pervasive alteration suggested the use of HYDROTHERM to model possible additional heat flow effects from hydrothermal fluids. Extensive propylitic and significant potassic alteration were observed and, with TerraSpec infrared spectroscopy to identify

17. Brightest Cluster Galaxies & Cooling Flows

Salomé, Philippe

2013-03-01

In the absence of any form of feedback heating, the gas in the central regions of massive relaxed cluster should cool and initiate a cooling flow. The presence/efficiency of an additional heating and the ultimate fate of the cooling gas is the subject of an extensive debate. In the last decade, molecular and atomic gas have been found in many Brightest Cluster Galaxies. I will review these observational results and discuss their implication for galaxy formation/evolution, in the perspective of ALMA.

18. Performance of a 10-kJ SMES model cooled by liquid hydrogen thermo-siphon flow for ASPCS study

Makida, Y.; Shintomi, T.; Hamajima, T.; Ota, N.; Katsura, M.; Ando, K.; Takao, T.; Tsuda, M.; Miyagi, D.; Tsujigami, H.; Fujikawa, S.; Hirose, J.; Iwaki, K.; Komagome, T.

2015-12-01

We propose a new electrical power storage and stabilization system, called an Advanced Superconducting Power Conditioning System (ASPCS), which consists of superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) and hydrogen energy storage, converged on a liquid hydrogen station for fuel cell vehicles. A small 10- kJ SMES system, in which a BSCCO coil cooled by liquid hydrogen was installed, was developed to create an experimental model of an ASPCS. The SMES coil is conductively cooled by liquid hydrogen flow through a thermo-siphon line under a liquid hydrogen buffer tank. After fabrication of the system, cooldown tests were carried out using liquid hydrogen. The SMES coil was successfully charged up to a nominal current of 200 A. An eddy current loss, which was mainly induced in pure aluminum plates pasted onto each pancake coils for conduction cooling, was also measured.

19. Mathematical Model of Two Phase Flow in Natural Draft Wet-Cooling Tower Including Flue Gas Injection

Hyhlík, Tomáš

2016-03-01

The previously developed model of natural draft wet-cooling tower flow, heat and mass transfer is extended to be able to take into account the flow of supersaturated moist air. The two phase flow model is based on void fraction of gas phase which is included in the governing equations. Homogeneous equilibrium model, where the two phases are well mixed and have the same velocity, is used. The effect of flue gas injection is included into the developed mathematical model by using source terms in governing equations and by using momentum flux coefficient and kinetic energy flux coefficient. Heat and mass transfer in the fill zone is described by the system of ordinary differential equations, where the mass transfer is represented by measured fill Merkel number and heat transfer is calculated using prescribed Lewis factor.

20. The flow-chart loop: temperature, density, and cooling observables supporting nanoflare coronal heating models

SciTech Connect

Schmelz, J. T.; Pathak, S.; Dhaliwal, R. S.; Christian, G. M.; Fair, C. B.

2014-11-10

We have tested three controversial properties for a target loop observed with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly: (1) overdense loops; (2) long-lifetime loops; and (3) multithermal loops. Our loop is overdense by a factor of about 10 compared to results expected from steady uniform heating models. If this were the only inconsistency, our loop could still be modeled as a single strand, but the density mismatch would imply that the heating must be impulsive. Moving on to the second observable, however, we find that the loop lifetime is at least an order of magnitude greater than the predicted cooling time. This implies that the loop cannot be composed of a single flux tube, even if the heating were dynamic, and must be multi-stranded. Finally, differential emission measure analysis shows that the cross-field temperature of the target loop is multithermal in the early and middle phases of its lifetime, but effectively isothermal before it fades from view. If these multithermal cooling results are found to be widespread, our results could resolve the original coronal loop controversy of 'isothermal' versus 'multithermal' cross-field temperatures. That is, the cross-field temperature is not always 'multithermal' nor is it always 'isothermal', but might change as the loop cools. We find that the existence and evolution of this loop is consistent with predictions of nanoflare heating.

1. Cooling flows in clusters of galaxies

SciTech Connect

Meiksin, A.A.

1988-01-01

X-ray measurements of many clusters of galaxies reveal a hot Intracluster Medium (ICM) that has a cooling time less than a Hubble time. The consequent decrease in the central pressure support of the ICM will result in an inward cooling flow. The inferred accretion rates are typically several hundred solar masses per year. The cD or giant elliptical found at the center of every cooling flow would be substantially altered by the accreted gas, and may even have been created by the flow. Optical, UV, and radio measurements, however, fail to find adequate evidence for massive amounts of cool gas. The lore is that the gas is transformed into stars of such low mass that they do not give very peculiar colors to the central galaxy. In this thesis, after a review of past and current literature, two tasks are undertaken. The first is to examine the role heat conduction could play. It is demonstrated that the density and temperature profiles of the cooling flows in Virgo and Perseus are consistent with a steady-state model in which that conduction reduces the accretion rates by an order of magnitude. The second task is to simulate the evolution of a cooling flow, and possible formation of a galaxy from thermal instabilities, in a proper cosmological setting. Two evolutionary stages are found, a dynamical accretion state composed of two competing similarity solutions followed by a quasi-steady-state cooling flow. The onset of the second stage is very recent. During either stage, so few stars may be created that their colors, even adopting a standard initial mass function, would be consistent with the existing optical and UV constraints.

2. Particle image velocimetry measurements in a representative gas-cooled prismatic reactor core model for the estimation of bypass flow

Conder, Thomas E.

Core bypass flow is considered one of the largest contributors to uncertainty in fuel temperature within the Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (MHTGR). It refers to the coolant that navigates through the interstitial regions between the graphite fuel blocks instead of traveling through the designated coolant channels. These flows are of concern because they reduce the desired flow rates in the coolant channels, and thereby have significant influence on the maximum fuel element and coolant exit temperatures. Thus, accurate prediction of the bypass flow is important because it directly impacts core temperature, influencing the life and efficiency of the reactor. An experiment was conducted at Idaho National Laboratory to quantify the flow in the coolant channels in relation to the interstitial gaps between fuel blocks in a representative MHTGR core. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the flow fields within a simplified model, which comprised of a stacked junction of six partial fuel blocks with nine coolant tubes, separated by a 6mm gap width. The model had three sections: The upper plenum, upper block, and lower block. Model components were fabricated from clear, fused quartz where optical access was needed for the PIV measurements. Measurements were taken in three streamwise locations: in the upper plenum and in the midsection of the large and small fuel blocks. A laser light sheet was oriented parallel to the flow, while velocity fields were measured at millimeter intervals across the width of the model, totaling 3,276 PIV measurement locations. Inlet conditions were varied to incorporate laminar, transition, and turbulent flows in the coolant channels---all which produced laminar flow in the gap and non-uniform, turbulent flow in the upper plenum. The images were analyzed to create vector maps, and the data was exported for processing and compilation. The bypass flow was estimated by calculating the flow rates through the coolant

3. Black holes, cooling flows and galaxy formation.

PubMed

Peacock, J A

2005-03-15

Central black holes in galaxies are now well established as a ubiquitous phenomenon, and this fact is important for theories of cosmological structure formation. Merging of galaxy haloes must preserve the proportionality between black hole mass and baryonic mass; the way in which this happens may help solve difficulties with existing ing models of galaxy formation, which suffer from excessive cooling and thus over- produce stars. Feedback from active nuclei may be the missing piece of the puzzle, regulating galaxy-scale cooling flows. Such a process now seems to be observed in cluster-scale cooling flows, where dissipation of sound waves generated by radio lobes can plausibly balance the energy lost in X-rays, at least in a time-averaged sense. PMID:15681292

4. X ray opacity in cluster cooling flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wise, Michael W.; Sarazin, Craig L.

1993-01-01

We have calculated the emergent x-ray properties for a set of spherically symmetric, steady-state cluster cooling flow models including the effects of radiative transfer. Opacity due to resonant x-ray lines, photoelectric absorption, and electron scattering have been included in these calculations, and homogeneous and inhomogeneous gas distributions were considered. The effects of photoionization opacity are small for both types of models. In contrast, resonant line optical depths can be quite high in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous models. The presence of turbulence in the gas can significantly lower the line opacity. We find that integrated x-ray spectra for the flow cooling now are only slightly affected by radiative transfer effects. However x-ray line surface brightness profiles can be dramatically affected by radiative transfer. Line profiles are also strongly affected by transfer effects. The combined effects of opacity and inflow cause many of the lines in optically thick models to be asymmetrical.

5. Quasi One-Dimensional Model of Natural Draft Wet-Cooling Tower Flow, Heat and Mass Transfer

Hyhlík, Tomáš

2015-05-01

The article deals with the development of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model of natural draft wet-cooling tower flow, heat and mass transfer. The moist air flow is described by the system of conservation laws along with additional equations. Moist air is assumed to be homogeneous mixture of dry air and water vapour. Liquid phase in the fill zone is described by the system of ordinary differential equations. Boundary value problem for the system of conservation laws is discretized in space using Kurganov-Tadmor central scheme and in time using strong stability preserving Runge-Kutta scheme. Initial value problems in the fill zone is solved by using standard fourth order Runge-Kutta scheme. The interaction between liquid water and moist air is done by source terms in governing equations.

6. Natural Flow Air Cooled Photovoltaics

Tanagnostopoulos, Y.; Themelis, P.

2010-01-01

Our experimental study aims to investigate the improvement in the electrical performance of a photovoltaic installation on buildings through cooling of the photovoltaic panels with natural air flow. Our experimental study aims to investigate the improvement in the electrical performance of a photovoltaic installation on buildings through cooling of the photovoltaic panels with natural air flow. We performed experiments using a prototype based on three silicon photovoltaic modules placed in series to simulate a typical sloping building roof with photovoltaic installation. In this system the air flows through a channel on the rear side of PV panels. The potential for increasing the heat exchange from the photovoltaic panel to the circulating air by the addition of a thin metal sheet (TMS) in the middle of air channel or metal fins (FIN) along the air duct was examined. The operation of the device was studied with the air duct closed tightly to avoid air circulation (CLOSED) and the air duct open (REF), with the thin metal sheet (TMS) and with metal fins (FIN). In each case the experiments were performed under sunlight and the operating parameters of the experimental device determining the electrical and thermal performance of the system were observed and recorded during a whole day and for several days. We collected the data and form PV panels from the comparative diagrams of the experimental results regarding the temperature of solar cells, the electrical efficiency of the installation, the temperature of the back wall of the air duct and the temperature difference in the entrance and exit of the air duct. The comparative results from the measurements determine the improvement in electrical performance of the photovoltaic cells because of the reduction of their temperature, which is achieved by the naturally circulating air.

7. A numerical model for gas-droplet flow application to liquid spray and cooling towers

Weinacht, P.; Buchlin, J. M.

1982-07-01

A two dimensional model consisting of coupled sets of equations governing the gas and liquid phases is presented. Modeling the gas phase as a continuum allows use of the Navier-Stokes equations with momentum source terms included. The particle-gas momentum exchange and the influence of the gas flow on the droplet trajectories results in a coupling of both of these sets of equations. Numerical solution of these equations is made in an iterative fashion by solving first the liquid phase equations and then the gas phase equations until a steady state solution is reached. Solution of the liquid phase equations by a fourth order Runge-Kutta method allows subsequent determination of the droplet-gas momentum exchange field. The degrading effect of wind on a spray curtain is demonstrated, though calculations show that curtain performance can be improved by tilting the nozzle into the wind.

8. Liquid cooled counter flow turbine bucket

DOEpatents

Dakin, James T.

1982-09-21

Means and a method are provided whereby liquid coolant flows radially outward through coolant passages in a liquid cooled turbine bucket under the influence of centrifugal force while in contact with countercurrently flowing coolant vapor such that liquid is entrained in the flow of vapor resulting in an increase in the wetted cooling area of the individual passages.

9. Wavy flow cooling concept for turbine airfoils

DOEpatents

Liang, George

2010-08-31

An airfoil including an outer wall and a cooling cavity formed therein. The cooling cavity includes a leading edge flow channel located adjacent a leading edge of the airfoil and a trailing edge flow channel located adjacent a trailing edge of the airfoil. Each of the leading edge and trailing edge flow channels define respective first and second flow axes located between pressure and suction sides of the airfoil. A plurality of rib members are located within each of the flow channels, spaced along the flow axes, and alternately extending from opposing sides of the flow channels to define undulating flow paths through the flow channels.

10. Counter-Flow Cooling Tower Test Cell

Dvořák, Lukáš; Nožička, Jiří

2014-03-01

The article contains a design of a functional experimental model of a cross-flow mechanical draft cooling tower and the results and outcomes of measurements. This device is primarily used for measuring performance characteristics of cooling fills, but with a simple rebuild, it can be used for measuring other thermodynamic processes that take part in so-called wet cooling. The main advantages of the particular test cell lie in the accuracy, size, and the possibility of changing the water distribution level. This feature is very useful for measurements of fills of different heights without the influence of the spray and rain zone. The functionality of this test cell has been verified experimentally during assembly, and data from the measurement of common film cooling fills have been compared against the results taken from another experimental line. For the purpose of evaluating the data gathered, computational scripts were created in the MATLAB numerical computing environment. The first script is for exact calculation of the thermal balance of the model, and the second is for determining Merkel's number via Chebyshev's method.

11. COOLING TOWER PLUME MODEL

EPA Science Inventory

A review of recently reported cooling tower plume models yields none that is universally accepted. The entrainment and drag mechanisms and the effect of moisture on the plume trajectory are phenomena which are treated differently by various investigators. In order to better under...

12. Multiphase groundwater flow near cooling plutons

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hayba, D.O.; Ingebritsen, S.E.

1997-01-01

We investigate groundwater flow near cooling plutons with a computer program that can model multiphase flow, temperatures up to 1200??C, thermal pressurization, and temperature-dependent rock properties. A series of experiments examines the effects of host-rock permeability, size and depth of pluton emplacement, single versus multiple intrusions, the influence of a caprock, and the impact of topographically driven groundwater flow. We also reproduce and evaluate some of the pioneering numerical experiments on flow around plutons. Host-rock permeability is the principal factor influencing fluid circulation and heat transfer in hydrothermal systems. The hottest and most steam-rich systems develop where permeability is of the order of 10-15 m2. Temperatures and life spans of systems decrease with increasing permeability. Conduction-dominated systems, in which permeabilities are ???10-16m2, persist longer but exhibit relatively modest increases in near-surface temperatures relative to ambient conditions. Pluton size, emplacement depth, and initial thermal conditions have less influence on hydrothermal circulation patterns but affect the extent of boiling and duration of hydrothermal systems. Topographically driven groundwater flow can significantly alter hydrothermal circulation; however, a low-permeability caprock effectively decouples the topographically and density-driven systems and stabilizes the mixing interface between them thereby defining a likely ore-forming environment.

13. PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY MEASUREMENTS IN A REPRESENTATIVE GAS-COOLED PRISMATIC REACTOR CORE MODEL: FLOW IN THE COOLANT CHANNELS AND INTERSTITIAL BYPASS GAPS

SciTech Connect

Thomas E. Conder; Richard Skifton; Ralph Budwig

2012-11-01

Core bypass flow is one of the key issues with the prismatic Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor, and it refers to the coolant that navigates through the interstitial, non-cooling passages between the graphite fuel blocks instead of traveling through the designated coolant channels. To determine the bypass flow, a double scale representative model was manufactured and installed in the Matched Index-of-Refraction flow facility; after which, stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was employed to measure the flow field within. PIV images were analyzed to produce vector maps, and flow rates were calculated by numerically integrating over the velocity field. It was found that the bypass flow varied between 6.9-15.8% for channel Reynolds numbers of 1,746 and 4,618. The results were compared to computational fluid dynamic (CFD) pre-test simulations. When compared to these pretest calculations, the CFD analysis appeared to under predict the flow through the gap.

14. Alternatives to the existence of large cooling flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tucker, Wallace

1990-01-01

Arguments against the existence of large-scale cooling flows in clusters of galaxies are presented. The evidence for cooling flows is all circumstantial, consisting of observations of cool gas or hot gas with a radiative cooling time less than the Hubble time, or a central peak in the X-ray surface brightness profile. There is no evidence for large quantities (several tens to several hundreds of solar masses per year) of matter actually flowing anywhere. On the contrary, several lines of evidence suggest thaat cooling flows, if they exist, must be suppressed by one to two orders of magnitude from the values implied by simple estimates based on the radiative cooling time of the X-ray emitting gas. Two heat sources which might accomplish this, thermal conduction and relativistic particles, are considered, and an alternative to the standard model for cooling flows is presented: an accretion flow with feedback wherein the accretion of gas into a massive black hole in the central galaxy generates high energy particles that heat the gas and act to limit the accretion.

15. X-Ray spectroscopy of cooling flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prestwich, Andrea

1996-01-01

Cooling flows in clusters of galaxies occur when the cooling time of the gas is shorter than the age of the cluster; material cools and falls to the center of the cluster potential. Evidence for short X-ray cooling times comes from imaging studies of clusters and X-ray spectroscopy of a few bright clusters. Because the mass accretion rate can be high (a few 100 solar mass units/year) the mass of material accumulated over the lifetime of a cluster can be as high as 10(exp 12) solar mass units. However, there is little evidence for this material at other wavelengths, and the final fate of the accretion material is unknown. X-ray spectra obtained with the Einstein SSS show evidence for absorption; if confirmed this result would imply that the accretion material is in the form of cool dense clouds. However ice on the SSS make these data difficult to interpret. We obtained ASCA spectra of the cooling flow cluster Abell 85. Our primary goals were to search for multi-temperature components that may be indicative of cool gas; search for temperature gradients across the cluster; and look for excess absorption in the cooling region.

16. Groundwater flow as a cooling agent of the continental lithosphere

Kooi, Henk

2016-03-01

Groundwater that flows through the outer shell of the Earth as part of the hydrologic cycle influences the distribution of heat and, thereby, the temperature field in the Earth’s crust. Downward groundwater flow in recharge areas lowers crustal temperatures, whereas upward flow in discharge areas tends to raise temperatures relative to a purely conductive geothermal regime. Here I present numerical simulations of generalized topography-driven groundwater flow. The simulations suggest that groundwater-driven convective cooling exceeds groundwater-driven warming of the Earth’s crust, and hence that groundwater flow systems cause net temperature reductions of groundwater basins. Moreover, the simulations demonstrate that this cooling extends into the underlying crust and lithosphere. I find that horizontal components of groundwater flow play a central role in this net subsurface cooling by conveying relatively cold water to zones of upward groundwater flow. The model calculations suggest that the crust and lithosphere beneath groundwater basins can cool by several tens of degrees Celsius where groundwater flows over large distances in basins that consist of crustal rock. In contrast, groundwater-induced cooling is small in unconsolidated sedimentary settings, such as deltas.

17. Test of a forced-flow cooled 30 kA/23 kV current lead for the POLO model coil

Heller, R.; Friesinger, G.; Herz, W.; Irmisch, M.; Nother, G.; Schappals, L.; Schweikert, K.; Siewerdt, L.; Susser, M.; Ulbricht, A.

1994-07-01

A 30 kA/23 kV current lead cooled by forced-flow supercritical helium has been developed at KfK. It allows position independent installation and well controlled operation which would be advantageous for operation of all kind of superconducting forced-flow cooled magnets. The design of the lead is described in this paper. The main feature is the insertion of Nb3Sn wires inside the conductor of the heat exchanger allowing the operation at minimum mass flow in a wide current range. Measurement results are presented for steady-state operation up to 30 kA, for short time operation up to 50 kA, for pulsed operation up to +/-1000 A at 10 Hz, and for simulation of loss of mass flow. A high-voltage test up to 28 kV DC (direct current) has been done. The mass flow rate normalized to current is about 0.055 g/(s-kA) for 15 to 30 kA proving the effectiveness of the Nb3Sn inserts. Comparison to numerical calculations shows good agreement allowing extrapolation for the design of leads for currents up to 80 kA for ITER model coil tests in the TOSKA test facility at KfK.

18. Idaho National Laboratory Experimental Program to Measure the Flow Phenomena in a Scaled Model of a Prismatic Gas-Cooled Reactor Lower Plenum for Validation of CFD Codes

SciTech Connect

Hugh M. McIlroy Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink

2008-09-01

The experimental program that is being conducted at the Matched Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Flow Facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to obtain benchmark data on measurements of flow phenomena in a scaled model of a prismatic gas-cooled reactor lower plenum using 3-D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is presented. A description of the scaling analysis, experimental facility, 3-D PIV system, measurement uncertainties and analysis, experimental procedures and samples of the data sets that have been obtained are included. Samples of the data set that will be presented include mean-velocity-field and turbulence data in an approximately 1:7 scale model of a region of the lower plenum of a typical prismatic gas-cooled reactor (GCR) similar to a General Atomics Gas-Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GTMHR) design. This experiment has been selected as the first Standard Problem endorsed by the Generation IV International Forum. The flow in the lower plenum consists of multiple jets injected into a confined cross flow - with obstructions. The model consists of a row of full circular posts along its centerline with half-posts on the two parallel walls to approximate flow scaled to that expected from the staggered parallel rows of posts in the reactor design. The model is fabricated from clear, fused quartz to match the refractive-index of the mineral oil working fluid. The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits high-quality measurements to be obtained without locating intrusive transducers that disturb the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. An advantage of the INL MIR system is its large size which allows improved spatial and temporal resolution compared to similar facilities at smaller scales. Results concentrate on the region of the lower plenum near its far reflector wall (away from the outlet duct). Inlet jet Reynolds numbers (based on the jet diameter and the time-mean average flow rate) are approximately 4,300 and 12,400. The measurements

19. Investigation of heat transfer and flow using ribs within gas turbine blade cooling passage: Experimental and hybrid LES/RANS modeling

Kumar, Sourabh

Gas turbines are extensively used for aircraft propulsion, land based power generation and various industrial applications. Developments in innovative gas turbine cooling technology enhance the efficiency and power output, with an increase in turbine rotor inlet temperatures. These advancements of turbine cooling have allowed engine design to exceed normal material temperature limits. For internal cooling design, techniques for heat extraction from the surfaces exposed to hot stream are based on the increase of heat transfer areas and on promotion of turbulence of the cooling flow. In this study, it is obtained by casting repeated continuous V and broken V shaped ribs on one side of the two pass square channel into the core of blade. Despite extensive research on ribs, only few papers have validated the numerical data with experimental results in two pass channel. In the present study, detailed experimental investigation is carried out for two pass square channels with 180° turn. Detailed heat transfer distribution occurring in the ribbed passage is reported for steady state experiment. Four different combinations of 60° and Broken 60° V ribs in channel are considered. Thermocouples are used to obtain the temperature on the channel surface and local heat transfer coefficients are obtained for various Reynolds numbers, within the turbulent flow regime. Area averaged data are calculated in order to compare the overall performance of the tested ribbed surface and to evaluate the degree of heat transfer enhancement induced by the ribs with. Flow within the channels is characterized by heat transfer enhancing ribs, bends, rotation and buoyancy effects. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were carried out for the same geometries using different turbulence models such as k-o Shear stress transport (SST) and Reynolds stress model (RSM). These CFD simulations were based on advanced computing in order to improve the accuracy of three dimensional metal

20. Computation of flow and heat transfer in rotating cavities with peripheral flow of cooling air.

PubMed

Kiliç, M

2001-05-01

Numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations have been used to model the flow and the heat transfer that occurs in the internal cooling-air systems of gas turbines. Computations are performed to study the effect of gap ratio, Reynolds number and the mass flow rate on the flow and the heat transfer structure inside isothermal and heated rotating cavities with peripheral flow of cooling air. Computations are compared with some of the recent experimental work on flow and heat transfer in rotating-cavities. The agreement between the computed and the available experimental data is reasonably good. PMID:11460668

1. Modelling an actively-cooled CPV system

Buonomano, A.; Mittelman, G.; Faiman, D.; Biryukov, S.; Melnichak, V.; Bukobza, D.; Kabalo, S.

2012-10-01

We have constructed a 7-node, 1-dimensional model of the heat flow in a water-cooled CPV receiver. The model is validated against data from a module exposed to solar irradiance at various concentrations up to 1,000X at the PETAL solar dish facility at Sede Boqer.

2. DNS of stably stratified Ekman flow with surface cooling

Gohari, S. M. Iman; Sarkar, Sutanu

2015-11-01

Direct numerical simulations of stably stratified Ekman flow are performed to study turbulence in an atmospheric boundary layer under surface cooling. Stability, classified by the normalized Monin-Obukhov (MO) length scale, is varied by imposing a range of cooling fluxes at the surface to mimic ground radiative cooling. The subsequent flow stability, measured by the MO length scale and bulk Richardson number, changes significantly as the flow evolves. We find considerable qualitative differences when a neutrally stratified Ekman flow is exposed to a constant surface cooling rather than a constant temperature, i.e. changes in the veering angle, super-gesotrophic velocity, surface shear velocity and the boundary layer height. Under strongly stable condition, the transient evolution shows the presence of intermittent turbulent patches. These patches contain small-scale, inclined hairpin structures that are organized into near-surface streaks. A low-level jet forms at steady state and the high-shear region between the surface and the low level jet is found to play a vital role in promoting turbulence. Our simplified setup is sufficient to observe turbulence collapse, intermittency and the low-level jet formation, indicating the applicability of this model to atmospheric problems.

3. Cooling Flow Spectra in Ginga Galaxy Clusters

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

White, Raymond E., III

1997-01-01

The primary focus of this research project has been a joint analysis of Ginga LAC and Einstein SSS X-ray spectra of the hot gas in galaxy clusters with cooling flows is reported. We studied four clusters (A496, A1795, A2142 & A2199) and found their central temperatures to be cooler than in the exterior, which is expected from their having cooling flows. More interestingly, we found central metal abundance enhancements in two of the clusters, A496 and A2142. We have been assessing whether the abundance gradients (or lack thereof) in intracluster gas is correlated with galaxy morphological gradients in the host clusters. In rich, dense galaxy clusters, elliptical and SO galaxies are generally found in the cluster cores, while spiral galaxies are found in the outskirts. If the metals observed in clusters came from proto-ellipticals and proto-S0s blowing winds, then the metal distribution in intracluster gas may still reflect the distribution of their former host galaxies. In a research project which was inspired by the success of the Ginga LAC/Einstein SSS work, we analyzed X-ray spectra from the HEAO-A2 MED and the Einstein SSS to look for temperature gradients in cluster gas. The HEAO-A2 MED was also a non-imaging detector with a large field of view compared to the SSS, so we used the differing fields of view of the two instruments to extract spatial information. We found some evidence of cool gas in the outskirts of clusters, which may indicate that the nominally isothermal mass density distributions in these clusters are steepening in the outer parts of these clusters.

4. Thermal conduction and reduced cooling flows in galaxy clusters

Voigt, L. M.; Fabian, A. C.

2004-02-01

Conduction may play an important role in reducing cooling flows in galaxy clusters. We analyse a sample of 16 objects using Chandra data and find that a balance between electron conduction and cooling can exist in the hotter clusters (T>~ 5 keV), provided that the plasma conductivity is close to the unhindered Spitzer value. In the absence of any additional heat sources, a reduced mass inflow must then develop in the cooler objects in the sample. We fit cooling flow models to deprojected spectra and compare the spectral mass deposition rates found to the values required to account for the excess luminosity, assuming Spitzer-rate heat transfer over the observed temperature gradients. The measured mass inflow rates are insufficient to maintain energy balance in at least five clusters. However, emission from cooling gas may be partially absorbed. We also compute the flux supplied by turbulent heat transport and find conductivity profiles that follow a strikingly similar temperature dependence to the conductivity values required to prevent cooling. The larger-scale turbulent motions implied by this process are required to have velocities of between 10 and 50 per cent of the speed of sound in the local intracluster gas.

5. On magnetothermal instability in cluster cooling flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Balbus, Steven A.

1991-01-01

Lagrangian techniques appropriate to a local calculation are used to show that a weak ordered magnetic field can result in a generic condensational mode in cluster cooling flows. However, thermal instability appears possible only if the conductivity is well below its Spitzer value, for all nonradial wavenumbers. Wavenumbers not subject to conductive damping are subject to buoyant oscillations. It is shown that when instability is present, lateral magnetic confinement of high thermal pressure regions in the plasma by radial magnetic field lines is responsible in at least equal measure with radially directed magnetic tension for the suppression of oscillations and the reappearance of local condensational modes. The general importance of even very modest magnetic fields for destabilizing thermal time scale perturbations is emphasized.

6. Experimental flow coefficients of a full-coverage film-cooled-vane chamber

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Meitner, P. L.; Hippensteele, S. A.

1977-01-01

Ambient- and elevated-temperature flow tests were performed on a four-times-actual-size model of an impingement- and film-cooled segment of a core engine turbine vane. Tests were conducted with the impingement and film cooling plates combined to form a chamber and also with each of the individual separated plates. For the combined tests, the proximity of the film cooling plate affected the flow of coolant through the impingement plate, but not conversely. Impingement flow is presented in terms of a discharge coefficient, and the film cooling flow discharging into still air with no main stream gas flow is presented in terms of a total pressure-loss coefficient. The effects of main stream gas flow on discharge from the film cooling holes are evaluated as a function of coolant to main-stream gas momentum flux ratio. A smoothing technique is developed that identifies and helps reduce flow measurement data scatter.

7. Heat conduction in cooling flows. [in clusters of galaxies

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bregman, Joel N.; David, L. P.

1988-01-01

It has been suggested that electron conduction may significantly reduce the accretion rate (and star foramtion rate) for cooling flows in clusters of galaxies. A numerical hydrodynamics code was used to investigate the time behavior of cooling flows with conduction. The usual conduction coefficient is modified by an efficiency factor, mu, to realize the effects of tangled magnetic field lines. Two classes of models are considered, one where mu is independent of position and time, and one where inflow stretches the field lines and changes mu. In both cases, there is only a narrow range of initial conditions for mu in which the cluster accretion rate is reduced while a significant temperature gradient occurs. In the first case, no steady solution exists in which both conditions are met. In the second case, steady state solutions occur in which both conditions are met, but only for a narrow range of initial values where mu = 0.001.

8. Heat conduction boundary layers of condensed clumps in cooling flows

Boehringer, H.; Fabian, A. C.

1989-04-01

The structure of heat conduction boundary layers of gaseous condensations embedded in the hot intergalactic gas in clusters of galaxies is investigated by means of steady, one-dimensional, hydrodynamic models. It is assumed that heat conduction is effective only on scales much smaller than the total region of the cooling flow. Models are calculated for an arbitrary scaling factor, accounting for the reduction in heat conduction efficiency compared to the classical Spitzer case. The results imply a lower limit to the size spectrum of the condensations. The enhancement of cooling in the ambient medium due to heat conduction losses is calculated for a range of clump parameters. The luminosity of several observable emission lines, the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray emission spectrum, and the column density of some important ions are determined for the model boundary layers and compared with observations.

9. The cooling rates of pahoehoe flows: The importance of lava porosity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jones, Alun C.

1993-01-01

Many theoretical models have been put forward to account for the cooling history of a lava flow; however, only limited detailed field data exist to validate these models. To accurately model the cooling of lava flows, data are required, not only on the heat loss mechanisms, but also on the surface skin development and the causes of differing cooling rates. This paper argues that the cause of such variations in the cooling rates are attributed, primarily, to the vesicle content and degassing history of the lava.

10. A study of cooling flows in poor clusters of galaxies

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kriss, Gerard A.; Dillingham, Stephen

1995-01-01

We observed three poor clusters with central dominant galaxies (AWM 4, MKW 4, and MKW 3's) using the Position Sensitive Proportional Counter on the ROSAT X-ray satellite. The images reveal smooth, symmetrical X-ray emission filling the cluster with a sharp peak on each central galaxy. The cluster surface brightness profiles can be decomposed using superposed King models for the central galaxy and the intracluster medium. The King model parameters for the cluster portions are consistent with previous observations of these clusters. The newly measured King model parameters for the central galaxies are typical of the X-ray surface brightness distributions of isolated elliptical galaxies. Spatially resolved temperature measurements in annular rings throughout the clusters show a nearly isothermal profile. Temperatures are consistent with previously measured values, but are much better determined. There is no significant drop in temperature noted in the innermost bins where cooling flows are likely to be present, nor is any excess absorption by cold gas required. All cold gas columns are consistent with galactic foreground absorption. We derive mass profiles for the clusters assuming both isothermal temperature profiles and cooling flow models with constant mass flow rates. Our results are consistent with previous Einstein IPC observations by Kriss, Cioffi, & Canizares, but extend the mass profiles out to 1 Mpc in these poor clusters.

11. A study of cooling flows in poor clusters of galaxies

Kriss, Gerard A.; Dillingham, Stephen

1995-08-01

We observed three poor clusters with central dominant galaxies (AWM 4, MKW 4, and MKW 3's) using the Position Sensitive Proportional Counter on the ROSAT X-ray satellite. The images reveal smooth, symmetrical X-ray emission filling the cluster with a sharp peak on each central galaxy. The cluster surface brightness profiles can be decomposed using superposed King models for the central galaxy and the intracluster medium. The King model parameters for the cluster portions are consistent with previous observations of these clusters. The newly measured King model parameters for the central galaxies are typical of the X-ray surface brightness distributions of isolated elliptical galaxies. Spatially resolved temperature measurements in annular rings throughout the clusters show a nearly isothermal profile. Temperatures are consistent with previously measured values, but are much better determined. There is no significant drop in temperature noted in the innermost bins where cooling flows are likely to be present, nor is any excess absorption by cold gas required. All cold gas columns are consistent with galactic foreground absorption. We derive mass profiles for the clusters assuming both isothermal temperature profiles and cooling flow models with constant mass flow rates. Our results are consistent with previous Einstein IPC observations by Kriss, Cioffi, & Canizares, but extend the mass profiles out to 1 Mpc in these poor clusters.

12. Influence of Flow Rotation Within a Cooling Tower on the Aerodynamic Interaction with Crosswind Flow

Kashani, M. M. Hemmasian; Dobrego, K. V.

2014-03-01

Environmental crosswind changes the aerodynamic pattern inside a cooling tower, destroys uniform and axisymmetric distribution of flow at its inlet and outlet, and may degrade fill zone performance. In this paper, the effect of flow rotation in the over-shower zone of a natural draft cooling tower (NDCT) on the aerodynamic interaction with crosswind is studied numerically. The 3D geometry of an actual NDCT and three models of induced rotation velocity fields are utilized for simulation. It is demonstrated that flow rotation results in homogenization of the aerodynamic field in the over-shower zone. The inhomogeneity of the velocity field in the outlet cross section decreases linearly with rotation intensification. The effect of main stream switching under strong wind conditions is found. It is shown that even moderate flow rotation eliminates this effect.

13. Effect of weak swirling flow on film cooling performance

Gau, C.; Hwang, W. B.

1990-10-01

Experiments have been performed in a large circular pipe to study and obtain the film cooling effectivenesses with the presence of weak swirling flow in the mainstream. The swirling flow is generated by a flat vane swirler situated upstream. Cooling film is injected from an annular slot formed by the pipe wall and the circular cover plate. The radial temperature distribution measurements at several axial locations were used to infer the rate of mixing of film jet with swirling flow. The swirl number, which increases with turbulence intensity and swirl velocity in the mainstream, can significantly increase the mixing rate of film jet with swirl flow and decrease the film cooling effectiveness. During the course of the experiments, the blowing ratio ranged from 0.5 to 1.75 and the swirl number ranged from 0 to 0.6. Correlation equations for the film cooling effectiveness, which account for the effect of swirling flow, are obtained.

14. TURBINE COOLING FLOW AND THE RESULTING DECREASE IN TURBINE EFFICIENCY

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gauntner, J. W.

1994-01-01

This algorithm has been developed for calculating both the quantity of compressor bleed flow required to cool a turbine and the resulting decrease in efficiency due to cooling air injected into the gas stream. Because of the trend toward higher turbine inlet temperatures, it is important to accurately predict the required cooling flow. This program is intended for use with axial flow, air-breathing jet propulsion engines with a variety of airfoil cooling configurations. The algorithm results have compared extremely well with figures given by major engine manufacturers for given bulk metal temperatures and cooling configurations. The program calculates the required cooling flow and corresponding decrease in stage efficiency for each row of airfoils throughout the turbine. These values are combined with the thermodynamic efficiency of the uncooled turbine to predict the total bleed airflow required and the altered turbine efficiency. There are ten airfoil cooling configurations and the algorithm allows a different option for each row of cooled airfoils. Materials technology is incorporated and requires the date of the first year of service for the turbine stator vane and rotor blade. The user must specify pressure, temperatures, and gas flows into the turbine. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 3080 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 61K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1980.

15. Integrated turbine-compressor provides air flow for cooling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ferri, A.

1970-01-01

Modified supersonic turbine cycle provides cooling air to surrounding structures. Simplified mechanical design assures correct balance of air flow, allows direct issue of cool air to the structure, and assists in matching turbine work output to work input required by the compressor.

16. An experimental study on the efficiency of transpiration cooling in laminar and turbulent hypersonic flows

Gülhan, A.; Braun, S.

2011-03-01

An experimental study on the efficiency of transpiration cooling in hypersonic laminar and turbulent flow regimes is carried out in the Hypersonic Windtunnel Cologne with a focus on the aerothermal problems downstream of the cooled model part. The model is made of a material of low thermal conductivity (PEEK) with an integrated probe of a porous material. The experimental setup allows the direct comparison of the thermal behavior of transpiration cooling to a well-defined and radiatively cooled reference surface. Experiments are performed at Mach number of 6 and two different Reynolds numbers. Air, argon and helium are used as coolants at various flow rates, in order to identify the influence of coolant medium on cooling efficiency. The cooling efficiency of air and argon is comparable. Helium provides significantly higher cooling efficiency at the same blowing ratio, i.e. same coolant mass flow rate. The experimental data shows that the efficiency of the transpiration cooling in turbulent flows is much lower than in laminar flow.

17. Star formation in cooling flows in clusters of galaxies

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mcnamara, Brian R.; O'Connell, Robert W.

1989-01-01

Spectrophotometry (wavelength = 3400-5100 A) has been obtained for the nuclei of 13 cD galaxies in cooling flows. Spectral anomalies are found in 8 of the objects, consisting of abnormally strong forbidden O II emission or excess flux effects. Consideration is given to metallicity effects, the relationship between UV excesses and the presence of massive OB stars formed from the cooling flows, and low-level effects related to accretion.

18. Compound cooling flow turbulator for turbine component

DOEpatents

Lee, Ching-Pang; Jiang, Nan; Marra, John J; Rudolph, Ronald J

2014-11-25

Multi-scale turbulation features, including first turbulators (46, 48) on a cooling surface (44), and smaller turbulators (52, 54, 58, 62) on the first turbulators. The first turbulators may be formed between larger turbulators (50). The first turbulators may be alternating ridges (46) and valleys (48). The smaller turbulators may be concave surface features such as dimples (62) and grooves (54), and/or convex surface features such as bumps (58) and smaller ridges (52). An embodiment with convex turbulators (52, 58) in the valleys (48) and concave turbulators (54, 62) on the ridges (46) increases the cooling surface area, reduces boundary layer separation, avoids coolant shadowing and stagnation, and reduces component mass.

19. Cooling and deformation of sulfur flows. [from silicate lava on Io

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fink, J. H.; Greeley, R.; Park, S. O.

1983-01-01

A simple one-dimensional cooling analysis is used to consider the cooling of a flow of pure sulfur on the Ionian surface by a combination of upward radiation and downward conduction, and some speculations on the nature of surface structures and optical properties for such a flow are made. It is concluded that surface folding caused by compressive stresses, crustal foundering due to tensile fracturing and density inversions, and local turbulence may result in regularly spaced surface ridges periodically interrupted by upwellings of liquid sulfur onto the frozen surface of the flow. The model suggests that although the color of the surface crust of a quickly quenched sulfur flow will not necessarily reflect the local internal temperature of the flow, diapiric upwellings and convection from beneath this crust should indicate the progressive cooling of the inner, more fluid zones of the flow.

20. IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY PROGRAM TO OBTAIN BENCHMARK DATA ON THE FLOW PHENOMENA IN A SCALED MODEL OF A PRISMATIC GAS-COOLED REACTOR LOWER PLENUM FOR THE VALIDATION OF CFD CODES

SciTech Connect

Hugh M. McIlroy Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink

2008-09-01

The experimental program that is being conducted at the Matched Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Flow Facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to obtain benchmark data on measurements of flow phenomena in a scaled model of a typical prismatic gas-cooled (GCR) reactor lower plenum using 3-D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is presented. A detailed description of the model, scaling, the experimental facility, 3-D PIV system, measurement uncertainties and analysis, experimental procedures and samples of the data sets that have been obtained are included. Samples of the data set that are presented include mean-velocity-field and turbulence data in an approximately 1:7 scale model of a region of the lower plenum of a typical prismatic GCR design. This experiment has been selected as the first Standard Problem endorsed by the Generation IV International Forum. Results concentrate on the region of the lower plenum near its far reflector wall (away from the outlet duct). Inlet jet Reynolds numbers (based on the jet diameter and the time-mean average flow rate) are approximately 4,300 and 12,400. The measurements reveal undeveloped, non-uniform flow in the inlet jets and complicated flow patterns in the model lower plenum. Data include three-dimensional vector plots, data displays along the coordinate planes (slices) and charts that describe the component flows at specific regions in the model. Information on inlet flow is also presented.

1. Numerical characterization and modeling of adiabatic slot film cooling

Voegele, Andrew

Film cooling is a technique used to protect critical surfaces in combustors, thrust chambers, turbines and nozzles from hot, chemically reacting gases. Accurately predicting the film's performance is especially challenging in the vicinity of the wall and the film injection plane due to the complex interactions of two highly turbulent, shearing, boundary layer flows. Properly characterizing the streams at the inlet of a numerical simulation and the choice of turbulence model are crucial to accurately predicting the decay of the film. To address these issues, this study employs a RANS solver that is used to model a film cooled wall. Menter's baseline model, and shear-stress transport model and the Spalart-Allmaras model are employed to determine the effect on film cooling predictions. Several methods for prescribing the inlet planes are explored. These numerical studies are compared with experimental data obtained in a UMD film cooling wind tunnel.

2. Flow and heat transfer predictions for film cooling.

PubMed

Acharya, S; Tyagi, M; Hoda, A

2001-05-01

Film cooling flows are characterized by a row of jets injected at an angle from the blade surface or endwalls into the heated crossflow. The resulting flowfield is quite complex, and accurate predictions of the flow and heat transfer have been difficult to obtain, particularly in the near field of the injected jet. The flowfield is characterized by a spectrum of vortical structures including the dominant kidney vortex, the horse-shoe vortex, the wake vortices and the shear layer vortices. These anisotropic and unsteady structures are not well represented by empirical or ad-hoc turbulence models, and lead to inaccurate predictions in the near field of the jet. In this paper, a variety of modeling approaches have been reviewed, and the limitations of these approaches are identified. Recent emergence of Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) tools allow the resolution of the coherent structure dynamics, and it is shown in this paper, that such approaches provide improved predictions over that obtained with turbulence models. PMID:11460622

3. Flow distribution analysis on the cooling tube network of ITER thermal shield

Nam, Kwanwoo; Chung, Wooho; Noh, Chang Hyun; Kang, Dong Kwon; Kang, Kyoung-O.; Ahn, Hee Jae; Lee, Hyeon Gon

2014-01-01

Thermal shield (TS) is to be installed between the vacuum vessel or the cryostat and the magnets in ITER tokamak to reduce the thermal radiation load to the magnets operating at 4.2K. The TS is cooled by pressurized helium gas at the inlet temperature of 80K. The cooling tube is welded on the TS panel surface and the composed flow network of the TS cooling tubes is complex. The flow rate in each panel should be matched to the thermal design value for effective radiation shielding. This paper presents one dimensional analysis on the flow distribution of cooling tube network for the ITER TS. The hydraulic cooling tube network is modeled by an electrical analogy. Only the cooling tube on the TS surface and its connecting pipe from the manifold are considered in the analysis model. Considering the frictional factor and the local loss in the cooling tube, the hydraulic resistance is expressed as a linear function with respect to mass flow rate. Sub-circuits in the TS are analyzed separately because each circuit is controlled by its own control valve independently. It is found that flow rates in some panels are insufficient compared with the design values. In order to improve the flow distribution, two kinds of design modifications are proposed. The first one is to connect the tubes of the adjacent panels. This will increase the resistance of the tube on the panel where the flow rate is excessive. The other design suggestion is that an orifice is installed at the exit of tube routing where the flow rate is to be reduced. The analysis for the design suggestions shows that the flow mal-distribution is improved significantly.

4. Flow distribution analysis on the cooling tube network of ITER thermal shield

SciTech Connect

Nam, Kwanwoo; Chung, Wooho; Noh, Chang Hyun; Kang, Dong Kwon; Kang, Kyoung-O; Ahn, Hee Jae; Lee, Hyeon Gon

2014-01-29

Thermal shield (TS) is to be installed between the vacuum vessel or the cryostat and the magnets in ITER tokamak to reduce the thermal radiation load to the magnets operating at 4.2K. The TS is cooled by pressurized helium gas at the inlet temperature of 80K. The cooling tube is welded on the TS panel surface and the composed flow network of the TS cooling tubes is complex. The flow rate in each panel should be matched to the thermal design value for effective radiation shielding. This paper presents one dimensional analysis on the flow distribution of cooling tube network for the ITER TS. The hydraulic cooling tube network is modeled by an electrical analogy. Only the cooling tube on the TS surface and its connecting pipe from the manifold are considered in the analysis model. Considering the frictional factor and the local loss in the cooling tube, the hydraulic resistance is expressed as a linear function with respect to mass flow rate. Sub-circuits in the TS are analyzed separately because each circuit is controlled by its own control valve independently. It is found that flow rates in some panels are insufficient compared with the design values. In order to improve the flow distribution, two kinds of design modifications are proposed. The first one is to connect the tubes of the adjacent panels. This will increase the resistance of the tube on the panel where the flow rate is excessive. The other design suggestion is that an orifice is installed at the exit of tube routing where the flow rate is to be reduced. The analysis for the design suggestions shows that the flow mal-distribution is improved significantly.

5. A generalized one-dimensional computer code for turbomachinery cooling passage flow calculations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kumar, Ganesh N.; Roelke, Richard J.; Meitner, Peter L.

1989-01-01

A generalized one-dimensional computer code for analyzing the flow and heat transfer in the turbomachinery cooling passages was developed. This code is capable of handling rotating cooling passages with turbulators, 180 degree turns, pin fins, finned passages, by-pass flows, tip cap impingement flows, and flow branching. The code is an extension of a one-dimensional code developed by P. Meitner. In the subject code, correlations for both heat transfer coefficient and pressure loss computations were developed to model each of the above mentioned type of coolant passages. The code has the capability of independently computing the friction factor and heat transfer coefficient on each side of a rectangular passage. Either the mass flow at the inlet to the channel or the exit plane pressure can be specified. For a specified inlet total temperature, inlet total pressure, and exit static pressure, the code computers the flow rates through the main branch and the subbranches, flow through tip cap for impingement cooling, in addition to computing the coolant pressure, temperature, and heat transfer coefficient distribution in each coolant flow branch. Predictions from the subject code for both nonrotating and rotating passages agree well with experimental data. The code was used to analyze the cooling passage of a research cooled radial rotor.

6. A generalized one dimensional computer code for turbomachinery cooling passage flow calculations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kumar, Ganesh N.; Roelke, Richard J.; Meitner, Peter L.

1989-01-01

A generalized one-dimensional computer code for analyzing the flow and heat transfer in the turbomachinery cooling passages was developed. This code is capable of handling rotating cooling passages with turbulators, 180 degree turns, pin fins, finned passages, by-pass flows, tip cap impingement flows, and flow branching. The code is an extension of a one-dimensional code developed by P. Meitner. In the subject code, correlations for both heat transfer coefficient and pressure loss computations were developed to model each of the above mentioned type of coolant passages. The code has the capability of independently computing the friction factor and heat transfer coefficient on each side of a rectangular passage. Either the mass flow at the inlet to the channel or the exit plane pressure can be specified. For a specified inlet total temperature, inlet total pressure, and exit static pressure, the code computers the flow rates through the main branch and the subbranches, flow through tip cap for impingement cooling, in addition to computing the coolant pressure, temperature, and heat transfer coefficient distribution in each coolant flow branch. Predictions from the subject code for both nonrotating and rotating passages agree well with experimental data. The code was used to analyze the cooling passage of a research cooled radial rotor.

7. Large eddy simulations of turbulent flows on graphics processing units: Application to film-cooling flows

Shinn, Aaron F.

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations can be very computationally expensive, especially for Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of turbulent ows. In LES the large, energy containing eddies are resolved by the computational mesh, but the smaller (sub-grid) scales are modeled. In DNS, all scales of turbulence are resolved, including the smallest dissipative (Kolmogorov) scales. Clusters of CPUs have been the standard approach for such simulations, but an emerging approach is the use of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), which deliver impressive computing performance compared to CPUs. Recently there has been great interest in the scientific computing community to use GPUs for general-purpose computation (such as the numerical solution of PDEs) rather than graphics rendering. To explore the use of GPUs for CFD simulations, an incompressible Navier-Stokes solver was developed for a GPU. This solver is capable of simulating unsteady laminar flows or performing a LES or DNS of turbulent ows. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved via a fractional-step method and are spatially discretized using the finite volume method on a Cartesian mesh. An immersed boundary method based on a ghost cell treatment was developed to handle flow past complex geometries. The implementation of these numerical methods had to suit the architecture of the GPU, which is designed for massive multithreading. The details of this implementation will be described, along with strategies for performance optimization. Validation of the GPU-based solver was performed for fundamental bench-mark problems, and a performance assessment indicated that the solver was over an order-of-magnitude faster compared to a CPU. The GPU-based Navier-Stokes solver was used to study film-cooling flows via Large Eddy Simulation. In modern gas turbine engines, the film-cooling method is used to protect turbine blades from hot combustion gases. Therefore, understanding the physics of

8. Computation of Turbulent Recirculating Flow in Channels, and for Impingement Cooling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chang, Byong Hoon

1992-01-01

Fully elliptic forms of the transport equations have been solved numerically for two flow configurations. The first is turbulent flow in a channel with transverse rectangular ribs, and the second is impingement cooling of a plane surface. Both flows are relevant to proposed designs for active cooling of hypersonic vehicles using supercritical hydrogen as the coolant. Flow downstream of an abrupt pipe expansion and of a backward-facing step were also solved with various near-wall turbulence models as benchmark problems. A simple form of periodicity boundary condition was used for the channel flow with transverse rectangular ribs. The effects of various parameters on heat transfer in channel flow with transverse ribs and in impingement cooling were investigated using the Yap modified Jones and Launder low Reynolds number k-epsilon turbulence model. For the channel flow, predictions were in adequate agreement with experiment for constant property flow, with the results for friction superior to those for heat transfer. For impingement cooling, the agreement with experiment was generally good, but the results suggest that improved modelling of the dissipation rate of turbulence kinetic energy is required in order to obtain improved heat transfer prediction, especially near the stagnation point. The k-epsilon turbulence model was used to predict the mean flow and heat transfer for constant and variable property flows. The effect of variable properties for channel flow was investigated using the same turbulence model, but comparison with experiment yielded no clear conclusions. Also, the wall function method was modified for use in the variable properties flow with a non-adiabatic surface, and an empirical model is suggested to correctly account for the behavior of the viscous sublayer with heating.

9. Inductively coupled plasma torch with laminar flow cooling

DOEpatents

Rayson, Gary D.; Shen, Yang

1991-04-30

An improved inductively coupled gas plasma torch. The torch includes inner and outer quartz sleeves and tubular insert snugly fitted between the sleeves. The insert includes outwardly opening longitudinal channels. Gas flowing through the channels of the insert emerges in a laminar flow along the inside surface of the outer sleeve, in the zone of plasma heating. The laminar flow cools the outer sleeve and enables the torch to operate at lower electrical power and gas consumption levels additionally, the laminar flow reduces noise levels in spectroscopic measurements of the gaseous plasma.

10. Thermal and flow measurements of continuous cryogenic spray cooling.

PubMed

Hsieh, Shou-Shing; Tsai, Huang-Hsiu

2006-07-01

The performance of single sprays for high heat flux cooling using R-134a was studied. The heat flux and heat transfer coefficient at the surface of a sprayed jet based on measurements of steady-state temperature gradients on a thin copper plate during continuous spraying. Meanwhile, the spray droplets flow characteristics was also quantified through laser doppler velocimetry (LDV) measurements to obtain the local velocity distributions. The effects of mass flow rate and average droplet velocity, and spray exit-to-target distance on the surface heat flux including the corresponding critical heat flux (CHF) were explored through three different nozzle diameters of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 mm. Finally, the effective use of the fluid being delivered based on the cooling efficiency and cooling effectiveness was also examined. The relationship between CHF and nozzle performance in terms of cooling efficiency and cooling effectiveness was found. The heat transfer removal rate can reach up to 140 W/cm(2) for the present nozzle size of d (j)=0.2 and 0.3 mm, which may enhance the current cryogen spray cooling (CSC) technique that assists laser therapy of dermatoses. PMID:16598481

11. Compliant Metal Enhanced Convection Cooled Reverse-Flow Annular Combustor

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Paskin, Marc D.; Acosta, Waldo A.

1994-01-01

A joint Army/NASA program was conducted to design, fabricate, and test an advanced, reverse-flow, small gas turbine combustor using a compliant metal enhanced (CME) convection wall cooling concept. The objectives of this effort were to develop a design method (basic design data base and analysis) for the CME cooling technique and tben demonstrate its application to an advanced cycle, small, reverse-flow combustor with 3000 F (1922 K) burner outlet temperature (BOT). The CME concept offers significant improvements in wall cooling effectiveness resulting in a large reduction in cooling air requirements. Therefore, more air is available for control of burner outlet temperature pattern in addition to the benefit of improved efficiency, reduced emissions, and smoke levels. Rig test results demonstrated the benefits and viability of the CME concept meeting or exceeding the aerothermal performance and liner wall temperature characteristics of similar lower temperature-rise combustors, achieving 0.15 pattern factor at 3000 F (1922 K) BOT, while utilizing approximately 80 percent less cooling air than conventional, film-cooled combustion systems.

12. Large Eddy Simulations and Turbulence Modeling for Film Cooling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acharya, Sumanta

1999-01-01

The objective of the research is to perform Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulations (LES) for film cooling process, and to evaluate and improve advanced forms of the two equation turbulence models for turbine blade surface flow analysis. The DNS/LES were used to resolve the large eddies within the flow field near the coolant jet location. The work involved code development and applications of the codes developed to the film cooling problems. Five different codes were developed and utilized to perform this research. This report presented a summary of the development of the codes and their applications to analyze the turbulence properties at locations near coolant injection holes.

13. Water cooling system using a piezoelectrically actuated flow pump for a medical headlight system

Pires, Rogério F.; Vatanabe, Sandro L.; de Oliveira, Amaury R.; Nakasone, Paulo H.; Silva, Emílio C.

2007-04-01

The microchips inside modern electronic equipment generate heat and demand, each day, the use of more advanced cooling techniques as water cooling systems, for instance. These systems combined with piezoelectric flow pumps present some advantages such as higher thermal capacity, lower noise generation and miniaturization potential. The present work aims at the development of a water cooling system based on a piezoelectric flow pump for a head light system based on LEDs. The cooling system development consists in design, manufacturing and experimental characterization steps. In the design step, computational models of the pump, as well as the heat exchanger were built to perform sensitivity studies using ANSYS finite element software. This allowed us to achieve desired flow and heat exchange rates by varying the frequency and amplitude of the applied voltage. Other activities included the design of the heat exchanger and the dissipation module. The experimental tests of the cooling system consisted in measuring the temperature difference between the heat exchanger inlet and outlet to evaluate its thermal cooling capacity for different values of the flow rate. Comparisons between numerical and experimental results were also made.

14. Magnetic fields and the cluster cooling flow hypothesis

Garasi, Christopher Joseph

2001-12-01

Through the development of modern observations and computational techniques, the picture associated with clusters of galaxies has become more complex. Initially thought to be isothermal and hydrostatic, the X-ray emitting intracluster medium (ICM) is now viewed as a turbulent, magnetized environment. Mergers, ejecta from member galaxies, and jets from active galactic nuclei all serve to perturb the ICM. Magnetic field has been detected at all spatial scales within the ICM, with magnetic pressure close to equipartition with the gas pressure near some cluster cores. All of these phenomena have an impact on the ICM. Nearly thirty years ago a subset of clusters of galaxies referred to as cooling flows'' were identified through enhanced X-ray emission above the typical cluster sample. The radiative cooling time for these systems was found to be shorter than the cluster age. It was hypothesized that radiative cooling should bring the ICM out of hydrostatic balance, evolving into a steady-state radial inflow. Since direct observation of material inflow is not yet possible, estimates of the mass accretion rate have come from X-ray observations. The dominant mechanism governing the dynamics of these environments was assumed to be purely hydrodynamic. The role which magnetic fields play within the ICM has come into question due to magnetic field measurements within the cores of cooling flows.'' Previous attempts have been made to address the importance of magnetic fields within the ICM, however, the conclusions have been conflicting. We investigate the impact which magnetic fields have on a radiatively collapsing environment using one-dimensional numerical simulations. A hydrodynamic baseline is first established, and then followed by simulations invoking ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) as well as magnetic dissipation. The results from the simulations indicate that hydrodynamics alone will not produce a solution which matches the observed characteristics of cooling

15. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE EXTENDED H{alpha} FILAMENTS IN COOLING FLOW CLUSTERS

SciTech Connect

McDonald, Michael; Veilleux, Sylvain; Mushotzky, Richard; Rupke, David S. N. E-mail: mcdonald@astro.umd.ed

2010-10-01

We present a high spatial resolution H{alpha} survey of 23 cooling flow clusters using the Maryland Magellan Tunable Filter, covering 1-2 orders of magnitude in cooling rate, dM/dt, temperature, and entropy. We find that 8/23 (35%) of our clusters have complex, filamentary morphologies at H{alpha}, while an additional 7/23 (30%) have marginally extended or nuclear H{alpha} emission, in general agreement with previous studies of line emission in cooling flow cluster brightest cluster galaxies. A weak correlation between the integrated near-UV luminosity and the H{alpha} luminosity is also found for our complete sample with a large amount of scatter about the expected relation for photoionization by young stars. We detect H{alpha} emission out to the X-ray cooling radius, but no further, in several clusters and find a strong correlation between the H{alpha} luminosity contained in filaments and the X-ray cooling flow rate of the cluster, suggesting that the warm ionized gas is linked to the cooling flow. Furthermore, we detect a strong enhancement in the cooling properties of the intracluster medium (ICM) coincident with the H{alpha} emission, compared to the surrounding ICM at the same radius. While the filaments in a few clusters may be entrained by buoyant radio bubbles, in general, the radially infalling cooling flow model provides a better explanation for the observed trends. The correlation of the H{alpha} and X-ray properties suggests that conduction may be important in keeping the filaments ionized. The thinness of the filaments suggests that magnetic fields are an important part of channeling the gas and shielding it from the surrounding hot ICM.

16. On VI Observations of Galaxy Clusters: Evidence for Modest Cooling Flows

Bregman, Joel N.; Fabian, A. C.; Miller, Eric D.; Irwin, Jimmy A.

2006-05-01

A prediction of the galaxy-cluster cooling flow model is that as gas cools from the ambient cluster temperature, emission lines are produced in gas at subsequently decreasing temperatures. Gas passing through 105.5 K emits in the lines of O VI λλ1032, 1035, and here we report a FUSE study of these lines in three cooling flow clusters, Abell 426, Abell 1795, and AWM 7. No emission was detected from AWM 7, but O VI is detected from the centers of Abell 426 and Abell 1795, and possibly to the south of the center in Abell 1795, where X-ray and optical emission line filaments lie. In Abell 426 these line luminosities imply a cooling rate of 32+/-6 Msolar yr-1 within the central r=6.2 kpc region, while for Abell 1795 the central cooling rate is 26+/-7 Msolar yr-1 (within r=22 kpc), and about 42+/-9 Msolar yr-1 including the southern pointing. Including other studies, three of six clusters have O VI emission, and they also have star formation as well as emission lines from 104 K gas. These observations are generally consistent with the cooling flow model, but at a rate closer to 30 Msolar yr-1 than to the originally suggested values of 102-10 3 Msolar yr-1.

17. Post-emplacement cooling and contraction of lava flows: InSAR observations and thermal model for lava fields at Hekla volcano, Iceland

Wittmann, Werner; Dumont, Stephanie; Lavallee, Yan; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn

2016-04-01

Gradual post-emplacement subsidence of lava flows has been observed at various volcanoes, e.g. Okmok volcano in Alaska, Kilauea volcano on Hawaii and Etna volcano on Sicily. In Iceland, this effect has been observed at Krafla volcano and Hekla volcano. The latter was chosen as a case study for investigating subsidence mechanisms, specifically thermal contraction. Effects like gravitational loading, clast repacking or creeping of a hot and liquid core can contribute to subsidence of emplaced lava flows, but thermal contraction is considered being a crucial effect. The extent to which it contributes to lava flow subsidence is investigated by mapping the relative movement of emplaced lava flows and flow substrate, and modeling the observed signal. The slow vegetation in Iceland is advantageous for Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and offers great coherence over long periods after lava emplacement, expanding beyond the outlines of lava flows. Due to this reason, InSAR observations over volcanoes in Iceland have taken place for more than 20 years. By combining InSAR tracks from ERS, Envisat and Cosmo-SkyMed satellites we gain six time series with a total of 99 interferograms. Making use of the high spatial resolution, a temporal trend of vertical lava movements was investigated over a course of over 23 years over the 1991 lava flow of Hekla volcano, Iceland. From these time series, temporal trends of accumulated subsidence and subsidence velocities were determined in line of sight of the satellites. However, the deformation signal of lava fields after emplacement is vertically dominated. Subsidence on this lava field is still ongoing and subsidence rates vary from 14.8 mm/year in 1995 to about 1.0 mm/year in 2014. Fitting a simple exponential function suggests a exponential decay constant of 5.95 years. Additionally, a one-dimensional, semi-analytical model was fitted to these data. While subsidence due to phase change is calculated analytically

18. Eocene cooling linked to early flow across the Tasmanian Gateway.

PubMed

Bijl, Peter K; Bendle, James A P; Bohaty, Steven M; Pross, Jörg; Schouten, Stefan; Tauxe, Lisa; Stickley, Catherine E; McKay, Robert M; Röhl, Ursula; Olney, Matthew; Sluijs, Appy; Escutia, Carlota; Brinkhuis, Henk

2013-06-11

The warmest global temperatures of the past 85 million years occurred during a prolonged greenhouse episode known as the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (52-50 Ma). The Early Eocene Climatic Optimum terminated with a long-term cooling trend that culminated in continental-scale glaciation of Antarctica from 34 Ma onward. Whereas early studies attributed the Eocene transition from greenhouse to icehouse climates to the tectonic opening of Southern Ocean gateways, more recent investigations invoked a dominant role of declining atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations (e.g., CO2). However, the scarcity of field data has prevented empirical evaluation of these hypotheses. We present marine microfossil and organic geochemical records spanning the early-to-middle Eocene transition from the Wilkes Land Margin, East Antarctica. Dinoflagellate biogeography and sea surface temperature paleothermometry reveal that the earliest throughflow of a westbound Antarctic Counter Current began ~49-50 Ma through a southern opening of the Tasmanian Gateway. This early opening occurs in conjunction with the simultaneous onset of regional surface water and continental cooling (2-4 °C), evidenced by biomarker- and pollen-based paleothermometry. We interpret that the westbound flowing current flow across the Tasmanian Gateway resulted in cooling of Antarctic surface waters and coasts, which was conveyed to global intermediate waters through invigorated deep convection in southern high latitudes. Although atmospheric CO2 forcing alone would provide a more uniform middle Eocene cooling, the opening of the Tasmanian Gateway better explains Southern Ocean surface water and global deep ocean cooling in the apparent absence of (sub-) equatorial cooling. PMID:23720311

19. Eocene cooling linked to early flow across the Tasmanian Gateway

PubMed Central

Bijl, Peter K.; Bendle, James A. P.; Bohaty, Steven M.; Pross, Jörg; Schouten, Stefan; Tauxe, Lisa; Stickley, Catherine E.; McKay, Robert M.; Röhl, Ursula; Olney, Matthew; Sluijs, Appy; Escutia, Carlota; Brinkhuis, Henk; Klaus, Adam; Fehr, Annick; Williams, Trevor; Carr, Stephanie A.; Dunbar, Robert B.; Gonzàlez, Jhon J.; Hayden, Travis G.; Iwai, Masao; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Katsuki, Kota; Kong, Gee Soo; Nakai, Mutsumi; Passchier, Sandra; Pekar, Stephen F.; Riesselman, Christina; Sakai, Toyosaburo; Shrivastava, Prakash K.; Sugisaki, Saiko; Tuo, Shouting; van de Flierdt, Tina; Welsh, Kevin; Yamane, Masako

2013-01-01

The warmest global temperatures of the past 85 million years occurred during a prolonged greenhouse episode known as the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (52–50 Ma). The Early Eocene Climatic Optimum terminated with a long-term cooling trend that culminated in continental-scale glaciation of Antarctica from 34 Ma onward. Whereas early studies attributed the Eocene transition from greenhouse to icehouse climates to the tectonic opening of Southern Ocean gateways, more recent investigations invoked a dominant role of declining atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations (e.g., CO2). However, the scarcity of field data has prevented empirical evaluation of these hypotheses. We present marine microfossil and organic geochemical records spanning the early-to-middle Eocene transition from the Wilkes Land Margin, East Antarctica. Dinoflagellate biogeography and sea surface temperature paleothermometry reveal that the earliest throughflow of a westbound Antarctic Counter Current began ∼49–50 Ma through a southern opening of the Tasmanian Gateway. This early opening occurs in conjunction with the simultaneous onset of regional surface water and continental cooling (2–4 °C), evidenced by biomarker- and pollen-based paleothermometry. We interpret that the westbound flowing current flow across the Tasmanian Gateway resulted in cooling of Antarctic surface waters and coasts, which was conveyed to global intermediate waters through invigorated deep convection in southern high latitudes. Although atmospheric CO2 forcing alone would provide a more uniform middle Eocene cooling, the opening of the Tasmanian Gateway better explains Southern Ocean surface water and global deep ocean cooling in the apparent absence of (sub-) equatorial cooling. PMID:23720311

20. FUSE Observations of Warm Gas in the Cooling Flow Clusters A1795 and A2597

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oegerle, W. R.; Cowie, L.; Davidsen, A.; Hu, E.; Hutchings, J.; Murphy, E.; Sembach, K.; Woodgate, B.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

We present far-ultraviolet spectroscopy of the cores of the massive cooling flow clusters Abell 1795 and 2597 obtained with FUSE. As the intracluster gas cools through 3 x 10(exp 5)K, it should emit strongly in the O VI lambda(lambda)1032,1038 resonance lines. We report the detection of O VI (lambda)1032 emission in A2597, with a line flux of 1.35 +/- 0.35 x 10(exp -15) erg/sq cm s, as well as detection of emission from C III (lambda)977. A marginal detection of C III (lambda)977 emission is also reported for A1795. These observations provide evidence for a direct link between the hot (10(exp 7) K) cooling flow gas and the cool (10(exp 4) K) gas in the optical emission line filaments. Assuming simple cooling flow models, the O VI line flux in A2597 corresponds to a mass deposition rate of approx. 40 solar mass /yr within the central 36 kpc. Emission from O VI (lambda)1032 was not detected in A1795, with an upper limit of 1.5 x 10(exp -15) erg/sq cm s, corresponding to a limit on the mass cooling flow rate of M(28 kpc) less than 28M solar mass/ yr. We have considered several explanations for the lack of detection of O VI emission in A1795 and the weaker than expected flux in A2597, including extinction by dust in the outer cluster, and quenching of thermal conduction by magnetic fields. We conclude that a turbulent mixing model, with some dust extinction, could explain our O VI results while also accounting for the puzzling lack of emission by Fe(sub XVII) in cluster cooling flows.

1. Modeling active galactic nucleus feedback in cool-core clusters: The balance between heating and cooling

SciTech Connect

Li, Yuan; Bryan, Greg L.

2014-07-01

We study the long-term evolution of an idealized cool-core galaxy cluster under the influence of momentum-driven active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback using three-dimensional high-resolution (60 pc) adaptive mesh refinement simulations. The feedback is modeled with a pair of precessing jets whose power is calculated based on the accretion rate of the cold gas surrounding the supermassive black hole (SMBH). The intracluster medium first cools into clumps along the propagation direction of the jets. As the jet power increases, gas condensation occurs isotropically, forming spatially extended structures that resemble the observed Hα filaments in Perseus and many other cool-core clusters. Jet heating elevates the gas entropy, halting clump formation. The cold gas that is not accreted onto the SMBH settles into a rotating disk of ∼10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}. The hot gas cools directly onto the disk while the SMBH accretes from its innermost region, powering the AGN that maintains a thermally balanced state for a few Gyr. The mass cooling rate averaged over 7 Gyr is ∼30 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, an order of magnitude lower than the classic cooling flow value. Medium resolution simulations produce similar results, while in low resolution runs, the cluster experiences cycles of gas condensation and AGN outbursts. Owing to its self-regulating mechanism, AGN feedback can successfully balance cooling with a wide range of model parameters. Our model also produces cold structures in early stages that are in good agreement with the observations. However, the long-lived massive cold disk is unrealistic, suggesting that additional physical processes are still needed.

2. Flow structure and heat exchange analysis in internal cooling channel of gas turbine blade

Szwaba, Ryszard; Kaczynski, Piotr; Doerffer, Piotr; Telega, Janusz

2016-08-01

This paper presents the study of the flow structure and heat transfer, and also their correlations on the four walls of a radial cooling passage model of a gas turbine blade. The investigations focus on heat transfer and aerodynamic measurements in the channel, which is an accurate representation of the configuration used in aeroengines. Correlations for the heat transfer coefficient and the pressure drop used in the design of radial cooling passages are often developed from simplified models. It is important to note that real engine passages do not have perfect rectangular cross sections, but include corner fillet, ribs with fillet radii and special orientation. Therefore, this work provides detailed fluid flow and heat transfer data for a model of radial cooling geometry which possesses very realistic features.

3. The Physics of Cooling Flow Clusters with Central Radio Sources

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sarazin, Craig L.

2005-01-01

Central galaxies in rich clusters are the sites of cluster cooling flows, with large masses of gas cooling through part of the X-ray band. Many of these galaxies host powerful radio sources. These sources can displace and compress the X-ray gas leading to enhanced cooling and star formation. We observed the bright cooling flow Abell 2626 with a strangely distorted central radio source. We wished to understand the interaction of radio and X-ray thermal plasma, and to determine the dynamical nature of this cluster. One aim was to constrain the source of additional pressure in radio "holes" in the X-ray emission needed to support overlying shells of X-ray gas. We also aimed to study the problem of the lack of kT < 1-2 keV gas in cooling flows by searching for abundance inhomogeneities, heating from the radio source, and excess absorption. We also have a Chandra observation of this cluster. There were problems with the pipeline processing of this data due to a telemetry dropout. We are publishing the Chandra and XMM data together. Delays with the Chandra data have slowed up the publication. At the center of the cluster, there is a complex interaction of the odd, Z-shaped radio source, and the X-ray plasma. However, there are no clear radio bubbles. Also, the cluster SO galaxy IC 5337, which is projected 1.5 arcmin west of the cluster center, has unusual tail-like structures in both the radio and X-ray. It appears to be falling into the cluster center. There is a hot, probably shocked region of gas to the southwest, which is apparently due to the merger of a subcluster in this part of the system. There is also a merging subcluster to the northeast. The axes of these two mergers agrees with a supercluster filament structure.

4. ROSAT HRI images of Abell 85 and Abell 496: Evidence for inhomogeneities in cooling flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prestwich, Andrea H.; Guimond, Stephen J.; Luginbuhl, Christian; Joy, Marshall

1994-01-01

We present ROSAT HRI images of two clusters of galaxies with cooling flows, Abell 496 and Abell 85. In these clusters, x-ray emission on small scales above the general cluster emission is significant at the 3 sigma level. There is no evidence for optical counterparts. The enhancements may be associated with lumps of gas at a lower temperature and higher density than the ambient medium, or hotter, denser gas perhaps compressed by magnetic fields. These observations can be used to test models of how thermal instabilities form and evolve in cooling flows.

5. Stopping Cooling Flows with Cosmic-Ray Feedback

Mathews, William G.

2009-04-01

Multi-Gyr two-dimensional calculations describe the gas dynamical evolution of hot gas in the Virgo cluster resulting from intermittent cavities formed with cosmic rays. Without cosmic rays, the gas evolves into a cooling flow, depositing about 85 solar masses per year of cold gas in the cluster core—such uninhibited cooling conflicts with X-ray spectra and many other observations. When cosmic rays are produced or deposited 10 kpc from the cluster center in bursts of about 1059 erg lasting 20 Myr and spaced at intervals of 200 Myr, the central cooling rate is greatly reduced to {\\dot{M}} ≈ 0.1-1 solar masses per year, consistent with observations. After cosmic rays diffuse through the cavity walls, the ambient gas density is reduced and is buoyantly transported 30-70 kpc out into the cluster. Cosmic rays do not directly heat the gas and the modest shock heating around young cavities is offset by global cooling as the cluster gas expands. After several Gyr the hot gas density and temperature profiles remain similar to those observed, provided the time-averaged cosmic-ray luminosity is about L cr = 2.7 × 1043 erg s-1, approximately equal to the bolometric cooling rate LX within only ~56kpc. If an appreciable fraction of the relativistic cosmic rays is protons, gamma rays produced by pion decay following inelastic p-p collisions may be detected with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope.

6. Film Cooling Flow Effects on Post-Combustor Trace Chemistry

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wey, Thomas; Liu, Nan-Suey

2003-01-01

Film cooling injection is widely applied in the thermal design of turbomachinery, as it contributes to achieve higher operating temperature conditions of modern gas turbines, and to meet the requirements for reliability and life cycles. It is a significant part of the high-pressure turbine system. The film cooling injection, however, interacts with the main flow and is susceptible to have an influence on the aerodynamic performance of the cooled components, and through that may cause a penalty on the overall efficiency of the gas turbine. The main reasons are the loss of total pressure resulting from mixing the cooling air with mainstream and the reduction of the gas stagnation temperature at the exit of the combustion chamber to a lower value at the exit of nozzle guide vane. In addition, the impact of the injected air on the evolution of the trace species of the hot gas is not yet quite clear. This work computationally investigates the film cooling influence on post-combustor trace chemistry, as trace species in aircraft exhaust affect climate and ozone.

7. Two-phase flow in the cooling circuit of a cryogenic rocket engine

Preclik, D.

1992-07-01

Transient two-phase flow was investigated for the hydrogen cooling circuit of the HM7 rocket engine. The nuclear reactor code ATHLET/THESEUS was adapted to cryogenics and applied to both principal and prototype experiments for validation and simulation purposes. The cooling circuit two-phase flow simulation focused on the hydrogen prechilling and pump transient phase prior to ignition. Both a single- and a multichannel model were designed and employed for a valve leakage flow, a nominal prechilling flow, and a prechilling with a subsequent pump-transient flow. The latter case was performed in order to evaluate the difference between a nominal and a delayed turbo-pump start-up. It was found that an extension of the nominal prechilling sequence in the order of 1 second is sufficient to finally provide for liquid injection conditions of hydrogen which, as commonly known, is undesirable for smooth ignition and engine starting transients.

8. Analysis of Turbine Blade Relative Cooling Flow Factor Used in the Subroutine Coolit Based on Film Cooling Correlations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Schneider, Steven J.

2015-01-01

Heat transfer correlations of data on flat plates are used to explore the parameters in the Coolit program used for calculating the quantity of cooling air for controlling turbine blade temperature. Correlations for both convection and film cooling are explored for their relevance to predicting blade temperature as a function of a total cooling flow which is split between external film and internal convection flows. Similar trends to those in Coolit are predicted as a function of the percent of the total cooling flow that is in the film. The exceptions are that no film or 100 percent convection is predicted to not be able to control blade temperature, while leaving less than 25 percent of the cooling flow in the convection path results in nearing a limit on convection cooling as predicted by a thermal effectiveness parameter not presently used in Coolit.

9. Effects of building-roof cooling on flow and air temperature in urban street canyons

Kim, Jae-Jin; Pardyjak, Eric; Kim, Do-Yong; Han, Kyoung-Soo; Kwon, Byung-Hyuk

2014-05-01

The effects of building-roof cooling on flow and air temperature in 3D urban street canyons are numerically investigated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. The aspect ratios of the building and street canyon considered are unity. For investigating the building-roof cooling effects, the building-roof temperatures are systematically changed. The traditional flow pattern including a portal vortex appears in the spanwise canyon. Compared with the case of the control run, there are minimal differences in flow pattern in the cases in which maximum building-roof cooling is considered. However, as the building roof becomes cooler, the mean kinetic energy increases and the air temperature decreases in the spanwise canyon. Building-roof cooling suppresses the upward and inward motions above the building roof, resultantly increasing the horizontal velocity near the roof level. The increase in wind velocity above the roof level intensifies the secondarily driven vortex circulation as well as the inward (outward) motion into (out of) the spanwise canyon. Finally, building-roof cooling reduces the air temperature in the spanwise canyon, supplying much relatively cool air from the streamwise canyon into the spanwise canyon.

10. Modeling conductive cooling for thermally stressed dairy cows.

PubMed

Gebremedhin, Kifle G; Wu, Binxin; Perano, K

2016-02-01

Conductive cooling, which is based on direct contact between a cow lying down and a cooled surface (water mattress, or any other heat exchanger embedded under the bedding), allows heat transfer from the cow to the cooled surface, and thus alleviate heat stress of the cow. Conductive cooling is a novel technology that has the potential to reduce the consumption of energy and water in cooling dairy cows compared to some current practices. A three-dimensional conduction model that simulates cooling thermally-stressed dairy cows was developed. The model used a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method to characterize the air-flow field surrounding the animal model. The flow field was obtained by solving the continuity and the momentum equations. The heat exchange between the animal and the cooled water mattress as well as between the animal and ambient air was determined by solving the energy equation. The relative humidity was characterized using the species transport equation. The conduction 3-D model was validated against experimental temperature data and the agreement was very good (average error is 4.4% and the range is 1.9-8.3%) for a mesh size of 1117202. Sensitivity analyses were conducted between heat losses (sensible and latent) with respect to air temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, and level of wetness of skin surface to determine which of the parameters affect heat flux more than others. Heat flux was more sensitive to air temperature and level of wetness of the skin surface and less sensitive to relative humidity. PMID:26857982

11. Entropy Limit and the Cold Feedback Mechanism in Cooling Flow Clusters

Soker, Noam

2008-09-01

I propose an explanation for the finding that star formation and visible filaments strong in Hα emission in cooling flow clusters occur only if the minimum specific entropy and the radiative cooling time of the intracluster medium (ICM) are below a specific threshold. The explanation is based on the cold feedback mechanism. In this mechanism, the mass accreted by the central black hole originates in nonlinear overdense blobs of gas residing in an extended region of the cooling flow region. I use the criterion that the feedback cycle period must be longer than the radiative cooling time of dense blobs, for large quantities of gas to cool to low temperatures. The falling time of the dense blobs is parameterized by the ratio of the infall velocity to the sound speed. Another parameter is the ratio of the blobs' density to that of the surrounding ICM. By taking the values of the parameters as in previous papers on the cold feedback model, I derive an expression that gives the right value of the entropy threshold. Future studies will have to examine in more detail the role these parameters play, and will have to show that the observed sharp change in the behavior of clusters across the entropy, or radiative cooling time, threshold can be reproduced by the model.

12. Simple model of a cooling tower plume

Jan, Cizek; Jiri, Nozicka

2016-06-01

This article discusses the possibilities in the area of modeling of the so called cooling tower plume emergent at operating evaporating cooling systems. As opposed to recent publication, this text focuses on the possibilities of a simplified analytic description of the whole problem where this description shall - in the future - form the base of a calculation algorithms enabling to simulate the efficiency of systems reducing this cooling tower plume. The procedure is based on the application of basic formula for the calculation of the velocity and concentration fields in the area above the cooling tower. These calculation is then used to determine the form and the total volume of the plume. Although this approach does not offer more exact results, it can provide a basic understanding of the impact of individual quantities relating to this problem.

13. Modelling of temperature and perfusion during scalp cooling

Janssen, F. E. M.; Van Leeuwen, G. M. J.; Van Steenhoven, A. A.

2005-09-01

Hair loss is a feared side effect of chemotherapy treatment. It may be prevented by cooling the scalp during administration of cytostatics. The supposed mechanism is that by cooling the scalp, both temperature and perfusion are diminished, affecting drug supply and drug uptake in the hair follicle. However, the effect of scalp cooling varies strongly. To gain more insight into the effect of cooling, a computer model has been developed that describes heat transfer in the human head during scalp cooling. Of main interest in this study are the mutual influences of scalp temperature and perfusion during cooling. Results of the standard head model show that the temperature of the scalp skin is reduced from 34.4 °C to 18.3 °C, reducing tissue blood flow to 25%. Based upon variations in both thermal properties and head anatomies found in the literature, a parameter study was performed. The results of this parameter study show that the most important parameters affecting both temperature and perfusion are the perfusion coefficient Q10 and the thermal resistances of both the fat and the hair layer. The variations in the parameter study led to skin temperature ranging from 10.1 °C to 21.8 °C, which in turn reduced relative perfusion to 13% and 33%, respectively.

14. Connecting Star Formation Quenching with Galaxy Structure and Supermassive Black Holes through Gravitational Heating of Cooling Flows

Guo, Fulai

2014-12-01

Recent observations suggested that star formation quenching in galaxies is related to galaxy structure. Here we propose a new mechanism to explain the physical origin of this correlation. We assume that while quenching is maintained in quiescent galaxies by a feedback mechanism, cooling flows in the hot halo gas can still develop intermittently. We study cooling flows in a large suite of around 90 hydrodynamic simulations of an isolated galaxy group, and find that the flow development depends significantly on the gravitational potential well in the central galaxy. If the galaxy's gravity is not strong enough, cooling flows result in a central cooling catastrophe, supplying cold gas and feeding star formation to galactic bulges. When the bulge grows prominent enough, compressional heating starts to offset radiative cooling and maintains cooling flows in a long-term hot mode without producing a cooling catastrophe. Our model thus describes a self-limited growth channel for galaxy bulges and naturally explains the connection between quenching and bulge prominence. In particular, we explicitly demonstrate that M*/R_eff1.5 is a good structural predictor of quenching. We further find that the gravity from the central supermassive black hole also affects the bimodal fate of cooling flows, and we predict a more general quenching predictor to be M_bh1.6M*/R_eff1.5, which may be tested in future observational studies.

15. CONNECTING STAR FORMATION QUENCHING WITH GALAXY STRUCTURE AND SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES THROUGH GRAVITATIONAL HEATING OF COOLING FLOWS

SciTech Connect

Guo, Fulai

2014-12-20

Recent observations suggested that star formation quenching in galaxies is related to galaxy structure. Here we propose a new mechanism to explain the physical origin of this correlation. We assume that while quenching is maintained in quiescent galaxies by a feedback mechanism, cooling flows in the hot halo gas can still develop intermittently. We study cooling flows in a large suite of around 90 hydrodynamic simulations of an isolated galaxy group, and find that the flow development depends significantly on the gravitational potential well in the central galaxy. If the galaxy's gravity is not strong enough, cooling flows result in a central cooling catastrophe, supplying cold gas and feeding star formation to galactic bulges. When the bulge grows prominent enough, compressional heating starts to offset radiative cooling and maintains cooling flows in a long-term hot mode without producing a cooling catastrophe. Our model thus describes a self-limited growth channel for galaxy bulges and naturally explains the connection between quenching and bulge prominence. In particular, we explicitly demonstrate that M{sub ∗}/R{sub eff}{sup 1.5} is a good structural predictor of quenching. We further find that the gravity from the central supermassive black hole also affects the bimodal fate of cooling flows, and we predict a more general quenching predictor to be M{sub bh}{sup 1.6}M{sub ∗}/R{sub eff}{sup 1.5}, which may be tested in future observational studies.

16. Three-dimensional freezing of flowing water in a tube cooled by air flow

Sugawara, M.; Komatsu, Y.; Beer, H.

2015-05-01

The 3-D freezing of flowing water in a copper tube cooled by air flow is investigated by means of a numerical analysis. The air flows normal to the tube axis. Several parameters as inlet water mean velocity w m , inlet water temperature T iℓ t , air flow temperature T a and air flow velocity u a are selected in the calculations to adapt it to a winter season actually encountered. The numerical results present the development of the ice layer mean thickness and its 3-D morphologies as well as the critical ice layer thickness in the tube choked by the ice layer.

17. Exploring Inflated Pahohoe Lava Flow Morphologies and the Effects of Cooling Using a New Simulation Approach

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Glaze, L. S.; Baloga, S. M.

2014-01-01

Pahoehoe lavas are recognized as an important landform on Earth, Mars and Io. Observations of such flows on Earth (e.g., Figure 1) indicate that the emplacement process is dominated by random effects. Existing models for lobate aa lava flows that assume viscous fluid flow on an inclined plane are not appropriate for dealing with the numerous random factors present in pahoehoe emplacement. Thus, interpretation of emplacement conditions for pahoehoe lava flows on Mars requires fundamentally different models. A new model that implements a simulation approach has recently been developed that allows exploration of a variety of key influences on pahoehoe lobe emplacement (e.g., source shape, confinement, slope). One important factor that has an impact on the final topographic shape and morphology of a pahoehoe lobe is the volumetric flow rate of lava, where cooling of lava on the lobe surface influences the likelihood of subsequent breakouts.

18. Effect of spray cooling on heat transfer in a two-phase helium flow

Perraud, S.; Puech, L.; Thibault, P.; Rousset, B.; Wolf, P. E.

2013-10-01

We describe an experimental study of the phenomenon of spray cooling in the case of liquid helium, either normal or superfluid, and its relationship to the heat transfer between an atomized two-phase flow contained in a long pipe, and the pipe walls. This situation is discussed in the context of the cooling of the superconducting magnets of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Experiments were conducted in a test loop reproducing the LHC cooling system, in which the vapor velocity and temperature could be varied in a large range. Shear induced atomization results in the generation of a droplet mist which was characterized by optical means. The thickness of the thin liquid film deposited on the walls by the mist was measured using interdigitated capacitors. The cooling power of the mist was measured using thermal probes, and correlated to the local mist density. Analysis of the results shows that superfluidity has only a limited influence on both the film thickness and the mist cooling power. Using a simple model, we show that the phenomenon of spray cooling accounts for the measured non-linearity of the global heat transfer. Finally, we discuss the relevance of our results for cooling the final focus magnets in an upgraded version of the LHC.

19. Experimental studies of transpiration cooling with shock interaction in hypersonic flow, part B

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Holden, Michael S.

1994-01-01

This report describes the result of experimental studies conducted to examine the effects of the impingement of an oblique shock on the flowfield and surface characteristics of a transpiration-cooled wall in turbulent hypersonic flow. The principal objective of this work was to determine whether the interaction between the oblique shock and the low-momentum region of the transpiration-cooled boundary layer created a highly distorted flowfield and resulted in a significant reduction in the cooling effectiveness of the transpiration-cooled surface. As a part of this program, we also sought to determine the effectiveness of transpiration cooling with nitrogen and helium injectants for a wide range of blowing rates under constant-pressure conditions in the absence of shock interaction. This experimental program was conducted in the Calspan 48-Inch Shock Tunnel at nominal Mach numbers of 6 and 8, for a Reynolds number of 7.5 x 10(exp 6). For these test conditions, we obtained fully turbulent boundary layers upstream of the interaction regions over the transpiration-cooled segment of the flat plate. The experimental program was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, we examined the effects of mass-addition level and coolant properties on the cooling effectiveness of transpiration-cooled surfaces in the absence of shock interaction. In the second phase of the program, we examined the effects of oblique shock impingement on the flowfield and surface characteristics of a transpiration-cooled surface. The studies were conducted for a range of shock strengths with nitrogen and helium coolants to examine how the distribution of heat transfer and pressure and the characteristics of the flowfield in the interaction region varied with shock strength and the level of mass addition from the transpiration-cooled section of the model. The effects of the distribution of the blowing rate along the interaction regions were also examined for a range of blowing rates through the

20. Flow-induced vibration of component cooling water heat exchangers

SciTech Connect

Yeh, Y.S.; Chen, S.S. . Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Argonne National Lab., IL )

1990-01-01

This paper presents an evaluation of flow-induced vibration problems of component cooling water heat exchangers in one of Taipower's nuclear power stations. Specifically, it describes flow-induced vibration phenomena, tests to identify the excitation mechanisms, measurement of response characteristics, analyses to predict tube response and wear, various design alterations, and modifications of the original design. Several unique features associated with the heat exchangers are demonstrated, including energy-trapping modes, existence of tube-support-plate (TSP)-inactive modes, and fluidelastic instability of TSP-active and -inactive modes. On the basis of this evaluation, the difficulties and future research needs for the evaluation of heat exchangers are identified. 11 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

1. Development of forced flow cooled current leads for fusion magnets

Heller, R.; Fink, S.; Friesinger, G.; Kienzler, A.; Lingor, A.; Schleinkofer, G.; Süßer, M.; Ulbricht, A.; Wüchner, F.; Zahn, G.

2001-03-01

During the past 15 years, the Institut für Technische Physik of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany, has developed current leads cooled by forced-flow supercritical helium in the current range from 20 to 80 kA. The design is based on a separation of the current carrying part and the heat exchanger part as well as the presence of the so-called superconductor inserts made of Nb 3Sn wires inside the conductor in the heat exchanger area which allows the operation of the current lead at minimum helium mass flow in a wide current range. The paper describes the design and construction of the current leads as well as operation results obtained during various tests performed in the coil test facility TOSKA at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe.

2. Flow field analysis studies downstream of a cooling hole on a flat plate

Ranakoti, Ganesh; Marathe, Parag

2014-10-01

Flow field analysis is carried out computationally on a flat plate with 35° stream-wise coolant injection through a cylindrical film cooling hole. ANSYS Fluent 13.0 is used to perform computations using k-ɛrealizable turbulence model with enhanced wall functions. The Reynolds number ReD based on free stream velocity and diameter of hole is 15885 with blowing ratio M=0.5 and density ratio D.R=1.2. Streamlines are studied downstream of the film cooling hole in the present study.

3. Vortex generating flow passage design for increased film-cooling effectiveness and surface coverage. [aircraft engine blade cooling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papell, S. S.

1984-01-01

The fluid mechanics of the basic discrete hole film cooling process is described as an inclined jet in crossflow and a cusp shaped coolant flow channel contour that increases the efficiency of the film cooling process is hypothesized. The design concept requires the channel to generate a counter rotating vortex pair secondary flow within the jet stream by virture of flow passage geometry. The interaction of the vortex structures generated by both geometry and crossflow was examined in terms of film cooling effectiveness and surface coverage. Comparative data obtained with this vortex generating coolant passage showed up to factors of four increases in both effectiveness and surface coverage over that obtained with a standard round cross section flow passage. A streakline flow visualization technique was used to support the concept of the counter rotating vortex pair generating capability of the flow passage design.

4. Thermal characteristics of air flow cooling in the lithium ion batteries experimental chamber

SciTech Connect

Lukhanin A.; Rohatgi U.; Belyaev, A.; Fedorchenko, D.; Khazhmuradov, M.; Lukhanin, O; Rudychev, I.

2012-07-08

A battery pack prototype has been designed and built to evaluate various air cooling concepts for the thermal management of Li-ion batteries. The heat generation from the Li-Ion batteries was simulated with electrical heat generation devices with the same dimensions as the Li-Ion battery (200 mm x 150 mm x 12 mm). Each battery simulator generates up to 15W of heat. There are 20 temperature probes placed uniformly on the surface of the battery simulator, which can measure temperatures in the range from -40 C to +120 C. The prototype for the pack has up to 100 battery simulators and temperature probes are recorder using a PC based DAQ system. We can measure the average surface temperature of the simulator, temperature distribution on each surface and temperature distributions in the pack. The pack which holds the battery simulators is built as a crate, with adjustable gap (varies from 2mm to 5mm) between the simulators for air flow channel studies. The total system flow rate and the inlet flow temperature are controlled during the test. The cooling channel with various heat transfer enhancing devices can be installed between the simulators to investigate the cooling performance. The prototype was designed to configure the number of cooling channels from one to hundred Li-ion battery simulators. The pack is thermally isolated which prevents heat transfer from the pack to the surroundings. The flow device can provide the air flow rate in the gap of up to 5m/s velocity and air temperature in the range from -30 C to +50 C. Test results are compared with computational modeling of the test configurations. The present test set up will be used for future tests for developing and validating new cooling concepts such as surface conditions or heat pipes.

5. Cooling effects study by considering a turbulence model in injection molding

Hsu, Fu-Hung; Wu, Bo-Han; Huang, Chao-Tsai; Chang, Rong-Yeu

2014-05-01

Cooling stage is critical in injection molding process. A well designed cooling system can effectively shorten cycle time and improve product quality. Three-dimensional cooling analysis has been embedded in injection molding simulation which provides a useful tool for cooling system design validation. However, the current simulation tool is not perfect yet since it does not consider turbulent flow and pipe surface roughness effect. In the current study, a latest simulation tool was applied which can predict the turbulent flow effect on cooling. Two cooling systems (conventional and conformal) were simulated and compared to each other. Turbulence model and surface roughness effects were also studied. The simulation results show a good agreement with experimental data which is helpful at the design stage of an injection molding cooling system.

6. Hydrodynamic models of AGN feedback in cooling core clusters

Vernaleo, John C.

X-ray observations show that the Intra Cluster Medium (ICM) in many galaxy clusters is cooling at a rapid rate, often to the point that it should have radiated away all of its energy in less than the age of the cluster. There is however a very clear lack of enough cool end products of this gas in the centers of the clusters. Energetic arguments indicate that Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) should be capable of heating the inner regions of clusters enough to offset the radiative cooling; truncating massive galaxy formation and solving the cooling flow problem. We present three sets of high resolution, ideal hydrodynamic simulations with the ZEUS code to test this AGN heating paradigm. For the first set of simulations, we study the dependence of the interaction between the AGN jets and the ICM on the parameters of the jets themselves. We present a parameter survey of two-dimensional (axisymmetric) models of back-to-back jets injected into a cluster atmosphere. We follow the passive evolution of the resulting structures. These simulations fall into roughly two classes, cocoon-bounded and non-cocoon bounded. We find that the cocoon-bounded sources inject significantly more entropy into the core regions of the ICM atmosphere, even though the efficiency with which the energy is thermalized is independent of the morphological class. In all cases, a large fraction of the energy injected by the jet ends up as gravitational potential energy due to the expansion of the atmosphere. For the second set, we present three-dimensional simulations of jetted AGN that act in response to cooling-mediated accretion of an ICM atmosphere. We find that our models are incapable of producing a long term balance of heating and cooling; catastrophic cooling can be delayed by the jet action but inevitably takes hold. At the heart of the failure of these models is the formation of a low density channel through which the jet can freely flow, carrying its energy out of the cooling core. Finally, we

7. Computational Flow Predictions for the Lower Plenum of a High-Temperature, Gas-Cooled Reactor

SciTech Connect

Not Available

2006-11-01

Advanced gas-cooled reactors offer the potential advantage of higher efficiency and enhanced safety over present day nuclear reactors. Accurate simulation models of these Generation IV reactors are necessary for design and licensing. One design under consideration by the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) program is a modular, prismatic gas-cooled reactor. In this reactor, the lower plenum region may experience locally high temperatures that can adversely impact the plant's structural integrity. Since existing system analysis codes cannot capture the complex flow effects occurring in the lower plenum, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are being employed to model these flows [1]. The goal of the present study is to validate the CFD calculations using experimental data.

8. Computational Flow Predictions for the Lower Plenum of a High-Temperature, Gas-Cooled Reactor

SciTech Connect

Donna Post Guillen

2006-11-01

Advanced gas-cooled reactors offer the potential advantage of higher efficiency and enhanced safety over present day nuclear reactors. Accurate simulation models of these Generation IV reactors are necessary for design and licensing. One design under consideration by the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) program is a modular, prismatic gas-cooled reactor. In this reactor, the lower plenum region may experience locally high temperatures that can adversely impact the plant’s structural integrity. Since existing system analysis codes cannot capture the complex flow effects occurring in the lower plenum, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are being employed to model these flows [1]. The goal of the present study is to validate the CFD calculations using experimental data.

9. Effect of solar radiation on the performance of cross flow wet cooling tower in hot climate of Iran

Banooni, Salem; Chitsazan, Ali

2016-01-01

10. Measurements of Heat Transfer, Flow, and Pressures in a Simulated Turbine Blade Internal Cooling Passage

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Russell, Louis M.; Thurman, Douglas R.; Poinsatte, Philip E.; Hippensteele, Steven A.

1998-01-01

An experimental study was made to obtain quantitative information on heat transfer, flow, and pressure distribution in a branched duct test section that had several significant features of an internal cooling passage of a turbine blade. The objective of this study was to generate a set of experimental data that could be used for validation of computer codes that would be used to model internal cooling. Surface heat transfer coefficients and entrance flow conditions were measured at nominal entrance Reynolds numbers of 45,000, 335,000, and 726,000. Heat transfer data were obtained by using a steady-state technique in which an Inconel heater sheet is attached to the surface and coated with liquid crystals. Visual and quantitative flow-field data from particle image velocimetry measurements for a plane at midchannel height for a Reynolds number of 45,000 were also obtained. The flow was seeded with polystyrene particles and illuminated by a laser light sheet. Pressure distribution measurements were made both on the surface with discrete holes and in the flow field with a total pressure probe. The flow-field measurements yielded flow-field velocities at selected locations. A relatively new method, pressure sensitive paint, was also used to measure surface pressure distribution. The pressure paint data obtained at Reynolds numbers of 335,000 and 726,000 compared well with the more standard method of measuring pressures by using discrete holes.

11. Algorithm for calculating turbine cooling flow and the resulting decrease in turbine efficiency

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gauntner, J. W.

1980-01-01

An algorithm is presented for calculating both the quantity of compressor bleed flow required to cool the turbine and the decrease in turbine efficiency caused by the injection of cooling air into the gas stream. The algorithm, which is intended for an axial flow, air routine in a properly written thermodynamic cycle code. Ten different cooling configurations are available for each row of cooled airfoils in the turbine. Results from the algorithm are substantiated by comparison with flows predicted by major engine manufacturers for given bulk metal temperatures and given cooling configurations. A list of definitions for the terms in the subroutine is presented.

12. Development of an experiment for measuring film cooling performance in supersonic flows

Maqbool, Daanish

This thesis describes the development of an experiment for acquiring supersonic film cooling performance data in canonical configurations suitable for code validation. A methodology for selecting appropriate experimental conditions is developed and used to select test conditions in the UMD atmospheric pressure wind tunnel that are relevant to film cooling conditions encountered in the J-2X rocket engine. A new technique for inferring wall heat flux with 10% uncertainty from temperature-time histories of embedded sensors is developed and implemented. Preliminary heat flux measurements on the uncooled upper wall and on the lower wall with the film cooling flow turned off suggest that RANS solvers using Menter's SST model are able to predict heat flux within 15% in the far-field (> 10 injection slot heights) but are very inaccurate in the near-field. However, more experiments are needed to confirm this finding. Preliminary Schlieren images showing the shear layer growth rate are also presented.

13. Simulation of Cold Flow in a Truncated Ideal Nozzle with Film Cooling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Braman, K. E.; Ruf, J. H.

2015-01-01

Flow transients during rocket start-up and shut-down can lead to significant side loads on rocket nozzles. The capability to estimate these side loads computationally can streamline the nozzle design process. Towards this goal, the flow in a truncated ideal contour (TIC) nozzle has been simulated using RANS and URANS for a range of nozzle pressure ratios (NPRs) aimed to match a series of cold flow experiments performed at the NASA MSFC Nozzle Test Facility. These simulations were performed with varying turbulence model choices and for four approximations of the supersonic film injection geometry, each of which was created with a different simplification of the test article geometry. The results show that although a reasonable match to experiment can be obtained with varying levels of geometric fidelity, the modeling choices made do not fully represent the physics of flow separation in a TIC nozzle with film cooling.

14. Base Flow Model Validation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sinha, Neeraj; Brinckman, Kevin; Jansen, Bernard; Seiner, John

2011-01-01

A method was developed of obtaining propulsive base flow data in both hot and cold jet environments, at Mach numbers and altitude of relevance to NASA launcher designs. The base flow data was used to perform computational fluid dynamics (CFD) turbulence model assessments of base flow predictive capabilities in order to provide increased confidence in base thermal and pressure load predictions obtained from computational modeling efforts. Predictive CFD analyses were used in the design of the experiments, available propulsive models were used to reduce program costs and increase success, and a wind tunnel facility was used. The data obtained allowed assessment of CFD/turbulence models in a complex flow environment, working within a building-block procedure to validation, where cold, non-reacting test data was first used for validation, followed by more complex reacting base flow validation.

15. Heat/mass transfer and flow characteristics of pin fin cooling channels in turbine blades

Lau, S. C.; Saxena, A.

Experiments studied the local heat/mass transfer distributions and pressure drops in pin fin channels that modeled internal cooling passages in gas turbine blades. Heat/mass transfer distributions were determined for a straight flow through a pin fin channel (H/D = 1.0, X/D = S/D = 2.5) and a flow through the pin fin channel with trailing edge flow ejection. The overall friction factor and local pressure drop results were obtained for various configurations and lengths of the trailing edge ejection holes. The results show that, when there is trailing edge flow ejection, the main flow stream turns toward the trailing edge ejection holes. The wake regions downstream of the pins and the regions affected by secondary flow shift toward the ejection holes. The local channel wall heat/mass transfer is generally high immediately upstream of a pin, in the wake region downstream of a pin, and in the regions affected by secondary flow. In the case with trailing edge flow ejection, the heat/mass transfer generally decreases in the radial direction as a result of the reducing radial mass flow rate. The overall friction is higher when the trailing edge ejection holes are longer and when they are configured such that more flow is forced further downstream in the pin fin channel before exiting through the ejection holes.

16. Experimental and Analytical Investigation of the Coolant Flow Characteristics in Cooled Turbine Airfoils

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Damerow, W. P.; Murtaugh, J. P.; Burggraf, F.

1972-01-01

The flow characteristics of turbine airfoil cooling system components were experimentally investigated. Flow models representative of leading edge impingement, impingement with crossflow (midchord cooling), pin fins, feeder supply tube, and a composite model of a complete airfoil flow system were tested. Test conditions were set by varying pressure level to cover the Mach number and Reynolds number range of interest in advanced turbine applications. Selected geometrical variations were studied on each component model to determine these effects. Results of these tests were correlated and compared with data available in the literature. Orifice flow was correlated in terms of discharge coefficients. For the leading edge model this was found to be a weak function of hole Mach number and orifice-to-impinged wall spacing. In the impingement with crossflow tests, the discharge coefficient was found to be constant and thus independent of orifice Mach number, Reynolds number, crossflow rate, and impingement geometry. Crossflow channel pressure drop showed reasonable agreement with a simple one-dimensional momentum balance. Feeder tube orifice discharge coefficients correlated as a function of orifice Mach number and the ratio of the orifice-to-approach velocity heads. Pin fin data was correlated in terms of equivalent friction factor, which was found to be a function of Reynolds number and pin spacing but independent of pin height in the range tested.

17. Analytical and numerical study on cooling flow field designs performance of PEM fuel cell with variable heat flux

Afshari, Ebrahim; Ziaei-Rad, Masoud; Jahantigh, Nabi

2016-06-01

In PEM fuel cells, during electrochemical generation of electricity more than half of the chemical energy of hydrogen is converted to heat. This heat of reactions, if not exhausted properly, would impair the performance and durability of the cell. In general, large scale PEM fuel cells are cooled by liquid water that circulates through coolant flow channels formed in bipolar plates or in dedicated cooling plates. In this paper, a numerical method has been presented to study cooling and temperature distribution of a polymer membrane fuel cell stack. The heat flux on the cooling plate is variable. A three-dimensional model of fluid flow and heat transfer in cooling plates with 15 cm × 15 cm square area is considered and the performances of four different coolant flow field designs, parallel field and serpentine fields are compared in terms of maximum surface temperature, temperature uniformity and pressure drop characteristics. By comparing the results in two cases, the constant and variable heat flux, it is observed that applying constant heat flux instead of variable heat flux which is actually occurring in the fuel cells is not an accurate assumption. The numerical results indicated that the straight flow field model has temperature uniformity index and almost the same temperature difference with the serpentine models, while its pressure drop is less than all of the serpentine models. Another important advantage of this model is the much easier design and building than the spiral models.

18. The Cooling Rate of an Active Aa Lava Flow Determined Using an Orbital Imaging Spectrometer

Wright, Robert; Garbeil, Harold

2010-05-01

The surface temperature of an active lava flow is an important physical property to measure. Through its influence on lava crystallinity, cooling exerts a fundamental control on lava rheology. Remotely sensed thermal radiance data acquired by multispectral sensors such as Landsat Thematic Mapper and the Terra Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer, are of insufficient spectral and radiometric fidelity to allow for realistic determination of lava surface temperatures from Earth orbit. This paper presents results obtained from the analysis of active lava flows using hyperspectral data acquired by NASA's Earth Observing-1 Hyperion imaging spectrometer. The contiguous nature of the measured radiance spectrum in the 0.4-2.5 micron region means that, although sensor saturation most certainly occurs, unsaturated radiance data are always available from even the hottest, and most radiant, active lava flow surfaces. The increased number of wavebands available allows for the assumption of more complex flow surface temperature distributions in the radiance-to-temperature inversion processes. The technique is illustrated by using a hyperspectral image of the active lava lake at Erta Ale volcano, Ethiopia, a well characterized calibration target. We then go on to demonstrate how this approach can be used to constrain the surface cooling rate of an active lava flow at Mount Etna, Sicily, using three images acquired during a four day period in September 2004. The cooling rate of the active channel as determined from space falls within the limits commonly assumed in numerical lava flow models. The results provide insights into the temperature-radiance mixture modeling problem that will aid in the analysis of data acquired by future hyperspectral remote sensing missions, such as NASA's proposed HyspIRI mission.

19. CFD Model Development and validation for High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) Applications

SciTech Connect

Hassan, Yassin; Corradini, Michael; Tokuhiro, Akira; Wei, Thomas Y.C.

2014-07-14

The Reactor Cavity Cooling Systems (RCCS) is a passive safety system that will be incorporated in the VTHR design. The system was designed to remove the heat from the reactor cavity and maintain the temperature of structures and concrete walls under desired limits during normal operation (steady-state) and accident scenarios. A small scale (1:23) water-cooled experimental facility was scaled, designed, and constructed in order to study the complex thermohydraulic phenomena taking place in the RCCS during steady-state and transient conditions. The facility represents a portion of the reactor vessel with nine stainless steel coolant risers and utilizes water as coolant. The facility was equipped with instrumentation to measure temperatures and flow rates and a general verification was completed during the shakedown. A model of the experimental facility was prepared using RELAP5-3D and simulations were performed to validate the scaling procedure. The experimental data produced during the steady-state run were compared with the simulation results obtained using RELAP5-3D. The overall behavior of the facility met the expectations. The facility capabilities were confirmed to be very promising in performing additional experimental tests, including flow visualization, and produce data for code validation.

20. Modeling of the Evaporative Cooling of Running-Down Liquid Films in the Slit Channel of the Spraying Device of a Cooling Tower

Dashkov, G. V.; Malenko, G. L.; Solodukhin, A. D.; Tyutyuma, V. D.

2014-11-01

This paper presents the results of computational modeling of the nonstationary evaporative cooling of a liquid film running down a vertical surface cooled by a turbulent vapor-air counterflow. The heat and mass transfer problem has been formulated in conjugate form. The calculation data on the total heat flow density at the interface for various instants of time are given.

1. Turbine endwall film cooling with combustor-turbine interface gap leakage flow: Effect of incidence angle

Zhang, Yang; Yuan, Xin

2013-04-01

This paper is focused on the film cooling performance of combustor-turbine leakage flow at off-design condition. The influence of incidence angle on film cooling effectiveness on first-stage vane endwall with combustor-turbine interface slot is studied. A baseline slot configuration is tested in a low speed four-blade cascade comprising a large-scale model of the GE-E3Nozzle Guide Vane (NGV). The slot has a forward expansion angle of 30 deg. to the endwall surface. The Reynolds number based on the axial chord and inlet velocity of the free-stream flow is 3.5 × 105 and the testing is done in a four-blade cascade with low Mach number condition (0.1 at the inlet). The blowing ratio of the coolant through the interface gap varies from M = 0.1 to M = 0.3, while the blowing ratio varies from M = 0.7 to M = 1.3 for the endwall film cooling holes. The film-cooling effectiveness distributions are obtained using the pressure sensitive paint (PSP) technique. The results show that with an increasing blowing ratio the film-cooling effectiveness increases on the endwall. As the incidence angle varies from i = +10 deg. to i = -10 deg., at low blowing ratio, the averaged film-cooling effectiveness changes slightly near the leading edge suction side area. The case of i = +10 deg. has better film-cooling performance at the downstream part of this region where the axial chord is between 0.15 and 0.25. However, the disadvantage of positive incidence appears when the blowing ratio increases, especially at the upstream part of near suction side region where the axial chord is between 0 and 0.15. On the main passage endwall surface, as the incidence angle changes from i = +10 deg. to i = -10 deg., the averaged film-cooling effectiveness changes slightly and the negative incidence appears to be more effective for the downstream part film cooling of the endwall surface where the axial chord is between 0.6 and 0.8.

2. Modeling blood flow heterogeneity.

PubMed

King, R B; Raymond, G M; Bassingthwaighte, J B

1996-01-01

It has been known for some time that regional blood flows within an organ are not uniform. Useful measures of heterogeneity of regional blood flows are the standard deviation and coefficient of variation or relative dispersion of the probability density function (PDF) of regional flows obtained from the regional concentrations of tracers that are deposited in proportion to blood flow. When a mathematical model is used to analyze dilution curves after tracer solute administration, for many solutes it is important to account for flow heterogeneity and the wide range of transit times through multiple pathways in parallel. Failure to do so leads to bias in the estimates of volumes of distribution and membrane conductances. Since in practice the number of paths used should be relatively small, the analysis is sensitive to the choice of the individual elements used to approximate the distribution of flows or transit times. Presented here is a method for modeling heterogeneous flow through an organ using a scheme that covers both the high flow and long transit time extremes of the flow distribution. With this method, numerical experiments are performed to determine the errors made in estimating parameters when flow heterogeneity is ignored, in both the absence and presence of noise. The magnitude of the errors in the estimates depends upon the system parameters, the amount of flow heterogeneity present, and whether the shape of the input function is known. In some cases, some parameters may be estimated to within 10% when heterogeneity is ignored (homogeneous model), but errors of 15-20% may result, even when the level of heterogeneity is modest. In repeated trials in the presence of 5% noise, the mean of the estimates was always closer to the true value with the heterogeneous model than when heterogeneity was ignored, but the distributions of the estimates from the homogeneous and heterogeneous models overlapped for some parameters when outflow dilution curves were

3. Passive cooling system for liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with backup coolant flow path

DOEpatents

Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.

1993-01-01

A liquid metal cooled nuclear fission reactor plant having a passive auxiliary safety cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. This reactor plant is enhanced by a backup or secondary passive safety cooling system which augments the primary passive auxiliary cooling system when in operation, and replaces the primary system when rendered inoperable.

4. Modeling growth of Clostridium perfringens in pea soup during cooling.

PubMed

de Jong, Aarieke E I; Beumer, Rijkel R; Zwietering, Marcel H

2005-02-01

Clostridium perfringens is a pathogen that mainly causes food poisoning outbreaks when large quantities of food are prepared. Therefore, a model was developed to predict the effect of different cooling procedures on the growth of this pathogen during cooling of food: Dutch pea soup. First, a growth rate model based on interpretable parameters was used to predict growth during linear cooling of pea soup. Second, a temperature model for cooling pea soup was constructed by fitting the model to experimental data published earlier. This cooling model was used to estimate the effect of various cooling environments on average cooling times, taking into account the effect of stirring and product volume. The growth model systematically overestimated growth of C. perfringens during cooling in air, but this effect was limited to less than 0.5 log N/ml and this was considered to be acceptable for practical purposes. It was demonstrated that the growth model for C. perfringens combined with the cooling model for pea soup could be used to sufficiently predict growth of C. perfringens in different volume sizes of pea soup during cooling in air as well as the effect of stirring, different cooling temperatures, and various cooling environments on the growth of C. perfringens in pea soup. Although fine-tuning may be needed to eliminate inaccuracies, it was concluded that the combined model could be a useful tool for designing good manufacturing practices (GMP) procedures. PMID:15787757

5. Fluid flow and heat convection studies for actively cooled airframes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mills, A. F.

1993-01-01

This report details progress made on the jet impingement - liquid crystal - digital imaging experiment. With the design phase complete, the experiment is currently in the construction phase. In order to reach this phase two design related issues were resolved. The first issue was to determine NASP leading edge active cooling design parameters. Meetings were arranged with personnel at SAIC International, Torrance, CA in order to obtain recent publications that characterized expected leading edge heat fluxes as well as other details of NASP operating conditions. The information in these publications was used to estimate minimum and maximum jet Reynolds numbers needed to accomplish the required leading edge cooling, and to determine the parameters of the experiment. The details of this analysis are shown in Appendix A. One of the concerns for the NASP design is that of thermal stress due to large surface temperature gradients. Using a series of circular jets to cool the leading edge will cause a non-uniform temperature distribution and potentially large thermal stresses. Therefore it was decided to explore the feasibility of using a slot jet to cool the leading edge. The literature contains many investigations into circular jet heat transfer but few investigations of slot jet heat transfer. The first experiments will be done on circular jets impinging on a fiat plate and results compared to previously published data to establish the accuracy of the method. Subsequent experiments will be slot jets impinging on full scale models of the NASP leading edge. Table 1 shows the range of parameters to be explored. Next a preliminary design of the experiment was done. Previous papers which used a similar experimental technique were studied and elements of those experiments adapted to the jet impingement study. Trade-off studies were conducted to determine which design was the least expensive, easy to construct, and easy to use. Once the final design was settled, vendors were

6. CFD modeling of high temperature gas cooled reactors

SciTech Connect

Janse van Rensburg, J.J.; Viljoen, C.; Van Staden, M.P.

2006-07-01

This paper presents an overview of how CFD has been applied to model the gas flow and heat transfer within the PBMR (Pebble Bed Modular reactor) with the aim of providing valuable design and safety information. The thermo-hydraulic calculations are performed using the STAR-CD [1] Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code and the neutronic calculations are performed using VSOP [2]. Results are presented for steady-state normal operation and for a transient De-pressurized Loss Of Forced Cooling event (DLOFC). (authors)

7. Fluid flow and heat convection studies for actively cooled airframes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mills, A. F.

1992-01-01

The work done during the progress report period from May-October 1992 is summarized. The effect of wall thermal boundary conditions on flows over a step or rib when repeated rib roughness is used for heating augmentation is examined. In numerical investigations of various such laminar and turbulent flows, the local heat transfer coefficients on a forward-facing step or on a rib were found to be very sensitive to the wall thermal boundary condition. For the computation of constant property laminar flow, the wall thermal boundary conditions were either a uniform heat flux or a uniform temperature. Results (Nusselt number and isotherms) of the studies are included. The second part of the work consisted of using PHOENICS to solve the conjugate heat transfer problem of flow over a rib in channel. Finally, the algebraic stress model in the TEAM (Turbulent Elliptic Algorithm-Manchester) code was tested for jet impingement flow, but there needs to be an addition of the energy equation to the code.

8. A cooling flow cluster at redshift z = 0.2

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wolter, Anna; Schild, R.; Gioia, I. M.; Maccacaro, T.; Morris, S. L.; Nesci, R.; Perola, G. C.

1990-01-01

The cluster of galaxies 1E0839.9 + 2938, discovered in X-ray observations by Nesci et al. (1988), is characterized on the basis of VLA 6-cm radio observations, Whipple Observatory CCD photometry, and spectroscopic observations obtained with the Multiple Mirror Telescope and the 88-inch University of Hawaii Telescope at Mauna Kea. The data are presented in tables, maps, and sample images and spectra and briefly characterized. The bright X-ray object is identified with a cluster at redshift z = 0.195; its central galaxy has radio emission of 1.1 x 10 exp 24 W/Hz as well as strong optical line emission which is not restricted to its nucleus. It is concluded that 1E0839.9 + 2938 is a cooling-flow cluster similar to 3C295 (found at z = 0.461 by Henry et al., 1986). The need for space observations (by Rosat or the AXAF) to determine the object's X-ray luminosity distribution is indicated.

9. A massive, cooling-flow-induced starburst in the core of a luminous cluster of galaxies.

PubMed

McDonald, M; Bayliss, M; Benson, B A; Foley, R J; Ruel, J; Sullivan, P; Veilleux, S; Aird, K A; Ashby, M L N; Bautz, M; Bazin, G; Bleem, L E; Brodwin, M; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Cho, H M; Clocchiatti, A; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; de Haan, T; Desai, S; Dobbs, M A; Dudley, J P; Egami, E; Forman, W R; Garmire, G P; George, E M; Gladders, M D; Gonzalez, A H; Halverson, N W; Harrington, N L; High, F W; Holder, G P; Holzapfel, W L; Hoover, S; Hrubes, J D; Jones, C; Joy, M; Keisler, R; Knox, L; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Liu, J; Lueker, M; Luong-Van, D; Mantz, A; Marrone, D P; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Meyer, S S; Miller, E D; Mocanu, L; Mohr, J J; Montroy, T E; Murray, S S; Natoli, T; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Rawle, T D; Reichardt, C L; Rest, A; Rex, M; Ruhl, J E; Saliwanchik, B R; Saro, A; Sayre, J T; Schaffer, K K; Shaw, L; Shirokoff, E; Simcoe, R; Song, J; Spieler, H G; Stalder, B; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Story, K; Stubbs, C W; Suhada, R; van Engelen, A; Vanderlinde, K; Vieira, J D; Vikhlinin, A; Williamson, R; Zahn, O; Zenteno, A

2012-08-16

In the cores of some clusters of galaxies the hot intracluster plasma is dense enough that it should cool radiatively in the cluster's lifetime, leading to continuous 'cooling flows' of gas sinking towards the cluster centre, yet no such cooling flow has been observed. The low observed star-formation rates and cool gas masses for these 'cool-core' clusters suggest that much of the cooling must be offset by feedback to prevent the formation of a runaway cooling flow. Here we report X-ray, optical and infrared observations of the galaxy cluster SPT-CLJ2344-4243 (ref. 11) at redshift z = 0.596. These observations reveal an exceptionally luminous (8.2 × 10(45) erg s(-1)) galaxy cluster that hosts an extremely strong cooling flow (around 3,820 solar masses a year). Further, the central galaxy in this cluster appears to be experiencing a massive starburst (formation of around 740 solar masses a year), which suggests that the feedback source responsible for preventing runaway cooling in nearby cool-core clusters may not yet be fully established in SPT-CLJ2344-4243. This large star-formation rate implies that a significant fraction of the stars in the central galaxy of this cluster may form through accretion of the intracluster medium, rather than (as is currently thought) assembling entirely via mergers. PMID:22895340

10. A massive, cooling-flow-induced starburst in the core of a luminous cluster of galaxies

McDonald, M.; Bayliss, M.; Benson, B. A.; Foley, R. J.; Ruel, J.; Sullivan, P.; Veilleux, S.; Aird, K. A.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bautz, M.; Bazin, G.; Bleem, L. E.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Cho, H. M.; Clocchiatti, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; de Haan, T.; Desai, S.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dudley, J. P.; Egami, E.; Forman, W. R.; Garmire, G. P.; George, E. M.; Gladders, M. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Halverson, N. W.; Harrington, N. L.; High, F. W.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hoover, S.; Hrubes, J. D.; Jones, C.; Joy, M.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Liu, J.; Lueker, M.; Luong-van, D.; Mantz, A.; Marrone, D. P.; McMahon, J. J.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S. S.; Miller, E. D.; Mocanu, L.; Mohr, J. J.; Montroy, T. E.; Murray, S. S.; Natoli, T.; Padin, S.; Plagge, T.; Pryke, C.; Rawle, T. D.; Reichardt, C. L.; Rest, A.; Rex, M.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Saro, A.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Shaw, L.; Shirokoff, E.; Simcoe, R.; Song, J.; Spieler, H. G.; Stalder, B.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K.; Stubbs, C. W.; Šuhada, R.; van Engelen, A.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Vikhlinin, A.; Williamson, R.; Zahn, O.; Zenteno, A.

2012-08-01

In the cores of some clusters of galaxies the hot intracluster plasma is dense enough that it should cool radiatively in the cluster's lifetime, leading to continuous cooling flows' of gas sinking towards the cluster centre, yet no such cooling flow has been observed. The low observed star-formation rates and cool gas masses for these cool-core' clusters suggest that much of the cooling must be offset by feedback to prevent the formation of a runaway cooling flow. Here we report X-ray, optical and infrared observations of the galaxy cluster SPT-CLJ2344-4243 (ref. 11) at redshift z = 0.596. These observations reveal an exceptionally luminous (8.2 × 1045 erg s-1) galaxy cluster that hosts an extremely strong cooling flow (around 3,820 solar masses a year). Further, the central galaxy in this cluster appears to be experiencing a massive starburst (formation of around 740 solar masses a year), which suggests that the feedback source responsible for preventing runaway cooling in nearby cool-core clusters may not yet be fully established in SPT-CLJ2344-4243. This large star-formation rate implies that a significant fraction of the stars in the central galaxy of this cluster may form through accretion of the intracluster medium, rather than (as is currently thought) assembling entirely via mergers.

11. Simulation of hydrogen adsorption systems adopting the flow through cooling concept

SciTech Connect

Corgnale, Claudio; Hardy, Bruce; Chahine, Richard; Cossement, Daniel; Tamburello, David; Anton, Donald

2014-10-13

Hydrogen storage systems based on adsorbent materials have the potential of achieving the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) targets, especially in terms of gravimetric capacity. This paper deals with analysis of adsorption storage systems adopting the flow through cooling concept. By this approach the feeding hydrogen provides the needed cold to maintain the tank at low temperatures. Two adsorption systems have been examined and modeled adopting the Dubinin-Astakhov model, to see their performance under selected operating conditions. A first case has been analyzed, modeling a storage tank filled with carbon based material (namely MaxSorb®) and comparing the numerical outcomes with the available experimental results for a 2.5 L tank. Under selected operating conditions (minimum inlet hydrogen temperature of approximately 100 K and maximum pressure on the order of 8.5 MPa) and adopting the flow through cooling concept the material shows a gravimetric capacity of about 5.7 %. A second case has been modeled, examining the same tank filled with metal organic framework material (MOF5®) under approximately the same conditions. The model shows that the latter material can achieve a (material) gravimetric capacity on the order of 11%, making the system potentially able to achieve the DOE 2017 target.

12. Simulation of hydrogen adsorption systems adopting the flow through cooling concept

DOE PAGESBeta

Corgnale, Claudio; Hardy, Bruce; Chahine, Richard; Cossement, Daniel; Tamburello, David; Anton, Donald

2014-10-13

Hydrogen storage systems based on adsorbent materials have the potential of achieving the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) targets, especially in terms of gravimetric capacity. This paper deals with analysis of adsorption storage systems adopting the flow through cooling concept. By this approach the feeding hydrogen provides the needed cold to maintain the tank at low temperatures. Two adsorption systems have been examined and modeled adopting the Dubinin-Astakhov model, to see their performance under selected operating conditions. A first case has been analyzed, modeling a storage tank filled with carbon based material (namely MaxSorb®) and comparing the numerical outcomes withmore » the available experimental results for a 2.5 L tank. Under selected operating conditions (minimum inlet hydrogen temperature of approximately 100 K and maximum pressure on the order of 8.5 MPa) and adopting the flow through cooling concept the material shows a gravimetric capacity of about 5.7 %. A second case has been modeled, examining the same tank filled with metal organic framework material (MOF5®) under approximately the same conditions. The model shows that the latter material can achieve a (material) gravimetric capacity on the order of 11%, making the system potentially able to achieve the DOE 2017 target.« less

13. Intercooler cooling-air weight flow and pressure drop for minimum drag loss

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reuter, J George; Valerino, Michael F

1944-01-01

An analysis has been made of the drag losses in airplane flight of cross-flow plate and tubular intercoolers to determine the cooling-air weight flow and pressure drop that give a minimum drag loss for any given cooling effectiveness and, thus, a maximum power-plant net gain due to charge-air cooling. The drag losses considered in this analysis are those due to (1) the extra drag imposed on the airplane by the weight of the intercooler, its duct, and its supports and (2) the drag sustained by the cooling air in flowing through the intercooler and its duct. The investigation covers a range of conditions of altitude, airspeed, lift-drag ratio, supercharger-pressure ratio, and supercharger adiabatic efficiency. The optimum values of cooling air pressure drop and weight flow ratio are tabulated. Curves are presented to illustrate the results of the analysis.

14. Optimum design of bipolar plates for separate air flow cooling system of PEM fuel cells stacks

Franco, Alessandro

2015-12-01

The paper discusses about thermal management of PEM fuel cells. The objective is to define criteria and guidelines for the design of the air flow cooling system of fuel cells stacks for different combination of power density, bipolar plates material, air flow rate, operating temperature It is shown that the optimization of the geometry of the channel permits interesting margins for maintaining the use of separate air flow cooling systems for high power density PEM fuel cells.

15. What we learn about cooling flows through the study of the 10,000 K gas in clusters

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Baum, Stefi A.

1992-01-01

The physical properties of the emission-line nebulae associated with central dominant galaxies in clusters are explored within the context of standard cooling-flow models of the hot ICM. It is pointed out that the properties of the 10,000 K gas are inconsistent with simple theories in which this gas has accreted out of the hot ICM in thermal instabilities within a standard cooling flow atmosphere. Several possible ramifications for our understanding of the properties of clusters and the hot intracluster medium are discussed.

16. Benchmarking computational fluid dynamics models for lava flow simulation

Dietterich, Hannah; Lev, Einat; Chen, Jiangzhi

2016-04-01

Numerical simulations of lava flow emplacement are valuable for assessing lava flow hazards, forecasting active flows, interpreting past eruptions, and understanding the controls on lava flow behavior. Existing lava flow models vary in simplifying assumptions, physics, dimensionality, and the degree to which they have been validated against analytical solutions, experiments, and natural observations. In order to assess existing models and guide the development of new codes, we conduct a benchmarking study of computational fluid dynamics models for lava flow emplacement, including VolcFlow, OpenFOAM, FLOW-3D, and COMSOL. Using the new benchmark scenarios defined in Cordonnier et al. (Geol Soc SP, 2015) as a guide, we model viscous, cooling, and solidifying flows over horizontal and sloping surfaces, topographic obstacles, and digital elevation models of natural topography. We compare model results to analytical theory, analogue and molten basalt experiments, and measurements from natural lava flows. Overall, the models accurately simulate viscous flow with some variability in flow thickness where flows intersect obstacles. OpenFOAM, COMSOL, and FLOW-3D can each reproduce experimental measurements of cooling viscous flows, and FLOW-3D simulations with temperature-dependent rheology match results from molten basalt experiments. We can apply these models to reconstruct past lava flows in Hawai'i and Saudi Arabia using parameters assembled from morphology, textural analysis, and eruption observations as natural test cases. Our study highlights the strengths and weaknesses of each code, including accuracy and computational costs, and provides insights regarding code selection.

17. The detection of distant cooling flows and the formation of dark matter

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fabian, A. C.; Arnaud, K. A.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Mushotzky, R. F.

1986-01-01

Cooling flows involving substantial mass inflow rates appear to be common in many nearby rich and poor clusters and in isolated galaxies. The extensive optical and ultraviolet filaments produced by the thermal instability of large flows are detectable out to redshifts greater than 1. It is proposed that this may explain the extended optical line emission reported in, and around, many distant radio galaxies, narrow-line quasars, and even nearby normal and active galaxies. An important diagnostic to distinguish cooling flows from other possible origins of emission line filaments is the presence of extensive regions at high thermal pressure. Other evidence for distant cooling flows and the resultant star formation is further discussed, together with the implications of cooling flow initial-mass functions for galaxy formation and the nature of 'dark' matter.

18. Validation of Supersonic Film Cooling Modeling for Liquid Rocket Engine Applications

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Morris, Christopher I.; Ruf, Joseph H.

2010-01-01

Topics include: upper stage engine key requirements and design drivers; Calspan "stage 1" results, He slot injection into hypersonic flow (air); test articles for shock generator diagram, slot injector details, and instrumentation positions; test conditions; modeling approach; 2-d grid used for film cooling simulations of test article; heat flux profiles from 2-d flat plate simulations (run #4); heat flux profiles from 2-d backward facing step simulations (run #43); isometric sketch of single coolant nozzle, and x-z grid of half-nozzle domain; comparison of 2-d and 3-d simulations of coolant nozzles (run #45); flowfield properties along coolant nozzle centerline (run #45); comparison of 3-d CFD nozzle flow calculations with experimental data; nozzle exit plane reduced to linear profile for use in 2-d film-cooling simulations (run #45); synthetic Schlieren image of coolant injection region (run #45); axial velocity profiles from 2-d film-cooling simulation (run #45); coolant mass fraction profiles from 2-d film-cooling simulation (run #45); heat flux profiles from 2-d film cooling simulations (run #45); heat flux profiles from 2-d film cooling simulations (runs #47, #45, and #47); 3-d grid used for film cooling simulations of test article; heat flux contours from 3-d film-cooling simulation (run #45); and heat flux profiles from 3-d and 2-d film cooling simulations (runs #44, #46, and #47).

19. Modelling Brain Temperature and Perfusion for Cerebral Cooling

Blowers, Stephen; Valluri, Prashant; Marshall, Ian; Andrews, Peter; Harris, Bridget; Thrippleton, Michael

2015-11-01

Brain temperature relies heavily on two aspects: i) blood perfusion and porous heat transport through tissue and ii) blood flow and heat transfer through embedded arterial and venous vasculature. Moreover brain temperature cannot be measured directly unless highly invasive surgical procedures are used. A 3D two-phase fluid-porous model for mapping flow and temperature in brain is presented with arterial and venous vessels extracted from MRI scans. Heat generation through metabolism is also included. The model is robust and reveals flow and temperature maps in unprecedented 3D detail. However, the Karmen-Kozeny parameters of the porous (tissue) phase need to be optimised for expected perfusion profiles. In order to optimise the K-K parameters a reduced order two-phase model is developed where 1D vessels are created with a tree generation algorithm embedded inside a 3D porous domain. Results reveal that blood perfusion is a strong function of the porosity distribution in the tissue. We present a qualitative comparison between the simulated perfusion maps and those obtained clinically. We also present results studying the effect of scalp cooling on core brain temperature and preliminary results agree with those observed clinically.

20. Turbine systems and methods for using internal leakage flow for cooling

DOEpatents

Hernandez, Nestor; Gazzillo, Clement; Boss, Michael J.; Parry, William; Tyler, Karen J.

2010-02-09

A cooling system for a turbine with a first section and a second section. The first section may include a first line for diverting a first flow with a first temperature from the first section, a second line for diverting a second flow with a second temperature less than the first temperature from the first section, and a merged line for directing a merged flow of the first flow and the second flow to the second section.

1. On the quasihydrostatic flows of radiatively cooling self-gravitating gas clouds

SciTech Connect

Meerson, B.; Megged, E.; Tajima, T.

1995-03-01

Two model problems are considered, illustrating the dynamics of quasihydrostatic flows of radiatively cooling, optically thin self-gravitating gas clouds. In the first problem, spherically symmetric flows in an unmagnetized plasma are considered. For a power-law dependence of the radiative loss function on the temperature, a one-parameter family of self-similar solutions is found. The authors concentrate on a constant-mass cloud, one of the cases, when the self-similarity indices are uniquely selected. In this case, the self-similar flow problem can be formally reduced to the classical Lane-Emden equation and therefore solved analytically. The cloud is shown to undergo radiative condensation, if the gas specific heat ratio {gamma} > 4/3. The condensation proceeds either gradually, or in the form of (quasihydrostatic) collapse. For {gamma} < 4/3, the cloud is shown to expand. The second problem addresses a magnetized plasma slab that undergoes quasihydrostatic radiative cooling and condensation. The problem is solved analytically, employing the Lagrangian mass coordinate.

2. Development of a Water Based, Critical Flow, Non-Vapor Compression cooling Cycle

SciTech Connect

2014-03-30

Expansion of a high-pressure liquid refrigerant through the use of a thermostatic expansion valve or other device is commonplace in vapor-compression cycles to regulate the quality and flow rate of the refrigerant entering the evaporator. In vapor-compression systems, as the condensed refrigerant undergoes this expansion, its pressure and temperature drop, and part of the liquid evaporates. We (researchers at Kansas State University) are developing a cooling cycle that instead pumps a high-pressure refrigerant through a supersonic converging-diverging nozzle. As the liquid refrigerant passes through the nozzle, its velocity reaches supersonic (or critical-flow) conditions, substantially decreasing the refrigerant’s pressure. This sharp pressure change vaporizes some of the refrigerant and absorbs heat from the surrounding conditions during this phase change. Due to the design of the nozzle, a shockwave trips the supersonic two-phase refrigerant back to the starting conditions, condensing the remaining vapor. The critical-flow refrigeration cycle would provide space cooling, similar to a chiller, by running a secondary fluid such as water or glycol over one or more nozzles. Rather than utilizing a compressor to raise the pressure of the refrigerant, as in a vapor-cycle system, the critical-flow cycle utilizes a high-pressure pump to drive refrigerant liquid through the cooling cycle. Additionally, the design of the nozzle can be tailored for a given refrigerant, such that environmentally benign substances can act as the working fluid. This refrigeration cycle is still in early-stage development with prototype development several years away. The complex multi-phase flow at supersonic conditions presents numerous challenges to fully understanding and modeling the cycle. With the support of DOE and venture-capital investors, initial research was conducted at PAX Streamline, and later, at Caitin. We (researchers at Kansas State University) have continued development

3. Active Control of Jets in Cross-Flow for Film Cooling Applications

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nikitopoulos, Dimitris E.

2003-01-01

Jets in cross-flow have applications in film cooling of gas turbine vanes, blades and combustor liners. Their cooling effectiveness depends on the extent to which the cool jet-fluid adheres to the cooled component surface. Lift-off of the cooling jet flow or other mechanisms promoting mixing, cause loss of cooling effectiveness as they allow the hot "free-stream" fluid to come in contact with the component surface. The premise of this project is that cooling effectiveness can be improved by actively controlling (e.9. forcing, pulsing) the jet flow. Active control can be applied to prevent/delay lift-off and suppress mixing. Furthermore, an actively controlled film-cooling system coupled with appropriate sensory input (e.g. temperature or heat flux) can adapt to spatial and temporal variations of the hot-gas path. Thus, it is conceivable that the efficiency of film-cooling systems can be improved, resulting in coolant fluid economy. It is envisioned that Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) will play a role in the realization of such systems. As a first step, a feasibility study will be conducted to evaluate the concept, identify actuation and sensory elements and develop a control strategy. Part of this study will be the design of a proof-of-concept experiment and collection of necessary data.

4. Turbulence modeling needs of commercial CFD codes: Complex flows in the aerospace and automotive industries

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Befrui, Bizhan A.

1995-01-01

This viewgraph presentation discusses the following: STAR-CD computational features; STAR-CD turbulence models; common features of industrial complex flows; industry-specific CFD development requirements; applications and experiences of industrial complex flows, including flow in rotating disc cavities, diffusion hole film cooling, internal blade cooling, and external car aerodynamics; and conclusions on turbulence modeling needs.

5. Turbulence modeling needs of commercial CFD codes: Complex flows in the aerospace and automotive industries

Befrui, Bizhan A.

1995-03-01

This viewgraph presentation discusses the following: STAR-CD computational features; STAR-CD turbulence models; common features of industrial complex flows; industry-specific CFD development requirements; applications and experiences of industrial complex flows, including flow in rotating disc cavities, diffusion hole film cooling, internal blade cooling, and external car aerodynamics; and conclusions on turbulence modeling needs.

6. Mapping the dark matter in the NGC 5044 group with ROSAT: Evidence for a nearly homogeneous cooling flow with a cooling wake

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

David, Laurence P.; Jones, Christine; Forman, William; Daines, Stuart

1994-01-01

The NGC 5044 group of galaxies was observed by the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) for 30 ks during its reduced pointed phase (1991 July). Due to the relatively cool gas temperature in the group (kT = 0.98 +/- 0.02 keV) and the excellent photon statistics (65,000 net counts), we are able to determine precisely a number of fundamental properties of the group within 250 kpc of the central galaxy. In particular, we present model-independent measurements of the total gravitating mass, the temperature and abundance profiles of the gas, and the mass accretion rate. Between 60 and 250 kpc, the gas is nearly isothermal with T varies as r(exp (-0.13 +/- 0.03)). The total gravitating mass of the group can be unambiguously determined from the observed density and temperature profiles of the gas using the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium. Within 250 kpc, the gravitating mass is 1.6 x 10(exp 13) solar mass, yielding a mass-to-light ratio of 130 solar mass/solar luminosity. The baryons (gas and stars) comprise 12% of the total mass within this radius. At small radii, the temperature clearly increases outward and attains a maximum value at 60 kpc. The positive temperature gradient in the center of the group confirms the existence of a cooling flow. The cooling flow region extends well beyond the temperature maximum with a cooling radius between 100 and 150 kpc. There are two distinct regions in the cooling flow separated by the temperature maximum. In the outer region, the gas is nearly isothermal with a unifor m Fe abundance of approximately 80% solar, the flow is nearly homogeneous with dot-M= 20 to 25 solar mass/year, the X-ray contours are spherically symmetric, and rho(sub gas) varies as r(exp -1.6). In the inner region, the temperature profile has a positive gradient, the mass accretion rate decreases rapidly inward, the gas density profile is steeper, and the X-ray image shows some substrucutre. NGC 5044 is offset from the centroid of the outer X

7. Measurement of Turbulent Flow Phenomena for the Lower Plenum of a Prismatic Gas-Cooled Reactor

SciTech Connect

Hugh M. McIlroy Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink; Keith G. Condie; Glenn E. McCreery

2007-09-01

Mean velocity field and turbulence data are presented for flow phenomena in a lower plenum of a typical prismatic gas-cooled reactor (GCR), such as in a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) concept. In preparation for design, safety analyses and licensing, research has begun on readying the computational tools that will be needed to predict the thermal-hydraulics behavior of the reactor design. Fluid dynamics experiments have been designed and built to develop benchmark databases for the assessment of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes and their turbulence models for a typical VHTR plenum geometry in the limiting case of negligible buoyancy and constant fluid properties. This experiment has been proposed as a “Standard Problem” for assessing advanced reactor (CFD) analysis tools. Present results concentrate on the region of the plenum near its far reflector wall (away from the outlet duct). The flow in the lower plenum can locally be considered as multiple jets into a confined cross flow - with obstructions. A model of the lower plenum has been fabricated and scaled to the geometric dimensions of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Point Design. The model consists of a row of full circular posts along its centerline with half-posts on the two parallel walls to induce flow features somewhat comparable to those expected from the staggered parallel rows of posts in the reactor design. Posts, side walls and end walls are fabricated from clear, fused quartz to match the refractive-index of the working fluid so that optical techniques may be employed for the measurements. The experiments were conducted in the Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits optical measurements to determine complex flow characteristics in passages and around objects to be obtained without locating a disturbing transducer in the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. The

8. Numerical-Model Investigation of the Hydrothermal Regime of a Straight-Through Shallow Cooling Pond

SciTech Connect

Sokolov, A. S.

2013-11-15

A mathematic model based on solution of hydrodynamics and heat-transfer equations by the finite-element method is constructed to predict the hydrothermal regime of a straight-through shallow cooling pond, which provides cooling circulating water to a repository of spent nuclear fuel. Numerical experiments made it possible to evaluate the influence exerted by wind conditions and flow rate of water in the river on the temperature of the circulating water.

9. Economic and technical assessment of the desiccant wheel effect on the thermal performance of cross flow cooling towers in variable wet bulb temperature

Banooni, Salem; Chitsazan, Ali

2014-05-01

Performance improvements of cross flow cooling towers in variable wet bulb temperature were performed. A conventional mathematical model is used to predict desiccant wheel effect on the performance of cooling tower. It is found that by using optimum parameters of desiccant wheel, the inlet air wet bulb temperature into the cooling tower would decrease more than 6 °C and outlet water temperature would decrease more than 4 °C.

10. Efficient needle plasma actuators for flow control and surface cooling

Zhao, Pengfei; Portugal, Sherlie; Roy, Subrata

2015-07-01

We introduce a milliwatt class needle actuator suitable for plasma channels, vortex generation, and surface cooling. Electrode configurations tested for a channel configuration show 1400% and 300% increase in energy conversion efficiency as compared to conventional surface and channel corona actuators, respectively, generating up to 3.4 m/s air jet across the channel outlet. The positive polarity of the needle is shown to have a beneficial effect on actuator efficiency. Needle-plate configuration is demonstrated for improving cooling of a flat surface with a 57% increase in convective heat transfer coefficient. Vortex generation by selective input signal manipulation is also demonstrated.

11. Preliminary Study of Turbulent Flow in the Lower Plenum of a Gas-Cooled Reactor

SciTech Connect

D.P. Guillen; H.M.McIlroy

2007-09-01

A preliminary study of the turbulent flow in a scaled model of a portion of the lower plenum of a gas-cooled advanced reactor concept has been conducted. The reactor is configured such that hot gases at various temperatures exit the coolant channels in the reactor core, where they empty into a lower plenum and mix together with a crossflow past vertical cylindrical support columns, then exit through an outlet duct. An accurate assessment of the flow behavior will be necessary prior to final design to ensure that material structural limits are not exceeded. In this work, an idealized model was created to mimic a region of the lower plenum for a simplified set of conditions that enabled the flow to be treated as an isothermal, incompressible fluid with constant properties. This is a first step towards assessing complex thermal fluid phenomena in advanced reactor designs. Once such flows can be computed with confidence, heated flows will be examined. Experimental data was obtained using three-dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to obtain non-intrusive flow measurements for an unheated geometry. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) predictions of the flow were made using a commercial CFD code and compared to the experimental data. The work presented here is intended to be scoping in nature, since the purpose of this work is to identify improvements that can be made to subsequent computations and experiments. Rigorous validation of computational predictions will eventually be necessary for design and analysis of new reactor concepts, as well as for safety analysis and licensing calculations.

12. Skin cooling maintains cerebral blood flow velocity and orthostatic tolerance during tilting in heated humans

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wilson, Thad E.; Cui, Jian; Zhang, Rong; Witkowski, Sarah; Crandall, Craig G.

2002-01-01

Orthostatic tolerance is reduced in the heat-stressed human. The purpose of this project was to identify whether skin-surface cooling improves orthostatic tolerance. Nine subjects were exposed to 10 min of 60 degrees head-up tilting in each of four conditions: normothermia (NT-tilt), heat stress (HT-tilt), normothermia plus skin-surface cooling 1 min before and throughout tilting (NT-tilt(cool)), and heat stress plus skin-surface cooling 1 min before and throughout tilting (HT-tilt(cool)). Heating and cooling were accomplished by perfusing 46 and 15 degrees C water, respectively, though a tube-lined suit worn by each subject. During HT-tilt, four of nine subjects developed presyncopal symptoms resulting in the termination of the tilt test. In contrast, no subject experienced presyncopal symptoms during NT-tilt, NT-tilt(cool), or HT-tilt(cool). During the HT-tilt procedure, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) decreased. However, during HT-tilt(cool), MAP, total peripheral resistance, and CBFV were significantly greater relative to HT-tilt (all P < 0.01). No differences were observed in calculated cerebral vascular resistance between the four conditions. These data suggest that skin-surface cooling prevents the fall in CBFV during upright tilting and improves orthostatic tolerance, presumably via maintenance of MAP. Hence, skin-surface cooling may be a potent countermeasure to protect against orthostatic intolerance observed in heat-stressed humans.

13. Stripping of phenols in model cooling towers

SciTech Connect

Turner, C.D.; Moe, T.A.; Wentz, C.A.

1987-01-01

Cooling towers are used to remove waste heat from unit operations in chemical processing plants. Using cooling towers for wastewater treatment and disposal through internal recycling has become an important alternative because of stricter wastewater discharge standards, the expense of specialized wastewater treatment systems and the limited availability and cost of water in arid regions. Designs for synfuels plants must address the problem of wastewater disposal. Alternative systems under consideration usually include zero discharge designs that incorporate evaporative cooling towers in the system. The mechanisms for contaminant removal in cooling towers are biological oxidation, stripping and chemical precipitation. Chemical precipitation is generally considered undesirable because of losses in heat transfer efficiency. Predicting whether stripping or biological oxidation will be the primary removal mechanism for phenolic compounds from coal conversion wastewaters used as makeup in cooling towers does not appear to be possible based on the results of these tests. The tests do indicate that the biological oxidation of phenol is possible in forced draft cooling towers.

14. Flow Integrating Section for a Gas Turbine Engine in Which Turbine Blades are Cooled by Full Compressor Flow

SciTech Connect

Steward, W. Gene

1999-11-14

Routing of full compressor flow through hollow turbine blades achieves unusually effective blade cooling and allows a significant increase in turbine inlet gas temperature and, hence, engine efficiency. The invention, ''flow integrating section'' alleviates the turbine dissipation of kinetic energy of air jets leaving the hollow blades as they enter the compressor diffuser.

15. Coupled reactor kinetics and heat transfer model for heat pipe cooled reactors

Wright, Steven A.; Houts, Michael

2001-02-01

Heat pipes are often proposed as cooling system components for small fission reactors. SAFE-300 and STAR-C are two reactor concepts that use heat pipes as an integral part of the cooling system. Heat pipes have been used in reactors to cool components within radiation tests (Deverall, 1973); however, no reactor has been built or tested that uses heat pipes solely as the primary cooling system. Heat pipe cooled reactors will likely require the development of a test reactor to determine the main differences in operational behavior from forced cooled reactors. The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of a systems code capable of modeling the coupling between the reactor kinetics and heat pipe controlled heat transport. Heat transport in heat pipe reactors is complex and highly system dependent. Nevertheless, in general terms it relies on heat flowing from the fuel pins through the heat pipe, to the heat exchanger, and then ultimately into the power conversion system and heat sink. A system model is described that is capable of modeling coupled reactor kinetics phenomena, heat transfer dynamics within the fuel pins, and the transient behavior of heat pipes (including the melting of the working fluid). This paper focuses primarily on the coupling effects caused by reactor feedback and compares the observations with forced cooled reactors. A number of reactor startup transients have been modeled, and issues such as power peaking, and power-to-flow mismatches, and loading transients were examined, including the possibility of heat flow from the heat exchanger back into the reactor. This system model is envisioned as a tool to be used for screening various heat pipe cooled reactor concepts, for designing and developing test facility requirements, for use in safety evaluations, and for developing test criteria for in-pile and out-of-pile test facilities. .

16. Evaluation of water cooled supersonic temperature and pressure probes for application to 1366 K flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lagen, Nicholas; Seiner, John M.

1990-01-01

Water cooled supersonic probes are developed to investigate total pressure, static pressure, and total temperature in high-temperature jet plumes and thereby determine the mean flow properties. Two probe concepts, designed for operation at up to 1366 K in a Mach 2 flow, are tested on a water cooled nozzle. The two probe designs - the unsymmetric four-tube cooling configuration and the symmetric annular cooling design - take measurements at 755, 1089, and 1366 K of the three parameters. The cooled total and static pressure readings are found to agree with previous test results with uncooled configurations. The total-temperature probe, however, is affected by the introduction of water coolant, and effect which is explained by the increased heat transfer across the thermocouple-bead surface. Further investigation of the effect of coolant on the temperature probe is proposed to mitigate the effect and calculate more accurate temperatures in jet plumes.

17. Oahu Groundwater Flow Model

DOE Data Explorer

Nicole Lautze

2015-01-01

Groundwater flow model for the island of Oahu. Data is from the following sources: Rotzoll, K., A.I. El-Kadi. 2007. Numerical Ground-Water Flow Simulation for Red Hill Fuel Storage Facilities, NAVFAC Pacific, Oahu, Hawaii - Prepared TEC, Inc. Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.; Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume VII – Island of Oahu Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008.; and Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2009. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. December 2009.

18. A simple and highly stable free-flow electrophoresis device with thermoelectric cooling system.

PubMed

Yan, Jian; Guo, Cheng-Gang; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Kong, Fan-Zhi; Shen, Qiao-Yi; Yang, Cheng-Zhang; Li, Jun; Cao, Cheng-Xi; Jin, Xin-Qiao

2013-12-20

Complex assembly, inconvenient operations, poor control of Joule heating and leakage of solution are still fundamental issues greatly hindering application of free-flow electrophoresis (FFE) for preparative purpose in bio-separation. To address these issues, a novel FFE device was developed based on our previous work. Firstly, a new mechanical structure was designed for compact assembly of separation chamber, fast removal of air bubble, and good anti-leakage performance. Secondly, a highly efficient thermoelectric cooling system was used for dispersing Joule heating for the first time. The systemic experiments revealed the three merits: (i) 3min assembly without any liquid leakage, 80 times faster than pervious FFE device designed by us or commercial device (4h); (ii) 5s removing of air bubble in chamber, 1000-fold faster than a normal one (2h or more) and (iii) good control of Joule heating by the cooling system. These merits endowed the device high stable thermo- and hydro-dynamic flow for long-term separation even under high electric field of 63V/cm. Finally, the developed device was used for up to 8h continuous separation of 5mg/mL fuchsin acid and purification of three model proteins of phycocyanin, myoglobin and cytochrome C, demonstrating the applicability of FFE. The developed FFE device has evident significance to the studies on stem cell, cell or organelle proteomics, and protein complex as well as micro- or nano-particles. PMID:24246174

19. Measurement of Turbulent Flow Phenomena for the Lower Plenum of a Prismatic Gas-Cooled Reactor

SciTech Connect

Hugh M. McIlroy, Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink

2010-02-01

Mean velocity field and turbulence data are presented that measure turbulent flow phenomena in an approximately 1:7 scale model of a region of the lower plenum of a typical prismatic gas-cooled reactor (GCR) similar to a General Atomics design (Gas-Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor). The datawere obtained in the Matched-Index-of-Refraction (MIR) facility at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and are offered as a benchmark for assessing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. This experiment has been selected as the first Standard Problem endorsed by the Generation IV International Forum. The primary objective of this paper is to document the experiment and present a sample of the data set that has been established for this standard problem. Present results concentrate on the region of the lower plenum near its far reflector wall (away from the outlet duct). The flowin the lower plenum consists of multiple jets injected into a confined crossflow—with obstructions. The model consists of a row of full circular posts along its centerline with half-posts on the two parallel walls to approximate flow scaled to that expected from the staggered parallel rows of posts in the reactor design. Posts, side walls and end walls are fabricated from clear, fused quartz to match the refractive index of the mineral oil working fluid so that optical techniques may be employed for the measurements. The benefit of the MIR technique is that it permits optical measurements to determine flow characteristics in complex passages and around objects to be obtained without locating intrusive transducers that will disturb the flow field and without distortion of the optical paths. An advantage of the INL system is its large size, leading to improved spatial and temporal resolution compared to similar facilities at smaller scales. A three-dimensional (3D) particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was used to collect the data. Inlet-jet Reynolds numbers (based on the hydraulic diameter of the jet

20. Long Hole Film Cooling Dataset for CFD Development - Flow and Film Effectiveness

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shyam, Vikram; Poinsatte, Phillip; Thurman, Douglas; Ameri, Ali

2014-01-01

An experiment investigating flow and heat transfer of long (length to diameter ratio of 18) cylindrical film cooling holes has been completed. In this paper, the thermal field in the flow and on the surface of the film cooled flat plate is presented for nominal freestream turbulence intensities of 1.5 and 8 percent. The holes are inclined at 30 deg above the downstream direction, injecting chilled air of density ratio 1.0 onto the surface of a flat plate. The diameter of the hole is 0.75 in. (approx. 0.02 m) with center to center spacing (pitch) of 3 hole diameters. Coolant was injected into the mainstream flow at nominal blowing ratios of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0. The Reynolds number of the freestream was approximately 11,000 based on hole diameter. Thermocouple surveys were used to characterize the thermal field. Infrared thermography was used to determine the adiabatic film effectiveness on the plate. Hotwire anemometry was used to provide flowfield physics and turbulence measurements. The results are compared to existing data in the literature. The aim of this work is to produce a benchmark dataset for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) development to eliminate the effects of hole length to diameter ratio and to improve resolution in the near-hole region. In this report, a Time Filtered Navier Stokes (TFNS), also known as Partially Resolved Navier Stokes (PRNS), method that was implemented in the Glenn-HT code is used to model coolant-mainstream interaction. This method is a high fidelity unsteady method that aims to represent large scale flow features and mixing more accurately.

1. Experimental study on corrugated cross-flow air-cooled plate heat exchangers

SciTech Connect

Kim, Minsung; Baik, Young-Jin; Park, Seong-Ryong; Ra, Ho-Sang; Lim, Hyug

2010-11-15

Experimental study on cross-flow air-cooled plate heat exchangers (PHEs) was performed. The two prototype PHEs were manufactured in a stack of single-wave plates and double-wave plates in parallel. Cooling air flows through the PHEs in a crosswise direction against internal cooling water. The heat exchanger aims to substitute open-loop cooling towers with closed-loop water circulation, which guarantees cleanliness and compactness. In this study, the prototype PHEs were tested in a laboratory scale experiments. From the tests, double-wave PHE shows approximately 50% enhanced heat transfer performance compared to single-wave PHE. However, double-wave PHE costs 30% additional pressure drop. For commercialization, a wide channel design for air flow would be essential for reliable performance. (author)

2. Star Formation Rates in Cooling Flow Clusters: A UV Pilot Study with Archival XMM-Newton Optical Monitor Data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hicks, A. K.; Mushotzky, R.

2006-01-01

We have analyzed XMM-Newton Optical Monitor (OM) UV (180-400 nm) data for a sample of 33 galaxies. 30 are cluster member galaxies, and nine of these are central cluster galaxies (CCGs) in cooling flow clusters having mass deposition rates which span a range of 8 - 525 Solar Mass/yr. By comparing the ratio of UV to 2MASS J band fluxes, we find a significant UV excess in many, but not all, cooling flow CCGs, a finding consistent with the outcome of previous studies based on optical imaging data (McNamara & O'Connell 1989; Cardiel, Gorgas, & Aragon-Salamanca 1998; Crawford et al. 1999). This UV excess is a direct indication of the presence of young massive stars, and therefore recent star formation, in these galaxies. Using the Starburst99 spectral energy distribution (SED) model of continuous star formation over a 900 Myr period, we derive star formation rates of 0.2 - 219 solar Mass/yr for the cooling flow sample. For 2/3 of this sample it is possible to equate Chandra/XMM cooling flow mass deposition rates with UV inferred star formation rates, for a combination of starburst lifetime and IMF slope. This is a pilot study of the well populated XMM UV cluster archive and a more extensive follow up study is currently underway.

3. Star Formation Rates in Cooling Flow Clusters: A UV Pilot Study with Archival XMM-Newton Optical Monitor Data

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hicks, A. K.; Mushotzky, R.

2005-01-01

We have analyzed XMM-Newton Optical Monitor (OM) UV (180-400 nm) data for a sample of 33 galaxies. 30 are cluster member galaxies, and nine of these are central cluster galaxies (CCGs) in cooling flow clusters having mass deposition rates which span a range of 8 - 525 solar mass per year. By comparing the ratio of UV to 2MASS J band fluxes, we find a significant UV excess in many, but not all, cooling flow CCGs, a finding consistent with the outcome of previous studies based on optical imaging data (McNamara & O Connell 1989; Cardiel, Gorgas, & Aragon-Salamanca 1998; Crawford et al. 1999). This UV excess is a direct indication of the presence of young massive stars, and therefore recent star formation, in these galaxies. Using the Starburst99 spectral energy distribution (SED) model of continuous star formation over a 900 Myr period, we derive star formation rates of 0.2 - 219 solar mass per year for the cooling flow sample. For 2/3 of this sample it is possible to equate Chandra/XMM cooling flow mass deposition rates with UV inferred star formation rates, for a combination of starburst lifetime and IMF slope. This is a pilot study of the well populated XMM UV cluster archive and a more extensive follow up study is currently underway.

4. The influence of cooling on the advance of lava flows: insights from analogue experiments on the feedbacks between flow dynamics and thermal structure

Garel, F.; Kaminski, E.; Tait, S.; Limare, A.

2012-12-01

During an effusive volcanic eruption, the crisis management is mainly based on the prediction of lava flows advance and its velocity. The spreading of a lava flow, seen as a gravity current, depends on its "effective rheology" and the eruptive mass flux. These two parameters are not known a priori during an eruption and a key question is how to evaluate them in near real-time (rather than afterwards.) There is no generic macroscopic model for the rheology of an advancing lava flow, and analogue modelling is a precious tool to empirically estimate the rheology of a complex flow. We investigate through laboratory experiments the simultaneous spreading and cooling of horizontal currents fed at constant rate from a point source. The materials used are silicone oil (isoviscous), and poly-ethylene glycol (PEG) wax injected in liquid state and solidiying during its advance. In the isoviscous case, the temperature field is a passive tracer of the flow dynamics, whereas in the PEG experiments there is a feedback between the cooling of the flow and its effective rheology. We focus on the evolution of the current area and of the surface thermal structure, imaged with an infrared camera, to assess how the thermal structure can be related to the flow rate. The flow advance is continuous in the viscous case, and follows the predictions of Huppert (1982); in that case the surface temperature become steady after a transient time and the radiated heat flux is shown to be proportional to the input rate. For the PEG experiments, the spreading occurs through an alternation of stagnation and overflow phases, with a mean spreading rate decreasing as the experiment goes on. As in the case of lava flows, these experiments can exhibit a compound flow field, solid levees, thermal erosion, liquid overflows and channelization. A key observation is that the effective rheology of the solifying PEG material depends on the input flow rate, with high input rates yielding a rheology closer to the

5. Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor short term thermal response to flow and reactivity transients

SciTech Connect

Cleveland, J.C.

1988-01-01

The analyses reported here have been conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Division of Regulatory Applications of the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The short-term thermal response of the Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) is analyzed for a range of flow and reactivity transients. These include loss of forced circulation (LOFC) without scram, moisture ingress, spurious withdrawal of a control rod group, hypothetical large and rapid positive reactivity insertion, and a rapid core cooling event. The coupled heat transfer-neutron kinetics model is also described.

6. Some Aspects of Forecasting Severe Thunderstorms during Cool-Season Return-Flow Episodes.

Weiss, Steven J.

1992-08-01

Historically, the Gulf of Mexico has been considered a primary source of water vapor that influences the weather for much of the United States east of the Rocky Mountains. Although severe thunderstorms and tornadoes occur most frequently during the spring and summer months, the periodic transport of Gulf moisture inland ahead of traveling baroclinic waves can result in significant severe-weather episodes during the cool season.To gain insight into the short-range skill in forecasting surface synoptic patterns associated with moisture return from the Gulf, operational numerical weather prediction models from the National Meteorological Center were examined. Sea level pressure fields from the Limited-Area Fine-Mesh Model (LFM), Nested Grid Model (NGM), and the aviation (AVN) run of the Global Spectral Model, valid 48 h after initial data time, were evaluated for three cool-season cases that preceded severe local storm outbreaks. The NGM and AVN provided useful guidance in forecasting the onset of return flow along the Gulf coast. There was a slight tendency for these models to be slightly slow in the development of return flow. In contrast the LFM typically overforecasts the occurrence of return flow and tends to open the Gulf' from west to east too quickly.Although the low-level synoptic pattern may be forecast correctly, the overall prediction process is hampered by a data void over the Gulf. It is hypothesized that when the return-flow moisture is located over the Gulf, model forecasts of stability and the resultant operational severe local storm forecasts are less skillful compared to situations when the moisture has spread inland already. This hypothesis is tested by examining the performance of the initial second-day (day 2) severe thunderstorm outlook issued by the National Severe Storms Forecast Center during the Gulf of Mexico Experiment (GUFMEX) in early 1988.It has been found that characteristically different air masses were present along the Gulf coast

7. A method for measuring cooling air flow in base coolant passages of rotating turbine blades

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liebert, C. H.; Pollack, F. G.

1975-01-01

Method accurately determines actual coolant mass flow rate in cooling passages of rotating turbine blades. Total and static pressures are measured in blade base coolant passages. Mass flow rates are calculated from these measurements of pressure, measured temperature and known area.

8. Modeling and Simulation of the MIDREX Shaft Furnace: Reduction, Transition and Cooling Zones

Shams, Alireza; Moazeni, Faegheh

2015-11-01

Metallic iron used in steel industries is mostly obtained from a direct reduction process. The focus of this study is to simulate the furnace of the MIDREX technology. MIDREX technology which is the most important gas-based direct reduced iron (DRI) process in the world, includes reduction, transition and cooling zones. The reduction zone considered as a counter current gas-solid reactor produces sponge iron from iron ore pellets. The transition zone has sufficient height to isolate the reduction zone and cooling zone from each other and the cooling zone cools the solid product down to around 50°C. Each zone has a system of reactions. Simultaneous mass and energy balances along the reduction zone lead to a set of ordinary differential equations with two points of boundary conditions. The transitions and cooling zone are investigated at the equilibrium condition leading to a set of algebraic equations. By solving these systems of equations, we determined the materials concentration, temperature, and pressure along the furnace. Our results are in a good agreement with data reported by Parisi and Laborde (2004) for a real MIDREX plant. Using this model, the effect of reactor length and cooling gas flow on the metallization and the effect of cooling gas flow on the outlet temperature of the solid phase have been studied. These new findings can be used to minimize the consumed energy.

9. Forced flow heat transfer of supercritical hydrogen for superconductor cooling

Shiotsu, M.; Shirai, Y.; Tatsumoto, H.; Hata, K.; Kobayashi, H.; Naruo, Y.; Inatani, H.

2014-01-01

Heat transfer from inner side of a vertical tube to forced flow of hydrogen was measured at the pressure of 1.5 MPa. The test tubes were made of stainless steel 316L with the inner diameters from 3 mm to 9 mm and lengths from 100 mm to 250 mm. Heat transfer curves were obtained by gradually increasing the heating current to the test tube and raising the surface temperature up to around 200 K. Inlet fluid temperature and flow velocity were varied from 21 to 30 K and 0.5 to 12 m/s, respectively. Effects of inlet temperature, flow velocity and tube dimension were clearly observed. The heat transfer curve for each flow velocity consists of a lower temperature region with a higher gradient and higher temperature region with a lower gradient. The experimental results were compared with the authors' correlation presented formerly. It was confirmed that this correlation can describe the experimental results obtained here.

10. ANISOTROPIC THERMAL CONDUCTION AND THE COOLING FLOW PROBLEM IN GALAXY CLUSTERS

SciTech Connect

Parrish, Ian J.; Sharma, Prateek; Quataert, Eliot

2009-09-20

We examine the long-standing cooling flow problem in galaxy clusters with three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulations of isolated clusters including radiative cooling and anisotropic thermal conduction along magnetic field lines. The central regions of the intracluster medium (ICM) can have cooling timescales of {approx}200 Myr or shorter-in order to prevent a cooling catastrophe the ICM must be heated by some mechanism such as active galactic nucleus feedback or thermal conduction from the thermal reservoir at large radii. The cores of galaxy clusters are linearly unstable to the heat-flux-driven buoyancy instability (HBI), which significantly changes the thermodynamics of the cluster core. The HBI is a convective, buoyancy-driven instability that rearranges the magnetic field to be preferentially perpendicular to the temperature gradient. For a wide range of parameters, our simulations demonstrate that in the presence of the HBI, the effective radial thermal conductivity is reduced to {approx}<10% of the full Spitzer conductivity. With this suppression of conductive heating, the cooling catastrophe occurs on a timescale comparable to the central cooling time of the cluster. Thermal conduction alone is thus unlikely to stabilize clusters with low central entropies and short central cooling timescales. High central entropy clusters have sufficiently long cooling times that conduction can help stave off the cooling catastrophe for cosmologically interesting timescales.

11. Spray Cooling Modeling: Droplet Sub-Cooling Effect on Heat Transfer

SciTech Connect

Johnston, Joseph E.; Selvam, R. P.; Silk, Eric A.

2008-01-21

Spray cooling has become increasingly popular as a thermal management solution for high-heat flux (>100 W/cm{sup 2}) applications such as laser diodes and radars. Research has shown that using sub-cooled liquid can increase the heat flux from the hot surface. The objective of this study was to use a multi-phase numerical model to simulate the effect of a sub-cooled droplet impacting a growing vapor bubble in a thin (<100 {mu}m) liquid film. The two-phase model captured the liquid-vapor interface using the level set method. The effects of surface tension, viscosity, gravity and phase change were accounted for by using a modification to the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, which were solved using the finite difference method. The computed liquid-vapor interface and temperature distributions were visualized for better understanding of the heat removal process. To understand the heat transfer mechanisms of sub-cooled droplet impact on a growing vapor bubble, various initial droplet temperatures were modeled (from 20 deg. C below saturation temperature to saturation temperature). This may provide insights into how to improve the heat transfer in future spray cooling systems.

12. Swirl flow turbulence modeling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abujelala, M. T.; Jackson, T. W.; Lilley, D. G.

1984-01-01

Confined turbulent swirling flow data obtained from a single hot-wire using a six-orientation technique are analyzed numerically. The effects of swirl strength and the presence of a strong contraction nozzle further downstream on deduced parameters is also presented and discussed for the case of chamber-to-inlet diameter ratio D/d = 2. Three swirl strengths are considered with inlet swirl vane angles of 0, 45 and 70 deg. A strong contraction nozzle with an area ratio of 4 is located two chamber-diameters downstream of the inlet to the flowfield. It is found that both the swirl strength and the contraction have strong effects on the turbulence parameters. Generally, the most dramatic effect of increase of swirl strength is the considerable increase in values of all the parameters considered, (rx-viscosity, kinetic energy of turbulence, length scales, and degree of nonisotropy). The presence of a strong contraction nozzle tends to increase the turbulence parameter values in regions of acceleration and to reduce them in deceleration regions. Based on similarity of viscosity and length scale profiles, a C sub mu formulation is deduced which is shown to improve the predictive capability of the standard k-epsilon turbulence model in swirling recirculating flows.

13. UZ Flow Models and Submodels

SciTech Connect

Y. Wu

2004-11-01

The purpose of this report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) flow models and submodels, as well as the flow fields that have been generated using the UZ flow model(s) of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In this report, the term ''UZ model'' refers to the UZ flow model and the several submodels, which include tracer transport, temperature or ambient geothermal, pneumatic or gas flow, and geochemistry (chloride, calcite, and strontium) submodels. The term UZ flow model refers to the three-dimensional models used for calibration and simulation of UZ flow fields. This work was planned in the ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Section 1.2.7). The table of included Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs), Table 6.2-11, is different from the list of included FEPs assigned to this report in the ''Technical Work Plan for: Unsaturated Zone Flow Analysis and Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169654], Table 2.1.5-1), as discussed in Section 6.2.6. The UZ model has revised, updated, and enhanced the previous UZ model (BSC 2001 [DIRS 158726]) by incorporating the repository design with new grids, recalibration of property sets, and more comprehensive validation effort. The flow fields describe fracture-fracture, matrix-matrix, and fracture-matrix liquid flow rates, and their spatial distributions as well as moisture conditions in the UZ system. These three-dimensional UZ flow fields are used directly by Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). The model and submodels evaluate important hydrogeologic processes in the UZ as well as geochemistry and geothermal conditions. These provide the necessary framework to test hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales, and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic conditions. In addition, the limitations of the UZ model are discussed in Section 8.11.

14. Kauai Groundwater Flow Model

DOE Data Explorer

Nicole Lautze

2015-01-01

Groundwater flow model for Kauai. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014.; and Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume IV – Island of Kauai Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2015.

15. A simple counter-flow cooling system for a supersonic free-jet beam source assembly.

PubMed

Barr, M; Fahy, A; Martens, J; Dastoor, P C

2016-05-01

A simple design for an inexpensive, cooled, free-jet beam source is described. The source assembly features an integrated cooling system as supplied by a counter-flow of chilled nitrogen, and is composed primarily of off-the-shelf tube fittings. The design facilitates rapid implementation and eases subsequent alignment with respect to any downstream beamline aperture. The source assembly outlined cools the full length of the stagnation volume, offering temperature control down to 100 K and long-term temperature stability better than ±1 K. PMID:27250408

16. A simple counter-flow cooling system for a supersonic free-jet beam source assembly

Barr, M.; Fahy, A.; Martens, J.; Dastoor, P. C.

2016-05-01

A simple design for an inexpensive, cooled, free-jet beam source is described. The source assembly features an integrated cooling system as supplied by a counter-flow of chilled nitrogen, and is composed primarily of off-the-shelf tube fittings. The design facilitates rapid implementation and eases subsequent alignment with respect to any downstream beamline aperture. The source assembly outlined cools the full length of the stagnation volume, offering temperature control down to 100 K and long-term temperature stability better than ±1 K.

17. Options for Cryogenic Load Cooling with Forced Flow Helium Circulation

SciTech Connect

Peter Knudsen, Venkatarao Ganni, Roberto Than

2012-06-01

Cryogenic pumps designed to circulate super-critical helium are commonly deemed necessary in many super-conducting magnet and other cooling applications. Acknowledging that these pumps are often located at the coldest temperature levels, their use introduces risks associated with the reliability of additional rotating machinery and an additional load on the refrigeration system. However, as it has been successfully demonstrated, this objective can be accomplished without using these pumps by the refrigeration system, resulting in lower system input power and improved reliability to the overall cryogenic system operations. In this paper we examine some trade-offs between using these pumps vs. using the refrigeration system directly with examples of processes that have used these concepts successfully and eliminated using such pumps

18. Options for cryogenic load cooling with forced flow helium circulation

Knudsen, Peter; Ganni, Venkatarao; Than, Roberto

2012-06-01

Cryogenic pumps designed to circulate super-critical helium are commonly deemed necessary in many super-conducting magnet and other cooling applications. Acknowledging that these pumps are often located at the coldest temperature levels, their use introduces risks associated with the reliability of additional rotating machinery and an additional load on the refrigeration system. However, as it has been successfully demonstrated, this objective can be accomplished without using these pumps by the refrigeration system, resulting in lower system input power and improved reliability to the overall cryogenic system operations. In this paper we examine some trade-offs between using these pumps vs. using the refrigeration system directly with examples of processes that have used these concepts successfully and eliminated using such pumps

19. Effect of endwall cooling on secondary flows in turbine stator vanes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Goldman, L. J.; Mclallin, K. L.

1977-01-01

The effect of endwall cooling on the secondary flow behavior and the aerodynamic performance of a core turbine stator vane was determined. The investigation was conducted in a cold-air, full-annular cascade, where three-dimensional effects were obtained. Two endwall cooling configurations were tested. In the first configuration, the cooling holes were oriented so that the coolant was injected in line with the inviscid streamline direction. In the second configuration, the coolant was injected at an angle of 15 deg to the inviscid streamline direction and oriented towards the vane pressure stator. In both cases the stator vanes were solid and uncooled so that the effect of endwall cooling was obtained directly. Total-pressure surveys were taken downstream of the stator vanes over a range of cooling flows at the design, mean-radius, critical velocity ratio of 0.778. Changes in the total-pressure contours downstream of the vanes were used to obtain the effect of endwall cooling on the secondary flows in the stator.

20. Model for the field cooled and zero field cooled ferrimagnetic spinel

Karchev, N.

2015-12-01

There are two methods of preparation of ferrimagnetic spinel. If, during the preparation, an external magnetic field as high as 300 Oë is applied upon cooling the material is named field cooled. If the applied field is about 1 Oë the material is zero field cooled. To explore the magnetic and thermodynamic properties of these materials we consider two-sublattice spin system, defined on the bcc lattice, with spin-sA operators SiA at the sublattice A site and spin-sB operators SiB at the sublattice B site, where sA >sB. The subtle point is the exchange between sublattice A and B spins, which is antiferromagnetic. Applying magnetic field along the sublattice A magnetization, during preparation of the material, one compensates the Zeeman splitting, due to the exchange, of sublattice B electrons. This effectively leads to a decrease of the sB spin. We consider a model with sB varying parameter which accounts for the applied, during the preparation, magnetic field. It is shown that the model agrees well with the observed magnetization-temperature curves of zero field cooled and non-zero field cooled (FC) spinel ferrimagnetic spinel and explains the anomalous temperature dependence of the specific heat.

1. CFD MODELING AND ANALYSIS FOR A-AREA AND H-AREA COOLING TOWERS

SciTech Connect

Lee, S.; Garrett, A.; Bollinger, J.

2009-09-02

Mechanical draft cooling towers are designed to cool process water via sensible and latent heat transfer to air. Heat and mass transfer take place simultaneously. Heat is transferred as sensible heat due to the temperature difference between liquid and gas phases, and as the latent heat of the water as it evaporates. Mass of water vapor is transferred due to the difference between the vapor pressure at the air-liquid interface and the partial pressure of water vapor in the bulk of the air. Equations to govern these phenomena are discussed here. The governing equations are solved by taking a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. The purpose of the work is to develop a three-dimensional CFD model to evaluate the flow patterns inside the cooling tower cell driven by cooling fan and wind, considering the cooling fans to be on or off. Two types of the cooling towers are considered here. One is cross-flow type cooling tower located in A-Area, and the other is counterflow type cooling tower located in H-Area. The cooling tower located in A-Area is mechanical draft cooling tower (MDCT) consisting of four compartment cells as shown in Fig. 1. It is 13.7m wide, 36.8m long, and 9.4m high. Each cell has its own cooling fan and shroud without any flow communications between two adjacent cells. There are water distribution decks on both sides of the fan shroud. The deck floor has an array of about 25mm size holes through which water droplet falls into the cell region cooled by the ambient air driven by fan and wind, and it is eventually collected in basin area. As shown in Fig. 1, about 0.15-m thick drift eliminator allows ambient air to be humidified through the evaporative cooling process without entrainment of water droplets into the shroud exit. The H-Area cooling tower is about 7.3 m wide, 29.3 m long, and 9.0 m high. Each cell has its own cooling fan and shroud, but each of two corner cells has two panels to shield wind at the bottom of the cells. There is some

2. Flow tube used to cool solar-pumped laser

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1968-01-01

A flow tube has been designed and constructed to provide two major functions in the application of a laser beam for transmission of both sound and video. It maintains the YAG laser at the proper operating temperature of 300 degrees K under solar pumping conditions, and it serves as a pump cavity for the laser crystal.

3. Measurements of mean flow and eddy transport over a film cooling surface

SciTech Connect

Wang, L.; Tsang, H.; Simon, T.; Eckert, E.

1996-05-01

Results of an experimental study of the effects of blowing Velocity Ratio (VR = 0.5 and 1.0) and Free-Stream Turbulence Intensity (FSTI = 0.5% and 12%) on turbulent transport over a film-cooling test surface are presented. The surface has a single lateral row of streamwise-oriented holes angled 35{degree} from the surface and separated from one another by three hole diameters. The film cooling flow and mainstream flow are at the same temperature and the film cooling is supplied through long delivery tubes. Velocity, turbulence intensity and eddy transport profiles are presented. The ratios of lateral eddy diffusivity to wall-normal eddy diffusivity values measured in this program (4-15) provide documentation of strong anisotropy of eddy transport in the flow.

4. Modeling sympathetic cooling of molecules by ultracold atoms

Lim, Jongseok; Frye, Matthew D.; Hutson, Jeremy M.; Tarbutt, M. R.

2015-11-01

We model sympathetic cooling of ground-state CaF molecules by ultracold Li and Rb atoms. The molecules are moving in a microwave trap, while the atoms are trapped magnetically. We calculate the differential elastic cross sections for CaF-Li and CaF-Rb collisions, using model Lennard-Jones potentials adjusted to give typical values for the s -wave scattering length. Together with trajectory calculations, these differential cross sections are used to simulate the cooling of the molecules, the heating of the atoms, and the loss of atoms from the trap. We show that a hard-sphere collision model based on an energy-dependent momentum transport cross section accurately predicts the molecule cooling rate but underestimates the rates of atom heating and loss. Our simulations suggest that Rb is a more effective coolant than Li for ground-state molecules, and that the cooling dynamics is less sensitive to the exact value of the s -wave scattering length when Rb is used. Using realistic experimental parameters, we find that molecules can be sympathetically cooled to 100 μ K in about 10 s. By applying evaporative cooling to the atoms, the cooling rate can be increased and the final temperature of the molecules can be reduced to 1 μ K within 30 s.

5. Influence mechanism on flow and heat transfer characteristics for air-cooled steam condenser cells

He, Wei Feng; Dai, Yi Ping; Li, Mao Qing; Ma, Qing Zhong

2012-09-01

Air-cooled steam condensers (ACSCs) have been extensively utilized to reject waste heat in power industry to save water resources. However, ACSC performance is so sensitive to ambient wind that almost all the air-cooled power plants in China are less efficient compared to design conditions. It is shown from previous research that the influence of ambient wind on the cell performance differs from its location in the condenser. As a result, a numerical model including two identical ACSC cells are established, and the different influence on the performance of the cells is demonstrated and analyzed through the computational fluid dynamics method. Despite the great influence from the wind speeds, similar cell performance is obtained for the two cells under both windless and wind speed conditions when the wind parallels to the steam duct. Fan volumetric effectiveness which characterizes the fan performance, as well as the exchanger heat transfer rate, drops obviously with the increasing wind speed, and performance difference between the exchanger pair in the same A-frame also rises continuously. Furthermore, different flow and heat transfer characteristics of the windward and leeward cell are obtained at different wind angles, and ambient wind enhances the performance of the leeward cell, while that of the windward one changes little.

6. Stochastic power flow modeling

SciTech Connect

Not Available

1980-06-01

The stochastic nature of customer demand and equipment failure on large interconnected electric power networks has produced a keen interest in the accurate modeling and analysis of the effects of probabilistic behavior on steady state power system operation. The principle avenue of approach has been to obtain a solution to the steady state network flow equations which adhere both to Kirchhoff's Laws and probabilistic laws, using either combinatorial or functional approximation techniques. Clearly the need of the present is to develop sound techniques for producing meaningful data to serve as input. This research has addressed this end and serves to bridge the gap between electric demand modeling, equipment failure analysis, etc., and the area of algorithm development. Therefore, the scope of this work lies squarely on developing an efficient means of producing sensible input information in the form of probability distributions for the many types of solution algorithms that have been developed. Two major areas of development are described in detail: a decomposition of stochastic processes which gives hope of stationarity, ergodicity, and perhaps even normality; and a powerful surrogate probability approach using proportions of time which allows the calculation of joint events from one dimensional probability spaces.

7. Hydrogen film cooling investigation

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rousar, D. C.; Ewen, R. L.

1973-01-01

Effects of flow turning, flow acceleration, and supersonic flow on film cooling were determined experimentally and correlated in terms of an entrainment film cooling model. Experiments were conducted using thin walled metal test sections, hot nitrogen mainstream gas, and ambient hydrogen or nitrogen as film coolants. The entrainment film cooling model relates film cooling effectiveness to the amount of mainstream gases entrained with the film coolant in a mixing layer. The experimental apparatus and the analytical model used are described in detail and correlations for the entrainment fraction and film coolant-to-wall heat transfer coefficient are presented.

8. Preliminary analysis of problem of determining experimental performance of air-cooled turbine II : methods for determining cooling-air-flow characteristics

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ellerbrock, Herman H , Jr

1950-01-01

In the determination of the performance of an air-cooled turbine, the cooling-air-flow characteristics between the root and the tip of the blades must be evaluated. The methods, which must be verified and the unknown functions evaluated, that are expected to permit the determination of pressure, temperature, and velocity through the blade cooling-air passages from specific investigation are presented.

9. Reduced Order Modeling Incompressible Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Helenbrook, B. T.

2010-01-01

The details: a) Need stable numerical methods; b) Round off error can be considerable; c) Not convinced modes are correct for incompressible flow. Nonetheless, can derive compact and accurate reduced-order models. Can be used to generate actuator models or full flow-field models

10. Counter flow cooling drier with integrated heat recovery

DOEpatents

Shivvers, Steve D.

2009-08-18

A drier apparatus for removing water or other liquids from various materials includes a mixer, drying chamber, separator and regenerator and a method for use of the apparatus. The material to be dried is mixed with a heated media to form a mixture which then passes through the chamber. While passing through the chamber, a comparatively cool fluid is passed counter current through the mixture so that the mixture becomes cooler and drier and the fluid becomes hotter and more saturated with moisture. The mixture is then separated into drier material and media. The media is transferred to the regenerator and heated therein by the hot fluid from the chamber and supplemental heat is supplied to bring the media to a preselected temperature for mixing with the incoming material to be dried. In a closed loop embodiment of the apparatus, the fluid is also recycled from the regenerator to the chamber and a chiller is utilized to reduce the temperature of the fluid to a preselected temperature and dew point temperature.

11. Simulation of supercritical flows in rocket-motor engines: application to cooling channel and injection system

Ribert, G.; Taieb, D.; Petit, X.; Lartigue, G.; Domingo, P.

2013-03-01

To address physical modeling of supercritical multicomponent fluid flows, ideal-gas law must be changed to real-gas equation of state (EoS), thermodynamic and transport properties have to incorporate dense fluid corrections, and turbulence modeling has to be reconsidered compared to classical approaches. Real-gas thermodynamic is presently investigated with validation by NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) data. Two major issues of Liquid Rocket Engines (LRE) are also presented. The first one is the supercritical fluid flow inside small cooling channels. In a context of LRE, a strong heat flux coming from the combustion chamber (locally Φ ≈ 80 MW/m2) may lead to very steep density gradients close to the wall. These gradients have to be thermodynamically and numerically captured to properly reproduce in the simulation the mechanism of heat transfer from the wall to the fluid. This is done with a shock-capturing weighted essentially nonoscillatory (WENO) numerical discretization scheme. The second issue is a supercritical fluid injection following experimental conditions [1] in which a trans- or supercritical nitrogen is injected into warm nitrogen. The two-dimensional results show vortex structures with high fluid density detaching from the main jet and persisting in the low-speed region with low fluid density.

12. Cold-flow performance of several variations of a ram-air-cooled plug nozzle for supersonic-cruise aircraft

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Harrington, D. E.; Nosek, S. M.; Straight, D. M.

1974-01-01

Experimental data were obtained with a 21.59 cm (8.5 in.) diameter cold-flow model in a static altitude facility to determine the thrust and pumping characteristics of several variations of a ram-air-cooled plug nozzle. Tests were conducted over a range of nozzle pressure ratios simulating supersonic cruise and takeoff conditions. Primary throat area was also varied to simulate afterburner on and off. Effect of plug size, outer shroud length, primary nozzle geometry, and varying amounts of secondary flow were investigated. At a supersonic cruise pressure ratio of 27, nozzle efficiencies were 99.7 percent for the best configurations.

13. UZ Flow Models and Submodels

SciTech Connect

P. Dixon

2004-02-11

The purpose of this Model Report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) fluid flow and tracer transport models and submodels as well as the flow fields generated utilizing the UZ Flow and Transport Model of Yucca Mountain (UZ Model), Nevada. This work was planned in ''Technical Work Plan (TWP) for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (BSC 2002 [160819], Section 1.10, Work Package AUZM06). The UZ Model has revised, updated, and enhanced the previous UZ Flow Model REV 00 ICN 01 (BSC 2001 [158726]) by incorporation of the conceptual repository design with new grids, recalibration of property sets, and more comprehensive validation effort. The flow fields describe fracture-fracture, matrix-matrix, and fracture-matrix liquid flow rates and their spatial distributions as well as moisture conditions in the UZ system. These 3-D UZ flow fields are used directly by Performance Assessment (PA). The model and submodels evaluate important hydrogeologic processes in the UZ as well as geochemistry and geothermal conditions. These provide the necessary framework to test conceptual hypotheses of flow and transport at different scales and predict flow and transport behavior under a variety of climatic conditions. In addition, this Model Report supports several PA activities, including abstractions, particle-tracking transport simulations, and the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model.

14. Heat pipe cooled heat rejection subsystem modelling for nuclear electric propulsion

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Moriarty, Michael P.

1993-01-01

NASA LeRC is currently developing a FORTRAN based computer model of a complete nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) vehicle that can be used for piloted and cargo missions to the Moon or Mars. Proposed designs feature either a Brayton or a K-Rankine power conversion cycle to drive a turbine coupled with rotary alternators. Both ion and magnetoplasmodynamic (MPD) thrusters will be considered in the model. In support of the NEP model, Rocketdyne is developing power conversion, heat rejection, and power management and distribution (PMAD) subroutines. The subroutines will be incorporated into the NEP vehicle model which will be written by NASA LeRC. The purpose is to document the heat pipe cooled heat rejection subsystem model and its supporting subroutines. The heat pipe cooled heat rejection subsystem model is designed to provide estimate of the mass and performance of the equipment used to reject heat from Brayton and Rankine cycle power conversion systems. The subroutine models the ductwork and heat pipe cooled manifold for a gas cooled Brayton; the heat sink heat exchanger, liquid loop piping, expansion compensator, pump and manifold for a liquid loop cooled Brayton; and a shear flow condenser for a K-Rankine system. In each case, the final heat rejection is made by way of a heat pipe radiator. The radiator is sized to reject the amount of heat necessary.

15. Ultimate Heat Sink Cooling Pond and Spray Pond Analysis Models.

Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

1999-05-02

Version 00 Three programs model performance of an ultimate heat sink cooling pond. National Weather Service data is read and analyzed to predict periods of lowest cooling performance and highest evaporative loss. The data is compared to local site data for significant differences. Then the maximum pond temperature is predicted. Five programs model performance of an ultimate heat sink spray pond. The cooling performance, evaporative water loss, and drift water loss as a function ofmore » windspeed are estimated for a spray field. These estimates are used in conjunction with National Weather Service data to predict periods of lowest cooling performance and highest evaporative loss. This data is compared to local site data for significant differences. Then the maximum pond temperature is predicted.« less

16. Flow measurement in base cooling air passages of a rotating turbine blade

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liebert, C. H.; Pollack, F. G.

1974-01-01

The operational performance is decribed of a shaft-mounted system for measuring the air mass flow rate in the base cooling passages of a rotating turbine blade. Shaft speeds of 0 to 9000 rpm, air mass flow rates of 0.0035 to 0.039 kg/sec (0.0077 to 0.085 lbm/sec), and blade air temperatures of 300 to 385 K (80 to 233 F) were measured. Comparisons of individual rotating blade flows and corresponding stationary supply orifice flows agreed to within 10 percent.

17. Evaluation of water cooled supersonic temperature and pressure probes for application to 2000 F flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lagen, Nicholas T.; Seiner, John M.

1990-01-01

The development of water cooled supersonic probes used to study high temperature jet plumes is addressed. These probes are: total pressure, static pressure, and total temperature. The motivation for these experiments is the determination of high temperature supersonic jet mean flow properties. A 3.54 inch exit diameter water cooled nozzle was used in the tests. It is designed for exit Mach 2 at 2000 F exit total temperature. Tests were conducted using water cooled probes capable of operating in Mach 2 flow, up to 2000 F total temperature. Of the two designs tested, an annular cooling method was chosen as superior. Data at the jet exit planes, and along the jet centerline, were obtained for total temperatures of 900 F, 1500 F, and 2000 F, for each of the probes. The data obtained from the total and static pressure probes are consistent with prior low temperature results. However, the data obtained from the total temperature probe was affected by the water coolant. The total temperature probe was tested up to 2000 F with, and without, the cooling system turned on to better understand the heat transfer process at the thermocouple bead. The rate of heat transfer across the thermocouple bead was greater when the coolant was turned on than when the coolant was turned off. This accounted for the lower temperature measurement by the cooled probe. The velocity and Mach number at the exit plane and centerline locations were determined from the Rayleigh-Pitot tube formula.

18. Modeling a Transient Pressurization with Active Cooling Sizing Tool

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Guzik, Monica C.; Plachta, David W.; Elchert, Justin P.

2011-01-01

As interest in the area of in-space zero boil-off cryogenic propellant storage develops, the need to visualize and quantify cryogen behavior during ventless tank self-pressurization and subsequent cool-down with active thermal control has become apparent. During the course of a mission, such as the launch ascent phase, there are periods that power to the active cooling system will be unavailable. In addition, because it is not feasible to install vacuum jackets on large propellant tanks, as is typically done for in-space cryogenic applications for science payloads, instances like the launch ascent heating phase are important to study. Numerous efforts have been made to characterize cryogenic tank pressurization during ventless cryogen storage without active cooling, but few tools exist to model this behavior in a user-friendly environment for general use, and none exist that quantify the marginal active cooling system size needed for power down periods to manage tank pressure response once active cooling is resumed. This paper describes the Transient pressurization with Active Cooling Tool (TACT), which is based on a ventless three-lump homogeneous thermodynamic self-pressurization model1 coupled with an active cooling system estimator. TACT has been designed to estimate the pressurization of a heated but unvented cryogenic tank, assuming an unavailable power period followed by a given cryocooler heat removal rate. By receiving input data on the tank material and geometry, propellant initial conditions, and passive and transient heating rates, a pressurization and recovery profile can be found, which establishes the time needed to return to a designated pressure. This provides the ability to understand the effect that launch ascent and unpowered mission segments have on the size of an active cooling system. A sample of the trends found show that an active cooling system sized for twice the steady state heating rate would results in a reasonable time for tank

19. Local cooling alters neural mechanisms producing changes in peripheral blood flow by spinal cord stimulation.

PubMed

Tanaka, Satoshi; Barron, Kirk W; Chandler, Margaret J; Linderoth, Bengt; Foreman, Robert D

2003-03-28

This study was performed to investigate the respective role of sensory afferent and sympathetic fibers in peripheral vasodilatation induced by spinal cord stimulation at different hindpaw skin temperatures. Cooling the skin was used as a strategy to enhance sympathetic activity [Am. J. Physiol.: Heart Circ. Physiol. 263 (1992) H1197]. Cutaneous blood flow in the footpad of anesthetized rats was recorded using laser Doppler flowmetry. Local cooling (<25 degrees C) or moderate local cooling (25-28 degrees C) of the hindpaw was produced with a cooling copper coil. Spinal cord stimulation delivered at clinically relevant parameters and with 30%, 60%, and 90% of motor threshold induced the early phase of vasodilatation in the cooled and the moderately cooled hindpaw. In addition, spinal cord stimulation at 90% of motor threshold produced the late phase of vasodilatation only in the cooled hindpaw, which was possible to block by the autonomic ganglion-blocking agent, hexamethonium. The early responses to spinal cord stimulation in the moderately cooled hindpaw were not affected by hexamethonium. In contrast, both the early and the late phase responses were eliminated by CGRP (8-37), an antagonist of the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor. After dorsal rhizotomy, spinal cord stimulation at 90% of motor threshold elicited hexamethonium-sensitive vasodilatation in the cooled hindpaw (late phase). These results suggest that spinal cord stimulation-induced vasodilatation in the cooled hindpaw (<25 degrees C) is mediated via both the sensory afferent (early phase of vasodilatation) and via suppression of the sympathetic efferent activity (late phase) although the threshold for vasodilatation via the sympathetic efferent fibers is higher than that via sensory nerves. In contrast, vasodilatation via sensory afferent fibers may predominate with moderate temperatures (25-28 degrees C). Thus, two complementary mechanisms for spinal cord stimulation-induced vasodilatation may

20. Model atmospheres for cool stars. [varying chemical composition

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Johnson, H. R.

1974-01-01

This report contains an extensive series of model atmospheres for cool stars having a wide range in chemical composition. Model atmospheres (temperature, pressure, density, etc.) are tabulated, along with emergent energy flux distributions, limb darkening, and information on convection for selected models. The models are calculated under the usual assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium, constancy of total energy flux (including transport both by radiation and convection) and local thermodynamic equilibrium. Some molecular and atomic line opacity is accounted for as a straight mean. While cool star atmospheres are regimes of complicated physical conditions, and these atmospheres are necessarily approximate, they should be useful for a number of kinds of spectral and atmospheric analysis.

1. Modeling Cooling Rates of Martian Flood Basalt Columns

Weiss, D. K.; Jackson, B.; Milazzo, M. P.; Barnes, J. W.

2011-12-01

Columnar jointing in large basalt flows have been extensively studied and can provide important clues about the emplacement conditions and cooling history of a basalt flow. The recent discovery of basalt columns on Mars in crater walls near Marte Vallis provides an opportunity to infer conditions on early Mars when the Martian basalt flows were laid down. Comparison of the Martian columns to Earth analogs allows us to gain further insight into the early Martian climate, and among the best terrestrial analogs are the basalt columns in the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) in eastern Washington. The CRBG is one of the youngest (< 17 Myrs old) and most extensively studied basalt provinces in the world, extending over 163,700 square km with total thickness exceeding 1 km in some places. The morphologies and textures of CRBG basalt columns suggest that in many places flows ~100 m thick cooled at uniform rates, even deep in the flow interior. Such cooling seems to require the presence of water in the column joints since the flow interiors should have cooled much more slowly than the flow margins if conductive cooling dominated. Secondary features, such pillow basalts, likewise suggest the basalt flows were in direct contact with standing water in many places. At the resolution provided by the orbiting HiRISE camera (0.9 m), the Martian basalt columns resemble the CRBG columns in many respects, and so, subject to important caveats, inferences linking the morphologies of the CRBG columns to their thermal histories can be extended in some respects to the Martian columns. In this presentation, we will describe our analysis of the HiRISE images of the Martian columns and what can be reasonably inferred about their thermal histories and the conditions under which they were emplaced. We will also report on a field expedition to the CRBG in eastern Washington State. During that expedition, we surveyed basalt column outcrops on the ground and from the air using Unmanned Aerial

2. Experimental Flow Performance Evaluation of novel miniaturized Advanced Piezoelectric Dual Cooling Jet

De Bock, H. P. J.; Jackson, J. L.; Whalen, B. P.; Chamarthy, P.

2012-11-01

In recent years, electronics systems have significantly reduced in size at maintained or increased functionality. This trend has led to an increased demand for smaller and more capable thermal management. However, miniaturization of conventional fan and heat sink cooling systems introduce significant size, weight and efficiency challenges. In this study the flow performance of a novel alternative thin form-factor cooling solution, the advanced piezoelectric dual cooling jet(DCJ), is evaluated. A DCJ is a system where two piezoelectric actuators are excited to produce air flow. The total height of the device is about 1mm. The design of the experimental method for evaluating the equivalent fan-curve of the DCJ device is described in detail. Experimental results in comparison to conventional fan solutions are provided. The DCJ is expected to be a good candidate for thermal management in next generation thin profile consumer electronics.

3. Measurements in film cooling flows: Hole L/D and turbulence intensity effects

SciTech Connect

Burd, S.W.; Kaszeta, R.W.; Simon, T.W.

1996-12-31

Hot-wire anemometry of simulated film cooling was used to study the influence of freestream turbulence intensity and film cooling hole length-to-diameter ratio on mean velocity and turbulence intensity. Measurements were made in the zone where the coolant and freestream flows mix. Flow from one row of film cooling holes with a streamwise injection of 35{degree} and no lateral injection and with a coolant- to-freestream flow velocity ratio of 1.0 was investigated under freestream turbulence levels of 0.5 and 12%. Coolant-to-freestream density ratio was unity. Two length-to-diameter ratios for the film cooling holes, 2.3 and 7.0, are tested. Results show that under low freestream turbulence conditions, pronounced differences exist in the flowfield between L/D=7.0 and 2.3; the differences are less prominent at high freestream turbulence intensities. Generally, short-L/D injection results in jetting of the coolant further into the freestream flow and enhanced mixing. Other changes in the flowfield attributable to a rise in freestream turbulence intensity to engine- representative conditions are documented. 15 figs, 2 tabs, refs.

4. A Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pump Computer Model in EnergyPlus

SciTech Connect

2013-01-01

This paper provides an overview of the variable refrigerant flow heat pump computer model included with the Department of Energy's EnergyPlusTM whole-building energy simulation software. The mathematical model for a variable refrigerant flow heat pump operating in cooling or heating mode, and a detailed model for the variable refrigerant flow direct-expansion (DX) cooling coil are described in detail.

5. Modeling of Turbulent Swirling Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Zhu, Jiang; Liou, William; Chen, Kuo-Huey; Liu, Nan-Suey; Lumley, John L.

1997-01-01

Aircraft engine combustors generally involve turbulent swirling flows in order to enhance fuel-air mixing and flame stabilization. It has long been recognized that eddy viscosity turbulence models are unable to appropriately model swirling flows. Therefore, it has been suggested that, for the modeling of these flows, a second order closure scheme should be considered because of its ability in the modeling of rotational and curvature effects. However, this scheme will require solution of many complicated second moment transport equations (six Reynolds stresses plus other scalar fluxes and variances), which is a difficult task for any CFD implementations. Also, this scheme will require a large amount of computer resources for a general combustor swirling flow. This report is devoted to the development of a cubic Reynolds stress-strain model for turbulent swirling flows, and was inspired by the work of Launder's group at UMIST. Using this type of model, one only needs to solve two turbulence equations, one for the turbulent kinetic energy k and the other for the dissipation rate epsilon. The cubic model developed in this report is based on a general Reynolds stress-strain relationship. Two flows have been chosen for model evaluation. One is a fully developed rotating pipe flow, and the other is a more complex flow with swirl and recirculation.

6. Flow and Thermal Performance of a Water-Cooled Periodic Transversal Elliptical Microchannel Heat Sink for Chip Cooling.

PubMed

Wei, Bo; Yang, Mo; Wang, Zhiyun; Xu, Hongtao; Zhang, Yuwen

2015-04-01

Flow and thermal performance of transversal elliptical microchannels were investigated as a passive scheme to enhance the heat transfer performance of laminar fluid flow. The periodic transversal elliptical micro-channel is designed and its pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics in laminar flow are numerically investigated. Based on the comparison with a conventional straight micro- channel having rectangular cross section, it is found that periodic transversal elliptical microchannel not only has great potential to reduce pressure drop but also dramatically enhances heat transfer performance. In addition, when the Reynolds number equals to 192, the pressure drop of the transversal elliptical channel is 36.5% lower than that of the straight channel, while the average Nusselt number is 72.8% higher; this indicates that the overall thermal performance of the periodic transversal elliptical microchannel is superior to the conventional straight microchannel. It is suggested that such transversal elliptical microchannel are attractive candidates for cooling future electronic chips effectively with much lower pressure drop. PMID:26353536

7. The study of a reactor cooling pump under two-phase flow

Wang, P.; Yuan, S. Q.; Wang, X. L.; Zhang, F.

2015-01-01

In this paper, the steady pressure field has been investigated numerically by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in a nuclear reactor cooling pump. As a multiphase approach the Eulerian-Eulerian two fluid model has been applied to calculated five computational models with different kinds of blades. The analysis of inner flow field of the five model pumps shows that the pressure in the impeller increases with the increase of the gas contents and the pressure distributions are irregular at the inlet of different blades when the gas contents less than 20%. With the increase of the number of blades, the vortexes at the outlet of impeller decrease whereas the vortexes in the deep of the volute markedly increases and high velocity of the fluid huddle is generated gradually at the outlet pipes. Under the action of centrifugal force and Coriolis force, gas phase mainly concentrated at the lower velocity and lower pressure area. The radial force on the impeller gradually increases with the increase of the gas contents.

8. Effect of cooling on supraoptic neurohypophysial neuronal activity and on urine flow in the rat.

PubMed Central

Ferguson, A V; Pittman, Q J; Riphagen, C L

1984-01-01

The activity of antidromically identified supraoptic neurosecretory neurones was recorded in Sprague-Dawley rats under urethane or sodium pentobarbitone anaesthesia during cooling of the body with a cold pack. Of twelve phasic neurones studied during a complete cooling and rewarming cycle, six displayed an initial increase, followed by a depression in activity during the period of reduced body temperature. The remaining six phasic neurones did not alter their activity during cooling. Non-phasic neurohypophysial neurones displayed a reversible reduction (n = 8), or increase (n = 6) in activity during cooling, while seven neurones were unaffected by changes in body temperature. In four other anaesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats, urine flow was reduced by approximately 50% during cooling; this was followed by a diuresis after removal of the cold pack and return of body temperature to normal. The antidiuresis did not occur in homozygous Brattleboro rats which lack arginine vasopressin. The electrophysiological data from a proportion of the supraoptic neurohypophysial neurones correlate with the observed changes in urine flow. PMID:6747884

9. Experimental study on heat transfer and flow resistance in improved latticework cooling channels

Deng, Hongwu; Wang, Kai; Zhu, Jianqin; Pan, Wenyan

2013-06-01

Characteristics of heat transfer and flow resistance of the latticework (vortex) cooling channel with ribs truncated at their two ends were theoretically and experimentally studied compared with regular and smooth channels of the same configuration. The results showed: the heat transfer efficiency of the latticework channel with two slots was better than those of regular and smooth channels of the same configuration, its flow resistance situation in the slotted channel becomes quite complex; The flow resistances of 2 mm- and 4 mm-slotted channels were obviously lower than that of the regular channel, but they are still much higher than that of the smooth channel; Compared with the regular channel, the total heat transfer efficiencies of the slotted channels were pretty improved, among them the 4-mm slotted channel has the biggest enhancement. From the experimental results, it is obvious that the latticework channel with proper slots has a great prospect in the design of the inner cooling channels of turbine blades.

10. Mitigation of Autoignition Due to Premixing in a Hypervelocity Flow Using Active Wall Cooling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Axdahl, Erik; Kumar, Ajay; Wilhite, Alan

2013-01-01

Preinjection of fuel on the forebody of an airbreathing vehicle is a proposed method to gain access to hypervelocity flight Mach numbers. However, this creates the possibility of autoignition either near the wall or in the core of the flow, thereby consuming fuel prematurely as well as increasing the amount of pressure drag on the vehicle. The computational fluid dynamics code VULCAN was used to conduct three dimensional simulations of the reacting flow in the vicinity of hydrogen injectors on a flat plate at conditions relevant to a Mach 12 notional flight vehicle forebody to determine the location where autoignition occurs. Active wall cooling strategies were formulated and simulated in response to regions of autoignition. It was found that tangential film cooling using hydrogen or helium were both able to nearly or completely eliminate wall autoignition in the flow domain of interest.

11. Centrifuge modelling of granular flows

Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Wu, Wei

2015-04-01

A common characteristic of mass flows like debris flows, rock avalanches and mudflows is that gravity is their main driving force. Gravity defines the intensity and duration of the main interactions between particles and their surrounding media (particle-particle, particle-fluid, fluid-fluid). At the same time, gravity delimits the occurrence of phase separation, inverse segregation, and mass consolidation, among other phenomena. Therefore, in the understanding of the flow physics it is important to account for the scaling of gravity in scaled models. In this research, a centrifuge model is developed to model free surface granular flows down an incline at controlled gravity conditions. Gravity is controlled by the action of an induced inertial acceleration field resulting from the rotation of the model in a geotechnical centrifuge. The characteristics of the induced inertial acceleration field during flow are discussed and validated via experimental data. Flow heights, velocity fields, basal pressure and impact forces are measured for a range of channel inclinations and gravity conditions. Preliminary results enlighten the flow characteristics at variable gravity conditions and open a discussion on the simulation of large scale processes at a laboratory scale. Further analysis on the flow physics brings valuable information for the validation of granular flows rheology.

12. Simple models for embayment flows

Gibson, F.; Dalziel, S.

2003-04-01

The flow structure in an embayment with a mean external flow has been investigated. The embayment is a relatively quiescent environment separated from the external mean flow by a mixing layer, in a manner analogous to the ventilation of a street canyon in an urban environment. This study aims to improve our knowledge of the exchange between the embayment and the external flow, which is an important mechanism for the transport and dispersion of substances such as nutrients, sediments, heat and pollutants. Understanding of flow in an embayment is therefore vital to the explanation and preservation of its ecology. In an experimental study, a model rectangular embayment was placed in a recirculating flume tank. The aspect ratio and bathymetry of the embayment was varied and the effect on the flow and mixing layer recorded. A neutrally buoyant tracer was added to the flow at various locations to visualise the eddies and the mixing layer. Field experiments in a coastal embayment used an accoustic Doppler current profiler to measure the flow velocities. These measurements demonstrate the existance of a gyre within the bay and support a shear-driven cavity model. In parallel with the experiments and fieldwork, a hierarchy of computer models was used to gain further understanding of the flow. Results from these models are presented alongside the experimental measurements.

13. Turbulence modeling for separated flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Durbin, Paul A.

1994-01-01

Two projects are described in this report. The first involves assessing turbulence models in separated flow. The second addresses the anomalous behavior of certain turbulence models in stagnation point flow. The primary motivation for developing turbulent transport models is to provide tools for computing non-equilibrium, or complex, turbulent flows. Simple flows can be analyzed using data correlations or algebraic eddy viscosities, but in more complicated flows such as a massively separated boundary layer, a more elaborate level of modeling is required. It is widely believed that at least a two-equation transport model is required in such cases. The transport equations determine the evolution of suitable velocity and time-scales of the turbulence. The present study included assessment of second-moment closures in several separated flows, including sharp edge separation; smooth wall, pressure driven separation; and unsteady vortex shedding. Flows with mean swirl are of interest for their role in enhancing mixing both by turbulent and mean motion. The swirl can have a stabilizing effect on the turbulence. An axi-symmetric extension to the INS-2D computer program was written adding the capability of computing swirling flow. High swirl can produce vortex breakdown on the centerline of the jet and it occurs in various combustors.

14. Investigation of annular flow at high evaporation rates in view of liquid film cooling

Nahstoll, Juergen

1988-01-01

The process of liquid film cooling of combustion chamber walls which are subjected to extremely high heat rates was investigated. A theoretical model was developed for a reliable prediction of the film cooling length. The mass transfer at the liquid-gas interface results from evaporated liquid and entrained liquid droplets. The film cooling length analysis, which includes the physical effects in detail, is separated into two regions: heating the liquid and evaporating the liquid. The theoretical results were experimentally verified at high pressures and temperatures using a modified H2/O2-rocket motor. There is a good agreement between the theoretical and the experimental results over the experimental range.

15. The Effect of Cool Deformation on the Microstructural Evolution and Flow Strength of Microalloyed Steels

Mousavi Anijdan, Seyyed Hashem

Cool deformation is a process in which a small amount of plastic deformation is applied at temperatures well below the end of the austenite transformation temperature. In this thesis, a systematic study was conducted to evaluate the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of microalloyed steels processed by thermomechanical schedules incorporating cool deformation. Thermodynamic analysis was conducted to predict equilibrium phases formed by the presence of microalloying elements such as Ti, Nb, Mo and their appearance were then elaborated by means of TEM microscopy. As well, continuous cooling torsion (CCT) was employed to study the transformation behavior of steels for austenite conditioned and unconditioned. Cool deformation was incorporated into a full scale simulation of hotrolling, and the effect of prior austenite conditioning on the cool deformability of microalloyed steels was investigated. Out of these studies, a new definition of no-recystallization temperature (Tnr) was proposed based on dynamic precipitation, which was then recognized in the Nb bearing steels by using TEM analysis as well as flow curves analysis. Results show that cool deformation greatly improves the strength of microalloyed steels. Of the several mechanisms identified, such as work hardening, precipitation, grain refinement, and strain induced transformation (SIT) of retained austenite, SIT was proposed, for the first time in microalloyed steels, to be the significant mechanism of strengthening due to the deformation in ferrite. Results also show that the effect of ferrite precipitation is greatly overshadowed by SIT at room temperature. Finally, considering the interplay of SIT and precipitation for the Nb bearing steels, a rolling schedule was designed incorporating austenite conditioning, cooling rate and cool deformation that maximized the strength.

16. Numerical modeling of fluid flow with rafts: An application to lava flows

Tsepelev, Igor; Ismail-Zadeh, Alik; Melnik, Oleg; Korotkii, Alexander

2016-07-01

Although volcanic lava flows do not significantly affect the life of people, its hazard is not negligible as hot lava kills vegetation, destroys infrastructure, and may trigger a flood due to melting of snow/ice. The lava flow hazard can be reduced if the flow patterns are known, and the complexity of the flow with debris is analyzed to assist in disaster risk mitigation. In this paper we develop three-dimensional numerical models of a gravitational flow of multi-phase fluid with rafts (mimicking rigid lava-crust fragments) on a horizontal and topographic surfaces to explore the dynamics and the interaction of lava flows. We have obtained various flow patterns and spatial distribution of rafts depending on conditions at the surface of fluid spreading, obstacles on the way of a fluid flow, raft landing scenarios, and the size of rafts. Furthermore, we analyze two numerical models related to specific lava flows: (i) a model of fluid flow with rafts inside an inclined channel, and (ii) a model of fluid flow from a single vent on an artificial topography, when the fluid density, its viscosity, and the effusion rate vary with time. Although the studied models do not account for lava solidification, crust formation, and its rupture, the results of the modeling may be used for understanding of flows with breccias before a significant lava cooling.

17. Modeling Size Polydisperse Granular Flows

Lueptow, Richard M.; Schlick, Conor P.; Isner, Austin B.; Umbanhowar, Paul B.; Ottino, Julio M.

2014-11-01

Modeling size segregation of granular materials has important applications in many industrial processes and geophysical phenomena. We have developed a continuum model for granular multi- and polydisperse size segregation based on flow kinematics, which we obtain from discrete element method (DEM) simulations. The segregation depends on dimensionless control parameters that are functions of flow rate, particle sizes, collisional diffusion coefficient, shear rate, and flowing layer depth. To test the theoretical approach, we model segregation in tri-disperse quasi-2D heap flow and log-normally distributed polydisperse quasi-2D chute flow. In both cases, the segregated particle size distributions match results from full-scale DEM simulations and experiments. While the theory was applied to size segregation in steady quasi-2D flows here, the approach can be readily generalized to include additional drivers of segregation such as density and shape as well as other geometries where the flow field can be characterized including rotating tumbler flow and three-dimensional bounded heap flow. Funded by The Dow Chemical Company and NSF Grant CMMI-1000469.

18. Scale Modelling of Nocturnal Cooling in Urban Parks

Spronken-Smith, R. A.; Oke, T. R.

Scale modelling is used to determine the relative contribution of heat transfer processes to the nocturnal cooling of urban parks and the characteristic temporal and spatial variation of surface temperature. Validation is achieved using a hardware model-to-numerical model-to-field observation chain of comparisons. For the calm case, modelling shows that urban-park differences of sky view factor (s) and thermal admittance () are the relevant properties governing the park cool island (PCI) effect. Reduction in sky view factor by buildings and trees decreases the drain of longwave radiation from the surface to the sky. Thus park areas near the perimeter where there may be a line of buildings or trees, or even sites within a park containing tree clumps or individual trees, generally cool less than open areas. The edge effect applies within distances of about 2.2 to 3.5 times the height of the border obstruction, i.e., to have any part of the park cooling at the maximum rate a square park must be at least twice these dimensions in width. Although the central areas of parks larger than this will experience greater cooling they will accumulate a larger volume of cold air that may make it possible for them to initiate a thermal circulation and extend the influence of the park into the surrounding city. Given real world values of s and it seems likely that radiation and conduction play almost equal roles in nocturnal PCI development. Evaporation is not a significant cooling mechanism in the nocturnal calm case but by day it is probably critical in establishing a PCI by sunset. It is likely that conditions that favour PCI by day (tree shade, soil wetness) retard PCI growth at night. The present work, which only deals with PCI growth, cannot predict which type of park will be coolest at night. Complete specification of nocturnal PCI magnitude requires knowledge of the PCI at sunset, and this depends on daytime energetics.

19. Groundwater flow and transport modeling

USGS Publications Warehouse

Konikow, L.F.; Mercer, J.W.

1988-01-01

Deterministic, distributed-parameter, numerical simulation models for analyzing groundwater flow and transport problems have come to be used almost routinely during the past decade. A review of the theoretical basis and practical use of groundwater flow and solute transport models is used to illustrate the state-of-the-art. Because of errors and uncertainty in defining model parameters, models must be calibrated to obtain a best estimate of the parameters. For flow modeling, data generally are sufficient to allow calibration. For solute-transport modeling, lack of data not only limits calibration, but also causes uncertainty in process description. Where data are available, model reliability should be assessed on the basis of sensitivity tests and measures of goodness-of-fit. Some of these concepts are demonstrated by using two case histories. ?? 1988.

20. Flow-field analysis of anti-kidney vortex film cooling

Gräf, Lars; Kleiser, Leonhard

2012-02-01

Film cooling is an important measure to enable an increase of the inlet temperature of a gas turbine and, thereby, to improve its overall efficiency. The coolant is ejected through spanwise rows of holes in the blades or endwalls to build up a film shielding the material. The holes often are inclined in the downstream direction and give rise to a kidney vortex. This is a counter-rotating vortex pair, with an upward flow direction between the two vortices, which tends to lift off the surface and to locally feed hot air towards the blade outside the pair. Reversing the rotational sense of the vortices reverses these two drawbacks into advantages. In the considered case, an anti-kidney vortex is generated using two subsequent rows of holes both inclined downstream and yawed spanwise with alternating angles. In a previous study, we performed large-eddy simulations (which focused on the fully turbulent boundary layer) of this anti-kidney vortex film-cooling and compared them to a corresponding physical experiment. The present work analyzes the simulated flow field in detail, beginning in the plenum (inside the blade or endwall) through the holes up to the mixture with the hot boundary layer. To identify the vortical structures found in the mean flow and in the instantaneous flow, we mostly use the λ 2 criterion and the line integral convolution (LIC) technique indicating sectional streamlines. The flow regions (coolant plenum, holes, and boundary layer) are studied subsequently and linked to each other. To track the anti-kidney vortex throughout the boundary layer, we propose two criteria which are based on vorticity and on LIC results. This enables us to associate the jet vortices with the cooling effectiveness at the wall, which is the key feature of film cooling.

1. HYDROGEN ELECTROLYZER FLOW DISTRIBUTOR MODEL

SciTech Connect

2006-09-28

The hybrid sulfur process (HyS) hydrogen electrolyzer consists of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) sandwiched between two porous graphite layers. An aqueous solution of sulfuric acid with dissolved SO{sub 2} gas flows parallel to the PEM through the porous graphite layer on the anode side of the electrolyzer. A flow distributor, consisting of a number of parallel channels acting as headers, promotes uniform flow of the anolyte fluid through the porous graphite layer. A numerical model of the hydraulic behavior of the flow distributor is herein described. This model was developed to be a tool to aid the design of flow distributors. The primary design objective is to minimize spatial variations in the flow through the porous graphite layer. The hydraulic data from electrolyzer tests consists of overall flowrate and pressure drop. Internal pressure and flow distributions are not measured, but these details are provided by the model. The model has been benchmarked against data from tests of the current electrolyzer. The model reasonably predicts the viscosity effect of changing the fluid from water to an aqueous solution of 30 % sulfuric acid. The permeability of the graphite layer was the independent variable used to fit the model to the test data, and the required permeability for a good fit is within the range literature values for carbon paper. The model predicts that reducing the number of parallel channels by 50 % will substantially improve the uniformity of the flow in the porous graphite layer, while maintaining an acceptable pressure drop across the electrolyzer. When the size of the electrolyzer is doubled from 2.75 inches square to 5.5 inches square, the same number of channels as in the current design will be adequate, but it is advisable to increase the channel cross-sectional flow area. This is due to the increased length of the channels.

2. Visualization techniques to experimentally model flow and heat transfer in turbine and aircraft flow passages

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Russell, Louis M.; Hippensteele, Steven A.

1991-01-01

Increased attention to fuel economy and increased thrust requirements have increased the demand for higher aircraft gas turbine engine efficiency through the use of higher turbine inlet temperatures. These higher temperatures increase the importance of understanding the heat transfer patterns which occur throughout the turbine passages. It is often necessary to use a special coating or some form of cooling to maintain metal temperatures at a level which the metal can withstand for long periods of time. Effective cooling schemes can result in significant fuel savings through higher allowable turbine inlet temperatures and can increase engine life. Before proceeding with the development of any new turbine it is economically desirable to create both mathematical and experimental models to study and predict flow characteristics and temperature distributions. Some of the methods are described used to physically model heat transfer patterns, cooling schemes, and other complex flow patterns associated with turbine and aircraft passages.

3. Core flows and heat transfer induced by inhomogeneous cooling with sub- and supercritical convection

Dietrich, W.; Hori, K.; Wicht, J.

2016-02-01

The amount and spatial pattern of heat extracted from cores of terrestrial planets is ultimately controlled by the thermal structure of the lower rocky mantle. Using the most common model to tackle this problem, a rapidly rotating and differentially cooled spherical shell containing an incompressible and viscous liquid is numerically investigated. To gain the physical basics, we consider a simple, equatorial symmetric perturbation of the CMB heat flux shaped as a spherical harmonic Y11 . The thermodynamic properties of the induced flows mainly depend on the degree of nonlinearity parametrised by a horizontal Rayleigh number Rah =q∗ Ra , where q∗ is the relative CMB heat flux anomaly amplitude and Ra is the Rayleigh number which controls radial buoyancy-driven convection. Depending on Rah we identify and characterise three distinctive flow regimes through their spatial patterns, heat transport and flow speed scalings: in the linear conductive regime the radial inward flow is found to be phase shifted 90° eastwards from the maximal heat flux as predicted by a linear quasi-geostrophic model for rapidly rotating spherical systems. The advective regime is characterised by an increased Rah where nonlinearities become significant, but is still subcritical to radial convection. There the upwelling is dispersed and the downwelling is compressed by the thermal advection into a spiralling jet-like structure. As Rah becomes large enough for the radial convection to set in, the jet remains identifiable on time-average and significantly alters the global heat budget in the convective regime. Our results suggest, that the boundary forcing not only introduces a net horizontal heat transport but also suppresses the convection locally to such an extent, that the net Nusselt number is reduced by up to 50%, even though the mean CMB heat flux is conserved. This also implies that a planetary core will remain hotter under a non-homogeneous CMB heat flux and is less well mixed. A

4. Turbulence modelling of flow fields in thrust chambers

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chen, C. P.; Kim, Y. M.; Shang, H. M.

1993-01-01

Following the consensus of a workshop in Turbulence Modelling for Liquid Rocket Thrust Chambers, the current effort was undertaken to study the effects of second-order closure on the predictions of thermochemical flow fields. To reduce the instability and computational intensity of the full second-order Reynolds Stress Model, an Algebraic Stress Model (ASM) coupled with a two-layer near wall treatment was developed. Various test problems, including the compressible boundary layer with adiabatic and cooled walls, recirculating flows, swirling flows, and the entire SSME nozzle flow were studied to assess the performance of the current model. Detailed calculations for the SSME exit wall flow around the nozzle manifold were executed. As to the overall flow predictions, the ASM removes another assumption for appropriate comparison with experimental data to account for the non-isotropic turbulence effects.

5. Turbulence modelling of flow fields in thrust chambers

Chen, C. P.; Kim, Y. M.; Shang, H. M.

1993-02-01

Following the consensus of a workshop in Turbulence Modelling for Liquid Rocket Thrust Chambers, the current effort was undertaken to study the effects of second-order closure on the predictions of thermochemical flow fields. To reduce the instability and computational intensity of the full second-order Reynolds Stress Model, an Algebraic Stress Model (ASM) coupled with a two-layer near wall treatment was developed. Various test problems, including the compressible boundary layer with adiabatic and cooled walls, recirculating flows, swirling flows, and the entire SSME nozzle flow were studied to assess the performance of the current model. Detailed calculations for the SSME exit wall flow around the nozzle manifold were executed. As to the overall flow predictions, the ASM removes another assumption for appropriate comparison with experimental data to account for the non-isotropic turbulence effects.

6. Miocene lava flows and domes, cooling fractures, carapace breccia, and avalanche deposits near Goldstone, California

Buesch, D.

2013-12-01

Mapping and petrography of volcanic rocks in western Fort Irwin (FI), California, provide insights into the cooling history of lava flows and domes and the formation of associated carapace breccia and avalanche deposits. The rocks formed on the eastern margin of the 19-16 Ma Eagle Crags volcanic field (Sabin and others, 1994). Lava compositions range from porphyritic olivine basalt to aphyric rhyolite. Basalt flows are 1-5 m thick and <1-2 km long, and sequences 5-50 m thick are traceable for >7 km. Andesite to rhyolite flows are 30-80 m thick and <1-3 km long, and domes have 100-300 m relief and radial length of 0.6-1.2 km. Cooling fractures, identified by occurrence of margins and geometry, are in all lava flows and domes. Similar to a 'rim' (Buesch and others, 1996 & 1999; Buesch, 2006), a 'margin' is a region along a fracture wall with a finer texture or different type of crystallinity or vesicularity compared to rock inward from the fracture. At FI, margins occur on many fractures and typically are 0.5-3 mm wide. They indicate that a fracture formed during initial cooling, before the bulk of the rock crystallized. Planarity and surface roughness are used to analyze fractures (Buesch and others, 1996). Typically at FI, cooling fractures are planar and smooth, and post-cooling fractures are slightly irregular and slightly rough. Typically, plan views of cooling fractures are 5-6 sided in olivine basalt, and 4-sided in andesite to rhyolite. Fracture sets are mostly perpendicular to the original surface of a flow, and some bend toward the interior. Many lava flows and domes have lateral and capping breccias referred to as carapace breccia. Similar breccia also cloaks individual lobes of composite domes. Carapace breccia can grade down into a non-brecciated interior, but in some cases, compositionally similar late-stage flow-banded lava was injected beneath the breccia, Breccia fragments are vitric or crystallized, and many have margins that do not match those of

7. Thermal hydraulic modeling of integrated cooling water systems

SciTech Connect

Niyogi, K.K.; Rathi, J.S.; Phan, T.Q.; Chaudhary, A.

1994-12-31

Thermal hydraulic modeling of cooling water systems has been extended to multiple system configurations with heat exchangers as interface components between systems. The computer program PC-TRAX has been used as the basic tool for the system simulation. Additional heat exchanger modules have been incorporated to accurately predict the thermal performance of systems for the design as well as off-design conditions. The modeling accommodates time-dependent changes in conditions, temperature and pressure controllers, and detailed physical parameters of the heat exchangers. The modeling has been illustrated with examples from actual plant systems. An integrated system consisting of Spent Fuel Pool, Primary Component Cooling Water, and Service Water System has been successfully modeled to predict their performance under normal operations and emergency conditions. System configurations are changed from the base model by using a command module.

8. [Development of model communities (Cool Communities)]. Final report

SciTech Connect

1998-09-01

This report covers progress in the Cool Communities program and is intended to detail specific accomplishments during the year and to provide a limited amount of background information about the program and its progress over the past three years. The Cool Communities project is driven by local partnerships among business, citizens, government, and guided by a Local Advisory Committee of representatives from these organizations. A national overview of the program is given in the first section. The second section describes specific accomplishments in each of the model communities in Dade County, Atlanta, Frederick, Tucson, Springfield, Austin, and the Davis Monthan Air Force Base.

9. Turbulence modeling for hypersonic flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Marvin, J. G.; Coakley, T. J.

1989-01-01

Turbulence modeling for high speed compressible flows is described and discussed. Starting with the compressible Navier-Stokes equations, methods of statistical averaging are described by means of which the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are developed. Unknown averages in these equations are approximated using various closure concepts. Zero-, one-, and two-equation eddy viscosity models, algebraic stress models and Reynolds stress transport models are discussed. Computations of supersonic and hypersonic flows obtained using several of the models are discussed and compared with experimental results. Specific examples include attached boundary layer flows, shock wave boundary layer interactions and compressible shear layers. From these examples, conclusions regarding the status of modeling and recommendations for future studies are discussed.

10. Forming chondrules in impact splashes. I. Radiative cooling model

SciTech Connect

Dullemond, Cornelis Petrus; Stammler, Sebastian Markus; Johansen, Anders

2014-10-10

The formation of chondrules is one of the oldest unsolved mysteries in meteoritics and planet formation. Recently an old idea has been revived: the idea that chondrules form as a result of collisions between planetesimals in which the ejected molten material forms small droplets that solidify to become chondrules. Pre-melting of the planetesimals by radioactive decay of {sup 26}Al would help produce sprays of melt even at relatively low impact velocity. In this paper we study the radiative cooling of a ballistically expanding spherical cloud of chondrule droplets ejected from the impact site. We present results from numerical radiative transfer models as well as analytic approximate solutions. We find that the temperature after the start of the expansion of the cloud remains constant for a time t {sub cool} and then drops with time t approximately as T ≅ T {sub 0}[(3/5)t/t {sub cool} + 2/5]{sup –5/3} for t > t {sub cool}. The time at which this temperature drop starts t {sub cool} depends via an analytical formula on the mass of the cloud, the expansion velocity, and the size of the chondrule. During the early isothermal expansion phase the density is still so high that we expect the vapor of volatile elements to saturate so that no large volatile losses are expected.

11. The inviscid stability of supersonic flow past heated or cooled axisymmetric bodies

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shaw, Stephen J.; Duck, Peter W.

1992-01-01

The inviscid, linear, nonaxisymmetric, temporal stability of the boundary layer associated with the supersonic flow past axisymmetric bodies (with particular emphasis on long thin, straight circular cylinders), subject to heated or cooled wall conditions is investigated. The eigenvalue problem is computed in some detail for a particular Mach number or 3.8, revealing that the effect of curvature and the choice of wall conditions both have a significant effect on the stability of the flow. Both the asymptotic, large azimuthal wavenumber solution and the asymptotic, far downstream solution are obtained for the stability analysis and compared with numerical results. Additionally, asymptotic analyses valid for large radii of curvature with cooled/heated wall conditions are presented. In general, important differences were found to exist between the wall temperature conditions imposed and the adiabatic wall conditions considered previously.

12. The inviscid stability of supersonic flow past heated or cooled axisymmetric bodies

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shaw, Stephen J.; Duck, Peter W.

1990-01-01

The inviscid, linear, nonaxisymmetric, temporal stability of the boundary layer associated with the supersonic flow past axisymmetric bodies (with particular emphasis on long thin, straight circular cylinders), subject to heated or cooled wall conditions is investigated. The eigenvalue problem is computed in some detail for a particular Mach number or 3.8, revealing that the effect of curvature and the choice of wall conditions both have a significant effect on the stability of the flow. Both the asymptotic, large azimuthal wavenumber solution and the asymptotic, far downstream solution are obtained for the stability analysis and compared with numerical results. Additionally, asymptotic analyses valid for large radii of curvature with cooled/heated wall conditions, are presented. In general, important differences were found to exist between the wall temperature conditions imposed and the adiabatic wall conditions considered previously.

13. High Temperature Ceramic Guide Vane Temperature and Pressure Distribution Calculation for Flow with Cooling Jets

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Srivastava, Rakesh

2004-01-01

A ceramic guide vane has been designed and tested for operation under high temperature. Previous efforts have suggested that some cooling flow may be required to alleviate the high temperatures observed near the trailing edge region. The present report describes briefly a three-dimensional viscous analysis carried out to calculate the temperature and pressure distribution on the blade surface and in the flow path with a jet of cooling air exiting from the suction surface near the trailing edge region. The data for analysis was obtained from Dr. Craig Robinson. The surface temperature and pressure distribution along with a flowfield distribution is shown in the results. The surface distribution is also given in a tabular form at the end of the document.

14. Modeling jets in cross flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Demuren, A. O.

1994-01-01

Various approaches to the modeling of jets in cross flow are reviewed. These are grouped into four classes, namely: empirical models, integral models, perturbation models, and numerical models. Empirical models depend largely on the correlation of experimental data and are mostly useful for first-order estimates of global properties such as jet trajectory and velocity and temperature decay rates. Integral models are based on some ordinary-differential form of the conservation laws, but require substantial empirical calibration. They allow more details of the flow field to be obtained; simpler versions have to assume similarity of velocity and temperature profiles, but more sophisticated ones can actually calculate these profiles. Perturbation models require little empirical input, but the need for small parameters to ensure convergent expansions limits their application to either the near-field or the far-field. Therefore, they are mostly useful for the study of flow physics. Numerical models are based on conservation laws in partial-differential form. They require little empirical input and have the widest range of applicability. They also require the most computational resources. Although many qualitative and quantitative features of jets in cross flow have been predicted with numerical models, many issues affecting accuracy such as grid resolution and turbulence model are not completely resolved.

15. Hot accretion flow with radiative cooling: state transitions in black hole X-ray binaries

Wu, Mao-Chun; Xie, Fu-Guo; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Gan, Zhaoming

2016-06-01

We investigate state transitions in black hole X-ray binaries through different parameters by using two-dimensional axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulation method. For radiative cooling in hot accretion flow, we take into account the bremsstrahlung, synchrotron and synchrotron self-Comptonization self-consistently in the dynamics. Our main result is that the state transitions occur when the accretion rate reaches a critical value dot{M} ˜ 3α dot{M}_Edd, above which cold and dense clumpy/filamentary structures are formed, embedded within the hot gas. We argued this mode likely corresponds to the proposed two-phase accretion model, which may be responsible for the intermediate state of black hole X-ray binaries. When the accretion rate becomes sufficiently high, the clumpy/filamentary structures gradually merge and settle down on to the mid-plane. Eventually the accretion geometry transforms to a disc-corona configuration. In summary, our results are consistent with the truncated accretion scenario for the state transition.

16. Conventional and Multiscale Modeling of Microstructure Evolution During Laminar Cooling of DP Steel Strips

Pietrzyk, Maciej; Kusiak, Jan; Kuziak, Roman; Madej, Łukasz; Szeliga, Danuta; Gołąb, Rafał

2014-12-01

Physical and numerical simulations of the hot rolling and laminar cooling of DP steel strips are presented in the paper. The objectives of the paper were twofold. Physical simulations of hot plastic deformation were used to identify and validate numerical models. Validated models were applied to simulate the manufacturing of DP steel strips. Conventional flow stress model and microstructure evolution model were used in the hot deformation part. The approach to the complex systems analysis based on global thermodynamic characterization and detailed microstructure characterization was applied to determine equilibrium state at various temperatures. Finally, two numerical models were used to simulate kinetics of austenite decomposition at varying temperatures: the first, conventional model based on the Avrami equation, and the second, the discrete Cellular Automata approach. Plastometric tests and stress relaxation tests were used for identification of the hot rolling model for the DP steel. Dilatometric tests were performed to identify the phase transformation models. Verification confirmed good accuracy of all models. Validated models were applied to simulate the manufacturing of DP steel strips. Influence of technological parameters ( e.g., strip thickness and velocity, active sections in the laminar cooling, and water flux in the sections) on the DP microstructure was analyzed. The cooling schedules, which give required microstructures were proposed. The numerical tool, which simulates manufacturing chain for DP steel strips is the main output of the paper.

17. Origin and dynamics of emission line clouds in cooling flow environments

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Loewenstein, Michael

1990-01-01

The author suggests that since clouds are born co-moving in a turbulent intra-cluster medium (ICM), the allowed parameter space can now be opened up to a more acceptable range. Large-scale motions can be driven in the central parts of cooling flows by a number of mechanisms including the motion of the central and other galaxies, and the dissipation of advected, focussed rotational and magnetic energy. In addition to the velocity width paradox, two other paradoxes (Heckman et al. 1989) can be solved if the ICM is turbulent. Firstly, the heating source for the emission line regions has always been puzzling - line luminosities are extremely high for a given (optical or radio) galaxy luminosity compared to those in non-cooling flow galaxies, therefore a mechanism peculiar to cooling flows must be at work. However most, if not all, previously suggested heating mechanisms either fail to provide enough ionization or give the wrong line ratios, or both. The kinetic energy in the turbulence provides a natural energy source if it can be efficiently converted to cloud heat. Researchers suggest that this can be done via magneto-hydrodynamic waves through plasma slip. Secondly, while the x ray observations indicate extended mass deposition, the optical line emission is more centrally concentrated. Since many of the turbulence-inducing mechanisms are strongest in the central regions of the ICM, so is the method of heating. In other words material is dropping out everywhere but only being lit up in the center.

18. Abundance gradients in cooling flow clusters: Ginga Large Area Counters and Einstein Solid State Spectrometer spectra of A496, A1795, A2142, and A2199

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

White, Raymond E., III; Day, C. S. R.; Hatsukade, Isamu; Hughes, John P.

1994-01-01

We analyze the Ginga Large Area Counters (LAC) and Einstein Solid State Spectrometer (SSS) spectra of four cooling flow clusters, A496, A1795, A2142, and A2199, each of which shows firm evidence of a relatively cool component. The inclusion of such cool spectral components in joint fits of SSS and LAC data leads to somewhat higher global temperatures than are derived from the high-energy LAC data alone. We find little evidence of cool emission outside the SSS field of view. Metal abundances appear to be centrally enhanced in all four clusters, with varying degrees of model dependence and statistical significance: the evidence is statistically strongest for A496 and A2142, somewhat weaker for A2199 and weakest for A1795. We also explore the model dependence in the amount of cold, X-ray-absorbing matter discovered in these clusters by White et al.

19. Modeling Combustion in Supersonic Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Drummond, J. Philip; Danehy, Paul M.; Bivolaru, Daniel; Gaffney, Richard L.; Tedder, Sarah A.; Cutler, Andrew D.

2007-01-01

This paper discusses the progress of work to model high-speed supersonic reacting flow. The purpose of the work is to improve the state of the art of CFD capabilities for predicting the flow in high-speed propulsion systems, particularly combustor flow-paths. The program has several components including the development of advanced algorithms and models for simulating engine flowpaths as well as a fundamental experimental and diagnostic development effort to support the formulation and validation of the mathematical models. The paper will provide details of current work on experiments that will provide data for the modeling efforts along with with the associated nonintrusive diagnostics used to collect the data from the experimental flowfield. Simulation of a recent experiment to partially validate the accuracy of a combustion code is also described.

20. PHYSICAL MODELING OF CONTRACTED FLOW.

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lee, Jonathan K.

1987-01-01

Experiments on steady flow over uniform grass roughness through centered single-opening contractions were conducted in the Flood Plain Simulation Facility at the U. S. Geological Survey's Gulf Coast Hydroscience Center near Bay St. Louis, Miss. The experimental series was designed to provide data for calibrating and verifying two-dimensional, vertically averaged surface-water flow models used to simulate flow through openings in highway embankments across inundated flood plains. Water-surface elevations, point velocities, and vertical velocity profiles were obtained at selected locations for design discharges ranging from 50 to 210 cfs. Examples of observed water-surface elevations and velocity magnitudes at basin cross-sections are presented.

SciTech Connect

White, M.J.; Wang, X.L.; Brueck, H.D.; /DESY

2011-06-10

Current leads are utilized to deliver electrical power from a room temperature junction mounted on the vacuum vessel to a superconducting magnet located within the vacuum space of a cryostat. There are many types of current leads used at laboratories throughout the world; however, conduction-cooled current leads are often chosen for their simplicity and reliability. Conduction-cooled leads have the advantage of using common materials, have no superconducting/normal state transition, and have no boil-off vapor to collect. This paper presents a numerical model for conduction-cooled current lead heat loads. This model takes into account varying material and fluid thermal properties, varying thicknesses along the length of the lead, heat transfer in the circumferential and longitudinal directions, electrical power dissipation, and the effect of thermal intercepts. The model is validated by comparing the numerical model results to ideal cases where analytical equations are valid. In addition, the XFEL (X-Ray Free Electron Laser) prototype current leads are modeled and compared to the experimental results from testing at DESY's XFEL Magnet Test Stand (XMTS) and Cryomodule Test Bench (CMTB).

2. Debris flows: Experiments and modelling

Turnbull, Barbara; Bowman, Elisabeth T.; McElwaine, Jim N.

2015-01-01

Debris flows and debris avalanches are complex, gravity-driven currents of rock, water and sediments that can be highly mobile. This combination of component materials leads to a rich morphology and unusual dynamics, exhibiting features of both granular materials and viscous gravity currents. Although extreme events such as those at Kolka Karmadon in North Ossetia (2002) [1] and Huascarán (1970) [2] strongly motivate us to understand how such high levels of mobility can occur, smaller events are ubiquitous and capable of endangering infrastructure and life, requiring mitigation. Recent progress in modelling debris flows has seen the development of multiphase models that can start to provide clues of the origins of the unique phenomenology of debris flows. However, the spatial and temporal variations that debris flows exhibit make this task challenging and laboratory experiments, where boundary and initial conditions can be controlled and reproduced, are crucial both to validate models and to inspire new modelling approaches. This paper discusses recent laboratory experiments on debris flows and the state of the art in numerical models.

3. Preserving Flow Variability in Watershed Model Calibrations

EPA Science Inventory

Background/Question/Methods Although watershed modeling flow calibration techniques often emphasize a specific flow mode, ecological conditions that depend on flow-ecology relationships often emphasize a range of flow conditions. We used informal likelihood methods to investig...

4. Computer modeling of cool flames and ignition of acetaldehyde

SciTech Connect

Cavanagh, J.; Cox, R.A. ); Olson, G. )

1990-10-01

A detailed mechanism for the oxidation of acetaldehyde at temperatures between 500-1000 K has been assembled using 77 elementary reactions involving 32 reactant, product, and intermediate species. Rate coefficients were taken from recent critical evaluations of experimental data. Where experimental measurements were not available, the rate parameters were estimated from the body of currently available kinetics information. The mechanism was shown to predict correctly the rates and products observed in CH{sub 3}CHO oxidation studies in a low-pressure in a stirred flow reactor and at high pressure in a rapid compression machine. The oscillatory phenomena in the flow system and the two-stage ignition observed at high pressure were satisfactorily described by the mechanism. It is shown that cool flames are caused by degenerate branching mainly by peracetic acid and that hydrogen peroxide promotes hot ignition.

5. Validation of the RVACS (Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System)/RACS (Reactor Air Cooling System) model in SASSYS-1

SciTech Connect

Dunn, F.E.

1987-01-01

The SASSYS-1 LMR systems analysis code contains a model for transient analysis of heat removal by a RVACS (Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System) or a RACS (Reactor Air Cooling System) in an LMR (Liquid Metal Reactor). This model has been validated by comparisons of model predictions with experimental data from a large scale RVACS/RACS simulation experiment performed at Argonne National Laboratory. 4 refs., 1 fig.

6. CFD MODELING ANALYSIS OF MECHANICAL DRAFT COOLING TOWER

SciTech Connect

Lee, S; Alfred Garrett, A; James02 Bollinger, J; Larry Koffman, L

2008-03-03

Industrial processes use mechanical draft cooling towers (MDCT's) to dissipate waste heat by transferring heat from water to air via evaporative cooling, which causes air humidification. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has a MDCT consisting of four independent compartments called cells. Each cell has its own fan to help maximize heat transfer between ambient air and circulated water. The primary objective of the work is to conduct a parametric study for cooling tower performance under different fan speeds and ambient air conditions. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to achieve the objective. The model uses three-dimensional steady-state momentum, continuity equations, air-vapor species balance equation, and two-equation turbulence as the basic governing equations. It was assumed that vapor phase is always transported by the continuous air phase with no slip velocity. In this case, water droplet component was considered as discrete phase for the interfacial heat and mass transfer via Lagrangian approach. Thus, the air-vapor mixture model with discrete water droplet phase is used for the analysis. A series of the modeling calculations was performed to investigate the impact of ambient and operating conditions on the thermal performance of the cooling tower when fans were operating and when they were turned off. The model was benchmarked against the literature data and the SRS test results for key parameters such as air temperature and humidity at the tower exit and water temperature for given ambient conditions. Detailed results will be presented here.

7. Effect of Coolant Temperature and Mass Flow on Film Cooling of Turbine Blades

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Garg, Vijay K.; Gaugler, Raymond E.

1997-01-01

A three-dimensional Navier Stokes code has been used to study the effect of coolant temperature, and coolant to mainstream mass flow ratio on the adiabatic effectiveness of a film-cooled turbine blade. The blade chosen is the VKI rotor with six rows of cooling holes including three rows on the shower head. The mainstream is akin to that under real engine conditions with stagnation temperature = 1900 K and stagnation pressure = 3 MPa. Generally, the adiabatic effectiveness is lower for a higher coolant temperature due to nonlinear effects via the compressibility of air. However, over the suction side of shower-head holes, the effectiveness is higher for a higher coolant temperature than that for a lower coolant temperature when the coolant to mainstream mass flow ratio is 5% or more. For a fixed coolant temperature, the effectiveness passes through a minima on the suction side of shower-head holes as the coolant to mainstream mass flow, ratio increases, while on the pressure side of shower-head holes, the effectiveness decreases with increase in coolant mass flow due to coolant jet lift-off. In all cases, the adiabatic effectiveness is highly three-dimensional.

8. Thermo-Metallurgical Modeling of Nodular Cast Iron Cooling Process

Carazo, Fernando D.; Dardati, Patricia M.; Celentano, Diego J.; Godoy, Luis A.

2012-12-01

A new numerical model to describe the microstructural evolution of a eutectic nodular cast iron during its cooling is presented. In particular, equiaxial solidification assuming an independent nucleation of austenite and graphite nodules is considered. In this context, the austenite has dendritic growth whereas the graphite grows with a spherical shape. After solidification occurs, the model assumes that the graphite nodules present in the cast iron continue growing since the carbon content in austenite decreases. Once the stable eutectoid temperature is reached, the alloy undergoes the austenite-ferrite transformation. The nucleation of the ferrite takes place at the contour of the spherical graphite nodules where austenite has low carbon concentration. A ferrite shell surrounding the graphite nodules is formed afterward by means of a process governed by carbon diffusion. Then, a ferrite-pearlite competitive transformation occurs when the temperature is below the metastable temperature. This thermo-metallurgical model is discretized and solved by means of the finite element method. The model allows the computation of cooling curves, fraction evolution for each component, and size and distribution of graphite nodules. The present numerical results are compared with experiments using standardized Quick-cup-type cups, and satisfactory numerical predictions of the final microstructure and cooling curves are achieved.

9. CFD Analysis of Turbulent Flow Phenomena in the Lower Plenum of a Prismatic Gas-Cooled Reactor

SciTech Connect

T. Gallaway; S.P. Antal; M.Z. Podowski; D.P. Guillen

2007-09-01

This paper is concerned with the implementation of a computational model of turbulent flow in a section of the lower plenum of Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). The proposed model has been encoded in a state-of-the-art CFD code, NPHASE. The results of NPHASE predictions have been compared against the experimental data collected using a scaled model of a sub-region in the lower plenum of a modular prismatic gas-cooled reactor. It has been shown that the NPHASE-based model is capable of predicting a three-dimensional velocity field in a complex geometrical configuration of VHTR lower plenum. The current and future validations of computational predictions are necessary for design and analysis of new reactor concepts, as well as for safety analysis and licensing calculations.

10. ASTER/AVHRR Data Hybridization to determine Pyroclastic Flow cooling curves

Reath, K. A.; Wright, R.; Ramsey, M. S.

2014-12-01

Shiveluch Volcano (Kamchatka, Russia) has been in a consistent state of eruption for the past 15 years. During this period different eruption styles have been documented including: sub-plinian events, dome growth and collapse, and subsequent debris flow deposits. For example, on June 25-26, 2009 a pyroclastic debris flow was emplaced and the eruption onset that produced it was recorded by a series of seismic events spanning several hours. However, due to cloud cover, visual confirmation of the exact emplacement time was obscured. Orbital remote sensing was able to image the deposit repeatedly over the subsequent months. ASTER is a high spatial resolution (90m), low temporal resolution (2 - 4 days at the poles, 16 days at the equator) thermal infrared (TIR) sensor on the NASA Terra satellite. AVHRR is a high temporal resolution (minutes to several hours), low spatial resolution (1km) spaceborne TIR sensor on a series of NOAA satellites. Combined, these sensors provide a unique opportunity to fuse high-spatial and high-temporal resolution data to better observe changes on the surface of the deposit over time. For example, ASTER data were used to determine the flow area and to provide several data points for average temperature while AVHRR data were used to increase the amount of data points. Through this method an accurate average cooling rate over a three month period was determined. This cooling curve was then examined to derive several features about the deposit that were previously unknown. The time of emplacement and period of time needed for negligible thermal output were first determined by extrapolating the cooling curve in time. The total amount of heat output and total flow volume of the deposit were also calculated. This volume was then compared to the volume of the dome to calculate the percentage of collapse. This method can be repeated for other flow deposits to determine if there is a consistent correlation between the dome growth rate, the average

11. Compact counter-flow cooling system with subcooled gravity-fed circulating liquid nitrogen

Ivanov, Yu.; Radovinsky, A.; Zhukovsky, A.; Sasaki, A.; Watanabe, H.; Kawahara, T.; Hamabe, M.; Yamaguchi, S.

2010-11-01

A liquid nitrogen (LN2) is usually used to keep the high-temperature superconducting (HTS) cable low temperature. A pump is utilized to circulate LN2 inside the cryopipes. In order to minimize heat leakage, a thermal siphon circulation scheme can be realized instead. Here, we discuss the effectiveness of thermal siphon with counter-flow circulation loop composed of cryogen flow channel and inner cable channel. The main feature of the system is the existence of essential parasitic heat exchange between upwards and downwards flows. Feasibility of the proposed scheme for cable up to 500 m in length has been investigated numerically. Calculated profiles of temperature and pressure show small differences of T and p in the inner and the outer flows at the same elevation, which allows not worrying about mechanical stability of the cable. In the case under consideration the thermal insulating properties of a conventional electrical insulating material (polypropylene laminated paper, PPLP) appear to be sufficient. Two interesting effects were disclosed due to analysis of subcooling of LN2. In case of highly inclined siphon subcooling causes significant increase of temperature maximum that can breakup of superconductivity. In case of slightly inclined siphon high heat flux from outer flow to inner flow causes condensation of nitrogen gas in outer channel. It leads to circulation loss. Results of numerical analyses indicate that counter-flow thermosiphon cooling system is a promising way to increase performance of short-length power transmission (PT) lines, but conventional subcooling technique should be applied carefully.

12. Performance evaluation on an air-cooled heat exchanger for alumina nanofluid under laminar flow

PubMed Central

2011-01-01

This study analyzes the characteristics of alumina (Al2O3)/water nanofluid to determine the feasibility of its application in an air-cooled heat exchanger for heat dissipation for PEMFC or electronic chip cooling. The experimental sample was Al2O3/water nanofluid produced by the direct synthesis method at three different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 wt.%). The experiments in this study measured the thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluid with weight fractions and sample temperatures (20-60°C), and then used the nanofluid in an actual air-cooled heat exchanger to assess its heat exchange capacity and pressure drop under laminar flow. Experimental results show that the nanofluid has a higher heat exchange capacity than water, and a higher concentration of nanoparticles provides an even better ratio of the heat exchange. The maximum enhanced ratio of heat exchange and pressure drop for all the experimental parameters in this study was about 39% and 5.6%, respectively. In addition to nanoparticle concentration, the temperature and mass flow rates of the working fluid can affect the enhanced ratio of heat exchange and pressure drop of nanofluid. The cross-section aspect ratio of tube in the heat exchanger is another important factor to be taken into consideration. PMID:21827644

13. Performance evaluation on an air-cooled heat exchanger for alumina nanofluid under laminar flow.

PubMed

Teng, Tun-Ping; Hung, Yi-Hsuan; Teng, Tun-Chien; Chen, Jyun-Hong

2011-01-01

This study analyzes the characteristics of alumina (Al2O3)/water nanofluid to determine the feasibility of its application in an air-cooled heat exchanger for heat dissipation for PEMFC or electronic chip cooling. The experimental sample was Al2O3/water nanofluid produced by the direct synthesis method at three different concentrations (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 wt.%). The experiments in this study measured the thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluid with weight fractions and sample temperatures (20-60°C), and then used the nanofluid in an actual air-cooled heat exchanger to assess its heat exchange capacity and pressure drop under laminar flow. Experimental results show that the nanofluid has a higher heat exchange capacity than water, and a higher concentration of nanoparticles provides an even better ratio of the heat exchange. The maximum enhanced ratio of heat exchange and pressure drop for all the experimental parameters in this study was about 39% and 5.6%, respectively. In addition to nanoparticle concentration, the temperature and mass flow rates of the working fluid can affect the enhanced ratio of heat exchange and pressure drop of nanofluid. The cross-section aspect ratio of tube in the heat exchanger is another important factor to be taken into consideration. PMID:21827644

14. Modeling steam pressure under martian lava flows

USGS Publications Warehouse

Dundas, Colin M.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.

2013-01-01

Rootless cones on Mars are a valuable indicator of past interactions between lava and water. However, the details of the lava–water interactions are not fully understood, limiting the ability to use these features to infer new information about past water on Mars. We have developed a model for the pressurization of a dry layer of porous regolith by melting and boiling ground ice in the shallow subsurface. This model builds on previous models of lava cooling and melting of subsurface ice. We find that for reasonable regolith properties and ice depths of decimeters, explosive pressures can be reached. However, the energy stored within such lags is insufficient to excavate thick flows unless they draw steam from a broader region than the local eruption site. These results indicate that lag pressurization can drive rootless cone formation under favorable circumstances, but in other instances molten fuel–coolant interactions are probably required. We use the model results to consider a range of scenarios for rootless cone formation in Athabasca Valles. Pressure buildup by melting and boiling ice under a desiccated lag is possible in some locations, consistent with the expected distribution of ice implanted from atmospheric water vapor. However, it is uncertain whether such ice has existed in the vicinity of Athabasca Valles in recent history. Plausible alternative sources include surface snow or an aqueous flood shortly before the emplacement of the lava flow.

15. Experimental Modelling of Debris Flows

Paleo Cageao, P.; Turnbull, B.; Bartelt, P.

2012-04-01

Debris flows are gravity-driven mass movements typically containing water, sediments, soil and rocks. These elements combine to give a flow complex phenomenology that exhibits characteristics common to diverse geophysical flows from dry granular media (e.g. levee formation) to viscous gravity currents (viscous fingering and surge instabilities). The exceptional speeds and range debris flows can achieve motivate the need for a co-ordinated modelling approach that can provide insight into the key physical processes that dictate the hazard associated with the flows. There has been recent progress in theoretical modelling approaches that capture the details of the multi-component nature of debris flows. The promise of such models is underlined by their qualitatively successful comparison with field-scale experimental data. The aim of the present work is to address the technical difficulties in achieving a controlled and repeatable laboratory-scale experiment for robust testing of these multi-component models. A laboratory experiment has been designed and tested that can provide detailed information of the internal structure of debris flows. This constitutes a narrow Perspex chute that can be tilted to any angle between 0° and ≈ 60°. A mixture of glycerine and glass balls was initially held behind a lock-gate, before being released down the chute. The evolving flow was captured through high speed video, analysed with a Particle Image Velocimetry algorithm to provide the changing velocity field. A wide parameter space has been tested, allowing variations in particle size, dispersity, surface roughness, fluid viscosity, slope angle and solid volume fraction. While matching key similarity criteria, such as Froude number, with a typical field event, these experiments allow close examination of a wide range of physical scenarios for the robust testing of new multi-component flow models. Further diagnostics include force plate and pore pressure measurements, with a view

16. Progress on Analytical Modeling of Coherent Electron Cooling

SciTech Connect

Wang, G.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Litvinenko, V.; Webb, S.

2010-05-23

We report recent progresses on analytical studies of Coherent Electron Cooling. The phase space electron beam distribution obtained from the 1D FEL amplifier is applied to an infinite electron plasma model and the electron density evolution inside the kicker is derived. We also investigate the velocity modulation in the modulator and obtain a closed form solution for the current density evolution for infinite homogeneous electron plasma.

17. Modeling of cooling of a steel-teeming ladle

Zabolotskii, A. V.

2013-01-01

A mathematical model of formation of temperature fields in linings of metallurgical equipment is proposed, which is based on the finite-element method and specific features of heat transfer on elements of this equipment. The model is used to study temperature fields in the lining of a steel-teeming ladle under various operating conditions. The model is verified experimentally with the example of a steel-teeming ladle cooled after the metal is treated; the experimental verification shows that calculated temperature values at check points are in accord with experimental temperatures.

18. Analysis of Mass Profiles and Cooling Flows of Bright, Early-Type Galaxies AO2, AO3 and Surface Brightness Profiles and Energetics of Intracluster Gas in Cool Galaxy Clusters AO3

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

White, Raymond E., III

1998-01-01

This final report uses ROSAT observations to analyze two different studies. These studies are: Analysis of Mass Profiles and Cooling Flows of Bright, Early-Type Galaxies; and Surface Brightness Profiles and Energetics of Intracluster Gas in Cool Galaxy Clusters.

19. Comparison of Software Models for Energy Savings from Cool Roofs

SciTech Connect

New, Joshua Ryan; Miller, William A; Huang, Yu; Levinson, Ronnen

2014-01-01

A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the United States Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. This tool employs modern web technologies, usability design, and national average defaults as an interface to annual simulations of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance using the world-class simulation tools DOE-2.1E and AtticSim in order to provide estimated annual energy and cost savings. In addition to cool reflective roofs, RSC simulates multiple roof and attic configurations including different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance roof surfaces, duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple substrate types, and insulation levels. A base case and energy-efficient alternative can be compared side-by-side to estimate monthly energy. RSC was benchmarked against field data from demonstration homes in Ft. Irwin, California; while cooling savings were similar, heating penalty varied significantly across different simulation engines. RSC results reduce cool roofing cost-effectiveness thus mitigating expected economic incentives for this countermeasure to the urban heat island effect. This paper consolidates comparison of RSC s projected energy savings to other simulation engines including DOE-2.1E, AtticSim, Micropas, and EnergyPlus, and presents preliminary analyses. RSC s algorithms for capturing radiant heat transfer and duct interaction in the attic assembly are considered major contributing factors to increased cooling savings and heating penalties. Comparison to previous simulation-based studies, analysis on the force multiplier of RSC cooling savings and heating penalties, the role of radiative heat exchange in an attic assembly, and changes made for increased accuracy of the duct model are included.

20. Secondary instability of high-speed flows and the influence of wall cooling and suction

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1992-01-01

The periodic streamwise modulation of the supersonic and hypersonic boundary layers by a two-dimensional first-mode or second-mode wave makes the resulting base flow susceptible to a broadband spanwise-periodic three-dimensional type of instability. The principal parametric resonance of this instability (subharmonic) has been analyzed using Floquet theory. The effect of Mach number and the effectiveness of wall cooling or wall suction in controlling the onset, the growth rate, and the vortical structure of the subharmonic secondary instability are assessed for both a first-mode and a second-mode primary wave. Results indicate that the secondary subharmonic instability of an insulated wall boundary layer is weakened as Mach number increases. Cooling of the wall destabilizes the secondary subharmonic of a second-mode primary wave, but stabilizes it when the primary wave is a first mode. Suction stabilizes the secondary subharmonic at all Mach numbers.

1. Secondary instability of high-speed flows and the influence of wall cooling and suction

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1992-01-01

The periodic streamwise modulation of the supersonic and hypersonic boundary layers by a two dimensional first mode or second mode wave makes the resulting base flow susceptible to a broadband spanwise-periodic three dimensional type of instability. The principal parametric resonance of this instability (subharmonic) was analyzed using Floquet theory. The effect of Mach number and the effectiveness of wall cooling or wall suction in controlling the onset, the growth rate, and the vortical nature of the subharmonic secondary instability are assessed for both a first mode and a second mode primary wave. Results indicate that the secondary subharmonic instability of the insulated wall boundary layer is weakened as Mach number increases. Cooling of the wall destabilizes the secondary subharmonic of a second mode primary wave, but stabilizes it when the primary wave is a first mode. Suction stabilizes the secondary subharmonic at all Mach numbers.

2. Flow visualization of discrete hole film cooling for gas turbine applications

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Colladay, R. S.; Russell, L. M.

1975-01-01

Film injection from discrete holes in a three row staggered array with 5-diameter spacing is studied. The boundary layer thickness-to-hole diameter ratio and Reynolds number are typical of gas turbine film cooling applications. Two different injection locations are studied to evaluate the effect of boundary layer thickness on film penetration and mixing. Detailed streaklines showing the turbulent motion of the injected air are obtained by photographing neutrally buoyant helium filled soap bubbles which follow the flow field. The bubble streaklines passing downstream injection locations are clearly identifiable and can be traced back to their origin. Visualization of surface temperature patterns obtained from infrared photographs of a similar film cooled surface are also included.

3. Computer program for generating input for analysis of impingement-cooled, axial-flow turbine blade

Rosenbaum, D.

1980-01-01

A computer program, TACTGRID, was developed to generate the geometrical input for the TACTI program, a program that calculates transient and steady state temperatures, pressures, and cooling flows in an impingement cooled turbine blade. Using spline curves, the TACTGRID program constructs the blade internal geometry from the previously designed external blade surface and newly selected wall and channel thicknesses. The TACTGRID program generates the TACTI calculational grid, calculates arc length between grid points required by TACTI as input, and prepares the namelist input data set used by TACTI for the blade geometry. In addition, TACTGRID produces a scaled computer plot of each blade slice, detailing the grid and calculational stations, and thus eliminates the need for intermediate drafting.

4. Effect of cooling on pressure losses in U-type wavy pipe flow

SciTech Connect

Wojtkowiak, J.; Popiel, C.O.

2000-02-01

Wavy pipes are used in many heat transfer devices, e.g., in shell-and-tube heat exchangers, floor and wall heating systems and in solar collectors. Here, results of pressure drop measurements under adiabatic and nonadiabatic (at T{sub w} const.) flow conditions in U-type wavy pipes having fixed dimensionless radius of centerline curvature 2R/d=6.62 and two dimensionless spacer lengths 1/d=0 and 1/d=39.7 are presented. The working fluid was water. The effects of cooling and spacer length were investigated. It is shown that cooling of water increases the friction factor. This increase is plausible attributed to the deformation of the velocity distribution resulting from the temperature dependence of the viscosity and density of water.

5. Flow visualization of discrete-hole film cooling with spanwise injection over a cylinder

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Russell, L. M.

1979-01-01

Insight into the fluid mechanics encountered when film air from a single row of holes is injected over a cylinder in a mainstream at conditions simulating a film cooled, turbulent-vane leading edge was investigated. Smoke was added to the cooling air to visualize its flow path. Film was injected in the spanwise direction at angles of 30 deg and 45 deg to the surface; at angular locations of 15 deg, 30 deg, 45 deg, and 60 deg from the stagnation line; and at various blowing ratios. The observations were related to the measured heat transfer data of others. The results indicate that, in addition to the expected growth in film thickness and the greater penetration of the boundary layer with increasing blowing ration, there was an absence of spanwise spreading and only a small spanwise deflection of the injected film.

6. Modeling of Supersonic Film Cooling on the J-2X Nozzle Extension

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ruf, Joseph H.; Morris, Christopher I.

2011-01-01

Supersonic film cooling (SSFC) of nozzles has been used in several liquid rocket engine designs, and is being applied to the nozzle extension (NE) of the J-2X upper stage engine currently under development. Turbine exhaust gas (TEG) is injected tangentially from a manifold along the NE, and provides a thermal barrier from the core nozzle flow for the NE. As the TEG stream mixes with the nozzle flow, the effectiveness of the thermal barrier is reduced. This paper documents computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis work performed by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to model the flow of the TEG through the manifold, into the nozzle, and the subsequent mixing of the TEG stream with the core flow. The geometry and grid of the TEG manifold, structural support ribs, and the NE wall will be shown, and the CFD boundary conditions described. The Loci-CHEM CFD code used in this work will also be briefly described. A unique approach to modeling the combined TEG manifold/thrust chamber assembly (TCA) was employed, as it was not practical to model the entire 360 circumferential range in one simulation. Prior CFD validation work modeling Calspan SSFC experiments in the early 1990s, documented in a previous AIAA paper, will also be briefly discussed. The fluid dynamics of the TEG flow through the manifold, into and between the structural support ribs, and into the nozzlette that feeds the TCA will be described. Significant swirl and non-uniformities are present, which along with the wakes from the ribs, act to degrade the film cooling effectiveness compared to idealized injection of TEG gas. The effect of these flow characteristics on the adiabatic wall temperature profile on the NE will be discussed.

7. Investigation of the flow field downstream of a turbine trailing edge cooled nozzle guide vane

SciTech Connect

Sieverding, C.H.; Arts, T.; Denos, R.; Martelli, F.

1996-04-01

A trailing edge cooled low aspect ratio transonic turbine guide vane is investigated in the VKI Compression Tube Cascade Facility at an outlet Mach number {bar M}{sub 2,is} = 1.05 and a coolant flow rate {dot m}c/{dot m}g = 3 percent. The outlet flow field is surveyed by combined total-directional pressure probes and temperature probes. Special emphasis is put on the development of low blockage probes. Additional information is provided by oil flow visualizations and numerical flow visualizations with a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code. The test results describe the strong differences in the axial evolution of the hub and tip endwall and secondary flows and demonstrate the self-similarity of the midspan wake profiles. According to the total pressure and temperature profiles, the wake mixing appears to be very fast in the near-wake but very slow in the far-wake region. The total pressure wake profile appears to be little affected by the coolant flow ejection.

8. Modeling groundwater flow on MPPs

SciTech Connect

Ashby, S.F.; Falgout, R.D.; Smith, S.G.; Tompson, A.F.B.

1993-10-01

The numerical simulation of groundwater flow in three-dimensional heterogeneous porous media is examined. To enable detailed modeling of large contaminated sites, preconditioned iterative methods and massively parallel computing power are combined in a simulator called PARFLOW. After describing this portable and modular code, some numerical results are given, including one that demonstrates the codes scalability.

9. Compaction profiles of ash-flow tuffs: Modeling versus reality

Riehle, J. R.; Miller, T. F.; Paquereau-Lebti, P.

2010-08-01

Density profiles of 4 ash-flow deposits in Oregon and Idaho are simulated using the model of Riehle et al. (1995) to calculate heat flow, degassing, and compaction. The deposits are all < 45 m thick and most have well defined density reversals and lack substantial alteration or vapor-phase deposition. Model results are made to closely match the measured profiles of 3 simpler deposits by making the assumptions that density reversals represent cooling breaks between ash flows or that subtle density inflections at the base of the profiles are cooler surge deposits. The first assumption is supported by a fossil fumarole pipe truncated at a density inflection, and the second by foreset bedding at the base of the deposit. Deposit temperatures within each unit of thermally stratified deposits are assumed to be homogeneous. The Rattlesnake Tuff—a more complex ignimbrite sheet—was sampled at 3 distal sites near to one another, a medial site, and 4 proximal sites. Model results of distal profiles are similar despite more than twofold variation in thickness and comprise 3 early deposits having emplacement temperatures of 724-732 °C, followed by two hotter deposits (785-790 °C), and a cooler capping deposit of about 735 °C. One distal site has an inferred surge deposit at its base. Density reversals simulated as cooling intervals all range from 3 to 10 days. Correlated cooling intervals agree to within a factor of two, however, the duration of a cooling interval cannot be precisely hindcast owing to potential complications by rainfall or accumulation of chilled airfall ash. Thus, the seemingly wide range of model results for the cooling intervals is perhaps not surprising. Proximal profiles have more density reversals implying more deposits than the distal profiles. They also have greater overall compaction and consequential loss of detail in the density profiles. Some earlier deposits have model temperatures of 736-757 °C and may correlate with the lower distal

10. Comparison of software models for energy savings from cool roofs

DOE PAGESBeta

New, Joshua; Miller, William A.; Huang, Yu; Levinson, Ronnen

2015-06-07

For this study, a web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the United States Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. RSC simulates multiple roof and attic technologies for side-by-side comparison including reflective roofs, different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance roof surfaces, duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple substrate types, and insulation levels. Annual simulations of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance are used to provide estimated annual energy and cost savings from reduced HVAC use. While RSC reported similar cooling savingsmore » to other simulation engines, heating penalty varied significantly. RSC results show reduced cool roofing cost-effectiveness, thus mitigating expected economic incentives for this countermeasure to the urban heat island effect. This paper consolidates comparison of RSC's projected energy savings to other simulation engines including DOE-2.1E, AtticSim, Micropas, and EnergyPlus. Also included are comparisons to previous simulation-based studies, analysis of RSC cooling savings and heating penalties, the role of radiative heat exchange in an attic assembly, and changes made for increased accuracy of the duct model. Finally, radiant heat transfer and duct interaction not previously modeled is considered a major contributor to heating penalties.« less

11. Comparison of software models for energy savings from cool roofs

SciTech Connect

New, Joshua; Miller, William A.; Huang, Yu; Levinson, Ronnen

2015-06-07

For this study, a web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the United States Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. RSC simulates multiple roof and attic technologies for side-by-side comparison including reflective roofs, different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance roof surfaces, duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple substrate types, and insulation levels. Annual simulations of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance are used to provide estimated annual energy and cost savings from reduced HVAC use. While RSC reported similar cooling savings to other simulation engines, heating penalty varied significantly. RSC results show reduced cool roofing cost-effectiveness, thus mitigating expected economic incentives for this countermeasure to the urban heat island effect. This paper consolidates comparison of RSC's projected energy savings to other simulation engines including DOE-2.1E, AtticSim, Micropas, and EnergyPlus. Also included are comparisons to previous simulation-based studies, analysis of RSC cooling savings and heating penalties, the role of radiative heat exchange in an attic assembly, and changes made for increased accuracy of the duct model. Finally, radiant heat transfer and duct interaction not previously modeled is considered a major contributor to heating penalties.

12. Comparison of Software Models for Energy Savings from Cool Roofs

SciTech Connect

New, Joshua Ryan; Miller, William A; Huang, Yu; Levinson, Ronnen

2016-01-01

A web-based Roof Savings Calculator (RSC) has been deployed for the United States Department of Energy as an industry-consensus tool to help building owners, manufacturers, distributors, contractors and researchers easily run complex roof and attic simulations. RSC simulates multiple roof and attic technologies for side-by-side comparison including reflective roofs, different roof slopes, above sheathing ventilation, radiant barriers, low-emittance roof surfaces, duct location, duct leakage rates, multiple substrate types, and insulation levels. Annual simulations of hour-by-hour, whole-building performance are used to provide estimated annual energy and cost savings from reduced HVAC use. While RSC reported similar cooling savings to other simulation engines, heating penalty varied significantly. RSC results show reduced cool roofing cost-effectiveness, thus mitigating expected economic incentives for this countermeasure to the urban heat island effect. This paper consolidates comparison of RSC s projected energy savings to other simulation engines including DOE-2.1E, AtticSim, Micropas, and EnergyPlus. Also included are comparisons to previous simulation-based studies, analysis of RSC cooling savings and heating penalties, the role of radiative heat exchange in an attic assembly, and changes made for increased accuracy of the duct model. Radiant heat transfer and duct interaction not previously modeled is considered a major contributor to heating penalties.

13. Turbulence modeling for compressible flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Marvin, J. G.

1977-01-01

Material prepared for a course on Applications and Fundamentals of Turbulence given at the University of Tennessee Space Institute, January 10 and 11, 1977, is presented. A complete concept of turbulence modeling is described, and examples of progess for its use in computational aerodynimics are given. Modeling concepts, experiments, and computations using the concepts are reviewed in a manner that provides an up-to-date statement on the status of this problem for compressible flows.

14. Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Effects of Flow Control Devices Upon Flat-Plate Film Cooling Performance.

PubMed

Kawabata, Hirokazu; Funazaki, Ken-Ichi; Nakata, Ryota; Takahashi, Daichi

2014-06-01

This study deals with the experimental and numerical studies of the effect of flow control devices (FCDs) on the film cooling performance of a circular cooling hole on a flat plate. Two types of FCDs with different heights are examined in this study, where each of them is mounted to the flat plate upstream of the cooling hole by changing its lateral position with respect to the hole centerline. In order to measure the film effectiveness as well as heat transfer downstream of the cooling hole with upstream FCD, a transient method using a high-resolution infrared camera is adopted. The velocity field downstream of the cooling hole is captured by 3D laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV). Furthermore, the aerodynamic loss associated with the cooling hole with/without FCD is measured by a total pressure probe rake. The experiments are carried out at blowing ratios ranging from 0.5 to 1.0. In addition, numerical simulations are also made to have a better understanding of the flow field. LES approach is employed to solve the flow field and visualize the vortex structure around the cooling hole with FCD. When a taller FCD is mounted to the plate, the film effectiveness tends to increase due to the vortex structure generated by the FCD. As FCD is laterally shifted from the centerline, the film effectiveness increases, while the lift-off of cooling air is also promoted when FCD is put on the center line. PMID:25278646

15. Model Predictive Control for the Operation of Building Cooling Systems

SciTech Connect

Ma, Yudong; Borrelli, Francesco; Hencey, Brandon; Coffey, Brian; Bengea, Sorin; Haves, Philip

2010-06-29

A model-based predictive control (MPC) is designed for optimal thermal energy storage in building cooling systems. We focus on buildings equipped with a water tank used for actively storing cold water produced by a series of chillers. Typically the chillers are operated at night to recharge the storage tank in order to meet the building demands on the following day. In this paper, we build on our previous work, improve the building load model, and present experimental results. The experiments show that MPC can achieve reduction in the central plant electricity cost and improvement of its efficiency.

16. Secondary instability of high-speed flows and the influence of wall cooling and suction

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1991-01-01

The periodic streamwise modulation of the supersonic and hypersonic boundary layers by a two-dimensional first-mode or second-mode wave makes the resulting base flow susceptible to a broad-band spanwise-periodic three-dimensional type of instability. The principal parametric resonance of this instability (subharmonic) has been analyzed using Floquet theory. The effect of Mach number and the effectiveness of wall cooling or wall suction in controlling the onset, the growth rate, and the vortical structure of the subharmonic secondary instability are assessed for both a first-mode and a second-mode primary wave.

17. Streakline flow visualization of discrete-hole film cooling with normal, slanted, and compound angle injection

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Colladay, R. S.; Russell, L. M.

1976-01-01

Film injection from discrete holes in a three-row, staggered array with five-diameter spacing was studied for three hole angles: (1) normal, (2) slanted 30 deg to the surface in the direction of the main stream, and (3) slanted 30 deg to the surface and 45 deg laterally to the main stream. The ratio of the boundary layer thickness-to-hole diameter and Reynolds number were typical of gas-turbine film-cooling applications. Detailed streaklines showing the turbulent motion of the injected air were obtained by photographing very small neutrally buoyant, helium-filled soap bubbles which follow the flow field.

18. Behavior of fast moving flow of compressible gas in cylindrical pipe in presence of cooling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Varshavsky, G A

1951-01-01

For compressible flow with friction in a cylindrical pipe the momentum, continuity, and heat-transfer equations are examined to determine whether an increase in Mach number ("thermal" Laval nozzle) is obtainable through heat conduction from the gas through the pipe walls. The analysis is based on the assumption that the wall temperature is negligibly small in comparison with the stagnation temperature of the gas. The analysis leads to a negative result. When the gas cooling is increased by also considering radiation to the wall, a limited region at high temperatures is obtained where Mach number increases were theoretically possible. Obtaining this condition practically is considered impossible.

19. Image-Based Flow Modeling

Dillard, Seth; Mousel, John; Buchholz, James; Udaykumar, H. S.

2009-11-01

A preliminary method has been developed to model complex moving boundaries interacting with fluids in two dimensions using video files. Image segmentation techniques are employed to generate sharp object interfaces which are cast as level sets embedded in a Cartesian flow domain. In this way, boundary evolution is effected directly through imagery rather than by way of functional approximation. Videos of an American eel swimming in a water tunnel apparatus and a guinea pig duodenum undergoing peristaltic contractions in vitro serve as external and internal flow examples, which are evaluated for wake structure and mixing efficacy, respectively.

20. THATCH: A computer code for modelling thermal networks of high- temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactors

SciTech Connect

Kroeger, P.G.; Kennett, R.J.; Colman, J.; Ginsberg, T. )

1991-10-01

This report documents the THATCH code, which can be used to model general thermal and flow networks of solids and coolant channels in two-dimensional r-z geometries. The main application of THATCH is to model reactor thermo-hydraulic transients in High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGRs). The available modules simulate pressurized or depressurized core heatup transients, heat transfer to general exterior sinks or to specific passive Reactor Cavity Cooling Systems, which can be air or water-cooled. Graphite oxidation during air or water ingress can be modelled, including the effects of added combustion products to the gas flow and the additional chemical energy release. A point kinetics model is available for analyzing reactivity excursions; for instance due to water ingress, and also for hypothetical no-scram scenarios. For most HTGR transients, which generally range over hours, a user-selected nodalization of the core in r-z geometry is used. However, a separate model of heat transfer in the symmetry element of each fuel element is also available for very rapid transients. This model can be applied coupled to the traditional coarser r-z nodalization. This report described the mathematical models used in the code and the method of solution. It describes the code and its various sub-elements. Details of the input data and file usage, with file formats, is given for the code, as well as for several preprocessing and postprocessing options. The THATCH model of the currently applicable 350 MW{sub th} reactor is described. Input data for four sample cases are given with output available in fiche form. Installation requirements and code limitations, as well as the most common error indications are listed. 31 refs., 23 figs., 32 tabs.

1. A Model to Predict Total Chlorine Residue in the Cooling Seawater of a Power Plant Using Iodine Colorimetric Method

PubMed Central

Wang, Jih-Terng; Chen, Ming-Hui; Lee, Hung-Jen; Chang, Wen-Been; Chen, Chung-Chi; Pai, Su-Cheng; Meng, Pei-Jie

2008-01-01

A model experiment monitoring the fate of total residue oxidant (TRO) in water at a constant temperature and salinity indicated that it decayed exponentially with time, and with TRO decaying faster in seawater than in distilled water. The reduction of TRO by temperature (°K) was found to fit a curvilinear relationship in distilled water (r2 = 0.997) and a linear relationship in seawater (r2 = 0.996). Based on the decay rate, flow rate, and the length of cooling water flowing through at a given temperature, the TRO level in the cooling water of a power plant could be estimated using the equation developed in this study. This predictive model would provide a benchmark for power plant operators to adjust the addition of chlorine to levels necessary to control bio-fouling of cooling water intake pipelines, but without irritating ambient marine organisms. PMID:19325768

2. A Combined Experimental/Computational Study of Flow in Turbine Blade Cooling Passage

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tse, D. G. N.; Kreskovsky, J. P.; Shamroth, S. J.; Mcgrath, D. B.

1994-01-01

Laser velocimetry was utilized to map the velocity field in a serpentine turbine blade cooling passage at Reynolds and Rotation numbers of up to 25.000 and 0.48. These results were used to assess the combined influence of passage curvature and Coriolis force on the secondary velocity field generated. A Navier-Stokes code (NASTAR) was validated against incompressible test data and then used to simulate the effect of buoyancy. The measurements show a net convection from the low pressure surface to high pressure surface. The interaction of the secondary flows induced by the turns and rotation produces swirl at the turns, which persisted beyond 2 hydraulic diameters downstream of the turns. The incompressible flow field predictions agree well with the measured velocities. With radially outward flow, the buoyancy force causes a further increase in velocity on the high pressure surface and a reduction on the low pressure surface. The results were analyzed in relation to the heat transfer measurements of Wagner et al. (1991). Predicted heat transfer is enhanced on the high pressure surfaces and in turns. The incompressible flow simulation underpredicts heat transfer in these locations. Improvements observed in compressible flow simulation indicate that the buoyancy force may be important.

3. A combined experiment/computational study of flow in turbine blade cooling passage

Tse, D. G. N.; Kreskovsky, J. P.; Shamroth, S. J.; McGrath, D. B.

1994-05-01

Laser velocimetry was utilized to map the velocity field in a serpentine turbine blade cooling passage at Reynolds and Rotation numbers of up to 25.000 and 0.48. These results were used to assess the combined influence of passage curvature and Coriolis force on the secondary velocity field generated. A Navier-Stokes code (NASTAR) was validated against incompressible test data and then used to simulate the effect of buoyancy. The measurements show a net convection from the low pressure surface to high pressure surface. The interaction of the secondary flows induced by the turns and rotation produces swirl at the turns, which persisted beyond 2 hydraulic diameters downstream of the turns. The incompressible flow field predictions agree well with the measured velocities. With radially outward flow, the buoyancy force causes a further increase in velocity on the high pressure surface and a reduction on the low pressure surface. The results were analyzed in relation to the heat transfer measurements of Wagner et al. (1991). Predicted heat transfer is enhanced on the high pressure surfaces and in turns. The incompressible flow simulation underpredicts heat transfer in these locations. Improvements observed in compressible flow simulation indicate that the buoyancy force may be important.

4. Experimental investigation of film cooling flow induced by shaped holes on a turbine blade.

PubMed

Barthet, S; Bario, F

2001-05-01

The present study is the second half of a piece of work carried out in collaboration with SNECMA. It investigates shaped hole film cooling, numerically and experimentally. The aim of this paper is the experimental analysis of shaped hole film cooling on a large scale turbine blade (1.4 m chord). The test section is a large scale turbine inlet guide vane cascade. The test airfoil is equipped with a row of nine 50 degrees sloped shaped holes. They are located on the suction side at 20% of the curvilinear length of the blade from the stagnation point. The inlet film cooling hole diameter is 12 mm. The jet flow is heated to 55 degrees C above the crossflow temperature. Velocity and temperature field measurements have been done to obtain mean and fluctuating values. The results are compared to those obtained by Béral on the same experimental apparatus and in the same test conditions, for a row of cylindrical holes. PMID:11460642

5. Observations and Modeling of the Pulse-driven Cool Plasma Ejecta in the Solar Atmosphere

Srivastava, Abhishek K.; Murawski, . Kris; Kayshap, Pradeep

2012-07-01

The cool plasma ejecta are ubiquitous in the solar atmosphere, and have significant implications on its mass and energy transport. We present two case studies of the SDO/AIA observations of (i) cool jet at north polar region, and (ii) the cool surge ejecta at the active region boundary. The common nature between these two different class of plasma dynamics is that both do not reveal any signature of strong heating during course of their life-times. The surge shows some evidence of heating at its footpoint, however, mostly not visible in the SDO/AIA filters sensitive to the higher coronal temperatures. Similarly, the polar jet is also only evident in the SDO/AIA 304 Å channel that is sensitive to the plasma maintained around 0.1 MK, and does not show any signature of heating. We model these cool jets by launching reconnection generated pulses in the VAL-III C model of the solar temperature as an initial condition. For the case of cool polar jet, we launch reconnection generated velocity pulse in the more realistic solar atmosphere, which steepens into a shock at higher altitudes and triggers plasma perturbations exhibiting the observed features of the jet. However, the footpoint of the surge shows small heating episode in the second case study, therefore, we consider the excitation of reconnection generated thermal pulse which triggers plasma perturbations approximately exhibiting the observed features of the surge, e.g., average velocity, height, width, life-time, and fine structures at its base. We also compare our new results with the existing models and observations of such jets, and plasma flows especially reported in the SDO era.

6. Streakline flow visualization of discrete hole film cooling with holes inclined 30 deg to surface

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Colladay, R. S.; Russell, L. M.; Lane, J. M.

1976-01-01

Film injection from three rows of discrete holes angled 30 deg to the surface in line with mainstream flow and spaced 5 diameters apart in a staggered array was visualized by using helium bubbles as tracer particles. Both the main stream and the film injectant were ambient air. Detailed streaklines showing the turbulent motion of the film mixing with the main stream were obtained by photographing small, neutrally buoyant helium-filled soap bubbles which followed the flow field. The ratio of boundary layer thickness to hole diameter and the Reynolds number were typical of gas turbine film cooling applications. The results showed the behavior of the film and its interaction with the main stream for a range of blowing rates and two initial boundary layer thicknesses.

7. Mathematical modeling of the thermal and hydrodynamic structure of the cooling reservoir

Saminskiy, G.; Debolskaya, E.

2012-04-01

Hydrothermal conditions of the cooling reservoir is determined by the heat and mass transfer from the water surface to the atmosphere and the processes of heat transfer directly in the water mass of the reservoir. As the capacity of power plants, the corresponding increase in the volume of heated water and the use of deep lakes and reservoirs as coolers there is a need to develop new, more accurate, and the application of existing methods for the numerical simulation. In calculating the hydrothermal regime it must take into account the effect of wind, density (buoyancy) forces, and other data of the cooling reservoir. In addition to solving practical problems it is important to know not only the magnitude of the average temperature, but also its area and depth distribution. A successful solution can be achieved through mathematical modeling of general systems of equations of transport processes and the correct formulation of the problem, based on appropriate initial data. The purpose of the work is application of software package GETM for simulating the hydrothermal regime of cooling reservoir with an estimate of three-dimensional structure of transfer processes, the effects of wind, the friction of the water surface. Three-dimensional models are rarely applied, especially for far-field problems. If such models are required, experts in the field must develop and apply them. Primary physical processes included are surface heat transfer, short-wave and long-wave radiation and penetration, convective mixing, wind and flow induced mixing, entrainment of ambient water by pumped-storage inflows, inflow density stratification as impacted by temperature and dissolved and suspended solids. The model forcing data consists of the system bathymetry developed into the model grid; the boundary condition flow and temperature; the tributary and flow and temperature; and the system meteorology. Ivankovskoe reservoir belongs to the reservoirs of valley type (Tver region, Russia). It

8. Flows In Model Human Femoral Arteries

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Back, Lloyd H.; Kwack, Eug Y.; Crawford, Donald W.

1990-01-01

Flow is visualized with dye traces, and pressure measurements made. Report describes experimental study of flow in models of human femoral artery. Conducted to examine effect of slight curvature of artery on flow paths and distribution of pressure.

9. Paleo-heat flows, radioactive heat generation, and the cooling and deformation history of Mercury

Ruiz, Javier; López, Valle; Egea-González, Isabel

2013-07-01

Estimates of lithospheric strength for Mercury, based on the depth of thrust faults associated with large lobate scarps (which were most probably formed previously to ˜3 Ga) or on the effective elastic thickness of the lithosphere supporting a broad rise in the northern smooth plains (whose formation is poorly constrained, but posterior to 3.8 Ga), serve as a basis for the calculation of paleo-heat flows, referred to the time when these structures were formed. The so-obtained paleo-heat flows can give information on the Urey ratio (Ur), the ratio between the total radioactive heat production and the total surface heat loss. By imposing the condition Ur < 1 (corresponding to a cooling Mercury, consistent with the observed widespread contraction), we obtain an upper limit of 0.4 times the average surface value for the abundance of heat-producing elements in the outer solid shell of Mercury. We also find that if the formation of the northern rise occurred in a time posterior to ˜3 Ga, then in that time the Urey ratio was lower, and the cooling more intense, than when most of large lobate scarps were formed. Thus, because largest lobate scarps deform older terrains (suggesting more intense contraction early in the mercurian history), we conclude that the northern rise was formed previously to 3 Ga. If the age of other smooth plains large wavelength deformations is similar, then tectonic activity in Mercury would have been limited in the last 3 billion of years.

10. Technical analysis of a river basin-based model of advanced power plant cooling technologies for mitigating water management challenges

Stillwell, Ashlynn S.; Clayton, Mary E.; Webber, Michael E.

2011-07-01

Thermoelectric power plants require large volumes of water for cooling, which can introduce drought vulnerability and compete with other water needs. Alternative cooling technologies, such as cooling towers and hybrid wet-dry or dry cooling, present opportunities to reduce water diversions. This case study uses a custom, geographically resolved river basin-based model for eleven river basins in the state of Texas (the Brazos and San Jacinto-Brazos, Colorado and Colorado-Brazos, Cypress, Neches, Nueces, Red, Sabine, San Jacinto, and Trinity River basins), focusing on the Brazos River basin, to analyze water availability during drought. We utilized two existing water availability models for our analysis: (1) the full execution of water rights—a scenario where each water rights holder diverts the full permitted volume with zero return flow, and (2) current conditions—a scenario reflecting actual diversions with associated return flows. Our model results show that switching the cooling technologies at power plants in the eleven analyzed river basins to less water-intensive alternative designs can potentially reduce annual water diversions by 247-703 million m3—enough water for 1.3-3.6 million people annually. We consider these results in a geographic context using geographic information system tools and then analyze volume reliability, which is a policymaker's metric that indicates the percentage of total demand actually supplied over a given period. This geographic and volume reliability analysis serves as a measure of drought susceptibility in response to changes in thermoelectric cooling technologies. While these water diversion savings do not alleviate all reliability concerns, the additional streamflow from the use of dry cooling alleviates drought concerns for some municipal water rights holders and might also be sufficient to uphold instream flow requirements for important bays and estuaries on the Texas Gulf coast.

11. Flow and heat transfer model for a rotating cryogenic motor

Dykhuizen, R. C.; Baca, R. G.; Bickel, T. C.

1993-08-01

Development of a high-temperature, superconducting, synchronous motor for large applications (greater than 1000 HP) could offer significant electrical power savings for industrial users. Presently 60% of all electric power generated in the United States is converted by electric motors. A large part of this power is utilized by motors 1000 HP or larger. The use of high-temperature superconducting materials with critical temperatures above that of liquid nitrogen (77 K) in the field winding would reduce the losses in these motors significantly, and therefore, would have a definite impact on the electrical power usage in the U.S. These motors will be 1/3 to 1/2 the size of conventional motors of similar power and, thus, offer potential savings in materials and floor space. The cooling of the superconducting materials in the field windings of the rotor presents a unique application of cryogenic engineering. The rotational velocity results in significant radial pressure gradients that affect the flow distribution of the cryogen. The internal pressure fields can result in significant nonuniformities in the two-phase flow of the coolant. Due to the variable speed design, the flow distribution has the potential to change during operation. A multiphase-flow computer model of the cryogenic cooling is developed to calculate the boiling heat transfer and phase distribution of the nitrogen coolant in the motor. The model accounts for unequal phase velocities and nonuniform cooling requirements of the rotor. The unequal radial pressure gradients in the inlet and outlet headers result in a larger driving force for flow in the outer cooling channels. The effect of this must be accounted for in the design of the motor. Continuing improvements of the model will allow the investigation of the transient thermal issues associated with localized quenching of the superconducting components of the motor.

12. Flow and heat transfer model for a rotating cryogenic motor

SciTech Connect

Dykhuizen, R.C.; Baca, R.G.; Bickel, T.C.

1993-08-01

Development of a high-temperature, superconducting, synchronous motor for large applications (>1000 HP) could offer significant electrical power savings for industrial users. Presently 60% of all electric power generated in the United States is converted by electric motors. A large part of two power is utilized by motors 1000 HP or larger. The use of high-temperature superconducting materials with critical temperatures above that of liquid nitrogen (77 K) in the field winding would reduce the losses in these motors significantly, and therefore, would have a definite impact on the electrical power usage in the US. These motors will be 1/3 to 1/2 the size of conventional motors of similar power and, thus, offer potential savings in materials and floor space. The cooling of the superconducting materials in the field windings of the rotor presents a unique application of cryogenic engineering. The rotational velocity results in significant radial pressure gradients that affect the flow distribution of the cryogen. The internal pressure fields can result in significant nonuniformities in the two-phase flow of the coolant. Due to the variable speed design, the flow distribution has the potential to change during operation. A multiphase-flow computer model of the cryogenic cooling is developed to calculate the boiling heat transfer and phase distribution of the nitrogen coolant in the motor. The model accounts for unequal phase velocities and nonuniform cooling requirements of the rotor. The unequal radial pressure gradients in the inlet and outlet headers result in a larger driving force for flow in the outer cooling channels. The effect of this must be accounted for in the design of the motor. Continuing improvements of the model will allow the investigation of the transient thermal issues associated with localized quenching of the superconducting components of the motor.

13. Modeling shrouded stator cavity flows in axial-flow compressors

SciTech Connect

Wellborn, S.R.; Tolchinsky, I.; Okiishi, T.H.

2000-01-01

Experiments and computational analyses were completed to understand the nature of shrouded stator cavity flows. From this understanding, a one-dimensional model of the flow through shrouded stator cavities was developed. This model estimates the leakage mass flow, temperature rise, and angular momentum increase through the cavity, given geometry parameters and the flow conditions at the interface between the cavity and primary flow path. This cavity model consists of two components, one that estimates the flow characteristics through the labyrinth seals and the other that predicts the transfer of momentum due to windage. A description of the one-dimensional model is given. The incorporation and use of the one-dimensional model in a multistage compressor primary flow analysis tool is described. The combination of this model and the primary flow solver was used to reliably simulate the significant impact on performance of the increase of hub seal leakage in a twelve-stage axial-flow compressor. Observed higher temperatures of the hub region fluid, different stage matching, and lower overall efficiencies and core flow than expected could be correctly linked to increased hub seal clearance with this new technique. The importance of including these leakage flows in compressor simulations is shown.

14. Comparative Modelling of the Spectra of Cool Giants

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lebzelter, T.; Heiter, U.; Abia, C.; Eriksson, K.; Ireland, M.; Neilson, H.; Nowotny, W; Maldonado, J; Merle, T.; Peterson, R.; Plez, B.; Short, C. I.; Wahlgren, G. M.; Worley, C.; Aringer, B.; Bladh, S.; de Laverny, P.; Goswami, A.; Mora, A.; Norris, R. P.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Scholz, M.; Thevenin, F.; Tsuji, T.; Kordopatis, G.

2012-01-01

Our ability to extract information from the spectra of stars depends on reliable models of stellar atmospheres and appropriate techniques for spectral synthesis. Various model codes and strategies for the analysis of stellar spectra are available today. Aims. We aim to compare the results of deriving stellar parameters using different atmosphere models and different analysis strategies. The focus is set on high-resolution spectroscopy of cool giant stars. Methods. Spectra representing four cool giant stars were made available to various groups and individuals working in the area of spectral synthesis, asking them to derive stellar parameters from the data provided. The results were discussed at a workshop in Vienna in 2010. Most of the major codes currently used in the astronomical community for analyses of stellar spectra were included in this experiment. Results. We present the results from the different groups, as well as an additional experiment comparing the synthetic spectra produced by various codes for a given set of stellar parameters. Similarities and differences of the results are discussed. Conclusions. Several valid approaches to analyze a given spectrum of a star result in quite a wide range of solutions. The main causes for the differences in parameters derived by different groups seem to lie in the physical input data and in the details of the analysis method. This clearly shows how far from a definitive abundance analysis we still are.

15. Numerical Investigation of the Flow Dynamics and Evaporative Cooling of Water Droplets Impinging onto Heated Surfaces: An Effective Approach To Identify Spray Cooling Mechanisms.

PubMed

Chen, Jian-Nan; Zhang, Zhen; Xu, Rui-Na; Ouyang, Xiao-Long; Jiang, Pei-Xue

2016-09-13

Numerical investigations of the dynamics and evaporative cooling of water droplets impinging onto heated surfaces can be used to identify spray cooling mechanisms. Droplet impingement dynamics and evaporation are simulated using the presented numerical model. Volume-of-fluid method is used in the model to track the free surface. The contact line dynamics was predicted from a dynamic contact angle model with the evaporation rate predicted by a kinetic theory model. A species transport equation was solved in the gas phase to describe the vapor convection and diffusion. The numerical model was validated by experimental data. The physical effects including the contact angle hysteresis and the thermocapillary effect are analyzed to offer guidance for future numerical models of droplet impingement cooling. The effects of various parameters including surface wettability, surface temperature, droplet velocity, droplet size, and droplet temperature were numerically studied from the standpoint of spray cooling. The numerical simulations offer profound analysis and deep insight into the spray cooling heat transfer mechanisms. PMID:27531256

16. On the Influence of Heating Surface Structure on Bubble Detachment in Sub-Cooled Nucleate Boiling Flows

SciTech Connect

Wen Wu; Peipei Chen; Jones, Barclay G.; Newell, Ty A.

2006-07-01

This research examines the influence of heating surface structure on bubble detachment, which includes bubble departure and bubble lift-off, under sub-cooled nucleate boiling condition, in order to obtain better understanding to the bubble dynamics on horizontal flat heat exchangers. Refrigerant R-134a is chosen as a simulant fluid due to its merits of having smaller surface tension, reduced latent heat, and lower boiling temperature than water. Experiments were run with varying experimental parameters e.g. pressure, inlet sub-cooled level, and flow rate, etc. High speed digital images at frame rates up to 4000 frames/s were obtained, showing characteristics of bubble movement. Bubble radius and center coordinates were calculated via Canny's algorithm for edge detection and Fitzgibbon's algorithm for ellipse fitting. Results were compared against the model proposed by Klausner et al. for prediction of bubble detachment sizes. Good overall agreement was shown, with several minor modifications and suggestions made to the assumptions of the model. (authors)

17. Flow visualization study in high aspect ratio cooling channels for rocket engines

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Meyer, Michael L.; Giuliani, James E.

1993-01-01

The structural integrity of high pressure liquid propellant rocket engine thrust chambers is typically maintained through regenerative cooling. The coolant flows through passages formed either by constructing the chamber liner from tubes or by milling channels in a solid liner. Recently, Carlile and Quentmeyer showed life extending advantages (by lowering hot gas wall temperatures) of milling channels with larger height to width aspect ratios (AR is greater than 4) than the traditional, approximately square cross section, passages. Further, the total coolant pressure drop in the thrust chamber could also be reduced, resulting in lower turbomachinery power requirements. High aspect ratio cooling channels could offer many benefits to designers developing new high performance engines, such as the European Vulcain engine (which uses an aspect ratio up to 9). With platelet manufacturing technology, channel aspect ratios up to 15 could be formed offering potentially greater benefits. Some issues still exist with the high aspect ratio coolant channels. In a coolant passage of circular or square cross section, strong secondary vortices develop as the fluid passes through the curved throat region. These vortices mix the fluid and bring lower temperature coolant to the hot wall. Typically, the circulation enhances the heat transfer at the hot gas wall by about 40 percent over a straight channel. The effect that increasing channel aspect ratio has on the curvature heat transfer enhancement has not been sufficiently studied. If the increase in aspect ratio degrades the secondary flow, the fluid mixing will be reduced. Analysis has shown that reduced coolant mixing will result in significantly higher wall temperatures, due to thermal stratification in the coolant, thus decreasing the benefits of the high aspect ratio geometry. A better understanding of the fundamental flow phenomena in high aspect ratio channels with curvature is needed to fully evaluate the benefits of this

18. Comparison of plate and asthenospheric flow models for the thermal evolution of oceanic lithosphere

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stein, Carol A.; Stein, Seth

1994-01-01

Although seafloor depth and heat flow for young oceanic lithosphere can be descibed by modeling the lithosphere as the boundary layer of a cooling halfspace, a long standing question has been why data at older ages deviate from those expected for a halfspace. Two classes of models have been proposed for these deviations. In one, heat added from below 'flattens' depth and heat flow. In the other, asthenospheric flow beneath the lithosphere perturbs the depths. We compare recent versions of the model classes: the GDH1 thin-lithosphere plate model (Stein and Stein, 1992) and an asthenospehric flow model (Phipps Morgan and Smith, 1992). The plate model fits heat flow data better than the flow model for all cases considered, and topographic data in all but one case. The flow model significantly overpredicts depths for the North Atlantic, because the assumed asthenospheric flow in the plate motion direction would yield deepening for old ages rather than the observed flattening. Overall, the GDH1 global average model does better than this flow model, whose parameters were fit to specific plates. Moreover, the plate models fit to specific plates do better than the flow model. Plate models thus appear more useful than this flow model, suggesting that deviations from a cooling halfspace are largely thermal in origin.

19. Atomic collision processes for modelling cool star spectra

Barklem, Paul

2015-05-01

The abundances of chemical elements in cool stars are very important in many problems in modern astrophysics. They provide unique insight into the chemical and dynamical evolution of the Galaxy, stellar processes such as mixing and gravitational settling, the Sun and its place in the Galaxy, and planet formation, to name a just few examples. Modern telescopes and spectrographs measure stellar spectral lines with precision of order 1 per cent, and planned surveys will provide such spectra for millions of stars. However, systematic errors in the interpretation of observed spectral lines leads to abundances with uncertainties greater than 20 per cent. Greater precision in the interpreted abundances should reasonably be expected to lead to significant discoveries, and improvements in atomic data used in stellar atmosphere models play a key role in achieving such advances in precision. In particular, departures from the classical assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) represent a significant uncertainty in the modelling of stellar spectra and thus derived chemical abundances. Non-LTE modelling requires large amounts of radiative and collisional data for the atomic species of interest. I will focus on inelastic collision processes due to electron and hydrogen atom impacts, the important perturbers in cool stars, and the progress that has been made. I will discuss the impact on non-LTE modelling, and what the modelling tells us about the types of collision processes that are important and the accuracy required. More specifically, processes of fundamentally quantum mechanical nature such as spin-changing collisions and charge transfer have been found to be very important in the non-LTE modelling of spectral lines of lithium, oxygen, sodium and magnesium.

20. Stochastic models for turbulent reacting flows

SciTech Connect

Kerstein, A.

1993-12-01

The goal of this program is to develop and apply stochastic models of various processes occurring within turbulent reacting flows in order to identify the fundamental mechanisms governing these flows, to support experimental studies of these flows, and to further the development of comprehensive turbulent reacting flow models.

1. Simulation of Cold Flow in a Truncated Ideal Nozzle with Film Cooling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Braman, Kalen; Ruf, Joseph

2015-01-01

Flow transients during rocket start-up and shut-down can lead to significant side loads on rocket nozzles. The capability to estimate these side loads computationally can streamline the nozzle design process. Towards this goal, the flow in a truncated ideal contour (TIC) nozzle has been simulated for a range of nozzle pressure ratios (NPRs) aimed to match a series of cold flow experiments performed at the NASA MSFC Nozzle Test Facility. These simulations were performed with varying turbulence model choices and with four different versions of the TIC nozzle model geometry, each of which was created with a different simplification to the test article geometry.

2. The flow field in a high aspect ratio cooling duct with and without one heated wall

Rochlitz, Henrik; Scholz, Peter; Fuchs, Thomas

2015-12-01

The flow in a high aspect ratio generic cooling duct is described for different Reynolds numbers and for adiabatic as well as non-adiabatic conditions. The Reynolds number is varied in a range from 39,000 to 111,000. The generic cooling duct facility allows for applying a constant temperature on the duct's lower wall, and it ensures having well-defined boundary conditions. The high-quality, optical noninvasive measurement methods, namely Particle Image Velocimetry (2C2D-PIV, i.e., two velocity components in a plane), Stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (3C2D-PIV, i.e., three velocity components in a plane) and Volumetric Particle Tracking Velocimetry (3C3D-PTV, i.e., three velocity components in a volume), are used to characterize the flow in detail. Pressure transducers are installed for measuring the pressure losses. The repeatability and the validity of the data are discussed in detail. For that purpose, modifications in the test facility and in the experimental setup as well as comparisons between the different measurement methods are given. A focus lies on the average velocity distribution and on the turbulent statistics. The longitudinal velocity profile is analyzed in detail for Reynolds number variations. Secondary flows are identified with velocities of two orders of magnitude smaller than the longitudinal velocity. Reynolds stress distributions are given for several different cases. The Reynolds number dependency of overline{u'^2} and overline{v'^2} is shown, and a comparison between the adiabatic and the heated case is given. overline{u'^2} changes significantly when the lower wall heat flux is applied, whereas overline{v'^2} and overline{u'v'} almost stay constant.

3. Core cooling by subsolidus mantle convection. [thermal evolution model of earth

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Schubert, G.; Cassen, P.; Young, R. E.

1979-01-01

Although vigorous mantle convection early in the thermal history of the earth is shown to be capable of removing several times the latent heat content of the core, a thermal evolution model of the earth in which the core does not solidify can be constructed. The large amount of energy removed from the model earth's core by mantle convection is supplied by the internal energy of the core which is assumed to cool from an initial high temperature given by the silicate melting temperature at the core-mantle boundary. For the smaller terrestrial planets, the iron and silicate melting temperatures at the core-mantle boundaries are more comparable than for the earth; the models incorporate temperature-dependent mantle viscosity and radiogenic heat sources in the mantle. The earth models are constrained by the present surface heat flux and mantle viscosity and internal heat sources produce only about 55% of the earth model's present surface heat flow.

4. Physical model studies of cooling pond water quality

SciTech Connect

Frediani, H.A. Jr.; Ondler, W.C.; Palmer, P.K.

1995-12-31

Under the Florida Electrical Power Plant Siting Act, Florida Power & Light Company (FPL) licensed their Martin Site for a total ultimate capacity of 3200 megawatts, When the ultimate capacity is installed, the heat dissipated from the Martin 6500 acre closed cycle cooling pond will cause so much evaporation that the ponds dissolved solids will be hydraulically concentrated (about 3.5 times that of the makeup water added to it to replace that evaporation). Because water quality-based effluent limits are relatively low (often lower than detection limits), the conservative assumption, that undetected constituents were present at 99% of the detection limit, led to simple mass balance estimates that such constituents would be concentrated so as to exceed limits,even though some of the constituents were never detected in the makeup water. Mathematical metal specification modeling predicted reduction in concentrations due to precipitation and/or sorption only for some constituents. Because of the chain of conservative assumptions required for that modeling, FPL decided to attempt a physical simulation of the concentration effect of the cooling pond.

5. Loss of spent fuel pool cooling PRA: Model and results

SciTech Connect

Siu, N.; Khericha, S.; Conroy, S.; Beck, S.; Blackman, H.

1996-09-01

This letter report documents models for quantifying the likelihood of loss of spent fuel pool cooling; models for identifying post-boiling scenarios that lead to core damage; qualitative and quantitative results generated for a selected plant that account for plant design and operational practices; a comparison of these results and those generated from earlier studies; and a review of available data on spent fuel pool accidents. The results of this study show that for a representative two-unit boiling water reactor, the annual probability of spent fuel pool boiling is 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} and the annual probability of flooding associated with loss of spent fuel pool cooling scenarios is 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3}. Qualitative arguments are provided to show that the likelihood of core damage due to spent fuel pool boiling accidents is low for most US commercial nuclear power plants. It is also shown that, depending on the design characteristics of a given plant, the likelihood of either: (a) core damage due to spent fuel pool-associated flooding, or (b) spent fuel damage due to pool dryout, may not be negligible.

6. Mysterious ionization in cooling flow filaments: a test with deep COS FUV spectroscopy

Tremblay, Grant

2013-10-01

The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph is capable of unraveling a two decade old mystery regarding the filamentary emission line nebulae found in the brightest cluster galaxies {BCGs} of cool core {CC} clusters. These kpc-scale filaments are characterized by elevated H-alpha luminosities and puzzling ionization states that cannot be accounted for by recombination or photionization alone, and are instead excited by an unknown ionization mechanism. The most hotly debated proposed solutions invoke thermal conduction, shocks, or cosmic-ray heating, but progress toward consensus awaits unambiguous spectral discriminants between these models that can only be found in the FUV. We propose deep {9 orbit}, off-nuclear observations of two strategically selected BCGs in well-studied cool core clusters with cross-spectrum archival datasets. We also propose a shorter {5 orbit} on-nuclear observation for one of our targets to assess possible AGN contributions to the spectra. These proposed observations represent critical tests that can unambiguously discriminate between the various candidate ionziation models. Constraining the mechanisms by which CC BCG filaments are excited remains one of the most important roadblocks to a better understanding of cooling from hot ambient medium to cold star forming clouds and filaments, a process important for both galaxy and black hole growth. It is therefore important that, before HST ends its mission and we lose FUV capability, we advance our understanding of this decades old mystery.

7. Numerical investigation of film cooling flow induced by cylindrical and shaped holes.

PubMed

Barthet, S; Kulisa, P

2001-05-01

The present study is the second half of a two part work carried out in collaboration with SNECMA which tends to investigate a shaped hole film cooling experimentally and numerically. The aim of this paper is the numerical study of 3D phenomena induced by cylindrical and shaped hole film cooling on a flat wall. The two calculations show up classical structures such as horseshoe or kidney vortices and their differences according to the shape configuration. A detailed study demonstrates their influence on the jet behaviour. Comparing both cases reveals the impact of shaping on the velocity field and vortex motions. The calculations were performed by resolving the 3D Navier-Stokes equations associated with a k-epsilon turbulence model. The solver is the CANARI code developed by ONERA. PMID:11460649

8. Experimental results for film cooling in 2-D supersonic flow including coolant delivery pressure, geometry, and incident shock effects

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Olsen, George C.; Nowak, Robert J.; Holden, Michael S.; Baker, N. R.

1990-01-01

An experimental program was conducted to establish some design parameters important to a supersonic film cooling system in a scramjet engine. A simple non-combusting two-dimensional flow configuration was used to isolate the film cooling phenomena. Parameters investigated include coolant delivery pressure, slot height and lip thickness, and incident shock location and strength. Design guidelines for use in engineering and trade studies are presented.

9. A Study on Bubble Departure and Bubble Lift-Off in Sub-Cooled Nucleate Boiling Flows

SciTech Connect

Wu, Wen; Chen, Peipei; Jones, Barclay G.; Newell, Ty A.

2006-07-01

This research examines bubble departure and bubble lift-off phenomena under subcooled nucleate boiling condition, using a high fidelity digital imaging apparatus. Refrigerant R- 134a is chosen as a simulant fluid due to its merits of having smaller surface tension, reduced latent heat, and lower boiling temperature than water. Images at frame rates up to 4000 frames/s were obtained with varying experimental parameters e.g. pressure, inlet sub-cooled level, and flow rate, etc., showing characteristics of bubble behavior under different conditions. Bubble size and position information was calculated via Canny's algorithm for edge detection and Fitzgibbon's algorithm for ellipse fitting. Bubble departure and lift-off radiuses were obtained and compared with existing bubble forces and detachment models proposed by Thorncroft et al., with good agreement observed. (authors)

10. Global scale groundwater flow model

Sutanudjaja, Edwin; de Graaf, Inge; van Beek, Ludovicus; Bierkens, Marc

2013-04-01

As the world's largest accessible source of freshwater, groundwater plays vital role in satisfying the basic needs of human society. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and supplies water for agricultural and industrial activities. During times of drought, groundwater sustains water flows in streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands, and thus supports ecosystem habitat and biodiversity, while its large natural storage provides a buffer against water shortages. Yet, the current generation of global scale hydrological models does not include a groundwater flow component that is a crucial part of the hydrological cycle and allows the simulation of groundwater head dynamics. In this study we present a steady-state MODFLOW (McDonald and Harbaugh, 1988) groundwater model on the global scale at 5 arc-minutes resolution. Aquifer schematization and properties of this groundwater model were developed from available global lithological model (e.g. Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2010; Hartmann and Moorsdorff, in press). We force the groundwtaer model with the output from the large-scale hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the long term net groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from routed channel discharge. We validated calculated groundwater heads and depths with available head observations, from different regions, including the North and South America and Western Europe. Our results show that it is feasible to build a relatively simple global scale groundwater model using existing information, and estimate water table depths within acceptable accuracy in many parts of the world.

11. Biofouling studies with methylchloro/methylisothiazolone in model cooling systems

SciTech Connect

Williams, T.M.; Holz, J.W. Jr.

1998-12-31

Model systems were developed to evaluate microbial growth on surfaces and to determine the efficacy of biocides. Dynamic systems were used to simulate key operating parameters in industrial cooling towers. Biofouling was measured on wood, stainless steel, and heat transfer surfaces. Biocide testing in these model systems showed that methylchloro-methylisothiazolone was effective in controlling microbial growth in biofilms. The efficacy of the isothiazolone biocide was related to the treatment level and the nutrient content of the recirculating water. Biofilm control was monitored using viable counts of microorganisms as well as measuring specific biomass components (protein and carbohydrate) on surfaces. An on-line fouling monitor (heat exchanger) confirmed that low biofilm growth correlated with low heat transfer resistance.

12. High Resolution Regional Climate Modeling of the Irrigation Cooling Effect in California

Snyder, M. A.; Kueppers, L. M.; O'Brien, T.; Sloan, L. C.

2007-12-01

Recent research on the impact of irrigation on climate using regional climate models (RCMs) has revealed the presence of an irrigation cooling effect (ICE). By introducing large amounts of water to the land surface via irrigation there is a substantial decrease in daytime surface air temperatures during the dry season in California. Previous studies of the ICE in California utilized RCMs with horizontal resolution 30 km x 30 km. We have completed new experiments at 10 km x 10 km resolution for an 11-year time period from January 1 1979 to January 1 1990. The higher resolution allows for an improved representation of topography, which plays an important role in influencing the regional and local climate of California. An initial comparison of the 30 km and 10 km experiments reveals interesting similarities and differences in surface air temperature, humidity, and the surface energy budget. We also examined the changes in the winds due to irrigation between the 30 km and 10 km experiments. The cooling induced by irrigation leads to an increase in surface air pressure over the irrigated areas in California's Central Valley, which leads to a decrease in near surface onshore flow during the dry season. This onshore flow plays an important role for many crops, particularly wine grapes. By comparing the 30 km and 10 km experiments we are able to better quantify the uncertainty of the magnitude of changes in onshore flow.

13. Thermal and flow analysis of a convection air-cooled ceramic coated porous metal concept for turbine vanes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stepka, F. S.

1981-01-01

The heat transfer and pressure drop through turbine vanes made of a sintered, porous metal coated with a thin layer of ceramic and convection cooled by spanwise flow of cooling air were analyzed. The analysis was made to determine the feasibility of using this concept for cooling very small turbines, primarily for short duration applications such as in missile engines. The analysis was made for gas conditions of approximately 10 and 40 atm and 1644 K and with turbine vanes made of felt type porous metals with relative densities from 0.2 to 0.6 and ceramic coating thicknesses of 0.076 to 0.254 mm.

14. Marriage à-la-MOND: Baryonic dark matter in galaxy clusters and the cooling flow puzzle

Milgrom, Mordehai

2008-05-01

I start with a brief introduction to MOND phenomenology and its possible roots in cosmology—a notion that may turn out to be the most far reaching aspect of MOND. Next I discuss the implications of MOND for the dark matter (DM) doctrine: MOND's successes imply that baryons determine everything. For DM this would mean that the puny tail of leftover baryons in galaxies wags the hefty DM dog. This has to occur in many intricate ways, and despite the haphazard construction history of galaxies—a very tall order. I then concentrate on galaxy clusters in light of MOND, which still requires some yet undetected cluster dark matter, presumably in some baryonic form (CBDM). This CBDM might contribute to the heating of the X-ray emitting gas and thus alleviate the cooling flow puzzle. MOND, qua theory of dynamics, does not directly enter the microphysics of the gas; however, it does force a new outlook on the role of DM in shaping the cluster gas dynamics: MOND tells us that the cluster DM is not cold dark matter, is not so abundant, and is not expected in galaxies; it is thus not subject to constraints on baryonic DM in galaxies. The mass in CBDM required in a whole cluster is, typically, similar to that in hot gas, but is rather more centrally concentrated, totally dominating the core. The CBDM contribution to the baryon budget in the universe is thus small. Its properties, deduced for isolated clusters, are consistent with the observations of the "bullet cluster". Its kinetic energy reservoir is much larger than that of the hot gas in the core, and would suffice to keep the gas hot for many cooling times. Heating can be effected in various ways depending on the exact nature of the CBDM, from very massive black holes to cool, compact gas clouds.

15. Effects of bulk flow pulsations on film cooling from different length injection holes at different blowing ratios

SciTech Connect

Seo, H.J.; Lee, J.S.; Ligrani, P.M.

1999-07-01

Bulk flow pulsations in the form of sinusoidal variations of velocity and static pressure at injectant Strouhal numbers from 0.8 to 10.0 are investigated as they affect film cooling from a single row of simple angle holes. Similar flow variations are produced by potential flow interactions and passing shock waves near turbine surfaces in gas turbine engines. Time-averaged temperature distributions, phase-averaged temperature distributions, adiabatic film cooling effectiveness values, and iso-energetic Stranton numbers show that important alterations to film cooling protection occur as pulsation frequency, coolant Strouhal number, blowing ratio, and nondimensional injection hole length are changed. Overall, the pulsations affect film performance and behavior more significantly both as L/D decreases, and as blowing ratio decreases.

16. An improved thermoregulatory model for cooling garment applications with transient metabolic rates

Westin, Johan K.

Current state-of-the-art thermoregulatory models do not predict body temperatures with the accuracies that are required for the development of automatic cooling control in liquid cooling garment (LCG) systems. Automatic cooling control would be beneficial in a variety of space, aviation, military, and industrial environments for optimizing cooling efficiency, for making LCGs as portable and practical as possible, for alleviating the individual from manual cooling control, and for improving thermal comfort and cognitive performance. In this study, we adopt the Fiala thermoregulatory model, which has previously demonstrated state-of-the-art predictive abilities in air environments, for use in LCG environments. We validate the numerical formulation with analytical solutions to the bioheat equation, and find our model to be accurate and stable with a variety of different grid configurations. We then compare the thermoregulatory model's tissue temperature predictions with experimental data where individuals, equipped with an LCG, exercise according to a 700 W rectangular type activity schedule. The root mean square (RMS) deviation between the model response and the mean experimental group response is 0.16°C for the rectal temperature and 0.70°C for the mean skin temperature, which is within state-of-the-art variations. However, with a mean absolute body heat storage error 3¯ BHS of 9.7 W˙h, the model fails to satisfy the +/-6.5 W˙h accuracy that is required for the automatic LCG cooling control development. In order to improve model predictions, we modify the blood flow dynamics of the thermoregulatory model. Instead of using step responses to changing requirements, we introduce exponential responses to the muscle blood flow and the vasoconstriction command. We find that such modifications have an insignificant effect on temperature predictions. However, a new vasoconstriction dependency, i.e. the rate of change of hypothalamus temperature weighted by the

17. Film Cooled Recession of SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composites: Test Development, CFD Modeling and Experimental Observations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zhu, Dongming; Sakowski, Barbara A.; Fisher, Caleb

2014-01-01

SiCSiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) systems will play a crucial role in next generation turbine engines for hot-section component applications because of their ability to significantly increase engine operating temperatures, reduce engine weight and cooling requirements. However, the environmental stability of Si-based ceramics in high pressure, high velocity turbine engine combustion environment is of major concern. The water vapor containing combustion gas leads to accelerated oxidation and corrosion of the SiC based ceramics due to the water vapor reactions with silica (SiO2) scales forming non-protective volatile hydroxide species, resulting in recession of the ceramic components. Although environmental barrier coatings are being developed to help protect the CMC components, there is a need to better understand the fundamental recession behavior of in more realistic cooled engine component environments.In this paper, we describe a comprehensive film cooled high pressure burner rig based testing approach, by using standardized film cooled SiCSiC disc test specimen configurations. The SiCSiC specimens were designed for implementing the burner rig testing in turbine engine relevant combustion environments, obtaining generic film cooled recession rate data under the combustion water vapor conditions, and helping developing the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) film cooled models and performing model validation. Factors affecting the film cooled recession such as temperature, water vapor concentration, combustion gas velocity, and pressure are particularly investigated and modeled, and compared with impingement cooling only recession data in similar combustion flow environments. The experimental and modeling work will help predict the SiCSiC CMC recession behavior, and developing durable CMC systems in complex turbine engine operating conditions.

18. The origin of molecular hydrogen emission in cooling-flow filaments

Ferland, G. J.; Fabian, A. C.; Hatch, N. A.; Johnstone, R. M.; Porter, R. L.; van Hoof, P. A. M.; Williams, R. J. R.

2008-05-01

The optical filaments found in many cooling flows in galaxy clusters consist of low-density (~103cm-3) cool (~103 K) gas surrounded by significant amounts of cosmic-ray and magnetic field energy. Their spectra show anomalously strong low-ionization and molecular emission lines when compared with Galactic molecular clouds exposed to ionizing radiation such as the Orion complex. Previous studies have shown that the spectra cannot be produced by O-star photoionization. Here, we calculate the physical conditions in dusty gas that is well shielded from external sources of ionizing photons and is energized either by cosmic rays or dissipative magnetohydrodynamics waves. Strong molecular hydrogen lines, with relative intensities similar to those observed, are produced. Selection effects introduced by the microphysics produce a correlation between the H2 line upper level energy and the population temperature. These selection effects allow a purely collisional gas to produce H2 emission that masquerades as starlight-pumped H2 but with intensities that are far stronger. This physics may find application to any environment where a broad range of gas densities or heating rates occur. Contains material ©British Crown copyright 2008/MoD. E-mail: gary@pa.uky.edu

19. Measurement of Flow Phenomena in a VHTR Lower Plenum Model

SciTech Connect

Hugh M. McIlroy Jr.; Donald M. McEligot; Robert J. Pink

2007-06-01

Mean velocity and turbulence data that measure turbulent flow phenomena in an approximately 1:7 scale model of a region of the lower plenum of a typical prismatic gas-cooled reactor are presented as a follow-up to summaries presented at the 2006 Annual Meeting and the 2006 Winter Meeting. The experiments were designed to develop benchmark databases to support the first Standard Problem endorsed by the Generation IV International Forum to validate the heat transfer and fluid flow software that will be used to study the behavior of the VHTR system.

20. A new model for early Earth: heat-pipe cooling

Webb, A. G.; Moore, W. B.

2013-12-01

In the study of heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth, current models depend upon plate tectonic and vertical tectonic concepts. Plate tectonic models adequately account for regions with diverse lithologies juxtaposed along ancient shear zones, as seen at the famous Eoarchean Isua supracrustal belt of West Greenland. Vertical tectonic models to date have involved volcanism, sub- and intra-lithospheric diapirism, and sagduction, and can explain the geology of the best-preserved low-grade ancient terranes, such as the Paleoarchean Barberton and Pilbara greenstone belts. However, these models do not offer a globally-complete framework consistent with the geologic record. Plate tectonics models suggest that paired metamorphic belts and passive margins are among the most likely features to be preserved, but the early rock record shows no evidence of these terranes. Existing vertical tectonics models account for the >300 million years of semi-continuous volcanism and diapirism at Barberton and Pilbara, but when they explain the shearing record at Isua, they typically invoke some horizontal motion that cannot be differentiated from plate motion and is not a salient feature of the lengthy Barberton and Pilbara records. Despite the strengths of these models, substantial uncertainty remains about how early Earth evolved from magma ocean to plate tectonics. We have developed a new model, based on numerical simulations and analysis of the geologic record, that provides a coherent, global geodynamic framework for Earth's evolution from magma ocean to subduction tectonics. We hypothesize that heat-pipe cooling offers a viable mechanism for the lithospheric dynamics of early Earth. Our numerical simulations of heat-pipe cooling on early Earth indicate that a cold, thick, single-plate lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downward. The constant resurfacing and downward advection caused compression as the

1. Color gradients in cooling flow cluster central galaxies and the ionization of cluster emission line systems

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Romanishin, W.

1988-01-01

Preliminary results are given for a program to measure color gradients in the central galaxies in clusters with a variety of cooling flow rates. The objectives are to search for extended blue continuum regions indicative of star formation, to study the spatial distribution of star formation, and to make a quantitative measure of the amount of light from young stars, which can lead to a measure of the star formation rate (for an assumed initial mass function). Four clusters with large masses and large cluster H-alpha emission fluxes are found to have an excess of blue light concentrated to the centers of the cluster central galaxy. Assumption of a disk IMF leads to the conclusion that the starlight might play a major role in ionizing the emission line gas in these clusters.

2. Mathematical Modeling of Heat Transfer in Mold Copper Coupled with Cooling Water During the Slab Continuous Casting Process

Xie, Xin; Chen, Dengfu; Long, Haijun; Long, Mujun; Lv, Kui

2014-12-01

The heat transfer in mold copper plays an important role in the solidification behavior of steel. In this study, a three-dimensional heat transfer model coupled with flow behavior of the cooling water was established to analyze the temperature field of the copper and water slots. And this model was verified by the measured temperature rise of cooling water at the inlet and outlet of slots. The advantages of this model were obtained by comparing it with Dittus-Boelter model and the Sleicher-Rouse model, which did not consider the flow of water. The results show that the Dittus-Boelter model has the highest temperature and that the coupled model has the lowest temperature. Moreover, the coupled model includes calculation of the temperature and velocity field of the cooling water inside the slots. This temperature information is very helpful for predicting the water boiling in the slots. In addition, the coupled model shows that the temperature, heat flux, and heat transfer coefficient around the water slot wall are different from the conventional models.

3. Flow control of an elongated jet in cross-flow: Film cooling effectiveness enhancement using surface dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator

Audier, P.; Fénot, M.; Bénard, N.; Moreau, E.

2016-02-01

The case presented here deals with plasma flow control applied to a cross-flow configuration, more specifically to a film cooling system. The ability of a plasma dielectric barrier discharge actuator for film cooling effectiveness enhancement is investigated through an experimental set-up, including a film injection from an elongated slot into a thermally uniform cross-flow. Two-dimensional particle image velocimetry and infrared-thermography measurements are performed for three different blowing ratios of M = 0.4, 0.5, and 1. Results show that the effectiveness can be increased when the discharge is switched on, as predicted by the numerical results available in literature. Whatever the blowing ratio, the actuator induces a deflection of the jet flow towards the wall, increases its momentum, and delays its diffusion in the cross-flow.

4. A Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer and Effectiveness on Film Cooled Turbine Blade Tip Models

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ameri, A. A.; Rigby, D. L.

1999-01-01

A computational study has been performed to predict the distribution of convective heat transfer coefficient on a simulated blade tip with cooling holes. The purpose of the examination was to assess the ability of a three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver to predict the rate of tip heat transfer and the distribution of cooling effectiveness. To this end, the simulation of tip clearance flow with blowing of Kim and Metzger was used. The agreement of the computed effectiveness with the data was quite good. The agreement with the heat transfer coefficient was not as good but improved away from the cooling holes. Numerical flow visualization showed that the uniformity of wetting of the surface by the film cooling jet is helped by the reverse flow due to edge separation of the main flow.

5. Cooling tower and plume modeling for satellite remote sensing applications

SciTech Connect

Powers, B.J.

1995-05-01

It is often useful in nonproliferation studies to be able to remotely estimate the power generated by a power plant. Such information is indirectly available through an examination of the power dissipated by the plant. Power dissipation is generally accomplished either by transferring the excess heat generated into the atmosphere or into bodies of water. It is the former method with which we are exclusively concerned in this report. We discuss in this report the difficulties associated with such a task. In particular, we primarily address the remote detection of the temperature associated with the condensed water plume emitted from the cooling tower. We find that the effective emissivity of the plume is of fundamental importance for this task. Having examined the dependence of the plume emissivity in several IR bands and with varying liquid water content and droplet size distributions, we conclude that the plume emissivity, and consequently the plume brightness temperature, is dependent upon not only the liquid water content and band, but also upon the droplet size distribution. Finally, we discuss models dependent upon a detailed point-by-point description of the hydrodynamics and thermodynamics of the plume dynamics and those based upon spatially integrated models. We describe in detail a new integral model, the LANL Plume Model, which accounts for the evolution of the droplet size distribution. Some typical results obtained from this model are discussed.

6. Analogue experiments as benchmarks for models of lava flow emplacement

Garel, F.; Kaminski, E. C.; Tait, S.; Limare, A.

2013-12-01

During an effusive volcanic eruption, the crisis management is mainly based on the prediction of lava flow advance and its velocity. The spreading of a lava flow, seen as a gravity current, depends on its "effective rheology" and on the effusion rate. Fast-computing models have arisen in the past decade in order to predict in near real time lava flow path and rate of advance. This type of model, crucial to mitigate volcanic hazards and organize potential evacuation, has been mainly compared a posteriori to real cases of emplaced lava flows. The input parameters of such simulations applied to natural eruptions, especially effusion rate and topography, are often not known precisely, and are difficult to evaluate after the eruption. It is therefore not straightforward to identify the causes of discrepancies between model outputs and observed lava emplacement, whereas the comparison of models with controlled laboratory experiments appears easier. The challenge for numerical simulations of lava flow emplacement is to model the simultaneous advance and thermal structure of viscous lava flows. To provide original constraints later to be used in benchmark numerical simulations, we have performed lab-scale experiments investigating the cooling of isoviscous gravity currents. The simplest experimental set-up is as follows: silicone oil, whose viscosity, around 5 Pa.s, varies less than a factor of 2 in the temperature range studied, is injected from a point source onto a horizontal plate and spreads axisymmetrically. The oil is injected hot, and progressively cools down to ambient temperature away from the source. Once the flow is developed, it presents a stationary radial thermal structure whose characteristics depend on the input flow rate. In addition to the experimental observations, we have developed in Garel et al., JGR, 2012 a theoretical model confirming the relationship between supply rate, flow advance and stationary surface thermal structure. We also provide

7. Cooling magma model for deep volcanic long-period earthquakes

Aso, Naofumi; Tsai, Victor C.

2014-11-01

Deep long-period events (DLP events) or deep low-frequency earthquakes (deep LFEs) are deep earthquakes that radiate low-frequency seismic waves. While tectonic deep LFEs on plate boundaries are thought to be slip events, there have only been a limited number of studies on the physical mechanism of volcanic DLP events around the Moho (crust-mantle boundary) beneath volcanoes. One reasonable mechanism capable of producing their initial fractures is the effect of thermal stresses. Since ascending magma diapirs tend to stagnate near the Moho, where the vertical gradient of density is high, we suggest that cooling magma may play an important role in volcanic DLP event occurrence. Assuming an initial thermal perturbation of 400°C within a tabular magma of half width 41 m or a cylindrical magma of 74 m radius, thermal strain rates within the intruded magma are higher than tectonic strain rates of ~ 10-14 s-1 and produce a total strain of 2 × 10-4. Shear brittle fractures generated by the thermal strains can produce a compensated linear vector dipole mechanism as observed and potentially also explain the harmonic seismic waveforms from an excited resonance. In our model, we predict correlation between the particular shape of the cluster and the orientation of focal mechanisms, which is partly supported by observations of Aso and Ide (2014). To assess the generality of our cooling magma model as a cause for volcanic DLP events, additional work on relocations and focal mechanisms is essential and would be important to understanding the physical processes causing volcanic DLP events.

8. A study on the effect of various design parameters on the natural circulation flow rate of the ex-vessel core catcher cooling system of EU-APR1400

SciTech Connect

Rhee, B. W.; Ha, K. S.; Park, R. J.; Song, J. H.

2012-07-01

In this paper, a study on the effect of various design parameters such as the channel gap width, heat flux distribution, down-comer pipe size and two-phase flow slip ratio on the natural circulation flow rate is performed based on a physical model for a natural circulation flow along the flow path of the ex-vessel core catcher cooling system of an EU-APR1400, and these effects on the natural circulation flow rate are analyzed and compared with the minimum flow rate required for the safe operation of the system. (authors)

9. Turbulence modeling for complex hypersonic flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Huang, P. G.; Coakley, T. J.

1993-01-01

The paper presents results of calculations for a range of 2D turbulent hypersonic flows using two-equation models. The baseline models and the model corrections required for good hypersonic-flow predictions will be illustrated. Three experimental data sets were chosen for comparison. They are: (1) the hypersonic flare flows of Kussoy and Horstman, (2) a 2D hypersonic compression corner flow of Coleman and Stollery, and (3) the ogive-cylinder impinging shock-expansion flows of Kussoy and Horstman. Comparisons with the experimental data have shown that baseline models under-predict the extent of flow separation but over-predict the heat transfer rate near flow reattachment. Modifications to the models are described which remove the above-mentioned deficiencies. Although we have restricted the discussion only to the selected baseline models in this paper, the modifications proposed are universal and can in principle be transferred to any existing two-equation model formulation.

10. Computer model for air-cooled refrigerant condensers with specified refrigerant circuiting

SciTech Connect

Ellison, R.D.; Creswick, F.A.; Fischer, S.K.; Jackson, W.L.

1981-01-01

A computer model for an air-cooled refrigerant condensor is presented; the model is intended for use in detailed design analyses or in simulation of the performance of existing heat exchangers that have complex refrigerant circuiting or unusual air-side geometries. The model relies on a tube-by-tube computational approach calculating the thermal and fluid-flow performance of each tube in the heat exchanger individually, using local temperatures and heat transfer coefficients. The refrigerant circuiting must be specified; the joining or branching of parallel circuits is accommodated using appropriate mixing expressions. Air-side heat exchange correlations may be specified so that various surface geometries can be investigated. Results of the analyses of two condensers are compared to experiment.

11. A multiscale thermo-fluid computational model for a two-phase cooling system

Sacco, Riccardo; Carichino, Lucia; de Falco, Carlo; Verri, Maurizio; Agostini, Francesco; Gradinger, Thomas

2014-12-01

In this paper, we describe a mathematical model and a numerical simulation method for the condenser component of a novel two-phase thermosyphon cooling system for power electronics applications. The condenser consists of a set of roll-bonded vertically mounted fins among which air flows by either natural or forced convection. In order to deepen the understanding of the mechanisms that determine the performance of the condenser and to facilitate the further optimization of its industrial design, a multiscale approach is developed to reduce as much as possible the complexity of the simulation code while maintaining reasonable predictive accuracy. To this end, heat diffusion in the fins and its convective transport in air are modeled as 2D processes while the flow of the two-phase coolant within the fins is modeled as a 1D network of pipes. For the numerical solution of the resulting equations, a Dual Mixed-Finite Volume scheme with Exponential Fitting stabilization is used for 2D heat diffusion and convection while a Primal Mixed Finite Element discretization method with upwind stabilization is used for the 1D coolant flow. The mathematical model and the numerical method are validated through extensive simulations of realistic device structures which prove to be in excellent agreement with available experimental data.

12. Unified stellar models and convection in cool stars

Bernkopf, Jan

1998-04-01

The formulation of boundary conditions can have a significant influence on the solution of a system of differential equations. It is therefore important to apply a most realistic representation of the surface boundary conditions to the equations of stellar structure and evolution. With respect to previous models that usually employ some estimate of the surface temperature drawn from the Eddington approximation, a significant improvement of the outer boundary conditions is achieved by connecting models of stellar atmospheres to stellar structure models. Up to now stellar evolution calculations for late-type stars are calibrated using the well-observed properties of the present Sun. Including the physics of a plane-parallel atmospheric stratification it is necessary to account for a consistent description of the convective energy transfer in the outer layers of a cool star. At this step an apparent contradiction of the observations must be resolved: spectroscopic analysis of the Balmer lines emerging from solar-type stars using line-blanketed model atmospheres are usually carried out with reference to the Bohm-Vitense convection theory. To fit simultaneously the profiles of Hα and Hβ as well as higher series members a small mixing-length parameter alpha =3D l/H_p =3D 0.5 is required. Models calibrated to the present Sun instead imply that the internal structure of the Sun follows a substantially higher value of alpha =3D 1.5. This discrepancy cannot be removed in the context of Bohm-Vitense's convection theory. It is shown that the convection model of Canuto & Mazzitelli fits both the observed present Sun and the Balmer lines with a single common mixing-length parameter. The convection theory of Canuto & Mazzitelli thus offers for the first time a unified physical model of the Sun that is valid from the center to the upper photosphere.

13. 3-Dimensional numerical study of cooling performance of a heat sink with air-water flow through mini-channel

Majumder, Sambit; Majumder, Abhik; Bhaumik, Swapan

2016-07-01

The present microelectronics market demands devices with high power dissipation capabilities having enhanced cooling per unit area. The drive for miniaturizing the devices to even micro level dimensions is shooting up the applied heat flux on such devices, resulting in complexity in heat transfer and cooling management. In this paper, a method of CPU processor cooling is introduced where active and passive cooling techniques are incorporated simultaneously. A heat sink consisting of fins is designed, where water flows internally through the mini-channel fins and air flows externally. Three dimensional numerical simulations are performed for large set of Reynolds number in laminar region using finite volume method for both developing flows. The dimensions of mini-channel fins are varied for several aspect ratios such as 1, 1.33, 2 and 4. Constant temperature (T) boundary condition is applied at heat sink base. Channel fluid temperature, pressure drop are analyzed to obtain best cooling option in the present study. It has been observed that as the aspect ratio of the channel decreases Nusselt number decreases while pressure drop increases. However, Nusselt number increases with increase in Reynolds number.

14. Vortex-generating coolant-flow-passage design for increased film-cooling effectiveness and surface coverage

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papell, S. S.

1984-01-01

The thermal film-cooling footprints observed by infrared imagery for three coolant-passage configurations embedded in adiabatic-test plates are discussed. The configurations included a standard round-hole cross section and two orientations of a vortex-generating flow passage. Both orientations showed up to factors of four increases in both film-cooling effectiveness and surface coverage over that obtained with the round coolant passage. The crossflow data covered a range of tunnel velocities from 15.5 to 45 m/sec with blowing rates from 0.20 to 2.05. A photographic streakline flow visualization technique supported the concept of the counterrotating apability of the flow passage design and gave visual credence to its role in inhibiting flow separation.

15. Face cooling with mist water increases cerebral blood flow during exercise: effect of changes in facial skin blood flow.

PubMed

Miyazawa, Taiki; Horiuchi, Masahiro; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Subudhi, Andrew W; Sugawara, Jun; Ogoh, Shigehiko

2012-01-01

Facial cooling (FC) increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) at rest and during exercise; however, the mechanism of this response remains unclear. The purpose of the present study was to test our hypothesis that FC causes facial vasoconstriction that diverts skin blood flow (SkBF(face)) toward the middle cerebral artery (MCA V(mean)) at rest and to a greater extent during exercise. Nine healthy young subjects (20 ± 2 years) underwent 3 min of FC by fanning and spraying the face with a mist of cold water (~4°C) at rest and during steady-state exercise [heart rate (HR) of 120 bpm]. We focused on the difference between the averaged data acquired from 1 min immediately before FC and last 1 min of FC. SkBF(face), MCA V(mean), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were higher during exercise than at rest. As hypothesized, FC decreased SkBF(face) at rest (-32 ± 4%) and to a greater extent during exercise (-64 ± 10%, P = 0.012). Although MCA V(mean) was increased by FC (Rest, +1.4 ± 0.5 cm/s; Exercise, +1.4 ± 0.6 cm/s), the amount of the FC-evoked changes in MCA V(mean) at rest and during exercise differed among subjects. In addition, changes in MCA V(mean) with FC did not correlate with concomitant changes in SkBF(face) (r = 0.095, P = 0.709). MAP was also increased by FC (Rest, +6.2 ± 1.4 mmHg; Exercise, +4.2 ± 1.2 mmHg). These findings suggest that the FC-induced increase in CBF during exercise could not be explained only by change in SkBF(face). PMID:22934059

16. Shock/shock interference on a transpiration cooled hemispherical model

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nowak, Robert J.; Wieting, Allan R.; Holden, Michael S.

1990-01-01

Experimental results are presented which show the effectiveness of transpiration cooling in reducing the peak heat flux caused by an impinging shock on a bow shock of a hemispherical model. The 12-inch diameter hemispherical transpiration model with helium coolant was tested in the Calspan 48-inch Hypersonic Shock Tunnel at nominal Mach 12.1 and freestream unit Reynolds number of 0.33 x 10 to the 6th/ft. An incident shock wave, generated by a blunt flat-plate shock generator inclined at 10 deg to the freestream, intersected the bow shock of the model to produce shock/shock interference. The stagnation heat flux without coolant or shock/shock interference was about 1.6 times a smooth surface laminar prediction due to effective roughness of the coolant ejection slots. A coolant mass flux 31 percent of the freestream mass flux reduced the stagnation heat flux to zero without shock/shock interference. However, for the same coolant mass flux and with shock/shock interference the peak heat flux was only reduced 8.3 percent, even though the total integrated heat load was reduced.

17. West Maui Groundwater Flow Model

DOE Data Explorer

Nicole Lautze

2015-01-01

Groundwater flow model for West Maui. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014; and Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume V – Island of Maui Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008.

18. Hawaii Island Groundwater Flow Model

DOE Data Explorer

Nicole Lautze

2015-01-01

Groundwater flow model for Hawaii Island. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume II – Island of Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008; and Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014.

19. East Maui Groundwater Flow Model

DOE Data Explorer

Nicole Lautze

2015-01-01

Groundwater flow model for East Maui. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014; and Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume V – Island of Maui Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008.

20. Characterization of Turbulent Flows for Turbulence Modeling

Reynolds, W. C.; Haire, S. L.

1998-11-01

A diagram for the characterization of turbulent flows using the invariants of the mean velocity gradient tensor is introduced. All mean flows, from irrotationally strained flows to shearing flows, to purely rotational flows, can be identified on this diagram. Different flow fields which occupy the same region on the diagram are said to be comprised of the same topological features. The current state of turbulence modeling can be identified on the diagram based on the type of mean flow fields which can be accurately computed. Regions on the diagram can be shown for which current capabilities in turbulence modeling fail to accurately resolve the turbulent structures. Relevant mean field topology is identified for future work in turbulence modeling. Using this analysis, we suggest a number of flows to be computed by DNS or LES and used as testing cases for new models.

1. Formation of perched lava ponds on basaltic volcanoes: Interaction between cooling rate and flow geometry allows estimation of lava effusion rates

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wilson, L.; Parfitt, E. A.

1993-01-01

Perched lava ponds are infrequent but distinctive topographic features formed during some basaltic eruptions. Two such ponds, each approximately 150 m in diameter, formed during the 1968 eruption at Napau Crater and the 1974 eruption of Mauna Ulu, both on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Each one formed where a channelized, high volume flux lava flow encountered a sharp reduction of slope: the flow spread out radially and stalled, forming a well-defined terminal levee enclosing a nearly circular lava pond. We describe a model of how cooling limits the motion of lava spreading radially into a pond and compare this with the case of a channelized flow. The difference in geometry has a major effect, such that the size of a pond is a good indicator of the volume flux of the lava forming it. Lateral spreading on distal shallow slopes is a major factor limiting the lengths of lava flows.

2. Chandra X-Ray Spectral Analysis of Cooling Flow Clousters, 2A 0335+096 and Abell 2199

Kawano, Naomi; Ohto, Akimitsu; Fukazawa, Yasushi

2003-06-01

We report on a spatially resolved analysis of Chandra X-ray data on a nearby typical cooling flow cluster of galaxies 2A 0335 + 096, together with A2199 for a comparison. As recently found in the cores of other clusters, the temperature around the central part of 2A 0335 + 096 is 1.3-1.5keV, which is higher than that inferred from the cooling flow picture. Furthermore, the absorption column density is almost constant against the radius in 2A 0335 + 096; there is no evidence of excess absorption up to 200-250kpc. This indicates that no significant amount of cold material, which has cooled down, is present. These properties are similar to those of A2199. Since the cooling time in the central part is much shorter than the age of the clusters, a heating mechanism, which weakens the effect of radiative cooling, is expected to be present in the central part of both clusters of galaxies. Both 2A 0335 + 096 and A 2199 have radio jets associated with their cD galaxy. We discuss the possibility of heating processes caused by these radio jets by considering the thermal conduction and the sound velocity together with the observed disturbance of the ICM temperature and density. We conclude that the observed radio jets can produce local heating and/or cooling, but do not sufficiently reduce the overall radiative cooling. This implies that much more violent jets, whose emission has now decayed, heated up the cooling gas > 109 years ago.

3. CFD Modeling of Sodium-Oxide Deposition in Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Compact Heat Exchangers

SciTech Connect

Tatli, Emre; Ferroni, Paolo; Mazzoccoli, Jason

2015-09-02

The possible use of compact heat exchangers (HXs) in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR) employing a Brayton cycle is promising due to their high power density and resulting small volume in comparison with conventional shell-and-tube HXs. However, the small diameter of their channels makes them more susceptible to plugging due to Na2O deposition during accident conditions. Although cold traps are designed to reduce oxygen impurity levels in the sodium coolant, their failure, in conjunction with accidental air ingress into the sodium boundary, could result in coolant oxygen levels that are above the saturation limit in the cooler parts of the HX channels. This can result in Na2O crystallization and the formation of solid deposits on cooled channel surfaces, limiting or even blocking coolant flow. The development of analysis tools capable of modeling the formation of these deposits in the presence of sodium flow will allow designers of SFRs to properly size the HX channels so that, in the scenario mentioned above, the reactor operator has sufficient time to detect and react to the affected HX. Until now, analytical methodologies to predict the formation of these deposits have been developed, but never implemented in a high-fidelity computational tool suited to modern reactor design techniques. This paper summarizes the challenges and the current status in the development of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methodology to predict deposit formation, with particular emphasis on sensitivity studies on some parameters affecting deposition.

4. A preliminary study to Assess Model Uncertainties in Fluid Flows

SciTech Connect

Marc Oliver Delchini; Jean C. Ragusa

2009-09-01

The goal of this study is to assess the impact of various flow models for a simplified primary coolant loop of a light water nuclear reactor. The various fluid flow models are based on the Euler equations with an additional friction term, gravity term, momentum source, and energy source. The geometric model is purposefully chosen simple and consists of a one-dimensional (1D) loop system in order to focus the study on the validity of various fluid flow approximations. The 1D loop system is represented by a rectangle; the fluid is heated up along one of the vertical legs and cooled down along the opposite leg. A pressurizer and a pump are included in the horizontal legs. The amount of energy transferred and removed from the system is equal in absolute value along the two vertical legs. The various fluid flow approximations are compressible vs. incompressible, and complete momentum equation vs. Darcy’s approximation. The ultimate goal is to compute the fluid flow models’ uncertainties and, if possible, to generate validity ranges for these models when applied to reactor analysis. We also limit this study to single phase flows with low-Mach numbers. As a result, sound waves carry a very small amount of energy in this particular case. A standard finite volume method is used for the spatial discretization of the system.

5. One-heater flow-through polymerase chain reaction device by heat pipes cooling

PubMed Central

Chen, Jyh Jian; Liao, Ming Huei; Li, Kun Tze; Shen, Chia Ming

2015-01-01

the cooling module that has been designed for a PCR device. The unique architecture utilized in this flow-through PCR device is well applied to a low-cost PCR system. PMID:25713689

6. Assessing the performance of Clostridium perfringens cooling models for cooked, uncured meat and poultry products

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Heat-resistant spores of C. perfringens may germinate and multiply in cooked meat and poultry products if the rate and extent of cooling does not occur in a timely manner. Therefore, six cooling models (PMP 7.0 broth model; PMIP Uncured Beef, Chicken, and Pork Models; Smith-Schaffner (version 3); a...

7. A toy terrestrial carbon flow model

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parton, William J.; Running, Steven W.; Walker, Brian

1992-01-01

A generalized carbon flow model for the major terrestrial ecosystems of the world is reported. The model is a simplification of the Century model and the Forest-Biogeochemical model. Topics covered include plant production, decomposition and nutrient cycling, biomes, the utility of the carbon flow model for predicting carbon dynamics under global change, and possible applications to state-and-transition models and environmentally driven global vegetation models.

8. An Evaporative Cooling Model for Teaching Applied Psychrometrics

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Johnson, Donald M.

2004-01-01

Evaporative cooling systems are commonly used in controlled environment plant and animal production. These cooling systems operate based on well defined psychrometric principles. However, students often experience considerable difficulty in learning these principles when they are taught in an abstract, verbal manner. This article describes an…

9. Modeling Single-Phase and Boiling Liquid Jet Impingement Cooling in Power Electronics

SciTech Connect

Narumanchi, S. V. J.; Hassani, V.; Bharathan, D.

2005-12-01

Jet impingement has been an attractive cooling option in a number of industries over the past few decades. Over the past 15 years, jet impingement has been explored as a cooling option in microelectronics. Recently, interest has been expressed by the automotive industry in exploring jet impingement for cooling power electronics components. This technical report explores, from a modeling perspective, both single-phase and boiling jet impingement cooling in power electronics, primarily from a heat transfer viewpoint. The discussion is from the viewpoint of the cooling of IGBTs (insulated-gate bipolar transistors), which are found in hybrid automobile inverters.

10. Theoretical model for Sub-Doppler Cooling with EIT System

He, Peiru; Tengdin, Phoebe; Anderson, Dana; Rey, Ana Maria; Holland, Murray

2016-05-01

We propose a of sub-Doppler cooling mechanism that takes advantage of the unique spectral features and extreme dispersion generated by the so-called Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) effect, a destructive quantum interference phenomenon experienced by atoms with Lambda-shaped energy levels when illuminated by two light fields with appropriate frequencies. By detuning the probe lasers slightly from the dark resonance'', we observe that atoms can be significantly cooled down by the strong viscous force within the transparency window, while being just slightly heated by the diffusion caused by the small absorption near resonance. In contrast to polarization gradient cooling or EIT sideband cooling, no external magnetic field or external confining potential are required. Using a semi-classical method, analytical expressions, and numerical simulations, we demonstrate that the proposed EIT cooling method can lead to temperatures well below the Doppler limit. This work is supported by NSF and NIST.

11. Computer simulation of the cooling effect due to circulation in four geothermal well models

SciTech Connect

Duda, L.E.

1984-11-01

Computer calculations of wellbore transient temperatures, using the geothermal wellbore thermal simulator code GEOTEMP2, were made on four well models. The well models studied were from the Baca geothermal area, the East Mesa geothermal area, and a shallow and a deep well from the Salton Sea geothermal area. Calculations for one day of water circulation followed by one day of shut-in at flow rates of 100, 250, 500, and 1000 gpm were made to investigate the cooling effects produced by the circulation. Additional calculations were made using the Baca and Salton Sea well models. In the former, the effect on the cooling due to different soil thermal conductivity values and different circulating fluids (a high viscosity mud and air) were investigated. In the latter, the number of casings in the wellbore and the diameter of the tubing were notified. Plots of the calculated temperatures as a function of circulation and shut-in time and depth are given for each case.

12. Constraints on molecular gas in cooling flows and powerful radio galaxies

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

O'Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi A.; Maloney, Philip R.; Tacconi, Linda J.; Sparks, William B.

1994-01-01

We searched for molecular gas in a heterogeneous sample of five radio-loud galaxies (three of which are inferred to be in cooling flow clusters) using the Swedish-European Southern Observatory (Swedish-ESO) Submillimeter Telescope. We do not detect CO in emission in any of the cluster sources at a 3 sigma level of typically 15 mK. White et al. (1991) have suggested column densities of N(sub H) approximately 10(exp 21)/sq cm in these clusters with a spatial covering factor of order unity and a total mass of M approximately 10(exp 12) solar mass. Our limits are inconsistent with these column densities and spatial covering factor unless the molecular gas is very cold (kinetic temperature close to 2.7 K) or there only a few clouds along each line of sight. We estimate minimum temperatures in the range approximately 20-30 K. We find that clouds of atomic and molecular hydrogen require strict fine-tuning of parameter space in order to satisfy the requirements for the large column densities N(sub H) approximately 10(exp 21)/sq cm, unit covering factor, and a small number of clouds along the line of sight. Currently the only way molecular gas can be responsible for the X-ray absorption and still be consistent with our observations is if (1) there is of order one cloud along the line of sight and (2) the optical depth in C-12 1 to 0 is less than 10. In addition, we present a Very Large Array (VLA) image of NGC 4696 which suggests this object is a member of the class of 'amorphous cooling flow radio sources.' The C-12 1 to 0 line is detected in emission in PKS 0634-206, a classical double radio galaxy which is rich in extended optical emission line gas. The estimated molecular gas mass is M(sub mol) approximately 3 x 10(exp 9) solar mass and is much larger than that of the ionized component detected in hydrogen alpha suggesting that the emission-line nebula is radiation bounded.

13. VISCOPLASTIC FLUID MODEL FOR DEBRIS FLOW ROUTING.

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chen, Cheng-lung

1986-01-01

This paper describes how a generalized viscoplastic fluid model, which was developed based on non-Newtonian fluid mechanics, can be successfully applied to routing a debris flow down a channel. The one-dimensional dynamic equations developed for unsteady clear-water flow can be used for debris flow routing if the flow parameters, such as the momentum (or energy) correction factor and the resistance coefficient, can be accurately evaluated. The writer's generalized viscoplastic fluid model can be used to express such flow parameters in terms of the rheological parameters for debris flow in wide channels. A preliminary analysis of the theoretical solutions reveals the importance of the flow behavior index and the so-called modified Froude number for uniformly progressive flow in snout profile modeling.

14. Analysis of metal temperature and coolant flow with a thermal-barrier coating on a full-coverage-film-cooled turbine vane

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Meitner, P. L.

1978-01-01

The potential benefits of combining full-coverage film cooling with a thermal-barrier coating were investigated analytically for sections on the suction and pressure sides a high-temperature, high-pressure turbine vane. Metal and ceramic coating temperatures were calculated as a function of coating thickness and coolant flow. With a thermal-barrier coating, the coolant flows required for the chosen sections were half those of an uncoated design, and the metal outer temperatures were simultaneously reduced by over 111 K (200 F). For comparison, transpiration cooling was also investigated. Full-coverage film cooling of a coated vane required more coolant flow than did transpiration cooling.

15. Models for water steam condensing flows

Wróblewski, Włodzimierz; Dykas, Sławomir; Chmielniak, Tadeusz

2012-08-01

The paper presents a description of selected models dedicated to steam condensing flow modelling. The models are implemented into an in-house computational fluid dynamics code that has been successfully applied to wet steam flow calculation for many years now. All models use the same condensation model that has been validated against the majority of available experimental data. The state equations for vapour and liquid water, the physical model as well as the numerical techniques of solution to flow governing equations have been presented. For the single-fluid model, the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for vapour/liquid mixture are solved, whereas the two-fluid model solves separate flow governing equations for the compressible, viscous and turbulent vapour phase and for the compressible and inviscid liquid phase. All described models have been compared with relation to the flow through the Laval nozzle.

16. Mathematical Model and Experimental Results for Cryogenic Densification and Sub-Cooling Using a Submerged Cooling Source

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Partridge, J. K.; Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Tuttle, J. W.

2011-01-01

Among the many factors that determine overall rocket performance, propellant density is important because it affects the size of the rocket. Thus, in order to decrease the size of a rocket, it may be desirable to increase the density of propellants. This study analyzes the concept of increasing the propellant density by employing a cooling source submerged in the liquid propellant. A simple, mathematical model was developed to predict the rate of densification and the propellant temperature profile. The mathematical model is generic and applicable to multiple propellants. The densification rate was determined experimentally by submerging a cooling source in liquid oxygen at constant, positive pressure, and measuring the time rate of change in temperature with respect to vertical position. The results from the mathematical model provided a reasonable fit when compared to experimental results.

17. The effect of cooling management on blood flow to the dominant follicle and estrous cycle length at heat stress.

PubMed

Honig, Hen; Ofer, Lior; Kaim, Moshe; Jacobi, Shamay; Shinder, Dima; Gershon, Eran

2016-07-15

The use of ultrasound imaging for the examination of reproductive organs has contributed substantially to the fertility management of dairy cows around the world. This method has many advantages such as noninvasiveness and immediate availability of information. Adding Doppler index to the ultrasound imaging examination, improved the estimation of blood volume and flow rate to the ovaries in general and to the dominant follicle in particular. The aim of this study was to examine changes in the blood flow to the dominant follicle and compare them to the follicular development throughout the cycle. We further set out to examine the effects of different types of cooling management during the summer on the changes in blood flow to the dominant follicle. For this purpose, 24 Israeli-Holstein dairy cows, under heat stress, were randomly assigned one of two groups: one was exposed to five cooling sessions per day (5CS) and the other to eight cooling sessions per day (8CS). Blood flow to the dominant follicle was measured daily using Doppler index throughout the estrous cycle. No differences in the preovulatory dominant follicle diameter were detected between the two cooling management regimens during the cycle. However, the length of the first follicular wave was significantly longer, whereas the second follicular wave was nonsignificantly shorter in the 5CS group as compared to the 8CS group. In addition, no difference in blood flow was found during the first 18 days of the cycle between the two groups. However, from Day 20 until ovulation a higher rate of blood flow was measured in the ovaries of cows cooled 8 times per day as compared to the 5CS group. No differences in progesterone levels were noted. Finally, the estrous cycle length was shorter in the 8CS group as compared to the 5CS group. Our data suggest that blood flow to the dominant follicle and estrous cycle length is affected by heat stress. Using the appropriate cooling management during heat stress can

18. Simulations of Turbine Cooling Flows Using a Multiblock-Multigrid Scheme

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Steinthorsson, Erlendur; Ameri, Ali A.; Rigby, David L.

1996-01-01

Results from numerical simulations of air flow and heat transfer in a 'branched duct' geometry are presented. The geometry contains features, including pins and a partition, as are found in coolant passages of turbine blades. The simulations were performed using a multi-block structured grid system and a finite volume discretization of the governing equations (the compressible Navier-Stokes equations). The effects of turbulence on the mean flow and heat transfer were modeled using the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model. The computed results are compared to experimental data. It was found that the extent of some regions of high heat transfer was somewhat under predicted. It is conjectured that the underlying reason is the local nature of the turbulence model which cannot account for upstream influence on the turbulence field. In general, however, the comparison with the experimental data is favorable.

19. A stochastic index flow model of flow duration curves

Castellarin, Attilio; Vogel, Richard M.; Brath, Armando

2004-03-01

Annual flow duration curves (AFDCs) are used increasingly because unlike traditional period of record flow duration curves (FDCs), they provide confidence intervals for the median AFDC, they enable one to assign return periods to individual AFDCs, and they offer opportunities for developing a generalized stochastic model of daily streamflow. Previous stochastic models of FDCs and AFDCs were unable to reproduce the variance of AFDCs. We introduce an index flow approach to modeling the relationship between an FDC and AFDCs of daily streamflow series, which is able to reproduce the FDC, as well as the mean, median, and variance of the AFDCs without resorting to assumptions regarding the seasonal or persistence structure of daily streamflow series. Our approach offers additional opportunities for the regionalization of flow duration curves and for the generation of time series of daily streamflows at ungauged sites. Our approach is tested on three river basins in eastern central Italy.

20. Comparison between two models of cooling surfaces using blowing.

PubMed

Mathelin, L; Bataille, F; Lallemand, A

2001-05-01

To protect surfaces against high temperatures, the blowing through a porous material is studied. The geometry is that of a circular cylinder in cross-flow and the effectiveness of the blowing for the thermal protection is numerically investigated. Two models are developed for the blowing simulation and comparisons are made with experimental data obtained in a heated wind-tunnel. It is shown that the blowing strongly affects the dynamical and thermal profiles over the surface, thickening the boundary layers and decreasing the external transfer coefficients. It results in a lower viscous drag and thermal stress. The wall temperature dramatically decreases with blowing and the heat flux is also affected. PMID:11460652

1. Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model

SciTech Connect

G. Zyvoloski

2003-12-17

The purpose of this model report is to document the components of the site-scale saturated-zone flow model at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in accordance with administrative procedure (AP)-SIII.lOQ, ''Models''. This report provides validation and confidence in the flow model that was developed for site recommendation (SR) and will be used to provide flow fields in support of the Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the License Application. The output from this report provides the flow model used in the ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'', MDL-NBS-HS-000010 Rev 01 (BSC 2003 [162419]). The Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport model then provides output to the SZ Transport Abstraction Model (BSC 2003 [164870]). In particular, the output from the SZ site-scale flow model is used to simulate the groundwater flow pathways and radionuclide transport to the accessible environment for use in the TSPA calculations. Since the development and calibration of the saturated-zone flow model, more data have been gathered for use in model validation and confidence building, including new water-level data from Nye County wells, single- and multiple-well hydraulic testing data, and new hydrochemistry data. In addition, a new hydrogeologic framework model (HFM), which incorporates Nye County wells lithology, also provides geologic data for corroboration and confidence in the flow model. The intended use of this work is to provide a flow model that generates flow fields to simulate radionuclide transport in saturated porous rock and alluvium under natural or forced gradient flow conditions. The flow model simulations are completed using the three-dimensional (3-D), finite-element, flow, heat, and transport computer code, FEHM Version (V) 2.20 (software tracking number (STN): 10086-2.20-00; LANL 2003 [161725]). Concurrently, process-level transport model and methodology for calculating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain using FEHM V 2.20 are being

2. Full surface local heat transfer coefficient measurements in a model of an integrally cast impingement cooling geometry

SciTech Connect

Gillespie, D.R.H.; Wang, Z.; Ireland, P.T.; Kohler, S.T.

1998-01-01

Cast impingement cooling geometries offer the gas turbine designer higher structural integrity and improved convective cooling when compared to traditional impingement cooling systems, which rely on plate inserts. In this paper, it is shown that the surface that forms the jets contributes significantly to the total cooling. Local heat transfer coefficient distributions have been measured in a model of an engine wall cooling geometry using the transient heat transfer technique. The method employs temperature-sensitive liquid crystals to measure the surface temperature of large-scale perspex models during transient experiments. Full distributions of local Nusselt number on both surfaces of the impingement plate, and on the impingement target plate, are presented at engine representative Reynolds numbers. The relative effects of the impingement plate thermal boundary condition and the coolant supply temperature on the target plate heat transfer have been determined by maintaining an isothermal boundary condition at the impingement plate during the transient tests. The results are discussed in terms of the interpreted flow field.

3. Modelling the Cooling of Coffee: Insights from a Preliminary Study in Indonesia

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Widjaja, Wanty

2010-01-01

This paper discusses an attempt to examine pre-service teachers' mathematical modelling skills. A modelling project investigating relationships between temperature and time in the process of cooling of coffee was chosen. The analysis was based on group written reports of the cooling of coffee project and observation of classroom discussion.…

4. Design of Cooling Channels of Preburners for Small Liquid Rocket Engines with Computational Flow and Heat Transfer Analysis

Moon, In-Sang; Lee, Seon-Mi; Moon, Il-Yoon; Yoo, Jae-Han; Lee, Soo-Yong

2011-09-01

A series of computational analyses was performed to predict the cooling process by the cooling channel of preburners used for kerosene-liquid oxygen staged combustion cycle rocket engines. As an oxygen-rich combustion occurs in the kerosene fueled preburner, it is of great importance to control the wall temperature so that it does not exceed the critical temperature. However, since the heat transfer is proportional to the speed of fluid running inside the channel, the high heat transfer leads to a trade-off of pressure loss. For this reason, it is necessary to establish a certain criteria between the pressure loss and the heat transfer or the wall surface temperature. The design factors of the cooling channel were determined by the computational research, and a test model was manufactured. The test model was used for the hot fire tests to prove the function of the cooling mechanism, among other purposes.

5. Numerical modeling of fluidic flow meters

Choudhury, D.; Patel, B. R.

1992-05-01

The transient fluid flow in fluidic flow meters has been modeled using Creare.x's flow modeling computer program FLUENT/BFC that solves the Navier-Stokes equations in general curvilinear coordinates. The numerical predictions of fluid flow in a fluidic flow meter have been compared with the available experimental results for a particular design, termed the PC-4 design. Overall flow structures such as main jet bending, and primary and secondary vortices predicted by FLUENT/BFC are in excellent agreement with flow visualization results. The oscillation frequencies of the PC-4 design have been predicted for a range of flow rates encompassing laminar and turbulent flow and the results are in good agreement with experiments. The details of the flow field predictions reveal that an important factor that determines the onset of oscillations in the fluidic flow meter is the feedback jet momentum relative to the main jet momentum. The insights provided by the analysis of the PC-4 fluidic flow meter design have led to an improved design. The improved design has sustained oscillations at lower flow rates compared with the PC-4 design and has a larger rangeability.

6. Performance testing of the Silo Flow Model

SciTech Connect

Stadler, S.P.; OConnor, D.; Gould, A.F.

1994-12-31

Several instruments are commercially available for on-line analysis of coal properties such as total moisture, ash, sulfur, and mineral matter content. These instruments have found use in coal cleaning and coal-fired utility applications. However, in many instances, the coal is stored in large bunkers or silos after on-line analysis, making the data gathered from on-line analysis a poor predictor of short-term coal quality due to the flow pattern and mixing within the silo. A computerized model, the Silo Flow Model, has been developed to model the flow of coal through a silo or bunker thus providing a prediction of the output coal quality based on on-line measurements of the quality of coal entering the silo. A test procedure was developed and demonstrated to test the performance of the Silo Flow Model. The testing was performed using controlled addition of silver nitrate to the coal, in conjunction with surface profile measurements using an array of ultrasonic gauges and data acquired from plant instrumentation. Results obtained from initial testing provided estimates of flow-related parameters used in the Silo flow Model. Similar test techniques are also used to compare predicted and actual silver content at the silo outlet as a measure of model performance. This paper describes test procedures used to validate the Silo Flow Model, the testing program, and the results obtained to data. The Silo Flow Model performance is discussed and compared against other modeling approaches.

7. Experimental Flow Models for SSME Flowfield Characterization

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abel, L. C.; Ramsey, P. E.

1989-01-01

Full scale flow models with extensive instrumentation were designed and manufactured to provide data necessary for flow field characterization in rocket engines of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) type. These models include accurate flow path geometries from the pre-burner outlet through the throat of the main combustion chamber. The turbines are simulated with static models designed to provide the correct pressure drop and swirl for specific power levels. The correct turbopump-hot gas manifold interfaces were designed into the flow models to permit parametric/integration studies for new turbine designs. These experimental flow models provide a vehicle for understanding the fluid dynamics associated with specific engine issues and also fill the more general need for establishing a more detailed fluid dynamic base to support development and verification of advanced math models.

8. Finite element modeling of nonisothermal polymer flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Roylance, D.

1981-01-01

A finite element formulation designed to simulate polymer melt flows in which both conductive and convective heat transfer are important is described, and the numerical model is illustrated by means of computer experiments using extruder drag flow and entry flow as trial problems. Fluid incompressibility is enforced by a penalty treatment of the element pressures, and the thermal convective transport is modeled by conventional Galerkin and optimal upwind treatments.

9. Development of liquid-film tracking models for analysis of AP-600 passive containment cooling system

SciTech Connect

Sun, J.G.; Sha, W.T.; Chen, Y.S.

1993-10-01

The AP-600, an advanced pressurized water reactor, utilizes a passive containment cooling system (PCCS) to remove heat released inside the containment vessel following postulated design-base accidents (DBAS) such as a main-steam-line break or loss-of-coolant accident. The containment vessel consists of a vertical cylindrical shell and is capped at both top and bottom by a dome that is also a body of revolution with a meridian cross section in the shape of a semiellipse with a horizontal major axis. During a DBA, heat released to the interior of the steel containment vessel is removed by evaporation of a continuously flowing thin liquid film on the outside surface of the vessel, thus lowering the temperature of the steel vessel wall so that steam condenses on its inside surface. The external liquid film is formed by flooding water at top of the ellipsoidal dome. Evaporation of the falling liquid film is enhanced by buoyancy-driven flows of moist air in an annular space outside the steel containment vessel. To ensure PCCS performance, it is necessary to predict both the evaporating film on the outside surface of the vessel and the condensate film on its inside. To this end, two liquid-film tracking models for time-dependent flows (a simplified model and a comprehensive model) have been developed and implemented in the COMMIX code. COMMIX is a general-purpose, time-dependent, multidimensional computer code for thermal hydraulic analysis of single- or multicomponent engineering systems. It solves a system of conservation equations of continuities for up to six species, mixture momentum, and mixture energy, and a k-{epsilon} two-equation turbulent model. A unique feature of the COMMIX code is its porous-media formulation, which represents the first unified approach to thermal-hydraulic analysis. The tracking models discussed in this report compute the liquid-film thickness, its mean velocity, and its temperature on both sides of the steel containment vessel.

10. A study of optimum cowl shapes and flow port locations for minimum drag with effective engine cooling, volume 2

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fox, S. R.; Smetana, F. O.

1980-01-01

The listings, user's instructions, sample inputs, and sample outputs of two computer programs which are especially useful in obtaining an approximate solution of the viscous flow over an arbitrary nonlifting three dimensional body are provided. The first program performs a potential flow solution by a well known panel method and readjusts this initial solution to account for the effects of the boundary layer displacement thickness, a nonuniform but unidirectional onset flow field, and the presence of air intakes and exhausts. The second program is effectually a geometry package which allows the user to change or refine the shape of a body to satisfy particular needs without a significant amount of human intervention. An effort to reduce the cruise drag of light aircraft through an analytical study of the contributions to the drag arising from the engine cowl shape and the foward fuselage area and also that resulting from the cooling air mass flowing through intake and exhaust sites on the nacelle is presented. The programs may be effectively used to determine the appropriate body modifications or flow port locations to reduce the cruise drag as well as to provide sufficient air flow for cooling the engine.

11. Analysis of isothermal and cooling rate dependent immersion freezing by a unifying stochastic ice nucleation model

Alpert, P. A.; Knopf, D. A.

2015-05-01

Immersion freezing is an important ice nucleation pathway involved in the formation of cirrus and mixed-phase clouds. Laboratory immersion freezing experiments are necessary to determine the range in temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) at which ice nucleation occurs and to quantify the associated nucleation kinetics. Typically, isothermal (applying a constant temperature) and cooling rate dependent immersion freezing experiments are conducted. In these experiments it is usually assumed that the droplets containing ice nuclei (IN) all have the same IN surface area (ISA), however the validity of this assumption or the impact it may have on analysis and interpretation of the experimental data is rarely questioned. A stochastic immersion freezing model based on first principles of statistics is presented, which accounts for variable ISA per droplet and uses physically observable parameters including the total number of droplets (Ntot) and the heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficient, Jhet(T). This model is applied to address if (i) a time and ISA dependent stochastic immersion freezing process can explain laboratory immersion freezing data for different experimental methods and (ii) the assumption that all droplets contain identical ISA is a valid conjecture with subsequent consequences for analysis and interpretation of immersion freezing. The simple stochastic model can reproduce the observed time and surface area dependence in immersion freezing experiments for a variety of methods such as: droplets on a cold-stage exposed to air or surrounded by an oil matrix, wind and acoustically levitated droplets, droplets in a continuous flow diffusion chamber (CFDC), the Leipzig aerosol cloud interaction simulator (LACIS), and the aerosol interaction and dynamics in the atmosphere (AIDA) cloud chamber. Observed time dependent isothermal frozen fractions exhibiting non-exponential behavior with time can be readily explained by this model considering varying ISA. An

12. Metal temperatures and coolant flow in a wire cloth transpiration cooled turbine vane

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

1975-01-01

An experimental heat transfer investigation was conducted on an air-cooled turbine vane made from wire-wound cloth material and supported by a central strut. Vane temperature data obtained are compared with temperature data from two full-coverage film-cooled vanes made of different laminated construction. Measured porous-airfoil temperatures are compared with predicted temperatures.

13. Studies of shock/shock interaction on smooth and transpiration-cooled hemispherical nosetips in hypersonic flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Holden, M. S.; Rodriguez, K. M.; Nowak, R. J.

1991-01-01

Experimental studies are conducted to examine the utilization of transpiration cooling to reduce the peak-heating loads in areas of shock/shock interaction. Smooth and transpiration-cooled nosetip models, 12 inches in diameter, were employed in these studies, which focused on defining the pressure distributions and heat transfer in type III and IV interaction areas. Transpiration cooling was determined to significantly increase the size of the shock layer and to move the peak-heating point around the body. A transpiration-cooling rate of more than 30 percent of the freestream maximum flux did not lower the peak-heating level more than 10 percent, but the integrated heating loads were reduced.

14. ARCRAIDER. I. Detailed optical and X-ray analysis of the cooling flow cluster Z3146

Kausch, W.; Gitti, M.; Erben, T.; Schindler, S.

2007-08-01

We present a detailed analysis of the medium redshift (z = 0.2906) galaxy cluster Z3146 which is part of the ongoing ARCRAIDER project, a systematic search for gravitational arcs in massive clusters of galaxies. The analysis of Z3146 is based on deep optical wide field observations in the B, V and R bands obtained with the WFI@ESO2.2m, and shallow archival WFPC2@HST taken with the F606W filter, which are used for strong as well as weak lensing analyses. Additionally we have used publicly available XMM/Newton observations for a detailed X-ray analysis of Z3146. Both methods, lensing and X-ray, were used to determine the dynamical state and to estimate the total mass. We also identified four gravitational arc candidates. We find this cluster to be in a relaxed state, which is confirmed by a large cooling flow with nominal ~1600 M_⊙ per year, regular galaxy density and light distributions and a regular shape of the weak lensing mass reconstruction. The mass content derived with the different methods agrees well within 25% at r200=1661 h70-1 kpc indicating a velocity dispersion of σ_v=869+124-153 km s-1. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Institute (PID-number 8301). STScI is operated by the association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under the NASA contract NAS 5-26555. Also based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla or Paranal Observatories under programme ID 68.A-02555 and 073.A-0050 and on observations with XMM-Newton, an ESA Science Mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member states and the USA (NASA).

15. FORTRAN program for calculating coolant flow and metal temperatures of a full-coverage-film-cooled vane or blade

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Meitner, P. L.

1978-01-01

A computer program that calculates the coolant flow and the metal temperatures of a full-coverage-film-cooled vane or blade was developed. The analysis was based on compressible, one-dimensional fluid flow and on one-dimensional heat transfer and treats the vane or blade shell as a porous wall. The calculated temperatures are average values for the shell outer-surface area associated with each film-cooling hole row. A thermal-barrier coating may be specified on the shell outer surface, and centrifugal effects can be included for blade calculations. The program is written in FORTRAN 4 and is operational on a UNIVAC 1100/42 computer. The method of analysis, the program input, the program output, and two sample problems are provided.

16. Approximate Model for Turbulent Stagnation Point Flow.

SciTech Connect

Dechant, Lawrence

2016-01-01

Here we derive an approximate turbulent self-similar model for a class of favorable pressure gradient wedge-like flows, focusing on the stagnation point limit. While the self-similar model provides a useful gross flow field estimate this approach must be combined with a near wall model is to determine skin friction and by Reynolds analogy the heat transfer coefficient. The combined approach is developed in detail for the stagnation point flow problem where turbulent skin friction and Nusselt number results are obtained. Comparison to the classical Van Driest (1958) result suggests overall reasonable agreement. Though the model is only valid near the stagnation region of cylinders and spheres it nonetheless provides a reasonable model for overall cylinder and sphere heat transfer. The enhancement effect of free stream turbulence upon the laminar flow is used to derive a similar expression which is valid for turbulent flow. Examination of free stream enhanced laminar flow suggests that the rather than enhancement of a laminar flow behavior free stream disturbance results in early transition to turbulent stagnation point behavior. Excellent agreement is shown between enhanced laminar flow and turbulent flow behavior for high levels, e.g. 5% of free stream turbulence. Finally the blunt body turbulent stagnation results are shown to provide realistic heat transfer results for turbulent jet impingement problems.

17. Kinetic model for dilute traffic flow

Balouchi, Ashkan; Browne, Dana A.

The flow of traffic represents a many-particle non-equilibrium problem with important practical consequences. Traffic behavior has been studied using a variety of approaches, including fluid dynamics models, Boltzmann equation, and recently cellular automata (CA). The CA model for traffic flow that Nagel and Schreckenberg (NS) introduced can successfully mimic many of the known features of the traffic flow. We show that in the dilute limit of the NS model, where vehicles exhibit free flow, cars show significant nearest neighbor correlation primarily via a short-range repulsion. introduce an approximate analytic model to describe this dilute limit. We show that the distribution of the distance between consecutive vehicles obeys a drift-diffusion equation. We compared this model with direct simulations. The steady state solution and relaxation of this model agrees well with direct simulations. We explore how this model breaks down as the transition to jams occurs.

18. Jet array impingement flow distributions and heat transfer characteristics. Effects of initial crossflow and nonuniform array geometry. [gas turbine engine component cooling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Florschuetz, L. W.; Metzger, D. E.; Su, C. C.; Isoda, Y.; Tseng, H. H.

1982-01-01

Two-dimensional arrays of circular air jets impinging on a heat transfer surface parallel to the jet orifice plate are considered. The jet flow, after impingement, is constrained to exit in a single direction along the channel formed by the jet orifice plate and the heat transfer surface. The configurations considered are intended to model those of interest in current and contemplated gas turbine airfoil midchord cooling applications. The effects of an initial crossflow which approaches the array through an upstream extension of the channel are considered. Flow distributions as well as heat transfer coefficients and adiabatic wall temperatures resolved to one streamwise hole spacing were measured as a function of the initial crossflow rate and temperature relative to the jet flow rate and temperature. Both Nusselt number profiles and dimensionless adiabatic wall temperature (effectiveness) profiles are presented and discussed. Special test results which show a significant reduction of jet orifice discharge coefficients owing to the effect of a confined crossflow are also presented, along with a flow distribution model which incorporates those effects. A nonuniform array flow distribution model is developed and validated.

19. Conveying Lava Flow Hazards Through Interactive Computer Models

Thomas, D.; Edwards, H. K.; Harnish, E. P.

2007-12-01

As part of an Information Sciences senior class project, a software package of an interactive version of the FLOWGO model was developed for the Island of Hawaii. The software is intended for use in an ongoing public outreach and hazards awareness program that educates the public about lava flow hazards on the island. The design parameters for the model allow an unsophisticated user to initiate a lava flow anywhere on the island and allow it to flow down-slope to the shoreline while displaying a timer to show the rate of advance of the flow. The user is also able to modify a range of input parameters including eruption rate, the temperature of the lava at the vent, and crystal fraction present in the lava at the source. The flow trajectories are computed using a 30 m digital elevation model for the island and the rate of advance of the flow is estimated using the average slope angle and the computed viscosity of the lava as it cools in either a channel (high heat loss) or lava tube (low heat loss). Even though the FLOWGO model is not intended to, and cannot, accurately predict the rate of advance of a tube- fed or channel-fed flow, the relative rates of flow advance for steep or flat-lying terrain convey critically important hazard information to the public: communities located on the steeply sloping western flanks of Mauna Loa may have no more than a few hours to evacuate in the face of a threatened flow from Mauna Loa's southwest rift whereas communities on the more gently sloping eastern flanks of Mauna Loa and Kilauea may have weeks to months to prepare for evacuation. Further, the model also can show the effects of loss of critical infrastructure with consequent impacts on access into and out of communities, loss of electrical supply, and communications as a result of lava flow implacement. The interactive model has been well received in an outreach setting and typically generates greater involvement by the participants than has been the case with static maps

20. Mathematical and computational models of plasma flows

Brushlinsky, K. V.

Investigations of plasma flows are of interest, firstly, due to numerous applications, and secondly, because of their general principles, which form a special branch of physics: the plasma dynamics. Numerical simulation and computation, together with theoretic and experimental methods, play an important part in these investigations. Speaking on flows, a relatively dense plasma is mentioned, so its mathematical models appertain to the fluid mechanics, i.e., they are based on the magnetohydrodynamic description of plasma. Time dependent two dimensional models of plasma flows of two wide-spread types are considered: the flows across the magnetic field and those in the magnetic field plane.

1. Analytical models for complex swirling flows

Borissov, A.; Hussain, V.

1996-11-01

We develops a new class of analytical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for swirling flows, and suggests ways to predict and control such flows occurring in various technological applications. We view momentum accumulation on the axis as a key feature of swirling flows and consider vortex-sink flows on curved axisymmetric surfaces with an axial flow. We show that these solutions model swirling flows in a cylindrical can, whirlpools, tornadoes, and cosmic swirling jets. The singularity of these solutions on the flow axis is removed by matching them with near-axis Schlichting and Long's swirling jets. The matched solutions model flows with very complex patterns, consisting of up to seven separation regions with recirculatory 'bubbles' and vortex rings. We apply the matched solutions for computing flows in the Ranque-Hilsch tube, in the meniscus of electrosprays, in vortex breakdown, and in an industrial vortex burner. The simple analytical solutions allow a clear understanding of how different control parameters affect the flow and guide selection of optimal parameter values for desired flow features. These solutions permit extension to other problems (such as heat transfer and chemical reaction) and have the potential of being significantly useful for further detailed investigation by direct or large-eddy numerical simulations as well as laboratory experimentation.

2. SRMAFTE facility checkout model flow field analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dill, Richard A.; Whitesides, Harold R.

1992-01-01

The Solid Rocket Motor Air Flow Equipment (SRMAFTE) facility was constructed for the purpose of evaluating the internal propellant, insulation, and nozzle configurations of solid propellant rocket motor designs. This makes the characterization of the facility internal flow field very important in assuring that no facility induced flow field features exist which would corrupt the model related measurements. In order to verify the design and operation of the facility, a three-dimensional computational flow field analysis was performed on the facility checkout model setup. The checkout model measurement data, one-dimensional and three-dimensional estimates were compared, and the design and proper operation of the facility was verified. The proper operation of the metering nozzles, adapter chamber transition, model nozzle, and diffuser were verified. The one-dimensional and three-dimensional flow field estimates along with the available measurement data are compared.

3. Modeling and performance of the MHTGR (Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor) reactor cavity cooling system

SciTech Connect

Conklin, J.C. )

1990-04-01

The Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS) of the Modular High- Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy is designed to remove the nuclear afterheat passively in the event that neither the heat transport system nor the shutdown cooling circulator subsystem is available. A computer dynamic simulation for the physical and mathematical modeling of and RCCS is described here. Two conclusions can be made form computations performed under the assumption of a uniform reactor vessel temperature. First, the heat transferred across the annulus from the reactor vessel and then to ambient conditions is very dependent on the surface emissivities of the reactor vessel and RCCS panels. These emissivities should be periodically checked to ensure the safety function of the RCCS. Second, the heat transfer from the reactor vessel is reduced by a maximum of 10% by the presence of steam at 1 atm in the reactor cavity annulus for an assumed constant in the transmission of radiant energy across the annulus can be expected to result in an increase in the reactor vessel temperature for the MHTGR. Further investigation of participating radiation media, including small particles, in the reactor cavity annulus is warranted. 26 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

4. Measurements and computational analysis of heat transfer and flow in a simulated turbine blade internal cooling passage

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Russell, Louis M.; Thurman, Douglas R.; Simonyi, Patricia S.; Hippensteele, Steven A.; Poinsatte, Philip E.

1993-01-01

Visual and quantitative information was obtained on heat transfer and flow in a branched-duct test section that had several significant features of an internal cooling passage of a turbine blade. The objective of this study was to generate a set of experimental data that could be used to validate computer codes for internal cooling systems. Surface heat transfer coefficients and entrance flow conditions were measured at entrance Reynolds numbers of 45,000, 335,000, and 726,000. The heat transfer data were obtained using an Inconel heater sheet attached to the surface and coated with liquid crystals. Visual and quantitative flow field results using particle image velocimetry were also obtained for a plane at mid channel height for a Reynolds number of 45,000. The flow was seeded with polystyrene particles and illuminated by a laser light sheet. Computational results were determined for the same configurations and at matching Reynolds numbers; these surface heat transfer coefficients and flow velocities were computed with a commercially available code. The experimental and computational results were compared. Although some general trends did agree, there were inconsistencies in the temperature patterns as well as in the numerical results. These inconsistencies strongly suggest the need for further computational studies on complicated geometries such as the one studied.

5. Rotor cavity flow and heat transfer with inlet swirl and radial outflow of cooling air

Staub, F. W.

1992-06-01

To enhance the reliability of turbine disk life prediction, experimental verification is necessary for analytical tools which calculate the heat transfer and flow field coefficients in turbine-stator cavities. A full-scale model of the forward cavity of a typical aircraft gas turbine is utilized employing a high-molecular-weight gas (Refrigerant-12) at ambient temperature and pressure conditions to match the dimensionless parameters at engine conditions. A first-order comparison is given of the velocity distribution and disk heat transfer coefficients calculated by the measured values and a CFD code.

6. Regression modeling of ground-water flow

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cooley, R.L.; Naff, R.L.

1985-01-01

Nonlinear multiple regression methods are developed to model and analyze groundwater flow systems. Complete descriptions of regression methodology as applied to groundwater flow models allow scientists and engineers engaged in flow modeling to apply the methods to a wide range of problems. Organization of the text proceeds from an introduction that discusses the general topic of groundwater flow modeling, to a review of basic statistics necessary to properly apply regression techniques, and then to the main topic: exposition and use of linear and nonlinear regression to model groundwater flow. Statistical procedures are given to analyze and use the regression models. A number of exercises and answers are included to exercise the student on nearly all the methods that are presented for modeling and statistical analysis. Three computer programs implement the more complex methods. These three are a general two-dimensional, steady-state regression model for flow in an anisotropic, heterogeneous porous medium, a program to calculate a measure of model nonlinearity with respect to the regression parameters, and a program to analyze model errors in computed dependent variables such as hydraulic head. (USGS)

7. Assessing the Performance of Clostridium perfringens Cooling Models for Cooked, Uncured Meat and Poultry Products.

PubMed

Mohr, T B; Juneja, V K; Thippareddi, H H; Schaffner, D W; Bronstein, P A; Silverman, M; Cook, L V

2015-08-01

Heat-resistant spores of Clostridium perfringens may germinate and multiply in cooked meat and poultry products when the rate and extent of cooling does not occur in a timely manner. Therefore, six cooling models (PMP 7.0 broth model; PMIP uncured beef, chicken, and pork models; Smith-Schaffner version 3; and UK IFR ComBase Perfringens Predictor) were evaluated for relative performance in predicting growth of C. perfringens under dynamic temperature conditions encountered during cooling of cooked, uncured meat and poultry products. The predicted growth responses from the models were extensively compared with those observed in food. Data from 188 time-temperature cooling profiles (176 for single-rate exponential cooling and 12 for dual-rate exponential cooling) were collected from 17 independent sources (16 peer-reviewed publications and one report) for model evaluation. Data were obtained for a variety of cooked products, including meat and poultry slurries, ground meat and poultry products with and without added ingredients (e.g., potato starch, sodium triphosphate, and potassium tetrapyrophosphate), and processed products such as ham and roast beef. Performance of the models was evaluated using three sets of criteria, and accuracy was defined within a 1- to 2-log range. The percentages of accurate, fail-safe, or fail-dangerous predictions for each cooling model differed depending on which criterion was used to evaluate the data set. Nevertheless, the combined percentages of accurate and fail-safe predictions based on the three performance criteria were 34.66 to 42.61% for the PMP 7.0 beef broth model, 100% for the PMIP cooling models for uncured beef, uncured pork and uncured chicken, 80.11 to 93.18% for the Smith-Schaffner cooling model, and 74.43 to 85.23% for the UK IFR ComBase Perfringens Predictor model during single-rate exponential chilling. Except for the PMP 7.0 broth model, the other five cooling models (PMIP, Smith-Schaffner, and UK IFR ComBase) are

8. A tabulated chemistry approach for numerical modeling of diesel spray evaporation in a 'stabilized cool flame' environment

SciTech Connect

Kolaitis, D.I.; Founti, M.A.

2006-04-15

Droplet evaporation in a 'stabilized cool flame' environment leads to a homogeneous, heated air-fuel vapor mixture that can be subsequently either burnt or utilized in fuel-reforming applications for fuel cell systems. The paper investigates the locally occurring physico-chemical phenomena in an atmospheric pressure, diesel spray, stabilized cool flame reactor, utilizing a tabulated chemistry approach in conjunction with a two-phase, Eulerian-Lagrangian computational fluid dynamics code. Actual diesel oil physical properties are used to model spray evaporation in the two-phase simulations, whereas the corresponding chemistry is represented by n-heptane. A lookup table is constructed by performing a plethora of perfectly stirred reactor simulations, utilizing a semidetailed n-heptane oxidation chemical kinetics mechanism. The overall exothermicity of the preignition n-heptane oxidation chemistry and the fuel consumption rates are examined as a function of selected independent parameters, namely temperature, fuel concentration, and residence time; their influence on cool flame reactivity is thoroughly studied. It is shown that the tabulated chemistry approach allows accurate investigation of the chemical phenomena with low computational cost. The two-phase flow inside the stabilized cool flame reactor is simulated, utilizing the developed lookup table. Predictions are presented for a variety of test cases and are compared to available experimental data, with satisfactory agreement. Model validation tests indicate that prediction quality improves with increasing values of air temperature at the reactor's inlet. (author)

9. Investigation of Advanced Counterrotation Blade Configuration Concepts for High Speed Turboprop Systems. Task 8: Cooling Flow/heat Transfer Analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hall, Edward J.; Topp, David A.; Heidegger, Nathan J.; Delaney, Robert A.

1994-01-01

The focus of this task was to validate the ADPAC code for heat transfer calculations. To accomplish this goal, the ADPAC code was modified to allow for a Cartesian coordinate system capability and to add boundary conditions to handle spanwise periodicity and transpiration boundaries. The primary validation case was the film cooled C3X vane. The cooling hole modeling included both a porous region and grid in each discrete hold. Predictions for these models as well as smooth wall compared well with the experimental data.

10. Modelling Canopy Flows over Complex Terrain

Grant, Eleanor R.; Ross, Andrew N.; Gardiner, Barry A.

2016-06-01

Recent studies of flow over forested hills have been motivated by a number of important applications including understanding CO_2 and other gaseous fluxes over forests in complex terrain, predicting wind damage to trees, and modelling wind energy potential at forested sites. Current modelling studies have focussed almost exclusively on highly idealized, and usually fully forested, hills. Here, we present model results for a site on the Isle of Arran, Scotland with complex terrain and heterogeneous forest canopy. The model uses an explicit representation of the canopy and a 1.5-order turbulence closure for flow within and above the canopy. The validity of the closure scheme is assessed using turbulence data from a field experiment before comparing predictions of the full model with field observations. For near-neutral stability, the results compare well with the observations, showing that such a relatively simple canopy model can accurately reproduce the flow patterns observed over complex terrain and realistic, variable forest cover, while at the same time remaining computationally feasible for real case studies. The model allows closer examination of the flow separation observed over complex forested terrain. Comparisons with model simulations using a roughness length parametrization show significant differences, particularly with respect to flow separation, highlighting the need to explicitly model the forest canopy if detailed predictions of near-surface flow around forests are required.

11. Very high temperature laminar flow of a gas through the entrance region of a cooled tube - Numerical calculations and experimental results.

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Back, L. H.

1972-01-01

The laminar flow equations in differential form are solved numerically on a digital computer for flow of a very high temperature gas through the entrance region of an externally cooled tube. The solution method is described and calculations are carried out in conjunction with experimental measurements. The agreement with experiment is good, with the result indicating relatively large energy and momentum losses in the highly cooled flows considered where the pressure is nearly uniform along the flow and the core flow becomes non-adiabatic a few diameters downstream of the inlet. The effects of a large range of Reynolds number and Mach number (viscous dissipation) are also investigated.

12. Anisotropic stress accumulation in cooling lava flows and resulting fracture patterns: Insights from starch-water desiccation experiments

Lodge, Robert W. D.; Lescinsky, David T.

2009-09-01

Desiccation of starch-water slurries is a useful analog for the production of polygonal fractures/columnar joints in cooling lava flows. When left to dry completely, a simple mixture of 1:1 starch and water will produce columns that appear remarkably similar to natural columnar joints formed in cooled lava flows. Columns form when the accumulation of isotropic stress exceeds the tensile strength of a material, at which point a fracture forms and advances through the material perpendicular to the desiccating surface. Individual fractures will initially form orthogonal to the desiccation surface but will quickly evolve into a hexagonal fracture network that advances incrementally through the material. However, some fracture patterns found within natural lava flows are not hexagonal ( Lodge and Lescinsky, 2009-this issue), but rather have fracture lengths that are much longer than the distance to adjacent fractures. These fractures are commonly found at lava flows that have interacted with glacial ice during emplacement. The purpose of this study is to utilize starch analog experiments to better understand the formation of these fractures and the stress regimes responsible for their non-hexagonal patterns. To simulate anisotropic conditions during cooling, the starch slurry was poured into a container with a movable wall that was attached to a screw-type jack. The jack was then set to slowly extend or retract while the slurry desiccated. This resulted in either a decrease or increase in the chamber cross-sectional area thus creating compressional or extensional regimes. Decreasing chamber area (DCA) experiments resulted in fractures with larger lengths parallel to the direction of wall movement (also direction of compression). It also caused localized thrust faulting and curved column development. Increasing chamber area (ICA) experiments produced a zone of horizontal column development along the expanding margin (produced when the wall detached from the sample

13. Swept-slot film-cooling effectiveness in hypersonic turbulent flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hefner, J. N.; Cary, A. M., Jr.

1974-01-01

Measurement results are presented for the surface equilibrium temperature downstream of swept slots, with sonic tangential air injection into a thick hypersonic turbulent boundary layer. These results are compared with unswept slot results for cooling effectiveness.

14. Modeling information flow in biological networks

Kim, Yoo-Ah; Przytycki, Jozef H.; Wuchty, Stefan; Przytycka, Teresa M.

2011-06-01

Large-scale molecular interaction networks are being increasingly used to provide a system level view of cellular processes. Modeling communications between nodes in such huge networks as information flows is useful for dissecting dynamical dependences between individual network components. In the information flow model, individual nodes are assumed to communicate with each other by propagating the signals through intermediate nodes in the network. In this paper, we first provide an overview of the state of the art of research in the network analysis based on information flow models. In the second part, we describe our computational method underlying our recent work on discovering dysregulated pathways in glioma. Motivated by applications to inferring information flow from genotype to phenotype in a very large human interaction network, we generalized previous approaches to compute information flows for a large number of instances and also provided a formal proof for the method.

15. Energy efficient engine, high-pressure turbine cooling model technology report

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gardner, W. B.

1981-01-01

Two dimensional flow visualization model tests were used to substantiate the flow stability benefits derived from the use of turning vanes in the root and tip turn flow areas. Results indicate the need for corner fillets and flow injection into the acute corner formed by the intersection of the rib and simulated airfoil suction surface in order to minimize recirculation (stagnation) of flow in that region. Three dimensional flow visualization model tests verified the actual blade coolant passage design.

16. HIGH-RESOLUTION XMM-NEWTON SPECTROSCOPY OF THE COOLING FLOW CLUSTER A3112

SciTech Connect

Bulbul, G. Esra; Smith, Randall K.; Foster, Adam; Cottam, Jean; Loewenstein, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Shafer, Richard

2012-03-01

We examine high signal-to-noise XMM-Newton European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) and Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) observations to determine the physical characteristics of the gas in the cool core and outskirts of the nearby rich cluster A3112. The XMM-Newton Extended Source Analysis Software data reduction and background modeling methods were used to analyze the XMM-Newton EPIC data. From the EPIC data, we find that the iron and silicon abundance gradients show significant increase toward the center of the cluster while the oxygen abundance profile is centrally peaked but has a shallower distribution than that of iron. The X-ray mass modeling is based on the temperature and deprojected density distributions of the intracluster medium determined from EPIC observations. The total mass of A3112 obeys the M-T scaling relations found using XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of massive clusters at r{sub 500}. The gas mass fraction f{sub gas} = 0.149{sup +0.036}{sub -0.032} at r{sub 500} is consistent with the seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe results. The comparisons of line fluxes and flux limits on the Fe XVII and Fe XVIII lines obtained from high-resolution RGS spectra indicate that there is no spectral evidence for cooler gas associated with the cluster with temperature below 1.0 keV in the central <38'' ({approx}52 kpc) region of A3112. High-resolution RGS spectra also yield an upper limit to the turbulent motions in the compact core of A3112 (206 km s{sup -1}). We find that the contribution of turbulence to total energy is less than 6%. This upper limit is consistent with the energy contribution measured in recent high-resolution simulations of relaxed galaxy clusters.

17. Turbulent motion of mass flows. Mathematical modeling

Eglit, Margarita; Yakubenko, Alexander; Yakubenko, Tatiana

2016-04-01

New mathematical models for unsteady turbulent mass flows, e.g., dense snow avalanches and landslides, are presented. Such models are important since most of large scale flows are turbulent. In addition to turbulence, the two other important points are taken into account: the entrainment of the underlying material by the flow and the nonlinear rheology of moving material. The majority of existing models are based on the depth-averaged equations and the turbulent character of the flow is accounted by inclusion of drag proportional to the velocity squared. In this paper full (not depth-averaged) equations are used. It is assumed that basal entrainment takes place if the bed friction equals the shear strength of the underlying layer (Issler D, M. Pastor Peréz. 2011). The turbulent characteristics of the flow are calculated using a three-parameter differential model (Lushchik et al., 1978). The rheological properties of moving material are modeled by one of the three types of equations: 1) Newtonian fluid with high viscosity, 2) power-law fluid and 3) Bingham fluid. Unsteady turbulent flows down long homogeneous slope are considered. The flow dynamical parameters and entrainment rate behavior in time as well as their dependence on properties of moving and underlying materials are studied numerically. REFERENCES M.E. Eglit and A.E. Yakubenko, 2014. Numerical modeling of slope flows entraining bottom material. Cold Reg. Sci. Technol., 108, 139-148 Margarita E. Eglit and Alexander E. Yakubenko, 2016. The effect of bed material entrainment and non-Newtonian rheology on dynamics of turbulent slope flows. Fluid Dynamics, 51(3) Issler D, M. Pastor Peréz. 2011. Interplay of entrainment and rheology in snow avalanches; a numerical study. Annals of Glaciology, 52(58), 143-147 Lushchik, V.G., Paveliev, A.A. , and Yakubenko, A.E., 1978. Three-parameter model of shear turbulence. Fluid Dynamics, 13, (3), 350-362

18. Modeling heat flow in a thermos

Karls, Michael A.; Scherschel, James E.

2003-07-01

One of the first mathematical models that students encounter is that of the cooling of a cup of coffee. A related, but more complicated, problem is how the temperature in a thermos full of ice-cold water changes as a function of both time and position in the thermos. We use the approach developed by Fourier for the heating of an insulated rod to establish a model for a thermos. We verify the model by comparing it to data recorded with a calculator-based laboratory.

19. Experimental investigation of heat transfer and flow using V and broken V ribs within gas turbine blade cooling passage

Kumar, Sourabh; Amano, R. S.

2015-05-01

Gas turbines are extensively used for aircraft propulsion, land-based power generation, and various industrial applications. With an increase in turbine rotor inlet temperatures, developments in innovative gas turbine cooling technology enhance the efficiency and power output; these advancements of turbine cooling have allowed engine designs to exceed normal material temperature limits. For internal cooling design, techniques for heat extraction from the surfaces exposed to hot stream of gas are based on an increase in the heat transfer areas and on the promotion of turbulence of the cooling flow. In this study, an improvement in performance is obtained by casting repeated continuous V- and broken V-shaped ribs on one side of the two pass square channels into the core of the blade. A detailed experimental investigation is done for two pass square channels with a 180° turn. Detailed heat transfer distribution occurring in the ribbed passage is reported for a steady state experiment. Four different combinations of 60° V- and broken 60° V-ribs in a channel are considered. A series of thermocouples are used to obtain the temperature on the channel surface and local heat transfer coefficients are obtained for Reynolds numbers 16,000, 56,000 and 85,000 within the turbulent flow regime. Area averaged data are calculated in order to compare the overall performance of the tested ribbed surface and to evaluate the degree of heat transfer enhancement induced by the rib. Flow within the channels is characterized by heat transfer enhancing ribs, bends, rotation and buoyancy effects. A series of experimental measurements is performed to predict the overall performance of the channel. This paper presents an attempt to collect information about the Nusselt number, the pressure drop and the overall performance of the eight different ribbed ducts at the specified Reynolds number. The main contribution of this study is to evaluate the best combination of rib arrangements

20. Heat transfer process under a film-cooled surface with presence of weak swirling flow in the mainstream

SciTech Connect

Yang, C.S.; Kung, T.L.; Gau, C.

2007-11-15

Experiments have been performed in a relatively large circular pipe to study and obtain the heat transfer data over a film-cooled surface, with the presence of weak swirling flow in the mainstream. The swirling flow is generated by a flat-vaned swirler situated upstream. A cooling film is injected from an annular slot formed by the pipe wall and the circular cover plate. The radial temperature distribution measurements at several axial locations were used to infer the film jet structure and the rate of mixing of the film jet with the swirling flow. The nondimensional parameters governing the heat transfer process under the film are derived from the system of governing equations. Experiments demonstrate that the swirl number, increasing with turbulence intensity and swirl velocity in the mainstream, can rapidly destroy the film jet structure and enhance the heat transfer process. During the course of the experiments, the blowing parameter ranged from 0.5 to 2 and the swirl number ranged from 0 to 0.6. Correlations for the Nusselt number which account for the effect of swirling flow are presented. (author)

1. Compressor Flow Control Concepts. 2; UEET Compressor Flow Control Modeling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chima, Rodrick V.

2001-01-01

Several passive flow control devices have been modeled computationally in the Swift CFD code. The models were applied to the first stage rotor and stator of the baseline UEET compressor in an attempt to improve efficiency and/or stall margin. The devices included suction surface bleed, tip injection, self-aspirated rotors, area-ruled casing, and vortex generators. The models and computed results will be described in the presentation. None of the results have shown significant gains in efficiency; however, casing vortex generators have shown potential improvements in stall margin.

2. Development of an algebraic stress/two-layer model for calculating thrust chamber flow fields

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chen, C. P.; Shang, H. M.; Huang, J.

1993-01-01

Following the consensus of a workshop in Turbulence Modeling for Liquid Rocket Thrust Chambers, the current effort was undertaken to study the effects of second-order closure on the predictions of thermochemical flow fields. To reduce the instability and computational intensity of the full second-order Reynolds Stress Model, an Algebraic Stress Model (ASM) coupled with a two-layer near wall treatment was developed. Various test problems, including the compressible boundary layer with adiabatic and cooled walls, recirculating flows, swirling flows and the entire SSME nozzle flow were studied to assess the performance of the current model. Detailed calculations for the SSME exit wall flow around the nozzle manifold were executed. As to the overall flow predictions, the ASM removes another assumption for appropriate comparison with experimental data, to account for the non-isotropic turbulence effects.

3. Development of an algebraic stress/two-layer model for calculating thrust chamber flow fields

Chen, C. P.; Shang, H. M.; Huang, J.

1993-07-01

Following the consensus of a workshop in Turbulence Modeling for Liquid Rocket Thrust Chambers, the current effort was undertaken to study the effects of second-order closure on the predictions of thermochemical flow fields. To reduce the instability and computational intensity of the full second-order Reynolds Stress Model, an Algebraic Stress Model (ASM) coupled with a two-layer near wall treatment was developed. Various test problems, including the compressible boundary layer with adiabatic and cooled walls, recirculating flows, swirling flows and the entire SSME nozzle flow were studied to assess the performance of the current model. Detailed calculations for the SSME exit wall flow around the nozzle manifold were executed. As to the overall flow predictions, the ASM removes another assumption for appropriate comparison with experimental data, to account for the non-isotropic turbulence effects.

Ambrozhevich, A. V.; Munshtukov, D. A.

A two-dimensional model of the gasdynamic process in a radial-axial blade machine is proposed which allows for the instantaneous local state of the field of flow parameters, changes in the set angles along the median profile line, profile losses, and centrifugal and Coriolis forces. The model also allows for the injection of cooling air and completion of fuel combustion in the flow. The model is equally applicable to turbines and compressors. The use of the method of singularities provides for a unified and relatively simple description of various factors affecting the flow and, therefore, for computational efficiency.

5. Mathematical Models of Continuous Flow Electrophoresis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Saville, D. A.; Snyder, R. S.

1985-01-01

Development of high resolution continuous flow electrophoresis devices ultimately requires comprehensive understanding of the ways various phenomena and processes facilitate or hinder separation. A comprehensive model of the actual three dimensional flow, temperature and electric fields was developed to provide guidance in the design of electrophoresis chambers for specific tasks and means of interpreting test data on a given chamber. Part of the process of model development includes experimental and theoretical studies of hydrodynamic stability. This is necessary to understand the origin of mixing flows observed with wide gap gravitational effects. To insure that the model accurately reflects the flow field and particle motion requires extensive experimental work. Another part of the investigation is concerned with the behavior of concentrated sample suspensions with regard to sample stream stability particle-particle interactions which might affect separation in an electric field, especially at high field strengths. Mathematical models will be developed and tested to establish the roles of the various interactions.

6. Modeling the high-field section of a muon helical cooling channel

SciTech Connect

Zlobin, A.V.; Barzi, E.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Lamm, M.J.; Lombardo, V.; Lopes, M.L.; Yu, M.; Johnson, R.P.; Flanagan, G.; Kahn, S.A.; Turenne, M.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

2010-05-01

This paper describes the conceptual design and parameters of a short model of a high-field helical solenoid for muon beam cooling. Structural materials choices, fabrication techniques and first test results are discussed.

7. Simplified model evaluation of cooling rates for glass-containing lunar compositions

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Uhlmann, D. R.; Yinnon, H.; Fang, C.-Y.

1982-01-01

The simplified model of glass formation and the development of partial crystallinity in cooled bodies has been applied to lunar compositions 10060, 15028, 15086, 15101, 15286, 15301, 15498, 15499, 60255, 65016, 77017, Apollo 15 green glass and LUNA 24 highland basalt. The critical cooling rates for glass formation predicted by the simplified model are found to be in good agreement (to within an order of magnitude) with those predicted by the exact treatment of crystallization statistics. These predicted critical cooling rates are in even better agreement (a factor of 2) with measured values of the rates required to form glasses of the materials.

8. CFD Modeling for Active Flow Control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Buning, Pieter G.

2001-01-01

This presentation describes current work under UEET Active Flow Control CFD Research Tool Development. The goal of this work is to develop computational tools for inlet active flow control design. This year s objectives were to perform CFD simulations of fully gridded vane vortex generators, micro-vortex genera- tors, and synthetic jets, and to compare flowfield results with wind tunnel tests of simple geometries with flow control devices. Comparisons are shown for a single micro-vortex generator on a flat plate, and for flow over an expansion ramp with sidewall effects. Vortex core location, pressure gradient and oil flow patterns are compared between experiment and computation. This work lays the groundwork for evaluating simplified modeling of arrays of devices, and provides the opportunity to test simple flow control device/sensor/ control loop interaction.

9. Transient Wellbore Fluid Flow Model

Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

1982-04-06

WELBORE is a code to solve transient, one-dimensional two-phase or single-phase non-isothermal fluid flow in a wellbore. The primary thermodynamic variables used in solving the equations are the pressure and specific energy. An equation of state subroutine provides the density, quality, and temperature. The heat loss out of the wellbore is calculated by solving a radial diffusion equation for the temperature changes outside the bore. The calculation is done at each node point in themore » wellbore.« less

10. Neural network model for extracting optic flow.

PubMed

Tohyama, Kazuya; Fukushima, Kunihiko

2005-01-01

When we travel in an environment, we have an optic flow on the retina. Neurons in the area MST of macaque monkeys are reported to have a very large receptive field and analyze optic flows on the retina. Many MST-cells respond selectively to rotation, expansion/contraction and planar motion of the optic flow. Many of them show position-invariant responses to optic flow, that is, their responses are maintained during the shift of the center of the optic flow. It has long been suggested mathematically that vector-field calculus is useful for analyzing optic flow field. Biologically, plausible neural network models based on this idea, however, have little been proposed so far. This paper, based on vector-field hypothesis, proposes a neural network model for extracting optic flows. Our model consists of hierarchically connected layers: retina, V1, MT and MST. V1-cells measure local velocity. There are two kinds of MT-cell: one is for extracting absolute velocities, the other for extracting relative velocities with their antagonistic inputs. Collecting signals from MT-cells, MST-cells respond selectively to various types of optic flows. We demonstrate through a computer simulation that this simple network is enough to explain a variety of results of neurophysiological experiments. PMID:16112546

11. Optimization of solver for gas flow modeling

Savichkin, D.; Dodulad, O.; Kloss, Yu

2014-05-01

The main purpose of the work is optimization of the solver for rarefied gas flow modeling based on the Boltzmann equation. Optimization method is based on SIMD extensions for ×86 processors. Computational code is profiled and manually optimized with SSE instructions. Heat flow, shock waves and Knudsen pump are modeled with optimized solver. Dependencies of computational time from mesh sizes and CPU capabilities are provided.

12. Holistic Flow Model of Spiritual Wellness

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purdy, Melanie; Dupey, Peggy

2005-01-01

The Holistic Flow Model of Spiritual Wellness is a conceptualization of spiritual health and well-being that has implications for clinical practice and research. The model is unique in its placement of the spirit at the center of Life and in its fluid vision of the spirit. The authors present the model after a discussion of spirituality and the…

13. A new mathematical model to simulate AVA cold-induced vasodilation reaction to local cooling

2014-01-01

The purpose of this work was to integrate a new mathematical model with a bioheat model, based on physiology and first principles, to predict thermoregulatory arterio-venous anastomoses (AVA) and cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD) reaction to local cooling. The transient energy balance equations of body segments constrained by thermoregulatory controls were solved numerically to predict segmental core and skin temperatures, and arterial blood flow for given metabolic rate and environmental conditions. Two similar AVA-CIVD mechanisms were incorporated. The first was activated during drop in local skin temperature (<32 °C). The second mechanism was activated at a minimum finger skin temperature, T CIVD, min, where the AVA flow is dilated and constricted once the skin temperature reached a maximum value. The value of T CIVD,min was determined empirically from values reported in literature for hand immersions in cold fluid. When compared with published data, the model predicted accurately the onset time of CIVD at 25 min and T CIVD,min at 10 °C for hand exposure to still air at 0 °C. Good agreement was also obtained between predicted finger skin temperature and experimentally published values for repeated immersion in cold water at environmental conditions of 30, 25, and 20 °C. The CIVD thermal response was found related to core body temperature, finger skin temperature, and initial finger sensible heat loss rate upon exposure to cold fluid. The model captured central and local stimulations of the CIVD and accommodated observed variability reported in literature of onset time of CIVD reaction and T CIVD,min.

14. A compendium of fracture flow models, 1994

SciTech Connect

Diodato, D.M.

1994-11-01

The report is designed to be used as a decision-making aid for individuals who need to simulate fluid flow in fractured porous media. Fracture flow codes of varying capability in the public and private domain were identified in a survey of government, academia, and industry. The selection and use of an appropriate code requires conceptualization of the geology, physics, and chemistry (for transport) of the fracture flow problem to be solved. Conceptual models that have been invoked to describe fluid flow in fractured porous media include explicit discrete fracture, dual continuum (porosity and/or permeability), discrete fracture network, multiple interacting continua, multipermeability/multiporosity, and single equivalent continuum. The explicit discrete-fracture model is a near-field representation, the single equivalent continuum model is a far-field representation, and the dual-continuum model is intermediate to those end members. Of these, the dual-continuum model is the most widely employed. The concept of multiple interacting continua has been applied in a limited number of examples. Multipermeability/multiporosity provides a unified conceptual model. The ability to accurately describe fracture flow phenomena will continue to improve as a result of advances in fracture flow research and computing technology. This improvement will result in enhanced capability to protect the public environment, safety, and health.

15. Modeling Crustal-Scale Hydrothermal Flows through a Seamount Network

Lauer, R. M.; Fisher, A. T.; Winslow, D. M.

2014-12-01

The current study represents the first efforts to model 3D hydrothermal circulation in fast-spreading oceanic crust, using a network of outcrops patterned after a region of the Cocos plate offshore Costa Rica, where heat extraction is exceptionally high, resulting in heat flow values ~30% of those predicted by conductive lithospheric cooling models. Previous studies of this region attribute the heat deficit to vigorous hydrothermal circulation through basaltic basement outcrops that provide a hydraulic connection between the igneous oceanic crust and the seafloor, resulting in efficient mining of heat by large-scale lateral fluid flow. Seafloor bathymetry indicates that outcrops in this region are spaced 20-50-km apart, although there are likely additional unmapped structures that facilitate recharge and discharge of hydrothermal fluids. The modeled outcrop network consists of 20-km and 40-km square grids, with outcrops located at the corners. We vary the number, size, permeability, and orientation of the outcrops to consider what combination of these parameters achieve the observed pattern and/or quantity of heat loss. Additionally, we consider the effect of aquifer permeability and thickness on the modeled heat flow distribution. Model results suggest that extremely high aquifer permeability is required to match the observed heat loss and low heat flow, together with a heterogeneous outcrop permeability distribution. In particular, we find that an aquifer permeability of 10-9 m2 is required to achieve the measured heat flow distribution in this region, which estimates a mean value of 29 ±13 mW/m2 in areas of flat lying basement, overlain by 400-500-m of sediment. In addition to high aquifer permeability, heterogeneous outcrop permeability is required to initiate the hydraulic connection between outcrops, with higher permeability outcrops acting as recharge sites, and lower permeability outcrops as discharge sites.

16. ITG sideband coupling models for zonal flows

SciTech Connect

Stransky, M.

2011-05-15

Four-wave interaction model between ITG mode and zonal flow was derived using fluid equations. In this model, the zonal flow is excited non-linearly by ITG turbulence via Reynolds stress. Numerical simulations show that the system allows for a small range above the ITG threshold where the zonal flow can stabilize an unstable ITG mode, effectively increasing {eta}{sub i} threshold, an effect which has been called the Dimits shift. However, the shift is smaller than in known cases such that in the Cyclone base.

17. Passive urban ventilation by combined buoyancy-driven slope flow and wall flow: Parametric CFD studies on idealized city models

Luo, Zhiwen; Li, Yuguo

2011-10-01

This paper reports the results of a parametric CFD study on idealized city models to investigate the potential of slope flow in ventilating a city located in a mountainous region when the background synoptic wind is absent. Examples of such a city include Tokyo in Japan, Los Angeles and Phoenix in the US, and Hong Kong. Two types of buoyancy-driven flow are considered, i.e., slope flow from the mountain slope (katabatic wind at night and anabatic wind in the daytime), and wall flow due to heated/cooled urban surfaces. The combined buoyancy-driven flow system can serve the purpose of dispersing the accumulated urban air pollutants when the background wind is weak or absent. The microscopic picture of ventilation performance within the urban structures was evaluated in terms of air change rate (ACH) and age of air. The simulation results reveal that the slope flow plays an important role in ventilating the urban area, especially in calm conditions. Katabatic flow at night is conducive to mitigating the nocturnal urban heat island. In the present parametric study, the mountain slope angle and mountain height are assumed to be constant, and the changing variables are heating/cooling intensity and building height. For a typical mountain of 500 m inclined at an angle of 20° to the horizontal level, the interactive structure is very much dependent on the ratio of heating/cooling intensity as well as building height. When the building is lower than 60 m, the slope wind dominates. When the building is as high as 100 m, the contribution from the urban wall flow cannot be ignored. It is found that katabatic wind can be very beneficial to the thermal environment as well as air quality at the pedestrian level. The air change rate for the pedestrian volume can be as high as 300 ACH.

18. Testing the geomagnetic dipole and reversing dynamo models over Earth's cooling history

Heimpel, Moritz; Evans, Ted

2014-05-01

Continental drift reconstructions rely on the assumption that Earth's mean magnetic field has been a geocentric axial dipole over geologic time. However, the coupled dynamics of mantle and core convection may have had profound effects on the magnetic field in the distant past. Previous dynamo models have linked differences between polar and equatorial mantle heat flow to apparently anomalous paleomagnetic fields, and changes in reversal frequency. Here we use the inclination test (Evans, 1976) to interpret observational magnetic field models and polarity-reversing numerical dynamos representing various convective states of the mantle and core. Dynamo models with uniform buoyancy flux represent three convective states of the mantle and core: (1) present era Earth, driven thermo-chemically at the inner core boundary; (2) mantle overturn, with elevated heat flux at the core-mantle boundary, and (3) ancient Earth prior to inner core nucleation, with buoyancy production solely at the CMB. Consistent with Earth's present magnetic field, dynamos driven by buoyancy due to inner core growth are nearly dipolar. In contrast, elevated CMB heat flow yields small to moderate inclination flattening due to a persistent octupole that reverses synchronously with the dipole. For the ancient Earth models the relatively strong octupole component tends to stabilize the dynamo and decrease the reversal frequency. Our results, along with evidence of a young inner core, imply that an entirely liquid core contributed to shallow inclinations in Precambrian time. We also run models with latitudinally variable heat flux boundary conditions to further investigate the relationship between dynamo flow fields, the octupole component, magnetic inclinations and reversal frequency. For models with increased polar CMB heat flux we find that the relative strength of the octupole component increases in proportion to latitudinal heat flux variation. On the other hand, models are very sensitive to

19. Cold air performance of a 12.766-centimeter-tip-diameter axial-flow cooled turbine. 2: Effect of air ejection on turbine performance

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Haas, J. E.; Kofskey, M. G.

1977-01-01

An air cooled version of a single-stage, axial-flow turbine was investigated to determine aerodynamic performance with and without air ejection from the stator and rotor blades surfaces to simulate the effect of cooling air discharge. Air ejection rate was varied from 0 to 10 percent of turbine mass flow for both the stator and the rotor. A primary-to-air ejection temperature ratio of about 1 was maintained.

20. Steady State Transportation Cooling in Porous Media Under Local, Non-Thermal Equilibrium Fluid Flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rodriquez, Alvaro Che

2002-01-01

An analytical solution to the steady-state fluid temperature for 1-D (one dimensional) transpiration cooling has been derived. Transpiration cooling has potential use in the aerospace industry for protection against high heating environments for re-entry vehicles. Literature for analytical treatments of transpiration cooling has been largely confined to the assumption of thermal equilibrium between the porous matrix and fluid. In the present analysis, the fundamental fluid and matrix equations are coupled through a volumetric heat transfer coefficient and investigated in non-thermal equilibrium. The effects of varying the thermal conductivity of the solid matrix and the heat transfer coefficient are investigated. The results are also compared to existing experimental data.

1. PREDICTIVE MODEL FOR GROWTH OF CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS DURING COOLING OF COOKED UNCURED BEEF

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper considers two models that have been used for modeling growth of C. perfringens during cooling. Using a common approach or methodology for constructing models, there was no appreciable difference between the model predictions when the population of cells was within the lag or exponential ...

2. User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal energy storage coupled with district heating or cooling systems. Volume I. Main text

SciTech Connect

Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

1982-04-01

A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. The AQUASTOR model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two principal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains the main text, including introduction, program description, input data instruction, a description of the output, and Appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

3. Determination of hot and cool burning residential wood combustion source strengths using chemical mass balance modeling

SciTech Connect

Rau, J.A.; Huntzicker, J.J.; Khalil, M.A.K. )

1987-01-01

This paper compares CMB results using separate hot and cool RWC source composition profiles, a composite of hot and cool composition profiles weighted according reported stove usage patterns, and the conventional EPA RWC source composition profile. These profiles are shown. Since the composition of hot and cool burn particles is dramatically different, hot and cool burn composition profiles can be used as separate sources in the same CMB model. Hot burning RWC particles are black, have a mild acrid smell and contain from 20 to 60% carbon (up to 80% of the carbon can be in the form of elemental carbon) and high levels of trace elements (5-25%K, 2-5% S and 2-4% Cl). In contrast, cool or smoldering burn smoke particles are tan, have a strong pleasant wood smoke smell, and contain 55-60% carbon which is mostly in the form of organic carbon with only a few percent of elemental carbon. The concentrations of trace elements in cool burning emissions are generally less than 0.1%. During hot burning the RWC smoke plume is practically invisible, while during cool burning the plume is very visible and has the typical blue-gray color associated with wood burning. For similar amounts of fuel burning in a stove, emission levels for cool burning are an average of 4.8 times higher than for hot burning.

4. Modeling of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Nanotube and Nanowire Forests

Martin, Michael

2010-10-01

Bundles of nanotubes, also known as nanotube forests, are under consideration for applications such as chip cooling and pre-concentrators for biodetection. Scaling law analysis shows that the air flow through these forests at atmospheric pressure is in the free-molecular flow regime. Based on the linearized free-molecular flow equations, a model is presented for the pressure drop and heat transfer in these systems. The momentum and energy equations are coupled, requiring that they be solved simultaneously. Results show large pressure drops, and a non-linear pressure distribution, similar to that seen in rarefied micro-channel flows.

5. A model for insect tracheolar flow

Staples, Anne; Chatterjee, Krishnashis

2015-11-01

Tracheoles are the terminal ends of the microscale tracheal channels present in most insect respiratory systems that transport air directly to the tissue. From a fluid dynamics perspective, tracheolar flow is notable because it lies at the intersection of several specialized fluid flow regimes. The flow through tracheoles is creeping, microscale gas flow in the rarefied regime. Here, we use lubrication theory to model the flow through a single microscale tracheole and take into account fluid-structure interactions through an imposed periodic wall deformation corresponding to the rhythmic abdominal compression found in insects, and rarefaction effects using slip boundary conditions. We compare the pressure, axial pressure gradient, and axial and radial velocities in the channel, and the volumetric flow rate through the channel for no-slip, low slip, and high slip conditions under two different channel deformation regimes. We find that the presence of slip tends to reduce the flow rate through the model tracheole and hypothesize that one of the mechanical functions of tracheoles is to act as a diffuser to decelerate the flow, enhance mixing, and increase the residency time of freshly oxygenated air at the surface of the tissue. This work was funded by the NSF under grant no. 1437387.

6. Modeling flow and sedimention of slurries

Mondy, L.; Rao, R.; Altobelli, S.; Ingber, M.; Graham, A.

2002-12-01

Many natural processes involve flows of sediments at high particle concentrations. The equations describing such two-phase flows are highly nonlinear. We will give an overview of the performance of a continuum constitutive model of suspensions of particles in liquid for low Reynolds number flows. The diffusive flux model (Leighton and Acrivos, J. Fluid Mech., 1987, and Phillips et al., Phys. Fluids A, 1992) is implemented in a general purpose finite element computational program. This constitutive description couples a Newtonian stress/shear-rate relationship (where the local viscosity of the suspension is dependent on the local volume fraction of solids) with a shear-induced migration model of the suspended particles. The momentum transport, continuity, and diffusive flux equations are solved simultaneously. The formulation is fully three-dimensional and can be run on a parallel computer platform. Recent work introducing a flow-aligned tensor correction to this model has had success in representing the anisotropic force that is seen in curvilinear flows. Gravity effects are added in an approach similar to that of Zhang and Acrivos (Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 1994). The model results are compared with laboratory data obtained with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) of evolving particle concentration profiles in complex flows, as well as in batch sedimentation. Interesting secondary flows appear both in the experiment and model. Overall, good agreement is found between the experiments and the simulations. This work was supported by the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04- 94AL85000. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy. The authors would like to acknowledge support for this work by the U.S. Department of Energy, Division of Engineering and Geosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

7. Scaled Experimental Modeling of VHTR Plenum Flows

SciTech Connect

ICONE 15

2007-04-01

Abstract The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is the leading candidate for the Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Project in the U.S. which has the goal of demonstrating the production of emissions free electricity and hydrogen by 2015. Various scaled heated gas and water flow facilities were investigated for modeling VHTR upper and lower plenum flows during the decay heat portion of a pressurized conduction-cooldown scenario and for modeling thermal mixing and stratification (“thermal striping”) in the lower plenum during normal operation. It was concluded, based on phenomena scaling and instrumentation and other practical considerations, that a heated water flow scale model facility is preferable to a heated gas flow facility and to unheated facilities which use fluids with ranges of density to simulate the density effect of heating. For a heated water flow lower plenum model, both the Richardson numbers and Reynolds numbers may be approximately matched for conduction-cooldown natural circulation conditions. Thermal mixing during normal operation may be simulated but at lower, but still fully turbulent, Reynolds numbers than in the prototype. Natural circulation flows in the upper plenum may also be simulated in a separate heated water flow facility that uses the same plumbing as the lower plenum model. However, Reynolds number scaling distortions will occur at matching Richardson numbers due primarily to the necessity of using a reduced number of channels connected to the plenum than in the prototype (which has approximately 11,000 core channels connected to the upper plenum) in an otherwise geometrically scaled model. Experiments conducted in either or both facilities will meet the objectives of providing benchmark data for the validation of codes proposed for NGNP designs and safety studies, as well as providing a better understanding of the complex flow phenomena in the plenums.

8. Flow field mapping in data rack model

Manoch, L.; Matěcha, J.; Pohan, P.

2013-04-01

The main objective of this study was to map the flow field inside the data rack model, fitted with three 1U server models. The server model is based on the common four-processor 1U server. The main dimensions of the data rack model geometry are taken fully from the real geometry. Only the model was simplified with respect to the greatest possibility in the experimental measurements. The flow field mapping was carried out both experimentally and numerically. PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) method was used for the experimental flow field mapping, when the flow field has been mapped for defined regions within the 2D/3D data rack model. Ansys CFX and OpenFOAM software were used for the numerical solution. Boundary conditions for numerical model were based on data obtained from experimental measurement of velocity profile at the output of the server mockup. This velocity profile was used as the input boundary condition in the calculation. In order to achieve greater consistency of the numerical model with experimental data, the numerical model was modified with regard to the results of experimental measurements. Results from the experimental and numerical measurements were compared and the areas of disparateness were identified. In further steps the obtained proven numerical model will be utilized for the real geometry of data racks and data.

9. Reduced order model of draft tube flow

Rudolf, P.; Štefan, D.

2014-03-01

Swirling flow with compact coherent structures is very good candidate for proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), i.e. for decomposition into eigenmodes, which are the cornerstones of the flow field. Present paper focuses on POD of steady flows, which correspond to different operating points of Francis turbine draft tube flow. Set of eigenmodes is built using a limited number of snapshots from computational simulations. Resulting reduced order model (ROM) describes whole operating range of the draft tube. ROM enables to interpolate in between the operating points exploiting the knowledge about significance of particular eigenmodes and thus reconstruct the velocity field in any operating point within the given range. Practical example, which employs axisymmetric simulations of the draft tube flow, illustrates accuracy of ROM in regions without vortex breakdown together with need for higher resolution of the snapshot database close to location of sudden flow changes (e.g. vortex breakdown). ROM based on POD interpolation is very suitable tool for insight into flow physics of the draft tube flows (especially energy transfers in between different operating points), for supply of data for subsequent stability analysis or as an initialization database for advanced flow simulations.

10. Modeling of Turbulent Free Shear Flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Yoder, Dennis A.; DeBonis, James R.; Georgiadis, Nicolas J.

2013-01-01

The modeling of turbulent free shear flows is crucial to the simulation of many aerospace applications, yet often receives less attention than the modeling of wall boundary layers. Thus, while turbulence model development in general has proceeded very slowly in the past twenty years, progress for free shear flows has been even more so. This paper highlights some of the fundamental issues in modeling free shear flows for propulsion applications, presents a review of past modeling efforts, and identifies areas where further research is needed. Among the topics discussed are differences between planar and axisymmetric flows, development versus self-similar regions, the effect of compressibility and the evolution of compressibility corrections, the effect of temperature on jets, and the significance of turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers for reacting shear flows. Large eddy simulation greatly reduces the amount of empiricism in the physical modeling, but is sensitive to a number of numerical issues. This paper includes an overview of the importance of numerical scheme, mesh resolution, boundary treatment, sub-grid modeling, and filtering in conducting a successful simulation.

11. Supersonic boundary-layer flow turbulence modeling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wang, Chi-Rong

1993-01-01

Baldwin-Lomax and kappa-epsilon turbulence models were modified for use in Navier-Stokes numerical computations of Mach 2.9 supersonic turbulent boundary layer flows along compression ramps. The computational results of Reynolds shear stress profiles were compared with experimental data. The Baldwin-Lomax model was modified to account for the Reynolds shear stress amplification within the flow field. A hybrid kappa-epsilon model with viscous sublayer turbulence treatment was constructed to predict the Reynolds shear stress profiles within the entire flow field. These modified turbulence models were effective for the computations of the surface pressure and the skin friction factor variations along an 8 deg ramp surface. The hybrid kappa-epsilon model could improve the predictions of the Reynolds shear stress profile and the skin friction factor near the corner of a 16 deg ramp.

12. The Corrected Simulation Method of Critical Heat Flux Prediction for Water-Cooled Divertor Based on Euler Homogeneous Model

Zhang, Jingyang; Han, Le; Chang, Haiping; Liu, Nan; Xu, Tiejun

2016-02-01

An accurate critical heat flux (CHF) prediction method is the key factor for realizing the steady-state operation of a water-cooled divertor that works under one-sided high heating flux conditions. An improved CHF prediction method based on Euler's homogeneous model for flow boiling combined with realizable k-ɛ model for single-phase flow is adopted in this paper in which time relaxation coefficients are corrected by the Hertz-Knudsen formula in order to improve the calculation accuracy of vapor-liquid conversion efficiency under high heating flux conditions. Moreover, local large differences of liquid physical properties due to the extreme nonuniform heating flux on cooling wall along the circumference direction are revised by formula IAPWS-IF97. Therefore, this method can improve the calculation accuracy of heat and mass transfer between liquid phase and vapor phase in a CHF prediction simulation of water-cooled divertors under the one-sided high heating condition. An experimental example is simulated based on the improved and the uncorrected methods. The simulation results, such as temperature, void fraction and heat transfer coefficient, are analyzed to achieve the CHF prediction. The results show that the maximum error of CHF based on the improved method is 23.7%, while that of CHF based on uncorrected method is up to 188%, as compared with the experiment results of Ref. [12]. Finally, this method is verified by comparison with the experimental data obtained by International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), with a maximum error of 6% only. This method provides an efficient tool for the CHF prediction of water-cooled divertors. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2010GB104005) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51406085)

13. Modeling depth distributions of overland flows

Smith, Mark W.; Cox, Nicholas J.; Bracken, Louise J.

2011-02-01

Hydrological and erosion models use water depth to estimate routing velocity and resultant erosion at each spatial element. Yet the shear stress distribution imposed on the soil surface and any resulting flow detachment and rill incision is controlled by the full probability distribution of depths of overland flow. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) is used in conjunction with simple field-flume experiments to provide high-resolution measures of overland flow depth-distributions for three semi-arid hillslope transects with differing soil properties. A two-parameter gamma distribution is proposed as the optimum model for depths of both interrill and rill flows. The shape and scale parameters are shown to vary consistently with distance downslope reflecting the morphological signature of runoff processes. The scale parameter is related to the general increase of depths with discharge ( P < 0.0001) as flows gradually concentrate; the shape parameter is more related to the soil surface roughness and potentially provides a control on the rate of depth, but also velocity increase with discharge. Such interactions between surface roughness and overland flows are of crucial importance for flow hydraulics and modeling sediment transport.

14. A study of optimum cowl shapes and flow port locations for minimum drag with effective engine cooling, volume 1

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fox, S. R.; Smetana, F. O.

1980-01-01

The contributions to the cruise drag of light aircraft arising from the shape of the engine cowl and the forward fuselage area and also that resulting from the cooling air mass flow through intake and exhaust sites on the nacelle were analyzed. The methods employed for the calculation of the potential flow about an arbitrary three dimensional body are described with modifications to include the effects of boundary layer displacement thickness, a nonuniform onset flow field (such as that due to a rotating propeller), and the presence of air intakes and exhausts. A simple, reliable, largely automated scheme to better define or change the shape of a body is also presented. A technique was developed which can yield physically acceptable skin friction and pressure drag coefficients for isolated light aircraft bodies. For test cases on a blunt nose Cessna 182 fuselage, the technique predicted drag reductions as much as 28.5% by body recontouring and proper placements and sizing of the cooling air intakes and exhausts.

15. Benchmarking Computational Fluid Dynamics Models for Application to Lava Flow Simulations and Hazard Assessment

Dietterich, H. R.; Lev, E.; Chen, J.; Cashman, K. V.; Honor, C.

2015-12-01

Recent eruptions in Hawai'i, Iceland, and Cape Verde highlight the need for improved lava flow models for forecasting and hazard assessment. Existing models used for lava flow simulation range in assumptions, complexity, and the degree to which they have been validated against analytical solutions, experiments, and natural observations. In order to assess the capabilities of existing models and test the development of new codes, we conduct a benchmarking study of computational fluid dynamics models for lava flows, including VolcFlow, OpenFOAM, Flow3D, and COMSOL. Using new benchmark scenarios defined in Cordonnier et al. (2015) as a guide, we model Newtonian, Herschel-Bulkley and cooling flows over inclined planes, obstacles, and digital elevation models with a wide range of source conditions. Results are compared to analytical theory, analogue and molten basalt experiments, and measurements from natural lava flows. Our study highlights the strengths and weakness of each code, including accuracy and computational costs, and provides insights regarding code selection. We apply the best-fit codes to simulate the lava flows in Harrat Rahat, a predominately mafic volcanic field in Saudi Arabia. Input parameters are assembled from rheology and volume measurements of past flows using geochemistry, crystallinity, and present-day lidar and photogrammetric digital elevation models. With these data, we use our verified models to reconstruct historic and prehistoric events, in order to assess the hazards posed by lava flows for Harrat Rahat.

16. GENERALIZED VISCOPLASTIC MODELING OF DEBRIS FLOW.

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chen, Cheng-lung

1988-01-01

The earliest model developed by R. A. Bagnold was based on the concept of the 'dispersive' pressure generated by grain collisions. Some efforts have recently been made by theoreticians in non-Newtonian fluid mechanics to modify or improve Bagnold's concept or model. A viable rheological model should consist both of a rate-independent part and a rate-dependent part. A generalized viscoplastic fluid (GVF) model that has both parts as well as two major rheological properties (i. e. , the normal stress effect and soil yield criterion) is shown to be sufficiently accurate, yet practical for general use in debris-flow modeling. In fact, Bagnold's model is found to be only a particular case of the GVF model. analytical solutions for (steady) uniform debris flows in wide channels are obtained from the GVF model based on Bagnold's simplified assumption of constant grain concentration.

17. Heat transfer predictions with extended kappa-epsilon turbulence model in radical cooling ducts rotating in orthogonal mode

Tekriwal, P.

1994-05-01

Standard and extended kappa-epsilon turbulence closure models have been employed for three-dimensional heat transfer calculations for radially outward flow in rectangular and square cooling passages rotating in orthogonal mode. The objective of this modeling effort is to validate the numerical model in an attempt to fill the gap between model predictions and the experimental data for heat transfer in rotating systems. While the trend of heat transfer predictions by the standard kappa-epsilon turbulence model is satisfactory, the differences between the data and the predictions are approximately 30 percent or so in the case of high rotation number flow. The extended kappa-epsilon turbulence model takes an approach where an extra 'source' term based on a second time scale of the turbulent kinetic energy production rate is added to the equation for the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy. This yields a more effective calculation of turbulent kinetic energy as compared to the standard kappa-epsilon turbulence model in the case of high rotation number and high density ratio flow. As a result, comparison with the experimental data available in the literature shows that an improvement of up to a significant 15 percent (with respect to data) in the heat transfer coefficient predictions is achieved over the standard kappa-epsilon model in the case of high rotation number flow. Comparisons between the results of the standard kappa-epsilon model and the extended formulation are made at different rotation numbers, different Reynolds numbers, and varying temperature ratio. The results of the extended kappa-epsilon turbulence model are either as good or better than those of the standard kappa-epsilon model in all these cases of parametric study. Thus, the extended kappa-epsilon turbulence model proves to be more general and reduces the discrepancy between the model predictions and the experimental data for heat transfer in rotating systems.

18. Numerical flow modeling of power plant windboxes

SciTech Connect

LaRose, J.A.; Hopkins, M.W.

1995-12-31

Numerical flow modeling has become an increasingly important design and analysis tool for improving the air distribution to power plant burners. Uniform air distribution allows the burners to perform as designed to achieve the lowest possible emissions and best fuel burn-out. Modifications can be made internal to the existing windbox to improve the burner-to-burner and burner peripheral air distributions. These modifications can include turning vanes, flow splitters, perforated plate, and burner shrouding. Numerical modeling allows the analysis of design trade-offs between adding flow resistance, fan power, and windbox modification construction cost. Numerical modeling has advantages over physical modeling in that actual geometric scales and air temperatures are used. Advantages over a field data based study include the ability to quickly and cheaply analyze a variety of design options without actually modifying the windbox, and the availability of significantly more data with which to interpret the results. Costs to perform a numerical study are generally one-half to one-third of the cost to perform a physical flow model and can be one-forth of the cost to perform a field study. The continued development of affordable, high speed, large memory workstations and reliable, commercially available computation fluid dynamics (CFD) software allows practical analyses of power plant windboxes. This paper discusses (1) the impact of air distribution on burner performance, (2) the methodology used to perform numerical flow modeling of power plant windboxes, and (3) the results from several windbox analyses including available post-modification observations.

19. Review and selection of unsaturated flow models

SciTech Connect

Reeves, M.; Baker, N.A.; Duguid, J.O.

1994-04-04

Since the 1960s, ground-water flow models have been used for analysis of water resources problems. In the 1970s, emphasis began to shift to analysis of waste management problems. This shift in emphasis was largely brought about by site selection activities for geologic repositories for disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Model development during the 1970s and well into the 1980s focused primarily on saturated ground-water flow because geologic repositories in salt, basalt, granite, shale, and tuff were envisioned to be below the water table. Selection of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for potential disposal of waste began to shift model development toward unsaturated flow models. Under the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor (CRWMS M&O) has the responsibility to review, evaluate, and document existing computer models; to conduct performance assessments; and to develop performance assessment models, where necessary. This document describes the CRWMS M&O approach to model review and evaluation (Chapter 2), and the requirements for unsaturated flow models which are the bases for selection from among the current models (Chapter 3). Chapter 4 identifies existing models, and their characteristics. Through a detailed examination of characteristics, Chapter 5 presents the selection of models for testing. Chapter 6 discusses the testing and verification of selected models. Chapters 7 and 8 give conclusions and make recommendations, respectively. Chapter 9 records the major references for each of the models reviewed. Appendix A, a collection of technical reviews for each model, contains a more complete list of references. Finally, Appendix B characterizes the problems used for model testing.

20. Improved modeling techniques for turbomachinery flow fields

SciTech Connect

Lakshminarayana, B.; Fagan, J.R. Jr.

1995-12-31

This program has the objective of developing an improved methodology for modeling turbomachinery flow fields, including the prediction of losses and efficiency. Specifically, the program addresses the treatment of the mixing stress tensor terms attributed to deterministic flow field mechanisms required in steady-state Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) models for turbomachinery flow fields. These mixing stress tensors arise due to spatial and temporal fluctuations (in an absolute frame of reference) caused by rotor-stator interaction due to various blade rows and by blade-to-blade variation of flow properties. This will be accomplished in a cooperative program by Penn State University and the Allison Engine Company. These tasks include the acquisition of previously unavailable experimental data in a high-speed turbomachinery environment, the use of advanced techniques to analyze the data, and the development of a methodology to treat the deterministic component of the mixing stress tenor.

1. Minimal cooling speed for glass transition in a simple solvable energy landscape model

Toledo-Marín, J. Quetzalcóatl; Castillo, Isaac Pérez; Naumis, Gerardo G.

2016-06-01

The minimal cooling speed required to form a glass is obtained for a simple solvable energy landscape model. The model, made from a two-level system modified to include the topology of the energy landscape, is able to capture either a glass transition or a crystallization depending on the cooling rate. In this setup, the minimal cooling speed to achieve glass formation is then found to be related with the crystallization relaxation time, energy barrier and with the thermal history. In particular, we obtain that the thermal history encodes small fluctuations around the equilibrium population which are exponentially amplified near the glass transition, which mathematically corresponds to the boundary layer of the master equation. The change in the glass transition temperature is also found as a function of the cooling rate. Finally, to verify our analytical results, a kinetic Monte Carlo simulation was implemented.

2. Development of differential coastal cooling above sloping bottom: laboratory and numerical modelling

Stepanova, Natilya

2013-04-01

The process of formation of differential coastal cooling above sloping bottom, often observed in autumn in coastal regions of seas and large lakes, is investigated by means of laboratory experiments and numerical modelling. During this period, an integral heat flux is directed from water to atmosphere. When water temperature is above that of maximum density (what is typically the case in autumn), it results in a negative buoyancy flux through the surface and the appearance of vertical convection. Water temperature decreases, and in shallow parts the process goes faster than in deeper ones, so that significant horizontal temperature gradients above sloping bottom are formed along with vertical thermal homogeneity of every particular water column. The corresponding density and pressure gradients cause large-scale exchange flows between shallow and deep parts of a basin. The goal of this work is an investigation of the process of establishment of the surface water temperature profile from the coast to the deep part and comparison of the characteristics of this profile with the observed flow rate of the horizontal exchange flows. A series of laboratory experiments was conducted in a rectangular plexiglas laboratory channel with internal dimensions 33 cm × 33 cm × 750 cm; a 5m-long part of the bottom had a slope of A~0.03; walls and bottom were thermally insulated. Heat exchange through the surface with cooler air in laboratory provided natural cooling; initial water temperature varied between 25 and 31 ° C, air temperature - from 19 to 25 ° C. Maximum water layer depth (10, 12, 13, 16, 20, 22.5, 24, 24.5, 27 cm) and the initial air-water temperature difference (Δ~4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11 °C) were changing parameters in the experiments. Registration of water temperature time series in 8 points (1 cm below the water surface in the sloping region with time step 30 s) and vertical profilings in these locations were carried out by electronic thermistors. Flow-rate of

3. Groundwater Flow Model for Taos, New Mexico

Burck, P. W.; Barroll, P. W.; Core, A. B.; Rappuhn, D.

2003-12-01

The New Mexico Office of the State Engineer - Hydrology Bureau (OSE) has developed a regional groundwater flow model for Taos, New Mexico. The MODFLOW 2000 model will serve as a tool to evaluate alternatives in settlement negotiations in an on-going water rights adjudication. If current settlement negotiations fail, it is conceivable that the model might be used in support of litigation. OSE produced the model in cooperation with technical representatives of the various parties to the adjudication. Regional hydrogeologic data including well records, aquifer test results, stream flow measurements and seepage studies have been shared relatively freely among the parties. A recent deep drilling program conducted in conjunction with the negotiation effort has added substantially to the hydrogeologic data set. Among the hydrologic processes simulated by the model are mountain front recharge; areal recharge from precipitation; evapotranspiration; discharge from springs; river and stream flow; accretions to groundwater from irrigation return flow, seepage from acequias, canals, and ditches, and deep percolation; and pumping by municipal entities and mutual domestic water users associations. The resulting model files are available for all parties to review and evaluate. Comments are assessed and many have resulted in significant improvements to the model. At this stage, however, it is unclear whether adopting this cooperative approach will increase the likelihood of model acceptance by the parties.

4. Modelling cool star spectra with inadequate input physics

Lind, Karin

2015-08-01

The analysis of cool star spectra has a century-long successful history, but the recent explosion in the quality and quantity of spectra has made it clear to us that the state-of-the-art analysis do not do justice to the information content of the data and cannot extract stellar parameters and element abundances to the accuracy that the broader context requires. To progress, the long-standing assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium in the line formation must be lifted, a development that is hindered by gaps in our knowledge of radiative and collisional transition rates. I will exemplify how stellar abundances are affected by missing input physics and discuss various calibration techniques that have been used to circumvent the problem.

5. Analytic Model of Reactive Flow

SciTech Connect

Souers, P C; Vitello, P

2004-11-15

A simple analytic model allows prediction of rate constants and size effect behavior before a hydrocode run if size effect data exists. At infinite radius, it defines not only detonation velocity but also average detonation rate, pressure and energy. This allows the derivation of a generalized radius, which becomes larger as the explosive becomes more non-ideal. The model is applied to near-ideal PBX 9404, in-between ANFO and most non-ideal AN. The power of the pressure declines from 2.3, 1.5 to 0.8 across this set. The power of the burn fraction, F, is 0.8, 0 and 0, so that an F-term is important only for the ideal explosives. The size effect shapes change from concave-down to nearly straight to concave-up. Failure is associated with ideal explosives when the calculated detonation velocity turns in a double-valued way. The effect of the power of the pressure may be simulated by including a pressure cutoff in the detonation rate. The models allows comparison of a wide spectrum of explosives providing that a single detonation rate is feasible.

6. Analytic Model of Reactive Flow

SciTech Connect

Souers, P C; Vitello, P

2004-08-02

A simple analytic model allows prediction of rate constants and size effect behavior before a hydrocode run if size effect data exists. At infinite radius, it defines not only detonation velocity but also average detonation rate, pressure and energy. This allows the derivation of a generalized radius, which becomes larger as the explosive becomes more non-ideal. The model is applied to near-ideal PBX 9404, in-between ANFO and most non-ideal AN. The power of the pressure declines from 2.3, 1.5 to 0.8 across this set. The power of the burn fraction, F, is 0.8, 0 and 0, so that an F-term is important only for the ideal explosives. The size effect shapes change from concave-down to nearly straight to concave-up. Failure is associated with ideal explosives when the calculated detonation velocity turns in a double-valued way. The effect of the power of the pressure may be simulated by including a pressure cutoff in the detonation rate. The models allows comparison of a wide spectrum of explosives providing that a single detonation rate is feasible.

7. A model for transonic plasma flow

SciTech Connect

Guazzotto, Luca; Hameiri, Eliezer

2014-02-15

A linear, two-dimensional model of a transonic plasma flow in equilibrium is constructed and given an explicit solution in the form of a complex Laplace integral. The solution indicates that the transonic state can be solved as an elliptic boundary value problem, as is done in the numerical code FLOW [Guazzotto et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 604 (2004)]. Moreover, the presence of a hyperbolic region does not necessarily imply the presence of a discontinuity or any other singularity of the solution.

8. Advanced Numerical Modeling of Turbulent Atmospheric Flows

Kühnlein, Christian; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Gerz, Thomas

The present chapter introduces the method of computational simulation to predict and study turbulent atmospheric flows. This includes a description of the fundamental approach to computational simulation and the practical implementation using the technique of large-eddy simulation. In addition, selected contributions from IPA scientists to computational model development and various examples for applications are given. These examples include homogeneous turbulence, convective boundary layers, heated forest canopy, buoyant thermals, and large-scale flows with baroclinic wave instability.

9. Nonlocal modeling of granular flows down inclines.

PubMed

Kamrin, Ken; Henann, David L

2015-01-01

Flows of granular media down a rough inclined plane demonstrate a number of nonlocal phenomena. We apply the recently proposed nonlocal granular fluidity model to this geometry and find that the model captures many of these effects. Utilizing the model's dynamical form, we obtain a formula for the critical stopping height of a layer of grains on an inclined surface. Using an existing parameter calibration for glass beads, the theoretical result compares quantitatively to existing experimental data for glass beads. This provides a stringent test of the model, whose previous validations focused on driven steady-flow problems. For layers thicker than the stopping height, the theoretical flow profiles display a thickness-dependent shape whose features are in agreement with previous discrete particle simulations. We also address the issue of the Froude number of the flows, which has been shown experimentally to collapse as a function of the ratio of layer thickness to stopping height. While the collapse is not obvious, two explanations emerge leading to a revisiting of the history of inertial rheology, which the nonlocal model references for its homogeneous flow response. PMID:25376561

10. Unsaturated zone flow modeling for GWTT-95

SciTech Connect

Ho, C.K.; Altman, S.J.; McKenna, S.A.; Arnold, B.W.

1995-12-31

In accordance with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulation regarding groundwater travel times at geologic repositories, various models of unsaturated flow in fractured tuff have been developed and implemented to assess groundwater travel times at the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Kaplan used one-dimensional models to describe the uncertainty and sensitivity of travel times to various processes at Yucca Mountain. Robey and Arnold et al. used a two-dimensional equivalent continuum model (ECM) with inter- and intra-unit heterogeneity in an attempt to assess fast-flow paths through the unsaturated, fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain (GWTT-94). However, significant flow through the fractures in previous models was not simulated due to the characteristics of the ECM, which requires the matrix to be nearly saturated before flow through the fractures is initiated. In the current study (GWTT-95), four two-dimensional cross-sections at Yucca Mountain are simulated using both the ECM and dual-permeability (DK) models. The properties of both the fracture and matrix domains are geostatistically simulated, yielding completely heterogeneous continua. Then, simulations of flow through the four cross-sections are performed using spatially nonuniform infiltration boundary conditions. Steady-state groundwater travel times from the potential repository to the water table are calculated.

11. Observational and Modeling Study of Pickup Ion Cooling Behavior in Solar Wind Compression and Rarefaction Regions

Chen, J.; Moebius, E.; Schwadron, N.; Klecker, B.; Bzowski, M.; Galvin, A. B.; Isenberg, P. A.; Sokol, J. M.; Gorby, M.; Bochsler, P. A.

2013-12-01

In many previous studies, the velocity distribution function of interstellar pickup ions (PUIs), which are produced by ionization of interstellar neutral atoms in the solar wind, were described as evolving through fast pitch angle scattering followed by adiabatic cooling during radial transport with in the reference frame of the solar wind [e.g., Vasyliunas & Siscoe, 1976 VS76 hereafter]. In the VS76 model, the slope of the velocity distributions is controlled by the combination of the ionization rate and the cooling process. Recently, Chen et al. [2013] have shown that the related adiabatic cooling index varies with solar activity between ~1 and 2, compared with 1.5 predicted by the VS76 model. Contributors to the observed variations include solar wind compression and rarefaction regions. Here, we performed a statistical study of the PUI cooling behavior in solar wind compression and rarefaction regions based on STEREO-A PLASTIC data sets using a set of events from the co-rotating interaction region (CIR) list (http://www-scc.igpp.ucla.edu/forms/stereo/stereo_level_3.html). We found that PUIs undergo stronger cooling in rarefaction regions and weaker cooling in compression regions. In order to analyze the PUI cooling behavior under these conditions, we modeled the PUI velocity distributions in CIRs using the Energetic Particle Radiation Environment Module (EPREM) [Schwadron et al., 2010]. For this analysis, we adopted a magneto-hydrodynamic CIR model proposed by [Giacalone et al., 2002]. The resulting PUI distributions exhibit a flatter slope in the compression region and are steeper in the rarefaction region compared with those in the undisturbed solar wind, in accordance with STEREO observations. These results indicate that gradients in the solar wind speed, as observed in CIRs, have substantial effects on the PUI cooling process.

12. Preliminary Saturated-Zone Flow Model

SciTech Connect

1997-06-10

This milestone consists of an updated fully 3D model of ground-water flow within the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. All electronic files pertaining to this deliverable have been transferred via ftp transmission to Steve Bodnar (M and O) and the technical data base. The model was developed using a flow and transport simulator, FEHMN, developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and represents a collaborative effort between staff from the US Geological Survey and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The model contained in this deliverable is minimally calibrated and represents work in progress. The flow model developed for this milestone is designed to feed subsequent transport modeling studies at Los Alamos which also use the FEHMN software. In addition, a general-application parameter estimation routine, PEST, was used in conjunction with FEHMN to reduce the difference between observed and simulated values of hydraulic head through the adjustment of model variables. This deliverable in large part consists of the electronic files for Yucca Mountain Site saturated-zone flow model as it existed as of 6/6/97, including the executable version of FEHMN (accession no. MOL.19970610.0204) used to run the code on a Sun Ultrasparc I workstation. It is expected that users of the contents of this deliverable be knowledgeable about the oration of FEHMN.

13. Numerical modeling of laser thermal propulsion flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mccay, T. D.; Thoenes, J.

1984-01-01

An review of the problems associated with modeling laser thermal propulsion flows, a synopsis of the status of such models, and the attributes of a successful model are presented. The continuous gaseous hydrogen laser-supported combustion wave (LSCW) thruster, for which a high-energy laser system (preferably space-based) should exist by the time the propulsion technology is developed, is considered in particular. The model proposed by Raizer (1970) is based on the assumptions of one-dimensional flow at constant pressure with heat conduction as the principal heat transfer mechanism. Consideration is given to subsequent models which account for radiative transfer into the ambient gas; provide a two-dimensional generalization of Raizer's analysis for the subsonic propagation of laser sparks in air; include the effect of forward plasma radiation in a one-dimensional model; and attempt a time-dependent (elliptic) solution of the full Navier-Stokes equations for the flow in a simple axisymmetric thruster. Attention is also given to thruster and nozzle flow models and thermodynamic and transport properties.

14. Rarefied-flow Shuttle aerodynamics model

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blanchard, Robert C.; Larman, Kevin T.; Moats, Christina D.

1993-01-01

A rarefied-flow shuttle aerodynamic model spanning the hypersonic continuum to the free molecule-flow regime was formulated. The model development has evolved from the High Resolution Accelerometer Package (HiRAP) experiment conducted on the Orbiter since 1983. The complete model is described in detail. The model includes normal and axial hypersonic continuum coefficient equations as functions of angle-of-attack, body flap deflection, and elevon deflection. Normal and axial free molecule flow coefficient equations as a function of angle-of-attack are presented, along with flight derived rarefied-flow transition bridging formulae. Comparisons are made with data from the Operational Aerodynamic Design Data Book (OADDB), applicable wind-tunnel data, and recent flight data from STS-35 and STS-40. The flight-derived model aerodynamic force coefficient ratio is in good agreement with the wind-tunnel data and predicts the flight measured force coefficient ratios on STS-35 and STS-40. The model is not, however, in good agreement with the OADDB. But, the current OADDB does not predict the flight data force coefficient ratios of either STS-35 or STS-40 as accurately as the flight-derived model. Also, the OADDB differs with the wind-tunnel force coefficient ratio data.

15. Formation of starspots in self-consistent global dynamo models: Polar spots on cool stars

Yadav, Rakesh K.; Gastine, Thomas; Christensen, Ulrich R.; Reiners, Ansgar

2015-01-01

Context. Observations of cool stars reveal dark spot-like features on their surfaces. These starspots can be more extended than sunspots and cover a large area of the stellar surface. While sunspots appear only at low latitudes, starspots are also found in polar regions, in particular on rapidly rotating stars. Conventional flux-tube models have been invoked to explain starspot properties. However, these models use several simplifications, and so far, neither sunspots nor starspots have been generated in a self-consistent simulation of stellar magnetic convection. Aims: We aim to clarify the conditions necessary for the spontaneous formation of dark spots in numerical models of convection-driven stellar dynamos. Methods: We simulated convection and magnetic field generation in rapidly rotating spherical shells assuming anelastic approximation. The high-resolution simulations were performed using a fully spectral magnetohydrodynamic code. Results: We demonstrate for the first time that a self-consistent distributed dynamo can spontaneously generate high-latitude dark spots. Dark spots are generated when a large-scale magnetic field, generated in the bulk of the convection zone, interacts with and locally quenches flow near the surface. Sufficiently strong density stratification and rapid rotation are prerequisites for the formation of sizeable dark spots in the model. Conclusions: Our models present an alternative scenario for starspot formation by distributed dynamo action. Our results also lend strong support to the idea that dynamos in the interiors of rapidly rotating stars might be fundamentally different from the solar one. Two movies are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

16. A void distribution model-flashing flow

SciTech Connect

Riznic, J.; Ishii, M.; Afgan, N.

1987-01-01

A new model for flashing flow based on wall nucleations is proposed here and the model predictions are compared with some experimental data. In order to calculate the bubble number density, the bubble number transport equation with a distributed source from the wall nucleation sites was used. Thus it was possible to avoid the usual assumption of a constant bubble number density. Comparisons of the model with the data shows that the model based on the nucleation site density correlation appears to be acceptable to describe the vapor generation in the flashing flow. For the limited data examined, the comparisons show rather satisfactory agreement without using a floating parameter to adjust the model. This result indicated that, at least for the experimental conditions considered here, the mechanistic predictions of the flashing phenomenon is possible on the present wall nucleation based model.

17. Simulated evolution of fractures and fracture networks subject to thermal cooling: A coupled discrete element and heat conduction model

SciTech Connect

Huang, Hai; Plummer, Mitchell; Podgorney, Robert

2013-02-01

Advancement of EGS requires improved prediction of fracture development and growth during reservoir stimulation and long-term operation. This, in turn, requires better understanding of the dynamics of the strongly coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes within fractured rocks. We have developed a physically based rock deformation and fracture propagation simulator by using a quasi-static discrete element model (DEM) to model mechanical rock deformation and fracture propagation induced by thermal stress and fluid pressure changes. We also developed a network model to simulate fluid flow and heat transport in both fractures and porous rock. In this paper, we describe results of simulations in which the DEM model and network flow & heat transport model are coupled together to provide realistic simulation of the changes of apertures and permeability of fractures and fracture networks induced by thermal cooling and fluid pressure changes within fractures. Various processes, such as Stokes flow in low velocity pores, convection-dominated heat transport in fractures, heat exchange between fluid-filled fractures and solid rock, heat conduction through low-permeability matrices and associated mechanical deformations are all incorporated into the coupled model. The effects of confining stresses, developing thermal stress and injection pressure on the permeability evolution of fracture and fracture networks are systematically investigated. Results are summarized in terms of implications for the development and evolution of fracture distribution during hydrofracturing and thermal stimulation for EGS.

18. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors with passive cooling system

DOEpatents

Hunsbedt, Anstein; Fanning, Alan W.

1991-01-01

A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting from fuel decay during reactor shutdown. The passive cooling system comprises a plurality of cooling medium flow circuits which cooperate to remove and carry heat away from the fuel core upon loss of the normal cooling flow circuit to areas external thereto.

19. Hydrogen film/conductive cooling

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ewen, R. L.

1972-01-01

Small scale nozzle tests using heated nitrogen were run to obtain effectiveness and wall heat transfer data with hydrogen film cooling. Effectiveness data are compared with an entrainment model developed from planar, unaccelerated flow data. Results indicate significant effects due to flow turning and acceleration. With injection velocity effects accounted for explicitly, heat transfer correlation coefficients were found to be the same with and without film cooling when properties are evaluated at an appropriate reference temperature for the local gas composition defined by the coolant effectiveness. A design study for an O2/H2 application with 300 psia (207 N/sq cm) chamber pressure and 1500 lbs (6670 N) thrust indicates an adiabatic wall design requires 4 to 5 percent of the total flow as hydrogen film cooling. Internal regenerative cooling designs were found to offer no reduction in coolant requirements.

20. Ribosome flow model with positive feedback

PubMed Central

Margaliot, Michael; Tuller, Tamir

2013-01-01

Eukaryotic mRNAs usually form a circular structure; thus, ribosomes that terminatae translation at the 3′ end can diffuse with increased probability to the 5′ end of the transcript, initiating another cycle of translation. This phenomenon describes ribosomal flow with positive feedback—an increase in the flow of ribosomes terminating translating the open reading frame increases the ribosomal initiation rate. The aim of this paper is to model and rigorously analyse translation with feedback. We suggest a modified version of the ribosome flow model, called the ribosome flow model with input and output. In this model, the input is the initiation rate and the output is the translation rate. We analyse this model after closing the loop with a positive linear feedback. We show that the closed-loop system admits a unique globally asymptotically stable equilibrium point. From a biophysical point of view, this means that there exists a unique steady state of ribosome distributions along the mRNA, and thus a unique steady-state translation rate. The solution from any initial distribution will converge to this steady state. The steady-state distribution demonstrates a decrease in ribosome density along the coding sequence. For the case of constant elongation rates, we obtain expressions relating the model parameters to the equilibrium point. These results may perhaps be used to re-engineer the biological system in order to obtain a desired translation rate. PMID:23720534

1. Model flocks in a steady vortical flow.

PubMed

Baggaley, A W

2015-05-01

We modify the standard Vicsek model to clearly distinguish between intrinsic noise due to imperfect alignment between organisms and extrinsic noise due to fluid motion. We then consider the effect of a steady vortical flow, the Taylor-Green vortex, on the dynamics of the flock, for various flow speeds, with a fixed intrinsic particle speed. We pay particular attention to the morphology of the flow, and quantify its filamentarity. Strikingly, above a critical flow speed there is a pronounced increase in the filamentarity of the flock, when compared to the zero-flow case. This is due to the fact that particles appear confined to areas of low vorticity; a familiar phenomena, commonly seen in the clustering of inertial particles in vortical flows. Hence, the cooperative motion of the particles gives them an effective inertia, which is seen to have a profound effect on the morphology of the flock, in the presence of external fluid motion. Finally, we investigate the angle between the flow and the particles direction of movement and find it follows a power-law distribution. PMID:26066260

2. Model flocks in a steady vortical flow

Baggaley, A. W.

2015-05-01

We modify the standard Vicsek model to clearly distinguish between intrinsic noise due to imperfect alignment between organisms and extrinsic noise due to fluid motion. We then consider the effect of a steady vortical flow, the Taylor-Green vortex, on the dynamics of the flock, for various flow speeds, with a fixed intrinsic particle speed. We pay particular attention to the morphology of the flow, and quantify its filamentarity. Strikingly, above a critical flow speed there is a pronounced increase in the filamentarity of the flock, when compared to the zero-flow case. This is due to the fact that particles appear confined to areas of low vorticity; a familiar phenomena, commonly seen in the clustering of inertial particles in vortical flows. Hence, the cooperative motion of the particles gives them an effective inertia, which is seen to have a profound effect on the morphology of the flock, in the presence of external fluid motion. Finally, we investigate the angle between the flow and the particles direction of movement and find it follows a power-law distribution.

3. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis of axisymmetric plume and base flow of film/dump cooled rocket nozzle

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tucker, P. K.; Warsi, S. A.

1993-01-01

Film/dump cooling a rocket nozzle with fuel rich gas, as in the National Launch System (NLS) Space Transportation Main Engine (STME), adds potential complexities for integrating the engine with the vehicle. The chief concern is that once the film coolant is exhausted from the nozzle, conditions may exist during flight for the fuel-rich film gases to be recirculated to the vehicle base region. The result could be significantly higher base temperatures than would be expected from a regeneratively cooled nozzle. CFD analyses were conduced to augment classical scaling techniques for vehicle base environments. The FDNS code with finite rate chemistry was used to simulate a single, axisymmetric STME plume and the NLS base area. Parallel calculations were made of the Saturn V S-1 C/F1 plume base area flows. The objective was to characterize the plume/freestream shear layer for both vehicles as inputs for scaling the S-C/F1 flight data to NLS/STME conditions. The code was validated on high speed flows with relevant physics. This paper contains the calculations for the NLS/STME plume for the baseline nozzle and a modified nozzle. The modified nozzle was intended to reduce the fuel available for recirculation to the vehicle base region. Plumes for both nozzles were calculated at 10kFT and 50kFT.

4. Modeling magnetically insulated devices using flow impedance

SciTech Connect

Mendel, C.W. Jr.; Rosenthal, S.E. )

1995-04-01

In modern pulsed power systems the electric field stresses at metal surfaces in vacuum transmission lines are so high that negative surfaces are space-charge-limited electron emitters. These electrons do not cause unacceptable losses because magnetic fields due to system currents result in net motion parallel to the electrodes. It has been known for several years that a parameter known as flow impedance is useful for describing these flows. Flow impedance is a measure of the separation between the anode and the mean position of the electron cloud, and it will be shown in this paper that in many situations flow impedance depends upon the geometry of the transmission line upstream of the point of interest. It can be remarkably independent of other considerations such as line currents and voltage. For this reason flow impedance is a valuable design parameter. Models of impedance transitions and voltage adders using flow impedance will be developed. Results of these models will be compared to two-dimensional, time-dependent, particle-in-cell simulations.

5. Steady flow in abdominal aortic aneurysm models.

PubMed

Budwig, R; Elger, D; Hooper, H; Slippy, J

1993-11-01

Steady flow in abdominal aortic aneurysm models has been examined for four aneurysm sizes over Reynolds numbers from 500 to 2600. The Reynolds number is based on entrance tube diameter, and the inlet condition is fully developed flow. Experimental and numerical methods have been used to determine: (i) the overall features of the flow, (ii) the stresses on the aneurysm walls in laminar flow, and (iii) the onset and characteristics of turbulent flow. The laminar flow field is characterized by a jet of fluid (passing directly through the aneurysm) surrounded by a recirculating vortex. The wall shear stress magnitude in the recirculation zone is about ten times less than in the entrance tube. Both wall shear stress and wall normal stress profiles exhibit large magnitude peaks near the reattachment point at the distal end of the aneurysm. The onset of turbulence in the model is intermittent for 2000 < Re < 2500. The results demonstrate that a slug of turbulence in the entrance tube grows much more rapidly in the aneurysm than in a corresponding length of uniform cross section pipe. When turbulence is present in the aneurysm the recirculation zone breaks down and the wall shear stress returns to a magnitude comparable to that in the entrance tube. PMID:8309237

6. A Substance Flow Model for Global Phosphorus

Vaccari, D. A.

2015-12-01

A system-based substance flow model (SFM) for phosphorus is developed based on the global phosphorus substance flow analysis (SFA) of Cordell et al (2009). The model is based strictly on mass balance considerations. It predicts the sensitivity of phosphorus consumption to various interventions intended to conserve reserves, as well as interactions among these efforts, allowing a comparison of their impacts on phosphorus demand. The interventions include control of phosphorus losses from soil erosion, food production and food waste, or phosphorus recycling such as from animal manure or human waste.

7. A Computational Study for the Utilization of Jet Pulsations in Gas Turbine Film Cooling and Flow Control

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kartuzova, Olga V.

2012-01-01

This report is the second part of a three-part final report of research performed under an NRA cooperative Agreement contract. The first part is NASA/CR-2012-217415. The third part is NASA/CR-2012-217417. Jets have been utilized in various turbomachinery applications in order to improve gas turbines performance. Jet pulsation is a promising technique because of the reduction in the amount of air removed from compressor. In this work two areas of pulsed jets applications were computationally investigated using the commercial code Fluent (ANSYS, Inc.); the first one is film cooling of High Pressure Turbine (HPT) blades and second one is flow separation control over Low Pressure Turbine (LPT) airfoil using Vortex Generator Jets (VGJ). Using pulsed jets for film cooling purposes can help to improve the effectiveness and thus allow higher turbine inlet temperature. Effects of the film hole geometry, blowing ratio and density ratio of the jet, pulsation frequency and duty cycle of blowing on the film cooling effectiveness were investigated. As for the low-pressure turbine (LPT) stages, the boundary layer separation on the suction side of airfoils can occur due to strong adverse pressure gradients. The problem is exacerbated as airfoil loading is increased. Active flow control could provide a means for minimizing separation under conditions where it is most severe (low Reynolds number), without causing additional losses under other conditions (high Reynolds number). The effects of the jet geometry, blowing ratio, density ratio, pulsation frequency and duty cycle on the size of the separated region were examined in this work. The results from Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes and Large Eddy Simulation computational approaches were compared with the experimental data.

8. Modelling fluid flow in a reciprocating compressor

Tuhovcak, Jan; Hejčík, Jiří; Jícha, Miroslav

2015-05-01

Efficiency of reciprocating compressor is strongly dependent on the valves characteristics, which affects the flow through the suction and discharge line. Understanding the phenomenon inside the compressor is necessary step in development process. Commercial CFD tools offer wide capabilities to simulate the flow inside the reciprocating compressor, however they are too complicated in terms of computational time and mesh creation. Several parameters describing compressor could be therefore examined without the CFD analysis, such is valve characteristic, flow through the cycle and heat transfer. The aim of this paper is to show a numerical tool for reciprocating compressor based on the energy balance through the cycle, which provides valve characteristics, flow through the cycle and heat losses from the cylinder. Spring-damping-mass model was used for the valve description. Boundary conditions were extracted from the performance test of 4-cylinder semihermetic compressor and numerical tool validation was performed with indicated p-V diagram comparison.

9. The Quiet Sun Network at Subarcsecond Resolution: VAULT Observations and Radiative Transfer Modeling of Cool Loops

Patsourakos, S.; Gouttebroze, P.; Vourlidas, A.

2007-08-01

One of the most enigmatic regions of the solar atmosphere is the transition region (TR), corresponding to plasmas with temperatures intermediate of the cool, few thousand K, chromosphere and the hot, few million K, corona. The traditional view is that the TR emission originates from a thin thermal interface in hot coronal structures, connecting their chromosphere with their corona. This paradigm fails badly for cool plasmas (~T<105 K), since it predicts emission orders of magnitude less than what it is observed. It was therefore proposed that the missing'' TR emission could originate from tiny, isolated from the hot corona, cool loops at TR temperatures. A major problem in investigating this proposal is the very small sizes of the hypothesized cool loops. Here, we report the first spatially resolved observations of subarcsecond-scale looplike structures seen in the Lyα line made by the Very High Angular Resolution Ultraviolet Telescope (VAULT). The subarcsecond (~0.3") resolution of VAULT allows us to directly view and resolve looplike structures in the quiet Sun network. We compare the observed intensities of these structures with simplified radiative transfer models of cool loops. The reasonable agreement between the models and the observations indicates that an explanation of the observed fine structure in terms of cool loops is plausible.

10. SATURATED ZONE FLOW AND TRANSPORT MODEL ABSTRACTION

SciTech Connect

B.W. ARNOLD

2004-10-27

11. A hyperbolic model for viscous Newtonian flows

Peshkov, Ilya; Romenski, Evgeniy

2016-03-01

We discuss a pure hyperbolic alternative to the Navier-Stokes equations, which are of parabolic type. As a result of the substitution of the concept of the viscosity coefficient by a microphysics-based temporal characteristic, particle settled life (PSL) time, it becomes possible to formulate a model for viscous fluids in a form of first-order hyperbolic partial differential equations. Moreover, the concept of PSL time allows the use of the same model for flows of viscous fluids (Newtonian or non-Newtonian) as well as irreversible deformation of solids. In the theory presented, a continuum is interpreted as a system of material particles connected by bonds; the internal resistance to flow is interpreted as elastic stretching of the particle bonds; and a flow is a result of bond destructions and rearrangements of particles. Finally, we examine the model for simple shear flows, arbitrary incompressible and compressible flows of Newtonian fluids and demonstrate that Newton's viscous law can be obtained in the framework of the developed hyperbolic theory as a steady-state limit. A basic relation between the viscosity coefficient, PSL time, and the shear sound velocity is also obtained.

12. Modeling Stromatolite Growth Under Oscillatory Flows

Patel, H. J.; Gong, J.; Tice, M. M.

2014-12-01

Stromatolite growth models based on diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) has been fairly successful at producing features commonly recognized in stromatolitic structures in the rock record. These models generally require slow mixing of solutes at time scales comparable to the growth of organisms and largely ignore fluid erosions. Recent research on microbial mats suggests that fluid flow might have a dominant control on the formation, deformation and erosion of surface microbial structures, raising the possibility that different styles of fluid flow may influence the morphology of stromatolites. Many stromatolites formed in relatively high energy, shallow water environments under oscillatory currents driven by wind-induced waves. In order to investigate the potential role of oscillatory flows in shaping stromatolites, we are constructing a numerical model of stromatolite growth parameterized by flume experiments with cyanobacterial biofilms. The model explicitly incorporates reaction-diffusion processes, surface deformation and erosion, biomass growth, sedimentation and mineral precipitation. A Lattice-Boltzmann numerical scheme was applied to the reaction-diffusion equations in order to boost computational efficiency. A basic finite element method was employed to compute surface deformation and erosion. Growth of biomass, sedimentation and carbonate precipitation was based on a modified discrete cellular automata scheme. This model will be used to test an alternative hypothesis for the formation of stromatolites in higher energy, shallow and oscillatory flow environments.

13. Slurry fired heater cold-flow modelling

SciTech Connect

Moujaes, S.F.

1983-07-01

This report summarizes the experimental and theoretical work leading to the scale-up of the SRC-I Demonstration Plant slurry fired heater. The scale-up involved a theoretical model using empirical relations in the derivation, and employed variables such as flow conditions, liquid viscosity, and slug frequency. Such variables have been shown to affect the heat transfer characteristics ofthe system. The model assumes that, if all other variables remain constant, the heat transfer coefficient can be scaled up proportional to D/sup -2/3/ (D = inside diameter of the fired heater tube). All flow conditions, liquid viscosities, and pipe inclinations relevant to the demonstration plant have indicated a slug flow regime in the slurry fired heater. The annular and stratified flow regimes should be avoided to minimize the potential for excessive pipe erosion and to decrease temperature gradients along the pipe cross section leading to coking and thermal stresses, respectively. Cold-flow studies in 3- and 6.75-in.-inside-diameter (ID) pipes were conducted to determine the effect of scale-up on flow regime, slug frequency, and slug dimensions. The developed model assumes that conduction heat transfer occurs through the liquid film surrounding the gas slug and laminar convective heat transfer to the liquid slug. A weighted average of these two heat transfer mechanisms gives a value for the average pipe heat transfer coefficient. The cold-flow work showed a decrease in the observed slug frequency between the 3- and 6.75-ID pipes. Data on the ratio of gas to liquid slug length in the 6.75-in. pipe are not yet complete, but are expected to yield generally lower values than those obtained in the 3-in. pipe; this will probably affect the scale-up to demonstration plant conditions. 5 references, 15 figures, 7 tables.

14. HST-COS SPECTROSCOPY OF THE COOLING FLOW IN A1795—EVIDENCE FOR INEFFICIENT STAR FORMATION IN CONDENSING INTRACLUSTER GAS

SciTech Connect

McDonald, Michael; Ehlert, Steven; Roediger, Joel; Veilleux, Sylvain

2014-08-20

We present far-UV spectroscopy from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope of a cool, star-forming filament in the core of A1795. These data, which span 1025 Å < λ{sub rest} < 1700 Å, allow for the simultaneous modeling of the young stellar populations and the intermediate-temperature (10{sup 5.5} K) gas in this filament, which is far removed (∼30 kpc) from the direct influence of the central active galactic nucleus. Using a combination of UV absorption line indices and stellar population synthesis modeling, we find evidence for ongoing star formation, with the youngest stars having ages of 7.5{sub −2.0}{sup +2.5} Myr and metallicities of 0.4{sub −0.1}{sup +0.2} Z {sub ☉}. The latter is consistent with the local metallicity of the intracluster medium. We detect the O VI λ1038 line, measuring a flux of f {sub O} {sub VI,} {sub 1038} = 4.0 ± 0.9 × 10{sup –17} erg s{sup –1} cm{sup –2}. The O VI λ1032 line is redshifted such that it is coincident with a strong Galactic H{sub 2} absorption feature, and is not detected. The measured O VI λ1038 flux corresponds to a cooling rate of 0.85 ± 0.2 (stat) ± 0.15 (sys) M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} at ∼10{sup 5.5} K, assuming that the cooling proceeds isochorically, which is consistent with the classical X-ray luminosity-derived cooling rate in the same region. We measure a star formation rate of 0.11 ± 0.02 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} from the UV continuum, suggesting that star formation is proceeding at 13{sub −2}{sup +3}% efficiency in this filament. We propose that this inefficient star formation represents a significant contribution to the larger-scale cooling flow problem.

15. Modeling of blood flow in arterial trees.

PubMed

Anor, Tomer; Grinberg, Leopold; Baek, Hyoungsu; Madsen, Joseph R; Jayaraman, Mahesh V; Karniadakis, George E

2010-01-01

Advances in computational methods and medical imaging techniques have enabled accurate simulations of subject-specific blood flows at the level of individual blood cell and in complex arterial networks. While in the past, we were limited to simulations with one arterial bifurcation, the current state-of-the-art is simulations of arterial networks consisting of hundreds of arteries. In this paper, we review the advances in methods for vascular flow simulations in large arterial trees. We discuss alternative approaches and validity of various assumptions often made to simplify the modeling. To highlight the similarities and discrepancies of data computed with different models, computationally intensive three-dimensional (3D) and inexpensive one-dimensional (1D) flow simulations in very large arterial networks are employed. Finally, we discuss the possibilities, challenges, and limitations of the computational methods for predicting outcomes of therapeutic interventions for individual patients. PMID:20836052

16. User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal-energy storage oupled with district-heating or cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices

SciTech Connect

Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

1982-04-01

A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. the AQUASTOR Model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two prinicpal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains all the appendices, including supply and distribution system cost equations and models, descriptions of predefined residential districts, key equations for the cooling degree-hour methodology, a listing of the sample case output, and appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

17. Improved modeling techniques for turbomachinery flow fields

SciTech Connect

Lakshminarayana, B.; Fagan, J.R. Jr.

1995-10-01

18. Mathematical Modeling of Electrochemical Flow Capacitors

SciTech Connect

Hoyt, NC; Wainright, JS; Savinell, RF

2015-01-13

19. Computational modelling of large aluminium stabilized conductors in an indirectly cooled magnet matrix

SciTech Connect

Baynham, D.E.; Sampson, P.L.

1996-07-01

Many of the detector magnets in use for Particle Physics experiments are based on a common technology developed in the 1980s: indirect cooling, pure aluminium stabilized conductor and monolithic resin impregnation (DELPHI, ALEPH, H1, TOPAZ etc.). In such indirectly cooled magnets stable behavior is a balance between the transient heat removal capacity of the winding and the thermal disturbances. For the extrapolation in magnet technology towards LHC detectors it is important to understand more fully this stability balance. This paper describes computational modelling techniques developed to predict the behavior of conductors in an indirectly cooled magnet matrix. The verification of the model is based on experimental studies of a test coil for the DELPHI solenoid. The computational model has been used to carry out a parametric study of the stability of the conductors proposed for the ATLAS End Cap Toroids at LHC. Results of the parametric study are presented.

20. Template Matching Using a Fluid Flow Model

Newman, William Curtis

Template matching is successfully used in machine recognition of isolated spoken words. In these systems a word is broken into frames (20 millisecond time slices) and the spectral characteristics of each frame are found. Thus, each word is represented as a 2-dimensional (2-D) function of spectral characteristic and frame number. An unknown word is recognized by matching its 2-D representation to previously stored example words, or templates, also in this 2-D form. A new model for this matching step will be introduced. The 2-D representations of the template and unknown are used to determine the shape of a volume of viscous fluid. This volume is broken up into many small elements. The unknown is changed into the template by allowing flows between the element boundaries. Finally the match between the template and unknown is determined by calculating a weighted squared sum of the flow values. The model also allows the relative flow resistance between the element boundaries to be changed. This is useful for characterizing the important features of a given template. The flow resistances are changed according to the gradient of a simple performance function. This performance function is evaluated using a set of training samples provided by the user. The model is applied to isolated word and single character recognition tasks. Results indicate the applications where this model works best.

1. Turbulence and modeling in transonic flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rubesin, Morris W.; Viegas, John R.

1989-01-01

A review is made of the performance of a variety of turbulence models in the evaluation of a particular well documented transonic flow. This is done to supplement a previous attempt to calibrate and verify transonic airfoil codes by including many more turbulence models than used in the earlier work and applying the calculations to an experiment that did not suffer from uncertainties in angle of attack and was free of wind tunnel interference. It is found from this work, as well as in the earlier study, that the Johnson-King turbulence model is superior for transonic flows over simple aerodynamic surfaces, including moderate separation. It is also shown that some field equation models with wall function boundary conditions can be competitive with it.

2. Turbulence modeling for impinging jet flows

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Childs, Robert E.; Rodman, Laura C.; Bradshaw, Peter; Bott, Donald M.; Shoemaker, William C.

1992-01-01

The objective of the present work is to improve the accuracy of the k-epsilon turbulence model for flows involving one or more jets impinging on a plate in a crossflow which generate a horseshoe vortex. The k-epsilon model is modified by adding source terms to the epsilon equation, which enables it to more accurately predict the shear stress in flows subject to streamline curvature and vortex stretching (or lateral divergence). Calculations with the modified model predict the ground vortex core to be about 15 percent upstream of its experimental location. This is a significant improvement over the standard model which yields higher errors for calculation of the vortex-core location.

3. An experimental study on sub-cooled flow boiling CHF of R134a at low pressure condition with atmospheric pressure (AP) plasma assisted surface modification

SciTech Connect

Kim, Seung Jun; Zou, Ling; Jones, Barclay G.

2015-02-01

In this study, sub-cooled flow boiling critical heat flux tests at low pressure were conducted in a rectangular flow channel with one uniformly heated surface, using simulant fluid R-134a as coolant. The experiments were conducted under the following conditions: (1) inlet pressure (P) of 400-800 kPa, (2) mass flux (G) of 124-248 kg/m2s, (3) inlet sub-cooling enthalpy (ΔHi) of 12~ 26 kJ/kg. Parametric trends of macroscopic system parameters (G, P, Hi) were examined by changing inlet conditions. Those trends were found to be generally consistent with previous understandings of CHF behavior at low pressure condition (i.e. reduced pressure less than 0.2). A fluid-to-fluid scaling model was utilized to convert the test data obtained with the simulant fluid (R-134a) into the prototypical fluid (water). The comparison between the converted CHF of equivalent water and CHF look-up table with same operation conditions were conducted, which showed good agreement. Furthermore, the effect of surface wettability on CHF was also investigated by applying atmospheric pressure plasma (AP-Plasma) treatment to modify the surface characteristic. With AP-Plasma treatment, the change of microscopic surface characteristic was measured in terms of static contact angle. The static contact angle was reduced from 80° on original non-treated surface to 15° on treated surface. An enhancement of 18% on CHF values under flow boiling conditions were observed on AP-Plasma treated surfaces compared to those on non-treated heating surfaces.

4. Magnetic grain-size variations through an ash flow sheet: Influence on magnetic properties and implications for cooling history

SciTech Connect

Rosenbaum, J.G.

1993-07-10

Rock magnetic studies of tuffs are essential to the interpretation of paleomagnetic data derived from such rocks, provide a basis for interpretation of aeromagnetic data over volcanic terranes, and yield insights into the depositional and cooling histories of ash flow sheets. A rhyolitic ash flow sheet, the Miocene-aged Tiva Canyon Member of the Paintbrush Tuff, contains both titanomagnetite phenocrysts, present in the magma prior to eruption, and cubic Fe-oxide microcrystals that grew after emplacement. Systematic variations in the quantity and magnetic grain size of the microcrystals produce large variations in magnetic properties through a section of the ash flow sheet penetrated in a borehole on the Nevada Test Site. Natural remanent magnetization varies from less than 1 x 10{sup {minus}4} to more than 8 x 10{sup {minus}4} A m{sup 3} kg{sup {minus}1}, and in-phase magnetic susceptibility varies from less than 1 x 10{sup {minus}6} to more than 10 x 10{sup {minus}6} m{sup 3} kg{sup {minus}1}. The microcrystals, which include both magnetite and maghemite, have Curie points and maximum unblocking temperatures between 580{degrees}C and 640{degrees}C. Rock magnetic data, including in-phase and quadrature magnetic susceptibilities as well as hysteresis parameters, demonstrate that these microcrystals are of superparamagnetic and single-domain sizes. Titanomagnetite phenocrysts are the dominant remanence carriers in the central 50 m of the section, whereas microcrystals are important contributors to remanent magnetization and magnetic susceptibility in two 15-m-thick zones at the top and bottom. Within these zones the size of microcrystals decreases both toward the quenched margins and toward the interior of the sheet. The decrease in microcrystal size toward the interior of the sheet is interpreted to indicate the presence of a cooling break; possibly represented by a concentration of pumice. 32 refs., 11 figs.

5. Passive containment cooling system

DOEpatents

Conway, Lawrence E.; Stewart, William A.

1991-01-01

A containment cooling system utilizes a naturally induced air flow and a gravity flow of water over the containment shell which encloses a reactor core to cool reactor core decay heat in two stages. When core decay heat is greatest, the water and air flow combine to provide adequate evaporative cooling as heat from within the containment is transferred to the water flowing over the same. The water is heated by heat transfer and then evaporated and removed by the air flow. After an initial period of about three to four days when core decay heat is greatest, air flow alone is sufficient to cool the containment.

6. Pliocene cooling enhanced by flow of low-salinity Bering Sea water to the Arctic Ocean

PubMed Central

Horikawa, Keiji; Martin, Ellen E.; Basak, Chandranath; Onodera, Jonaotaro; Seki, Osamu; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Ikehara, Minoru; Sakai, Saburo; Kawamura, Kimitaka

2015-01-01

Warming of high northern latitudes in the Pliocene (5.33–2.58 Myr ago) has been linked to the closure of the Central American Seaway and intensification of North Atlantic Deep Water. Subsequent cooling in the late Pliocene may be related to the effects of freshwater input from the Arctic Ocean via the Bering Strait, disrupting North Atlantic Deep Water formation and enhancing sea ice formation. However, the timing of Arctic freshening has not been defined. Here we present neodymium and lead isotope records of detrital sediment from the Bering Sea for the past 4.3 million years. Isotopic data suggest the presence of Alaskan glaciers as far back as 4.2 Myr ago, while diatom and C37:4 alkenone records show a long-term trend towards colder and fresher water in the Bering Sea beginning with the M2 glaciation (3.3 Myr ago). We argue that the introduction of low-salinity Bering Sea water to the Arctic Ocean by 3.3 Myr ago preconditioned the climate system for global cooling. PMID:26119338

7. Pliocene cooling enhanced by flow of low-salinity Bering Sea water to the Arctic Ocean.

PubMed

Horikawa, Keiji; Martin, Ellen E; Basak, Chandranath; Onodera, Jonaotaro; Seki, Osamu; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Ikehara, Minoru; Sakai, Saburo; Kawamura, Kimitaka

2015-01-01

Warming of high northern latitudes in the Pliocene (5.33-2.58 Myr ago) has been linked to the closure of the Central American Seaway and intensification of North Atlantic Deep Water. Subsequent cooling in the late Pliocene may be related to the effects of freshwater input from the Arctic Ocean via the Bering Strait, disrupting North Atlantic Deep Water formation and enhancing sea ice formation. However, the timing of Arctic freshening has not been defined. Here we present neodymium and lead isotope records of detrital sediment from the Bering Sea for the past 4.3 million years. Isotopic data suggest the presence of Alaskan glaciers as far back as 4.2 Myr ago, while diatom and C37:4 alkenone records show a long-term trend towards colder and fresher water in the Bering Sea beginning with the M2 glaciation (3.3 Myr ago). We argue that the introduction of low-salinity Bering Sea water to the Arctic Ocean by 3.3 Myr ago preconditioned the climate system for global cooling. PMID:26119338

8. Pliocene cooling enhanced by flow of low-salinity Bering Sea water to the Arctic Ocean

Horikawa, Keiji; Martin, Ellen E.; Basak, Chandranath; Onodera, Jonaotaro; Seki, Osamu; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Ikehara, Minoru; Sakai, Saburo; Kawamura, Kimitaka

2015-06-01

Warming of high northern latitudes in the Pliocene (5.33-2.58 Myr ago) has been linked to the closure of the Central American Seaway and intensification of North Atlantic Deep Water. Subsequent cooling in the late Pliocene may be related to the effects of freshwater input from the Arctic Ocean via the Bering Strait, disrupting North Atlantic Deep Water formation and enhancing sea ice formation. However, the timing of Arctic freshening has not been defined. Here we present neodymium and lead isotope records of detrital sediment from the Bering Sea for the past 4.3 million years. Isotopic data suggest the presence of Alaskan glaciers as far back as 4.2 Myr ago, while diatom and C37:4 alkenone records show a long-term trend towards colder and fresher water in the Bering Sea beginning with the M2 glaciation (3.3 Myr ago). We argue that the introduction of low-salinity Bering Sea water to the Arctic Ocean by 3.3 Myr ago preconditioned the climate system for global cooling.

9. User manual for GEOCITY: a computer model for cost analysis of geothermal district-heating-and-cooling systems. Volume I. Main text

SciTech Connect

Huber, H.D.; Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

1982-09-01

The purpose of this model is to calculate the costs of residential space heating, space cooling, and sanitary water heating or process heating (cooling) using geothermal energy from a hydrothermal reservoir. The model can calculate geothermal heating and cooling costs for residential developments, a multi-district city, or a point demand such as an industrial factory or commercial building. GEOCITY simulates the complete geothermal heating and cooling system, which consists of two principal parts: the reservoir and fluid transmission system and the distribution system. The reservoir and fluid transmission submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the reservoir and fluid transmission system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. Geothermal space heating is assumed to be provided by circulating hot water through radiators, convectors, fan-coil units, or other in-house heating systems. Geothermal process heating is provided by directly using the hot water or by circulating it through a process heat exchanger. Geothermal space or process cooling is simulated by circulating hot water through lithium bromide/water absorption chillers located at each building. Retrofit costs for both heating and cooling applications can be input by the user. The life-cycle cost of thermal energy from the reservoir and fluid transmission system to the distribution system and the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) to the end-users are calculated using discounted cash flow analysis.

10. Multiphase flow modeling in centrifugal partition chromatography.

PubMed

Adelmann, S; Schwienheer, C; Schembecker, G

2011-09-01

The separation efficiency in Centrifugal Partition Chromatography (CPC) depends on selection of a suitable biphasic solvent system (distribution ratio, selectivity factor, sample solubility) and is influenced by hydrodynamics in the chambers. Especially the stationary phase retention, the interfacial area for mass transfer and the flow pattern (backmixing) are important parameters. Their relationship with physical properties, operating parameters and chamber geometry is not completely understood and predictions are hardly possible. Experimental flow visualization is expensive and two-dimensional only. Therefore we simulated the flow pattern using a volume-of-fluid (VOF) method, which was implemented in OpenFOAM®. For the three-dimensional simulation of a rotating FCPC®-chamber, gravitational centrifugal and Coriolis forces were added to the conservation equation. For experimental validation the flow pattern of different solvent systems was visualized with an optical measurement system. The amount of mobile phase in a chamber was calculated from gray scale values of videos recorded by an image processing routine in ImageJ®. To visualize the flow of the stationary phase polyethylene particles were used to perform a qualitative particle image velocimetry (PIV) analysis. We found a good agreement between flow patterns and velocity profiles of experiments and simulations. By using the model we found that increasing the chamber depth leads to higher specific interfacial area. Additionally a circular flow in the stationary phase was identified that lowers the interfacial area because it pushes the jet of mobile phase to the chamber wall. The Coriolis force alone gives the impulse for this behavior. As a result the model is easier to handle than experiments and allows 3D prediction of hydrodynamics in the chamber. Additionally it can be used for optimizing geometry and operating parameters for given physical properties of solvent systems. PMID:21324465

11. Studies of shock/shock interaction on smooth and transpiration-cooled hemispherical nosetips in hypersonic flow

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Holden, Michael S.; Rodriguez, Kathleen M.

1992-01-01

A program of experimental research and analysis was conducted to examine the heat transfer and pressure distributions in regions of shock/shock interaction over smooth and transpiration-cooled hemispherical noseshapes. The objective of this investigation was to determine whether the large heat transfer generated in regions of shock/shock interaction can be reduced by transpiration cooling. The experimental program was conducted at Mach numbers of 12 to 16 in the Calspan 48-Inch Shock Tunnel. Type 3 and type 4 interaction regions were generated for a range of freestream unit Reynolds numbers to provide shear layer Reynolds numbers from 10 exp 4 to 10 exp 6 to enable laminar and turbulent interaction regions to be studied. Shock/shock interactions were investigated on a smooth hemispherical nosetip and a similar transpiration-cooled nosetip, with the latter configuration being examined for a range of surface blowing rates up to one-third of the freestream mass flux. While the heat transfer measurements on the smooth hemisphere without shock/shock interaction were in good agreement with Fay-Riddell predictions, those on the transpiration-cooled nosetip indicated that its intrinsic roughness caused heating-enhancement factors of over 1.5. In the shock/shock interaction studies on the smooth nosetip, detailed heat transfer and pressure measurements were obtained to map the variation of the distributions with shock-impingement position for a range of type 3 and type 4 interactions. Such sets of measurements were obtained for a range of unit Reynolds numbers and Mach numbers to obtain both laminar and turbulent interactions. The measurements indicated that shear layer transition has a significant influence on the heating rates for the type 4 interaction as well as the anticipated large effects on type 3 interaction heating. In the absence of blowing, the peak heating in the type 3 and type 4 interaction regions, over the transpiration-cooled model, did not appear to be

12. Axisymmetric whole pin life modelling of advanced gas-cooled reactor nuclear fuel

Mella, R.; Wenman, M. R.

2013-06-01

Thermo-mechanical contributions to pellet-clad interaction (PCI) in advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGRs) are modelled in the ABAQUS finite element (FE) code. User supplied sub-routines permit the modelling of the non-linear behaviour of AGR fuel through life. Through utilisation of ABAQUS's well-developed pre- and post-processing ability, the behaviour of the axially constrained steel clad fuel was modelled. The 2D axisymmetric model includes thermo-mechanical behaviour of the fuel with time and condition dependent material properties. Pellet cladding gap dynamics and thermal behaviour are also modelled. The model treats heat up as a fully coupled temperature-displacement study. Dwell time and direct power cycling was applied to model the impact of online refuelling, a key feature of the AGR. The model includes the visco-plastic behaviour of the fuel under the stress and irradiation conditions within an AGR core and a non-linear heat transfer model. A multiscale fission gas release model is applied to compute pin pressure; this model is coupled to the PCI gap model through an explicit fission gas inventory code. Whole pin, whole life, models are able to show the impact of the fuel on all segments of cladding including weld end caps and cladding pellet locking mechanisms (unique to AGR fuel). The development of this model in a commercial FE package shows that the development of a potentially verified and future-proof fuel performance code can be created and used. The usability of a FE based fuel performance code would be an enhancement over past codes. Pre- and post-processors have lowered the entry barrier for the development of a fuel performance model to permit the ability to model complicated systems. Typical runtimes for a 5 year axisymmetric model takes less than one hour on a single core workstation. The current model has implemented: Non-linear fuel thermal behaviour, including a complex description of heat flow in the fuel. Coupled with a variety of

13. Traffic flow forecasting: Comparison of modeling approaches

SciTech Connect

Smith, B.L.; Demetsky, M.J.

1997-08-01

The capability to forecast traffic volume in an operational setting has been identified as a critical need for intelligent transportation systems (ITS). In particular, traffic volume forecasts will support proactive, dynamic traffic control. However, previous attempts to develop traffic volume forecasting models have met with limited success. This research effort focused on developing traffic volume forecasting models for two sites on Northern Virginias Capital Beltway. Four models were developed and tested for the freeway traffic flow forecasting problem, which is defined as estimating traffic flow 15 min into the future. They were the historical average, time-series, neural network, and nonparametric regression models. The nonparametric regression model significantly outperformed the other models. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test revealed that the nonparametric regression model experienced significantly lower errors than the other models. In addition, the nonparametric regression model was easy to implement, and proved to be portable, performing well at two distinct sites. Based on its success, research is ongoing to refine the nonparametric regression model and to extend it to produce multiple interval forecasts.

14. Three-dimensional modeling of canopy flow in complex terrain

Xu, X.; Yi, C.; Montagnani, L.

2013-12-01

Flows within and just above forest canopy over mountainous terrain are most complicated, which substantially influence the biosphere-atmosphere interaction of mass and energy. Due to the significant spatial variation, canopy flow in complex terrain is poorly understood based on the point-based tower measurement. We employ numerical model integrated with biogenic CO2 process to examine the impacts of topography, canopy structure, and synoptic atmospheric motion on canopy flow and associated CO2 transport in an alpine forest, with special focus on stable nocturnal condition when biogenic CO2 emission is active. Our model prediction is in better agreement with tower measurements when background synoptic wind is present, which leads to better larger-scale mixing, while local slope flow is just thermal-driven in the modeled domain by ignorance of surround mountain-valley. Our results show that large-scale synoptic wind is modified by local slope-canopy flow within and just above canopy. As the synoptic wind is down-slope (Figure 1a), recirculation is formed on the downwind slope with cool air and high accumulation of CO2 in front of tall and dense vegetation. As the synoptic wind is up-slope(Figure 1b), canopy flow at the higher elevation of the slope is in the same direction of synoptic wind, while canopy flow at the lower part of the slope blows down-slope. The upslope wind causes better mixing in the canopy and leads to smaller CO2 accumulation just close to the slope surface. The local down-slope wind (Figure 1c) causes rich and deep CO2 build-up in the downwind direction on the lower slope. Our numerical performance has demonstrated that three-dimensional CFD approach is a useful tool to understanding relationships between tower-point measurements and surrounding's field distributions. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by NSF Grants ATM-0930015, CNS-0958379 & CNS-0855217, PSC-CUNY ENHC-42-64 & CUNY HPCC. Figure 1 CO2 distribution within and just above

15. Modeling of Building Scale Flow and Dispersion

SciTech Connect

Lee, R L; Calhoun, R J; Chan, S T; Leone, J; Stevens, D E

2001-07-10

Predictions of airflows around buildings and the associated thermal and dispersion phenomena continue to be challenging because of the presence of extremely heterogeneous surface structures within urban areas. Atmospheric conditions can induce local winds to flow around structures rather than over them. Thus pollutants that are released at or near the ground tend to persist at relatively low levels with only minimal ventilation of the airborne material away from the ground surface. While flow and dispersion phenomena can be studied within wind tunnel settings, recent advances in numerical modeling have enabled computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to evolve into an important tool in the simulation of building scale flows. They are developing numerical models to simulate the flow and dispersion of releases around multi-building complexes. These models will be used to assess the transport and fate of releases of hazardous agents within urban areas and to support emergency response activities. There are already a number of models that have been developed to simulate flow and dispersion around urban settings. A recent collection of these papers can be found in the Proceedings of the International Workshop on CFD for Wind Climate in Cities. Most of the simulation studies presented in the literature are based on single buildings with a few of these results compared with wind tunnel experiments. As the applications become more advanced, the influence of multiple buildings, vegetation, surface heating and atmospheric stability on flow and dispersion has begun to be incorporated into recent CFD models. The focus of this paper is to describe LLNL's effort in the development of a high-performance CFD model for simulating transport and diffusion of hazardous releases around buildings and building complexes. A number of new physics features have been implemented in order to customize the CFD model for the urban application. These include surface heating, vegetation canopy, heat

16. Compressible turbulent flows: Modeling and similarity considerations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zeman, Otto

1991-01-01

With the recent revitalization of high speed flow research, compressibility presents a new set of challenging problems to turbulence researchers. Questions arise as to what extent compressibility affects turbulence dynamics, structures, the Reynolds stress-mean velocity (constitutive) relation, and the accompanying processes of heat transfer and mixing. In astrophysical applications, compressible turbulence is believed to play an important role in intergalactic gas cloud dynamics and in accretion disk convection. Understanding and modeling of the compressibility effects in free shear flows, boundary layers, and boundary layer/shock interactions is discussed.

17. Entropic lattice Boltzmann model for compressible flows.

PubMed

Frapolli, N; Chikatamarla, S S; Karlin, I V

2015-12-01

We present a lattice Boltzmann model (LBM) that covers the entire range of fluid flows, from low Mach weakly compressible to transonic and supersonic flows. One of the most restrictive limitations of the lattice Boltzmann method, the low Mach number limit, is overcome here by three fundamental changes to the LBM scheme: use of an appropriately chosen multispeed lattice, accurate evaluation of the equilibrium, and the entropic relaxation for the collision. The range of applications is demonstrated through the simulation of a bow shock in front of an airfoil and the simulation of decaying compressible turbulence with shocklets. PMID:26764625

18. Entropic lattice Boltzmann model for compressible flows

Frapolli, N.; Chikatamarla, S. S.; Karlin, I. V.

2015-12-01

We present a lattice Boltzmann model (LBM) that covers the entire range of fluid flows, from low Mach weakly compressible to transonic and supersonic flows. One of the most restrictive limitations of the lattice Boltzmann method, the low Mach number limit, is overcome here by three fundamental changes to the LBM scheme: use of an appropriately chosen multispeed lattice, accurate evaluation of the equilibrium, and the entropic relaxation for the collision. The range of applications is demonstrated through the simulation of a bow shock in front of an airfoil and the simulation of decaying compressible turbulence with shocklets.

19. Additions to compact heat exchanger technology: Jet impingement cooling & flow & heat transfer in metal foam-fins