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Sample records for copper ore tailings

  1. Beneficiation of flotation tailing from Polish copper sulfide ores

    SciTech Connect

    Luszczkiewicz, A.; Sztaba, K.S.

    1995-12-31

    Flotation tailing of Polish copper sulfide ores represents more than 90% of the mass of run-of-mine ore. The tailing contains mainly quartz, dolomite, clay minerals, traces of sulfides, and some accessory minerals. Almost all minerals of the tailing are well liberated and, therefore, any further beneficiation process applied to the tailing is expected to be inexpensive. In this work, results of investigations on utilization of flotation tailing using classification and gravity concentration are presented. It is shown that due to classification of flotation tailing in hydrocyclones, the coarse fraction becomes suitable material for gravity separation providing backfill material for underground mines as well as heavy minerals, a source of valuable rare elements. It was also found that heavy minerals separated by gravity methods contain a significant amount of rare elements such as zirconium, titanium, silver, rare earth metals, and uranium. The light fraction of the gravity separation contains well deslimed quartz particles and meets strict requirements for hydraulic filling material used for structural support in underground mines. Evaluation of the cost of the proposed technology indicated that investment to implement the method would provide a return within 2--4 years.

  2. Isolation and characterization of lost copper and molybdenum particles in the flotation tailings of Kennecott copper porphyry ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tserendavga, Tsend-Ayush

    The importance of flotation separation has long been, and continues to be, an important technology for the mining industry, especially to metallurgical engineers. However, the flotation process is quite complex and expensive, in addition to being influenced by many variables. Understanding the variables affecting flotation efficiency and how valuable minerals are lost to the tailings gives metallurgists an advantage in their attempts to increase efficiency by designing operations to target the areas of greatest potential value. A successful, accurate evaluation of lost minerals in the tailings and appropriate solutions to improve flotation efficiency can save millions of dollars in the effective utilization of our mineral resources. In this dissertation research, an attempt has been made to understand the reasons for the loss of valuable mineral particles in the tailings from Kennecott Utah Copper ores. Possibilities include liberation, particle aggregation (slime coating) and surface chemistry issues associated with the flotation separation. This research generally consisted of three main aspects. The first part involved laboratory flotation experiments and factors, which affect the flotation efficiency. Results of flotation testing are reported that several factors such as mineral exposure/liberation and slime coating and surface oxidation strongly affect the flotation efficiency. The second part of this dissertation research was to develop a rapid scan dual energy (DE) methodology using 2D radiography to identify, isolate, and prepare lost sulfide mineral particles with the advantages of simple sample preparation, short analysis time, statistically reliable accuracy and confident identification. The third part of this dissertation research was concerned with detailed characterization of lost particles including such factors as liberation, slime coating, and surface chemistry characteristics using advanced analytical techniques and instruments. Based on the

  3. Pressure leaching las cruces copper ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezowsky, R. M.; Xue, T.; Collins, M. J.; Makwana, M.; Barton-Jones, I.; Southgate, M.; Maclean, J. K.

    1999-12-01

    A hydrometallurgical process was developed for treating the Las Cruces massive sulfide-ore deposit located near Seville, Spain. A two-stage countercurrent leach process, consisting of an atmospheric leach and a pressure leach, was developed to effectively leach copper from the copper-bearing minerals and to generate a solution suitable for the subsequent solvent-extraction and copper-electrowinning operations. The results of batch and continuous miniplant tests are presented.

  4. Environmentally safe design of tailing dams for the management of iron ore tailings in Indian context.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Mrinal K; Sen, P K

    2005-10-01

    The need for the disposal of iron ore tailings in an enviornmentally firiendly manner is of great concern. This paper investigates the soil engineering properties for the construction of iron ore tailing dam, its foundation, construction materials and design data used for the construction analysis of the tailing dam. Geophysical investigations were carried out to establish the bedrock below the spillway. A computer programme taking into account the Swedish Slip Circle Method of analysis was used in the stability analysis of dam. It also focuses on the charactierstics of the tailings reponsible for the determination of optimum size of tailing pond for the containment of the tailings. The studies on the settling characteristics of tailings indicate much less area in comparison to the area provided in the existing tailing ponds in India. In the proposed scheme, it is suggested to provide an additional unit of sedimentation tank before the disposal of tailings to the tailing pond. PMID:17051916

  5. 1. VIEW OF EMPIRE MINE AREA WITH TAILINGS, ORE CHUTE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF EMPIRE MINE AREA WITH TAILINGS, ORE CHUTE, AND COLLAPSED BUILDINGS VISIBLE, AND BARE SWITCHBACK HILLSIDE FROM WHICH #4, #5 AND #6 WERE MADE. CAMERA IS POINTED NORTHWEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  6. Estimated water requirements for the conventional flotation of copper ores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bleiwas, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a perspective on the amount of water used by a conventional copper flotation plant. Water is required for many activities at a mine-mill site, including ore production and beneficiation, dust and fire suppression, drinking and sanitation, and minesite reclamation. The water required to operate a flotation plant may outweigh all of the other uses of water at a mine site, [however,] and the need to maintain a water balance is critical for the plant to operate efficiently. Process water may be irretrievably lost or not immediately available for reuse in the beneficiation plant because it has been used in the production of backfill slurry from tailings to provide underground mine support; because it has been entrapped in the tailings stored in the TSF, evaporated from the TSF, or leaked from pipes and (or) the TSF; and because it has been retained as moisture in the concentrate. Water retained in the interstices of the tailings and the evaporation of water from the surface of the TSF are the two most significant contributors to water loss at a conventional flotation circuit facility.

  7. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Henrik K; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M

    2005-01-31

    Mining activities in Chile have generated large amounts of solid waste, which have been deposited in mine tailing impoundments. These impoundments cause concern to the communities due to dam failures or natural leaching to groundwater and rivers. This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2 V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4, and the copper by this reason was released in the solution. Furthermore, with acidic tailing the potential gradient was less than 2 V/cm. The maximum copper removal reached in the anode side was 53% with addition of sulphuric acid in 21 days experiment at 20 V using approximately 1.8 kg mine tailing on dry basis. In addition, experiments with acidic tailing show that the copper removal is proportional with time. PMID:15629576

  8. Leaching of Copper Ore by Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox, John; Biaha, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    A quantitative laboratory exercise based upon the procedures copper manufacturers employ to increase copper production is described. The role of chemoautotrophic microorganisms in biogeologic process is emphasized. Safety considerations when working with bacteria are included. (KR)

  9. Bioleaching of copper oxide ore by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabani, M. A.; Irannajad, M.; Azadmehr, A. R.; Meshkini, M.

    2013-12-01

    Bioleaching is an environmentally friendly method for extraction of metal from ores. In this study, bioleaching of copper oxide ore by Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a heterotrophic bacterium that can produce various organic acids in an appropriate culture medium, and these acids can operate as leaching agents. The parameters, such as particle size, glucose percentage in the culture medium, bioleaching time, and solid/liquid ratio were optimized. Optimum bioleaching conditions were found as follows: particle size of 150-177 μm, glucose percentage of 6%, bioleaching time of 8 d, and solid/liquid ratio of 1:80. Under these conditions, 53% of copper was extracted.

  10. Plant and soil reactions to nickel ore processed tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Sheets, P.J.; Volk, V.V.; Gardner, E.H.

    1982-07-01

    Greenhouse and laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effect that tailings, produced during the processing of nickeliferous laterite ores by a proposed U.S. Bureau of Mines Process, would have on plant growth and soil properties. The tailings contained soluble salts (7.6 mmhos/cm), NH/sub 4/-N (877 ..mu..g/g), Ni (0.28%), Mn (82 ..mu..g/g DTPA-extractable), Cr (0.44%), P (2 and 6 ..mu..g/g acid F- and NaHCO/sub 3/-extractable, respectively), and Ca and Mg (1.0 and 20.7 meq/100 g NH/sub 4/Ac-extractable, respectively). Water leaching decreased the NH/sub 4/-N concentration to 53 ..mu..g/g and the EC to 0.4 mmhos/cm by removal of (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and MgSO/sub 4/ salts. Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) was grown on Eightlar clay soil (skeletal, serpentinitic, mesic Typic Xerochrept) amended with 0, 223, 446, and 669 g tailings/kg soil and pure, unleached tailings for 32 weeks in the greenhouse. Seedling establishment of plants grown on soil amended at the highest tailings rate and the pure tailings was initially slow, but plants grown on soil amended at lower rates established readily and grew well. Plant P was <0.24%, while plant Ca concentrations were <0.45% throughout the growth period even though Ca(H/sub 2/PO/sub 2/)/sub 2/ and gypsum had been added. Ammonium acetate-extractable Ca at the end of the growth period was <5.0 meq/100 g on all amended soils.The Mn, Ni, and Cr concentrations of plants grown on treated soils were within normal ranges, although soil-analysis values were higher than commonly found. It is recommended that the tailings be washed to reduce NH/sub 4/-N and soluble salts prior to revegetation, and that native soil be added to the surface to reduce crusting.

  11. A Simulator for Copper Ore Leaching

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, B.

    1999-05-14

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Copper is a strategic metal and the nation needs a secure supply both for industrial use and military needs. However, demand is growing worldwide and is outstripping the ability of the mining industry to keep up. Improved recovery methods are critically needed to maintain the balance of supply and demand. The goal of any process design should be to increase the amount of copper recovered, control movement of acid and other environmentally harmful chemicals, and reduce energy requirements. To achieve these ends, several improvements in current technology are required, the most important of which is a better understanding of, and the ability to quantify, how fluids move through heterogeneous materials in a complex chemical environment. The goal of this project is create a new modeling capability that couples hydrology with copper leaching chemistry . once the model has been verified and validated, we can apply the model to specific problems associated with heap leaching (flow channeling due to non-uniformities in heap structure, precipitation/dissolution reactions, and bacterial action), to understand the causes of inefficiencies, and to design better recovery systems. We also intend to work with representatives of the copper mining industry to write a coordinated plan for further model development and application that will provide economic benefits to the industry and the nation.

  12. Modeling the formation of porphyry-copper ores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.

    2012-01-01

    Porphyry-copper ore systems, the source of much of the world's copper and molybdenum, form when metal-bearing fluids are expelled from shallow, degassing magmas. On page 1613 of this issue, Weis et al. (1) demonstrate that self-organizing processes focus metal deposition. Specifically, their simulation studies indicate that ores develop as consequences of dynamic variations in rock permeability driven by injection of volatile species from rising magmas. Scenarios with a static permeability structure could not reproduce key field observations, whereas dynamic permeability responses to magmatic-fluid injection localized a metal-precipitation front where enrichment by a factor of 103 could be achieved [for an overview of their numerical-simulation model CSMP++, see (2)].

  13. The cuprex metal extraction process: Recovering copper from sulfide ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, R. F.; Diaz, G.; Price, R.; Zunkel, A. D.

    1991-08-01

    The Cuprex™ metal extraction process produces cathode-grade copper using a hydrometallurgical process based on chloride leaching of sulfide ore concentrates. The process incorporates several novel steps to overcome the major problems associated with earlier chloride-based processes, including mild leaching conditions using ferric chloride as leachant and solvent extraction of copper usinga novel reagent. This produces a highly concentrated cupric chloride electrolyte from which cathode-grade copper is electrowon in the Metclor cell. The technical viability and robustness of the core technology have been proven in a series of large-scale pilot trials. More recent work has concentrated on supplementary processes to convert the copper powder product to an article of commerce and to recover valuable by-products. A fully integrated scheme is now being developed with updated cost estimates.

  14. Leaching of molybdenum and arsenic from uranium ore and mill tailings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.

    1984-01-01

    A sequential, selective extraction procedure was used to assess the effects of sulfuric acid milling on the geochemical associations of molybdenum and arsenic in a uranium ore blend, and the tailings derived therefrom. The milling process removed about 21% of the molybdenum and 53% of the arsenic initially present in the ore. While about one-half of the molybdenum in the ore was water soluble, only about 14% existed in this form in the tailings. The major portion of the extractable molybdenum in the tailings appears to be associated with hydrous oxides of iron, and with alkaline earth sulfate precipitates. In contrast with the pattern seen for molybdenum, the partitioning of arsenic into the various extractable fractions differs little between the ore and the tailings. ?? 1984.

  15. 4. EMPIRE STATE MINE TAILINGS, ORE CHUTE/BIN, COLLAPSED BUILDING FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EMPIRE STATE MINE TAILINGS, ORE CHUTE/BIN, COLLAPSED BUILDING FROM BELOW. CAMERA POINTED NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  16. Extracting copper from copper oxide ore by a zwitterionic reagent and dissolution kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jiu-shuai; Wen, Shu-ming; Deng, Jian-ying; Wu, Dan-dan

    2015-03-01

    Sulfamic acid (SA), which possesses a zwitterionic structure, was applied as a leaching reagent for the first time for extracting copper from copper oxide ore. The effects of reaction time, temperature, particle size, reagent concentration, and stirring speed on this leaching were studied. The dissolution kinetics of malachite was illustrated with a three-dimensional diffusion model. A novel leaching effect of SA on malachite was eventually demonstrated. The leaching rate increased with decreasing particle size and increasing concentration, reaction temperature and stirring speed. The activation energy for SA leaching malachite was 33.23 kJ/mol. Furthermore, the effectiveness of SA as a new reagent for extracting copper from copper oxide ore was confirmed by experiment. This approach may provide a solution suitable for subsequent electrowinning. In addition, results reported herein may provide basic data that enable the leaching of other carbonate minerals of copper, zinc, cobalt and so on in an SA system.

  17. Innovative methodology for comprehensive utilization of iron ore tailings: part 2: The residues after iron recovery from iron ore tailings to prepare cementitious material.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Sun, Henghu; Yi, Zhonglai; Li, Longtu

    2010-02-15

    In order to comprehensive utilization of iron ore tailings, this experimental research was to investigate the possibility of using the residues after iron recovery from iron ore tailings as raw materials for the preparation of cementitious material, abbreviated as TSC, including analyses of its mechanical properties, physical properties and hydration products. The TSC1 was prepared by blending 30% the residues, 34% blast-furnace slag, 30% clinker and 6% gypsum. Meanwhile, the raw iron ore tailings (before iron recovery) with the same proportion of TSC1 were selected to compare the cementitious activity of raw tailings and the residues after magnetizing roasting, denoted by TSC0. The hydration products of them were mostly ettringite, calcium hydroxide and C-S-H gel, characterized by XRD, IR and SEM. It was found that ettringite and C-S-H gel were principally responsible for the strength development of TSC mortars with curing time. The results showed that the kaolinite of the tailings was decomposed completely after magnetizing roasting, which promoted the cementitious property of TSC1. Moreover, the mechanical properties of TSC1 are well comparable with those of 42.5 ordinary Portland cement according to Chinese GB175-2007 standard. PMID:19782471

  18. Leaching of radionuclides from uranium ore and mill tailings ( Ra- 226, Tn-230).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    The major part of the extractable uranium is associated with a readily acid-soluble fraction in both ore and tailings. The major part of the extractable 226Ra was associated with an iron, manganese hydrous-oxide fraction in the ore and tailings. Thorium-230 was the least leachable of the radionuclides studied. The major portion of the extractable 230Th was associated with alkaline-earth sulphate precipitates, organic matter, or both. The specific effects of milling on each of the nuclides are discussed.-Author

  19. 40 CFR 440.100 - Applicability; description of the copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum ores subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum ores subcategory. 440.100 Section 440.100 Protection of... DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper, Lead, Zinc, Gold, Silver, and Molybdenum Ores Subcategory § 440.100 Applicability; description of the copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum ores subcategory. (a)...

  20. 40 CFR 440.100 - Applicability; description of the copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum ores subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum ores subcategory. 440.100 Section 440.100 Protection of... DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper, Lead, Zinc, Gold, Silver, and Molybdenum Ores Subcategory § 440.100 Applicability; description of the copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum ores subcategory. (a)...

  1. Extraction of copper from an oxidized (lateritic) ore using bacterially catalysed reductive dissolution.

    PubMed

    Nancucheo, Ivan; Grail, Barry M; Hilario, Felipe; du Plessis, Chris; Johnson, D Barrie

    2014-01-01

    An oxidized lateritic ore which contained 0.8 % (by weight) copper was bioleached in pH- and temperature-controlled stirred reactors under acidic reducing conditions using pure and mixed cultures of the acidophilic chemolithotrophic bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. Sulfur was provided as the electron donor for the bacteria, and ferric iron present in goethite (the major ferric iron mineral present in the ore) acted as electron acceptor. Significantly more copper was leached by bacterially catalysed reductive dissolution of the laterite than in aerobic cultures or in sterile anoxic reactors, with up to 78 % of the copper present in the ore being extracted. This included copper that was leached from acid-labile minerals (chiefly copper silicates) and that which was associated with ferric iron minerals in the lateritic ore. In the anaerobic bioreactors, soluble iron in the leach liquors was present as iron (II) and copper as copper (I), but both metals were rapidly oxidized (to iron (III) and copper (II)) when the reactors were aerated. The number of bacteria added to the reactors had a critical role in dictating the rate and yield of copper solubilised from the ore. This work has provided further evidence that reductive bioprocessing, a recently described approach for extracting base metals from oxidized deposits, has the potential to greatly extend the range of metal ores that can be biomined. PMID:24687752

  2. Effect of rare earth Ce on the far infrared radiation property of iron ore tailings ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jie; Meng, Junping; Liang, Jinsheng; Duan, Xinhui; Huo, Xiaoli; Tang, Qingguo

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Detailed process proposed for preparation of iron ore tailings ceramics. • Replace natural minerals with iron ore tailings as raw materials for preparing functional ceramics. • Impact mechanism of Ce on far infrared ceramics, as well as its optimum addition amounts can be obtained. • Propose a new perspective on considering the mechanism of far infrared radiation. - Abstract: A kind of far infrared radiation ceramics was prepared by using iron ore tailings, CaCO{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} as main raw materials, and Ce as additive. The result of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the sample exhibits excellent radiation value of 0.914 when doping 7 wt.% Ce. Ce{sup 4+} dissolved into iron diopside and formed interstitial solid solution with it sintered at 1150 °C. The oxidation of Fe{sup 2+} to Fe{sup 3+} caused by Ce{sup 4+} led to a decrease of crystallite sizes and enhancement of Mg–O and Fe–O vibration in iron diopside, which consequently improved the far infrared radiation properties of iron ore tailings ceramics.

  3. Assessment of (222)Rn emanation from ore body and backfill tailings in low-grade underground uranium mine.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Devi Prasad; Sahu, Patitapaban; Panigrahi, Durga Charan; Jha, Vivekanand; Patnaik, R Lokeswara

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of (222)Rn emanation from the ore and backfill tailings in an underground uranium mine located at Jaduguda, India. The effects of surface area, porosity, (226)Ra and moisture contents on (222)Rn emanation rate were examined. The study revealed that the bulk porosity of backfill tailings is more than two orders of magnitude than that of the ore. The geometric mean radon emanation rates from the ore body and backfill tailings were found to be 10.01 × 10(-3) and 1.03 Bq m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Significant positive linear correlations between (222)Rn emanation rate and the (226)Ra content of ore and tailings were observed. For normalised (226)Ra content, the (222)Rn emanation rate from tailings was found to be 283 times higher than the ore due to higher bulk porosity and surface area. The relative radon emanation from the tailings with moisture fraction of 0.14 was found to be 2.4 times higher than the oven-dried tailings. The study suggested that the mill tailings used as a backfill material significantly contributes to radon emanation as compared to the ore body itself and the (226)Ra content and bulk porosity are the dominant factors for radon emanation into the mine atmosphere. PMID:24057960

  4. Bacterial consortium for copper extraction from sulphide ore consisting mainly of chalcopyrite

    PubMed Central

    Romo, E.; Weinacker, D.F.; Zepeda, A.B.; Figueroa, C.A.; Chavez-Crooker, P.; Farias, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    The mining industry is looking forward for bacterial consortia for economic extraction of copper from low-grade ores. The main objective was to determine an optimal bacterial consortium from several bacterial strains to obtain copper from the leach of chalcopyrite. The major native bacterial species involved in the bioleaching of sulphide ore (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, Leptospirillum ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferriphilum) were isolated and the assays were performed with individual bacteria and in combination with At. thiooxidans. In conclusion, it was found that the consortium integrated by At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans removed 70% of copper in 35 days from the selected ore, showing significant differences with the other consortia, which removed only 35% of copper in 35 days. To validate the assays was done an escalation in columns, where the bacterial consortium achieved a higher percentage of copper extraction regarding to control. PMID:24294251

  5. Extraction of Copper from Malanjkhand Low-Grade Ore by Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sradhanjali; Sukla, Lala Behari; Mishra, Baroda Kanta

    2011-10-01

    Thermophilic bacteria are actively prevalent in hot water springs. Their potential to grow and sustain at higher temperatures makes them exceptional compare to other microorganism. The present study was initiated to isolate, identify and determine the feasibility of extraction of copper using thermophilic heterotrophic bacterial strain. Bacillus stearothermophilus is a thermophilic heterotrophic bacterium isolated from hot water spring, Atri, Orissa, India. This bacterium was adapted to low-grade chalcopyrite ore and its efficiency to solubilize copper from Malanjkhand low-grade ore was determined. The low-grade copper ore contains 0.27% Cu, in which the major copper-bearing mineral is chalcopyrite associated with other minerals present as minor phase. Variation in parameters such as pulp-density and temperatures were studied. After 30 days of incubation, it was found that Bacillus stearothermophilus solubilize copper up to 81.25% at pH 6.8 at 60°C. PMID:23024410

  6. Synthesis of Fe-MCM-41 Using Iron Ore Tailings as the Silicon and Iron Source

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Yu, Honghao; He, Yan; Xue, Xiangxin

    2012-01-01

    Highly ordered Fe-MCM-41 molecular sieve was successfully synthesized by using n-hexadecyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as the template and the iron ore tailings (IOTs) as the silicon and iron source. X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectroscopy, 29Si magic-angle spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and nitrogen adsorption/desorption were used to characterize the samples. The results showed that the mesoporous materials had highly ordered 2-dimensional hexagonal structure. The synthesized sample had high surface area, and part of iron atoms is retained in the framework with formation of tetrahedron after removal of the template by calcinations. The results obtained in the present work demonstrate the feasibility of employing iron ore tailings as a potential source of silicon and iron to produce Fe-MCM-41 mesoporous materials. PMID:22567574

  7. 40 CFR 440.100 - Applicability; description of the copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum ores subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum ores subcategory. 440.100 Section 440.100 Protection of... MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper, Lead, Zinc, Gold, Silver, and Molybdenum Ores Subcategory § 440.100 Applicability; description of the copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum...

  8. 40 CFR 440.100 - Applicability; description of the copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum ores subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum ores subcategory. 440.100 Section 440.100 Protection of... MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper, Lead, Zinc, Gold, Silver, and Molybdenum Ores Subcategory § 440.100 Applicability; description of the copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum...

  9. 40 CFR 440.100 - Applicability; description of the copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum ores subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum ores subcategory. 440.100 Section 440.100 Protection of... MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper, Lead, Zinc, Gold, Silver, and Molybdenum Ores Subcategory § 440.100 Applicability; description of the copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, and molybdenum...

  10. Effect of Tourmaline-Doped on the Far Infrared Emission of Iron Ore Tailings Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Meng, Junping; Liang, Jinsheng; Zhang, Hongchen; Gu, Xiaoyang

    2016-04-01

    Iron ore tailings as secondary resources have been of great importance to many countries in the world. Their compositions are similar to that of infrared emission ceramics, but there are few reports about it. In addition, tourmaline has high infrared emission properties due to its unique structure. With the purpose of expanding functional utilization of iron ore tailings, as well as reducing the production cost of far infrared ceramics, a new kind of far infrared emission ceramics was prepared by using iron ore tailings, calcium carbonate, silica, and natural tourmaline. The ceramics powders were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscope, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results show that after being sintered at 1065 °C, the percentage of pseudobrookite and lattice strain of samples increased with increasing the elbaite content. Furthermore, the added tourmaline was conducive to the densification sintering of ceramics. The appearance of Li-O vibration at 734.73 cm-1, as well as the strengthened Fe-O vibration at 987.68 cm-1 were attributed to the formation of Li0.375Fe1.23Ti1.4O5 solid solution, which led the average far infrared emissivity of ceramics increase from 0.861 to 0.906 within 8-14 µm. PMID:27451708

  11. Native plant restoration of biosolids-amended copper mine tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, P.A.; Zabowski, D.; Everett, R.L.; Scherer, G.

    1998-12-31

    Copper mine tailings are difficult to revegetate due to nutrient deficiencies, high levels of acidity, and potential metal toxicities. An amendment of biosolids could ameliorate these harsh growing conditions through the addition of available nutrients, improvement of physical soil properties (e.g., increased water holding capacity), and possible lowering of toxic metal availability through complexation with organic matter. A study was conducted on mine tailings at Holden, WA to evaluate the effect of an amendment of biosolids on the survival and growth of five native plant species (Sitka alder, big leaf maple, fireweed, w. yarrow, and pearly everlasting). Plots were established in tailings, gravel over tailings (G/T), and biosolids plus gravel over tailings. Each of the native plant species, except maple, had their highest survival in the biosolids-amended plot with 3 species at 100% survival. The biosolids amendment was shown to improve the growth of all species except maple. Fireweed produced 62 times more biomass in the biosolids-amended plot compared to the unamended plot (G/T). Plant analysis revealed a dramatic increase in nutrient content with the amendment of biosolids. Biosolids improved the survival, growth, and nutritional status of native plant species on the copper mine tailings.

  12. Neutron-activation analysis applied to copper ores and artifacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linder, N. F.

    1970-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis is used for quantitative identification of trace metals in copper. Establishing a unique fingerprint of impurities in Michigan copper would enable identification of artifacts made from this copper.

  13. 63,65Cu NMR Method in a Local Field for Investigation of Copper Ore Concentrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilenko, A. N.; Starykh, R. V.; Khabibullin, I. Kh.; Matukhin, V. L.

    2015-01-01

    To choose the most efficient method and ore beneficiation flow diagram, it is important to know physical and chemical properties of ore concentrates. The feasibility of application of the 63,65Cu nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method in a local field aimed at studying the properties of copper ore concentrates in the copper-iron-sulfur system is demonstrated. 63,65Cu NMR spectrum is measured in a local field for a copper concentrate sample and relaxation parameters (times T1 and T2) are obtained. The spectrum obtained was used to identify a mineral (chalcopyrite) contained in the concentrate. Based on the experimental data, comparative characteristics of natural chalcopyrite and beneficiated copper concentrate are given. The feasibility of application of the NMR method in a local field to explore mineral deposits is analyzed.

  14. Rheological investigations of tailings of kimberlite ore dressing and numerical simulation of its behaviour in PLAXIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korshunov, A.; Nevzorov, A.

    2015-04-01

    The article presents the results of analysis of rheology properties of sandy-clay tailings (wastes) of kimberlite ore dressing of the diamond deposit (Russia, Arkhangelsk region). The coefficient of secondary compression as main parameter of soil's creep is defined by implementing standard one-dimensional consolidation test. The linear correlation between initial void ratio and coefficient of secondary compression of sandy-clay tailings were obtained. For numerical simulation of tailing's behaviour subject to its rheology properties in Soft Soil Creep (SSC) model (time independent behaviour) of PLAXIS software was used. According to laboratory tests calibration of SSC model was implemented. It allows predicting dam's safety and reliability for long-term outlook.

  15. Speciation and leachability of copper in mine tailings from porphyry copper mining: influence of particle size.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Henrik K; Yianatos, Juan B; Ottosen, Lisbeth M

    2005-09-01

    Mine tailing from the El Teniente-Codelco copper mine situated in VI Region of Chile was analysed in order to evaluate the mobility and speciation of copper in the solid material. Mine tailing was sampled after the rougher flotation circuits, and the copper content was measured to 1150 mg kg (-1) dry matter. This tailing was segmented into fractions of different size intervals: 0-38, 38-45, 45-53, 53-75, 75-106, 106-150, 150-212, and >212 microm, respectively. Copper content determination, sequential chemical extraction, and desorption experiments were carried out for each size interval in order to evaluate the speciation of copper. It was found that the particles of smallest size contained 50-60% weak acid leachable copper, whereas only 32% of the copper found in largest particles could be leached in weak acid. Copper oxides and carbonates were the dominating species in the smaller particles, and the larger particles contained considerable amounts of sulphides. PMID:16054920

  16. Catalytic-Oxidative Leaching of Low-Grade Complex Zinc Ore by Cu (II) Ions Produced from Copper Ore in Ammonia-Ammonium Sulfate Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi Xiong; Yin, Zhou Lan; Hu, Hui Ping; Chen, Qi Yuan

    2012-10-01

    The catalytic-oxidative leaching of a mixed ore, which consists of low-grade oxide copper ore and oxide zinc ore containing ZnS, was investigated in ammonia-ammonium sulfate solution. The effect of the main parameters, such as mass ratio of copper ore to zinc ore, liquid-to-solid ratio, concentration of lixivant, leaching time, and temperature, was studied. The optimal leaching conditions with a maximum extraction of Cu 92.6 pct and Zn 85.5 pct were determined as follows: the mass ratio of copper ore to zinc ore 4/10 g/g, temperature 323.15 K (50 °C), leaching time 6 hours, stirring speed 500 r/min, liquid-to-solid ratio 3.6/1 cm3/g, concentration of lixivant including ammonia 2.0 mol/dm3, ammonium sulfate 1.0 mol/dm3, and ammonium persulfate 0.3 mol/dm3. It was found that ZnS in the oxide zinc ore could be extracted with Cu(II) ion, which was produced from copper ore and was used as the catalyst in the presence of ammonium persulfate.

  17. Effect of anions on selective solubilization of zinc and copper in bacterial leaching of sulfide ores.

    PubMed

    Harahuc, L; Lizama, H M; Suzuki, I

    2000-07-20

    Bacterial leaching of sulfide ores using Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, Thiobacillus thiooxidans, or a combination of the two was studied at various concentrations of specific anions. Selective zinc and copper solubilization was obtained by inhibiting iron oxidation without affecting sulfur/sulfide oxidation. Phosphate reduced iron solubilization from a pyrite (FeS(2))-sphalerite (ZnS) mixture without significantly affecting zinc solubilization. Copper leaching from a chalcopyrite (CuFeS(2))-sphalerite mixture was stimulated by phosphate, whereas chloride accelerated zinc extraction. In a complex sulfide ore containing pyrite, chalcopyrite, and sphalerite, both phosphate and chloride reduced iron solubilization and increased copper extraction, whereas only chloride stimulated zinc extraction. Maximum leaching obtained was 100% zinc and 50% copper. Time-course studies of copper and zinc solubilization suggest the possibility of selective metal recovery following treatment with specific anions. PMID:10861398

  18. Quantitative mineralogical characterization of chrome ore beneficiation plant tailing and its beneficiated products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S. K.

    2015-04-01

    Mineralogical characterization and liberation of valuable minerals are primary concerns in mineral processing industries. The present investigation focuses on quantitative mineralogy, elemental deportment, and locking-liberation characteristics of the beneficiation of tailings from a chrome ore beneficiation plant in the Sukinda region, Odisha; methods used for the study of the beneficiated tailings are QEMSCAN®, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and mineral chemistry by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS). The tailing sample was fine grained (69.48wt% below 45 μm size), containing 20.25wt% Cr2O3 and 39.19wt% Fe2O3, with a Cr:Fe mass ratio of 0.51. Mineralogical investigations using QEMSCAN studies revealed that chromite, goethite, and gibbsite are the dominant mineral phases with minor amounts of hematite, kaolinite, and quartz. The sample contained 34.22wt% chromite, and chromite liberation is more than 80% for grains smaller than 250 μm in size. Based on these results, it was predicted that liberated chromite and high-grade middling chromite particles could be separated from the gangue by various concentration techniques. The tailing sample was beneficiated by hydrocyclone, tabling, wet high-intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS), and flotation in order to recover the chromite. A chromite concentrate with 45.29wt% Cr2O3 and a Cr:Fe mass ratio of 1.85 can be produced from these low-grade chromite ore beneficiation plant rejects.

  19. Use of mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria for the improvement of copper extraction from a low-grade ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darezereshki, E.; Schaffie, M.; Lotfalian, M.; Seiedbaghery, S. A.; Ranjbar, M.

    2011-04-01

    Bioleaching was examined for copper extraction from a low grade ore using mesophilic and moderate thermophilic bacteria. Five equal size columns were used for the leaching of the ore. Sulfuric acid solution with a flow rate of 3.12 L·m-2·h-1 and pH 1.5 passed through each column continuously for 90 d. In the first and the second column, bioleaching was performed without agglomeration of the ore and on the agglomerated ore, respectively. 28wt% of the copper was extracted in the first column after 40 d, while this figure was 38wt% in the second column. After 90 d, however, the overall extractions were almost the same for both of them. Bioleaching with mesophilic bacteria was performed in the third column without agglomeration of the ore and in the fourth column on the agglomerated ore. After 40 d, copper extractions in the third and the fourth columns were 62wt% and 70wt%, respectively. Copper extractions were 75wt% for both the columns after 90 d. For the last column, bioleaching was performed with moderate thermophilic bacteria and agglomerated ore. Copper extractions were 80wt% and 85wt% after 40 and 90 d, respectively. It was concluded that crushing and agglomeration of the ore using bacteria could enhance the copper extraction considerably.

  20. Natural radiation and its hazard in copper ore mines in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Nguyen; Jodłowski, Paweł; Kalita, Stefan; Olko, Paweł; Chruściel, Edward; Maksymowicz, Adam; Waligórski, Michał; Bilski, Paweł; Budzanowski, Maciej

    2008-06-01

    The doses of gamma radiation, concentrations of radium isotopes in water and sediments, radon concentration and concentration of alpha potential energy of radon decay products in the copper ore mine and in the mining region in the vicinity of Lubin town in Poland are presented. These data served as a basis for the assessment of radiological hazard to the mine workers and general public. The results of this assessment indicate that radiological hazard in the region does not differ substantially from typical values associated with natural radiation background. The calculated average annual effective dose for copper miners is 1.48 mSv. In general, copper ore mines can be regarded as radiologically safe workplaces.

  1. Krasnotur'insk Skarn copper ore field, Northern Urals: The U-Pb age of ore-controlling diorites and their place in the regional metallogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabezhev, A. I.; Ronkin, Yu. L.; Puchkov, V. N.; Gerdes, A.; Rovnushkin, M. Yu.

    2014-06-01

    The Krasnotur'insk skarn copper ore field known from the theoretical works of Academician K.S. Korzhinskii is located in the western part of the Tagil volcanic zone (in the area of the town of Krasnotur'insk). The ore field is composed of layered Devonian (Emsian) volcanosedimentary rocks intruded by small plutons of quartz diorites, diorites, and gabbrodiorites. Widespread pre-ore and intra-ore dikes of similar composition control the abundance of the andradite skarns formed after limestones and the magnetitesulfide and sulfide ore bodies formed after skarns. The LA-ICP-MS U-Pb concordant age of zircon from the quartz diorite of the Vasil'evsko-Moskalevskii pluton calculated by 16 analyses (16 crystals) is 407.7 ± 1.6 Ma (MSWD = 1.5). Taking into account the geological and petrogeochemical similarity of diorites of small plutons and intra-ore dikes, it is assumed that this age corresponds to the period of formation of the ore-magmatic system of the Krasnotur'insk skarn copper ore field. It was probably formed somewhat earlier than the Auerbakh montzonitic pluton and the accompanying skarn magnetite deposits in the south.

  2. Reclamation of acidic copper mine tailings using municipal biosolids

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, M.T.; Thompson, T.L.; Bengson, S.A.

    1998-12-31

    Reclamation of copper mine tailings in a cost effective, successful, and sustainable manner is an ongoing area of evaluation in the arid southwest. A study was initiated in September, 1996 near Hayden, Arizona to evaluate the use of municipal biosolids for reclaiming acidic copper mine tailings (pH of 2.5 to 4.0). The main objectives of the study were to (1) define an appropriate level of biosolids application for optimum plant growth, and (2) evaluate the effects of green waste and lime amendments. The experiment was a randomized complete block design with four biosolid rates of 20, 70, 100 and 135 dry tons/acre, three amendment treatments (none, green waste, and green waste plus lime); with three replications. Non-replicated controls (no treatment, green waste only and lime only) were included for comparison. Shortly after biosolids incorporation to a depth of 10--12 inches, composite soil samples (0--12 inches) of each plot were taken. Biosolids incorporation increased the pH of the tailings (>5.75) and additional increases in pH were noted with lime application. In January 1997, the plots were seeded and sprinkler irrigation was commenced. A total of 4.47 inches of rainfall and 3.8 inches of irrigation were applied until harvest in May 1997. Data from the first growing season indicates optimum growth (>66 lbs/acre) at biosolids rates of 70--100 dry tons/acre. There was a significant positive effect on growth of green waste and lime amendments. Surface NO{sub 3}-N concentrations in biosolids amended plots were greatly reduced (from 23 to 6 mg/kg) by addition of green waste. There was no evidence for NO{sub 3}N leaching below 12 inches.

  3. Speciation and Characterization of Arsenic in Gold Ores and Cyanidation Tailings Using X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Paktunc, Dogan; Foster, Andrea; Heald, Steve M.; Laflamme, Gilles

    2004-03-25

    The knowledge of mineralogy and molecular structure of arsenic is needed to better understand the stability of As in wastes resulting from processing of gold ores. In this study, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAFS) techniques were employed to determine the mineralogical composition and local coordination environment of arsenic in gold ores and process tailings from a bench-scale testwork designed to mimic a common plant practice. Arsenic -bearing minerals identified in the ores and tailings include Fe oxyhydroxides, scorodite, ferric arsenates, arseniosiderite, Ca-Fe arsenates, pharmacosiderite, jarosite and arsenopyrite. Iron oxyhydroxides contain variable levels of As from trace to about 22 wt % and Ca to approximately 9 %.

  4. Manganese ore tailing: optimization of acid leaching conditions and recovery of soluble manganese.

    PubMed

    Santos, Olívia de Souza Heleno; Carvalho, Cornélio de Freitas; Silva, Gilmare Antônia da; Santos, Cláudio Gouvêa Dos

    2015-01-01

    Manganese recovery from industrial ore processing waste by means of leaching with sulfuric acid was the objective of this study. Experimental conditions were optimized by multivariate experimental design approaches. In order to study the factors affecting leaching, a screening step was used involving a full factorial design with central point for three variables in two levels (2(3)). The three variables studied were leaching time, concentration of sulfuric acid and sample amount. The three factors screened were shown to be relevant and therefore a Doehlert design was applied to determine the best working conditions for leaching and to build the response surface. By applying the best leaching conditions, the concentrations of 12.80 and 13.64 %w/w of manganese for the global sample and for the fraction -44 + 37 μm, respectively, were found. Microbeads of chitosan were tested for removal of leachate acidity and recovering of soluble manganese. Manganese recovery from the leachate was 95.4%. Upon drying the leachate, a solid containing mostly manganese sulfate was obtained, showing that the proposed optimized method is efficient for manganese recovery from ore tailings. PMID:25284800

  5. Porphyry-copper ore shells form at stable pressure-temperature fronts within dynamic fluid plumes.

    PubMed

    Weis, P; Driesner, T; Heinrich, C A

    2012-12-21

    Porphyry-type ore deposits are major resources of copper and gold, precipitated from fluids expelled by crustal magma chambers. The metals are typically concentrated in confined ore shells within vertically extensive vein networks, formed through hydraulic fracturing of rock by ascending fluids. Numerical modeling shows that dynamic permeability responses to magmatic fluid expulsion can stabilize a front of metal precipitation at the boundary between lithostatically pressured up-flow of hot magmatic fluids and hydrostatically pressured convection of cooler meteoric fluids. The balance between focused heat advection and lateral cooling controls the most important economic characteristics, including size, shape, and ore grade. This self-sustaining process may extend to epithermal gold deposits, venting at active volcanoes, and regions with the potential for geothermal energy production. PMID:23160957

  6. Bioleaching model of a copper-sulfide ore bed in heap and dump configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas, J. M.; Vargas, T.; Martinez, J.; Moreno, L.

    1998-08-01

    A two-dimensional (2-D) model for a heap or dump bioleaching of a copper ore containing mainly chalcocite and pyrite has been developed. The rate of the mineral sulfide dissolution was related to the rate of oxidation by bacteria attached onto the ore surface. The latter was calculated using the model of Michaelis-Menten, where both temperature and dissolved oxygen in the leach solution were taken into account by the kinetic equation. Oxygen transport through the ore bed was associated with natural air convection originating from the decrease in gas density inside the ore bed, which was attributable not only to heating, but also to humidification and decrease in the oxygen concentration. The model was used to estimate air-velocity fields and profiles of temperature and oxygen concentrations as well as mineral conversions during the bioleaching operation for ore beds with different pyrite contents, bacterial populations, widths, heights, and permeabilities. The model provides a useful tool for the design, improvement, and optimization of industrial operating conditions.

  7. Low molecular weight carboxylic acids in oxidizing porphyry copper tailings.

    PubMed

    Dold, Bernhard; Blowes, David W; Dickhout, Ralph; Spangenberg, Jorge E; Pfeifer, Hans-Rudolf

    2005-04-15

    The distribution of low molecular weight carboxylic acids (LMWCA) was investigated in pore water profiles from two porphyry copper tailings impoundments in Chile (Piuquenes at La Andina and Cauquenes at El Teniente mine). The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the distribution of LMWCA, which are interpreted to be the metabolic byproducts of the autotroph microbial community in this low organic carbon system, and (2) to infer the potential role of these acids in cycling of Fe and other elements in the tailings impoundments. The speciation and mobility of iron, and potential for the release of H+ via hydrolysis of the ferric iron, are key factors in the formation of acid mine drainage in sulfidic mine wastes. In the low-pH oxidation zone of the Piuquenes tailings, Fe(III) is the dominant iron species and shows high mobility. LMWCA, which occur mainly between the oxidation front down to 300 cm below the tailings surface at both locations (e.g., max concentrations of 0.12 mmol/L formate, 0.17 mmol/L acetate, and 0.01 mmol/L pyruvate at Piuquenes and 0.14 mmol/L formate, 0.14 mmol/L acetate, and 0.006 mmol/L pyruvate at Cauquenes), are observed at the same location as high Fe concentrations (up to 71.2 mmol/L Fe(II) and 16.1 mmol/L Fe(III), respectively). In this zone, secondary Fe(III) hydroxides are depleted. Our data suggest that LMWCA may influence the mobility of iron in two ways. First, complexation of Fe(III), through formation of bidentate Fe(III)-LMWCA complexes (e.g., pyruvate, oxalate), may enhance the dissolution of Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxides or may prevent precipitation of Fe(III) (oxy)hydroxides. Soluble Fe(III) chelate complexes which may be mobilized downward and convert to Fe(II) by Fe(III) reducing bacteria. Second, monodentate LMWCA (e.g., acetate and formate) can be used by iron-reducing bacteria as electron donors (e.g., Acidophilum spp.), with ferric iron as the electron acceptor. These processes may, in part, explain the low abundances

  8. Characterization of energy critical elements in ore resources and associated waste tailings: Implications for recovery and remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClenaghan, Sean H.

    2015-04-01

    The occurrence of Energy Critical Elements (ECE) in primary ore minerals and their subsequent enrichment in waste tailings is of great metallurgical interest. Recovery of many ECEs, in particular In, Ge, and Ga have come chiefly as a by-product of base-metal production (smelting and refining); these elements are found only at very low levels in the Earth's crust and do not typically form economic deposits on their own. As the ECEs become more important for a growing number of technological applications, it is critical to map the distribution of these elements in ore and waste (gangue) minerals to optimize their recovery and remediation. The characterization and beneficiation of ECEs is best illustrated for Zn-rich ore systems, where a mineral such as sphalerite (ZnS) will concentrate a number of major (Fe, Mn) and important trace elements (Cd, Se, In, Ge, Te, Sn, Bi, Sb, Hg). Interestingly, the mineral chemistry of sphalerite will often differ between different styles of mineralization (i.e., granite-hosted veins versus volcanic-hosted massive sulfides) and can even exhibit considerable variability within a deposit in response to metal zonation across hydrothermal facies. This has significant metallurgical implications for the blending of ore resources, the efficient production of Zn concentrates, and their ultimate value during the smelting and refining stages. Gangue minerals transferred to waste tailings may also exhibit significant enrichment in ECEs and precious metals; including Au in pyrite-arsenopyrite, and rare earth elements in a range of carbonate and phosphate minerals. In situ micro-analytical techniques are ideal for the quantitative measurement of trace elements in ore minerals as well as associated gangue materials. Recent advances in ICP-MS and ICP-OES technology coupled with newer classes of UV Excimer lasers (native 193 nm light) have allowed for more discrete analyses, permitting micro-chemical mapping at small scales (<10 microns). Further

  9. Mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry studies to evaluate oxide copper ores for heap leaching in Sarcheshmeh copper mine, Kerman, Iran.

    PubMed

    Shayestehfar, M R; Nasab, S Karimi; Mohammadalizadeh, H

    2008-06-15

    In recent years, as a result of biological, environmental, and economic considerations, available copper in copper oxide ores that could not be recovered by pyrometallurgical methods was accumulated in so-called oxide dumps. Suitable material is treated with dilute sulfuric acid in a heap-leaching process, whereupon the copper content of the rock slowly dissolves in the acidic solution. The performed investigations show that one needs to consider the action of the acid on the copper oxide-containing rocks at the microscopic level. In this paper, we describe research carried out on oxide samples from the western dump of the Sarcheshmeh copper mine. Each sample was split into two parts and a portion of each was exposed to heap-leaching conditions in a column. Subsequently, polished sections, thin sections, and powdered samples were subjected to chemical analysis as well as petrographic and mineralogical considerations. Changes in the weight percentages of non-metal and metal minerals before and after acid treatment were measured. Microscopic studies have indicated that chemical analyses do not provide a complete picture of the effects of acid on the rock. Thus, microscopic studies on sections are shown to be a necessary requirement, neglection of which can have negative economic and environmental effects. PMID:18096317

  10. Efficient degradation of Acid Orange 7 in aqueous solution by iron ore tailing Fenton-like process.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jianming; Gao, Zhanqi; He, Huan; Yang, Shaogui; Sun, Cheng

    2016-05-01

    An effective method based on iron ore tailing Fenton-like process was studied for removing an azo dye, Acid Orange 7 (AO7) in aqueous solution. Five tailings were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectroscope (XFS), Brunner-Emmet-Teller (BET) measurement, and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The result of XFS showed that Fe, Si and Ca were the most abundant elements and some toxic heavy metals were also present in the studied tailings. The result of BET analysis indicated that the studied tailings had very low surface areas (0.64-5.68 m(2) g(-1)). The degradation efficiencies of AO7 were positively correlated with the content of iron oxide and cupric oxide, and not related with the BET surface area of the tailings. The co-existing metal elements, particularly Cu, might accelerate the heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction. The effects of other parameters on heterogeneous Fenton-like degradation of AO7 by a converter slag iron tailing (tailing E) which contains highest iron oxide were also investigated. The tailing could be reused 10 times without significant decrease of the catalytic capacity. Very low amount of iron species and almost undetectable toxic elements were leached in the catalytic degradation of AO7 by the tailing E. The reaction products were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and a possible pathway of AO7 degradation was proposed. This study not only provides an effective method for removing azo dyes in polluted water by employing waste tailings as Fenton-like catalysts, but also uses waste tailings as the secondary resource. PMID:26891355

  11. Ore grade decrease as life cycle impact indicator for metal scarcity: the case of copper.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Marisa D M; Goedkoop, Mark J; Storm, Per; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2012-12-01

    In the life cycle assessment (LCA) of products, the increasing scarcity of metal resources is currently addressed in a preliminary way. Here, we propose a new method on the basis of global ore grade information to assess the importance of the extraction of metal resources in the life cycle of products. It is shown how characterization factors, reflecting the decrease in ore grade due to an increase in metal extraction, can be derived from cumulative ore grade-tonnage relationships. CFs were derived for three different types of copper deposits (porphyry, sediment-hosted, and volcanogenic massive sulfide). We tested the influence of the CF model (marginal vs average), mathematical distribution (loglogistic vs loglinear), and reserve estimate (ultimate reserve vs reserve base). For the marginal CFs, the statistical distribution choice and the estimate of the copper reserves introduce a difference of a factor of 1.0-5.0 and a factor of 1.2-1.7, respectively. For the average CFs, the differences are larger for these two choices, i.e. respectively a factor of 5.7-43 and a factor of 2.1-3.8. Comparing the marginal CFs with the average CFs, the differences are higher (a factor 1.7-94). This paper demonstrates that cumulative grade-tonnage relationships for metal extraction can be used in LCA to assess the relative importance of metal extractions. PMID:23110501

  12. Recovery of Rare Earths, Niobium, and Thorium from the Tailings of Giant Bayan Obo Ore in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiu-Lan; Bai, Li; Wang, Qing-Chun; Liu, Jia; Chi, Ming-Yu; Wang, Zhi-Chang

    2012-06-01

    The recovery of rare earths, niobium, and thorium from Bayan Obo's tailings has been investigated because the Bayan Obo ore is rich in rare earths and rich in niobium and thorium, but it is mined mainly as an iron ore and will be used up soon. By carbochlorination between 823 K (550 °C) and 873 K (600 °C) for 2 hours, 76 to 93 pct of rare earths were recovered from the tailings, which were much higher than those from Bayan Obo's rare earth concentrate, together with 65 to 78 pct of niobium, 72 to 92 pct of thorium, 84 to 91 pct of iron, and 81 to 94 pct of fluorine. This suggests a cooperative reaction mechanism that carbochlorination of iron minerals (and carbonates) in the tailings enhances that of rare earth minerals, which is supported by a thermodynamic analysis. Subsequently, niobium separation from the low-volatile, ultrahigh iron chloride mixture was achieved efficiently by selective oxidation with Fe2O3. This process, combined with the best available technologies for separation of rare earths and thorium from the involatile chloride mixture and for comprehensively using other valuable elements, allows the ore to minimize radioactive waste and to use rare metal resources sustainably in the future.

  13. Apatite ore mine tailings as an amendment for remediation of a lead-contaminated shooting range soil.

    PubMed

    Venäläinen, Salla H

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the use of tailings from apatite ore beneficiation in the remediation of a heavily contaminated shooting range soil. The tailings originating in Siilinjärvi carbonatite complex, Finland, consist of apatite residues accompanied by phlogopite and calcite. In a pot experiment, organic top layer of a boreal forest soil predisposed to pellet-derived lead (Pb) was amended with tailings of various particle-sizes (Ø>0.2mm, Ø<0.2mm and unsieved material) differing in their mineralogical composition. After 9-, 10-, 14- and 21-month incubation, the samples were monitored for tailings-induced changes in the different Pb pools by means of sequential fractionation. Following the incubation, the samples were extracted with water and the extracts were analyzed for Pb species distribution by means of a cation exchange resin. The results revealed that Pb was continuously released from the shotgun pellet fragments due to weathering. However, the apatite and calcite compartments in the tailings counteracted the mobility of the released Pb through the formation of sparingly soluble fluorpyromorphite and cerussite. Furthermore, the tailings efficiently reduced the bioavailability of Pb by transferring it from the water-soluble and exchangeable pools into the organic one. The material also increased the proportion of the less toxic non-cationic Pb to the total dissolved Pb from the initial level of 5% to 9-12%. The results suggest that the tailings-induced stabilization of Pb may be an environmentally sound remediation technique at polluted sites. PMID:21871651

  14. Chelatometric determination of calcium and magnesium in iron ores, slags, anorthosite, limestone, copper-nickel-lead-zinc ores and divers materials.

    PubMed

    Hitchen, A; Zechanowitsch, G

    1980-03-01

    Chelatometric methods for the determination of calcium and magnesium in iron ores, slags, anorthosite, copper-nickel-lead-zinc ores and various other materials are described. Potential interfering elements are masked with triethanolamine and potassium cyanide. In one aliquot calcium is titrated at pH > 12, with calcein and thymolphthalein mixed indicator and in another aliquot calcium and magnesium are titrated in ammonia buffer, with o-cresolphthalein complexone screened with Naphthol Green B as indicator. The results compare favourably with certified values for reference materials of diverse nature. PMID:18962661

  15. Bacterial populations within copper mine tailings: long-term effects of amendment with Class A biosolids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluates the effect of surface application of dried Class A biosolids on microbial populations within copper mine tailings. Methods and Results: Mine tailing sites were established at ASARCO Mission Mine close to Sahuarita, Arizona. Site 1 (Dec. 1998) was amended with 248 tons ha-1 of C...

  16. A greenhouse trial to investigate the ameliorative properties of biosolids and plants on physicochemical conditions of iron ore tailings: Implications for an iron ore mine site remediation.

    PubMed

    Cele, Emmanuel Nkosinathi; Maboeta, Mark

    2016-01-01

    An iron ore mine site in Swaziland is currently (2015) in a derelict state as a consequence of past (1964-1988) and present (2011 - current) iron ore mining operations. In order to control problems associated with mine wastes, the Swaziland Water Services Corporation (SWSC) recently (2013) proposed the application of biosolids in sites degraded by mining operations. It is thought that this practice could generally improve soil conditions and enhance plant reestablishment. More importantly, the SWSC foresees this as a potential solution to the biosolids disposal problems. In order to investigate the effects of biosolids and plants in soil physicochemical conditions of iron mine soils, we conducted two plant growth trials. Trial 1 consisted of tailings that received biosolids and topsoil (TUSB mix) while in trial 2, tailings received biosolids only (TB mix). In the two trials, the application rates of 0 (control), 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100 t ha(-1) were used. After 30 days of equilibration, 25 seeds of Cynodon dactylon were sown in each pot and thinned to 10 plants after 4 weeks. Plants were watered twice weekly and remained under greenhouse conditions for 12 weeks, subsequent to which soils were subjected to chemical analysis. According to the results obtained, there were significant improvements in soil parameters related to fertility such as organic matter (OM), water holding capacity (WHC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), ammonium [Formula: see text] , magnesium (Mg(2+)), calcium (Ca(2+)) and phosphorus ( [Formula: see text] ). With regard to heavy metals, biosolids led to significant increases in soil total concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb. The higher concentrations of Zn and Cu in treated tailings compared to undisturbed adjacent soils are a cause for concern because in the field, this might work against the broader objectives of mine soil remediation, which include the recolonization of reclaimed sites by soil-dwelling organisms. Therefore, while

  17. Speciation and characterization of arsenic in gold ores and cyanidation tailings using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paktunc, D.; Foster, A.; Heald, S.; Laflamme, G.

    2004-01-01

    The knowledge of mineralogy and molecular structure of As is needed to better understand the stability of As in wastes resulting from processing of gold ores. In this study, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy (including both XANES and EXAFS regimes) were employed to determine the mineralogical composition and local coordination environment of As in gold ores and process tailings from bench-scale tests designed to mimic a common plant practice. Arsenic-bearing minerals identified in the ores and tailings include iron (III) oxyhydroxides, scorodite (FeAsO4??2H2O), ferric arsenates, arseniosiderite (Ca2Fe3 (AsO4)3O2??3H2O), Ca-Fe arsenates, pharmacosiderite (KFe4 (AsO4)3(OH)4??6-7H2O), jarosite (K2Fe6(SO4)4 (OH)12) and arsenopyrite (FeAsS). Iron (III) oxyhydroxides contain variable levels of As from trace to about 22 wt% and Ca up to approximately 9 wt%. Finely ground ore and tailings samples were examined by bulk XAFS and selected mineral grains were analyzed by microfocused XAFS (micro-EXAFS) spectroscopy to reconcile the ambiguities of multiple As sources in the complex bulk EXAFS spectra. XANES spectra indicated that As occurs as As5+in all the samples. Micro-EXAFS spectra of individual iron (III) oxyhydroxide grains with varying As concentrations point to inner-sphere bidentate-binuclear arsenate complexes as the predominant form of As. There are indications for the presence of a second Fe shell corresponding to bidentate-mononuclear arrangement. Iron (III) oxyhydroxides with high As concentrations corresponding to maximum adsorption densities probably occur as nanoparticles. The discovery of Ca atoms around As in iron (III) oxyhydroxides at interatomic distances of 4.14-4.17 A?? and the coordination numbers suggest the formation of arseniosiderite-like nanoclusters by coprecipitation rather than simple adsorption of Ca onto iron (III) oxyhydroxides

  18. Feasibility Studies on Pipeline Disposal of Concentrated Copper Tailings Slurry for Waste Minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senapati, Pradipta Kumar; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2016-06-01

    The conventional lean phase copper tailings slurry disposal systems create pollution all around the disposal area through seepage and flooding of waste slurry water. In order to reduce water consumption and minimize pollution, the pipeline disposal of these waste slurries at high solids concentrations may be considered as a viable option. The paper presents the rheological and pipeline flow characteristics of copper tailings samples in the solids concentration range of 65-72 % by weight. The tailings slurry indicated non-Newtonian behaviour at these solids concentrations and the rheological data were best fitted by Bingham plastic model. The influence of solids concentration on yield stress and plastic viscosity for the copper tailings samples were discussed. Using a high concentration test loop, pipeline experiments were conducted in a 50 mm nominal bore (NB) pipe by varying the pipe flow velocity from 1.5 to 3.5 m/s. A non-Newtonian Bingham plastic pressure drop model predicted the experimental data reasonably well for the concentrated tailings slurry. The pressure drop model was used for higher size pipes and the operating conditions for pipeline disposal of concentrated copper tailings slurry in a 200 mm NB pipe with respect to specific power consumption were discussed.

  19. Recovery of Copper from Cyanidation Tailing by Flotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Tingsheng; Huang, Xiong; Yang, Xiuli

    2016-02-01

    In this work, sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, sodium metabisulfite and copper sulfate as activators were investigated to lessen the depression effect of cyanide for deep-depressing chalcopyrite. The experimental results indicate that the copper recovery exceeded 94%, 84% and 97% at the dosage: sodium hypochlorite 3 mL/L, hydrogen peroxide 2 mL/L, sodium metabisulfite 2 × 10-3 mol/L and copper sulfate 1.67 × 10-4 mol/L, respectively. According to the results of zeta potential and Fourier transform infrared spectrum, it is suggested that chalcopyrite was depressed because of the chemical adsorption of cyanide on the chalcopyrite surfaces. Sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide and sodium metabisulfite can destroy Cu-C bond on the deep-depressing chalcopyrite surface by chemical reaction. Copper sulfate can activate deep-depressing chalcopyrite by copper ion adsorption.

  20. Intermetallic compounds, copper and palladium alloys in Au-Pd ore of the Skaergaard pluton, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudashevsky, N. S.; Rudashevsky, V. N.; Nielsen, T. F. D.

    2015-12-01

    Copper-palladium intermetallic compounds and alloys (2314 grains) from the Au-Pd ore of the Skaergaard layered gabbroic pluton have been studied. Skaergaardite PdCu, nielsenite PdCu3, (Cu,Pd)β, (Cu,Pd)α, (Pd,Cu,Au,Pt) alloys, and native palladium have been identified as a result of 1680 microprobe analyses. The average compositions and various chemical varieties of these minerals are characterized, as well as vertical and lateral zoning in distribution of noble metals. The primary Pd-Cu alloys were formed within a wide temperature interval broadly synchronously with cooling and crystallization of host gabbro and in close association with separation of Fe-Cu sulfide liquid. In the course of crystallization of residual gabbroic melt enriched in iron, noble and heavy metals and saturated with the supercritical aqueous fluid, PGE and Au are selectively concentrated in the Fe-Cu sulfide phase as Pd-Cu and Cu-Au alloys.

  1. The effect of copper on iron reduction and its application to the determination of total iron content in iron and copper ores by potassium dichromate titration.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hanjun; Tang, Yang; Ying, Haisong; Wang, Minghai; Wan, Pingyu; Jin Yang, X

    2014-07-01

    The International Standard Organization (ISO) specifies two titrimetric methods for the determination of total iron content in iron ores using potassium dichromate as titrant after reduction of the iron(III) by tin(II) chloride and/or titanium(III) chloride. These two ISO methods (ISO2597-1 and ISO2597-2) require nearly boiling-point temperature for iron(III) reduction and suffer from copper interference and/or mercury pollution. In this study, potassium borohydride was used for reduction of iron(III) catalyzed by copper ions at ambient temperatures. In the absence of copper, iron(III) reduction by potassium borohydride was sluggish while a trace amount of copper significantly accelerated the reduction and reduced potassium borohydride consumption. The catalytic mechanism of iron(III) reduction in sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid was investigated. Potassium borohydride in sodium hydroxide solution was stable without a significant degradation within 24h at ambient conditions and the use of potassium borohydride prepared in sodium hydroxide solution was safe and convenient in routine applications. The applicability of potassium borohydride reduction for the determination of total iron content by potassium dichromate titration was demonstrated by comparing with the ISO standard method using iron and copper ore reference materials and iron ore samples. PMID:24840467

  2. Rapid Analysis of Copper Ore in Pre-Smelter Head Flow Slurry by Portable X-ray Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Brandon J; Lawrence, Neil J; Abourahma, Jehad N; Walker, Edward B

    2016-05-01

    Copper laden ore is often concentrated using flotation. Before the head flow slurry can be smelted, it is important to know the concentration of copper and contaminants. The concentration of copper and other elements fluctuate significantly in the head flow, often requiring modification of the concentrations in the slurry prior to smelting. A rapid, real-time analytical method is needed to support on-site optimization of the smelter feedstock. A portable, handheld X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was utilized to determine the copper concentration in a head flow suspension at the slurry origin. The method requires only seconds and is reliable for copper concentrations of 2.0-25%, typically encountered in such slurries. PMID:27006021

  3. Evaluation of metal mobility from copper mine tailings in northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Lam, Elizabeth J; Gálvez, M E; Cánovas, M; Montofré, I L; Rivero, D; Faz, A

    2016-06-01

    This work shows the results obtained on a copper mine tailing in the Antofagasta Region, Chile. The tailing was classified as saline-sodic with high concentrations of metals, especially Cu and Fe, with pH 8.4. Our objectives were to (1) compare the physicochemical properties of the tailing with surrounding soils of the mine under study, and (2) evaluate the effect of two amendments (CaCO3 and compost) and their mixtures on Cu(2+), Mn, Fe, Zn, Mg(2+), and K(+) and Ca(2+), SO4 (2-), NO3 (-), and PO4 (3-) leaching. The data obtained were submitted to variance and covariance analysis. The results from the comparison between both substrates showed that in general, the tailing presented greater content of metals. Regarding tailing leaching, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and concentration of the elements of interest were measured. The statistical analysis showed that Cu(2+) leaching and immobilization of Fe occurred to the greatest extent with compost. The EC decreased throughout the experiment with irrigation and increased upon treatment with compost. The major interactions found among the chemical parameters were (1) tailings without treatment, Cu(2+)/Fe and NO3 (-)/SO4 (2-); (2) tailings treated with CaCO3, Cu(2+)/K(+); (3) tailings treated with compost, NO3 (-)/SO4 (-2) and EC/Cu(2+); and (4) tailings treated with both amendments, EC/Fe and Cu(2+)/Fe. The ANOVA showed that the number of irrigations and the amendments statistically significantly affected the copper mobility and the organic amendment significantly influenced the iron mobility. PMID:26957432

  4. Biogeochemical evolution of sulfide ore mine tailings profiles under semi-arid climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorover, J.

    2014-12-01

    Mining represents a principal form of earth surface disturbance in the anthropocene. Weathering reactions that ensue following tailings deposition are strongly affected by climatic forcing and tailings composition, and these also affect the weathering-induced transformations of the associated mineral assemblages and metal(loid) contaminants. The presence or absence of plants and associated microbiota can have a profound influence on these weathering trajectories. We employed field, laboratory and modeling approaches to resolve the impact of (bio)geochemical weathering reactions on the transformation of mine tailings parent materials into soil over the time following mining cessation. Using controlled experiments, we have evaluated the impacts of plants and associated rhizosphere microbiota on these reactions, hydrologic fluxes, and the molecular speciation of mining derived contaminants. Plant establishment is shown to alter site ecohydrology and biogeochemical weathering processes leading to distinctly different weathering products and patterns.

  5. Treatment of copper ores and concentrates with industrial nitrogen species catalyzed pressure leaching and non-cyanide precious metals recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Corby G.

    2003-04-01

    Today, with a stringent economic and environmental climate prevailing in the copper business, there is increased interest in evaluating new processing alternatives for production. Hydrometallurgical pressure oxidation of copper concentrates is one of the more viable approaches, and several technological candidates have emerged. Of these, an overlooked but, ironically, the first industrially proven methodology utilized nitrogen species catalyzation in the oxidizing pressure-leach system to produce copper via solvent extraction/electrowinning. Given its advantages, this may prove to be a feasible process alternative for the future. In this article, the history of the system and its application to copper concentrates and ores will be outlined. In particular, a non-cyanide methodology for effective recovery of precious metals from chalcopyrite concentrates will be discussed.

  6. Impact of commercial garden growth substratum and NPK-fertilizer on copper fractionation in a copper-mine tailing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, A.; Karam, A.; Jaouich, A.

    2009-04-01

    Organic amendment and NPK-fertilizer could affect the distribution of copper (Cu) among Cu-mine tailing compounds and hence the availability or phytotoxicity of Cu to plants. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the forms of Cu in a Cu-mine tailing (pH 7.70) amended with a commercial garden growth substratum (GGS) containing peat moss and natural mycorrhizae (Glomus intraradices) in combination with a commercial NPK-fertilizer (20-20-20), by a sequential extraction method. There were eight treatments after the combination of four rates of GGS (0, 12.4, 50 and 100 g/kg tailing) and two rates of fertilizer (0 and 20 g/kg tailing). At the end of a 52-week incubation period, tailing Cu was sequentially extracted to fractionate Cu into five operationally defined geochemical forms, namely ‘water-soluble' (Cu-sol), ‘exchangeable' (Cu-exc), ‘specifically adsorbed on carbonates or carbonate-bound' (Cu-car), ‘organic-bound' (Cu-org) and ‘residual' (Cu-res) fractions. After treatments, the most labile Cu pool (Cu-sol + Cu-exc) represented about 0.94 % of the total Cu, the Cu-car and Cu-org accounted for 22.7 and 5.0% of total Cu, and the residual Cu accounted for nearly 71.3% of total Cu. Compared with the control, the application of GGS decreased Cu-car and increased CuORG whereas the addition of fertilizer increased Cu-sol + Cu-exc and decreased Cu-carb. Fertilizer-treated tailings had the highest amount of Cu-sol + Cu-exc. High rates of GGS resulted in Cu-org levels in GGS-treated tailings which were more than 2.0-2.8 times those obtained in the untreated tailing (control). The partition of Cu in GGS-treated tailings followed the order: Cu-sol + Cu-exc < Cu-car < Cu-org < Cu-res. This study suggests that NPK-fertilizer promotes the formation of labile Cu forms in the calcite-containing Cu-mine tailing. GGS in the tailing matrix acts as effective sorbent for Cu.

  7. Geophysical model of the Cu-Mo porphyry ore deposit at Copper Flat Mine, Hillsboro, Sierra County, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Adrian Emmanuel Gutierrez

    A 3D gravity model of the Copper Flat Mine was performed as part of the exploration of new resources in at the mine. The project is located in the Las Animas Mining District in Sierra County, New Mexico. The mine has been producing ore since 1877 and is currently owned by the New Mexico Copper Corporation, which plans o bringing the closed copper mine back into production with innovation and a sustainable approach to mining development. The Project is located on the Eastern side of the Arizona-Sonora-New Mexico porphyry copper Belt of Cretaceous age. Copper Flat is predominantly a Cretaceous age stratovolcano composed mostly of quartz monzonite. The quartz monzonite was intruded by a block of andesite alter which a series of latite dikes creating veining along the topography where the majority of the deposit. The Copper Flat deposit is mineralized along a breccia pipe where the breccia is the result of auto-brecciation due to the pore pressure. There have been a number of geophysical studies conducted at the site. The most recent survey was a gravity profile on the area. The purpose of the new study is the reinterpretation of the IP Survey and emphasizes the practical use of the gravity geophysical method in evaluating the validity of the previous survey results. The primary method used to identify the deposit is gravity in which four Talwani models were created in order to created a 3D model of the ore body. The Talwani models have numerical integration approaches that were used to divide every model into polygons. The profiles were sectioned into polygons; each polygon was assigning a specific density depending on the body being drawn. Three different gridding techniques with three different filtering methods were used producing ten maps prior to the modeling, these maps were created to establish the best map to fit the models. The calculation of the polygons used an exact formula instead of the numerical integration of the profile made with a Talwani approach. A

  8. Biomining: metal recovery from ores with microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Schippers, Axel; Hedrich, Sabrina; Vasters, Jürgen; Drobe, Malte; Sand, Wolfgang; Willscher, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Biomining is an increasingly applied biotechnological procedure for processing of ores in the mining industry (biohydrometallurgy). Nowadays the production of copper from low-grade ores is the most important industrial application and a significant part of world copper production already originates from heap or dump/stockpile bioleaching. Conceptual differences exist between the industrial processes of bioleaching and biooxidation. Bioleaching is a conversion of an insoluble valuable metal into a soluble form by means of microorganisms. In biooxidation, on the other hand, gold is predominantly unlocked from refractory ores in large-scale stirred-tank biooxidation arrangements for further processing steps. In addition to copper and gold production, biomining is also used to produce cobalt, nickel, zinc, and uranium. Up to now, biomining has merely been used as a procedure in the processing of sulfide ores and uranium ore, but laboratory and pilot procedures already exist for the processing of silicate and oxide ores (e.g., laterites), for leaching of processing residues or mine waste dumps (mine tailings), as well as for the extraction of metals from industrial residues and waste (recycling). This chapter estimates the world production of copper, gold, and other metals by means of biomining and chemical leaching (bio-/hydrometallurgy) compared with metal production by pyrometallurgical procedures, and describes new developments in biomining. In addition, an overview is given about metal sulfide oxidizing microorganisms, fundamentals of biomining including bioleaching mechanisms and interface processes, as well as anaerobic bioleaching and bioleaching with heterotrophic microorganisms. PMID:23793914

  9. Recolonisation of mine tailing by meiofauna in mesocosm and microcosm experiments.

    PubMed

    Gwyther, David; Batterham, Grant J; Waworuntu, Jorina; Gultom, Tonny H; Prayogo, Windy; Susetiono; Karnan

    2009-06-01

    The Batu Hijau copper/gold mine in Sumbawa, Indonesia processes ore at approximately 130,000tpd and discharges tailing via a submarine pipeline to depths below 3000m at the base of a submarine canyon. The study investigated recolonisation of tailing by meiofauna and its dependence on subsequent accumulation of natural sediment. Microcosm and mesocosm scale experiments were carried out using two tailing and two control samples, the latter comprising defaunated and unaffected natural sediment. All test materials were similar in physical and chemical respects, except for the higher copper concentration in the tailing. The abundances of meiofauna colonising defaunated controls and both tailing samples increased from zero to levels statistically indistinguishable from natural unaffected controls after 97 and 203days. Colonisation was well established in tailing from freshly mined ore after 40days, and in oxidized tailing from stockpiled ore after 65days, and was not dependent on settled natural material. PMID:19268316

  10. Identification and stochastic modelling of sources in copper ore crusher vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wylomanska, Agnieszka; Zimroz, Radoslaw; Janczura, Joanna

    2015-07-01

    A problem of rolling element bearings diagnostics for different machines is widely discussed in the literature. Most of the methods are based on the vibration signal analysis. However for some real signals the classical methods of damage detection are insufficient because of the specific nature of examined data. This specific nature is very often manifested through overlapping, mixing or interleaving of processes with different statistical properties and may be the result of different sources that have influence on the analysed signal. The problem of different sources identification and parametrisation of processes which are related to them is very challenging and requires advanced techniques. There are many methods which can be useful in this context however each signal should be analysed separately and there is no universal technique adequate to all possible time series. In this paper we propose a method of sources identification for vibration signal from the heavy duty crusher used in mineral processing plant. A crusher is a kind of machine which use a metal surface to crumble materials into small fractional pieces. During this process, as well as during entering material stream into the crusher, a lot of impacts appear. They are present in vibration signal acquired from bearings housing. Moreover, for some cases we also observe cyclic impulses which may be related to damage of rolling element bearings in the machine. The proposed sources identification method, especially useful for crushers vibrations, is based on the statistical analysis of examined data. Moreover by using advanced techniques of time series theory we propose a stochastic model that exhibits similar statistical properties as analysed signals. The introduced technique can be a starting point to damage detection of rolling element bearings of copper ore crushers.

  11. Preparation and characterization of novel glass-ceramic tile with microwave absorption properties from iron ore tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Rui; Liao, SongYi; Dai, ChangLu; Liu, YuChen; Chen, XiaoYu; Zheng, Feng

    2015-03-01

    A novel glass-ceramic tile consisting of one glass-ceramic layer (GC) attaining microwave absorption properties atop ceramic substrate was prepared through quench-heat treatment route derived from iron ore tailings (IOTs) and commercial raw materials (purity range 73-99%). X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Physical property measurement system (PPMS) and Vector network analyzer (VNA) measurements were carried out to investigate phase, microstructure, magnetic and microwave absorption aspects of the glass-ceramic layer. Roughly 80.6±1.7 wt% borosilicate glass and 19.4±1.7 wt% spinel ferrite with chemical formula of (Zn2+0.17Fe3+0.83)[Fe3+1.17Fe2+0.06Ni2+0.77]O4 were found among the tested samples. Absorption of Electromagnetic wave by 3 mm thick glass-ceramic layer at frequency of 2-18 GHz reached peak reflection loss (RL) of -17.61 dB (98.27% microwave absorption) at 10.31 GHz. Altering the thickness of the glass-ceramic layer can meet the requirements of different level of microwave absorption.

  12. Using soil island plantings as dispersal vectors in large area copper tailings reforestation

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, G.; Everett, R.

    1998-12-31

    The Wenatchee National Forest undertook the reforestation of the 80 acre (35 ha) Holden copper mine tailings of Washington State in 1989 by using 20, one-fourth acre, triangular shaped soil islands as a source of plant propagules targeted for gravel-covered tailings surfaces. The islands were constructed of soil and surface litter transported from a nearby gravel pit, and planted with four species of conifer seedlings, the shrub Sitka alder (Alnus sinuata) and eight species of grasses. Conifer and alder seedlings were also planted in graveled covered tailings with amendments. Since reproductive status of the conifers would not occur for several years, this propagule vector hypothesis was tested by measuring the distances traveled onto the tailings surface by grass seeds. The number of grass shoots established in four treatment blocks in target plots downwind from the soil island source plantings was also determined. After 36 months, grass seed had migrated to a distance of 32 feet (11 m) from the soil island source. Grass shoots were present within 10 feet (3 m) downwind of the soil island, the most frequent being Mountain brome (Bromus marginatus). Among the tree species, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and Sitka alder grew an average of 6 inches (15--16 cm) after 40 months on the soil islands but somewhat less on the tailing surface. By the third growing season, the only tree species in reproductive condition on the tailings was alder. The soil-island technique is successful for grass dispersal and may have potential for conifer and alder migration.

  13. Molybdenum and copper levels in white-tailed deer near uranium mines in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, K.A.; LeLeux, J.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1984-01-01

    Molybdenum toxicity, molybdenosis, in ruminant animals has been identified in at least 15 states and in Canada, England, Australia, and New Zealand. In most western states, molybdenosis has been associated with strip-mine spoil deposits. Molybdenum toxicity has been diagnosed in cattle pastured near uranium strip-mine spoils in several Texas counties. Recent reports from hunters and the authors' observations indicated that white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ) that fed near uranium-mine spoil deposits may also have been exposed to high levels of molybdenum. The objectives of this study were to determine if white-tailed deer from a South Texas uranium mining district were accumulating harmful levels of molybdenum and to compare molybdenum and copper levels with antler development in deer from the mined area vs. an unmined control area.

  14. Banded sulfide-magnetite ores of Mauk copper massive sulfide deposit, Central Urals: Composition and genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safina, N. P.; Maslennikov, V. V.; Maslennikova, S. P.; Kotlyarov, V. A.; Danyushevsky, L. V.; Large, R. R.; Blinov, I. A.

    2015-05-01

    The results of investigation of metamorphosed sulfide-magnetite ores from the Mauk deposit located within the Main Ural Fault at the junction of Tagil and Magnitogorsk massive sulfide zones are discussed. The ore-hosting sequence comprises metamorphic rocks formed from basalt, carbonaceous and carbonaceous-cherty siltstone, and lenticular serpentinized ultramafic bodies. The ores of the deposit are represented by banded varieties and less frequent breccia. The clastic origin of the banded ore is indicated by load casts at the bottom of sulfide beds, alternation of sulfide and barren beds, and the truncation of the growth zones of pyrite crystals. Pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and magnetite are the major minerals of the banded ores. The internal structure of the listed minerals testifies to the deep metamorphic recrystallization of primary hydrothermal-sedimentary ores accompanied with deformation. Cubanite, pyrrhotite, mackinawite, greigite, and gold are enclosed in metacrysts of pyrite, magnetite, and chalcopyrite. The accessory minerals of the Pb-Bi-Te, Bi-Te, and Ag-Te systems as well as uraninite have been found at the Mauk deposit for the first time. Magnetite predominantly replaces pyrite and less frequently chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, and gangue minerals. It was established that the major carriers of As and Co are crystals of metamorphic pyrite. Chalcopyrite is the major carrier of Zn, Sn, Te, Pb, Bi, and Ag. Admixture of Fe and Cu is typical of sphalerite, and Se and Ni are characteristic of pyrrhotite. Ti, V, Mn, Sb, As, Ba, and U are concentrated in magnetite. The banded ores of the Mauk deposit are suggested as having been transformed in several stages: diagenesis, anadiagenesis, epidiagenesis ( t < 300°C), and amphibolite facies metamorphism ( t > 500°C).

  15. Pyasino-Vologochan intrusion: Geological structure and platinum-copper-nickel ores (Norilsk Region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sluzhenikin, S. F.; Krivolutskaya, N. A.

    2015-09-01

    Rocks enriched in olivine, such as olivine and picritic gabbro-dolerite and troctolite are abundant in the Pyasino-Vologochan intrusion. In contrast to Norilsk type ore-bearing massifs, ultramafic rocks of the intrusion are dominated by troctolite. Picritic gabbro-dolerite and troctolite are located between olivine and olivine-bearing gabbro-dolerite. These rocks are related by gradual transitions. The rocks are enriched in olivine, but depleted in magnesium relative to the Norilsk type ore-bearing massifs. The intrusion is also distinguished by low chromium content in the rocks. Most disseminated Pt-Cu-Ni ores are confined to troctolite and picritic gabbro-dolerite, and to a lesser extent, to contact and olivine gabbro-dolerite. The ore is mainly observed as low-sulfur assemblages of sulfides with troilite, Fe-rich hexagonal pyrrhotite, Fe-rich chalcopyrite, talnakhite, Fe-rich pentlandite, and cubanite. The total content of platinum group elements (PGE) in the ore (ppm) is as follows: from 0.45-3.47 to 7.8; gold, from 0.05-0.24 to 0.49; and silver, from 0.53-4.50 to 8.30. Disseminated ores of the Pyasino-Vologochan intrusion contain the following Pt and Pd minerals: sobolevskite, Te-sobolevskite, Te-insizwaite, maslovite, paolovite, zvyagintsevite, atokite, niggliite, mertieite II, guanglinite, and Pd2(As,Sb), Pd2(Sn,As), Pd3Sb, (Pd,Ni)2As minerals. The similarities and differences between the Pyasino-Vologochan intrusion and Norilsk type ore-bearing massifs are discussed in this paper.

  16. Uranium (-nickel-cobalt-molybdenum) mineralization along the Singhbhum copper belt, India, and the problem of ore genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, S. C.

    1982-08-01

    Uranium mineralization is present at many places along the 200 km long Singhbhum copper belt, but the mineralization is relatively concentrated at the central part of it. The belt is characterized by many shear zone features, such as mylonites, phyllonites, and L-S type of structures and of course, copious metasomatism. Country rocks are basic schists, metapelites, quartzose rocks and albite schist/gneiss (‘Soda Granite’). Orebodies are sheet-like, conformable with the pervasive planar structures in the host rocks. No pronounced ‘wall rock alteration’ accompanied the mineralization. Grade of the ore is low (<0.1% U3O8). The principal uraniferous mineral uraninite occurs as dissemination. Other uranium-bearing minerals include pitchblende, allanite, xenotime, davidite, clarkeite, autunite (-metaautunite), torbernite, schoepite (-metaschoepite) and uranophane. Uranium is also present in a number of refractory phases either as inclusion of uraninite or in the crystal structure. Additionally, nickel, cobalt and molybdenum are present at Jaduguda-Bhatin in the form of millerite, gersdorffite, melonite, nickel-bearing pyrite, molybdenite etc. Dominance of uraninite over pitchblende and the larger cell-edge of uraninite, development of hematite-bearing quartz and Na-oligoclase at places in the ore zone, association of uranium mineralization with Ni-Co-Mo(-S-As) mineralization at Jaduguda-Bhatin and continuation of the orebodies to considerable depths, suggest that the uranium mineralization along the Singhbhum belt belongs to moderate to high temperature ‘vein type’. The age obtained by Pb207/Pb206 ratio and the concordia method suggest that the uranium mineralization in Singhbhum took place 1500 1600 Ma ago and this age is not far different from the age of formation of uranium-vein deposits in many other Precambrian shields of the world. The following two mechanisms of the formation of the deposits are discussed: 1) uranium precipitated in the Dhanjori basal

  17. Metal concentrations and mycorrhizal status of plants colonizing copper mine tailings: potential for revegetation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baodong; Tang, Xiangyu; Zhu, Yongguan; Christie, Peter

    2005-05-01

    A field survey of metal concentrations and mycorrhizal status of plants growing on copper mine tailings was conducted in Anhui Province, China. Available phosphorus and organic matter in the tailings were very low. High concentrations of Pb, Zn, As and Cd as well as Cu were observed on some sites. The dominant plants growing on mine tailings belonged to the families Gramineae and Compositae, and the most widely distributed plant species were Imperata cylindrica, Cynodon dactylon and Paspalum distichum. Coreopsis drummondii also grew well on the arid sites but not on wet sites. Very low or zero arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal colonization was observed in most of the plants, but extensive mycorrhizal colonization was recorded in the roots of C. drummondii and C. dactylon. Metal concentrations in plant tissues indicated that I. cylindrica and P. distichum utilized avoidance mechanisms to survive at high metal concentrations. The investigation suggests that remediation and revegetation of heavy metal contaminated sites might be facilitated by selection of tolerant plant species. Isolation of tolerant AM fungi may also be warranted. PMID:16089342

  18. Temporal Evolution of Volcanic and Plutonic Magmas Related to Porphyry Copper Ores Based on Zircon Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilles, J. H.; Lee, R. G.; Wooden, J. L.; Koleszar, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Porphyry Cu (Mo-Au) and epithermal Au-Ag ores are globally associated with shallow hydrous, strongly oxidized, and sulfur-rich arc intrusions. In many localities, long-lived magmatism includes evolution from early andesitic volcanic (v) and plutonic (p) rocks to later dacitic or rhyolitic compositions dominated by plutons. We compare zircon compositions from three igneous suites with different time spans: Yerington, USA (1 m.y., p>v), El Salvador, Chile (4 m.y., p>v), and Yanacocha, Peru (6 m.y., v>p). At Yerington granite dikes and ores formed in one event, at ES in 2 to 3 events spanning 3 m.y., and at Yanacocha in 6 events spanning 5 m.y. At both ES and Yanacocha, high-Al amphiboles likely crystallized at high temperature in the mid-crust and attest to deep magmas that periodically recharged the shallow chambers. At Yanacocha, these amphiboles contain anhydrite inclusions that require magmas were sulfur-rich and strongly oxidized (~NNO+2). The Ti-in-zircon geothermometer provides estimates of 920º to 620º C for zircon crystallization, and records both core to rim cooling and locally high temperature rim overgrowths. Ore-related silicic porphyries yield near-solidus crystallization temperatures of 750-650°C consistent with low zircon saturation temperatures. The latter zircons have large positive Ce/Ce* and small negative Eu/Eu*≥0.4 anomalies attesting to strongly oxidized conditions (Ballard et al., 2001), which we propose result from crystallization and SO2 loss to the magmatic-hydrothermal ore fluid (Dilles et al., 2015). The Hf, REE, Y, U, and Th contents of zircons are diverse in the magma suites, and Th/U vs Yb/Gd plots suggest a dominant role of crystal fractionation with lesser roles for both crustal contamination and mixing with high temperature deep-sourced mafic magma. Ce/Sm vs Yb/Gd plots suggest that magma REE contents at <900°C are dominated by early crystallization of hornblende and apatite, and late crystallization (~<780°C) of titanite

  19. Impact of tailings from the Kilembe copper mining district on Lake George, Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owor, Michael; Hartwig, Tina; Muwanga, Andrew; Zachmann, Dieter; Pohl, Walter

    2007-01-01

    The abandoned Kilembe copper mine in western Uganda is a source of contaminants, mobilised from mine tailings into R. Rukoki flowing through a belt of wetlands into Lake George. Water and sediments were investigated on the lakeshore and the lakebed. Metal associations in the sediments reflect the Kilembe sulphide mineralisation. Enrichment of metals was compared between lakebed sediments, both for wet and dry seasons. Total C in a lakebed core shows a general increment, while Cu and Co decrease with depth. The contaminants are predominant (> 65%) in the ≤ 63 μm sediment size range with elevated Cu and Zn (> 28%), while Ni, Pb and Co are low (< 18%) in all the fractions. Sequential extraction of Fe for lakeshore sediment samples reveals low Fe mobility. Relatively higher mobility and biological availability is seen for Co, Cu and S. Heavy metal contents in lake waters are not an immediate risk to the aquatic environment.

  20. Multiple Sulfate Isotopic Evidence on the Formation of Oxide Copper Ore at Spence, Atacama Desert, Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, T.; Bao, H.; Reich, M.; Palacios, C.

    2007-12-01

    In the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, one of the world's richest metallogenic provinces, porphyry copper deposits are characterized by the unique occurrence of atacamite in their oxidized zones. The origin and formation of the oxide zone of these copper deposits is, however, controversial. It was proposed that Cl-rich deep formation water pumping-up events along faults by earthquakes, after onset of the hyperaridity, were required (Cameron et al., 2007). Their model would imply that supplies of saline deep formation water from fractures to the surface should have left behind a homogeneous or fracture-controlled salt profile from surface down to the oxide zone. While no excluding the deep formation water model in other deposit, here we propose that, in our sampling region, the alternative saline source, which is critical for atacamite formation, could be locally evaporated groundwater, Cl-rich salts leached from arid surface by meteoric water, or brines from eastern salar basins at a time when the climate in northern Chile was changing from arid to hyperarid. At this climate transition, arid- requiring minerals such as atacamite in the oxide zone were formed and, more importantly, preserved upon evaporation beneath the surface alluvial deposits. Since salt accumulation at the surface remain active during hyperarid condition, our model would predict that water-soluble salt profile from surface to the oxide zone should have a characteristic pattern: salts with an atmospheric component on the surface gradually transitioning to salts of the oxide ore zone on the bottom and a mixing zone in between. To test these two alternative models, we focus on sulfate salts, one of the common water-soluble salts in arid environments. An added advantage is that sulfate accumulated on desert surface has a secondary atmospheric component that bears a unique triple oxygen isotope signature, easily distinguishable from sulfate formed by the oxidation of sulfide minerals at the oxide

  1. Assessment of Vegetation Establishment on Tailings Dam at an Iron Ore Mining Site of Suburban Beijing, China, 7 Years After Reclamation with Contrasting Site Treatment Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Demin; Zhao, Fangying; Sun, Osbert Jianxin

    2013-09-01

    Strip-mining operations greatly disturb soil, vegetation and landscape elements, causing many ecological and environmental problems. Establishment of vegetation is a critical step in achieving the goal of ecosystem restoration in mining areas. At the Shouyun Iron Ore Mine in suburban Beijing, China, we investigated selective vegetation and soil traits on a tailings dam 7 years after site treatments with three contrasting approaches: (1) soil covering (designated as SC), (2) application of a straw mat, known as "vegetation carpet", which contains prescribed plant seed mix and water retaining agent (designated as VC), on top of sand piles, and (3) combination of soil covering and application of vegetation carpet (designated as SC+VC). We found that after 7 years of reclamation, the SC+VC site had twice the number of plant species and greater biomass than the SC and VC sites, and that the VC site had a comparable plant abundance with the SC+VC site but much less biodiversity and plant coverage. The VC site did not differ with the SC site in the vegetation traits, albeit low soil fertility. It is suggested that application of vegetation carpet can be an alternative to introduction of topsoil for treatment of tailings dam with fine-structured substrate of ore sands. However, combination of topsoil treatment and application of vegetation carpet greatly increases vegetation coverage and plant biodiversity, and is therefore a much better approach for assisting vegetation establishment on the tailings dam of strip-mining operations. While application of vegetation carpet helps to stabilize the loose surface of fine-structured mine wastes and to introduce seed bank, introduction of fertile soil is necessary for supplying nutrients to plant growth in the efforts of ecosystem restoration of mining areas.

  2. Assessment of vegetation establishment on tailings dam at an iron ore mining site of suburban Beijing, China, 7 years after reclamation with contrasting site treatment methods.

    PubMed

    Yan, Demin; Zhao, Fangying; Sun, Osbert Jianxin

    2013-09-01

    Strip-mining operations greatly disturb soil, vegetation and landscape elements, causing many ecological and environmental problems. Establishment of vegetation is a critical step in achieving the goal of ecosystem restoration in mining areas. At the Shouyun Iron Ore Mine in suburban Beijing, China, we investigated selective vegetation and soil traits on a tailings dam 7 years after site treatments with three contrasting approaches: (1) soil covering (designated as SC), (2) application of a straw mat, known as "vegetation carpet", which contains prescribed plant seed mix and water retaining agent (designated as VC), on top of sand piles, and (3) combination of soil covering and application of vegetation carpet (designated as SC+VC). We found that after 7 years of reclamation, the SC+VC site had twice the number of plant species and greater biomass than the SC and VC sites, and that the VC site had a comparable plant abundance with the SC+VC site but much less biodiversity and plant coverage. The VC site did not differ with the SC site in the vegetation traits, albeit low soil fertility. It is suggested that application of vegetation carpet can be an alternative to introduction of topsoil for treatment of tailings dam with fine-structured substrate of ore sands. However, combination of topsoil treatment and application of vegetation carpet greatly increases vegetation coverage and plant biodiversity, and is therefore a much better approach for assisting vegetation establishment on the tailings dam of strip-mining operations. While application of vegetation carpet helps to stabilize the loose surface of fine-structured mine wastes and to introduce seed bank, introduction of fertile soil is necessary for supplying nutrients to plant growth in the efforts of ecosystem restoration of mining areas. PMID:23811774

  3. Copper recovery from ore by liquid-liquid extraction using aqueous two-phase system.

    PubMed

    de Lemos, Leandro Rodrigues; Santos, Igor José Boggione; Rodrigues, Guilherme Dias; da Silva, Luis Henrique Mendes; da Silva, Maria C Hespanhol

    2012-10-30

    We investigated the extraction behavior of Cu(II) in the aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) formed by (L35+MgSO(4)+H(2)O) or (L35+(NH(4))(2)SO(4)+H(2)O) in the presence of the extracting agent 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN). At pH=3 and a PAN concentration of 0.285 mmol kg(-1), both ATPS lead to the effective separation of Cu(II) from other metallic ions (Zn(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Fe(III)). High separation factors range between 1000 and 10,000 were obtained for the extraction of Cu(II) and concomitant metallic ions. This ATPS was used for the extraction of Cu(II) from a leached ore concentrate with a extraction percentage of 90.4 ± 1.1%; other metals were mainly located in the bottom phase. PMID:22959476

  4. Estimation of temporal changes in oxidation rates of sulphides in copper mine tailings at Laver, Northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Alakangas, Lena; Ohlander, Björn; Lundberg, Angela

    2010-02-15

    Tailings containing pyrrhotite were deposited in an impoundment at a copper mine at Laver, Northern Sweden, which operated between 1936 and 1946. Since then the oxidation of sulphides has acidified recipient water courses and contaminated them with metals. Measurements from surface water sampled in 1993, 2001 and 2004-05 from a brook into which the tailing impoundment drains indicate that the amounts of sulphide-associated elements such as Cu, S and Zn released into the brook have decreased over time, while pH has increased. The mass transport of S in the brook during 1993 and 2001 corresponded well with the amount of S estimated to be released from the tailings by oxidation. Secondary precipitates such as covellite and gypsum, which can trap sulphur, were shown in earlier studies to be present in only low amounts. The annual release of elements from the tailings was estimated from the volume of tailings assumed to oxidise each year, which depends on movement of the oxidation front with time. The results indicate that the oxidation rate in the tailings has decreased over time, which may be due to the increased distance over which oxygen needs to diffuse to reach unoxidised sulphide grains, or their cores, in the tailings. PMID:19939438

  5. [Distribution characteristics of soil nematodes in reclaimed land of copper-mine-tailings in different plant associations].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yong-heng; Li, Ke-zhong; Zhang, Heng; Han, Fei; Zhou, Ju-hua; Gao, Ting-ting

    2015-02-01

    A survey was carried out to investigate soil nematode communities in the plant associations of gramineae (Arthraxon lanceolatus, AL; Imperata cylindrica, IC) and leguminosae (Glycine soja, GS) in reclaimed land of copper-mine-tailings and in the plant associations of gramineae (Digitaria chrysoblephara, DC-CK) of peripheral control in Fenghuang Mountain, Tongling City. A total of 1277 nematodes were extracted and sorted into 51 genera. The average individual density of the nematodes was 590 individuals · 100 g(-1) dry soil. In order to analyze the distribution character- istics of soil nematode communities in reclaimed land of copper-mine-tailings, Shannon community diversity index and soil food web structure indices were applied in the research. The results showed that the total number of nematode genus and the Shannon community diversity index of soil nematode in the three plant associations of AL, IC and GS were less than that in the plant associations of DC-CK. Compared with the ecological indices of soil nematode communities among the different plant associations in reclaimed land of copper-mine-tailings and peripheral natural habitat, we found that the structure of soil food web in the plant associations of GS was more mature, with bacterial decomposition being dominant in the soil organic matter decomposition, and that the soil ecosystem in the plant associations of GS was not stable with low interference. This indicated that the soil food web in the plant associations of leguminosae had a greater development potential to improve the ecological stability of the reclaimed land of copper-mine-tailings. On the other hand, the structure of soil food web in the plant associations of AL and IC were relatively stable in a structured state with fungal decomposition being dominant in the decomposition of soil organic matter. This indicated that the soil food web in the plant associations of gramineae was at a poor development level. PMID:26094476

  6. Leaching of metals from ores. (Latest citations from the US Patent bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the extraction of metals from ores by leaching. Topics include leaching of metals from ore heaps, mine tailings, smelter wastes, and sea nodules. Metals covered include gold, uranium, copper, nickel, silver, manganese, and cobalt. Bacterio-electric, biological-acid, and hydrogen peroxide leaching are included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Material flows generated by pyromet copper smelting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, T.G.

    2005-01-01

    Copper production through smelting generates large volumes of material flows. As copper contained in ore becomes copper contained in concentrate to be fed into the smelting process, it leaves behind an altered landscape, sometimes mine waste, and always mill tailings. Copper concentrate, fluxing materials, fuels, oxygen, recyclables, scrap and water are inputs to the process. Dust (recycled), gases - containing carbon dioxide (CO2) (dissipated) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) (mostly collected, transformed and sold) and slag (discarded or sold) - are among the significant process outputs. This article reports estimates of the flows of these input/output materials for a particular set of smelters studied in some countries.

  8. Phytoremediation potential of transplanted bare-root seedlings of trees for lead/zinc and copper mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiang; Chen, Yi-Tai; Wang, Shu-Feng; Pan, Hong-Wei; Sun, Hai-Jing; Liu, Cai-Xia; Liu, Jian-Feng; Jiang, Ze-Ping

    2016-11-01

    Selecting plant species that can overcome unfavorable conditions and increase the recovery of degraded mined lands remains a challenge. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using transplanted tree seedlings for the phytoremediation of lead/zinc and copper mine tailings. One-year-old bare-root of woody species (Rhus chinensis Mill, Quercus acutissima Carruth, Liquidambar formosana Hance, Vitex trifolia Linn. var. simplicifolia Cham, Lespedeza cuneata and Amorpha fruticosa Linn) were transplanted into pots with mine tailings and tested as potential metal-tolerant plants. Seedling survival, plant growth, root trait, nutrient uptake, and metal accumulation and translocation were assessed. The six species grew in both tailings and showed different tolerance level. A. fruticosa was highly tolerant of Zn, Pb and Cu, and grew normally in both tailings. Metal concentrations were higher in the roots than in the shoots of the six species. All of the species had low bioconcentration and translocation factor values. However, R. chinensis and L. formosana had significantly higher translocation factor values for Pb (0.88) and Zn (1.78) than the other species. The nitrogen-fixing species, A. fruticosa, had the highest tolerance and biomass production, implying that it has great potential in the phytoremediation of tailing areas in southern China. PMID:27216539

  9. Microbial communities in a porphyry copper tailings impoundment and their impact on the geochemical dynamics of the mine waste.

    PubMed

    Diaby, Nouhou; Dold, Bernhard; Pfeifer, Hans-Rudolf; Holliger, Christof; Johnson, D Barrie; Hallberg, Kevin B

    2007-02-01

    The distribution and diversity of acidophilic bacteria of a tailings impoundment at the La Andina copper mine, Chile, was examined. The tailings have low sulfide (1.7% pyrite equivalent) and carbonate (1.4% calcite equivalent) contents and are stratified into three distinct zones: a surface (0-70-80 cm) 'oxidation zone' characterized by low-pH (2.5-4), a 'neutralization zone' (70-80 to 300-400 cm) and an unaltered 'primary zone' below 400 cm. A combined cultivation-dependent and biomolecular approach (terminal restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphism and 16S rRNA clone library analysis) was used to characterize the indigenous prokaryotic communities in the mine tailings. Total cell counts showed that the microbial biomass was greatest in the top 125 cm of the tailings. The largest numbers of bacteria (10(9) g(-1) dry weight of tailings) were found at the oxidation front (the junction between the oxidation and neutralization zones), where sulfide minerals and oxygen were both present. The dominant iron-/sulfur-oxidizing bacteria identified at the oxidation front included bacteria of the genus Leptospirillum (detected by molecular methods), and Gram-positive iron-oxidizing acidophiles related to Sulfobacillus (identified both by molecular and cultivation methods). Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was also detected, albeit in relatively small numbers. Heterotrophic acidophiles related to Acidobacterium capsulatum were found by molecular methods, while another Acidobacterium-like bacterium and an Acidiphilium sp. were isolated from oxidation zone samples. A conceptual model was developed, based on microbiological and geochemical data derived from the tailings, to account for the biogeochemical evolution of the Piuquenes tailings impoundment. PMID:17222129

  10. Integrated biomarker assessment of the effects of tailing discharges from an iron ore mine using blue mussels (Mytilus spp.).

    PubMed

    Brooks, Steven J; Harman, Christopher; Hultman, Maria T; Berge, John Arthur

    2015-08-15

    The blue mussel (Mytilus spp.) has been used to assess the potential biological effects of the discharge effluent from the Sydvaranger mine, which releases its tailings into Bøk fjord at Kirkenes in the north of Norway. Metal bioaccumulation and a suite of biomarkers were measured in mussels positioned for 6 weeks at varying distances from the discharge outlet. The biomarkers used included: stress on stress (SS); condition index (CI); cellular energy allocation (CEA); micronuclei formation (MN); lysosomal membrane stability (LMS), basophilic cell volume (VvBAS); and neutral lipid (NL) accumulation. The individual biomarkers were integrated using the integrated biological response (IBR/n) index. The accumulation of Fe was significantly higher in mussels located closer to the discharge outlet, indicating that these mussels had been exposed to the suspended mine effluent. The IBR/n results were in good agreement with the location of the mussels in relation to the distance from the discharge outlet and expected exposure to the mine effluent. Several biomarkers showed responses resulting in higher IBR/n values of analysed mussels within a 3 km distance from the tailing discharge. PMID:25889549

  11. Statistical source identification of major and trace elements in groundwater downward the tailings dam of Miduk Copper Complex, Kerman, Iran.

    PubMed

    Kargar, Maryam; Khorasani, Neamatolah; Karami, Mahmoud; Rafiee, Gholamreza; Naseh, Reza

    2012-10-01

    Identifying the possible sources of potential harmful metals in groundwater systems plays a crucial role in evaluating the potential risks to residents and local plant cover. An attempt was made to define the origin of Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, and Pb in groundwater using multivariate statistic approaches [principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis], and tailings sequential extraction by the method of Tessier et al. The concentrations of studied elements were measured in 42 samples collected from 15 stations surrounding and downward the tailings dam of Miduk Copper Complex, central province of Kerman, Iran. According to the PCA results, confirmed by cluster dendrogram and metal content measurement of tailings sequential extracts, two components accounting for nearly 73% of the total variance, controlled the heavy metal variability and classified the possible source of groundwater contamination into two categories: (1) upper seepage which controls the variability of Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Pb and (2) toe seepage of tailings dump affecting on Mo and Al concentration in downstream groundwater. PMID:22048922

  12. Temporal variability of radon in a remediated tailing of uranium ore processing--the case of Urgeiriça (central Portugal).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, S M; Lopes, F; Correia, A D; Barbosa, S; Pereira, A C; Neves, L F

    2015-04-01

    Radon monitoring at different levels of the cover of the Urgeiriça tailings shows that the sealing is effective and performing as desired in terms of containing the strongly radioactive waste resulting from uranium ore processing. However, the analysis of the time series of radon concentration shows a very complex temporal structure, particularly at depth, including very large and fast variations from a few tens of kBq m(-3) to more than a million kBq m(-3) in less than one day. The diurnal variability is strongly asymmetric, peaking at 18 h/19 h and decreasing very fast around 21 h/22 h. The analysis is performed for summer and for a period with no rain in order to avoid the potential influence of precipitation and related environmental conditions on the radon variability. Analysis of ancillary measurements of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and wind direction, as well as atmospheric pressure reanalysis data shows that the daily averaged radon concentration in the taillings material is anti-correlated with the atmospheric pressure and that the diurnal amplitude is associated with the magnitude of atmospheric pressure daily oscillations. PMID:25618233

  13. ELEMENTAL MERCURY IN COPPER, SILVER, AND GOLD ORES: AN UNEXPECTED CONTRIBUTION TO LAKE SUPERIOR SEDIMENTS WITH GLOBAL IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury and copper inventories are low in central Lake Superior and increase markedly towards the Keweenaw Peninsula...where copper, mercury, and silver inventories are elevated and highly correlated. High copper, silver, and mercury inventories can be traced back to shoreline st...

  14. Occurrence of copper, gold, silver,uranium, tungsten, tin ore deposits in the Late Proterozoic aulacogen mobile melt of southeast China

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, X.H.

    1985-01-01

    In the early period of the late Proterozoic Era (1100 m.y. +/-) an aulacogen mobile belt was formed in the southeast of China. It extends about 1000 km crossing the Yantze Platform and Jiangnan Foldbelt in NNE-NE direction and adjoins the south China geosyncline basement. This belt shows some features of geology and mineralization similar to the Adelaide geosyncline and the Zambia-Zaire Copper-uranium belt. Within the belt, there are about 9000 to 12,000 m polystratotype strata and continuous sediments of the Late Proterozoic Erathem, including alkaline and meta-alkaline volcanic products of 4 epochs of mainly marine facies. A great number of ore-forming elements, such as Cu, U, Pb, Zn, Au, Ag, Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, P, and W, Sn, TR etc., were deposited and enriched in the whole volcano-sedimentary sequency at various times and in various places. A few of them have become syngenetic deposits, but most of them have been transformed into large-scale ore deposits or mineralization fields or areas of copper and gold, lead-zinc and silver, uranium, tungsten, tin, and other metals.

  15. Inhibition of acid mine drainage and immobilization of heavy metals from copper flotation tailings using a marble cutting waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozsin, Gulsen

    2016-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) with high concentrations of sulfates and metals is generated by the oxidation of sulfide bearing wastes. CaCO3-rich marble cutting waste is a residual material produced by the cutting and polishing of marble stone. In this study, the feasibility of using the marble cutting waste as an acid-neutralizing agent to inhibit AMD and immobilize heavy metals from copper flotation tailings (sulfide- bearing wastes) was investigated. Continuous-stirring shake-flask tests were conducted for 40 d, and the pH value, sulfate content, and dissolved metal content of the leachate were analyzed every 10 d to determine the effectiveness of the marble cutting waste as an acid neutralizer. For comparison, CaCO3 was also used as a neutralizing agent. The average pH value of the leachate was 2.1 at the beginning of the experiment ( t = 0). In the experiment employing the marble cutting waste, the pH value of the leachate changed from 6.5 to 7.8, and the sulfate and iron concentrations decreased from 4558 to 838 mg/L and from 536 to 0.01 mg/L, respectively, after 40 d. The marble cutting waste also removed more than 80wt% of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) from AMD generated by copper flotation tailings.

  16. Environmental impacts of iron ore tailings—The case of Tolo Harbour, Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, M. H.

    1981-03-01

    Disposal of iron ore tailings along the shore of Tolo Harbour, Hong Kong has altered the adjacent environment. Due to the ever-expanding population, the vast development of various industries, and the lack of sanitary control, the existing pollution problem of Tolo Harbour is serious. The iron ore tailings consist of a moderate amount of various heavy metals, e.g., copper, iron, manganese, lead, zinc, and a lower level of macronutrients. A few living organisms have been found colonizing this manmade habitat. Higher metal contents were also found in the tissue of Paphia sp. (clam); Scopimera intermedia (crab); Chaetomorpha brychagona (green alga); Enteromorpha crinita (green alga); and Neyraudia reynaudiana (grass). The area can be reclaimed by surface amelioration using inert materials, soils, or organic substrates, and by direct seeding, using nontolerant and tolerant plant materials. Reclamation of the tailings would improve the amenity of the adjacent environment and also mitigate pollution escaping to the sea.

  17. Determination of uranium, iron, copper, and nickel from ore samples by MEKC using N,N'-ethylene bis(salicylaldimine) as complexing reagent.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Muhammed Aslam; Khuhawar, Muhammad Yar; Arain, Rafee

    2008-02-01

    An analytical procedure has been developed for the separation of dioxouranium(VI), iron(III), copper(II), nickel(II), cobalt(II), cobalt(III), palladium(II), and thorium(IV) by MEKC using N,N'-ethylene bis(salicylaldimine) (H(2)SA(2)en) as a complexing reagent with total runtime <4.5 min. SDS was used as micellar medium at pH 8 with sodium tetraborate buffer (0.1 M). An uncoated fused-silica capillary with an effective length of 50 cm x 75 microm id was used with an applied voltage of 30 kV with photodiode array detection at 231 nm. Linear calibrations were obtained within 0.111-1000 microg/mL of each element with LODs within 37-325 ng/mL. The developed method was tested for analysis of uranium ore samples indicating its presence within 103-1789 microg/g with RSD within 0.79-1.87%. Likewise copper, nickel, and iron in their combined matrix were also simultaneously determined with RSD 0.4-1.6% (n = 6). PMID:18186535

  18. Germination and early growth of Brassica juncea in copper mine tailings amended with technosol and compost.

    PubMed

    Novo, Luís A B; González, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Mine tailings represent a serious threat to the environment and human health; thus their restoration has become a major concern. In this study, the interactions between Brassica juncea and different mine soil treatments were evaluated in order to understand their effect on germination and early growth. Three soil treatments containing 25% and 50% of technosol and 30% of compost were prepared. Germination and early growth were assessed in soil and pore water extracts from the treatments. Unlike the untreated mine soil, the three treatments allowed germination and growth, achieving levels comparable to those of seedlings from the same species developed in normal conditions. The seedlings grown in 50% of technosol and 30% of compost exhibited greater germination percentages, higher growth, and more efficient mechanisms against oxidative stress, ascribed to the organic matter and nutrients content of these treatments. Considering the unequivocal ability of B. juncea for phytoremediation, the results suggest that technosol and compost may be an auspicious solution to allow the germination and early growth of this species in mine tailings. PMID:25386602

  19. Germination and Early Growth of Brassica juncea in Copper Mine Tailings Amended with Technosol and Compost

    PubMed Central

    González, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Mine tailings represent a serious threat to the environment and human health; thus their restoration has become a major concern. In this study, the interactions between Brassica juncea and different mine soil treatments were evaluated in order to understand their effect on germination and early growth. Three soil treatments containing 25% and 50% of technosol and 30% of compost were prepared. Germination and early growth were assessed in soil and pore water extracts from the treatments. Unlike the untreated mine soil, the three treatments allowed germination and growth, achieving levels comparable to those of seedlings from the same species developed in normal conditions. The seedlings grown in 50% of technosol and 30% of compost exhibited greater germination percentages, higher growth, and more efficient mechanisms against oxidative stress, ascribed to the organic matter and nutrients content of these treatments. Considering the unequivocal ability of B. juncea for phytoremediation, the results suggest that technosol and compost may be an auspicious solution to allow the germination and early growth of this species in mine tailings. PMID:25386602

  20. Study of Munella Ores. (puka Region, Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liçaj, Engjell; Mandili, Jorgo; Tabaku, Boran; Thomo, Niko

    2010-01-01

    The study of Munella ores is based on four analysis (A, B, Cand cores). They represent different types of minerals in the Munella area. Cores were taken by the geologist of Puka Geological Enterprise. A Core: It represents an ore with pyrite and chalcopyrite where copper and sulfur contents are 0.77 and 8.2% respectively. B Core: This core represents an ore with spharelites and pyrite where zinc content is 1.5% and 2.9% sulfur one. C Core: It is a chalcopyrite ore, massive in nature, where copper content is 2.01% and 36% sulfur one. D Core: It also represents copper- zinc—sulfur ore where their content is 0.66, 1.00 and 4.28% respectively. Each core is studied individually by selective schema to have copper, zinc and pyrite concentrates. Copper and pyrite concentrates will be the first material for pyro- metallurgical industry.

  1. Selective copper diffusion into quartz-hosted vapor inclusions: Evidence from other host minerals, driving forces, and consequences for Cu-Au ore formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jung Hun; Heinrich, Christoph A.

    2013-07-01

    larger ion analyzed in vapor inclusions probably represent true gold concentrations in magmatic-hydrothermal vapor. These findings imply that brine-vapor separation in porphyry deposits does not cause selective Cu transfer to the vapor, but is more likely to destabilize Cu complexes and promote copper ore deposition during decompression and unmixing of the two fluid phases. By contrast, Au may be selectively transferred into the vapor phase, allowing its transport through the deeper porphyry copper deposits to form epithermal gold deposits closer to the earth's surface.

  2. Long-term passive restoration following fluvial deposition of sulphidic copper tailings: nature filters out the solutions.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Nina; Böcker, Reinhard; Nikolic, Miroslav

    2016-07-01

    Despite the growing popularity of ecological restoration approach, data on primary succession on toxic post-mining substrates, under site environmental conditions which considerably differ from the surrounding environment, are still scarce. Here, we studied the spontaneous vegetation development on an unusual locality created by long-term and large-scale fluvial deposition of sulphidic tailings from a copper mine in a pronouncedly xerothermic, calcareous surrounding. We performed multivariate analyses of soil samples (20 physical and chemical parameters) and vegetation samples (floristic and structural parameters in three types of occurring forests), collected along the pollution gradients throughout the affected floodplain. The nature can cope with two types of imposed constraints: (a) excessive Cu concentrations and (b) very low pH, combined with nutrient deficiency. The former will still allow convergence to the original vegetation, while the latter will result in novel, depauperate assemblages of species typical for cooler and moister climate. Our results for the first time demonstrate that with the increasing severity of environmental filtering, the relative importance of the surrounding vegetation for primary succession strongly decreases. PMID:26300359

  3. COPPER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a review of current knowledge of the distribution of copper in the environment and living things. Metabolism and the effects of copper in the biosphere are also considered. Copper compounds are common and widely distributed in nature. They are also extensively mined...

  4. Zircon U-Pb geochronology, geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes of granitoids in the Yulekenhalasu copper ore district, northern Junggar, China: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fuquan; Chai, Fengmei; Zhang, Zhixin; Geng, Xinxia; Li, Qiang

    2014-03-01

    The Yulekenhalasu porphyry copper deposit is located in the Kalaxiange'er metallogenic belt in northern Junggar, China. We present the results from zircon U-Pb geochronology, and geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope analyses of the granitoids associated with the ore deposits with a view to constrain their petrogenesis and tectonic setting. The granitoids consist of quartz diorite, diorite porphyry, porphyritic monzonite, and quartz porphyry, emplaced at 382, 379, 375-374, and 348 Ma, respectively, which span Late Devonian to early Carboniferous ages. The ore-bearing intrusion is mainly diorite porphyry, with subordinate porphyritic monzonite. The Late Devonian intrusions are characterized by SiO2 contents of 54.5-64.79 wt.%, Na2O contents of 3.82-8.24 wt.%, enrichment in Na, light rare-earth elements (LREEs), and large ion lithophile elements. They also display relative depletion in Y, Ba, P, Nb, Ta, and Ti, and weak negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.6-0.87). The early Carboniferous quartz porphyry is characterized by high SiO2 content (72.26-73.35 wt.%), enrichment in LREEs, K, and Sr, and relative depletion in Y (10.82-12.52 ppm) and Yb (1.06-1.15 ppm). The Late Devonian and early Carboniferous granitoids are characterized by positive ɛNd(t) values (5.2-10.1, one sample at - 1.9), positive ɛHf(t) values (7.46-18.45), low (87Sr/86Sr)i values (0.70363-0.70476), and young crustal residence ages. These data indicate that the sources of the granitoids were mainly mantle-derived juvenile rocks. Geochemical and Nd-Sr-Hf isotopic data demonstrate that the Late Devonian granitoids formed in an oceanic island arc, and they were formed from different sources, among which the mineralized diorite porphyry might have originated from a mixed slab-derived and mantle wedge melt source. The early Carboniferous quartz porphyry was likely emplaced in a mature island arc environment, and was probably derived from juvenile crust.

  5. 44. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING OF THE MINE ORE BIN AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING OF THE MINE ORE BIN AND LOADING TERMINAL, CROSS SECTION AND SIDE ELEVATION - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  6. 43. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING OF THE MINE ORE BIN AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING OF THE MINE ORE BIN AND LOADING TERMINAL, CROSS SECTION AND SIDE ELEVATION - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  7. Geothermal energy for the increased recovery of copper by flotation enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The possible use of geothermal energy (a) to speed the recovery of copper from ore flotation and/or leaching of flotation tailings and (b) to utilize geothermal brines to replace valuable fresh water in copper flotation operations was evaluated. Geothermal energy could be used to enhance copper and molybdenum recovery in mineral flotation by increasing the kinetics of the flotation process. In another approach, geothermal energy could be used to heat the leaching solution which might permit greater copper recovery using the same residence time in a tailings leach facility. Since there is no restriction on the temperature of the leaching fluid, revenues generated from the additional copper recovered would be greater for tailings leach operations than for other types of leach operations (for example, dump leaching operation) for which temperature restrictions exist. The estimated increase in total revenues resulting from two percent increase copper recovery in a 50,000 tons ore/day plant was estimated to be over $2,000,000 annually. It would require an estimated geothermal investment of about $2,130,000 for a geothermal well and pumping system. Thus, the capital investment would be paid out in about one year. Furthermore, considerable savings of fresh waters and process equipment are possible if the geothermal waters can be used directly in the mine-mill operations, which is believed to be practical.

  8. Lead-isotopic, sulphur-isotopic, and trace-element studies of galena from the Silesian-Cracow Zn-Pb ores, polymetallic veins from the Gory Swietokrzyskie MTS, and the Myszkow porphyry copper deposit, Poland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Vaughn, R.B.; Gent, C.A.; Hopkins, R.T.

    1996-01-01

    Lead-isotopic data on galena samples collected from a paragenetically constrained suite of samples from the Silesian-Cracow ore district show no regional or paragenetically controlled lead-isotopic trends within the analytical reproducibility of the measurements. Furthermore, the new lead-isotopic data agree with previously reported lead-isotopic results (R. E. Zartman et al., 1979). Sulfur-isotopic analyses of ores from the Silesian-Cracow district as well as from vein ore from the Gory Swietokrzyskie Mts. and the Myszkow porphyry copper deposit, when coupled with trace-element data from the galena samples, clearly discriminate different hydrothermal ore-forming events. Lead-isotopic data from the Permian and Miocene evaporite deposits in Poland indicate that neither of these evaporite deposits were a source of metals for the Silesian-Cracow district ores. Furthermore, lead-isotopic data from these evaporite deposits and the shale residues from the Miocene halite samples indicate that the crustal evolution of lead in the central and western European platform in southern Poland followed normal crustal lead-isotopic growth, and that the isotopic composition of crustal lead had progressed beyond the lead-isotopic composition of lead in the Silesian-Cracow ores by Permian time. Thus, Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary flysch rocks can be eliminated as viable source rocks for the metals in the Silesian-Cracow Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits. The uniformity of the isotopic composition of lead in the Silesian-Cracow ores, when coupled with the geologic evidence that mineralization must post-date Late Jurassic faulting (E. Gorecka, 1991), constrains the geochemical nature of the source region. The source of the metals is probably a well-mixed, multi-cycle molasse sequence of sedimentary rocks that contains little if any Precambrian metamorphic or granitic clasts (S. E. Church, R. B. Vaughn, 1992). If ore deposition was post Late Jurassic (about 150 m. y.) or later

  9. 37. VIEW NORTH FROM EAST CRUDE ORE BIN TO CRUSHER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. VIEW NORTH FROM EAST CRUDE ORE BIN TO CRUSHER ADDITION AND CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN. VISIBLE ARE DINGS MAGNETIC PULLEY (CENTER), THE 100-TON STEEL CRUSHED UNOXIDIZED ORE BIN, AND UPPER PORTION OF THE STEPHENS-ADAMSON 25 TON/HR BUCKET ELEVATOR. THE UPPER TAILINGS POND LIES BEYOND THE MILL WITH THE UPPER TAILINGS DAM UNDER THE GRAVEL ROAD IN THE UPPER RIGHT CORNER. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  10. Distribution of trace elements in soils surrounding the El Teniente porphyry copper deposit, Chile: the influence of smelter emissions and a tailings deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelm, U.; Helle, S.; Matthies, R.; Morales, A.

    2009-03-01

    In the area surrounding the El Teniente giant porphyry copper deposit, eight soil sites were sampled at three depth levels in the summer 2004. The sites were selected for their theoretical potential of being influenced by past SO2 emissions from the smelter and/or seepage from a now idle tailings impoundment. The soil mineralogy, grain size distribution, total organic matter contents, major element composition, cation exchange capacity, and Cu, Mo, Pb, Zn, As and SO4 2- concentrations were determined for all samples after nitric acid extraction and separate leaches by ammonium acetate (pH 7) and sodium acetate (pH 5). For water rinses, only Cu could be determined with the analytical set-up used. Cu and SO4 2- enrichment in topsoils was found at six sites either downwind from the smelter or within the combined influence of the smelter and the tailings impoundment. Both elements were released partially by ammonium and sodium acetate extractions. Due to the scarce background trace element concentrations of soil and rock outside the immediate mine area, assessment of trace element mobility for Mo, Zn, Pb and As was difficult. Arsenic was found to be concentrated in soil horizons with high smectite and/or organic matter contents. Mo appears to be linked to the presence of windblown tailings sediment in the soils. Mobilization of Mo, Zn, and As for the acetate extractions was minimal or below the detection limits for the AAS technique used. The presence of windblown tailings is considered to be an additional impact on the soils in the foothills of the El Teniente compound, together with the potential of acidity surges and Cu mobilization in topsoils after rainfalls. Two sites located at the western limit of the former SO2 saturated zone with strongly zeolitized soils and underlying rock did not show any Cu or SO4 2- enrichment in the topsoils, and remaining total trace element concentrations were below the known regional background levels.

  11. Copper

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Copper ; CASRN 7440 - 50 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects )

  12. Temporal evolution of bacterial communities associated with the in situ wetland-based remediation of a marine shore porphyry copper tailings deposit.

    PubMed

    Diaby, N; Dold, B; Rohrbach, E; Holliger, C; Rossi, P

    2015-11-15

    Mine tailings are a serious threat to the environment and public health. Remediation of these residues can be carried out effectively by the activation of specific microbial processes. This article presents detailed information about temporal changes in bacterial community composition during the remediation of a section of porphyry copper tailings deposited on the Bahía de Ite shoreline (Peru). An experimental remediation cell was flooded and transformed into a wetland in order to prevent oxidation processes, immobilizing metals. Initially, the top oxidation zone of the tailings deposit displayed a low pH (3.1) and high concentrations of metals, sulfate, and chloride, in a sandy grain size geological matrix. This habitat was dominated by sulfur- and iron-oxidizing bacteria, such as Leptospirillum spp., Acidithiobacillus spp., and Sulfobacillus spp., in a microbial community which structure resembled acid mine drainage environments. After wetland implementation, the cell was water-saturated, the acidity was consumed and metals dropped to a fraction of their initial respective concentrations. Bacterial communities analyzed by massive sequencing showed time-dependent changes both in composition and cell numbers. The final remediation stage was characterized by the highest bacterial diversity and evenness. Aside from classical sulfate reducers from the phyla δ-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, community structure comprised taxa derived from very diverse habitats. The community was also characterized by an elevated proportion of rare phyla and unaffiliated sequences. Numerical ecology analysis confirmed that the temporal population evolution was driven by pH, redox, and K. Results of this study demonstrated the usefulness of a detailed follow-up of the remediation process, not only for the elucidation of the communities gradually switching from autotrophic, oxidizing to heterotrophic and reducing living conditions, but also for the long term management of the remediation

  13. Long-term effects of different type and rates of organic amendments on reclamation of copper mine tailing in Central Chile.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellano, Eduardo; Garreton, Bruna; Ginocchio, Rosanna

    2016-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the long-term effects of a single application of organic amendments on a copper mine tailings. Seven years after seeding of a mix of herbaceous plant and planting of ten native trees, and the application of organic amendment, plant community and soil fertility was measured in replicated plots that received six different treatments of waste water treatment plant biosolids (100 ton/ha, and 200 ton/ha), olive oil waste (100 ton/ha, and 200 ton/ha) and pisco grapes waste (90 ton/ha, and 200 ton/ha). A control treatment that received no organic amendment was also measured after seven years. Field measurements demonstrated that application of biosolids and pisco grapes waste, at both rates significantly improved vegetation coverage in comparison to the control treatment (80 and 100% vs control, 25%). The high rates of pisco waste had the highest vegetation diversity and survival in comparison to the other treatments. The high rate of olive oil waste had a negative effect on vegetation development in comparison to the control treatment. The application of organic amendment improved soil fertility in the long-term. All the treatments had a significant higher nitrogen concentration in comparison to the control treatment. The high rates of biosolids and pisco grape waste had a significantly effect of soil carbon concentration. Soil macro-aggregate in the high rate of pisco grape waste were also higher than the control, showing a positive relation between soil recover and vegetation development. We can conclude assisted phytostabilization of mine tailings is likely a technically effective solution for the valorisation of organic residues.

  14. 19 CFR 10.98 - Copper-bearing fluxing material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Copper-bearing fluxing material. 10.98 Section 10... Material § 10.98 Copper-bearing fluxing material. (a) For the purpose of this section, ores usable as a... copper. (b) (c) There shall be filed in connection with the entry of such copper-bearing ores, either...

  15. 19 CFR 10.98 - Copper-bearing fluxing material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Copper-bearing fluxing material. 10.98 Section 10... Material § 10.98 Copper-bearing fluxing material. (a) For the purpose of this section, ores usable as a... copper. (b) (c) There shall be filed in connection with the entry of such copper-bearing ores, either...

  16. 19 CFR 10.98 - Copper-bearing fluxing material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Copper-bearing fluxing material. 10.98 Section 10... Material § 10.98 Copper-bearing fluxing material. (a) For the purpose of this section, ores usable as a... copper. (b) (c) There shall be filed in connection with the entry of such copper-bearing ores, either...

  17. 19 CFR 10.98 - Copper-bearing fluxing material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Copper-bearing fluxing material. 10.98 Section 10... Material § 10.98 Copper-bearing fluxing material. (a) For the purpose of this section, ores usable as a... copper. (b) (c) There shall be filed in connection with the entry of such copper-bearing ores, either...

  18. 19 CFR 10.98 - Copper-bearing fluxing material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Copper-bearing fluxing material. 10.98 Section 10... Material § 10.98 Copper-bearing fluxing material. (a) For the purpose of this section, ores usable as a... copper. (b) (c) There shall be filed in connection with the entry of such copper-bearing ores, either...

  19. Evolution of ore deposits on terrestrial planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    Ore deposits on terrestrial planets materialized after core formation, mantle evolution, crustal development, interactions of surface rocks with the hydrosphere and atmosphere, and, where life exists on a planet, the involvement of biological activity. Core formation removed most of the siderophilic and chalcophilic elements, leaving mantles depleted in many of the strategic and noble metals relative to their chondritic abundances. Basaltic magma derived from partial melting of the mantle transported to the surface several metals contained in immiscible silicate and sulfide melts. Magmatic ore deposits were formed during cooling, fractional crystallization and density stratification from the basaltic melts. Such ore deposits found in earth's Archean rocks were probably generated during early histories of all terrestrial planets and may be the only types of igneous ores on Mars. Where plate tectonic activity was prevalent on a terrestrial planet, temporal evolution of ore deposits took place. Repetitive episodes of subduction modified the chemical compositions of the crust and upper mantles, leading to porphyry copper and molybdenum ores in calc-alkaline igneous rocks and granite-hosted tin and tungsten deposits. Such plate tectonic-induced mineralization in relatively young igneous rocks on earth may also have produced hydrothermal ore deposits on Venus in addition to the massive sulfide and cumulate chromite ores associated with Venusian mafic igneous rock. Sedimentary ore deposits resulting from mechanical and chemical weathering in reducing atmospheres in Archean earth included placer deposits (e.g., uraninite, gold, pyrite ores). Chromite, ilmenite, and other dense unreactive minerals could also be present on channel floors and in valley networks on Mars, while banded iron formations might underlie the Martian northern plains regions. As oxygen evolved in earth's atmosphere, so too did oxide ores. By analogy, gossans above sulfide ores probably occur on Mars

  20. Metal concentrations in the soils and native plants surrounding the old flotation tailings pond of the copper mining and smelting complex Bor (Serbia).

    PubMed

    Antonijević, M M; Dimitrijević, M D; Milić, S M; Nujkić, M M

    2012-03-01

    In this study concentrations of metals in the native plants and soils surrounding the old flotation tailings pond of the copper mine were determined. It has been established that the soil is heavily contaminated with copper, iron and arsenic, the mean concentrations being 1585.6, 29,462.5 and 171.7 mg kg(-1) respectively. All the plants, except manganese, accumulated metallic elements in concentrations which were either in the range of critical and phytotoxic values (Pb and As) or higher (Zn), and even much higher (Cu and Fe) than these values. Otherwise, the accumulation of Mn, Pb and As was considerably lower than that of Cu, Fe and Zn. In most plants the accumulation of target metals was highest in the root. Several plant species showed high bioaccumulation and translocation factor values, which classify them into species for potential use in phytoextraction. The BCF and TF values determined in Prunus persica were 1.20 and 3.95 for Cu, 1.5 and 6.0 for Zn and 1.96 and 5.44 for Pb. In Saponaria officinalis these values were 2.53 and 1.27 for Zn, and in Juglans regia L. they were 8.76 and 17.75 for Zn. The translocation factor in most plants, for most metals, was higher than one, whereas the highest value was determined in Populus nigra for Zn, amounting to 17.8. Among several tolerant species, the most suitable ones for phytostabilization proved to be Robinia pseudoacacia L. for Zn and Verbascum phlomoides L., Saponaria officinalis and Centaurea jacea L. for Mn, Pb and As. PMID:22314513

  1. Hydrothermal alteration, fluid inclusions and stable isotope systematics of the Alvo 118 iron oxide-copper-gold deposit, Carajás Mineral Province (Brazil): Implications for ore genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torresi, Ignacio; Xavier, Roberto Perez; Bortholoto, Diego F. A.; Monteiro, Lena V. S.

    2012-03-01

    The Alvo 118 iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposit (170 Mt at 1.0 wt.% Cu, 0.3 g/t Au) lies in the southern sector of the Itacaúnas Shear Belt, Carajás Mineral Province, along a WNW-ESE-striking, 60-km-long shear zone, close to the contact of the ~2.76-Ga metavolcano-sedimentary Itacaiúnas Supergroup and the basement (~3.0 Ga Xingu Complex). The Alvo 118 deposit is hosted by mafic and felsic metavolcanic rocks and crosscutting granitoid and gabbro intrusions that have been subjected to the following hydrothermal alteration sequence towards the ore zones: (1) poorly developed sodic alteration (albite and scapolite); (2) potassic alteration (biotite or K-feldspar) accompanied by magnetite formation and silicification; (3) widespread, pervasive chlorite alteration spatially associated with quartz-carbonate-sulphide infill ore breccia and vein stockworks; and (4) local post-ore quartz-sericite alteration. The ore assemblage is dominated by chalcopyrite (~60%), bornite (~10%), hematite (~20%), magnetite (10%) and subordinate chalcocite, native gold, Au-Ag tellurides, galena, cassiterite, F-rich apatite, xenotime, monazite, britholite-(Y) and a gadolinite-group mineral. Fluid inclusion studies in quartz point to a fluid regime composed of two distinct fluid types that may have probably coexisted within the timeframe of the Cu-Au mineralizing episode: a hot (>200°C) saline (32.8‰ to 40.6 wt.% NaCl eq.) solution, represented by salt-bearing aqueous inclusions, and a lower temperature (<200°C), low to intermediate salinity (<15 wt.% NaCl eq.) aqueous fluid defined by two-phase (LH2O + VH2O) fluid inclusions. This trend is very similar to those defined for other IOCG systems of the Carajás Mineral Province. δ 18OH2O values in equilibrium with calcite (-1.0‰ to 7.5‰ at 277°C to 344°C) overlap the lower range for primary magmatic waters, but the more 18O-depleted values also point to the involvement of externally derived fluids, possibly of meteoric origin

  2. Complex research of molybdenum ore tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volokitin, G.; Skripnikova, N.; Volokitin, O.; Iuriev, I.; Shekhovtsov, V.

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers the processes of plasma chemical synthesis of silicate melts produced from quartz-feldspar raw materials with a view to obtain new construction materials having the advanced functional performance. Presented results illustrate physicochemical research findings (X-ray diffraction analysis, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis) related to quartz-feldspar raw materials and melts produced there from.

  3. Differential effect of metals/metalloids on the growth and element uptake of mesquite plants obtained from plants grown at a copper mine tailing and commercial seeds.

    PubMed

    Haque, N; Peralta-Videa, J R; Duarte-Gardea, M; Gardea-Torresdey, J L

    2009-12-01

    The selection of appropriate seeds is essential for the success of phytoremediation/restoration projects. In this research, the growth and elements uptake by the offspring of mesquite plants (Prosopis sp.) grown in a copper mine tailing (site seeds, SS) and plants derived from vendor seeds (VS) was investigated. Plants were grown in a modified Hoagland solution containing a mixture of Cu, Mo, Zn, As(III) and Cr(VI) at 0, 1, 5 and 10 mg L(-1) each. After one week, plants were harvested and the concentration of elements was determined by using ICP-OES. At 1 mg L(-1), plants originated from SS grew faster and longer than control plants (0 mg L(-1)); whereas plants grown from VS had opposite response. At 5 mg L(-1), 50% of the plants grown from VS did not survive, while plants grown from SS had no toxicity effects on growth. Finally, plants grown from VS did not survive at 10 mg L(-1) treatment, whilst 50% of the plants grown from SS survived. The ICP-OES data demonstrated that at 1 mg L(-1) the concentration of all elements in SS plants was significantly higher compared to control plants and VS plants. While at 5 mg L(-1), the shoots of SS plants had significantly more Cu, Mo, As, and Cr. The results suggest that SS could be a better source of plants intended to be used for phytoremediation of soil impacted with Cu, Mo, Zn, As and Cr. PMID:19631524

  4. Genomic insights into a new acidophilic, copper-resistant Desulfosporosinus isolate from the oxidized tailings area of an abandoned gold mine.

    PubMed

    Mardanov, Andrey V; Panova, Inna A; Beletsky, Alexey V; Avakyan, Marat R; Kadnikov, Vitaly V; Antsiferov, Dmitry V; Banks, David; Frank, Yulia A; Pimenov, Nikolay V; Ravin, Nikolai V; Karnachuk, Olga V

    2016-08-01

    Microbial sulfate reduction in acid mine drainage is still considered to be confined to anoxic conditions, although several reports have shown that sulfate-reducing bacteria occur under microaerophilic or aerobic conditions. We have measured sulfate reduction rates of up to 60 nmol S cm(-3) day(-1) in oxidized layers of gold mine tailings in Kuzbass (SW Siberia). A novel, acidophilic, copper-tolerant Desulfosporosinus sp. I2 was isolated from the same sample and its genome was sequenced. The genomic analysis and physiological data indicate the involvement of transporters and additional mechanisms to tolerate metals, such as sequestration by polyphosphates. Desulfosporinus sp. I2 encodes systems for a metabolically versatile life style. The genome possessed a complete Embden-Meyerhof pathway for glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Complete oxidation of organic substrates could be enabled by the complete TCA cycle. Genomic analysis found all major components of the electron transfer chain necessary for energy generation via oxidative phosphorylation. Autotrophic CO2 fixation could be performed through the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Multiple oxygen detoxification systems were identified in the genome. Taking into account the metabolic activity and genomic analysis, the traits of the novel isolate broaden our understanding of active sulfate reduction and associated metabolism beyond strictly anaerobic niches. PMID:27222219

  5. A critical review of the effects of gold cyanide-bearing tailings solutions on wildlife.

    PubMed

    Donato, D B; Nichols, O; Possingham, H; Moore, M; Ricci, P F; Noller, B N

    2007-10-01

    industry. Cyanide concentrations below 50 mg/L weak-acid-dissociable (WAD) are deemed safe to wildlife but are considered an interim benchmark for discharge into tailings storage facilities (TSFs). Cyanide is a fast acting poison, and its toxicity is related to the types of cyanide complexes that are present. Cyanide in biota binds to iron, copper and sulfur-containing enzymes and proteins required for oxygen transportation to cells. The accurate determination of cyanide concentrations in the field is difficult to achieve due to sampling techniques and analytical error associated with loss and interferences following collection. The main WAD cyanide complexes in gold mine tailings are stable in the TSF environment but can release cyanide ions under varying environmental conditions including ingestion and absorption by wildlife. Therefore distinction between free, WAD and total cyanide forms in tailings water for regulatory purposes is justified. From an environmental perspective, there is a distinction between ore bodies on the basis of their copper content. For example, wildlife deaths are more likely to occur at mines possessing copper-gold ores due to the formation of copper-cyanide complexes which is toxic to birds and bats. The formation of copper-cyanide complex occurs preferentially to gold cyanide complex indicating the relative importance of economic vs. environmental considerations in the tailings water. Management of cyanide to a perceived threshold has inherent risks since cyanide has a steep toxicity response curve; is difficult to accurately measure in the field; and is likely to vary due to variable copper content of ore bodies and ore blending. Consequently, wildlife interaction needs to be limited to further reduce the risks. A gap in knowledge exists to design or manage cyanide-bearing mine waste solutions to render such facilities unattractive to at-risk wildlife species. This gap may be overcome by understanding the wildlife behaviour and habitat usage

  6. View looking northwest toward HIghGrade Ore Bin and Concentrate Bin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking northwest toward HIgh-Grade Ore Bin and Concentrate Bin - Kennecott Copper Corporation, Concentration Mill, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  7. 40 CFR 421.40 - Applicability: Description of the primary copper smelting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... primary copper smelting subcategory. 421.40 Section 421.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Copper Smelting Subcategory § 421.40 Applicability: Description of the primary copper... the primary smelting of copper from ore or ore concentrates. Primary copper smelting includes, but...

  8. 40 CFR 421.40 - Applicability: Description of the primary copper smelting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... primary copper smelting subcategory. 421.40 Section 421.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Copper Smelting Subcategory § 421.40 Applicability: Description of the primary copper... the primary smelting of copper from ore or ore concentrates. Primary copper smelting includes, but...

  9. 40 CFR 421.40 - Applicability: Description of the primary copper smelting subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... primary copper smelting subcategory. 421.40 Section 421.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Copper Smelting Subcategory § 421.40 Applicability: Description of the primary copper... the primary smelting of copper from ore or ore concentrates. Primary copper smelting includes, but...

  10. Structural controls and evolution of gold-, silver-, and REE-bearing copper-cobalt ore deposits, Blackbird district, east-central Idaho: Epigenetic origins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lund, K.; Tysdal, R.G.; Evans, K.V.; Kunk, M.J.; Pillers, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    Textural data at all scales indicate that the host sites for veins and the tectonic evolution of both host rocks and mineral deposits were kinematically linked to Late Cretaceous regional thrust faulting. Heat, fluids, and conduits for generation and circulation of fluids were part of the regional crustal thickening. The faulting also juxtaposed metaevaporite layers in the Mesoproterozoic Yellowjacket Formation over Blackbird district host rocks. We conclude that this facilitated chemical exchange between juxtaposed units resulting in leaching of critical elements (Cl, K, B, Na) from metaevaporites to produce brines, scavenging of metals (Co, Cu, etc) from rocks in the region, and, finally, concentrating metals in the lower-plate ramp structures. Although the ultimate source of the metals remains undetermined, the present Cu-Co ± Au (± Ag ± Ni ± REE) Blackbird ore deposits formed during Late Cretaceous compressional deformation.

  11. Energy and materials flows in the copper industry

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.L.

    1980-12-01

    The copper industry comprises both the primary copper industry, which produces 99.9%-pure copper from copper ore, and the secondary copper industry, which salvages and recycles copper-containing scrap metal to extract pure copper or copper alloys. The United States uses about 2 million tons of copper annually, 60% of it for electrical applications. Demand is expected to increase less than 4% annually for the next 20 years. The primary copper industry is concentrated in the Southwest; Arizona produced 66% of the 1979 total ore output. Primary production uses about 170 x 10/sup 12/ Btu total energy annually (about 100 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton pure copper produced from ore). Mining and milling use about 60% of the total consumption, because low-grade ore (0.6% copper) is now being mined. Most copper is extracted by smelting sulfide ores, with concomitant production of sulfur dioxide. Clean air regulations will require smelters to reduce sulfur emissions, necessitating smelting process modifications that could also save 20 x 10/sup 12/ Btu (10 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton of copper) in smelting energy. Energy use in secondary copper production averages 20 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/ton of copper. If all copper products were recycled, instead of the 30% now salvaged, the energy conservation potential would be about one-half the total energy consumption of the primary copper industry.

  12. A preliminary combined geochemical and rock-magnetic study of tailings of non-magnetic ores from Tlalpujahua-El Oro mining districts, Michoacán and Estado de México States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, J.; Hernández-Bernal, M.; Corona-Chávez, P.

    2013-05-01

    Mining activities in Mexico have been continuously developed since 1550. Since then several thousands of million tons of waste produced as a result of the mining activity have been accumulated and scattered throughout the territory. These wastes can contain minerals with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) such as Cr, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, which show a distribution and mobility in the environment according to the chemical species in which are hosted. The Tlalpujahua - El Oro mining district (TOMD) concentrates an impressive number of mines and historical tailings. Due to their in-slope hydrographic position, the mining activities increase the risk of generating anthropogenic effluent that could contribute with a certain amount of mine-water with high contents of PTEs. Although magnetic methods have been widely applied to pollution studies of regions with high anthropogenic impact, its application to tailings is scarce in spite of the several studies that document the environmental effects as a result of the mining waste. We present the results obtained by combined geochemical and rock-magnetic studies in these tailings. Similarly to the traditional EPTs vs SiO2 diagrams, EPTs vs Fe show good linear (inverse) correlation with most of these health-risk elements. Fe concentrations determined magnetically from room-temperature susceptibility measurements agrees with those obtained by traditionally geochemical methods.

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Sinorhizobium meliloti CCNWSX0020, a Nitrogen-Fixing Symbiont with Copper Tolerance Capability Isolated from Lead-Zinc Mine Tailings

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhefei; Ma, Zhanqiang; Hao, Xiuli

    2012-01-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti CCNWSX0020 was isolated from Medicago lupulina plants growing in lead-zinc mine tailings, which can establish a symbiotic relationship with Medicago species. Also, the genome of this bacterium contains a number of protein-coding sequences related to metal tolerance. We anticipate that the genomic sequence provides valuable information to explore environmental bioremediation. PMID:22328762

  14. Ores and Climate Change - Primary Shareholders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Holly J.; Hannah, Judith L.

    2015-04-01

    Many in the economic geology community concern themselves with details of ore formation at the deposit scale, whether tallying fluid inclusion data to get at changes in ore-forming fluids or defining structures that aid and abet mineralization. These compilations are generally aimed at interpretation of events at the site of ore formation, with the goal being assignment of the deposit to a sanctioned ore deposit model. While providing useful data, this approach is incomplete and does not, by itself, serve present-day requirements for true interdisciplinary science. The ore-forming environment is one of chaos and disequilibrium at nearly all scales (Stein, 2014). Chaos and complexity are documented by variably altered rocks, veins or disseminated mineralization with multi-generational fluid histories, erratic and unusual textures in host rocks, and the bitumen or other hydrocarbon products entwined within many ore deposits. This should give pause to our drive for more data as a means to find "the answer". The answer lies in the kind of data collected and more importantly, in the way we interpret those data. Rather than constructing an ever-increasing catalog of descriptive mutations on sanctioned ore deposit models (e.g., IOGC or Iron-Oxide Copper Gold deposits), the way forward is to link source and transport of metals, sulfur, and organic material with regional and ultimately whole Earth chemical evolution. Important experimental work provides chemical constraints in controlled and behaved environments. To these data, we add imagination and interpretation, always tying back to field observations. In this paper, several key points are made by way of ore deposit examples: (1) many IOCG deposits are outcomes of profound changes in the chemistry of the Earth's surface, in the interplay of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and lithosphere; (2) the redox history of Fe in deep earth may be ultimately expressed in the ore-forming sequence; and (3) the formation of

  15. 3. VIEW OF EMPIRE STATE MINE WITH TAILING PILE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF EMPIRE STATE MINE WITH TAILING PILE IN BOTTOM LEFT AND COLLAPSED ADIT LOCATED BELOW DARK SHADOWS IN FAR RIGHT/LOWER THIRD. COLLAPSED BUILDING AND PARTIAL VIEW OF ORE CHUTE/BIN IS VISIBLE ON HILLSIDE ABOVE TAILINGS. CAMERA POINTED NORTH/NORTHWEST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  16. A Copper-Sulfate-Based Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory for First-Year University Students That Teaches Basic Operations and Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Emilio; Vicente, Miguel Angel

    2002-01-01

    Presents a 10-hour chemistry experiment using copper sulfate that has three steps: (1) purification of an ore containing copper sulfate and insoluble basic copper sulfates; (2) determination of the number of water molecules in hydrated copper sulfate; and (3) recovery of metallic copper from copper sulfate. (Author/YDS)

  17. Correlation between aggregation structure and tailing mineral crystallinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wen-tao; Li, Xin-wei; Wang, Hua-jun; Sun, Chuan-yao; Duan, Xu-qin

    2014-09-01

    Direct reduction is an emerging technology for the utilization of refractory iron ore. With this technology, iron oxides in the ore can be reduced to recoverable elemental iron. The structure of granular aggregates in direct reduction products was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that iron is mainly generated as a shell in the outer edge of the aggregates. The thermal conductivity of the iron shell is higher than that of other minerals. Thus, minerals close to the iron shell cool faster than those in the inner shells and do not crystallize well. These minerals mainly become stage 2 tailings. Hence the XRD intensity of stage 2 tailings is lower than that of stage 1 tailings. When iron is mainly generated in the interior of the aggregates, the crystallinity of stage 2 tailings will be higher than that of stage 1 tailings. This indicates that the crystallinity of tailings can be used as a marker for the aggregate structure.

  18. Electrochemical processes in recovering metals from ores

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, D.L. ); Bautista, R.G. . Dept. of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering)

    1990-04-01

    Chalcopyrite (CuFeS{sub 2}) is one of the most abundant copper-bearing minerals in the U.S. Oxidative leaching and smelting and refining are the most common methods used for recovering copper from chalcopyrite. One of the problems associated with oxidative leaching is the formation of an elemental sulfur product layer around the unreacted chalcopyrite core. The sulfur coating slows the reaction by inhibiting both the diffusion of the oxidant to the unreacted core, and the diffusion of the copper and iron species to the bulk solution. Another problem with leaching is that the iron and copper are oxidized simultaneously. Both appear in the bulk solution in their most oxidized states. The direct electrodissolution of copper sulfide ore slurries could reduce the number of steps involved in the copper recovery process, possibly leading to significant reductions in energy consumption and operating costs. The potential application of electrodissolution processes in hydrometallurgy has been reviewed. This paper reviews investigations of the electrochemical dissolution of chalcopyrite, digenite (Cu{sub 1.8}S), chalcocite (Cu{sub 2}S) and covellite (CuS).

  19. Velocity field measurements in tailings dam failure experiments using a combined PIV-PTV approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tailings dams are built to impound mining waste, also called tailings, which consists of a mixture of fine-sized sediments and water contaminated with some hazardous chemicals used for extracting the ore by leaching. Non-Newtonian flow of sediment-water mixture resulting from a failure of tailings d...

  20. [Determination of gold in copper matte and sintered copper material].

    PubMed

    Ge, Yu-wei; Xiao, Li-mei; Suo, Jin-ling; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Xiao-min; Zhao, Shu-yun

    2011-05-01

    Ore sample, pretreated at 650 degrees C, was decomposed with aqua regia. Gold in the sample solution was then pre-concentrated by adsorbing with polyurethane foam plastic, released with thiourea solution, and determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Based on the characteristic of the copper matte and sinter containing copper, the effects of sample dissolving condition, matrix effect and interference of coexisting elements were investigated. The accuracy, precision and detection limit were discussed. The results of test show that both of the two methods were suitable for determining the contents of gold in copper matte and sintered copper material. PMID:21800614

  1. Osmium isotope constraints on ore metal recycling in subduction zones

    PubMed

    McInnes; McBride; Evans; Lambert; Andrew

    1999-10-15

    Veined peridotite xenoliths from the mantle beneath the giant Ladolam gold deposit on Lihir Island, Papua New Guinea, are 2 to 800 times more enriched in copper, gold, platinum, and palladium than surrounding depleted arc mantle. Gold ores have osmium isotope compositions similar to those of the underlying subduction-modified mantle peridotite source region, indicating that the primary origin of the metals was the mantle. Because the mantle is relatively depleted in gold, copper, and palladium, tectonic processes that enhance the advective transport and concentration of these fluid soluble metals may be a prerequisite for generating porphyry-epithermal copper-gold deposits. PMID:10521343

  2. Tail Buffeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdrashitov, G.

    1943-01-01

    An approximate theory of buffeting is here presented, based on the assumption of harmonic disturbing forces. Two cases of buffeting are considered: namely, for a tail angle of attack greater and less than the stalling angle, respectively. On the basis of the tests conducted and the results of foreign investigators, a general analysis is given of the nature of the forced vibrations the possible load limits on the tail, and the methods of elimination of buffeting.

  3. Bioprocessing of ores: Application to space resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johansson, Karl R.

    1992-01-01

    The role of microorganisms in the oxidation and leaching of various ores (especially those of copper, iron, and uranium) is well known. This role is increasingly being applied by the mining, metallurgy, and sewage industries in the bioconcentration of metal ions from natural receiving waters and from waste waters. It is concluded that bioprocessing using bacteria in closed reactors may be a variable option for the recovery of metals from the lunar regolith. Obviously, considerable research must be done to define the process, specify the appropriate bacteria, determine the necessary conditions and limitations, and evaluate the overall feasibility.

  4. Introduction to ore geology

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This textbook on ore geology is for second and third year undergraduates and closely parallels the undergraduate course given in this subject at England's University of Leicester. The volume covers three major areas: (1) principles of ore geology, (2) examples of the most important types of ore deposits, and (3) mineralization in space and time. Many chapters have been thoroughly revised for this edition and a chapter on diamonds has been added. Chapters on greisen and pegmatite have also been added, the former in response to the changing situation in tin mining following the recent tin crisis, and the latter in response to suggestions from geologists in a number of overseas countries. Some chapters have been considerably expanded and new sections added, including disseminated gold deposits and unconformity-associated uranium deposits. The author also expands on the importance of viewing mineral deposits from an economic standpoint.

  5. 11. VIEW OF THE MILL LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING THE ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF THE MILL LOOKING SOUTHWEST SHOWING THE ORE RECEIVING STATION AND ORE BIN ON THE LEFT SIDE OF THE IMAGE, THE TRESTLE ON THE NORTH SIDE OF THE MILL LEADING FROM THE GROUND TO THE DELIVERY LEVEL. NOTE THE A FRAME STRUCTURE PROJECTING UP FROM THE INCLINED TRESTLE, THIS IS THE ONLY REMAINING PIECE OF A TRESTLE THAT CARRIED TAILING FROM THE MILL TO A CYANIDE PLANT THAT WAS LOCATED NORTH OF THE MILL. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  6. 38. HULETT ORE UNLOADERS IN MOTION; UNLOADING CANADIAN RED ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. HULETT ORE UNLOADERS IN MOTION; UNLOADING CANADIAN RED ORE FROM THE GEORGE M. CARL.' VIEW LOOKING EAST. (Also see OH-18-14, OH-18-39, and OH-18-40) - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  7. 14. HULETT ORE UNLOADERS IN MOTION; UNLOADING CANADIAN RED ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. HULETT ORE UNLOADERS IN MOTION; UNLOADING CANADIAN RED ORE FROM THE 'GEORGE M. CAR.' VIEW LOOKING EAST. (Also see OH-18-38, OH-18-39, and OH-18-40.) - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  8. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; J. A. Gurtler; K. Lewandowski

    2005-09-30

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily at a reasonable cost. A primary example of this is copper heap leaching, where there are no binders currently encountered in this acidic environment process. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching. The active involvement of our industrial partners will help to ensure rapid commercialization of any agglomeration technologies developed by this project.

  9. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-03-31

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily at a reasonable cost. A primary example of this is copper heap leaching, where there are no binders currently encountered in this acidic environment process. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching. The active involvement of our industrial partners will help to ensure rapid commercialization of any agglomeration technologies developed by this project.

  10. NOVEL BINDERS AND METHODS FOR AGGLOMERATION OF ORE

    SciTech Connect

    S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; J.A. Gurtler; C.A. Hardison; K. Lewandowski

    2004-04-01

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking.

  11. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; J. A. Gurtler

    2004-03-31

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. A primary example of this is copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process. As a result, operators of acidic heap-leach facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of other agglomeration applications, particularly advanced primary ironmaking.

  12. NOVEL BINDERS AND METHODS FOR AGGLOMERATION OF ORE

    SciTech Connect

    S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; J.A. Gurtler; K. Lewandowski

    2005-04-01

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not breakdown during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process. As a result, operators of many facilities see large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching.

  13. The application of PGNAA borehole logging for copper grade estimation at Chuquicamata mine.

    PubMed

    Charbucinski, J; Duran, O; Freraut, R; Heresi, N; Pineyro, I

    2004-05-01

    The field trials of a prompt gamma neutron activation (PGNAA) spectrometric logging method and instrumentation (SIROLOG) for copper grade estimation in production holes of a porphyry type copper ore mine, Chuquicamata in Chile, are described. Examples of data analysis, calibration procedures and copper grade profiles are provided. The field tests have proved the suitability of the PGNAA logging system for in situ quality control of copper ore. PMID:15082058

  14. 24. VIEW OF MILL FROM UPPER TAILINGS POND (NORTH). ROASTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW OF MILL FROM UPPER TAILINGS POND (NORTH). ROASTER ON LEFT WITH ELEVATOR/CRUSHED ORE BIN TOWER TO RIGHT. MAIN MILL BUILDING IN CENTER WITH THICKENER ADDITION TO RIGHT. MACHINE SHOP ON CRUDE ORE BIN TERRACE ABOVE ROASTER. THE LOCATION OF THE 100,000 GALLON MILL WATER TANK CAN BE SEEN AT THE CENTER RIGHT NEAR THE TOP OF THE MOUNTAIN. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  15. 165. VIEW OF MILL FROM UPPER TAILINGS POND (NORTH). ROASTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    165. VIEW OF MILL FROM UPPER TAILINGS POND (NORTH). ROASTER ON LEFT WITH ELEVATOR/CRUSHED ORE BIN TOWER TO RIGHT. MAIN MILL BUILDING IN CENTER WITH THICKENER ADDITION TO RIGHT. MACHINE SHOP ON CRUDE ORE BIN TERRACE ABOVE ROASTER. THE LOCATION OF THE 100,000 GALLON MILL WATER TANK CAN BE SEEN AT THE CENTER RIGHT NEAR THE TOP OF THE MOUNTAIN - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  16. Potential for cobalt recovery from lateritic ores in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrington, R.

    2012-04-01

    Cobalt is one of the 'critical metals' identified under the EU Raw Materials Initiative. Annually the global mine production of cobalt is around 55,000 tonnes,with Europe's industries consuming around 30% of that figure. Currently Europe produces around 27 tonnes of cobalt from mines in Finland although new capacity is planned. Co-bearing nickel laterite ores being mined in Greece, Macedonia and Kosovo where the cobalt is currently not being recovered (ores have typical analyses of 0.055% Co and >1% Ni,). These ores are currently treated directly in pyrometallurgical plants to recover the contained nickel and this process means there is no separate cobalt product produced. Hydrometallurgical treatment of mineralogically suitable laterite ores can recover the cobalt; for example Cuba recovers 3,500 tonnes of cobalt from its laterite mining operations, which are of a similar scale to the current European operations. Implementation of hydrometallurgical techniques is in its infancy in Europe with one deposit in Turkey planning to use atmospheric heap leaching to recover nickel and copper from oxide-dominated ores. More widespread implementation of these methods to mineralogically suitable ore types could unlock the highly significant undeveloped resources (with metal contents >0.04% Co and >1% Ni), which have been defined throughout the Balkans eastwards into Turkey. At a conservative estimate, this region has the potential to supply up to 30% of the EU cobalt requirements.

  17. Hauling urban ore

    SciTech Connect

    Lueck, P.A. )

    1991-05-01

    This paper reports that during the last few years, many railroads have viewed this country's growing MSW disposal problem as mountains of urban ore, referring to the potential revenues in its transportation. Much to the chagrin of the railroads, however, few endeavors to mine this new market have panned out. The MSW disposal problem is most acute in the Northeast, where numerous urban landfills were due to close early this year. Unfortunately, large-scale mass movement of MSW by railroads in the Northeast have failed to materialize. At least one railroad in the West is actively transporting MSW via rail. On April 1, 1991, the Union Pacific (UP) began transporting MSW in double stack containers from Seattle, Wash., to a landfill in Arlington, Ore. Working with Washington Waste Systems, the UP upgraded part of its trackage and dedicated space and equipment to serve that city's disposal needs.

  18. The genesis of ores

    SciTech Connect

    Brimhall, G. )

    1991-05-01

    Human history and technology have been shaped by metals. How did they become concentrated in minable deposits located so conveniently near the earth's surface The author explains the mechanisms of fluid transport-by magma, water and even air and wind-responsible for the chemical and physical interactions that created bodies of metallic ores throughout geologic history. From their formation to their modification at the surface of the earth, ore deposits are geologically transitory and reflect dynamic processes within the earth as well as atmospheric and climatic influences on hydrologic systems. As highly reactive supracrustal systems, they then serve as geochemical sensors providing a powerful record and set of tracer elements for deducing the history, transport paths and forces operative in the crust.

  19. ORE CONVEYANCE SYSTEM AND ADIT. LOOKING WEST. ORE FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ORE CONVEYANCE SYSTEM AND ADIT. LOOKING WEST. ORE FROM THE MINES ABOVE AT THE RIDGELINE AND TO THE RIGHT WAS CONVEYED TO THIS AREA AND DUMPED INTO THE SHAFT AT CENTER. THIS SHAFT OPENS INTO THE ADIT AT BOTTOM CENTER. THERE IS ANOTHER SHAFT OPENING INTO THE ADIT JUST ABOVE THE ADIT BEHIND THE STONE WALL. THE ORE WAS LOADED INTO TRAM CARS INSIDE THE ADIT AND CONVEYED ON TRACKS TO THE TRESTLE LEADING TO THE PRIMARY ORE BIN AT THE TRAM TERMINAL. TRACKS CAN BE SEEN LEADING FROM THE ADIT AND TO THE LEFT. THE ORE WAS THEN DUMPED INTO A CHUTE AT THE END OF THE TRESTLE CARRYING IT INTO THE ORE BIN AT THE TRAM TERMINAL(SEE CHUTE ON CA-291-30). - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  20. Contamination of water and soil by the Erdenet copper-molybdenum mine in Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battogtokh, B.; Lee, J.; Woo, N. C.; Nyamjav, A.

    2013-12-01

    As one of the largest copper-molybdenum (Cu-Mo) mines in the world, the Erdenet Mine in Mongolia has been active since 1978, and is expected to continue operations for at least another 30 years. In this study, the potential impacts of mining activities on the soil and water environments have been evaluated. Water samples showed high concentrations of sulfate, calcium, magnesium, Mo, and arsenic, and high pH values in the order of high to low as follows: tailing water > Khangal River > groundwater. Statistical analysis and the δ2H and δ18O values of water samples indicate that the tailing water directly affects the stream water and indirectly affects groundwater through recharge processes. Soil and stream sediments are highly contaminated with Cu and Mo, which are major elements of ore minerals. Based on the contamination factor (CF), the pollution load index (PLI), and the degree of contamination (Cd), soil appears to be less contaminated than stream sediments. The soil particle size is similar to that of tailing materials, but stream sediments have much coarser particles, implying that the materials have different origins. Contamination levels in stream sediments display a tendency to decrease with distance from the mine, but no such changes are found in soil. Consequently, soil contamination by metals is attributable to wind-blown dusts from the tailing materials, and stream sediment contamination is caused by discharges from uncontained subgrade ore stock materials. Considering the evident impact on the soil and water environment, and the human health risk from the Erdenet Mine, measures to mitigate its environmental impact should be taken immediately including source control, the establishment of a systematic and continuous monitoring system, and a comprehensive risk assessment. Sampling locations around the Erdenet Mine

  1. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-12-31

    Many metal extraction operations, such as leaching of copper, leaching of precious metals, and reduction of metal oxides to metal in high-temperature furnaces, require agglomeration of ore to ensure that reactive liquids or gases are evenly distributed throughout the ore being processed. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses achieves this even distribution of fluids by preventing fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Binders are critically necessary to produce agglomerates that will not break down during processing. However, for many important metal extraction processes there are no binders known that will work satisfactorily. Primary examples of this are copper heap leaching, where there are no binders that will work in the acidic environment encountered in this process, and advanced ironmaking processes, where binders must function satisfactorily over an extraordinarily large range of temperatures (from room temperature up to over 1200 C). As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. The large quantities of ore that must be handled in metal extraction processes also means that the binder must be inexpensive and useful at low dosages to be economical. The acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures developed in this project will also be adapted for use in improving the energy efficiency and performance of a broad range of mineral agglomeration applications, particularly heap leaching and advanced primary ironmaking. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures that can be used for improving the energy efficiency of heap leaching, by preventing the ''ponding'' and ''channeling'' effects that currently cause reduced recovery and extended leaching cycle times. Methods have also been developed for iron ore processing which are intended to improve the

  2. Metal-residence sites in mine tailings in the Magdalena District, New Mexico, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Larocque, A.C.L.; Chapin, C.E.; Laughlin, A.W.; Hickmott, D.

    1996-05-01

    Mineralization in the Kelly Mining Camp is hosted by the Mississippian Kelly Limestone and comprises Zn-Pb skarn, replacement, and vein deposits related to Tertiary intrusive activity. The ore consists of primary (hypogene) sulfide mineralization which has been oxidized near surface to form secondary (supergene) mineralization. A zone of secondary sulfide-enrichment separates the sulfide and oxide ores. Mine tailings in the camp contain primary sulfide, oxide and gangue minerals, secondary (supergene) minerals formed during weathering of the primary ore, and tertiary minerals formed by alteration of hypogene and supergene assemblages after deposition in the tailings impoundment.

  3. Leaching of Calcareous Bornite Ore in Ammoniacal Solution Containing Ammonium Persulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi-xiong; Yin, Zhou-lan; Chen, Yi-guang; Xiong, Li-zhi

    2014-12-01

    The leaching process of copper from calcareous bornite ore using ammonium persulfate as an oxidant in ammoniacal solution was investigated. The effects of stirring speed, temperature, initial concentration of ammonia and ammonium persulfate, and liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio on the extraction percentage of copper from bornite ore were studied. The results show that the optimum leaching conditions for bornite ore with a maximum extraction of copper 88.9 pct are temperature 313.15 K (40 °C), reaction time 4 hours, stirring speed 600 r /min, L/S ratio 7/1 cm3/g, initial concentration of ammonia 2.0 mol/dm3, and ammonium persulfate 3.0 mol/dm3.

  4. Mortality among sulfide ore miners

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlman, K.; Koskela, R.S.; Kuikka, P.; Koponen, M.; Annanmaeki, M. )

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer mortality was studied during 1965-1985 in Outokumpu township in North Karelia, where an old copper mine was located. Age-specific lung cancer death rates (1968-1985) were higher among the male population of Outokumpu than among the North Karelian male population of the same age excluding the Outokumpu district (p less than .01). Of all 106 persons who died from lung cancer during 1965-1985 in Outokumpu township, 47 were miners of the old mine, 39 of whom had worked there for at least three years and been heavily exposed to radon daughters and silica dust. The study cohort consisted of 597 miners first employed between 1954 and 1973 by a new copper mine and a zinc mine, and employed there for at least 3 years. The period of follow-up was 1954-1986. The number of person-years was 14,782. The total number of deaths was 102; the expected number was 72.8 based on the general male population and 97.8 based on the mortality of the male population of North Karelia. The excess mortality among miners was due mainly to ischemic heart disease (IHD); 44 were observed, the expected number was 22.1, based on the general male population, and the North Karelian expected number was 31.2 (p less than .05). Of the 44 miners who died from IHD, 20 were drillers or chargers exposed to nitroglycerin in dynamite charges, but also to several simultaneous stress factors including PAHs, noise, vibration, heavy work, accident risk, and working alone. Altogether 16 tumors were observed in the cohort. Ten of these were lung cancers, the expected number being 4.3. Miners who had died from lung cancer were 35-64 years old, and had entered mining work between 1954 and 1960. Five of the ten lung cancer cases came from the zinc mine (1.7 expected). Three of them were conductors of diesel-powered ore trains.

  5. 77 FR 1080 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Copper Flat Mine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... 36. Mining, ore processing, and related activities would occur on both private land and public domain... methods. The pit would eventually widen to approximately 2,500 by 2,500 feet and deepen to 900 feet. Ore... east of the pit. At this facility, the ore would be crushed and ground and copper and...

  6. Utilization of gold tailings as an additive in Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Celik, Ozlem; Elbeyli, Iffet Yakar; Piskin, Sabriye

    2006-06-01

    Mine tailings are formed as an industrial waste during coal and ore mining and processing. In the investigated process, following the extraction of gold from the ore, the remaining tailings are subjected to a two-stage chemical treatment in order to destroy the free cyanide and to stabilize and coagulate heavy metals prior to discharge into the tailings pond. The aim of this study was the investigation of the feasibility of utilization of the tailings as an additive material in Portland cement production. For this purpose, the effects of the tailings on the compressive strength properties of the ordinary Portland cement were investigated. Chemical and physical properties, mineralogical composition, particle size distribution and microstructure of the tailings were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), particle size analyzer (Mastersizer) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Following the characterization of the tailings, cement mortars were prepared by intergrinding Portland cement with dried tailings. Composition of the cement clinkers were adjusted to contain 5, 15, 25% (wt/wt) dried tailings and also silica fume and fly ash samples (C and F type) were added to clinker in different ratios. The mortars produced with different amounts of tailings, silica fume, fly ashes and also mixtures of them were tested for compressive strength values after 2, 7, 28 and 56 days according to the European Standard (EN 196-1). The results indicated that gold tailings up to 25% in clinker could be beneficially used as an additive in Portland cement production. It is suggested that the gold tailings used in the cement are blended with silica fume and C-type fly ash to obtain higher compressive strength values. PMID:16784164

  7. Ferride geochemistry of Swedish precambrian iron ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loberg, B. E. H.; Horndahl, A.-K.

    1983-10-01

    Chemical analysis for major and trace elements have been performed on 30 Swedish Precambrian iron ores and on some from Iran and Chile. The Swedish ores consist of apatite iron ores, quartz-banded iron ores, skarn and limestone iron ores from the two main ore districts of Sweden, the Bergslagen and the Norrbotten province. Some Swedish titaniferous iron ores were also included in the investigation. The trace element data show that the Swedish ores can be subdivided into two major groups: 1. orthomagmatic and exhalative, 2. sedimentary. Within group 1 the titaniferous iron ores are distinguished by their high Ti-contents. From the ferride contents of the Kiruna apatite iron ores, the ores are considered to be mobilization products of skarn iron ores from the Norbotten province.

  8. SUBAQUEOUS DISPOSAL OF MILL TAILINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Neeraj K. Mendiratta; Roe-Hoan Yoon; Paul Richardson

    1999-09-03

    A study of mill tailings and sulfide minerals was carried out in order to understand their behavior under subaqueous conditions. A series of electrochemical experiments, namely, cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanic coupling tests were carried out in artificial seawater and in pH 6.8 buffer solutions with chloride and ferric salts. Two mill tailings samples, one from the Kensington Mine, Alaska, and the other from the Holden Mine, Washington, were studied along with pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite and copper-activated sphalerite. SEM analysis of mill tailings revealed absence of sulfide minerals from the Kensington Mine mill tailings, whereas the Holden Mine mill tailings contained approximately 8% pyrite and 1% sphalerite. In order to conduct electrochemical tests, carbon matrix composite (CMC) electrodes of mill tailings, pyrite and galena were prepared and their feasibility was established by conducting a series of cyclic voltammetry tests. The cyclic voltammetry experiments carried out in artificial seawater and pH 6.8 buffer with chloride salts showed that chloride ions play an important role in the redox processes of sulfide minerals. For pyrite and galena, peaks were observed for the formation of chloride complexes, whereas pitting behavior was observed for the CMC electrodes of the Kensington Mine mill tailings. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy conducted in artificial seawater provided with the Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena. The Nyquist plots of pyrite and galena exhibited an inert range of potential indicating a slower rate of leaching of sulfide minerals in marine environments. The galvanic coupling experiments were carried out to study the oxidation of sulfide minerals in the absence of oxygen. It was shown that in the absence of oxygen, ferric (Fe3+) ions might oxidize the sulfide minerals, thereby releasing undesirable oxidation products in the marine environment. The source of Fe{sup 3{minus}} ions may be

  9. 2. VIEW OF EAST TAILING DAM (FOREGROUND), LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF EAST TAILING DAM (FOREGROUND), LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST UP WASH TOWARD ORE BIN, OVERBURDEN, ADITS, AND ROAD SHOWN IN CA-290-1. MILL SITE IS UP AND TO THE RIGHT OF THIS VIEW. STANDARD FIFTY-GALLON DRUM IN FOREGROUND GIVES SCALE OF WALL. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  10. Massive deep-sea sulphide ore deposits discovered on the East Pacific Rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francheteau, Jean; Needham, H.D.; Choukroune, P.; Juteau, Tierre; Seguret, M.; Ballard, Richard D.; Fox, P.J.; Normark, William; Carranza, A.; Cordoba, D.; Guerrero, J.; Rangin, C.; Bougault, H.; Cambon, P.; Hekinian, R.

    1979-01-01

    Massive ore-grade zinc, copper and iron sulphide deposits have been found at the axis of the East Pacific Rise. Although their presence on the deep ocean-floor had been predicted there was no supporting observational evidence. The East Pacific Rise deposits represent a modern analogue of Cyprus-type sulphide ores associated with ophiolitic rocks on land. They contain at least 29% zinc metal and 6% metallic copper. Their discovery will provide a new focus for deep-sea exploration, leading to new assessments of the concentration of metals in the upper layers of the oceanic crust. ?? 1979 Nature Publishing Group.

  11. Can I Trust ORE Reports?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feedback, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This issue of FEEDBACK, a newsletter produced by the the Austin Independent School District Office of Research and Evaluation (ORE), illustrates the accuracy, validity, and fairness of ORE reports. The independence of the reports is explained. Internal and external quality controls are used to ensure reliability and accuracy of the reports.…

  12. Physical, chemical and antimicrobial characterization of copper-bearing material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bowen; Hwang, Jiann-Yang; Drelich, Jaroslaw; Popko, Domenic; Bagley, Susan

    2010-12-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, copper, mercury, silver, and zinc are elements with strong antimicrobial properties. Among them, copper is more environmentally friendly and has both good antibacterial and antifungal properties. It has been shown that copper can even be effective against new viruses such as avian influenza (H5N1). Development of copper-bearing materials for various applications, therefore, is receiving increased attention. The Keweenaw Peninsula of Michigan was the largest native copper mining regions of North America at the turn of the 20th century. Copper was extracted by mining the copper-rich basaltic rock, and steamdriven stamp mills were used to process a great volume of low-grade ores, resulting in huge amounts of crushed waste ore called stamp sands. Approximately 500 million tons of stamp sand were discarded. This material is investigated in this study as an example for the development of antimicrobial materials.

  13. Novel Binders and Methods for Agglomeration of Ore

    SciTech Connect

    S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; K. A. Lewandowski; J. A. Gurtler

    2006-09-30

    Heap leaching is one of the methods being used to recover metal from low grade ore deposits. The main problem faced during heap leaching is the migration of fine grained particles through the heap, forming impermeable beds which result in poor solution flow. The poor solution flow leads to less contact between the leach solution and the ore, resulting in low recovery rates. Agglomeration of ore into coarse, porous masses prevents fine particles from migrating and clogging the spaces and channels between the larger ore particles. Currently, there is one facility in the United States which uses agglomeration. This operation agglomerates their ore using leach solution (raffinate), but is still experiencing undesirable metal recovery from the heaps due to agglomerate breakdown. The use of a binder, in addition to the leach solution, during agglomeration would help to produce stronger agglomerates that did not break down during processing. However, there are no known binders that will work satisfactorily in the acidic environment of a heap, at a reasonable cost. As a result, operators of many facilities see a large loss of process efficiency due to their inability to take advantage of agglomeration. Increasing copper recovery in heap leaching by the use of binders and agglomeration would result in a significant decrease in the amount of energy consumed. Assuming that 70% of all the leaching heaps would convert to using agglomeration technology, as much as 1.64*10{sup 12} BTU per year would be able to be saved if a 25% increase in copper recovery was experienced, which is equivalent to saving approximately 18% of the energy currently being used in leaching heaps. For every week a leach cycle was decreased, a savings of as much as 1.23*10{sup 11} BTU per week would result. This project has identified several acid-resistant binders and agglomeration procedures. These binders and experimental procedures will be able to be used for use in improving the energy efficiency of

  14. Invisible and microscopic gold in pyrite: Methods and new data for massive sulfide ores of the Urals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikentyev, I. V.

    2015-07-01

    particles was registered in the ores of these deposits by the methods of transmission electron microscopy. The low degree (or absence) of metamorphic recrystallization results in (1) predomination of thin intergrowths of sulfides, which is the main reason for the bad concentration of ores (especially for the Galkinsk deposit) and (2) the high portion of "invisible" gold in the massive sulfide ores, which explains the low yield of Au in copper and zinc concentrates, since it is lost in tailings with predominating pyrite.

  15. 54. VIEW OF ROASTER ADDITION FROM SOUTHEAST. SHOWS ELEVATOR/ORE BIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. VIEW OF ROASTER ADDITION FROM SOUTHEAST. SHOWS ELEVATOR/ORE BIN ADDITION ON LEFT WITH BASE OF EXHAUST STACK, PORTION OF TOPPLED STACK ON LOWER RIGHT IN VIEW, AND UPPER TAILINGS POND BEYOND. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  16. Evidence for extreme partitioning of copper into a magmatic vapor phase

    SciTech Connect

    Lowenstern, J.B.; Mahood, G.A. ); Rivers, M.L.; Sutton, S.R. )

    1991-06-07

    The discovery of copper sulfides in carbon dioxide- and chlorine-bearing bubbles in phenocryst-hosted melt inclusions shows that copper resides in a vapor phase in some shallow magma chambers. Copper is several hundred times more concentrated in magmatic vapor than in coexisting pantellerite melt. The volatile behavior of copper should be considered when modeling the volcanogenic contribution of metals to the atmosphere and may be important in the formation of copper porphyry ore deposits.

  17. Evidence for extreme partitioning of copper into a magmatic vapor phase.

    PubMed

    Lowenstern, J B; Mahood, G A; Rivers, M L; Sutton, S R

    1991-06-01

    The discovery of copper sulfides in carbon dioxide- and chlorine-bearing bubbles in phenocryst-hosted melt inclusions shows that copper resides in a vapor phase in some shallow magma chambers. Copper is several hundred times more concentrated in magmatic vapor than in coexisting pantellerite melt. The volatile behavior of copper should be considered when modeling the volcanogenic contribution of metals to the atmosphere and may be important in the formation of copper porphyry ore deposits. PMID:17772911

  18. The Application of Modern Techniques and Measurement Devices for Identification of Copper Ore Types and Their Properties / Wykorzystanie nowoczesnych technik i urządzeń pomiarowych do identyfikacji typów rud miedzi i ich właściwości

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczykowska, Aldona; Trybalski, Kazimierz; Krawczykowski, Damian

    2013-06-01

    The paper concerns the application of modern methods and research techniques for investigations of copper ore properties. It presents the procedure and tools which, when put together, can constitute a source of information on properties of different products of processing and, simultaneously, can be used in the process control and optimization. The copper ore of one of the branches of the KHGM Polska Miedz plc was investigated. The ore samples represented each of the three lithological types occurring in the Polish deposits, i.e. carbonate, shale and sandstone ores. The paper presents the results of microscopic analyses, image analysis of scanning photographs and application procedures of the obtained information for the identification of ore types (application of neuron networks to the recognition of lithological compositions). The present publication will present sample results of modelling of classification identifying two types of ores, i.e. carbonate-shale and sandstone. Summing up the predictions of ore type fractions in respective mixtures for the considered problem of classification it can be stated that the prediction results are good and confirm the lithological predominance of certain ore types in the investigated mixtures. The experimental part comprised the determination of mineralogical and lithological composition of ores (optical microscope) and also elemental composition in the microareas of analysed samples (scanning microscope). Next, the image analysis was performed and subsequently the models classifying the ore types were made. W rudzie miedzi przerabianej w zakładach wzbogacania O/ZWR KGHM Polska Miedź S.A. można wyróżnić trzy typy litologiczne: rudę węglanową, łupkową i piaskowcową. Typy te różnią się właściwościami między innymi takimi jak: rodzaj i zawartość minerałów miedzi, rodzaj minerałów nieużytecznych, zawartość miedzi, twardość i podatność na rozdrabnianie, ale także wielkością i kształtem ziaren

  19. Iron versus Copper II. Principles and Applications in Bioinorganic Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochiai, Ei-Ichiro

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the differences between iron and copper. Describes various aspects of the behaviors of these two elements, including those of biological and environmental significance. Addresses the evolution of the atmosphere and sedimentary ore formation, the phylogeny of iron and copper, and some anthropological notes regarding the use of the metals.…

  20. Reinforcement core facilitates O-ring installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Reinforcement core holds O-ring in place within a structure while adjacent parts are being assembled. The core in the O-ring adds circumferential rigidity to the O-ring material. This inner core does not appreciably affect the sectional elasticity or gland-sealing characteristics of the O-ring.

  1. Microbial reduction of iron ore

    DOEpatents

    Hoffmann, M.R.; Arnold, R.G.; Stephanopoulos, G.

    1989-11-14

    A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry. 11 figs.

  2. Microbial reduction of iron ore

    DOEpatents

    Hoffmann, Michael R.; Arnold, Robert G.; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    1989-01-01

    A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry.

  3. Natural Ores as Oxygen Carriers in Chemical Looping Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Hanjing; Siriwardane, Ranjani; Simonyi, Thomas; Poston, James

    2013-08-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a combustion technology that utilizes oxygen from oxygen carriers (OC), such as metal oxides, instead of air to combust fuels. The use of natural minerals as oxygen carriers has advantages, such as lower cost and availability. Eight materials, based on copper or iron oxides, were selected for screening tests of CLC processes using coal and methane as fuels. Thermogravimetric experiments and bench-scale fixed-bed reactor tests were conducted to investigate the oxygen transfer capacity, reaction kinetics, and stability during cyclic reduction/oxidation reaction. Most natural minerals showed lower combustion capacity than pure CuO/Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} due to low-concentrations of active oxide species in minerals. In coal CLC, chryscolla (Cu-based), magnetite, and limonite (Fe-based) demonstrated better reaction performances than other materials. The addition of steam improved the coal CLC performance when using natural ores because of the steam gasification of coal and the subsequent reaction of gaseous fuels with active oxide species in the natural ores. In methane CLC, chryscolla, hematite, and limonite demonstrated excellent reactivity and stability in 50-cycle thermogravimetric analysis tests. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based ores possess greater oxygen utilization but require an activation period before achieving full performance in methane CLC. Particle agglomeration issues associated with the application of natural ores in CLC processes were also studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  4. Microbial metabolism alters pore water chemistry and increases consolidation of oil sands tailings.

    PubMed

    Arkell, Nicholas; Kuznetsov, Petr; Kuznetsova, Alsu; Foght, Julia M; Siddique, Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Tailings produced during bitumen extraction from surface-mined oil sands ores (tar sands) comprise an aqueous suspension of clay particles that remain dispersed for decades in tailings ponds. Slow consolidation of the clays hinders water recovery for reuse and retards volume reduction, thereby increasing the environmental footprint of tailings ponds. We investigated mechanisms of tailings consolidation and revealed that indigenous anaerobic microorganisms altered porewater chemistry by producing CO and CH during metabolism of acetate added as a labile carbon amendment. Entrapped biogenic CO decreased tailings pH, thereby increasing calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) cations and bicarbonate (HCO) concentrations in the porewater through dissolution of carbonate minerals. Soluble ions increased the porewater ionic strength, which, with higher exchangeable Ca and Mg, decreased the diffuse double layer of clays and increased consolidation of tailings compared with unamended tailings in which little microbial activity was observed. These results are relevant to effective tailings pond management strategies. PMID:25602329

  5. Tail biting in pigs.

    PubMed

    Schrøder-Petersen, D L; Simonsen, H B

    2001-11-01

    One of the costly and welfare-reducing problems in modern pig production is tail biting. Tail biting is an abnormal behaviour, characterized by one pig's dental manipulation of another pig's tail. Tail biting can be classified into two groups: the pre-injury stage, before any wound on the tail is present, and the injury stage, where the tail is wounded and bleeding. Tail biting in the injury stage will reduce welfare of the bitten pig and the possible spread of infection is a health as well as welfare problem. The pigs that become tail biters may also suffer, because they are frustrated due to living in a stressful environment. This frustration may result in an excessive motivation for biting the tails of pen mates. This review aims to summarize recent research and theories in relation to tail biting. PMID:11681870

  6. Grouting of uranium mill tailings piles

    SciTech Connect

    Boegly, W.J. Jr.; Tamura, T.; Williams, J.D.

    1984-03-01

    A program of remedial action was initiated for a number of inactive uranium mill tailings piles. These piles result from mining and processing of uranium ores to meet the nation's defense and nuclear power needs and represent a potential hazard to health and the environment. Possible remedial actions include the application of covers to reduce radon emissions and airborne transport of the tailings, liners to prevent groundwater contamination by leachates from the piles, physical or chemical stabilization of the tailings, or moving the piles to remote locations. Conventional installation of liners would require excavation of the piles to emplace the liner; however, utilization of grouting techniques, such as those used in civil engineering to stabilize soils, might be a potential method of producing a liner without excavation. Laboratory studies on groutability of uranium mill tailings were conducted using samples from three abandoned piles and employing a number of particulate and chemical grouts. These studies indicate that it is possible to alter the permeability of the tailings from ambient values of 10/sup -3/ cm/s to values approaching 10/sup -7/ cm/s using silicate grouts and to 10/sup -8/ cm/s using acrylamide and acrylate grouts. An evaluation of grouting techniques, equipment required, and costs associated with grouting were also conducted and are presented. 10 references, 1 table.

  7. Biomineralization of metal-containing ores and concentrates.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, Douglas E; Dew, David; du Plessis, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Biomining is the use of microorganisms to extract metals from sulfide and/or iron-containing ores and mineral concentrates. The iron and sulfide is microbially oxidized to produce ferric iron and sulfuric acid, and these chemicals convert the insoluble sulfides of metals such as copper, nickel and zinc to soluble metal sulfates that can be readily recovered from solution. Although gold is inert to microbial action, microbes can be used to recover gold from certain types of minerals because as they oxidize the ore, they open its structure, thereby allowing gold-solubilizing chemicals such as cyanide to penetrate the mineral. Here, we review a strongly growing microbially-based metal extraction industry, which uses either rapid stirred-tank or slower irrigation technology to recover metals from an increasing range of minerals using a diversity of microbes that grow at a variety of temperatures. PMID:12480349

  8. In situ exploitation of deep set porphyry ores

    SciTech Connect

    Hard, R.A.; Harvey, W.W.; Lingane, P.J.; Park, W.C.; Redman, M.J.

    1981-09-29

    Disclosed is a method of economically exploiting deep set porphyry ore bodies of the type containing metal values such as sulfidic copper, nickel, or uranium minerals and minerals capable of absorbing copper, uranium, and nickel ions. The method involves establishing communication with the ore body through access and recovery wells and passing fluids sequentially therethrough. If necessary, thief zones of as low as 25 to 50 md in igneous rock of 1 to 5 md are prevented from distorting flow, by the injection of a polymeric solution of macromolecules with molecular weights of the order of 5 million along the entire wellbore, the higher permeability zones initially accepting the majority of the flow and being impaired at a much faster rate than the less permeable zones. In a first stage, the permeability of the leaching interval is stimulated as an ammoniated solution of sodium, potassium, or ammonium nitrate or chloride contacts calcium containing minerals to promote ion exchange, resulting in clay contraction or calcium carbonate dissolution. In a second stage, the leaching interval is primed as calcium ion is displaced with an aqueous solution of ammonium salt, a calcium sulfate scale inhibitor, and oxygen gas. In a third stage, a two-phase lixiviant comprising entrained oxygen containing bubbles and an ammoniacal leach liquor having a pH less than 10.5 and less than 1.0 mole/liter ammonia is passed through the leaching interval to solubilize copper, nickel, uranium, and other metal values.

  9. Extraction procedure testing of solid wastes generated at selected metal ore mines and mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harty, David M.; Terlecky, P. Michael

    1986-09-01

    Solid waste samples from a reconnaissance study conducted at ore mining and milling sites were subjected to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency extraction procedure (EP) leaching test Sites visited included mines and mills extracting ores of antimony (Sb), mercury (Hg), vanadium (V), tungsten (W), and nickel (Ni). Samples analyzed included mine wastes, treatment pond solids, tailings, low grade ore, and other solid wastes generated at these facilities Analysis of the leachate from these tests indicates that none of the samples generated leachate in which the concentration of any toxic metal parameter exceeded EPA criteria levels for those metals. By volume, tailings generally constitute the largest amount of solid wastes generated, but these data indicate that with proper management and monitoring, current EPA criteria can be met for tailings and for most solid wastes associated with mining and milling of these metal ores. Long-term studies are needed to determine if leachate characteristics change with time and to assist in development of closure plans and post closure monitoring programs.

  10. Sulfur speciation and stable isotope trends of water-soluble sulfates in mine tailings profiles.

    PubMed

    Dold, Bernhard; Spangenberg, Jorge E

    2005-08-01

    Sulfur speciation and the sources of water-soluble sulfate in three oxidizing sulfidic mine tailings impoundments were investigated by selective dissolution and stable isotopes. The studied tailings impoundments--Piuquenes, Cauquenes, and Salvador No. 1--formed from the exploitation of the Rio Blanco/La Andina, El Teniente, and El Salvador Chilean porphyry copper deposits, which are located in Alpine, Mediterranean, and hyperarid climates, respectively. The water-soluble sulfate may originate from dissolution of primary ore sulfates (e.g., gypsum, anhydrite, jarosite) or from oxidation of sulfide minerals exposed to aerobic conditions during mining activity. With increasing aridity and decreasing pyrite content of the tailings, the sulfur speciation in the unsaturated oxidation zones showed a trend from dominantly Fe(III) oxyhydroxide fixed sulfate (e.g., jarosite and schwertmannite) in Piuquenes toward increasing presence of water-soluble sulfate at Cauquenes and Salvador No. 1. In the saturated primary zones, sulfate is predominantly present in water-soluble form (mainly as anhydrite and/or gypsum). In the unsaturated zone at Piuquenes and Cauquenes, the delta34S(SO4)values ranged from +0.5 per thousand to +2.0 per thousand and from -0.4 per thousand to +1.4 per thousand Vienna Canyon Diablo Troilite (V-CDT), respectively, indicating a major sulfate source from pyrite oxidation (delta34S(pyrite) = -1.1 per thousand and -0.9 per thousand). In the saturated zone at Piuquenes and Cauquenes, the values ranged from -0.8 per thousand to +0.3 per thousand and from +2.2 per thousand to +3.9 per thousand, respectively. At Cauquenes the 34S enrichment in the saturated zone toward depth indicates the increasing contribution of isotopically heavy dissolved sulfate from primary anhydrite (approximately +10.9 per thousand). At El Salvador No. 1, the delta34S(SO4) average value is -0.9 per thousand, suggesting dissolution of supergene sulfate minerals (jarosite, alunite, gypsum

  11. Uranium mill ore dust characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Knuth, R.H.; George, A.C.

    1980-11-01

    Cascade impactor and general air ore dust measurements were taken in a uranium processing mill in order to characterize the airborne activity, the degree of equilibrium, the particle size distribution and the respirable fraction for the /sup 238/U chain nuclides. The sampling locations were selected to limit the possibility of cross contamination by airborne dusts originating in different process areas of the mill. The reliability of the modified impactor and measurement techniques was ascertained by duplicate sampling. The results reveal no significant deviation from secular equilibrium in both airborne and bulk ore samples for the /sup 234/U and /sup 230/Th nuclides. In total airborne dust measurements, the /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb nuclides were found to be depleted by 20 and 25%, respectively. Bulk ore samples showed depletions of 10% for the /sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Pb nuclides. Impactor samples show disequilibrium of /sup 226/Ra as high as +-50% for different size fractions. In these samples the /sup 226/Ra ratio was generally found to increase as particle size decreased. Activity median aerodynamic diameters of the airborne dusts ranged from 5 to 30 ..mu..m with a median diameter of 11 ..mu..m. The maximum respirable fraction for the ore dusts, based on the proposed International Commission on Radiological Protection's (ICRP) definition of pulmonary deposition, was < 15% of the total airborne concentration. Ore dust parameters calculated for impactor duplicate samples were found to be in excellent agreement.

  12. Thermal enrichment and speciation of copper in rice husk ashes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Ling; Hu, Ming-Jan; Peng, Yen-Hsun

    2010-12-15

    Copper(II) was considerably enriched in the residual ash via thermal treatment of copper-sorbed rice husk at 700-1100°C for 2h, and the copper speciation was quantitatively determined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy. After the thermal process, the resulting ash only represents by weight 18.7-26.4% of the pre-heated samples. Copper content in the ashes is >7% which is far above the required minimum copper content in copper ores for the copper smelting sector, 0.5%. Crystalline SiO(2) is observed only in the ash generated at 1100°C, with more copper in this ash being available for leaching in acidic solution. It is suggested that this is due to the considerable dissimilarity in crystalline structure between copper compounds and crystalline SiO(2). No chemical reaction between copper and SiO(2) is observed in any ash. In fact, we suggest that the SiO(2) crystalline phase repels copper during the thermal process; this would make it easy to extract copper from the ashes. For copper speciation in the ashes, CuO merely represents 0-12% of the total copper, while Cu(2)O and Cu(0) represent 34-42% and 46-63%, respectively. The lower copper oxidation state would be beneficial for the copper smelting process due to less usage of coke. PMID:20869164

  13. Ore and coal beneficiation method

    SciTech Connect

    Abadi, K.

    1987-10-27

    This patent describes a method for the separation of iron pyrite from a pulverized mineral ore comprising iron pyrites as a first constituent and a second constituent selected from the group consisting of coal and non-ferrous metal ores by air froth flotation of an aqueous pulp of the pulverized mineral ore. The improvement comprises incorporating in the pulp from about 0.02 to about 1 pound per ton of mineral of a composition comprising hydroxyacetic acid, xanthan gum, sodium silicate, and water wherein the acid content of the composition is from about 0.1 to about 69 percent by weight of the composition, the xanthan gum is from about 0.01 to about 10 percent by weight of the composition; and the ratio by weight of sodium silicate to hydroxyacetic acid is in the range of from about 0 to about 0.5.

  14. Evaluation of feasibility of static tests applied to Küre VMS ore deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirel, Cansu; Çelik Balci, Nurgül; Şeref Sönmez, M.

    2015-04-01

    Küre volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) ore deposits have been mined for its copper content for over centuries. However, there is no published data on AMD around Küre VMS ore deposits. This study investigates the sources of acid producing mechanisms in Küre, using field and laboratorial approaches. Geochemical static tests to predict AMD generation are widely applied to mining sites for assessing potential environmental consequences. However, there are well known limitations of these methods particularly resulting from assumptions used for calculations. To test the feasibility of the methods to predict potential of AMD generation of Küre (VMS) copper deposits, for the first time, acid production and neutralization potential of various mine wastes of Küre (VMS) copper deposits were determined. To test our static test results, in situ and laboratory geochemical data were also obtained from the groundwater discharges from Bakibaba underground mining tunnels. Feasibility study showed that, despite a few inconsistencies, static tests were suitable for predicting generation of AMD around Küre copper mining site and reflected well the site conditions. The current study revealed that pulp density, defined as solid/liquid ratio and used for static tests, is an important limiting factor to predict reliable data for AMD generation. In this study, we also determined surface waters affected by AMD are predicted to have a pH value between 3 and 5, with an average of pH 4. Excessive concentrations of manganese, copper, cobalt and sulfate are also noted with considerable amounts of iron and zinc, which can reach to toxic levels. Moreover, iron and zinc were found to be the controlling the fate of metals by precipitation and co-precipitation, due to their relatively depleted concentrations at redox shifting zones. Key words: Küre pyritic copper ore, Bakibaba mining tunnels, volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits, acid production potential, neutralization potential

  15. Application of three-dimensional computer modeling for reservoir and ore-body analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, D.E.; Marie, J.L.; Moon, G.M.; Moretti, F.J.; Ryman, W.P.; Didur, R.S.

    1985-02-01

    Three-dimensional computer modeling of reservoirs and ore bodies aids in understanding and exploiting these resources. This modeling tool enables the geologist and engineer to correlate in 3 dimensions, experiment with various geologic interpretations, combine variables to enhance certain geologic attributes, test for reservoir heterogeneities and continuity, select drill sites or perforation zones, determine volumes, plan production, generate geologic parameters for input to flow simulators, calculate tonnages and ore-waste ratios, and test sensitivity of reserves to various ore-grade cutoffs and economic parameters. All applications benefit from the ability to update rapidly the 3-dimensional computer models when new data are collected. Two 3-dimensional computer modeling projects demonstrate these capabilities. The first project involves modeling porosity, permeability, and water saturation in a Malaysian reservoir. The models were used to analyze the relationship between water saturation and porosity and to generate geologic parameters for input to a flow simulator. The second project involves modeling copper, zinc, silver, gold, and specific gravity in a massive sulfide ore body in British Columbia. The 4 metal models were combined into one copper-equivalence model and evaluated for tonnage, stripping ratio, and sensitivity to variations of ore-grade cutoff.

  16. SRB O-ring free response analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Carleton J.

    1986-01-01

    The free response of viton O-rings were investigated. Two different response mechanisms of viton O-rings are identified and a theoretical representation of the two mechanisms is compared with experimental results for various temperatures.

  17. Copper Deposits in Sedimentary and Volcanogenic Rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tourtelot, Elizabeth B.; Vine, James David

    1976-01-01

    Copper deposits occur in sedimentary and volcanogenic rocks within a wide variety of geologic environments where there may be little or no evidence of hydrothermal alteration. Some deposits may be hypogene and have a deep-seated source for the ore fluids, but because of rapid cooling and dilution during syngenetic deposition on the ocean floor, the resulting deposits are not associated with hydrothermal alteration. Many of these deposits are formed at or near major tectonic features on the Earth's crust, including plate boundaries, rift valleys, and island arcs. The resulting ore bodies may be stratabound and either massive or disseminated. Other deposits form in rocks deposited in shallow-marine, deltaic, and nonmarine environments by the movement and reaction of interstratal brines whose metal content is derived from buried sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Some of the world's largest copper deposits were probably formed in this manner. This process we regard as diagenetic, but some would regard it as syngenetic, if the ore metals are derived from disseminated metal in the host-rock sequence, and others would regard the process as epigenetic, if there is demonstrable evidence of ore cutting across bedding. Because the oxidation associated with diagenetic red beds releases copper to ground-water solutions, red rocks and copper deposits are commonly associated. However, the ultimate size, shape, and mineral zoning of a deposit result from local conditions at the site of deposition - a logjam in fluvial channel sandstone may result in an irregular tabular body of limited size; a petroleum-water interface in an oil pool may result in a copper deposit limited by the size and shape of the petroleum reservoir; a persistent thin bed of black shale may result in a copper deposit the size and shape of that single bed. The process of supergene enrichment has been largely overlooked in descriptions of copper deposits in sedimentary rocks. However, supergene processes may be

  18. Processing Gold Quarry refractory ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausen, D. M.

    1989-04-01

    The Gold Quarry deposit is the largest sediment-hosted gold deposit yet discovered on the Carlin trend in northern Nevada. However, despite the locale's vast reserves, the gold is difficult to extract from portions of the deposit. Detailed, ongoing mineralogical analyses assure proper treatment of the ore.

  19. Conical O-ring seal

    DOEpatents

    Chalfant, G.G. Jr.

    A shipping container for radioactive or other hazardous materials has a conical-shaped closure containing grooves in the conical surface thereof and an O-ring seal incorporated in each of such grooves. The closure and seal provide a much stronger, tighter and compact containment than with a conventional flanged joint.

  20. Conical O-ring seal

    DOEpatents

    Chalfant, Jr., Gordon G.

    1984-01-01

    A shipping container for radioactive or other hazardous materials which has a conical-shaped closure containing grooves in the conical surface thereof and an O-ring seal incorporated in each of such grooves. The closure and seal provide a much stronger, tighter and compact containment than with a conventional flanged joint.

  1. In-place leaching of uranium, copper, and evaporites

    SciTech Connect

    Carnahan, T.G.

    1982-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to discuss in-place leaching technology in the United States. Application of in-place leaching to uranium ores has been particularly successful. The sandstone ores are contained above and below by impermeable shales and the uranium ore minerals are easily leached with oxidizing acid or base solutions. Copper is recovered from subgrade rock by dump or in-place leaching acidified ferric sulfate solutions. The leaching solution migrates down through the rock and dissolves copper. The solution is collected from the base of the dumps and copper is recovered by solvent extraction, electrowinning, or by cementation on detinned steel cans. Solution mining of evaporites is being conducted commercially for the extraction of sodium chloride and potassium chloride.

  2. Copper transport.

    PubMed

    Linder, M C; Wooten, L; Cerveza, P; Cotton, S; Shulze, R; Lomeli, N

    1998-05-01

    In adult humans, the net absorption of dietary copper is approximately 1 mg/d. Dietary copper joins some 4-5 mg of endogenous copper flowing into the gastrointestinal tract through various digestive juices. Most of this copper returns to the circulation and to the tissues (including liver) that formed them. Much lower amounts of copper flow into and out of other major parts of the body (including heart, skeletal muscle, and brain). Newly absorbed copper is transported to body tissues in two phases, borne primarily by plasma protein carriers (albumin, transcuprein, and ceruloplasmin). In the first phase, copper goes from the intestine to the liver and kidney; in the second phase, copper usually goes from the liver (and perhaps also the kidney) to other organs. Ceruloplasmin plays a role in this second phase. Alternatively, liver copper can also exit via the bile, and in a form that is less easily reabsorbed. Copper is also present in and transported by other body fluids, including those bathing the brain and central nervous system and surrounding the fetus in the amniotic sac. Ceruloplasmin is present in these fluids and may also be involved in copper transport there. The concentrations of copper and ceruloplasmin in milk vary with lactational stage. Parallel changes occur in ceruloplasmin messenger RNA expression in the mammary gland (as determined in pigs). Copper in milk ceruloplasmin appears to be particularly available for absorption, at least in rats. PMID:9587137

  3. Advantages and challenges of increased antimicrobial copper use and copper mining.

    PubMed

    Elguindi, Jutta; Hao, Xiuli; Lin, Yanbing; Alwathnani, Hend A; Wei, Gehong; Rensing, Christopher

    2011-07-01

    Copper is a highly utilized metal for electrical, automotive, household objects, and more recently as an effective antimicrobial surface. Copper-containing solutions applied to fruits and vegetables can prevent bacterial and fungal infections. Bacteria, such as Salmonellae and Cronobacter sakazakii, often found in food contamination, are rapidly killed on contact with copper alloys. The antimicrobial effectiveness of copper alloys in the healthcare environment against bacteria causing hospital-acquired infections such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Clostridium difficile has been described recently. The use of copper and copper-containing materials will continue to expand and may lead to an increase in copper mining and production. However, the copper mining and manufacturing industry and the consumer do not necessarily enjoy a favorable relationship. Open pit mining, copper mine tailings, leaching products, and deposits of toxic metals in the environment often raises concerns and sometimes public outrage. In addition, consumers may fear that copper alloys utilized as antimicrobial surfaces in food production will lead to copper toxicity in humans. Therefore, there is a need to mitigate some of the negative effects of increased copper use and copper mining. More thermo-tolerant, copper ion-resistant microorganisms could improve copper leaching and lessen copper groundwater contamination. Copper ion-resistant bacteria associated with plants might be useful in biostabilization and phytoremediation of copper-contaminated environments. In this review, recent progress in microbiological and biotechnological aspects of microorganisms in contact with copper will be presented and discussed, exploring their role in the improvement for the industries involved as well as providing better environmental outcomes. PMID:21656137

  4. Use of cemented paste backfill in arsenic-rich tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamberg, Roger; Maurice, Christian; Alakangas, Lena

    2015-04-01

    Gold is extracted by cyanide leaching from inclusions in arsenopyrite from a mine in the north of Sweden. The major ore mineral assemblage consists of pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite-loellingite. Effluents from the gold extraction were treated with Fe2(SO4)3, with the aim to form stable As-bearing Fe-precipitates (FEP). The use of the method called cemented paste backfill (CPB) is sometimes suggested for the management of tailings. In CPB, tailings are commonly mixed with low proportions (3 - 7 %) of cement and backfilled into underground excavated area. To reduce costs, amendments such as granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS), biofuel fly ash (BFA) and cement kiln dust (CKD) are used for partial replacement of cement in CPB due to their pozzolanic and alkaline properties. The objective for this study was to evaluate the leaching behaviour of As in CPB-mixtures with low proportions (1 - 3 %) of BFA and ordinary cement and unmodified tailings. The selection of CPB-recipies was made based on technical and economical criterias to adress the demands deriving from the mining operations. Speciation of the As in ore and tailings samples revealed that mining processes have dissolved the majority of the arsenopyrite in the ore, causing secondary As phases to co-precipitate with newly formed FEP:s. Tank leaching tests (TLT) and weathering cells (WCT) were used to compare leaching behaviour in a monolithic mass contra a crushed material. Quantification of the presumed benefit of CPB was made by calculation of the cumulative leaching of As. Results from the leaching tests (TLT and WCT) showed that the inclusion of As-rich tailings into a cementitious matrix increased leaching of As. This behaviour could partially be explained by an increase of pH. The addition of alkaline binder materials to tailings increased As leaching due to the relocation of desorbed As from FEPs into less acid-tolerant species such as Ca-arsenates and cementitious As-phases. Unmodified tailings generated an

  5. A Study of the Optimal Model of the Flotation Kinetics of Copper Slag from Copper Mine BOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanojlović, Rodoljub D.; Sokolović, Jovica M.

    2014-10-01

    In this study the effect of mixtures of copper slag and flotation tailings from copper mine Bor, Serbia on the flotation results of copper recovery and flotation kinetics parameters in a batch flotation cell has been investigated. By simultaneous adding old flotation tailings in the ball mill at the rate of 9%, it is possible to increase copper recovery for about 20%. These results are compared with obtained copper recovery of pure copper slag. The results of batch flotation test were fitted by MatLab software for modeling the first-order flotation kinetics in order to determine kinetics parameters and define an optimal model of the flotation kinetics. Six kinetic models are tested on the batch flotation copper recovery against flotation time. All models showed good correlation, however the modified Kelsall model provided the best fit.

  6. Geochemistry of Mine Waste and Mill Tailings, Meadow Deposits, Streambed Sediment, and General Hydrology and Water Quality for the Frohner Meadows Area, Upper Lump Gulch, Jefferson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, Terry L.; Cannon, Michael R.; Fey, David L.

    2004-01-01

    Frohner Meadows, an area of low-topographic gradient subalpine ponds and wetlands in glaciated terrane near the headwaters of Lump Gulch (a tributary of Prickly Pear Creek), is located about 15 miles west of the town of Clancy, Montana, in the Helena National Forest. Mining and ore treatment of lead-zinc-silver veins in granitic rocks of the Boulder batholith over the last 120 years from two sites (Frohner mine and the Nellie Grant mine) has resulted in accumulations of mine waste and mill tailings that have been distributed downslope and downstream by anthropogenic and natural processes. This report presents the results of an investigation of the geochemistry of the wetlands, streams, and unconsolidated-sediment deposits and the hydrology, hydrogeology, and water quality of the area affected by these sources of ore-related metals. Ground water sampled from most shallow wells in the meadow system contained high concentrations of arsenic, exceeding the Montana numeric water-quality standard for human health. Transport of cadmium and zinc in ground water is indicated at one site near Nellie Grant Creek based on water-quality data from one well near the creek. Mill tailings deposited in upper Frohner Meadow contribute large arsenic loads to Frohner Meadows Creek; Nellie Grant Creek contributes large arsenic, cadmium, and zinc loads to upper Frohner Meadows. Concentrations of total-recoverable cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in most surface-water sites downstream from the Nellie Grant mine area exceeded Montana aquatic-life standards. Nearly all samples of surface water and ground water had neutral to slightly alkaline pH values. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc in streambed sediment in the entire meadow below the mine waste and mill tailings accumulations are highly enriched relative to regional watershed-background concentrations and exceed consensus-based, probable-effects concentrations for streambed sediment at most sites. Cadmium, copper, and

  7. Understanding the copper of the Statue of Liberty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welter, Jean-Marie

    2006-05-01

    Pierre-Eugène Secrétan, a French copper industrialist, donated the copper sheets for the construction of the skin of the Statue of Liberty when it was built in 1875 1876. It can be inferred from the history of Secrétan's activities that the sheets were rolled in his plant of Sérifontaine. The impurities found in two samples obtained from the U.S. National Park Service show that different qualities of copper were used. They indicate, by taking also into account the commercial relations of Secrétan, that the copper may possibly have come from Spanish or South/North American ore.

  8. Uranium ore treatment. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment of uranium ores. Emphasis is place upon the primary step within the process, acid leaching. Tailing disposal and proper handling of radioactive materials is also emphasized. Primary treatment procedures include ion-exchange, sulfuric acid leaching, solvent extraction, and sedimentation. Environmental aspects of uranium milling and mining are examined in a related bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 112 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  9. Uranium ore treatment. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the treatment of uranium ores. Emphasis is place upon the primary step within the process, acid leaching. Tailing disposal and proper handling of radioactive materials is also emphasized. Primary treatment procedures include ion-exchange, sulfuric acid leaching, solvent extraction, and sedimentation. Environmental aspects of uranium milling and mining are examined in a related bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 115 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. The origin of Cu/Au ratios in porphyry-type ore deposits.

    PubMed

    Halter, Werner E; Pettke, Thomas; Heinrich, Christoph A

    2002-06-01

    Microanalysis of major and trace elements in sulfide and silicate melt inclusions by laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry indicates a direct link between a magmatic sulfide liquid and the composition of porphyry-type ore deposits. Copper (Cu), gold (Au), and iron (Fe) are first concentrated in a sulfide melt during magmatic evolution and then released to an ore-forming hydrothermal fluid exsolved late in the history of a magma chamber. The composition of sulfide liquids depends on the initial composition and source of the magma, but it also changes during the evolution of the magma in the crust. Magmatic sulfide melts may exert the dominant direct control on the economic metal ratios of porphyry-type ore deposits. PMID:12052953

  11. Biomining-biotechnologies for extracting and recovering metals from ores and waste materials.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D Barrie

    2014-12-01

    The abilities of acidophilic chemolithotrophic bacteria and archaea to accelerate the oxidative dissolution of sulfide minerals have been harnessed in the development and application of a biotechnology for extracting metals from sulfidic ores and concentrates. Biomining is currently used primarily to leach copper sulfides and as an oxidative pretreatment for refractory gold ores, though it is also used to recover other base metals, such as cobalt, nickel and zinc. Recent developments have included using acidophiles to process electronic wastes, to extract metals from oxidized ores, and to selectively recover metals from process waters and waste streams. This review describes the microorganisms and mechanisms involved in commercial biomining operations, how the technology has developed over the past 50 years, and discusses the challenges and opportunities for mineral biotechnologies in the 21st century. PMID:24794631

  12. Geothermal brine well: Mile-deep drill hole may tap ore-bearing magmatic water and rocks Undergoing Metamorphism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.E.; Anderson, E.T.; Grubbs, D.K.

    1963-01-01

    A deep geothermal well in California has tapped a very saline brine extraordinarily high in heavy metals and other rare elements; copper and silver are precipitated during brine production. Preliminary evidence suggests that the brine may be pure magmatic water and an active ore-forming solution. Metamorphism of relatively young rocks may also be occurring within accessible depths.

  13. Environmental impact of mine tailings in Redi mines, Sindhudurg District, Maharashtra (India).

    PubMed

    Sawant, Arun D; Thakur, Vikas A

    2011-07-01

    Redi mine contains Fe, Mn as major elements, Al, Si as minor elements and also contains traces of Cr, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu and P. The toxic trace elements present in the ore have also contributed to the contamination of the environment. Various operations of mining, the machinery used, transportation, the metallurgy and kind of waste management practices used are the significant factors of contributing to the nature of tailings of mine. The studies of tailings have revealed that, in addition to elemental contaminations, the operations create acidic environment around the area (pH-6.2 to 6.3 ), as water samples around showed acidic to slightly basic (pH 5.1 to 7.3) nature while soil samples were found acidic to the slightly basic (pH 6.1 to 7.4). In the samples of ore, tailings and soil, the most abundant elements found are Fe, Mn, Si and Al. In water samples, in addition to presence of Fe, Mn, Si, Al, P, significant quantities of Ni, Zn are also found. Ore, tailings and soil samples were analysed by X-Ray Diffraction technique and have shown the presence of goethite, gibbsite, kaolinite, quartz and mica alongwith haematite in the overall composition of ore. PMID:23029934

  14. Contrasting hydrological processes of meteoric water incursion during magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposition: An oxygen isotope study by ion microprobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekete, Szandra; Weis, Philipp; Driesner, Thomas; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Baumgartner, Lukas; Heinrich, Christoph A.

    2016-10-01

    Meteoric water convection has long been recognized as an efficient means to cool magmatic intrusions in the Earth's upper crust. This interplay between magmatic and hydrothermal activity thus exerts a primary control on the structure and evolution of volcanic, geothermal and ore-forming systems. Incursion of meteoric water into magmatic-hydrothermal systems has been linked to tin ore deposition in granitic plutons. In contrast, evidence from porphyry copper ore deposits suggests that crystallizing subvolcanic magma bodies are only affected by meteoric water incursion in peripheral zones and during late post-ore stages. We apply high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to analyze oxygen isotope ratios of individual growth zones in vein quartz crystals, imaged by cathodo-luminescence microscopy (SEM-CL). Existing microthermometric information from fluid inclusions enables calculation of the oxygen isotope composition of the fluid from which the quartz precipitated, constraining the relative timing of meteoric water input into these two different settings. Our results confirm that incursion of meteoric water directly contributes to cooling of shallow granitic plutons and plays a key role in concurrent tin mineralization. By contrast, data from two porphyry copper deposits suggest that downward circulating meteoric water is counteracted by up-flowing hot magmatic fluids. Our data show that porphyry copper ore deposition occurs close to a magmatic-meteoric water interface, rather than in a purely magmatic fluid plume, confirming recent hydrological modeling. On a larger scale, the expulsion of magmatic fluids against the meteoric water interface can shield plutons from rapid convective cooling, which may aid the build-up of large magma chambers required for porphyry copper ore formation.

  15. Getting rid of the unwanted: highlights of developments and challenges of biobeneficiation of iron ore minerals-a review.

    PubMed

    Adeleke, Rasheed A

    2014-12-01

    The quest for quality mineral resources has led to the development of many technologies that can be used to refine minerals. Biohydrometallurgy is becoming an increasingly acceptable technology worldwide because it is cheap and environmentally friendly. This technology has been successfully developed for some sulphidic minerals such as gold and copper. In spite of wide acceptability of this technology, there are limitations to its applications especially in the treatment of non-sulphidic minerals such as iron ore minerals. High levels of elements such as potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) in iron ore minerals are known to reduce the quality and price of these minerals. Hydrometallurgical methods that are non-biological involving the use of chemicals are usually used to deal with this problem. However, recent advances in mining technologies favour green technologies, known as biohydrometallurgy, with minimal impact on the environment. This technology can be divided into two, namely bioleaching and biobeneficiation. This review focuses on Biobeneficiation of iron ore minerals. Biobeneficiation of iron ore is very challenging due to the low price and chemical constitution of the ore. There are substantial interests in the exploration of this technology for improving the quality of iron ore minerals. In this review, current developments in the biobeneficiation of iron ore minerals are considered, and potential solutions to challenges faced in the wider adoption of this technology are proposed. PMID:25293513

  16. Softened-Stainless-Steel O-Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marquis, G. A.; Waters, William I.

    1993-01-01

    In fabrication of O-ring of new type, tube of 304 stainless steel bent around mandril into circle and welded closed into ring. Ring annealed in furnace to make it soft and highly ductile. In this condition, used as crushable, deformable O-ring seal. O-ring replacements used in variety of atmospheres and temperatures, relatively inexpensive, fabricated with minimum amount of work, amenable to one-of-a-kind production, reusable, and environmentally benign.

  17. Rare-earth occurrences in the Pea Ridge tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Vierrether, C.W.; Cornell, W.I.

    1993-01-01

    Tailings from the Pea Ridge iron mine contain significant amounts of apatite, which has rare-earth element values associated with it. In association with the recovery of rare-earth minerals as a secondary resource, the US Bureau of Mines conducted an investigation on the recoverability of the rare-earth minerals from the tailings. The mill tailings were subjected to a phosphate flotation to separate the apatite from other constituents. More than 70-pct recovery of the rare-earth values was achieved. Based on mineralogical characterization and prior analysis of rare-earth-bearing breccia pipe material at Pea Ridge, it is proposed that processing this phosphate concentrate on a vanner table would yield up to a 95-pct recovery of the rare earths in the concentrate, with the apatite reporting to the tailings. Intensive ore microscopy studies of the original tailings to the flotation products led to the identification of monazite, xenotime, and rare-earth-enriched apatite as the major rare-earth-bearing minerals in the tailings.

  18. The copper-cobalt deposits of the Quartzburg district, Grant County, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vhay, John Stewart

    1960-01-01

    The copper- and cobalt-bearing veins of part of the Quartzburg district are in fracture zones trending about N. 70 degrees E. in folded Permian (?) metavolcanic rocks on the southwest side of a quartz diorite stock. Along many of the veins fine-grained tourmaline and quartz have replaced the country rock. The primary ore minerals are chalcopyrite, glaucodot, safflorite, and cobaltite. The copper- and cobalt-rich parts of the deposits appear to be in separate ore shoots. Gold content is generally higher in the cobalt-bearing parts of the veins than in the copper-rich parts. The Standard mine has developed part of one vein zone. Several other vein zones that crop out may contain as much copper as the Standard vein zone. Further bulldozing and diamond drilling on the surface, and more geologic mapping, sampling, and diamond drilling underground are suggested as means to explore for more ore deposits.

  19. Geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of the Fry Canyon uranium/copper project site, southeastern Utah - Indications of contaminant migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, James K.; Zielinski, Robert A.; Horton, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The Fry Canyon uranium/copper project site in San Juan County, southeastern Utah, was affected by the historical (1957-68) processing of uranium and copper-uranium ores. Relict uranium tailings and related ponds, and a large copper heap-leach pile at the site represent point sources of uranium and copper to local soils, surface water, and groundwater. This study was designed to establish the nature, extent, and pathways of contaminant dispersion. The methods used in this study are applicable at other sites of uranium mining, milling, or processing. The uranium tailings and associated ponds sit on a bench that is as much as 4.25 meters above the level of the adjacent modern channel of Fry Creek. The copper heap leach pile sits on bedrock just south of this bench. Contaminated groundwater from the ponds and other nearby sites moves downvalley and enters the modern alluvium of adjacent Fry Creek, its surface water, and also a broader, deeper paleochannel that underlies the modern creek channel and adjacent benches and stream terraces. The northern extent of contaminated groundwater is uncertain from geochemical data beyond an area of monitoring wells about 300 meters north of the site. Contaminated surface water extends to the State highway bridge. Some uranium-contaminated groundwater may also enter underlying bedrock of the Permian Cedar Mesa Sandstone along fracture zones. Four dc-resistivity surveys perpendicular to the valley trend were run across the channel and its adjacent stream terraces north of the heap-leach pile and ponds. Two surveys were done in a small field of monitoring wells and two in areas untested by borings to the north of the well field. Bedrock intercepts, salt distribution, and lithologic information from the wells and surface observations in the well field aided interpretation of the geophysical profiles there and allowed interpretation of the two profiles not tested by wells. The geophysical data for the two profiles to the north of the

  20. Cross-Comparison of Leaching Strains Isolated from Two Different Regions: Chambishi and Dexing Copper Mines

    PubMed Central

    Ngom, Baba; Liang, Yili; Liu, Xueduan

    2014-01-01

    A cross-comparison of six strains isolated from two different regions, Chambishi copper mine (Zambia, Africa) and Dexing copper mine (China, Asia), was conducted to study the leaching efficiency of low grade copper ores. The strains belong to the three major species often encountered in bioleaching of copper sulfide ores under mesophilic conditions: Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, and Leptospirillum ferriphilum. Prior to their study in bioleaching, the different strains were characterized and compared at physiological level. The results revealed that, except for copper tolerance, strains within species presented almost similar physiological traits with slight advantages of Chambishi strains. However, in terms of leaching efficiency, native strains always achieved higher cell density and greater iron and copper extraction rates than the foreign microorganisms. In addition, microbial community analysis revealed that the different mixed cultures shared almost the same profile, and At. ferrooxidans strains always outcompeted the other strains. PMID:25478575

  1. Application of the Geo-Anomaly Unit Concept in Quantitative Delineation and Assessment of Gold Ore Targets in Western Shandong Uplift Terrain, Eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yongqing Zhao Pengda; Chen Jianguo; Liu Jiping

    2001-03-15

    A number of large and giant ore deposits have been discovered within the relatively small areas of lithospheric structure anomalies, including various boundary zones of tectonic plates. The regions have become the well-known intercontinental ore-forming belts, such as the circum-Pacific gold-copper, copper-molybdenum, and tungsten-tin metallogenic belts. These belts are typical geological anomalous areas. An investigation into the hydrothermal ore deposits in different regions in the former Soviet Union illustrated that the geologic structures of ore fields of almost all major commercial deposits have distinct features compared with the neighboring areas. These areas with distinct features are defined as geo-anomalies. A geo-anomaly refers to such a geologic body or a combination of bodies that their composition, texture-structure, and genesis are significantly different from those of their surroundings. A geo-anomaly unit (GU) is an area containing distinct features that can be delineated with integrated ore-forming information using computer techniques on the basis of the geo-anomaly concept. Herein, the GU concept is illustrated by a case study of delineating the gold ore targets in the western Shandong uplift terrain, eastern China. It includes: (1) analyses of gold ore-forming factors; (2) compilation of normalized regional geochemical map and extraction of geochemical anomalies; (3) compilation of gravitational and aeromagnetic tectonic skeleton map and extraction of gravitational and aeromagnetic anomalies; (4) extraction of circular and linear anomalies from remote-sensing Landsat TM images; (5) establishment of a geo-anomaly conceptual model associated with known gold mineralization; (6) establishment of gold ore-forming favorability by computing techniques; and (7) delineation and assessment of ore-forming units. The units with high favorability are suggested as ore targets.

  2. Radiological survey of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at the Spook site, Converse County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Haywood, F.F.; Christian, D.J.; Chou, K.D.; Ellis, B.S.; Lorenzo, D.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-05-01

    Results of a radiological survey performed at the Spook site in Converse County, Wyoming, in June 1976, are presented. The mill at this site was located a short distance from the open-pit mine where the ore was obtained and where part of the tailings was dumped into the mine. Several piles of overburden or low-grade ore in the vicinity were included in the measurements of above-ground gamma exposure rate. The average exposure rate over these piles varied from 14 ..mu..R/hr, the average background exposure rate for the area, to 140 ..mu..R/hr. The average exposure rate for the tailings and former mill area was 220 ..mu..R/hr. Movement of tailings particles down dry washes was evident. The calculated concentration of /sup 226/Ra in ten holes as a function of depth is presented graphically.

  3. Assessment of the radiological impact of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Mexican Hat, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Haywood, F.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Ellis, B.S.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Fox, W.F.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1980-03-01

    High surface soil concentrations of /sup 226/Ra and high above-ground measurements of gamma-ray intensity in the vicinity of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Mexican Hat show both wind and water erosion of the tailings. The former mill area, occupied by a trade school at the time of this survey, shows a comparatively high level of contamination, probably from unprocessed ore on the surface of the ore storage area near the location of the former mill buildings. However, the estimated health effect of exposure to gamma rays during a 2000-hr work year in the area represents an increase of 0.1% in the risk of death from cancer. Exposure of less than 600 persons within 1.6 km of the tailings to radon daughters results in an estimated 0.2%/year increase in risk of lung cancer.

  4. MERCURY IN METAL ORE DEPOSITS: AN UNRECOGNIZED, WIDESPREAD SOURCE TO LAKE SUPERIOR SEDIMENTS, CONTRIBUTION #1072

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mining operations have worked the rich mineral resources of the Lake Superior Basin for over 150 years, leaving industrially impacted regions with tailing piles and smelters. In Lake Superior sediments, mercury and copper inventories increase towards shorelines and are highly cor...

  5. A "Tail" Of Two Mines: Determining The Sources Of Lead In Mine Waters Using Pb Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousens, B. L.; Allen, D. M.; Lepitre, M. E.; Mortensen, J. K.; Gabites, J. E.; Nugent, M.; Fortin, D.

    2004-12-01

    Acid mine drainage can be a significant environmental problem in regions where mine tailings are exposed to surface water and shallow groundwater flow. Whereas high metal concentrations in surface waters and groundwaters indicate that metals are being mobilized, these data do not uniquely identify the source of the contamination. The isotopic composition of Pb in mine waters is a superb tracer of Pb sources, because the isotopic composition of ore Pb is usually significantly different from that of host rocks, other surficial deposits, and aerosols. We have investigated metal mobility at two abandoned Pb-Zn mines in different geological settings: the sediment-hosted Sullivan Mine in southeastern British Columbia, and the New Calumet Mine of western Quebec that is hosted in metamorphic rocks of the Grenville Province. Ores from both mines have homogeneous Pb isotopic compositions that are much less radiogenic than surrounding host rocks. At Sullivan, the Pb isotopic compositions of water samples define a mixing line between Sullivan ore and at least one other more radiogenic end-member. Water samples with high Pb concentrations (0.002 to 0.3 mg/L) generally are acidic and have Pb isotope ratios equal to Sullivan ore, whereas waters with low Pb contents have near-neutral pH and have variably more radiogenic Pb isotope ratios. Thus not all the waters collected in the study area originate from Sullivan ore or mining operations, as previously thought. The dominant source of ore Pb in mine waters are the waste rock dumps. Based on their isotopic compositions, host shales or aerosols from the local Pb smelter are potential sources of non-Sullivan ore Pb; local glacial tills are an unlikely source due to their heterogeneous Pb isotopic composition. Similarly, at the New Calumet mine, water samples collected in direct contact with either ore at the surface or tailings have high Pb concentrations (up to 0.02 mg/L) and Pb isotope ratios equal to New Calumet Pb-Zn ore. However

  6. The Tail of BPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruba, Steve; Meyer, Jim

    Business process management suites (BPMS's) represent one of the fastest growing segments in the software industry as organizations automate their key business processes. As this market matures, it is interesting to compare it to Chris Anderson's 'Long Tail.' Although the 2004 "Long Tail" article in Wired magazine was primarily about the media and entertainment industries, it has since been applied (and perhaps misapplied) to other markets. Analysts describe a "Tail of BPM" market that is, perhaps, several times larger than the traditional BPMS product market. This paper will draw comparisons between the concepts in Anderson's article (and subsequent book) and the BPM solutions market.

  7. Method for extracting copper, silver and related metals

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Bruce A.; McDowell, W. J.

    1990-01-01

    A process for selectively extracting precious metals such as silver and gold concurrent with copper extraction from aqueous solutions containing the same. The process utilizes tetrathiamacrocycles and high molecular weight organic acids that exhibit a synergistic relationship when complexing with certain metal ions thereby removing them from ore leach solutions.

  8. Method for extracting copper, silver and related metals

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, B.A.; McDowell, W.J.

    1987-10-23

    A process for selectively extracting precious metals such as silver and gold concurrent with copper extraction from aqueous solutions containing the same. The process utilizes tetrathiamacrocycles and high molecular weight organic acids that exhibit a synergistic relationship when complexing with certain metal ions thereby removing them from ore leach solutions.

  9. Copper artifacts from prehistoric archeological sites in the dakotas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, W.E., Jr.; Neuman, R.W.

    1966-01-01

    Abstract. Thirteen archeological specimens were analyzed spectrographically, and within defined limits they were determined to be native copper. Twelve of the specimens show close elemental homogeneity and are believed to be of Lake Superior ore; the origin of the other specimen is devious.

  10. Method for extracting copper, silver and related metals

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, B.A.; McDowell, W.J.

    1990-05-22

    This patent describes a process for selectively extracting precious metal such as silver and gold concurrent with copper extraction from aqueous solutions containing the same. The process utilizes tetrathiamacrocycles and high molecular weight organic acids that exhibit a synergistic relationship when complexing with certain metal ions thereby removing them from ore leach solutions.

  11. Estimating gold-ore mineralization potential within Topolninsk ore field (Gorny Altai)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timkin, T.; Voroshilov, V.; Askanakova, O.; Cherkasova, T.; Chernyshov, A.; Korotchenko, T.

    2015-11-01

    Based on the results of ore and near-ore metasomatite composition analysis, the factors and indicators of gold-ore mineralization potential were proposed. Integration of the obtained data made it possible to outline magmatic, structural, and lithological factors, as well as direct and indirect indicators of gold-ore mineralization. Applying multidimensional analysis inherent to geochemical data, the spatial structure was investigated, as well as the potential mineralization was identified. Based on the developed and newly-identified mineralization, small (up to medium-sized) mineable gold-ore deposits in skarns characterized by complex geological setting was identified.

  12. 43 CFR 9239.5-1 - Ores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ores. 9239.5-1 Section 9239.5-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.5-1 Ores. (a) For...

  13. 43 CFR 9239.5-1 - Ores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ores. 9239.5-1 Section 9239.5-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.5-1 Ores. (a) For...

  14. 43 CFR 9239.5-1 - Ores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ores. 9239.5-1 Section 9239.5-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.5-1 Ores. (a) For...

  15. 43 CFR 9239.5-1 - Ores.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ores. 9239.5-1 Section 9239.5-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.5-1 Ores. (a) For...

  16. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, Haskell; Meek, Thomas T.; Blake, Rodger D.

    1990-01-01

    A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

  17. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, Haskell; Meek, Thomas T.; Blake, Rodger D.

    1989-01-01

    A composition of matter comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide, and a method for making this composition of matter.

  18. Application of high resolution 2D/3D spectral induced polarization (SIP) in metalliferous ore exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R.; Zhao, X.; Yao, H.; He, X.; Zeng, P.; Chang, F.; Yang, Y.; Zhang, X.; Xi, X.; He, L.

    2015-12-01

    Induced polarization (IP) is a powerful tool in metalliferous ore exploration. However, there are many sources, such as clay and graphite, which can generate IP anomaly. Spectral induced polarization (SIP) measures IP response on a wide frequency range. This method provides a way to discriminate IP response generated by metalliferous ore or other objects. The best way to explore metalliferous ore is 3D SIP exploration. However, if we consider the exploration cost and efficiency, we can use SIP profiling to find an anomaly, and then use 2D/3D SIP sounding to characterize the anomaly. Based on above idea, we used a large-scale distributed SIP measurement system which can realize 800 sounding sites in one direction at the same time. This system can be used for SIP profiling, 2D/3D SIP sounding with high efficiency, high resolution, and large depth of investigation (> 1000 m). Qiushuwan copper - molybdenum deposit is located in Nanyang city, Henan province, China. It is only a middle-size deposit although over 100 holes were drilled and over 40 years of exploration were spent because of very complex geological setting. We made SIP measurement over 100 rock and ore samples to discriminate IP responses of ore and rock containing graphite. Then we carried out 7 lines of 2D SIP exploration with the depth of investigation great than 1000 m. The minimum electode spacing for potential difference is only 20 m. And we increase the spacing of current electodes at linear scale. This acquisition setting ensures high density data acquired and high quality data acquisition. Modeling and inversion result proves that we can get underground information with high resolution by our method. Our result shows that there exists a strong SIP response related to ore body in depth > 300 m. Pseudo-3D inversion of five 2D SIP sounding lines shows the location and size of IP anomaly. The new drillings based our result found a big copper-molybdenum ore body in new position with depth > 300 m and

  19. Ore-blending optimization model for sintering process based on characteristics of iron ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sheng-Li; Oliveira, Dauter; Dai, Yu-Ming; Xu, Jian

    2012-03-01

    An ore-blending optimization model for the sintering process is an intelligent system that includes iron ore characteristics, expert knowledge and material balance. In the present work, 14 indices are proposed to represent chemical composition, granulating properties and high temperature properties of iron ores. After the relationships between iron ore characteristics and sintering performance are established, the "two-step" method and the simplex method are introduced to build the model by distinguishing the calculation of optimized blending proportion of iron ores from that of other sintering materials in order to improve calculation efficiency. The ore-blending optimization model, programmed by Access and Visual Basic, is applied to practical production in steel mills and the results prove that the present model can take advantage of the available iron ore resource with stable sinter yield and quality performance but at a lower cost.

  20. Copper Metallochaperones

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Nigel J.; Winge, Dennis R.

    2014-01-01

    The current state of knowledge on how copper metallochaperones support the maturation of cuproproteins is reviewed. Copper is needed within mitochondria to supply the CuA and intramembrane CuB sites of cytochrome oxidase, within the trans-Golgi network to supply secreted cuproproteins and within the cytosol to supply superoxide dismutase 1 (Sod1). Subpopulations of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase also localize to mitochondria, the secretory system, the nucleus and, in plants, the chloroplast, which also requires copper for plastocyanin. Prokaryotic cuproproteins are found in the cell membrane and in the periplasm of gram-negative bacteria. Cu(I) and Cu(II) form tight complexes with organic molecules and drive redox chemistry, which unrestrained would be destructive. Copper metallochaperones assist copper in reaching vital destinations without inflicting damage or becoming trapped in adventitious binding sites. Copper ions are specifically released from copper metallochaperones upon contact with their cognate cuproproteins and metal transfer is thought to proceed by ligand substitution. PMID:20205585

  1. Wagging tail vibration absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, R. G.; Humphrey, P. W.

    1969-01-01

    A 750-foot cantilever length of extendible-tape boom (very low stiffness) was considered as the main system to be damped. A number of tail lengths were tried from 20 feet to 80 feet after which 40 feet was investigated further as a desirable compromise between performance and practical lengths. A 40-foot damping tail produced a damping effect on the main boom for the first mode equivalent in decay rate to 3.1 percent of critical damping. In this case the spring-hinge and tail were tuned to the main boom first mode frequency and the hinge damping was set at 30 percent of critical based on the tail properties. With this same setting, damping of the second mode was .4 percent and the third mode .1 percent.

  2. Speciation And Colloid Transport of Arsenic From Mine Tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Slowey, A.J.; Johnson, S.B.; Newville, M.; Brown, G.E., Jr.

    2007-07-13

    In addition to affecting biogeochemical transformations, the speciation of As also influences its transport from tailings at inoperative mines. The speciation of As in tailings from the Sulfur Bank Mercury Mine site in Clear Lake, California (USA) (a hot-spring Hg deposit) and particles mobilized from these tailings have been examined during laboratory-column experiments. Solutions containing two common, plant-derived organic acids (oxalic and citric acid) were pumped at 13 pore volumes d{sup -1} through 25 by 500 mm columns of calcined Hg ore, analogous to the pedogenesis of tailings. Chemical analysis of column effluent indicated that all of the As mobilized was particulate (1.5 mg, or 6% of the total As in the column through 255 pore volumes of leaching). Arsenic speciation was evaluated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), indicating the dominance of arsenate [As(V)] sorbed to poorly crystalline Fe(III)-(hydr)oxides and coprecipitated with jarosite [KFe{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}, AsO{sub 4}){sub 2}(OH){sub 6}] with no detectable primary or secondary minerals in the tailings and mobilized particles. Sequential chemical extractions (SCE) of <45 {micro}m mine tailings fractions also suggest that As occurs adsorbed to Fe (hydr)oxides (35%) and coprecipitated within poorly crystalline phases (45%). In addition, SCEs suggest that As is associated with 1 N acid-soluble phases such as carbonate minerals (20%) and within crystalline Fe-(hydr)oxides (10%). The finding that As is transported from these mine tailings dominantly as As(V) adsorbed to Fe (hydr)oxides or coprecipitated within hydroxysulfates such as jarosite suggests that As release from soils and sediments contaminated with tailings will be controlled by either organic acid-promoted dissolution or reductive dissolution of host phases.

  3. Examination of Lipopolysaccharide (O-Antigen) Populations of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans from Two Mine Tailings

    PubMed Central

    Southam, G.; Beveridge, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    Net acid-generating capacities of 39.74 kg of H2SO4 per ton (ca. 0.05 kg/kg) (pH 2.68) for the Lemoine copper mine tailings (closed ca. 8 years ago; located 40 km west of Chibougamau, Quebec, Canada) and 16.07 kg of H2SO4 per ton (ca. 0.02 kg/kg) (pH 3.01) for the Copper Rand tailings (in current use and 50 km distant [east] from those of Lemoine) demonstrate that these sulfide tailings can support populations of acidophilic thiobacilli. Oxidized regions in both tailings environments were readily visible, were extremely acidic (Lemoine, pH 2.36; Copper Rand, pH 3.07), and provided natural isolates for our study. A 10% (wt/vol) oxalic acid treatment, which solubilizes both ferric sulfate and ferric hydroxide precipitates (B. Ramsay, J. Ramsay, M. deTremblay, and C. Chavarie, Geomicrobiol. J. 6:171-177, 1988), enabled the recovery of intact bacterial cells from the tailings material and from liquid synthetic medium for lipopolysaccharide analysis. No viable cells could be cultured after this oxalic acid treatment. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electro-phoretic profiles of lipopolysaccharides extracted from the Lemoine tailings were complex, indicating a heterogeneous population of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. Six T. ferrooxidans subspecies as identified by lipopolysaccharide analysis (i.e., lipopolysaccharide chemotypes) were eventually isolated from a total of 112 cultures from the Lemoine tailings. Using the same isolate and lipopolysaccharide typing techniques, we identified only a single lipopolysaccharide chemotype from 20 cultures of T. ferrooxidans isolated from the Copper Rand tailings. This homogeneity of lipopolysaccharide chemotype was much different from what was found for the older Lemoine tailings and may reflect a progressive lipopolysaccharide heterogeneity of Thiobacillus isolates as tailings leach and age. Images PMID:16348925

  4. Tree-Substrate Water Relations and Root Development in Tree Plantations Used for Mine Tailings Reclamation.

    PubMed

    Guittonny-Larchevêque, Marie; Bussière, Bruno; Pednault, Carl

    2016-05-01

    Tree water uptake relies on well-developed root systems. However, mine wastes can restrict root growth, in particular metalliferous mill tailings, which consist of the finely crushed ore that remains after valuable metals are removed. Thus, water stress could limit plantation success in reclaimed mine lands. This study evaluates the effect of substrates varying in quality (topsoil, overburden, compost and tailings mixture, and tailings alone) and quantity (50- or 20-cm-thick topsoil layer vs. 1-m plantation holes) on root development and water stress exposure of trees planted in low-sulfide mine tailings under boreal conditions. A field experiment was conducted over 2 yr with two tree species: basket willow ( L.) and hybrid poplar ( Moench × A. Henry). Trees developed roots in the tailings underlying the soil treatments despite tailings' low macroporosity. However, almost no root development occurred in tailings underlying a compost and tailings mixture. Because root development and associated water uptake was not limited to the soil, soil volume influenced neither short-term (water potential and instantaneous transpiration) nor long-term (δC) water stress exposure in trees. However, trees were larger and had greater total leaf area when grown in thicker topsoil. Despite a volumetric water content that always remained above permanent wilting point in the tailings colonized by tree roots, measured foliar water potentials at midday were lower than drought thresholds reported for both tested tree species. PMID:27136172

  5. Investigation of the environmental impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides in the processing of sulfide ores for gold using gamma spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gbadago, J K; Faanhof, A; Darko, E O; Schandorf, C

    2011-09-01

    The possible environmental impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides on workers and a critical community, as a result of milling and processing sulfide ores for gold by a mining company at Bogoso in the western region of Ghana, have been investigated using gamma spectroscopy. Indicative doses for the workers during sulfide ore processing were calculated from the activity concentrations measured at both physical and chemical processing stages. The dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent, radium equivalent activity, external and internal hazard indices, and radioactivity level index for tailings, for the de-silted sediments of run-off from the vicinity of the tailings dam through the critical community, and for the soils of the critical community's basic schools were calculated and found to be lower than their respective permissible limits. The environmental impact of the radionuclides is therefore expected to be low in this mining environment. PMID:21865616

  6. 25. FRONT END LOADERS MOMENTARILY IN REPOSE IN THE ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. FRONT END LOADERS MOMENTARILY IN REPOSE IN THE ORE STORAGE YARD. AN ORE BRIDGE THAT FORMERLY TRANSFERRED ORE WITHIN THE STORAGE YARD WAS DESTROYED BY A BLIZZARD IN 1978. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  7. 36. ORE DOCK, LOOKING WEST. HULETT UNLOADERS AWAIT THE NEXT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. ORE DOCK, LOOKING WEST. HULETT UNLOADERS AWAIT THE NEXT ORE BOAT. BY LATE WINTER, THE ORE STORAGE YARD SEEN AT LEFT WILL BE DEPLETED. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  8. Main types of gold ore forming systems and their relationship with the paleogeodynamic settings on the Taimyr Peninsula and the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proskurnin, Vasiliy; Anatoly, Gavrish; Aleksandra, Bagaeva; Petrushkov, Boris; Shneider, Alexey; Saltanov, Vasily; Stepunina, Maria; Proskurnina, Alina

    2014-05-01

    Within the Taimyr - Severnaya Zemlya mineragenic province, the Late Paleozoic - Early Mesozoic Kara rare-metal - gold and Byrrangsky coal-bearing - polymetallic mineragenic areas are distinguished. Main geological commercial types of the Kara mineragenic area include manifestations of gold-quartz, gold sulphide-quartz (proper gold ore), and gold-rare metal, gold-bearing copper-molybdenum-porphyry formations. The Riphean - Vendian subduction - collisional and Late Paleozoic - Early Mesozoic repeated collisional (deuterogenic) ore-forming systems play a leading role in their formation. Regardless of the age and formation features, manifestations of proper gold ore formations are controlled by a common factor, the degree of metamorphism of host rocks - not above the sericite-biotite subfacies of the greenschist facies, and belong to the group of hydrothermal-metasomatic ore forming systems conditioned by alkali-acid differentiation of matter in temperature gradient field with ore concentration in mesozone. Depending on the host Precambrian formations, Kara Late Paleozoic - Early Mesozoic mineragenic area is subdivided into Mininsky-Bolshevistsky flysch-terrigenous carbonaceous zone with manifestation of zonal regional metamorphism of the andalusite-sillimanite type (Arctida passive margin) and Shrenk-Faddey volcanogenic-carbonate-terrigenous carbonaceous zone with ophiolites (accretion prism of Siberia). For the Riphean - Early Vendian endogenous manifestations, the following main types of gold ore forming systems are distinguished: in the passive marginal Mininsky-Bolshevistsky zone - early collisional metamorphic-hydrothermal in terrigenous carbonaceous complexes (Valterovsky, Voskresensky, Litkensky ore zones) and late collisional plutonic-hydrothermal in allochthonous granitoids of S-type (Martovsky-Nikitinsky ore cluster); in the accretionary Shrenck-Faddey zone - subduction-collisional plutonic-metamorphic-hydrothermal (Zhilninsky, Leningradsky ore zones) in

  9. MR imaging of ore for heap bioleaching studies using pure phase encode acquisition methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagan, Marijke A.; Sederman, Andrew J.; Johns, Michael L.

    2012-03-01

    Various MRI techniques were considered with respect to imaging of aqueous flow fields in low grade copper ore. Spin echo frequency encoded techniques were shown to produce unacceptable image distortions which led to pure phase encoded techniques being considered. Single point imaging multiple point acquisition (SPI-MPA) and spin echo single point imaging (SESPI) techniques were applied. By direct comparison with X-ray tomographic images, both techniques were found to be able to produce distortion-free images of the ore packings at 2 T. The signal to noise ratios (SNRs) of the SESPI images were found to be superior to SPI-MPA for equal total acquisition times; this was explained based on NMR relaxation measurements. SESPI was also found to produce suitable images for a range of particles sizes, whereas SPI-MPA SNR deteriorated markedly as particles size was reduced. Comparisons on a 4.7 T magnet showed significant signal loss from the SPI-MPA images, the effect of which was accentuated in the case of unsaturated flowing systems. Hence it was concluded that SESPI was the most robust imaging method for the study of copper ore heap leaching hydrology.

  10. Geochemical hosts of solubilized radionuclides in uranium mill tailings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.; Bush, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    The solubilization and subsequent resorption of radionuclides by ore components or by reaction products during the milling of uranium ores may have both economic and environmental consequences. Particle-size redistribution of radium during milling has been demonstrated by previous investigators; however, the identification of sorbing components in the tailings has received little experimental attention. In this study, uranium-bearing sandstone ore was milled, on a laboratory scale, with sulfuric acid. At regular intervals, filtrate from this suspension was placed in contact with mixtures of quartz sand and various potential sorbents which occur as gangue in uranium ores; the potential sorbents included clay minerals, iron and aluminum oxides, feldspar, fluorspar, barite, jarosite, coal, and volcanic glass. After equilibration, the quartz sand-sorbent mixtures were separated from the filtrate and radioassayed by gamma-spectrometry to determine the quantities of 238U, 230Th, 226Ra, and 210Pb sorbed, and the radon emanation coefficients. Sorption of 238U was low in all cases, with maximal sorptions of 1-2% by the bentonite- and coal-bearing samples. 230Th sorption also was generally less than 1%; maximal sorption here was observed in the fluorspar-bearing sample and appears to be associated with the formation of gypsum during milling. 226Ra and 210 Pb generally showed higher sorption than the other nuclides - more than 60% of the 26Ra solubilized from the ore was sorbed on the barite-bearing sample. The mechanism (s) for this sorption by a wide variety of substrates is not yet understood. Radon emanation coefficients of the samples ranged from about 5 to 30%, with the coal-bearing samples clearly demonstrating an emanating power higher than any of the other materials. ?? 1990.

  11. Is rhizosphere remediation sufficient for sustainable revegetation of mine tailings?

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Longbin; Baumgartl, Thomas; Mulligan, David

    2012-01-01

    Background Revegetation of mine tailings (fine-grained waste material) starts with the reconstruction of root zones, consisting of a rhizosphere horizon (mostly topsoil and/or amended tailings) and the support horizon beneath (i.e. equivalent to subsoil – mostly tailings), which must be physically and hydro-geochemically stable. This review aims to discuss key processes involved in the development of functional root zones within the context of direct revegetation of tailings and introduces a conceptual process of rehabilitating structure and function in the root zones based on a state transition model. Scope Field studies on the revegetation of tailings (from processing base metal ore and bauxite residues) are reviewed. Particular focus is given to tailings' properties that limit remediation effectiveness. Aspects of root zone reconstruction and vegetation responses are also discussed. Conclusions When reconstructing a root zone system, it is critical to restore physical structure and hydraulic functions across the whole root zone system. Only effective and holistically restored systems can control hydro-geochemical mobility of acutely and chronically toxic factors from the underlying horizon and maintain hydro-geochemical stability in the rhizosphere. Thereafter, soil biological capacity and ecological linkages (i.e. carbon and nutrient cycling) may be rehabilitated to integrate the root zones with revegetated plant communities into sustainable plant ecosystems. A conceptual framework of system transitions between the critical states of root zone development has been proposed. This will illustrate the rehabilitation process in root zone reconstruction and development for direct revegetation with sustainable plant communities. Sustainable phytostabilization of tailings requires the systematic consideration of hydro-geochemical interactions between the rhizosphere and the underlying supporting horizon. It further requires effective remediation strategies to

  12. Selenium content in sulfide ores from the Chalkidiki peninsula, Greece.

    PubMed

    Nicolaidou, A E

    1998-01-01

    Selenium (Se) was assessed in galena, sphalerite, and pyrite samples. These are components of mixed sulfide ores from the Olympias and Madem Lakkos-Mavres Petres deposits and the Skouries porphyry-copper deposit. We used atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) with a hydride generator system. The highest concentration of Se (516 ppm) was found in the fine-grained galena at the -135 level of the Olympias deposits. In the Madem Lakkos-Mavres Petres deposit, the highest concentration of Se (33 ppm) was found in the pyrites of the level 30. The concentration of Se in the arsenopyrites and chalcopyrites is lower than the detection limit of the analytical method (< 100 ppb). The concentrated chalcopyrite from the porphyry copper deposit at Skouries exhibits a significant Se content (average 200 ppm) in contrast to the chalcopyrite from the Olympias and the Madem Lakkos-Mavres Petres. Variations in the Se content of the sulfide minerals studied could be caused by redox-pH and/or temperature conditions, as well as by the difference in crystal structure. The Se found in the areas studied may positively affect the environment. Sulfide minerals are oxidized by microorganisms, infiltrate in the soil-water in the form of selenate or selenite ion, and directly or indirectly influence the human organism. PMID:9726790

  13. Characterisation and Processing of Some Iron Ores of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, S. J. G.; Patil, M. R.; Rudrappa, C.; Kumar, S. P.; Ravi, B. P.

    2013-10-01

    Lack of process characterization data of the ores based on the granulometry, texture, mineralogy, physical, chemical, properties, merits and limitations of process, market and local conditions may mislead the mineral processing entrepreneur. The proper implementation of process characterization and geotechnical map data will result in optimized sustainable utilization of resource by processing. A few case studies of process characterization of some Indian iron ores are dealt with. The tentative ascending order of process refractoriness of iron ores is massive hematite/magnetite < marine black iron oxide sands < laminated soft friable siliceous ore fines < massive banded magnetite quartzite < laminated soft friable clayey aluminous ore fines < massive banded hematite quartzite/jasper < massive clayey hydrated iron oxide ore < manganese bearing iron ores massive < Ti-V bearing magnetite magmatic ore < ferruginous cherty quartzite. Based on diagnostic process characterization, the ores have been classified and generic process have been adopted for some Indian iron ores.

  14. The sources of our iron ores. II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burchard, E.F.

    1933-01-01

    In this instalment** the iron ore deposits of the Lake Superior States, which normally furnish about 80 per cent, of the annual output of the United States, are described together with historical notes on discovery and transportation of ore. Deposits in the Mississippi Valley and Western States are likewise outlined and the sources of imported ore are given. Reviewing the whole field, it is indicated that the great producing deposits of the Lake Superior and southern Appalachian regions are of hematite in basin areas of sedimentary rocks, that hydrated iron oxides and iron carbonates are generally found in undisturbed comparatively recent sediments, and that magnetite occurs in metamorphic and igneous rocks; also that numerical abundance of deposits is not a criterion as to their real importance as a source of supply. Statistics of production of iron ore and estimates of reserves of present grade conclude the paper.

  15. Research of Geochemical Associations of Nephelin Ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulf, M.; Simonov, K.; Sazonov, A.

    The instant paper concerns research of distribution petrogenic chemical members in urtit ore body of Kia-Shaltyrsk deposit. Rocks of the deposit are ore for producing alum earth. Actuality of the subject based on outlooks of detection noble metal ore-bearing (Au, Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru) in alkaline rocks of Siberia, including rocks of Kia-Shaltyrsk deposit (Kuznetsk Alatau). The main purpose of analysis of distribution of members is directed to detection of a non-uniformity of distribution of substance and segments enriched with alum earth and noble members. The basic solved problems are following: o Creation regression models of ore body; o Definition of cumulative distribution functions of members in a contour of ore body; o The analysis of the obtained outcomes in geologic terms. For construction regression models the full-scale data was used, which was presented by the results of the spectral and silicate analyses of gold and petrogenic members containing 130 assays arranged in ore body. A non-linear multiparameter model of the ore body based on components of nephelin ore using neural net approach was constructed. For each member the corresponding distribution function is produced. The model is constructed on the following members: Au, Al2O3, SiO2, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, SO3, R2O ((Na2O+K2O) -1) and losses of burning. The error of model forecasting membersS concentrations was from 0.02 up to 20%. Large errors basically connected with assays located near contact of ore body and ad- jacent strata or with very high concentrations of members; also they can be connected with different genesis of rocks or superposition of other processes. The analysis of concentrations of members and normalised absolute errors of the fore- cast has shown, that all members can be sectioned into two groups: first: Al2O3, SiO2, R2O, Fe2O3 and second: Au, losses of burning, CaO, MgO, SO3. The distribution of 1 gold is tightly connected with calcium and losses of burning and spatially linked with zones

  16. Analytical fingerprint for tantalum ores from African deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melcher, F.; Graupner, T.; Sitnikova, M.; Oberthür, T.; Henjes-Kunst, F.; Gäbler, E.; Rantitsch, G.

    2009-04-01

    Illegal mining of gold, diamonds, copper, cobalt and, in the last decade, "coltan" has fuelled ongoing armed conflicts and civil war in a number of African countries. Following the United Nations initiative to fingerprint the origin of conflict materials and to develop a traceability system, our working group is investigating "coltan" (i.e. columbite-tantalite) mineralization especially in Africa, also within the wider framework of establishing certified trading chains (CTC). Special attention is directed towards samples from the main Ta-Nb-Sn provinces in Africa: DR Congo, Rwanda, Mozambique, Ethiopia, Egypt and Namibia. The following factors are taken into consideration in a methodological approach capable of distinguishing the origin of tantalum ores and concentrates with the utmost probability: (1) Quality and composition of coltan concentrates vary considerably. (2) Mineralogical and chemical compositions of Ta-Nb ores are extremely complex due to the wide range of the columbite-tantalite solid solution series and its ability to incorporate many additional elements. (3) Coltan concentrates may contain a number of other tantalum-bearing minerals besides columbite-tantalite. In our approach, coltan concentrates are analyzed in a step-by-step mode. State-of-the-art analytical tools employed are automated scanning electron microscopy (Mineral Liberation Analysis; MLA), electron microprobe analysis (major and trace elements), laser ablation-ICP-MS (trace elements, isotopes), and TIMS (U-Pb dating). Mineral assemblages in the ore concentrates, major and trace element concentration patterns, and zoning characteristics in the different pegmatites from Africa distinctly differ from each other. Chondrite-normalized REE distribution patterns vary significantly between columbite, tantalite, and microlite, and also relative to major element compositions of columbites. Some locations are characterized by low REE concentrations, others are highly enriched. Samples with

  17. The Role of Groundwater Flow and Faulting on Hydrothermal Ore Formation in Sedimentary Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garven, G.

    2006-05-01

    Sediment-hosted ore formation is thought to occur as a normal outcome of basin evolution, due to deep groundwater flow, heat transport, and reactive mass transport ---all of which are intimately coupled. This paper reviews recent attempts to understand the hydrologic and geochemical processes forming some of the world's largest sediment-hosted ores. Several questions still dominate the literature (driving forces for flows, source and controls on metal acquisition, concentrations of ore-forming components, timing and duration, role of faults, effects of transient flows). This paper touches upon all of these questions. Coupled reactive transport models have been applied for understanding the genesis of sandstone-hosted uranium ores of North America and Australia, red-bed copper ores of North America and northern Europe, carbonate-hosted MVT lead-zinc ores of the U.S. Midcontinent and northwestern Canada, and the carbonate- hosted lead-zinc ores of Ireland and southeast France. Good progress has been made in using these computational methods for comparing and contrasting both carbonate hosted (MVT and Irish types) and shale- hosted (SEDEX type) Pb-Zn deposits. The former are mostly associated with undeformed carbonate platforms associated with distal orogenic belts and the later are mostly associated with extensional basins and failed rifts that are heavily faulted. Two giant ore provinces in extensional basins provide good examples of structural control on reactive mass transport: shale-hosted Pb-Zn ores of the Proterozoic McArthur basin, Australia, and shale-hosted Pb-Zn-Ba ores of the Paleozoic Kuna basin, Alaska. For the McArthur basin, hydrogeologic simulations of thermally-driven free convection suggest a strong structural control on fluid flow created by the north-trending fault systems that dominate this Proterozoic extensional basin. Brines appear to have descended to depths of a few kilometers along the western side of the basin, migrated laterally to the

  18. 8. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL AND UPPER ORE BIN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. EAST ELEVATION OF SKIDOO MILL AND UPPER ORE BIN, LOOKING WEST FROM ACCESS ROAD. THE ROADWAY ON THIS LEVEL (CENTER) WAS USED FOR UNLOADING ORE BROUGHT ON BURROWS INTO THE ORE BIN AT THE TOP LEVEL OF THE MILL. THE ORE BIN IN THE UPPER LEFT WAS ADDED LATER WHEN ORE WAS BROUGHT TO THE MILL BY TRUCKS. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  19. Managing 'tail liability'.

    PubMed

    Frese, Richard C; Weber, Ryan J

    2013-11-01

    To reduce and control their level of tail liability, hospitals should: Utilize a self-insurance vehicle; Consider combined limits between the hospital and physicians; Communicate any program changes to the actuary, underwriter, and auditor; Continue risk management and safety practices; Ensure credit is given to the organization's own medical malpractice program. PMID:24340649

  20. Copper and organisms in the Fly River: Linking laboratory testing and field responses to copper

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.E.W.; Ahsanullah, M.

    1995-12-31

    The Ok Tedi copper mine has operated in the headwaters of the Fly River system in Papua New Guinea since 1984, and has discharged both tailings and waste rock into the river system. ANCOVA modelling of total catches of fish by standardized effort indicated that the suspended particulate copper concentration was negatively correlated with fish catches, but that the concentrations of suspended solids and dissolved copper were not significantly related to fish catches. Multivariate analyses of fish catch compositions have indicated that the effects caused by dissolved and particulate copper have differed, and that the observed changes in fish catch composition have trended in a direction similar to the particulate copper vectors. The types of catch composition changes do not match the natural assemblages found to be associated with high uncontaminated suspended solids concentrations. Laboratory toxicity testing of native fish, prawns, cladocerans, mayflies, algae and higher plants has demonstrated that the dissolved copper concentrations in the Fly River system ({approximately}up to 20 pg/L) have low bioavailability and would not be expected to cause acute toxicity. Provided the dissolved copper concentration is in this range, particulate copper, as derived from mine wastes, has low acute and chronic toxicity at concentrations up to 8.5 times observed levels. Hypotheses put forward to explain the apparent paradox include: total particulate copper is a better measure of the toxic fraction of dissolved copper than is the concentration of copper passing a 0.45 {micro}m filter; or that fish are able to avoid particulate copper when the associated dissolved copper concentrations are less than the detectable threshold. Behavioral toxicity testing is being used to test these hypotheses.

  1. REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR PROFILE OF TAIL FROM SECOND LEVEL OF TAIL DOCK STAND, SHOWING AIRCRAFT NUMBER (319), HORIZONTAL STABILIZER, TAIL CONE AND COOLING CTS FOR THE AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), MECHANIC PAUL RIDEOUT IS LOWERING THE BALANCE PANELS ON THE STABILIZERS FOR LUBRICATION AND INSPECTION. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  2. Oil shales, evaporites and ore deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugster, Hans P.

    1985-03-01

    The relationships between oil shales, evaporites and sedimentary ore deposits can be classified in terms of stratigraphic and geochemical coherence. Oil shale and black shale deposition commonly follows continental red beds and is in turn followed by evaporite deposition. This transgressive-regressive sequence represents an orderly succession of depositional environments in space and time and results in stratigraphic coherence. The amount of organic carbon of a sediment depends on productivity and preservation, both of which are enhanced by saline environments. Work on Great Salt Lake. Utah, allows us to estimate that only 5% of TOC originally deposited is preserved. Inorganic carbonate production is similar to TOC production, but preservation is much higher. Oil shales and black shales commonly are enriched in heavy metals through scavenging by biogenic particles and complexation by organic matter. Ore deposits are formed from such rocks through secondary enrichment processes, establishing a geochemical coherence between oil shales and ore deposits. The Permian Kupferschiefer of N. Europe is used as an example to define a Kupferschiefer type (KST) deposit. Here oxygenated brines in contact with red beds become acidified through mineral precipitation and acquire metals by dissolving oxide coatings. Oxidation of the black shale leads to further acid production and metal acquisition and eventually to sulfide deposition along a reducing front. In order to form ore bodies, the stratigraphic coherence of the red bed-black shale-evaporite succession must be joined by the geochemical coherence of the ore body-evaporite-black shale association. The Cretaceous Cu-Zn deposits of Angola, the Zambian Copperbelt as well as the Creta, Oklahoma, deposits are other KST examples. In the Zambian Copperbelt, evaporites are indicated by the carbonate lenticles thought to be pseudomorphs after gypsum-anhydrite nodules. MVT deposits are also deposited by acid brines, but at more

  3. Scientific basis for risk assessment and management of uranium mill tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    A National Research Council study panel, convened by the Board on Radioactive Waste Management, has examined the scientific basis for risk assessment and management of uranium mill tailings and issued this final report containing a number of recommendations. Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction to the problem. Chapter 2 examines the processes of uranium extraction and the mechanisms by which radionuclides and toxic chemicals contained in the ore can enter the environment. Chapter 3 is devoted to a review of the evidence on health risks associated with radon and its decay products. Chapter 4 provides a consideration of conventional and possible new technical alternatives for tailings management. Chapter 5 explores a number of issues of comparative risk, provides a brief history of uranium mill tailings regulation, and concludes with a discussion of choices that must be made in mill tailing risk management. 211 refs., 30 figs., 27 tabs.

  4. The Idaho cobalt belt, northwestern United States — A metamorphosed Proterozoic exhalative ore district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nold, J. L.

    1990-07-01

    In the Idaho cobalt belt, originally exhalative, stratiform mineralization within the Proterozoic Yellow-jacket Formation has become increasingly coarse-grained and remobilized toward the northwest in the direction of increasing regional metamorphic grade. The Idaho cobalt belt is located about 40 km west of Salmon, Idaho in the northwestern United States. The most important deposit in the district is the Blackbird mine which produced copper-cobalt ore sporadically from the early 1900's until about 1960. The Iron Creek deposit at the southeast end of the belt has undergone greenschist fades, biotite zone metamorphism; zones of disseminated, veinlet and massive sulfides lie more or less parallel to bedding of quartzites and phyllites. The main ore minerals are chalcopyrite and cobaltiferous pyrite. Toward the northwest at the Blackpine mine, remobilization has concentrated most of the mineralization into relatively thin concordant and discordant veins containing chalcopyrite, pyrite and arsenopyrite. The cobalt is reported to occur within arsenopyrite. Further northwest at the Blackbird mine where the Yellowjacket formation has been metamorphosed to the lower amphibolite facies, zones of disseminated and coarse-grained vein ores lie approximately along the same stratigraphic zone. Chalcopyrite, cobaltite, arsenopyrite, pyrite and pyrrhotite are the dominant ore minerals. Up to 0.22 oz. Au/ton was present in some of the ore. In addition, tourmaline-bearing sedimentary rocks (tourmalinites) are associated with some of the Blackbird ores. The Salmon Canyon deposit at the northwest end of the belt has undergone upper amphibolite facies, sillimanite zone metamorphism. In these garnet-sillimanite gneisses, chalcopyrite is found as coarse blebs and cobaltite as large porphyroblastic crystals. Gold occurs in amounts up to 0.02 oz. Au/ton. Elsewhere in the world the two most similar districts are the cobalt-bearing portion of the Zambian-Zairian Copperbelt of central Africa

  5. Antimony ore in the Fairbanks district, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Killeen, Pemberton Lewis; Mertie, John B., Jr.

    1951-01-01

    Antimony-bearing ores in the Fairbanks district, Alaska, are found principally in two areas, the extremities of which are at points 10 miles west and 23 miles northeast of Fairbanks; and one of two minor areas lies along this same trend 30 miles farther to the northeast. These areas are probably only local manifestations of mineralization that affected a much broader area and formed antimony-bearing deposits in neighboring districts, the closest of which is 50 miles away. The ores were exposed largely as a result of lode gold mining, but at two periods in the past, high prices for antimony ore warranted an independent production and about 2500 tons of stibnite ore was shipped. The sulfide deposits occupy the same fractures along which a gold-quartz mineralization of greater economic importance occurred; and both are probably genetically related to igneous rocks which intrude the schistose country rock. The sulfide is in part contemporaneous with some late-stage quartz in which it occurs as disseminated crystals; and in part the latest filling in the mineralized zones where it forms kidney-shaped masses of essentially solid sulfide. One extremely long mass must have contained nearly 100 tons of ore, but the average of the larger kidneys is closer to several tons. Much of the ore is stibnite, with quartz as a minor impurity, and assays show the tenor to vary from 40 to 65 percent antimony. Sulphantimonites are less abundant but likewise occur as disseminated crystals and as kidney-shaped bodies. Antimony oxides appear on the weathered surface and along fractures within the sulfide ore. Deposits containing either stibnite or sulphantimonite are known at more than 50 localities, but only eighteen have produced ore and the bulk of this came from the mines. The geology of the deposit, and the nature, extent, and period of the workings are covered in the detailed descriptions of individual occurrences. Several geologic and economic factors, which greatly affect

  6. Heavy metals in mammals from two unmined copper-zinc deposits in Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.J.; Rongstad, O.J.

    1981-07-01

    This paper describes concentrations of zinc, copper, cadmium, lead, nickel, mercury and arsenic fom eight species of mammals collected at two areas in northern Wisconsin where zinc and copper deposits have been discovered and mines will be developed. The purposes of these analyses were: (1) to determine if differences existed in heavy metal concentrations in mammals between the two areas with different ore compositions and with the different amounts of glacial deposits over the ore bodies; and (2) to provide background levels which can be used for comparison of concentrations of these metals in mammals from other areas and from these same areas after the mines have been developed.

  7. Structural characteristics of chalcopyrite from a Cu(Au) ore deposit in the Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Andreza Aparecida; Lima, Diana Quintão; Duarte, Hélio Anderson; Murad, Enver; Pereira, Márcio César; de Freitas Suita, Marcos Tadeu; Ardisson, José Domingos; Fabris, José Domingos

    2011-11-01

    Mössbauer spectra and X-ray diffraction data show a chalcopyrite from the Cristalino Cu(Au) deposit in the Carajás Mineral Province in northern Brazil to consist of a single, tetragonal phase. This is in stark contrast to a previously described chalcopyrite from the Camaquã copper mine in southern Brazil, obviously reflecting differences in mineral (and thus ore deposit) genesis.

  8. Isolation of uranium mill tailings and their component radionuclides from the biosphere; some earth science perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, Edward

    1980-01-01

    Uranium mining and milling is an expanding activity in the. Western United States. Although the milling process yields a uranium concentrate, the large volume of tailings remaining contains about 85 percent of the radioactivity originally associated with the ore. By virtue of the physical and chemical processing of the ore and the redistribution of the contained radionuclides at the Earth's surface, these tailings constitute a technologically enhanced source of natural radiation exposure. Sources of potential human radiation exposure from uranium mill tailings include the emanation of radon gas, the transport of particles by wind and water, and the transport of soluble radionuclides, seeping from disposal areas, by ground water. Due to the 77,000 year half-life of thorium-230, the parent of radium-226, the environmental effects associated with radionuclides contained in these railings must be conceived of within the framework of geologic processes operating over geologic time. The magnitude of erosion of cover materials and tailings and the extent of geochemical mobilization of the contained radionuclides to the atmosphere and hydrosphere should be considered in the evaluation of the potential, long-term consequences of all proposed uranium mill tailings management plans.

  9. Gold, nickel and copper mining and processing.

    PubMed

    Lightfoot, Nancy E; Pacey, Michael A; Darling, Shelley

    2010-01-01

    Ore mining occurs in all Canadian provinces and territories except Prince Edward Island. Ores include bauxite, copper, gold, iron, lead and zinc. Workers in metal mining and processing are exposed, not only to the metal of interest, but also to various other substances prevalent in the industry, such as diesel emissions, oil mists, blasting agents, silica, radon, and arsenic. This chapter examines cancer risk related to the mining of gold, nickel and copper. The human carcinogenicity of nickel depends upon the species of nickel, its concentration and the route of exposure. Exposure to nickel or nickel compounds via routes other than inhalation has not been shown to increase cancer risk in humans. As such, cancer sites of concern include the lung, and the nasal sinus. Evidence comes from studies of nickel refinery and leaching, calcining, and sintering workers in the early half of the 20th century. There appears to be little or no detectable risk in most sectors of the nickel industry at current exposure levels. The general population risk from the extremely small concentrations detectable in ambient air are negligible. Nevertheless, animal carcinogenesis studies, studies of nickel carcinogenesis mechanisms, and epidemiological studies with quantitative exposure assessment of various nickel species would enhance our understanding of human health risks associated with nickel. Definitive conclusions linking cancer to exposures in gold and copper mining and processing are not possible at this time. The available results appear to demand additional study of a variety of potential occupational and non-occupational risk factors. PMID:21199602

  10. How many ore-bearing asteroids?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvis, Martin

    2014-02-01

    A simple formalism is presented to assess how many asteroids contain ore, i.e., commercially profitable material, and not merely a high concentration of a resource. I apply this formalism to two resource cases: platinum group metals (PGMs) and water. Assuming for now that only Ni-Fe asteroids are of interest for PGMs, then 1% of NEOs are rich in PGMs. The dearth of ultra-low delta-v (<4.5 km s-1) NEOs larger than 100 m diameter reduces the ore-bearing fraction to only 1 in 2000 NEOs. As 100 m diameter NEOs are needed to have a value ≥US$1B and the population of near-Earth objects (NEOs) larger than 100 m diameter is 20,000 (Mainzer et al., 2011) the total population of PGM ore-bearing NEOs is roughly 10. I stress that this is a conservative and highly uncertain value. For example, an order of magnitude increase in PGM ore-bearing NEOs occurs if delta-v can be as large as 5.7 km s-1. Water ore for utilization in space is likely to be found in 1/1100 NEOs. NEOs as small as 18 m diameter can be water-ore-bodies because of the high richness of water ( 20%) expected in 25% of carbonaceous asteroids, bringing the number of water-ore-bearing NEOs to 9000 out of the 10 million NEOs of this size. These small NEOs are, however, hard to find with present surveys. There will be 18 water-ore-bearing NEOs >100 m diameter. These estimates are at present highly imprecise and sensitive to small changes, especially in the maximum delta-v allowed. Nonetheless the low values found here mean that much improved determinations of each of the terms of the formalism are urgently needed. If better estimates still find small numbers of ore-bearing NEOs then thorough surveys for NEA discovery and, especially, characterization are needed. Strategies for the two classes are likely to be different.

  11. Genetic and biochemical effects induced by iron ore, Fe and Mn exposure in tadpoles of the bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus.

    PubMed

    Veronez, Alexandra Caroline da Silva; Salla, Rômulo Victor; Baroni, Vinícius Dadalto; Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda; Bianchini, Adalto; Dos Reis Martinez, Claudia Bueno; Chippari-Gomes, Adriana Regina

    2016-05-01

    For decades, the extraction of minerals has intensified in order to meet the demand of industry. Iron ore deposits are important sources of metals, such as iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn). The particulate ores can be dispersed during extraction, transport and storage, with potential to induce biological impacts. Amphibians are very sensitive to environmental stressors. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the effects of iron ore, Fe and Mn exposure during the metamorphosis of Lithobates catesbeianus. Endpoints analyzed included morphological (biometrical and developmental analyses), whole body Fe and Mn concentration in, plasma ferritin concentration, erythrocyte DNA damage (measured through comet assay and micronucleus test) and liver activity of enzymes involved in oxidative status [glutathione S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT)]. Tadpoles were kept under control condition (no contaminant addition) or exposed to iron ore (3.79mg/L as fine particulate matter); Fe (nominal concentration: 0.51mg/L Fe as C10H12FeN2NaO8; Fe-EDTA); and Mn (nominal concentration: 5.23mg/L Mn as 4H2O.MnCl2) for 30 days. Virtually, no mortality was observed, except for one tadpole found dead in the iron ore treatment. However, tadpoles exposed to iron ore had longer tail than those kept under control conditions while tadpoles exposed to manganese chloride showed higher body length than control ones. Exposure to Fe and Mn induced a delay in tadpole metamorphosis, especially when these metals are presented not as a mixture (iron ore). Tadpoles exposed to iron ore had increased whole body Fe and Mn while those exposed to Fe and Mn accumulated each metal individually. Tadpoles exposed to any of the contaminants tested showed a significant increase in erythrocyte DNA damage and frequency of micronuclei. In addition, they showed higher liver GST activity respect with those kept under control conditions. Plasma ferritin concentration and liver CAT activity were higher only in tadpoles

  12. Copper cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Copper cyanide ; CASRN 544 - 92 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  13. The tail plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munk, Max M

    1923-01-01

    This report deals with the calculation of the equilibrium, statistical stability, and damping of the tail plane. The author has simplified the present theory of longitudinal stability for the particular purpose of obtaining one definite coefficient characteristics of the effect of the tail plane. This coefficient is obtained by substituting certain aerodynamic characteristics and some dimensions of the airplane in a comparatively simple mathematical expression. Care has been taken to confine all aerodynamical information necessary for the calculation of the coefficient to the well-known curves representing the qualities of the wing section. This is done by making use of the present results of modern aerodynamics. All formulas and relations necessary for the calculation are contained in the paper. They give in some cases only an approximation of the real values. An example of calculation is added in order to illustrate the application of the method. The coefficient indicates not only whether the effect of the tail plane is great enough, but also whether it is not too great. It appears that the designer has to avoid a certain critical length of the fuselage, which inevitably gives rise to periodical oscillations of the airplane. The discussion also shows the way and in what direction to carry out experimental work.

  14. Modelling Cometary Sodium Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, K. S.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Neutral sodium is readily observed in cometary spectra and can be seen to form its own distinct tail at high activity comets. Solar radiation pressure accelerates the sodium atoms antisunward and, as strong sodium absorption lines are present in the solar spectrum, the magnitude of this force is dependent upon the Doppler shift of the incident solar radiation. Therefore the heliocentric velocity of the sodium atom directly determines its acceleration. This can produce unique effects, such as a stagnation region. Sodium is relatively easy to detect and so can potentially be used to trace mechanisms in the coma that are otherwise difficult to observe. The source of neutral sodium in the tail currently remains unknown. We have therefore developed a new, three dimensional Monte-Carlo model of neutral cometary sodium in order to facilitate testing of different source production functions. It includes weightings due to neutral sodium lifetime, variation of cometary sodium emission due to Fraunhofer absorption lines and solar flux variation with heliocentric distance. The Swings and Greenstein effects, which can have particularly dramatic effects in near-Sun comets, are also considered comprehensively. Preliminary results from this model are presented, focusing on a comparison of predictions of the neutral sodium tail of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with initial observations.

  15. Biotechnical applications to ore mining and processing. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning applications of biotechnology to mining processes, excluding coal mining. Topics discussed include bacterial extraction, bacterial leaching, biodesulfurization, biodegradation, biocatalysis, microbial oxidation and reduction, and biological beneficiation techniques. Applications are considered for the mining of manganese, uranium, zinc, pyrites, copper, gold, and other metallic ores, and for treatment of their waste products. Both in situ and post excavation processes are considered, as well as biological cleanup of process effluents. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Platinum metals magmatic sulfide ores.

    PubMed

    Naldrett, A J; Duke, J M

    1980-06-27

    Platinum-group elements (PGE) are mined predominantly from deposits that have formed by the segregation of molten iron-nickel-copper sulfides from silicate magmas. The absolute concentrations of PGE in sulfides from different deposits vary over a range of five orders of magnitude, whereas those of other chalcophile elements vary by factors of only 2 to 100. However, the relative proportions of the different PGE in a given deposit are systematically related to the nature of the parent magma. The absolute and relative concentrations of PGE in magmatic sulfides are explained in terms of the degree of partial melting of mantle peridotite required to produce the parent magma and the processes of batch equilibration and fractional segregation of sulfides. The Republic of South Africa and the U.S.S.R. together possess more than 97 percent of the world PGE reserves, but significant undeveloped resources occur in North America. The Stillwater complex in Montana is perhaps the most important example. PMID:17796685

  17. Concentrations and forms of heavy metals around two ore processing sites in Katanga, Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mees, F.; Masalehdani, M. N. N.; De Putter, T.; D'Hollander, C.; Van Biezen, E.; Mujinya, B. B.; Potdevin, J. L.; Van Ranst, E.

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of heavy metals and the forms in which they occur were determined for tailings and derived deposits of two major processing sites of Cu-Co and Cu-Zn-(Pb) ores in the Katanga Copperbelt (Kipushi, Likasi). They were studied by a combination of methods, focussed on the nature of water- and EDTA-extractable compounds, the mineralogical composition of tailings and associated secondary minerals, and textural features of metal-bearing efflorescences. For the Kipushi area, sulfide minerals in tailings of decantation basins are identified as the source of extractable metals they contain, but input from an external source rather than local oxidation of substrate components is responsible for high levels of contamination in the Likasi area. Contaminated areas around Likasi are characterized by an abundance of Mg-sulfate efflorescences with high concentrations of cobalt and other metals, acting as an important vector for further dispersion of contaminants by wind and water.

  18. Method for extraction of uranium from ores

    SciTech Connect

    Bings, H.; Fischer, P.; Kampf, F.; Pietsch, H.; Thome, R.; Turke, W.; Wargalla, G.; Winkhaus, G.

    1982-11-30

    A method for continuously extracting uranium from ores comprises the steps of: forming a slurry of ore in a leaching solution; heating the slurry while pumping it through a tube reactor at high turbulences characterized by Reynolds numbers in excess of 50,000; supplying gaseous oxygen at high pressures into the tube reactor such that the uranium is substantially completely oxidized in a soluble form but impurities in the slurry are substantially kept from becoming soluble; recovering the uranium oxide solute which is substantially free of impurities.

  19. AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH, WITH FORMER TCIUS STEEL ORE MINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH, WITH FORMER TCI-US STEEL ORE MINE HEADQUARTERS (BOTTOM) AND SUPERINTENDENT'S AND FOREMAN HOUSING ALONG MINNESOTA AVENUE AT CREST OF RED MOUNTAIN (TOP LEFT). - Muscoda Red Ore Mining Community, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  20. 3. DETAIL OF ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM AND GRIZZLY, VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL OF ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM AND GRIZZLY, VIEW TO WEST. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Sampling Building & Ore Receiving Platform, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  1. 2. VIEW TO NORTHEAST (ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM OUT OF VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW TO NORTHEAST (ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM OUT OF VIEW TO RIGHT). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Sampling Building & Ore Receiving Platform, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  2. 7. VIEW OF CARRIE No. 3 AND No. 4 ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF CARRIE No. 3 AND No. 4 ORE BRIDGE, ORE YARD AND FURNACES FROM THE HOT METAL BRIDGE. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  3. 4. DETAIL OF ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM AND GRIZZLY, VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM AND GRIZZLY, VIEW TO EAST. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Sampling Building & Ore Receiving Platform, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  4. 1. VIEW TO SOUTH (RETAINING WALL OF ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW TO SOUTH (RETAINING WALL OF ORE RECEIVING PLATFORM TO LEFT). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Sampling Building & Ore Receiving Platform, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  5. CONTEXT VIEW ALONG EXISTING PERIMETER TRACKS LOOKING OVER IRON ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT VIEW ALONG EXISTING PERIMETER TRACKS LOOKING OVER IRON ORE CARS TOWARDS CLEVELAND BULK TERMINAL BUILDINGS. LOOKING SOUTH. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  6. CONTEXT VIEW SHOWING MODERN TRACKS PASSING UNDER HULETTS AND ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT VIEW SHOWING MODERN TRACKS PASSING UNDER HULETTS AND ORE YARD. LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  7. CONTEXT VIEW ACROSS ORE YARD AT MODERN SELFUNLOADING SHIP UNLOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT VIEW ACROSS ORE YARD AT MODERN SELF-UNLOADING SHIP UNLOADING IN FRONT OF HULETTS. LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  8. CONTEXT VIEW ACROSS ORE YARD AT MODERN SELFUNLOADING BOOM IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT VIEW ACROSS ORE YARD AT MODERN SELF-UNLOADING BOOM IN FRONT OF HULETTS. LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  9. Floods from tailings dam failures.

    PubMed

    Rico, M; Benito, G; Díez-Herrero, A

    2008-06-15

    This paper compiles the available information on historic tailings dam failures with the purpose to establish simple correlations between tailings ponds geometric parameters (e.g., dam height, tailings volume) and the hydraulic characteristics of floods resulting from released tailings. Following the collapse of a mining waste dam, only a part of tailings and polluted water stored at the dam is released, and this outflow volume is difficult to estimate prior the incident. In this study, tailings' volume stored at the time of failure was shown to have a good correlation (r2=0.86) with the tailings outflow volume, and the volume of spilled tailings was correlated with its run-out distance (r2=0.57). An envelope curve was drawn encompassing the majority of data points indicating the potential maximum downstream distance affected by a tailings' spill. The application of the described regression equations for prediction purposes needs to be treated with caution and with support of on-site measurement and observations. However, they may provide a universal baseline approximation on tailing outflow characteristics (even if detailed dam information is unavailable), which is of a great importance for risk analysis purposes. PMID:18096316

  10. The Myszkow porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit, Poland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaffee, M.A.; Eppinger, R.G.; Lason, K.; Slosarz, J.; Podemski, M.

    1994-01-01

    The porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit at Myszkow, south-central Poland, lies in the Cracow-Silesian orogenic belt, in the vicinity of a Paleozoic boundary between two tectonic plates. The deposit is hosted in a complex that includes early Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks intruded in the late Paleozoic by a predominantly granodioritic pluton. This deposit exhibits many features that are typical of porphyry copper deposits associated with calc-alkaline intrusive rocks, including ore- and alteration-mineral suites, zoning of ore and alteration minerals, fluid-inclusion chemistry, tectonic setting, and structural style of veining. Unusual features of the Myszkow deposit include high concentrations of tungsten and the late Paleozoic (Variscan) age. -Authors

  11. An econometric model of the U.S. secondary copper industry: Recycling versus disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slade, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper, a theoretical model of secondary recovery is developed that integrates microeconomic theories of production and cost with a dynamic model of scrap generation and accumulation. The model equations are estimated for the U.S. secondary copper industry and used to assess the impacts that various policies and future events have on copper recycling rates. The alternatives considered are: subsidies for secondary production, differing energy costs, and varying ore quality in primary production. ?? 1990.

  12. Photochemical changes in cyanide speciation in drainage from a precious metal ore heap.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Craig A; Leinz, Reinhard W; Grimes, David J; Rye, Robert O

    2002-03-01

    In drainage from an inactive ore heap at a former gold mine, the speciation of cyanide and the concentrations of several metals were found to follow diurnal cycles. Concentrations of the hexacyanoferrate complex, iron, manganese, and ammonium were higher at night than during the day, whereas weak-acid-dissociable cyanide, silver, gold, copper, nitrite, and pH displayed the reverse behavior. The changes in cyanide speciation, iron, and trace metals can be explained by photodissociation of iron and cobalt cyanocomplexes as the solutions emerged from the heap into sunlight-exposed channels. At midday, environmentally significant concentrations of free cyanide were produced in a matter of minutes, causing trace copper, silver, and gold to be mobilized as cyanocomplexes from solids. Whether rapid photodissociation is a general phenomenon common to other sites will be important to determine in reaching a general understanding of the environmental risks posed by routine or accidental water discharges from precious metal mining facilities. PMID:11918005

  13. Photochemical changes in cyanide speciation in drainage from a precious metal ore heap

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.A.; Leinz, R.W.; Grimes, D.J.; Rye, R.O.

    2002-01-01

    In drainage from an inactive ore heap at a former gold mine, the speciation of cyanide and the concentrations of several metals were found to follow diurnal cycles. Concentrations of the hexacyanoferrate complex, iron, manganese, and ammonium were higher at night than during the day, whereas weak-acid-dissociable cyanide, silver, gold, copper, nitrite, and pH displayed the reverse behavior. The changes in cyanide speciation, iron, and trace metals can be explained by photodissociation of iron and cobalt cyanocomplexes as the solutions emerged from the heap into sunlight-exposed channels. At midday, environmentally significant concentrations of free cyanide were produced in a matter of minutes, causing trace copper, silver, and gold to be mobilized as cyanocomplexes from solids. Whether rapid photodissociation is a general phenomenon common to other sites will be important to determine in reaching a general understanding of the environmental risks posed by routine or accidental water discharges from precious metal mining facilities.

  14. Placement Of O-Rings In Solid Rocket Booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Charles

    1991-01-01

    Brief report proposes to modify placement of O-ring seals in joints of Solid Rocket Booster of Space Shuttle. Modified joint and seal essentially "inside-out" version of old joint and seal. O-rings placed between outer side of tang and clevis. Joint rotation pushes tang harder against O-rings, thereby making even tighter seal. Proposal derived from analysis of Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, attributed to failure of these O-ring seals.

  15. 32. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH ON THE ORE BREAKER LEVEL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH ON THE ORE BREAKER LEVEL. THE ORE BREAKER, A BLAKE JAW CRUSHER, IS IN THE BOX IN THE LEFT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH, THE ORE TO BE BROKEN IS FED INTO THE OPENING ON THE FLOOR AND NEXT TO ORE BREAKER BOX. THE GRIZZLY BARS ARE ON THE RIGHT AND THE PULLEYS FROM THE POWER SYSTEM ARE OVERHEAD. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  16. Process for recovering hydrocarbons from a diatomite-type ore

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, B.W.

    1983-02-15

    A process for recovering hydrocarbons from a diatomite-type ore which comprises contacting the diatomite ore with a C/sub 4/-C/sub 10/ alcohol and thereafter contacting the diatomite ore-alcohol mixture with an aqueous alkaline solution to separate a hydrocarbon-alcohol phase and an alkaline aqueous phase containing the stripped diatomite ore. Thereafter, the alcohol is distilled off from the hydrocarbon phase and recycled back into the initial process.

  17. Dispersion strengthened copper

    DOEpatents

    Sheinberg, H.; Meek, T.T.; Blake, R.D.

    1990-01-09

    A composition of matter is described which is comprised of copper and particles which are dispersed throughout the copper, where the particles are comprised of copper oxide and copper having a coating of copper oxide. A method for making this composition of matter is also described. This invention relates to the art of powder metallurgy and, more particularly, it relates to dispersion strengthened metals.

  18. COPPER AND BRAIN FUNCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing evidence shows that brain development and function are impaired when the brain is deprived of copper either through dietary copper deficiency or through genetic defects in copper transport. A number of copper-dependent enzymes whose activities are lowered by copper deprivation form the ba...

  19. The geomagnetic tail

    SciTech Connect

    Birn, J. )

    1991-01-01

    A review is presented of the plasma sheet and lobe regions of the magnetotail, focusing principally on large-scale processes or microprocesses with some large-scale effects. Consideration is given to quiet and average structures, not necessarily related to activity phases, with quasi-steady convection aspects, and with the characteristics of dynamic phases including acceleration mechanisms and single particle aspects. Attention is given to various activity models, average and quiet time properties, properties and effects of magnetospheric convection, dynamics of the magnetotail, and the near tail, substorm current wedge.

  20. 29. ORE DOCK, LOOKING WEST; AT WORK UNLOADING THE 'GEORGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. ORE DOCK, LOOKING WEST; AT WORK UNLOADING THE 'GEORGE M. HUMPHREY'S' CARGO OF 25,000. TONS OF ORE. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  1. 3. EAGLE MILL, DETAIL OF CRUDE ORE BIN FROM NORTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EAGLE MILL, DETAIL OF CRUDE ORE BIN FROM NORTH, c. 1908-10. SHOWS EXPOSED CRUSHER HOUSE IN FRONT OF (SOUTH) CRUDE ORE BIN AND SNOW SHED ADDED OVER TRAM TRACKS. NOTE LACK OF EAST OR WEST CRUDE ORE BINS. CREDIT JW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  2. 18. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM WEST. WEST CRUDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM WEST. WEST CRUDE ORE BIN AND TRESTLE FROM TWO JOHNS TRAMLINE TO SOUTH, CRUDE ORE BIN IN FOREGROUND. MACHINE SHOP IN BACKGROUND. THE TRAM TO PORTLAND PASSED TO NORTH OF MACHINE SHOP. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  3. 6. Looking west showing top of dock: steaming frozen ore ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Looking west showing top of dock: steaming frozen ore which had been put in pockets in December 1959, May 6, 1990. Photographer: unknown - Marquette Ore Dock No. 6, Ore Dock, On pilings in Marquette City Lower Harbor, Marquette, Marquette County, MI

  4. 17. ORE DOCK, LOOKING EAST FROM HULETT NO. 1. WHEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. ORE DOCK, LOOKING EAST FROM HULETT NO. 1. WHEN BUILT IN 1911-1912, THIS WAS THE LARGEST ORE-UNLOADING DOCK ON THE GREAT LAKES. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  5. CONTEXT VIEW ALONG EXISTING PERIMETER TRACKS LOOKING OVER IRON ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXT VIEW ALONG EXISTING PERIMETER TRACKS LOOKING OVER IRON ORE CARS TOWARDS WESTERN SIDE OF CLEVELAND BULK TERMINAL BUILDINGS AND A SELF-UNLOADING IRON ORE SHIP AT DOCK. LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  6. 226Ra bioavailability to plants at the Urgeiriça uranium mill tailings site.

    PubMed

    Madruga, M J; Brogueira, A; Alberto, G; Cardoso, F

    2001-01-01

    Large amounts of solid wastes (tailings) resulting from the exploitation and treatment of uranium ore at the Urgeiriça mine (north of Portugal) have been accumulated in dams (tailing ponds). To reduce the dispersion of natural radionuclides into the environment, some dams were revegetated with eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globolus) and pines (Pinus pinea). Besides these plants, some shrubs (Cytisus spp.) are growing in some of the dams. The objective of this study is to determine the 226Ra bioavailability from uranium mill tailings by quantifying the total and available fraction of radium in the tailings and to estimate its transfer to plants growing on the tailing piles. Plant and tailing samples were randomly collected and the activity concentration of 226Ra in plants (aerial part and roots) and tailings was measured by gamma-spectrometry. The exchangeable fraction of radium in tailings was quantified using one single step extraction with 1 mol dm-3 ammonium acetate (pH = 7) or 1 mol dm-3 calcium chloride solutions. The results obtained for 226Ra uptake by plants show that 226Ra concentration ratios for eucalyptus and pines decrease at low 226Ra concentrations in the tailings and appear relatively constant at higher radium concentrations. For shrubs, the concentration ratios increase at higher 226Ra solid waste concentrations approaching a saturation value. Percentage values of 16.0 +/- 8.3 and 12.9 +/- 8.9, for the fraction of radium extracted from the tailings, using 1 mol dm-3 ammonium acetate or calcium chloride solutions, respectively, were obtained. The 226Ra concentration ratios determined on the basis of exchangeable radium are one order of magnitude higher than those based on total radium. It can be concluded that, at a 95% confidence level, more consistent 226Ra concentration ratios were obtained when calculated on the basis of available radium than when total radium was considered, for all the dams. PMID:11379070

  7. PROCESS OF RECOVERING URANIUM FROM ITS ORES

    DOEpatents

    Galvanek, P. Jr.

    1959-02-24

    A process is presented for recovering uranium from its ores. The crushed ore is mixed with 5 to 10% of sulfuric acid and added water to about 5 to 30% of the weight of the ore. This pugged material is cured for 2 to 3 hours at 100 to 110 deg C and then cooled. The cooled mass is nitrate-conditioned by mixing with a solution equivalent to 35 pounds of ammunium nitrate and 300 pounds of water per ton of ore. The resulting pulp containing 70% or more solids is treated by upflow percolation with a 5% solution of tributyl phosphate in kerosene at a rate equivalent to a residence time of about one hour to extract the solubilized uranium. The uranium is recovered from the pregnant organic liquid by counter-current washing with water. The organic extractant may be recycled. The uranium is removed from the water solution by treating with ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate. The filtrate from the last step may be recycled for the nitrate-conditioning treatment.

  8. Metalliferous black shales and related ore deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Grauch, R.I. ); Huyck, H.L.O. )

    1990-01-01

    This book comprises papers and extended abstracts dealing with a variety of topics including the geochemistry and organic geochemistry of several black shale formations: the nature of modern Black Sea sediments: metal- organic complexes in ore fluids; black shales related to disseminated gold deposits; vanadium concentrations and molybdenum-nickel deposits; and the problem of defining metalliferous black shales.

  9. Sources of ores of the ferroalloy metals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burchard, E.F.

    1933-01-01

    Since all steel is made with the addition of alloying elements, the record of the metallic raw materials contributory to the steel industry would be far from complete without reference to the ferroalloy metals. This paper, therefore, supplements two preceding arvicles on the sources of our iron ores. The photographs, with the exception of those relating to molybdenum and vanadium, are by the author.

  10. Tailings dam-break flow - Analysis of sediment transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleixo, Rui; Altinakar, Mustafa

    2015-04-01

    A common solution to store mining debris is to build tailings dams near the mining site. These dams are usually built with local materials such as mining debris and are more vulnerable than concrete dams (Rico et al. 2008). of The tailings and the pond water generally contain heavy metals and various toxic chemicals used in ore extraction. Thus, the release of tailings due to a dam-break can have severe ecological consequences in the environment. A tailings dam-break has many similarities with a common dam-break flow. It is highly transient and can be severely descructive. However, a significant difference is that the released sediment-water mixture will behave as a non-Newtonian flow. Existing numerical models used to simulate dam-break flows do not represent correctly the non-Newtonian behavior of tailings under a dam-break flow and may lead to unrealistic and incorrect results. The need for experiments to extract both qualitative and quantitative information regarding these flows is therefore real and actual. The present paper explores an existing experimental data base presented in Aleixo et al. (2014a,b) to further characterize the sediment transport under conditions of a severe transient flow and to extract quantitative information regarding sediment flow rate, sediment velocity, sediment-sediment interactions a among others. Different features of the flow are also described and analyzed in detail. The analysis is made by means of imaging techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry and Particle Tracking Velocimetry that allow extracting not only the velocity field but the Lagrangian description of the sediments as well. An analysis of the results is presented and the limitations of the presented experimental approach are discussed. References Rico, M., Benito, G., Salgueiro, AR, Diez-Herrero, A. and Pereira, H.G. (2008) Reported tailings dam failures: A review of the European incidents in the worldwide context , Journal of Hazardous Materials, 152, 846

  11. Modeling fossil energy demands of primary nonferrous metal production: the case of copper.

    PubMed

    Swart, Pilar; Dewulf, Jo

    2013-12-17

    The methodologies for life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) of metal resources are rather diverse. Some LCIA methods are based on ore grade changes, but they typically do not consider the impact of changes in primary metal extraction technology. To characterize the impact of technology changes for copper, we modeled and analyzed energy demand, expressed in fossil energy equivalents (FEE) per kilogram of primary copper, taking into account the applied mining method and processing technology. The model was able to capture variations in reported energy demands of selected mining sites (FEE: 0.07 to 0.84 MJ-eq/kg ore) with deviations of 1 to 30%. Applying the model to a database containing global mine production data resulted in energy demand median values of around 50 MJ/kg Cu irrespective of the processing route, even though median values of ore demands varied between processing routes from ca. 35 (underground, conventional processing) to 200 kg ore/kg Cu (open pit, solvent-extraction, and electrowinning), as high specific ore demands are typically associated with less energy intensive extraction technologies and vice versa. Thus, only considering ore grade in LCIA methods without making any differentiation with regard to employed technology can produce misleading results. PMID:24266773

  12. Plant selection for dewatering and reclamation of tailings

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, M.J.; Naeth, M.A.; Biggar, K.W.; Chanasyk, D.S.; Sego, D.C.

    1998-12-31

    A two-phase greenhouse experiment was conducted to identify the most suitable species for dewatering and reclamation of Composite Tailings (CT) from Alberta oil sands operated by Syncrude Canada Ltd. and Copper Mine Tailings (CMT) from the Kennecott site in Utah. A total of 15 and 9 plant species were selected for testing in CT and CMT, respectively. In Phase 1, distilled water was added weekly to simulate local precipitation. The initial solids content were 80% and 76% and the electrical conductivities were 1.1 dS/m and 3.2 dS/m for CT and CMT, respectively. All plants survived after a ten-week period. In Phase 2 only process water was added weekly to provide a worst case scenario of no precipitation and water recharge due only to process water being released from within the tailings. The initial solids contents were 65% and 76% for CT and CMT, respectively. Surface (0--3 in.) salinity increased dramatically due to the application of process water only; at the end of Phase 2 it had reached toxic levels of approximately 18.9 dS/m and 35.0 dS/m in CT and CMT, respectively. Many plants showed signs of stress due to the high salinity level. The plants which performed the best under both phases in Composite Tailings were creeping foxtail (Alopecurus arundinaceus), reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea), Altai wildrye (Elymus angustus), and red top (Agrostis stolonifera); and in Copper Mine Tailings were Altai wildrye, smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis) and creeping foxtail.

  13. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    SciTech Connect

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-04-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the United States may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  14. Uranium mill tailings and radon

    SciTech Connect

    Hanchey, L A

    1981-01-01

    The major health hazard from uranium mill tailings is presumed to be respiratory cancer resulting from the inhalation of radon daughter products. A review of studies on inhalation of radon and its daughters indicates that the hazard from the tailings is extremely small. If the assumptions used in the studies are correct, one or two people per year in the US may develop cancer as a result of radon exhaled from all the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program sites. The remedial action should reduce the hazard from the tailings by a factor of about 100.

  15. Bioleaching of heavy metals from a low-grade mining ore using Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Catherine N; Kamali, Mahtab; Gibbs, Bernard F

    2004-07-01

    The main concern of this study is to develop a feasible and economical technique to microbially recover metals from oxide low-grade ores. Owing to the significant quantities of metals that are embodied in low-grade ores and mining residues, these are potential viable sources of metals. In addition, they potentially endanger the environment, as the metals they contain may be released to the environment in hazardous form. Hence, mining industries are seeking an efficient, economic technique to handle these ores. Pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical techniques are either very expensive, energy intensive or have a negative impact on the environment. For these reasons, biohydrometallurgical techniques are coming into perspective. In this study, by employing Aspergillus niger, the feasibility of recovery of metals from a mining residue is shown. A. niger exhibits good potential in generating a variety of organic acids effective for metal solubilization. Organic acid effectiveness was enhanced when sulfuric acid was added to the medium. Different agricultural wastes such as potato peels were tested. In addition, different auxiliary processes were evaluated in order to either elevate the efficiency or reduce costs. Finally, maximum solubilization of 68%, 46% and 34% were achieved for copper, zinc and nickel, respectively. Also iron co-dissolution was minimized as only 7% removal occurred. PMID:15177728

  16. 3. VIEW OF WEST TAILING DAM, LARGE TANK, AND TAILING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF WEST TAILING DAM, LARGE TANK, AND TAILING, LOOKING NORTHEAST. A SIX-FOOT SCALE IS LOCATED AGAINST WALL ON LEFT. PURPOSE OF TANK IS UNKNOWN, BUT APPEARS TO HAVE FALLEN FROM ITS ORIGINAL LOCATION AT THE MILL SITE, UP AND TO THE RIGHT OF THIS VIEW. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  17. Reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore: effect of the iron removal operation on solid waste disposal.

    PubMed

    De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco; Beolchini, Francesca; Vegliò, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The process of reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore is aimed at the extraction of manganese from low grade manganese ores. This work is focused on the iron removal operation. The following items have been considered in order to investigate the effect of the main operating conditions on solid waste disposal and on the process costs: (i) type and quantity of the base agent used for iron precipitation, (ii) effective need of leaching waste separation prior to the iron removal operation, (iii) presence of a second leaching stage with the roasted ore, which might also act as a preliminary iron removal step, and (iv) effect of tailings washing on the solid waste classification. Different base compounds have been tested, including CaO, CaCO3, NaOH, and Na2CO3. The latter gave the best results concerning both the precipitation process kinetics and the reagent consumption. The filtration of the liquor leach prior to iron removal was not necessary, implying significant savings in capital costs. A reduction of chemical consumption and an increase of manganese concentration in the solution were obtained by introducing secondary leaching tests with the previously roasted ore; this additional step was introduced without a significant decrease of global manganese extraction yield. Finally, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests carried out on the leaching solid waste showed: (i) a reduction of arsenic mobility in the presence of iron precipitates, and (ii) the need for a washing step in order to produce a waste that is classifiable as not dangerous, taking into consideration the existing Environmental National Laws. PMID:18556190

  18. Reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore: Effect of the iron removal operation on solid waste disposal

    SciTech Connect

    De Michelis, Ida; Ferella, Francesco; Beolchini, Francesca Veglio, Francesco

    2009-01-15

    The process of reducing acid leaching of manganiferous ore is aimed at the extraction of manganese from low grade manganese ores. This work is focused on the iron removal operation. The following items have been considered in order to investigate the effect of the main operating conditions on solid waste disposal and on the process costs: (i) type and quantity of the base agent used for iron precipitation, (ii) effective need of leaching waste separation prior to the iron removal operation, (iii) presence of a second leaching stage with the roasted ore, which might also act as a preliminary iron removal step, and (iv) effect of tailings washing on the solid waste classification. Different base compounds have been tested, including CaO, CaCO{sub 3}, NaOH, and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The latter gave the best results concerning both the precipitation process kinetics and the reagent consumption. The filtration of the liquor leach prior to iron removal was not necessary, implying significant savings in capital costs. A reduction of chemical consumption and an increase of manganese concentration in the solution were obtained by introducing secondary leaching tests with the previously roasted ore; this additional step was introduced without a significant decrease of global manganese extraction yield. Finally, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) tests carried out on the leaching solid waste showed: (i) a reduction of arsenic mobility in the presence of iron precipitates, and (ii) the need for a washing step in order to produce a waste that is classifiable as not dangerous, taking into consideration the existing Environmental National Laws.

  19. Kinetics of Uranium Extraction from Uranium Tailings by Oxidative Leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Biao; Li, Mi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Huang, Jing

    2016-05-01

    Extraction of uranium from uranium tailings by oxidative leaching with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was studied. The effects of various extraction factors were investigated to optimize the dissolution conditions, as well as to determine the leaching kinetic parameters. The behavior of H2O2 in the leaching process was determined through scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) and x-ray diffraction analysis of leaching residues. Results suggest that H2O2 can significantly improve uranium extraction by decomposing the complex gangue structures in uranium tailings and by enhancing the reaction rate between uranium phases and the leaching agent. The extraction kinetics expression was changed from 1 - 3(1 - α)2/3 + 2(1 - α) = K 0(H2SO4)-0.14903(S/L)-1.80435(R o)0.20023 e -1670.93/T t (t ≥ 5) to 1 - 3(1 - α)2/3 + 2(1 - α) = K 0(H2SO4)0.01382(S/L)-1.83275(R o)0.25763 e -1654.59/T t (t ≥ 5) by the addition of H2O2 in the leaching process. The use of H2O2 in uranium leaching may help in extracting uranium more efficiently and rapidly from low-uranium-containing ores or tailings.

  20. Kinetics of Uranium Extraction from Uranium Tailings by Oxidative Leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Biao; Li, Mi; Zhang, Xiaowen; Huang, Jing

    2016-07-01

    Extraction of uranium from uranium tailings by oxidative leaching with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was studied. The effects of various extraction factors were investigated to optimize the dissolution conditions, as well as to determine the leaching kinetic parameters. The behavior of H2O2 in the leaching process was determined through scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) and x-ray diffraction analysis of leaching residues. Results suggest that H2O2 can significantly improve uranium extraction by decomposing the complex gangue structures in uranium tailings and by enhancing the reaction rate between uranium phases and the leaching agent. The extraction kinetics expression was changed from 1 - 3(1 - α)2/3 + 2(1 - α) = K 0(H2SO4)-0.14903(S/L)-1.80435( R o)0.20023 e -1670.93/T t ( t ≥ 5) to 1 - 3(1 - α)2/3 + 2(1 - α) = K 0(H2SO4)0.01382(S/L)-1.83275( R o)0.25763 e -1654.59/T t ( t ≥ 5) by the addition of H2O2 in the leaching process. The use of H2O2 in uranium leaching may help in extracting uranium more efficiently and rapidly from low-uranium-containing ores or tailings.

  1. 13. ORE DOCK, LOOKING EAST FROM HULETT NO. 1. WHEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. ORE DOCK, LOOKING EAST FROM HULETT NO. 1. WHEN BUILT IN 1911-1912, THIS WAS THE LARGEST ORE-UNLOADING DOCK ON THE GREAT LAKES. THE DOCK FEATURED FOUR HULETT UNLOADERS, EACH WITH A BUCKET CAPACITY OF 17 TONS; A 15-TON CAPACITY ORE STOCKING AND REHANDLING BRIDGE; AND A ONE-MILLION-TON CAPACITY ORE STORAGE YARD. THE WILLIAM-SEAVER-MORGAN COMPANY OF CLEVELAND BUILT THE DOCK EQUIPMENT. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  2. Neutron activation analysis of fluid inclusions for copper, manganese, and zinc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czamanske, G.K.; Roedder, E.; Burns, F.C.

    1963-01-01

    Microgram quantities of copper, manganese, and zinc, corresponding to concentrations greater than 100 parts per million, were found in milligram quantities of primary inclusion fluid extracted from samples of quartz and fluorite from two types of ore deposits. The results indicate that neutron activation is a useful analytical method for studying the content of heavy metal in fluid inclusions.

  3. High-rate behaviour of iron ore pellet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustafsson, Gustaf; Häggblad, Hans-Åke; Jonsén, Pär; Nishida, Masahiro

    2015-09-01

    Iron ore pellets are sintered, centimetre-sized spheres of ore with high iron content. Together with carbonized coal, iron ore pellets are used in the production of steel. In the transportation from the pelletizing plants to the customers, the iron ore pellets are exposed to different loading situations, resulting in degradation of strength and in some cases fragmentation. For future reliable numerical simulations of the handling and transportation of iron ore pellets, knowledge about their mechanical properties is needed. This paper describes the experimental work to investigate the dynamic mechanical properties of blast furnace iron ore pellets. To study the dynamic fracture of iron ore pellets a number of split Hopkinson pressure bar tests are carried out and analysed.

  4. Degradation Characteristics of O-rings on Highly Aged GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minagawa, Tadao; Nagao, Eiichi; Tsuchie, Ei; Yonezawa, Hiroshi; Takayama, Daisuke; Yamakawa, Yutaka

    Owing to increasing number of highly aged GIS, the investigation of the remaining lifetimes of those systems are becoming more important. Because a lot of O-rings are used in GIS, the study of degradation mechanism and lifetime estimation method of O-ring is essential. In this paper, the information about O-ring degradation mechanism is described, and the statistical method for estimating the remaining lifetime of O-ring is proposed. The degradation of O-ring is mainly subject to chemical reactions triggered by oxygen. Because there are many factors influencing those chemical reactions, the dispersion of degradation rates of O-rings in GIS is very large. Consequently the statistical analysis is one of the effective techniques for lifetime estimation of O-rings in GIS.

  5. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL, SECONDARY ORE BIN, CRUSHER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER TRAM TERMINAL, SECONDARY ORE BIN, CRUSHER FOUNDATION, AND BALL MILL FOUNDATIONS, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. ORE FROM THE MINES WAS DUMPED FROM THE TRAM BUCKETS INTO THE PRIMARY ORE BIN UNDER THE TRAM TERMINAL. A SLIDING CONTROL DOOR INTRODUCED THE INTO THE JAW CRUSHER (FOUNDATIONS,CENTER). THE CRUSHED ORE WAS THEN CONVEYED INTO THE SECONDARY ORE BIN AT CENTER LEFT. A HOLE IN THE FLOOR OF THE ORE BIN PASSED ORE ONTO ANOTHER CONVEYOR THAT BROUGHT IT OUT TO THE BALL MILL(FOUNDATIONS,CENTER BOTTOM). THIS SYSTEM IS MOST LIKELY NOT THE ORIGINAL SET UP, PROBABLY INSTALLED IN THE MINE'S LAST OCCUPATION IN THE EARLY 1940s. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  6. Extraction process and apparatus for hydrocarbon containing ores

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, R. H.; Eakin, B. E.

    1985-09-03

    There is provided a hydrocarbon extraction process and apparatus for removing hydrocarbons from a hydrocarbon containing ore such as a diatomite ore. The ore is preprocessed to the extent required to produce an extractable ore and subsequently mixed with a carrier to form an ore stream. The carrier may be a nonaqueous solvent and may further comprise a non-porous granular material such as sand. The ore stream is passed in substantially vertical countercurrent flow through a nonaqueous solvent to produce a product-solvent stream and a spent ore stream. The solvent is subsequently separated from the hydrocarbon stream, which may be further upgraded by removal of a heavy portion. This may be accomplished in the presence of a substantial amount of fines.

  7. Process for extracting hydrocarbons from hydrocarbon bearing ores

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, R.H.; Eakin, B.E.

    1986-02-18

    This patent describes a process for recovering hydrocarbons from a diatomite ore consisting of: reducing the size of the ore to less than about 5 mesh to form a reduced ore; combining the reduced ore with liquid to form ore pellets; treating the ore pellets to form extractable ore pellets; contacting a bed of the extractable pellets with extracting solvent in an extraction zone such that the relative velocity of the solvent to the extractable pellets is at least about one-half gallon per square foot per minute or more to thereby extract hydrocarbons from the extractable pellets and form spent pellets and a hydrocarbon rich solvent stream comprising extracting solvent and extracted hydrocarbons. The extracted hydrocarbons have an ash content of about less than 3 weight percent; and recovering extracting solvent from the spent pellets while retaining the spent pellets in pellet form without release of a significant amount of fines.

  8. ASTER, ALI and Hyperion sensors data for lithological mapping and ore minerals exploration.

    PubMed

    Beiranvand Pour, Amin; Hashim, Mazlan

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Advanced Land Imager (ALI), and Hyperion data and applications of the data as a tool for ore minerals exploration, lithological and structural mapping. Spectral information extraction from ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion data has great ability to assist geologists in all disciplines to map the distribution and detect the rock units exposed at the earth's surface. The near coincidence of Earth Observing System (EOS)/Terra and Earth Observing One (EO-1) platforms allows acquiring ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion imagery of the same ground areas, resulting accurate information for geological mapping applications especially in the reconnaissance stages of hydrothermal copper and gold exploration, chromite, magnetite, massive sulfide and uranium ore deposits, mineral components of soils and structural interpretation at both regional and district scales. Shortwave length infrared and thermal infrared bands of ASTER have sufficient spectral resolution to map fundamental absorptions of hydroxyl mineral groups and silica and carbonate minerals for regional mapping purposes. Ferric-iron bearing minerals can be discriminated using six unique wavelength bands of ALI spanning the visible and near infrared. Hyperion visible and near infrared bands (0.4 to 1.0 μm) and shortwave infrared bands (0.9 to 2.5 μm) allowed to produce image maps of iron oxide minerals, hydroxyl-bearing minerals, sulfates and carbonates in association with hydrothermal alteration assemblages, respectively. The techniques and achievements reviewed in the present paper can further introduce the efficacy of ASTER, ALI, and Hyperion data for future mineral and lithological mapping and exploration of the porphyry copper, epithermal gold, chromite, magnetite, massive sulfide and uranium ore deposits especially in arid and semi-arid territory. PMID:25674434

  9. Telling tails: selective pressures acting on investment in lizard tails.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Patricia A; Valentine, Leonie E; Bateman, Philip W

    2013-01-01

    Caudal autotomy is a common defense mechanism in lizards, where the animal may lose part or all of its tail to escape entrapment. Lizards show an immense variety in the degree of investment in a tail (i.e., length) across species, with tails of some species up to three or four times body length (snout-vent length [SVL]). Additionally, body size and form also vary dramatically, including variation in leg development and robustness and length of the body and tail. Autotomy is therefore likely to have fundamentally different effects on the overall body form and function in different species, which may be reflected directly in the incidence of lost/regenerating tails within populations or, over a longer period, in terms of relative tail length for different species. We recorded data (literature, museum specimens, field data) for relative tail length (n=350 species) and the incidence of lost/regenerating tails (n=246 species). We compared these (taking phylogeny into account) with intrinsic factors that have been proposed to influence selective pressures acting on caudal autotomy, including body form (robustness, body length, leg development, and tail specialization) and ecology (foraging behavior, physical and temporal niches), in an attempt to identify patterns that might reflect adaptive responses to these different factors. More gracile species have relatively longer tails (all 350 spp., P < 0.001; also significant for five of the six families tested separately), as do longer (all species, P < 0.001; Iguanidae, P < 0.05; Lacertidae, P < 0.001; Scindidae, P < 0.001), climbing (all species, P < 0.05), and diurnal (all species, P < 0.01; Pygopodidae, P < 0.01) species; geckos without specialized tails (P < 0.05); or active-foraging skinks (P < 0.05). We also found some relationships with the data for caudal autotomy, with more lost/regenerating tails for nocturnal lizards (all 246 spp., P < 0.01; Scindidae, P < 0.05), larger skinks (P < 0.05), climbing geckos (P < 0

  10. Runaway tails in magnetized plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moghaddam-Taaheri, E.; Vlahos, L.; Rowland, H. L.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1985-01-01

    The evolution of a runaway tail driven by a dc electric field in a magnetized plasma is analyzed. Depending on the strength of the electric field and the ratio of plasma to gyrofrequency, there are three different regimes in the evolution of the tail. The tail can be (1) stable with electrons accelerated to large parallel velocities, (2) unstable to Cerenkov resonance because of the depletion of the bulk and the formation of a positive slope, (3) unstable to the anomalous Doppler resonance instability driven by the large velocity anisotropy in the tail. Once an instability is triggered (Cerenkov or anomalous Doppler resonance) the tail relaxes into an isotropic distribution. The role of a convection type loss term is also discussed.

  11. Mineralogical and geochemical characterization of arsenic in an abandoned mine tailings of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Joo Sung; Park, Young Seog; Kim, Ju-Yong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2005-04-01

    The mineralogical and chemical characteristics of As solid phases in arsenic-rich mine tailings from the Nakdong As-Bi mine in Korea was investigated. The tailings generated from the ore roasting process contained 4.36% of As whereas the concentration was up to 20.2% in some tailings from the cyanidation process for the Au extraction. Thin indurated layers and other secondary precipitates had formed at the surfaces of the tailings piles and the As contents of the hardened layers varied from 2.87 to 16.0%. Scorodite and iron arsenate (Fe3AsO7) were the primary As-bearing crystalline minerals. Others such as arsenolamprite, bernardite and titanium oxide arsenate were also found. The amorphous As-Fe phases often showed framboidal aggregates and gel type textures with desiccation cracks. Sequential extraction results also showed that 55.7-91.1% of the As in tailings were NH(4)-oxalate extractable As, further confirmed the predominance of amorphous As-Fe solid phases. When the tailings were equilibrated with de-ionized water, the solution exhibited extremely acidic conditions (pH 2.01-3.10) and high concentrations of dissolved As (up to 29.5 mg L(-1)), indicating high potentials for As to be released during rainfall events. The downstream water was affected by drainage from tailings and contained 12.7-522 microg L(-1) of As. The amorphous As-Fe phases in tailings have not entirely been stabilized through the long term natural weathering processes. To remediate the environmental harms they had caused, anthropogenic interventions to stabilize or immobilize As in the tailings pile should be explored. PMID:16003582

  12. Recovery of iron from cyanide tailings with reduction roasting-water leaching followed by magnetic separation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yali; Li, Huaimei; Yu, Xianjin

    2012-04-30

    Cyanide tailing is a kind of solid waste produced in the process of gold extraction from gold ore. In this paper, recovery of iron from cyanide tailings was studied with reduction roasting-water leaching process followed by magnetic separation. After analysis of chemical composition and crystalline phase, the effects of different parameters on recovery of iron were chiefly introduced. Systematic studies indicate that the high recovery rate and grade of magnetic concentrate of iron can be achieved under the following conditions: weight ratios of cyanide tailings/activated carbon/sodium carbonate/sodium sulfate, 100:10:3:10; temperature, 50 °C; time, 60 min at the reduction roasting stage; the liquid to solid ratio is 15:1 (ml/g), leaching at 60 °C for 5 min and stirring speed at 20 r/min at water-leaching; exciting current is 2A at magnetic separation. The iron grade of magnetic concentrate was 59.11% and the recovery ratio was 75.12%. The mineralography of cyanide tailings, roasted product, water-leached sample, magnetic concentrate and magnetic tailings were studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) technique. The microstructures of above products except magnetic tailings were also analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) to help understand the mechanism. PMID:22333161

  13. Mining and beneficiation of lunar ores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bunch, T. E.; Williams, R. J.; Mckay, D. S.; Giles, D.

    1979-01-01

    The beneficiation of lunar plagioclase and ilmenite ores to feedstock grade permits a rapid growth of the space manufacturing economy by maximizing the production rate of metals and oxygen. A beneficiation scheme based on electrostatic and magnetic separation is preferred over conventional schemes, but such a scheme cannot be completely modeled because beneficiation processes are empirical and because some properties of lunar minerals have not been measured. To meet anticipated shipping and processing needs, the peak lunar mining rate will exceed 1000 tons/hr by the fifth year of operation. Such capabilities will be best obtained by automated mining vehicles and conveyor systems rather than trucks. It may be possible to extract about 40 kg of volatiles (60 percent H2O) by thermally processing the less than 20 micron ilmenite concentrate extracted from 130 tons of ilmenite ore. A thermodynamic analysis of an extraction process is presented.

  14. Evaluating a Mineralogical Control on Arsenic and Lead Concentrations in California Gold Mine Tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neptune, C. K.; De Graff, J.

    2012-12-01

    Abandoned gold mining operations in California often host tailings piles, which are a source of various heavy metal contaminants including arsenic (As) and lead (Pb). Based on internal USDA Forest Service studies, it has been determined that some tailings are a concern due to high As and Pb while others are only a concern for high As. The research hypothesis is that this difference reflects a mineralogical control on the presence and concentration of As and Pb. This information would be valuable in the prioritization of mining sites for mitigation, as identifying whether both As and Pb are a concern or only As is key in determining the level of risk posed by the tailings. Ore from two mines (Bright Star and May-Lundy) in the Sierra Nevada provided a preliminary test of this hypothesis. Samples were collected from presumed ore found in proximity to mine adits or milling sites. A biased sampling method, based on the presence of clearly visible concentrations of metal sulfide minerals, served as a selection approach. Prior to lab processing, the samples were evaluated for their proportion of metal sulfide minerals to non-metallic minerals, to establish the range of variability at each mine site. A Gyral grinder was used to reduce samples to particles of less than 149 microns in size. The samples were then analyzed with a Niton XL3t model X-ray fluorescence (XRF) device for a one-minute interval. Based on this initial sampling, it is suggestive that the ratio of Pb/As, in the ore material reflects the concentration ratios within the tailings at the respective mine sites. This method assumes that a whole rock analysis is indicative of the proportion of As to Pb bearing minerals present.

  15. A hydrogeologic model of stratiform copper mineralization in the Midcontinent Rift System, Northern Michigan, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swenson, J.B.; Person, M.; Raffensperger, J.P.; Cannon, W.F.; Woodruff, L.G.; Berndt, M.E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a suite of two-dimensional mathematical models of basin-scale groundwater flow and heat transfer for the middle Proterozoic Midcontinent Rift System. The models were used to assess the hydrodynamic driving mechanisms responsible for main-stage stratiform copper mineralization of the basal Nonesuch Formation during the post-volcanic/pre-compressional phase of basin evolution. Results suggest that compaction of the basal aquifer (Copper Harbor Formation), in response to mechanical loading during deposition of the overlying Freda Sandstone, generated a pulse of marginward-directed, compaction-driven discharge of cupriferous brines from within the basal aquifer. The timing of this pulse is consistent with the radiometric dates for the timing of mineralization. Thinning of the basal aquifer near White Pine, Michigan, enhanced stratiform copper mineralization. Focused upward leakage of copper-laden brines into the lowermost facies of the pyrite-rich Nonesuch Formation resulted in copper sulfide mineralization in response to a change in oxidation state. Economic-grade mineralization within the White Pine ore district is a consequence of intense focusing of compaction-driven discharge, and corresponding amplification of leakage into the basal Nonesuch Formation, where the basal aquifer thins dramatically atop the Porcupine Mountains volcanic structure. Equilibrium geochemical modeling and mass-balance calculations support this conclusion. We also assessed whether topography and density-driven flow systems could have caused ore genesis at White Pine. Topography-driven flow associated with the Ottawan orogeny was discounted because it post-dates main-stage ore genesis and because recent seismic interpretations of basin inversion indicates that basin geometry would not be conductive to ore genesis. Density-driven flow systems did not produce focused discharge in the vicinity of the White Pine ore district.

  16. Tourmaline in the central Swedish ore district

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellingwerf, R. H.; Gatedal, K.; Gallagher, V.; Baker, J. H.

    1994-06-01

    More than 40 recently discovered tourmaline occurrences have been investigated in the Mid-Proterozoic Bergslagen ore district of central Sweden. Some are spatially associated with ores, others with zones of leaching, remobilization and migmatization. Among the tourmaline-bearing ore deposits are the Dammberg ZnPb-Fe sulphide deposit, the Sala Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, the Dalkarlsberg, Pershyttan and Håksberg Fe oxide deposits, the Leja Cu deposit, and the Zinkgruvan Zn-Pb-Ag deposit. Tourmaline has been recorded a) as tourmalinites and tourmaline-bearing chemical sediments; b) in tourmaline-bearing skarns; c) in tourmaline-quartz veins; d) as disseminations along the foliation in schists; e) in tourmaline pegmatites; f) in tourmalinized haloes in metavolcanites along tourmaline pegmatites; and g) in late joints. Tourmalinites, tourmaline-bearing chemical sediments and tourmaline-bearing skarns are spatially associated with sulphide and oxide mineralizations. The dravite components in these tourmalines are proportional to the size of Zn-Pb sulphide mineralizations. Tourmalines from quartz veins close to and within ore deposits contain high Zr and Cr contents. With increasing distance away from these deposits, the Zr and Cr contents fall significantly. Tourmalines from pegmatites have inherited a number of trace element enrichments through partial melting and assimilation of volcaniclastic sediments into granitic melts. Despite magmatic homogenization, Zn contents in these tourmalines reflect the proximity of Zn-Pb-sulphide deposits, decreasing away from them. Tourmalines from late joints with Zn contents above the 100 ppm level are also indicative for the proximity of Zn-Pb sulphide mineralizations. Thus, some trace elements in these tourmalines may represent suitable exploration tools.

  17. Biotransformation of copper from Kupferschiefer black shale (Fore-Sudetic Monocline, Poland) by yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa LM9.

    PubMed

    Rajpert, Liwia; Skłodowska, Aleksandra; Matlakowska, Renata

    2013-05-01

    This study describes the yeast Rhodotorula mucilaginosa strain LM9 isolated from copper-bearing, organic-rich Kupferschiefer black shale and its role in copper biotransformation. Strain LM9 exhibited great ability to simultaneously mobilize and immobilize copper from this sedimentary rock. In addition, it showed considerable resistance to copper and high uptake of this metal. Moreover, malic and oxalic acid as well as siderophore (rhodotorulic acid) produced by this strain enhanced its resistance by promoting the mobilization and complexation of copper from black shale. These processes, characterized here under laboratory conditions, are assumed to play a role in copper cycling in black shale as well as in the adaptation of strain LM9 to the conditions prevailing in its natural mine habitat. The findings of this study indicate that yeast strain LM9 might be used for the recovery of copper particularly from alkaline or slightly neutral ores in a non-chemical environmentally-friendly procedure. PMID:23490182

  18. [Tail Plane Icing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Program initiated by NASA in 1997 has put greater emphasis in safety related research activities. Ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) has been identified by the NASA Lewis Icing Technology Branch as an important activity for aircraft safety related research. The ICTS phenomenon is characterized as a sudden, often uncontrollable aircraft nose- down pitching moment, which occurs due to increased angle-of-attack of the horizontal tailplane resulting in tailplane stall. Typically, this phenomenon occurs when lowering the flaps during final approach while operating in or recently departing from icing conditions. Ice formation on the tailplane leading edge can reduce tailplane angle-of-attack range and cause flow separation resulting in a significant reduction or complete loss of aircraft pitch control. In 1993, the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) and NASA embarked upon a four-year research program to address the problem of tailplane stall and to quantify the effect of tailplane ice accretion on aircraft performance and handling characteristics. The goals of this program, which was completed in March 1998, were to collect aerodynamic data for an aircraft tail with and without ice contamination and to develop analytical methods for predicting the effects of tailplane ice contamination. Extensive dry air and icing tunnel tests which resulted in a database of the aerodynamic effects associated with tailplane ice contamination. Although the FAA/NASA tailplane icing program generated some answers regarding ice-contaminated-tailplane stall (ICTS) phenomena, NASA researchers have found many open questions that warrant further investigation into ICTS. In addition, several aircraft manufacturers have expressed interest in a second research program to expand the database to other tail configurations and to develop experimental and computational methodologies for evaluating the ICTS phenomenon. In 1998, the icing branch at NASA Lewis initiated a second

  19. Copper and Copper Proteins in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Mancia, Susana; Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Tristan-Lopez, Luis; Rios, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    Copper is a transition metal that has been linked to pathological and beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease, free copper is related to increased oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein oligomerization, and Lewy body formation. Decreased copper along with increased iron has been found in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus of Parkinson's disease patients. Copper influences iron content in the brain through ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activity; therefore decreased protein-bound copper in brain may enhance iron accumulation and the associated oxidative stress. The function of other copper-binding proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD and metallothioneins is also beneficial to prevent neurodegeneration. Copper may regulate neurotransmission since it is released after neuronal stimulus and the metal is able to modulate the function of NMDA and GABA A receptors. Some of the proteins involved in copper transport are the transporters CTR1, ATP7A, and ATP7B and the chaperone ATOX1. There is limited information about the role of those biomolecules in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease; for instance, it is known that CTR1 is decreased in substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease and that a mutation in ATP7B could be associated with Parkinson's disease. Regarding copper-related therapies, copper supplementation can represent a plausible alternative, while copper chelation may even aggravate the pathology. PMID:24672633

  20. Helicopter tail rotor noise analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, A. R.; Chou, S. T.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to interactions with the main rotor tip vortices, and with the fuselage separation mean wake. The tail rotor blade-main rotor tip vortex interaction is modelled as an airfoil of infinite span cutting through a moving vortex. The vortex and the geometry information required by the analyses are obtained through a free wake geometry analysis of the main rotor. The acoustic pressure-time histories for the tail rotor blade-vortex interactions are then calculated. These acoustic results are compared to tail rotor loading and thickness noise, and are found to be significant to the overall tail rotor noise generation. Under most helicopter operating conditions, large acoustic pressure fluctuations can be generated due to a series of skewed main rotor tip vortices passing through the tail rotor disk. The noise generation depends strongly upon the helicopter operating conditions and the location of the tail rotor relative to the main rotor.

  1. Physical-chemical conditions of ore deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, P.B., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Ore deposits form under a wide range of physical and chemical conditions, but those precipitating from hot, aqueous fluids-i.e. the hydrothermal deposits-form generally below 700??C and at pressures of only 1 or 2 kbar or less. Natural aqueous fluids in rocks may extract metal and sulfur from a variety of rock types or may acquire them as a residual heritage from a crystallizing silicate magma. Ore-forming hydrothermal fluids never appear as hot springs (except in deep, submarine situations) because they boil, mix with surface waters, and cool, thereby losing their ore-bearing ability before reaching the surface. Mineral systems function as chemical buffers and indicators just as buffers and indicators function in a chemical laboratory. By reading the record written in the buffer/indicator assemblages of minerals one can reconstruct many aspects of the former chemical environment. By studying the record of changing conditions one may deduce information regarding the processes functioning to create the succession of chemical environments and the ore deposits they represent. The example of the OH vein at Creede, Colorado, shows a pH buffered by the K-feldspar + muscovite + quartz assemblage and the covariation of S2 and O2 buffered by the assemblage chlorite + pyrite + quartz. Boiling of the ore fluid led to its oxidation to hematite-bearing assemblages and simultaneously produced an intensely altered, sericitic capping over the vein in response to the condensation of vapors bearing acidic components. The solubility of metals as calculated from experimental and theoretical studies of mineral solubility appears too low by at least one or two powers of ten to explain the mineralization at Creede. In contrast to Creede where the mineral stabilities all point to a relatively consistent chemistry, the Mississippi Valley type deposits present a puzzle of conflicting chemical clues that are impossible to reconcile with any single equilibrium situation. Thus we must

  2. Mercury's Dynamic Magnetic Tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, James A.

    2010-01-01

    The Mariner 10 and MESSENGER flybys of Mercury have revealed a magnetosphere that is likely the most responsive to upstream interplanetary conditions of any in the solar system. The source of the great dynamic variability observed during these brief passages is due to Mercury's proximity to the Sun and the inverse proportionality between reconnection rate and solar wind Alfven Mach number. However, this planet's lack of an ionosphere and its small physical dimensions also contribute to Mercury's very brief Dungey cycle, approx. 2 min, which governs the time scale for internal plasma circulation. Current observations and understanding of the structure and dynamics of Mercury's magnetotail are summarized and discussed. Special emphasis will be placed upon such questions as: 1) How much access does the solar wind have to this small magnetosphere as a function of upstream conditions? 2) What roles do heavy planetary ions play? 3) Do Earth-like substorms take place at Mercury? 4) How does Mercury's tail respond to extreme solar wind events such coronal mass ejections? Prospects for progress due to advances in the global magnetohydrodynamic and hybrid simulation modeling and the measurements to be taken by MESSENGER after it enters Mercury orbit on March 18, 2011 will be discussed.

  3. Acid pre-treatment method for in situ ore leaching

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, R.G.; Braun, R.L.

    1975-10-28

    An acid leaching method is described for the recovery of a desired element from a subterranean rubblized body of primary ore containing the element and also having associated therewith a carbonate mineral wherein the rubblized ore body is flooded with an aqueous acidic solution in order to release carbon dioxide from the associated carbonate mineral. After a substantial portion of the available carbon dioxide is released and removed from the ore body, as by venting to the atmosphere, an oxidizing gas is introduced into the flooded, rubblized ore to oxidize the ore and form an acid leach solution effective in the presence of the dissolved oxidizing gas to dissolve the ore and cause the desired element to go into solution. The leach solution is then circulated to the surface where the metal values are recovered therefrom.

  4. Geological and geochemical studies of the Shujiadian porphyry Cu deposit, Anhui Province, Eastern China: Implications for ore genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiwei; Zhou, Taofa; Yuan, Feng; Fan, Yu; White, Noel C.; Lin, Fengjie

    2015-05-01

    Most porphyry deposits in the world occur in magmatic arc settings and are related to subduction of oceanic plates. A small proportion of porphyry deposits occur in intracontinental settings, however they are still poorly understood. Shujiadian, a newly-discovered porphyry Cu deposit, is located in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt and belongs to the intracontinental class. The deposit has classic alteration zones defined by a core of potassic alteration and local Ca-silicate alteration, which is overprinted by a feldspar-destructive alteration zone and cut by veins containing epidote and chlorite. Wallrocks of the deposit are unreactive quartz-rich sedimentary rocks. Three main paragenetic stages have been recognized based on petrographic observations; silicate stage, quartz-sulfide stage, and sulfide-carbonate stage. Quartz + pyrite + chalcopyrite ± molybdenite veins, and quartz + chalcopyrite + pyrite veins of the quartz-sulfide stage contribute most of the copper, and chalcopyrite + chlorite ± pyrite ± pyrrhotite ± quartz ± illite veins of the sulfide-carbonate stage also contribute part of the copper; all the mineralized veins are associated with feldspar-destructive alteration. Investigations on the fluid inclusions in Shujiadian indicate that the ore-forming fluids had four evolutionary episodes: immiscibility and overpressure in the silicate stage, boiling in the quartz-sulfide stage and mixing with meteoric water in the sulfide-carbonate stage. Sulfur and strontium isotope studies suggest that ore metals were mainly derived from magmatic-hydrothermal fluids, and combined with our study of fluid inclusions, we infer that decompression, changes in oxygen fugacity and sulfur content were the main factors that caused Cu precipitation. Compared with porphyry deposits in magmatic arc settings, there are some differences in the ore-bearing rock, alteration, and the composition of ore-forming fluids.

  5. 76 FR 34211 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Kennecott Utah Copper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ...The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Sacramento District (Corps), will prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed Kennecott Utah Copper Tailings Expansion Project, an expansion of an active commercial mining operation near Magna, Salt Lake County, UT. Kennecott Utah Copper LLC (KUC) has applied for a Department of the Army (DA) permit to fill approximately 721 acres of......

  6. OVERVIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, TRAM TRESTLE, AND PRIMARY ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, TRAM TRESTLE, AND PRIMARY ORE BIN, LOOKING NORTHEAST. REMAINS OF A BLACKSMITH'S FORGE AND WORK CAN BE SEEN JUST BELOW THE ORE BIN (SEE CA-291-32 FOR DETAIL). ROCK FOUNDATIONS LOCATED JUST ABOVE THE ORE BIN AND ALONG THE FIRST RIDGELINE ARE TENT PADS. SEE CA-291-49 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  7. OVERVIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, TRAM TRESTLE, AND PRIMARY ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, TRAM TRESTLE, AND PRIMARY ORE BIN, LOOKING NORTHEAST. REMAINS OF A BLACKSMITH'S FORGE AND WORK CAN BE SEEN JUST BELOW THE ORE BIN (SEE CA-291-32 FOR DETAIL). ROCK FOUNDATIONS LOCATED JUST ABOVE THE ORE BIN AND ALONG THE FIRST RIDGELINE ARE TENT PADS. SEE CA-291-24 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  8. Understanding Cu release into environment from Kure massive sulfide ore deposits, Kastamonu, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirel, Cansu; Sonmez, Seref; Balci, Nurgul

    2014-05-01

    Covering a wide range on the earth's crust, oxidation of metal sulfide minerals have vital environmental impacts on the aquatic environment, causing one of the major environmental problems known as acid mine drainage (AMD). Located in the Kastamonu province of the Western Black Sea region, Kure district is one of the major copper mining sites in Turkey. Mining activities in the area heads back to ancient times, such that operation is thought to be started with the Roman Empire. Currently, only the underground mining tunnels of Bakibaba and Asikoy are being operated. Thus, mining heaps and ores of those pyritic deposits have been exposed to the oxidative conditions for so long. As a result of weathering processes of past and recent heaps of the Kure volcanic massive sulfide deposits in addition to the main ore mineral (chalcopyrite), significant amount of metals, especially Cu, are being released into the environment creating undesirable environmental conditions. In order to elucidate Cu release mechanisms from Kure pyritic ore deposits and mining wastes, field and laboratory approaches were used. Surface water and sediment samples from the streams around the mining and waste sites were collected. Groundwater samples from the active underground mining site were also collected. Physical parameters (pH, Eh, T°C, and EC) of water samples were determined in situ and in the laboratory using probes (WTW pH 3110, WTW Multi 9310 and CRISON CM 35). Metal and ion concentrations of the water samples were analysed using ICP-MS and DR 2800 spectrophotometer, respectively. High Cu, Co, Zn and Fe concentrations were determined in the water samples with pH values ranging from 2.9- 4. Cu concentrions ranges from 345 ppm to 36 ppm in the water samples. Consistent with the water samples, high Cu, Fe, Zn and Co were also determined in the sediment samples. Laboratory chalcopyrite oxidation experiments under the conditions representing the field site were set up as biological and

  9. 75 FR 62756 - Superior National Forest, Minnesota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... operation of an open pit copper/ nickel/cobalt/precious metals mine, an ore processing plant, and tailings... wetlands, to facilitate the construction and operation of an open pit copper/nickel/cobalt/precious...

  10. Experimenting With Ore: Creating the Taconite Process; flow chart of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Experimenting With Ore: Creating the Taconite Process; flow chart of process - Mines Experiment Station, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities Campus, 56 East River Road, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  11. Recovery of Cu and Zn from Complex Sulphide Ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talapaneni, Trinath; Sarkar, S.; Yedla, N.; Reddy, P. L. N., Dr

    2015-02-01

    Complex Sulphide Ores are often found to be a close mutual association with each other and with the nonmetallic gangue. The beneficiation experiments showed that it would be very difficult to recover Cu and Zn from the lean complex Sulphide ores using traditional ore beneficiation methods. In the present work, leaching of complex sulfide ores in sulfuric acid was investigated by the Electro hydrometallurgy process. The lab-scale experiments were conducted to investigate the influences of pulp-density, electrolyte concentration, particle size, current density and time on recovery of Cu and Zn. The leach liquor obtained after electrolysis was subjected to Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy analysis for the recovery of minerals.

  12. 4. TROJAN MILL, DETAIL OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM NORTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. TROJAN MILL, DETAIL OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM NORTH, c. 1912. SHOWS TIMBER FRAMING UNDER CONSTRUCTION FOR EAST AND WEST CRUDE ORE BINS AT PREVIOUS LOCATION OF CRUSHER HOUSE, AND SNOW SHED PRESENT OVER SOUTH CRUDE ORE BIN WITH PHASE CHANGE IN SNOW SHED CONSTRUCTION INDICATED AT EAST END OF EAST CRUDE ORE BIN. THIS PHOTOGRAPH IS THE FIRST IMAGE OF THE MACHINE SHOP, UPPER LEFT CORNER. CREDIT JW. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  13. [Copper transport and metabolism].

    PubMed

    Kurasaki, Masaaki; Saito, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    In this review, copper metabolism and transport in mammalian tissues are introduced and discussed. Firstly, the copper required amounts and LD50 levels are shown to explain the difficult balances of copper in the cells between necessity and toxicity. Furthermore, on the basis of literatures published, relationship between copper-binding metallothioneins and mechanisms for the absorption and excretion of copper or hereditary copper metabolic disorders metabolism abnormality symptom are explained. Finally it has been indicated that apoptosis induced by heavy metals, especially copper was initiated by production of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in the cells. To understand precise mechanism for copper homeostasis in mammalian cells, further investigation will be needed to clarify the copper behaviors in normal and abnormal situations. PMID:27455798

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Maybell, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, contaminated soil, building foundations, and materials associated with the former processing of uranium ore at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further contamination of ground water. One UMTRA Project site is near Maybell, Colorado. Surface cleanup at this site began in 1995 and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The tailings are being stabilized in place at this site. The disposal area has been withdrawn from public use by the DOE and is referred to as the permanent withdrawal area. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from past uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project at this site is in its beginning stages. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future potential impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results presented in this document and other evaluations will determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  15. Morphogenesis of the T4 tail and tail fibers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Remarkable progress has been made during the past ten years in elucidating the structure of the bacteriophage T4 tail by a combination of three-dimensional image reconstruction from electron micrographs and X-ray crystallography of the components. Partial and complete structures of nine out of twenty tail structural proteins have been determined by X-ray crystallography and have been fitted into the 3D-reconstituted structure of the "extended" tail. The 3D structure of the "contracted" tail was also determined and interpreted in terms of component proteins. Given the pseudo-atomic tail structures both before and after contraction, it is now possible to understand the gross conformational change of the baseplate in terms of the change in the relative positions of the subunit proteins. These studies have explained how the conformational change of the baseplate and contraction of the tail are related to the tail's host cell recognition and membrane penetration function. On the other hand, the baseplate assembly process has been recently reexamined in detail in a precise system involving recombinant proteins (unlike the earlier studies with phage mutants). These experiments showed that the sequential association of the subunits of the baseplate wedge is based on the induced-fit upon association of each subunit. It was also found that, upon association of gp53 (gene product 53), the penultimate subunit of the wedge, six of the wedge intermediates spontaneously associate to form a baseplate-like structure in the absence of the central hub. Structure determination of the rest of the subunits and intermediate complexes and the assembly of the hub still require further study. PMID:21129200

  16. Optimization of staged bioleaching of low-grade chalcopyrite ore in the presence and absence of chloride in the irrigating lixiviant: ANFIS simulation.

    PubMed

    Vakylabad, Ali Behrad; Schaffie, Mahin; Naseri, Ali; Ranjbar, Mohammad; Manafi, Zahra

    2016-07-01

    In this investigation, copper was bioleached from a low-grade chalcopyrite ore using a chloride-containing lixiviant. In this regard, firstly, the composition of the bacterial culture media was designed to control the cost in commercial application. The bacterial culture used in this process was acclimated to the presence of chloride in the lixiviant. Practically speaking, the modified culture helped the bio-heap-leaching system operate in the chloridic media. Compared to the copper recovery from the low-grade chalcopyrite by bioleaching in the absence of chloride, bioleaching in the presence of chloride resulted in improved copper recovery. The composition of the lixiviant used in this study was a modification with respect to the basal salts in 9 K medium to optimize the leaching process. When leaching the ore in columns, 76.81 % Cu (based on solid residues of bioleaching operation) was recovered by staged leaching with lixiviant containing 34.22 mM NaCl. The quantitative findings were supported by SEM/EDS observations, X-ray elemental mapping, and mineralogical analysis of the ore before and after leaching. Finally, Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was used to simulate the operational parameters affecting the bioleaching operation in chloride-sulfate system. PMID:27000968

  17. Neotethyan rifting-related ore occurrences: study of an accretionary mélange complex (Darnó Unit, NE Hungary)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Gabriella B.; Oláh, Erika; Zaccarini, Federica; Szakáll, Sándor

    2016-02-01

    The geology of the NE Hungarian Darnó Unit is rather complicated, as it is composed mostly of a Jurassic accretionary mélange complex, according to the most recent investigations. The magmatic and sedimentary rock blocks of the mélange represent products of different evolutionary stages of the Neotethys; including Permian and Triassic sedimentary rocks of marine rifting related origin, Triassic pillow basalt of advanced rifting related origin and Jurassic pillow basalt originated in back-arc-basin environment. This small unit contains a copper-gold occurrence in the Permian marly-clayey limestone, an iron enrichment in the Triassic sedimentary succession, a copper-silver ore occurrence in Triassic pillow basalts and a copper ore indication, occurring both in the Triassic and Jurassic pillow basalts. The present study deals with the Cu(-Ag) occurrence in the Triassic basalt and the Fe occurrence in the Triassic sedimentary succession. The former shows significant similarities with the Michigan-type mineralizations, while the latter has typical characteristics of the Fe-SEDEX deposits. All the above localities fit well into the new geological model of the investigated area. The mineralizations represent the different evolutionary stages of the Neotethyan rifting and an epigenetic, Alpine metamorphism-related process and their recent, spatially close position is the result of the accretionary mélange formation. Thus, the Darnó Unit represents a perfect natural laboratory for studying and understanding the characteristic features of several different rifting related ore forming processes.

  18. Mixing from below in hydrothermal ore deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bons, Paul D.; Gomez-Rivas, Enrique; Markl, Gregor; Walter, Bejamin

    2014-05-01

    Unconformity-related hydrothermal ore deposits typically show indications of mixing of two end-member fluids: (a) hot, deep, rock-buffered basement brines and (b) colder fluids derived from the surface or overlying sediments. The hydromechanics of bringing these fluids together from above and below remain unclear. Classical percolative Darcy-flow models are inconsistent with (1) fluid overpressure indicated by fracturing and brecciation, (2) fast fluid flow indicated by thermal disequilibrium, and (3) strong fluid composition variations on the mm-scale, indicated by fluid inclusion analyses (Bons et al. 2012; Fusswinkel et al. 2013). We propose that fluids first descend, sucked down by desiccation reactions in exhumed basement. Oldest fluids reach greatest depths, where long residence times and elevated temperatures allow them the extensively equilibrate with their host rock, reach high salinity and scavenge metals, if present. Youngest fluids can only penetrate to shallower depths and can (partially) retain signatures from their origin, for example high Cl/Br ratios from the dissolution of evaporitic halite horizons. When fluids are released from all levels of the crustal column, these fluids mix during rapid ascent to form hydrothermal ore deposits. Mixing from below provides a viable hydromechanical mechanism to explain the common phenomenon of mixed shallow and deep fluids in hydrothermal ore deposits. Bons, P.D., Elburg, M.A., Gomez-Rivas, E. 2012. A review of the formation of tectonic veins and their microstructures. J. Struct. Geol. doi:10.1016/j.jsg.2012.07.005 Fusswinkel, T., Wagner, T., Wälle, M., Wenzel, T., Heinrich, C.A., Markl, M. 2013. Fluid mixing forms basement-hosted Pb-Zn deposits: Insight from metal and halogen geochemistry of individual fluid inclusions. Geology. doi:10.1130/G34092.1

  19. Evaluation of major constraints to revegetation of lead/zinc mine tailings using bioassay techniques.

    PubMed

    Ye, Z H; Shu, W S; Zhang, Z Q; Lan, C Y; Wong, M H

    2002-06-01

    The residues from the extraction of lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) ores of most Pb/Zn mines are permanently stored in tailings ponds, which require revegetation to reduce their environmental impact. This can only be done if the main constraints on plant establishment are evaluated. This can readily be done by field and greenhouse studies. To test this, the properties of different tailings from Lechang Pb/Zn mine located at the north of Guangdong Province in southern China have been studied. Physical and chemical properties including concentrations of metals (Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu) in the tailings and soils collected from different sites have been measured. The results showed that tailings contain low nitrogen (0.016-0.075%), low-organic matter (0.58-1.78%), high salt (3.55-13.85 dS/m), and high total and diethylene-tetramine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable metal concentrations (total: 1,019-1,642 microg g(-1) Pb, 3,078-6,773 microg g(-1) Zn, 8-23 microg g(-1) Cd, and 85-192 microg g(-1) Cu; DTPA-extractable: 59-178 microig g(-1) Pb, 21-200 microg g(-1) Zn, 0.30-1.5 mcirog g(-1) Cd, and 4.3-12 microg g(-1) Cu). Aqueous extracts of tailings/soils (10%, 20% and 30%, w/v) from different sites were prepared for testing their effects on seed germination and root elongation of a vegetable crop Brassica chinensis and a grass species Cynodon dactylon. It was found that root elongation provided a better evaluation of toxicity than seed germination. The ranking of toxicity using root elongation was: high-sulfur tailings > tailing dam > sparsely vegetated tailings > densely vegetated tailings > mountain soil for both plants. This order was consistent with DTPA-extractable Pb contents in the tailings and soils. B. chinensis seedlings were then grown in the mixtures of different proportions of tailings and farm soil for 4 weeks, and the results (dry weights of seedlings) were in line with the root elongation test. All these demonstrated that heavy metal toxicity, especially available Pb, low

  20. The coupled geochemistry of Au and As in pyrite from hydrothermal ore deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deditius, Artur P.; Reich, Martin; Kesler, Stephen E.; Utsunomiya, Satoshi; Chryssoulis, Stephen L.; Walshe, John; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2014-09-01

    The ubiquity of Au-bearing arsenian pyrite in hydrothermal ore deposits suggests that the coupled geochemical behaviour of Au and As in this sulfide occurs under a wide range of physico-chemical conditions. Despite significant advances in the last 20 years, fundamental factors controlling Au and As ratios in pyrite from ore deposits remain poorly known. Here we explore these constraints using new and previously published EMPA, LA-ICP-MS, SIMS, and μ-PIXE analyses of As and Au in pyrite from Carlin-type Au, epithermal Au, porphyry Cu, Cu-Au, and orogenic Au deposits, volcanogenic massive sulfide (VHMS), Witwatersrand Au, iron oxide copper gold (IOCG), and coal deposits. Pyrite included in the data compilation formed under temperatures from ∼30 to ∼600 °C and in a wide variety of geological environments. The pyrite Au-As data form a wedge-shaped zone in compositional space, and the fact that most data points plot below the solid solubility limit defined by Reich et al. (2005) indicate that Au1+ is the dominant form of Au in arsenian pyrite and that Au-bearing ore fluids that deposit this sulfide are mostly undersaturated with respect to native Au. The analytical data also show that the solid solubility limit of Au in arsenian pyrite defined by an Au/As ratio of 0.02 is independent of the geochemical environment of pyrite formation and rather depends on the crystal-chemical properties of pyrite and post-depositional alteration. Compilation of Au-As concentrations and formation temperatures for pyrite indicates that Au and As solubility in pyrite is retrograde; Au and As contents decrease as a function of increasing temperature from ∼200 to ∼500 °C. Based on these results, two major Au-As trends for Au-bearing arsenian pyrite from ore deposits are defined. One trend is formed by pyrites from Carlin-type and orogenic Au deposits where compositions are largely controlled by fluid-rock interactions and/or can be highly perturbed by changes in temperature and

  1. Uranium ore rolls in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harshman, E.N.

    1970-01-01

    About 40% of the uranium ore reserves in the United States, minable at $8 per pound of contained U3O8, are in roll-type deposits in the State of Wyoming. The host rocks are arkosic sandstones, deposited in intermontane basins under fluvial conditions, and derived from the granitic cores of mountain ranges that flank the basins. The host rocks are Eocene and possibly Paleocene in age and are, or were, overlain by a sequence of continental tuffaceous siltstones, sandstones and conglomerates 400 - 700 m thick.

  2. The role of the Antofagasta-Calama Lineament in ore deposit deformation in the Andes of northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, Carlos; Ramírez, Luis E.; Townley, Brian; Solari, Marcelo; Guerra, Nelson

    2007-02-01

    During the Late Jurassic-Early Oligocene interval, widespread hydrothermal copper mineralization events occurred in association with the geological evolution of the southern segment of the central Andes, giving rise to four NS-trending metallogenic belts of eastward-decreasing age: Late Jurassic, Early Cretaceous, Late Paleocene-Early Eocene, and Late Eocene-Early Oligocene. The Antofagasta-Calama Lineament (ACL) consists of an important dextral strike-slip NE-trending fault system. Deformation along the ACL system is evidenced by a right-lateral displacement of the Late Paleocene-Early Eocene metallogenic belts. Furthermore, clockwise rotation of the Early Cretaceous Mantos Blancos copper deposit and the Late Paleocene Lomas Bayas porphyry copper occurred. In the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene metallogenic belt, a sigmoidal deflection and a clockwise rotation is observed in the ACL. The ACL is thought to have controlled the emplacement of Early Oligocene porphyry copper deposits (34-37 Ma; Toki, Genoveva, Quetena, and Opache), whereas it deflected the Late Eocene porphyry copper belt (41-44 Ma; Esperanza, Telégrafo, Centinela, and Polo Sur ore deposits). These observations suggest that right-lateral displacement of the ACL was active during the Early Oligocene. We propose that the described structural features need to be considered in future exploration programs within this extensively gravel-covered region of northern Chile.

  3. GIS-based Mine Tailings Yield Mapping using RUSLE and Sediment Delivery Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Choi, Y.; Park, H.; Kwon, H.; Yoon, S.; Go, W.

    2010-12-01

    Erosion of mine tailings heaped up on the side of abandoned mine is an environmental problem because they contain harmful heavy metals. These harmful heavy metals such as copper, lead, arsenic in mine tailings cause contamination of surrounding streams and soil. To prevent and reduce the damage of surrounding streams caused by harmful heavy metals leaking from mine tailings, evaluating the pollution loading amount of mine tailings is required. However, it is difficult to assess its environmental impacts accurately because of its complex processes associated with it (Lal 1994). To estimate soil erosion and develop soil erosion management plans, there are some soil erosion estimation methods. Among these methods, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) is the most widely used method. The six factors affecting soil loss such as rainfall-runoff erosivity, soil erodibility, slope length and steepness, cover management, and support practice were extracted from the spatial data and measurement data to evaluate average annual soil loss. Applying this model to mine tailings is possible, because mine tailings are regarded as soil. All the sediment generated may not be delivered at the watershed outlet because some of it may be deposited at various locations in the watershed. RUSLE does not consider the sediment delivery ratio to estimate the mine tailings delivered to the downstream point of interest. In this study, three methods are provided to compute the spatially distributed sediment delivery ratios and the results are compared with each other. Geographical Information System (GIS)-based erosion model and sediment delivery model were used to estimate the potential sediment yield from mine tailings in this study. The results achieved in this study can be used as basis data to assist mine tailings management and tailings dam installation plan. This work was supported by the Mine Reclamation Corporation funded by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy, Republic of Korea

  4. [Infrared Spectra Characteristics of the Silicate Nickel Ores: A Comparison Study on Different Ore Samples from Indonesia and China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Meng-li; Fu, Wei; Wang, Bao-hua; Zhang, Ya-qian; Huang, Xiao-rong; Niu, Hu-jie

    2015-03-01

    The silicate nickel ores developed in the lateritic nickel deposit, from Kolonodale, Sulawesi Island, Indonesia, and Yuanjiang, Yunnan province, China, were selected for the present study. The X-ray diffraction and Fourier infrared spectra were used to analyze the mineralogical attribute of laterite nickel ores from two different places. The results show that these two different silicate nickel ores have unique infrared spectra characteristics individually, which contributes to the ore classification. The silicate nickel ores from Kolonodale deposit, Indonesia, can be classified as the serpentine type, the montmorillonite + serpentine type, and the garnierite type. While, the silicate nickel ores from Yuanjiang deposit, China, can be classified as the serpentine type and the talc + serpentine type. Moreover, the mineral crystallinity of Yuanjiang nickel ores is generally better than Kolonodale nickel ores. According to the advantage of infrared absorption spectra in distinguishing mineral polytypes, it can be determined that lizardite is the main mineral type in the silicate nickel ores of the two deposits, and there is no obvious evidence of chrysotile and antigorite's existence. The characteristic of infrared absorption spectra also shows that frequency change of OH libration indicates Ni (Fe) replacing Mg in the serpentine type nickel-bearing mineral, that is, OH libration of serpentine moves to higher frequency, with the proportion of Ni (Fe) replacing Mg increasing. PMID:26117869

  5. Magmatogenic manganese ores of the South Minusa Intermontane Trough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassandrov, E. G.; Mazurov, M. P.

    2009-10-01

    The first data on the mineral composition and formation conditions of manganese ore at the Chapsordag and Malosyrsky deposits in the Askiz ore district of Khakassia are integrated and systematized. The detailed mineralogical mapping of the deposits has been carried out. The identification of minerals and examination of the ore microstructure were performed with optical microscopy in transmitted and reflected light and using SEM/EDS, EMPA, XRD, IRS, and other methods. It was established that the ore mineralization is spatially and genetically related to the Early Devonian magmatism and accompanying hydrothermal activity and metasomatism. Syngenetic braunite was detected for the first time in elevated amounts reaching an economic level in the devitrified groundmass of volcanic rocks, in cement of lava breccia, and in fragments in pyroclastic rocks. By analogy with iron deposits, this magmatogenic type of manganese mineralization is regarded as ore lavas and tuffs combined with metasomatic and hydrothermal mineral assemblages into a strata-bound orebearing complex and as a source of hydrothermal metasomatic ore. The elevated Mn content in magmatic melts of the Early Devonian trachybasalt-trachyandesite-trachydacite association is caused by assimilation of Riphean and Lower Cambrian high-Mn carbonate sequences in crustal magma chambers. In contours of economic orebodies, the hydrothermal economic ore is recognized as sites of massive, patchy and impregnated, brecciated, stringer-disseminated, and disseminated varieties. High-grade massive ore occurs as stratiform and branching bodies up to 1.5 m thick and a few tens of meters long and as smaller pocketlike bodies. Braunite and pyrolusite (polianite) are major ore minerals varying in size, degree of crystallinity, and character of intergrowths with associating minerals. Gangue minerals include carbonates, sulfates, albite, quartz, chlorite, actinolite, piemontite, and okhotskite, a Mn-pumpellyite identified in Russia

  6. Sedimentary exhalative nickel-molybdenum ores in south China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lott, D.A.; Coveney, R.M., Jr.; Murowchick, J.B.; Grauch, R.I.

    1999-01-01

    Unique bedded Ni-Mo ores hosted by black shales were discovered in localized paleobasins along the Yangzte platform of southern China in 1971. Textural evidence and radiometric dates imply ore formation during sedimentation of black shales that grade into readily combustible beds, termed stone coals, which contain 10 to 15 percent organic carbon. Studies of 427 fluid inclusions indicate extreme variation in hydrothermal brine salinities that were contained by Proterozoic dolostones underlying the ore zone in Hunan and Guizhou. Variations of fluid inclusion salinities, which range from 0.1 to 21.6 wt percent NaCl equiv, are attributed to differences in the compositions of brines in strata underlying the ore bed, complicated by the presence of seawater and dilute fluids that represent condensates of vapors generated by boiling of mineralizing fluids or Cambrian meteoric water. The complex processes of ore deposition led to scattered homogenization temperatures ranging from 100??to 187??C within the Hunan ore zone and from 65??to 183??C within the Guizhou ore zone. While living organisms probably did not directly accumulate metals in situ in sufficient amounts to explain the unusually high grades of the deposits, sulfur isotope ratios indicate that bacteria, now preserved as abundant microfossils, provided sufficient sulfide for the ores by reduction of seawater sulfate. Such microbiota may have depended on vent fluids and transported organic matter for key nutrients and are consistent with a sedex origin for the ores. Vent fluids interacted with organic remains, including rounded fragments of microbial mats that were likely transported to the site of ore deposition by the action of waves and bottom currents prior to replacement by ore minerals.

  7. Process of extracting both uranium and radium from uranium-containing ores

    SciTech Connect

    Nirdosh, I.; Baird, M.H.; Banerjee, S.; Muthuswami, S.V.

    1984-06-12

    Ferric chloride leaching at temperatures in the range 47-74/sup 0/C. is found to remove up to 97% of the uranium from ores occurring in the Elliot Lake area of Canada, but radium removal was found to be poor due to the formation of sulphates from the sulphides present in the ore. In processes of the invention the sulphides are initially removed by flotation, when aqueous acidic ferric chloride of relatively low concentration, e.g., 0.1 M can extract as much as 92% of the radium, giving tailings which are effectively sulphide-free and with radium levels approaching a desired maximum of 24 pCi/g. Radium may be removed by adsorption on manganese dioxide and uranium may be removed by liquid extraction with D2EHPA (DAPEX process). The ferric chloride may be recirculated for further leaching, with reduction before the uranium extraction and reoxidation afterwards. Because of the recycle, it is possible to keep chloride ion levels in the effluent below the prescribed level in Ontario, Canada of 750 ppm.

  8. Microscale mineralogical characterization of As, Fe, and Ni in uranium mine tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essilfie-Dughan, Joseph; Hendry, M. Jim; Warner, Jeff; Kotzer, Tom

    2012-11-01

    Uranium (U) ores can contain high concentrations of elements of concern (EOCs), such as arsenic (As) and nickel (Ni) present in sulfide and arsenide minerals. The U in these ores is often solubilized by adding H2SO4 to attain a pH ∼1 under oxic conditions. This process releases some EOCs from the primary minerals into solution. The barren raffinate (solution remaining after U extraction) is subsequently neutralized with Ca(OH)2 to a terminal pH of ∼10.5, resulting in a reduction in the aqueous concentrations of the EOCs. These neutralized raffinates are mixed with the non-reacted primary minerals and discharged as tailing into tailings management facilities (TMFs). To aid in the accurate characterization and quantification of the mineralogical controls on the concentrations of EOCs in the tailings porewater, their spatial distribution and speciation were studied at the micron scale in tailings samples collected from the Deilmann U Tailings Management Facility (DTMF), northern Saskatchewan, Canada. Backscattered electron images of the tailings samples generated using an electron microprobe show the presence of nodules (10-200 μm size) surrounded by bright rims. Wavelength dispersive spectrometric (WDS) and synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) elemental mapping show that the nodules are dominated by Ca and S (as gypsum) and the bright rims are dominated by Fe, As, and Ni. Micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure (μ-XANES) spectra collected within and near the rims indicate that the Fe and Ni are present mainly in the +3 and +2 oxidation states, respectively; for As, the +5 oxidation state dominates but significant amounts of the +3 oxidation state are present in some areas. Linear combination fit analyses of the K-edges for the Fe, As, and Ni μ-XANES spectra to reference compounds suggest the Fe in the rims is present as ferrihydrite with As and Ni are adsorbed to it. Energy dispersive spectrometric (EDS) data indicate that isolated, highly

  9. Total Ore Processing Integration and Management

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie Gertsch

    2006-01-30

    This report outlines the technical progress achieved for project DE-FC26-03NT41785 (Total Ore Processing Integration and Management) during the period 01 October through 31 December of 2005. Graphical analysis of blast patterns according to drill monitor data is continuing. Multiple linear regression analysis of 16 mine and mill variables (powder factor, two modeled size fractions, liberation index, predicted grind, total crude Fe, Satmagan Fe, sat ratio, DSC, geologic blend, ambient temperature, cobbing hours, feeder plugs, and percent feeder run time-of-mill time) indicates that December variations in plant performance are generally predictable (Figure 1). The outlier on December 28th coincides with low cobbing availability and equipment downtime. Mill productivity appeared to be most influenced, as usual, by ore quality as indicated by the liberation index--the higher the liberation index, the lower the throughput. The upcoming quarter will be concerned with wrapping up the work in progress, such as the detailed statistical analyses, and writing a final report. Hibtac Mine engineers are evaluating neural network software to determine its utility for modeling, and eventually predicting, mill throughput.

  10. Copper in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... please enable JavaScript. Copper is an essential trace mineral present in all body tissues. Function Copper works ... nih.gov/pubmed/25057538 . Mason JB. Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, ...

  11. PROCESS FOR THE CONCENTRATION OF ORES CONTAINING GOLD AND URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Gaudin, A.M.; Dasher, J.

    1958-06-10

    ABS>A process is described for concentrating certain low grade uranium and gold bearing ores, in which the gangue is mainly quartz. The production of the concentrate is accomplished by subjecting the crushed ore to a froth floatation process using a fatty acid as a collector in conjunction with a potassium amyl xanthate collector. Pine oil is used as the frothing agent.

  12. DETAIL OVERHEAD VIEW OF SECONDARY ORE BIN, CONVEYOR PLATFORM TRAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OVERHEAD VIEW OF SECONDARY ORE BIN, CONVEYOR PLATFORM TRAM TRESTLE, AND LOADING PLATFORM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. THE HOLE IN THE ORE BIN FLOOR CAN BE SEEN, AND BALL MILL FOUNDATION AT LOWER LEFT CORNER. SEE CA-291-13 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  13. 15. NORTH ELEVATION OF UPPER ORE BIN, CHUTE, AND JAW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. NORTH ELEVATION OF UPPER ORE BIN, CHUTE, AND JAW CRUSHER, LOOKING SOUTH FROM END OF CONVEYOR PLATFORM. NOTICE THE THREE ORE BIN CONTROL DOORS, CORRESPONDING TO SEPARATE COMPARTMENTS OF THE BIN. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  14. 25. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH IN THE ORE RECEIVING LEVEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH IN THE ORE RECEIVING LEVEL SHOWING THE TRAMWAY TRACKS IN THE FLOOR, ORE CHUTES IN THE FLOOR, NEWER TRACKS COMING IN FROM THE TRESTLE ON THE EAST SIDE OF THE MILL., AND THE WINDING DRUM THE TRAMWAY IN THE BACKGROUND. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  15. LOOKING WEST ALONG PASSAGE BETWEEN CRUSHING ROOM AND FINE ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING WEST ALONG PASSAGE BETWEEN CRUSHING ROOM AND FINE ORE BIN AREA. NOTE STEEL CUSTOM ORE CHUTES IN BACKGROUND. THE FARTHEST BINS WERE LAST USED FOR STORAGE OF BALL MILL BALLS. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  16. 13. OBLIQUE VIEW OF UPPER ORE BIN, LOOKING WEST NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. OBLIQUE VIEW OF UPPER ORE BIN, LOOKING WEST NORTHWEST. THIS ORE BIN WAS ADDED IN THE LATE 1930'S. IT IS TRAPAZOIDAL IN SHAPE, WIDER AT THE REAR THAN THE FRONT, AND DIVIDED INTO THREE BINS, EACH WITH ITS OWN CONTROL DOOR (SEE CA-290-15). - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  17. 25. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL TIMBERS, ORE BIN, AND STAIRWAY TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL TIMBERS, ORE BIN, AND STAIRWAY TO TOP FLOOR OF MILL, LOOKING SOUTH FROM SECOND FLOOR OF MILL. PORTION OF ORE BIN ON RIGHT, STAIRS ON LEFT. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  18. TRAM HOUSE INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. NOTE DEPARTING ORE BUCKET "12" ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRAM HOUSE INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. NOTE DEPARTING ORE BUCKET "12" AND SUSPENSION CABLE ANGLING DOWN THROUGH FLOOR AT LOWER LEFT. LARGE LEVER ON SIDE OF BUCKET ALLOWS IT TO BE ROTATED FOR DUMPING ORE. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  19. 14. OBLIQUE VIEW OF UPPER ORE BIN AND LOADING DECK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. OBLIQUE VIEW OF UPPER ORE BIN AND LOADING DECK, LOOKING WEST. DETAIL OF SUPPORTING TIMBERS. THE LOCATION OF THIS ORE BIN IN RELATION TO THE MILL CAN BE SEEN IN MANY OF THE MILL OVERVIEWS. (CA-290-4 THROUGH CA-290-8). - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  20. 40. HULETT ORE UNLOADER IN MOTION. VIEW LOOKING EAST. (Also ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. HULETT ORE UNLOADER IN MOTION. VIEW LOOKING EAST. (Also see OH-18-14, OH-18-38, and OH-18-39) - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  1. 27. HULETT ORE UNLOADERS TEMPORARILY IN REPOSE, AS A NEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. HULETT ORE UNLOADERS TEMPORARILY IN REPOSE, AS A NEW SKIP TIES UP AT DOCK. THE UNLOADERS OPERATE ALMOST CONTINUOUSLY DURING THE SHIPPING SEASON, WHICH USUALLY RUNS FROM APRIL UNTIL LATE DECEMBER OR EARLY JANUARY. VIEW HERE IS LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  2. 24. REAR ELEVATION, HULETT ORE UNLOADERS. TRACKS CARRYING THE FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. REAR ELEVATION, HULETT ORE UNLOADERS. TRACKS CARRYING THE FRONT END AND REAR LEGS OF THE HULETT UNLOADERS ARE LAID ON THE DOCK AND REAR WALLS, RESPECTIVELY; BOTH WALLS ARE MADE OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SUPPORTED ON CONCRETE PILES. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  3. 39. HULETT ORE UNLOADER IN MOTION. VIEW LOOKING EAST. (Also ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. HULETT ORE UNLOADER IN MOTION. VIEW LOOKING EAST. (Also see OH-18-14, OH-18-38, and OH-18-40) - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  4. 19. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM EAST. EAST CRUDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM EAST. EAST CRUDE ORE BIN IN FOREGROUND WITH DISCHARGE TO GRIZZLY AT BOTTOM OF VIEW. CONCRETE RETAINING WALL TO LEFT (SOUTH) AND BOTTOM (EAST EDGE OF EAST BIN). - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  5. 64. NORTH WALL OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN. THE PRIMARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. NORTH WALL OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN. THE PRIMARY MILL FEEDS AT BOTTOM. MILL SOLUTION TANKS WERE TO THE LEFT (EAST) AND BARREN SOLUTION TANK TO THE RIGHT (WEST) OR THE CRUSHED ORE BIN. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  6. Room Temperature Aging Study of Butyl O-rings

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Wilson

    2009-08-07

    During testing under the Enhanced Surveillance Campaign in 2001, preliminary data detected a previously unknown and potentially serious concern with recently procured butyl o-rings. All butyl o-rings molded from a proprietary formulation throughout the period circa 1999 through 2001 had less than a full cure. Tests showed that sealing force values for these suspect o-rings were much lower than expected and their physical properties were very sensitive to further post curing at elevated temperatures. Further testing confirmed that these o-rings were approximately 50% cured versus the typical industry standard of > 90% cured. Despite this condition, all suspect o-rings fully conformed to their QC acceptance requirements, including their individual product drawing requirements.

  7. Timing of ore-related magmatism in the western Alaska Range, southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Graham, Garth E.; Anderson, Eric D.; Selby, David

    2014-01-01

    This report presents isotopic age data from mineralized granitic plutons in an area of the Alaska Range located approximately 200 kilometers to the west-northwest of Anchorage in southwestern Alaska. Uranium-lead isotopic data and trace element concentrations of zircons were determined for 12 samples encompassing eight plutonic bodies ranging in age from approximately 76 to 57.4 millions of years ago (Ma). Additionally, a rhenium-osmium age of molybdenite from the Miss Molly molybdenum occurrence is reported (approx. 59 Ma). All of the granitic plutons in this study host gold-, copper-, and (or) molybdenum-rich prospects. These new ages modify previous interpretations regarding the age of magmatic activity and mineralization within the study area. The new ages show that the majority of the gold-quartz vein-hosting plutons examined in this study formed in the Late Cretaceous. Further work is necessary to establish the ages of ore-mineral deposition in these deposits.

  8. Copper-tantalum alloy

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Verhoeven, John D.; Gibson, Edwin D.

    1986-07-15

    A tantalum-copper alloy can be made by preparing a consumable electrode consisting of an elongated copper billet containing at least two spaced apart tantalum rods extending longitudinally the length of the billet. The electrode is placed in a dc arc furnace and melted under conditions which co-melt the copper and tantalum to form the alloy.

  9. Demystifying Controlling Copper Corrosion

    EPA Science Inventory

    The LCR systematically misses the highest health and corrosion risk sites for copper. Additionally, there are growing concerns for WWTP copper in sludges and discharge levels. There are many corrosion control differences between copper and lead. This talk explains the sometimes c...

  10. On copper peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, L.

    1988-01-01

    The action of hydrogen superoxide on copper salts in alcoholic solutions is studied. The action of hydrogen peroxide on copper hydroxide in alcoholic suspensions, and the action of ethereal hydrogen peroxide on copper hydroxide are discussed. It is concluded that using the procedure proposed excludes almost entirely the harmful effect of hydrolysis.

  11. Element flows associated with marine shore mine tailings deposits.

    PubMed

    Dold, Bernhard

    2006-02-01

    From 1938 until 1975, flotation tailings from the Potrerillos--El Salvador mining district (porphyry copper deposits) were discharged into the El Salado valley and transported in suspension to the sea at Chaliaral Bay, Atacama Desert, northern Chile. Over 220 Mt of tailings, averaging 0.8 +/- 0.25 wt % of pyrite, were deposited into the bay, resulting in over a 1 kilometer seaward displacement of the shoreline and an estimated 10-15 m thick tailings accumulation covering a approximately 4 km2 surface area. The Chaniaral case was classified by the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) in 1983 as one of the most serious cases of marine contamination in the Pacific area. Since 1975, the tailings have been exposed to oxidation, resulting in a 70-188 cm thick low-pH (2.6-4) oxidation zone at the top with liberation of divalent metal cations, such as Cu2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+ (up to 2265 mg/L, 18.1 mg/L, and 20.3 mg/ L, respectively). Evaporation-induced transport capillarity led to metal enrichment atthe tailings surface (e.g. up to 2.4% Cu) in the form of secondary chlorides and/or sulfates (dominated by eriochalcite [CuCl.H2O] and halite). These, mainly water-soluble, secondary minerals were exposed to eolian transport in the direction of the Village of Chañaral by the predominant W-SW winds. Two element-flow directions (toward the tailings surface, via capillarity, and toward the sea) and two element groups with different geochemical behaviors (cations such as Cu, Zn, Ni, and oxyanions such as As and Mo) could be distinguished. It can be postulated, that the sea is mainly affected by the following: As, Mo, Cu, and Zn contamination, which were liberated from the oxidation zone from the tailings and mobilized through the tidal cycle, and by Cu and Zn from the subsurface waters flowing in the El Salado valley (up to 19 mg/L and 12 mg/L Zn, respectively), transported as chloro complexes at neutral pH. PMID:16509314

  12. Near-Surface Sensing of Vegetative Heavy Metal Stress: Method Development for an Accelerated Assessment of Mine Tailing Waste and Remediation Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. T.; Gottfried, M.; Berglund, E.; Rodriguez, G.; Ceckanowicz, D. J.; Cutter, N.; Badgeley, J.

    2014-12-01

    The boom and bust history of mineral extraction in the American southwest is visible today in tens of thousands of abandoned and slowly decaying mine installations that scar the landscape. Mine tailing piles, mounds of crushed mineral ore, often contain significant quantities of heavy metal elements which may leach into surrounding soils, surface water and ground water. Chemical analysis of contaminated soils is a tedious and time-consuming process. Regional assessment of heavy metal contamination for treatment prioritization would be greatly accelerated by the development of near-surface imaging indices of heavy-metal vegetative stress in western grasslands. Further, the method would assist in measuring the ongoing effectiveness of phytoremedatian and phytostabilization efforts. To test feasibility we ground truthed nine phytoremediated and two control sites sites along the mine-impacted Kerber Creek watershed in Saguache County, Colorado. Total metal concentration was determined by XRF for both plant and soil samples. Leachable metals were extracted from soil samples following US EPA method 1312. Plants were identified, sorted into roots, shoots and leaves, and digested via microwave acid extraction. Metal concentrations were determined with high accuracy by ICP-OES analysis. Plants were found to contain significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals than surrounding soils, particularly for manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), barium (Ba), and lead (Pb). Plant species accumulated and distributed metals differently, yet most showed translocation of metals from roots to above ground structures. Ground analysis was followed by near surface imaging using an unmanned aerial vehicle equipped with visible/near and shortwave infrared (0.7 to 1.5 μm) cameras. Images were assessed for spectral shifts indicative of plant stress and attempts made to correlate results with measured soil and plant metal concentrations.

  13. [Leaching of ores with heterotrophic microorganisms. Development of a screening method].

    PubMed

    Klages, D; Meyer, I; Schwartz, W; Näveke, R

    1981-01-01

    Besides leaching of sulfide ores with thiobacilli, a second way of microbial leaching is tested with carbon-heterotrophic fungi and bacteria for those types of ores, where thiobacilli fail to work. The active agents are metabolic products, f. i. organic acids, which are released into the medium producing water soluble compounds with heavy metals. A screening method is described for recognizing active strains in samples of soil, metal-containing sites, mining heaps and other biocoenoses, using the dilution method in plates with different media. The critical signs of supposed leaching activity are halo formations around growing colonies in turbid agar media with suspended particles of Ca carbonate or Ca phosphates of low solubility, and in a second group of experiments with insoluble compounds of heavy metals, f. i. oxides. The leaching activity was tested with metal compounds suspended in liquid media and inoculated with active strains of the screening program. First results were reached with oxides of copper (CuO), uranium (U3O8) and an uranium-containing phosphorite. PMID:7039150

  14. Effects of High Pressure ORE Grinding on the Efficiency of Flotation Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saramak, Daniel; Krawczykowska, Aldona; Młynarczykowska, Anna

    2014-10-01

    This article discusses issues related to the impact of the high pressure comminution process on the efficiency of the copper ore flotation operations. HPGR technology improves the efficiency of mineral resource enrichment through a better liberation of useful components from waste rock as well as more efficient comminution of the material. Research programme included the run of a laboratory flotation process for HPGR crushing products at different levels of operating pressures and moisture content. The test results showed that products of the high-pressure grinding rolls achieved better recoveries in flotation processes and showed a higher grade of useful components in the flotation concentrate, in comparison to the ball mill products. Upgrading curves have also been marked in the following arrangement: the content of useful component in concentrate the floatation recovery. All upgrading curves for HPGR products had a more favourable course in comparison to the curves of conventionally grinded ore. The results also indicate that various values of flotation recoveries have been obtained depending on the machine operating parameters (i.e. the operating pressure), and selected feed properties (moisture).

  15. High REE and Y concentrations in Co-Cu-Au ores of the Blackbird district, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of 11 samples of strata-bound Co-Cu-Au ore from the Blackbird district in Idaho shows previously unknown high concentrations of rare earth elements (REE) and Y, averaging 0.53 wt percent ???REE + Y oxides. Scanning electron microscopy indicates REE and Y residence in monazite, xenotime, and allanite that form complex intergrowths with cobaltite, suggesting coeval Co and REE + Y mineralization during the Mesoproterozoic. Occurrence of high REE and Y concentrations in the Blackbird ores, together with previously documented saline-rich fluid inclusions and Cl-rich biotite, suggest that these are not volcanogenic massive sulfide or sedimentary exhalative deposits but instead are iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits. Other strata-bound Co deposits of Proterozoic age in the North American Cordillera and elsewhere in the world may have potential for REE and Y resources. IOCG deposits with abundant light REE should also be evaluated for possible unrecognized heavy REE and Y mineralization. ?? 2006 by Economic Geology.

  16. Magnetospheric Substorms and Tail Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, W. Jeffrey

    1998-01-01

    This grant funded several studies of magnetospheric substorms and their effect on the dynamics of the earth's geomagnetic tail. We completed an extensive study of plasmoids, plasma/magnetic field structures that travel rapidly down the tail, using data from the ISEE 3 and IMP 8 spacecraft. This study formed the PhD thesis of Mark Moldwin. We found that magnetically plasmoids are better described as flux-ropes (twisted magnetic flux tubes) rather than plasma bubbles, as had been generally regarded up to that point (Moldwin and Hughes, 1990; 1991). We published several examples of plasmoids observed first in the near tail by IMP 8 and later in the distant tail by ISEE 3, confirming their velocities down tail. We showed how the passage of plasmoids distorts the plasma sheet. We completed the first extensive statistical survey of plasmoids that showed how plasmoids evolve as they move down tail from their formation around 30 RE to ISEE 3 apogee at 240 RE. We established a one-to-one correspondence between the observation of plasmoids in the distant tail and substorm onsets at earth or in the near tail. And we showed that there is a class of plasmoid-like structures that move slowly earthward, especially following weak substorms during northward IMF. Collectively this work constituted the most extensive study of plasmoids prior to the work that has now been done with the GEOTAIL spacecraft. Following our work on plasmoids, we turned our attention to signatures of substorm onset observed in the inner magnetosphere near geosynchronous orbit, especially signatures observed by the CRRES satellite. Using data from the magnetometer, electric field probe, plasma wave instrument, and low energy plasma instrument on CRRES we were able to better document substorm onsets in the inner magnetosphere than had been possible previously. Detailed calculation of the Poynting flux showed energy exchange between the magnetosphere and ionosphere, and a short burst of tailward convective

  17. Metallogenic events and tectonic setting of the Duobaoshan ore field in Heilongjiang Province, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Yu-Jie; Ren, Yun-Sheng; Duan, Ming-Xin; Tong, Kuang-Yin; Chen, Cong; Yang, Qun; Li, Chao

    2015-01-01

    The Duobaoshan ore field, a major center of metal production in Northeast China, is located in the northeast of the Xing'an-Mongolia Orogenic Belt (the eastern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt) and within the northern Greater Xing'an Mountains. Several types of ore deposits are mined in the Duobaoshan region, including the Duobaoshan and Tongshan porphyry copper-molybdenum deposits, the Sankuanggou skarn iron-copper deposit, and the Zhengguang epithermal gold deposit. Zircon grains from the Tongshan granodiorite and porphyritic granite yield laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb weighted mean ages of 475.9 ± 0.8 Ma and 230.9 ± 0.9 Ma to 240.7 ± 0.8 Ma, respectively. The Re-Os isochron age of molybdenites from the Tongshan deposit is 473 ± 4 Ma. Because both field observations and petrographic analysis identified disseminated chalcopyrite, pyrite, and malachite in the porphyritic granite, the isotope dating indicates that the Tongshan deposit underwent at least two magmatic-mineralization events, during the Ordovician and the Triassic. Zircon grains from the metallogenic granodiorite of the Sankuanggou skarn deposit yield an age of 176.1 ± 0.3 Ma, and Re-Os dating of molybdenite gives an age of 173 ± 6 Ma, indicating a Jurassic event. Based on previous research and the new geochemical analysis presented in this study, it is inferred that the magmatism and mineralization of the Sankuanggou deposit were associated with the subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate. The Duobaoshan region has therefore experienced at least three major magmatic and mineralization events, during the Ordovician (470-480 Ma), the Triassic (230-240 Ma), and the Early Jurassic (170-180 Ma).

  18. Environmental geochemistry of abandoned flotation tailing reservior from the Tonglvshan Fe-Cu sulfide mine in Daye, Central China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Y; Bao, Z Y; Deng, Y M; Ma, Z Z; Yan, S

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated metals of tailings from Tonglvshan mine in Daye and assessed the effect of metal contamination in water and sediment near the tailing reservoir. The concentration of copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, chromium and nickel was measured in deposit samples taken from a profile in an abandoned flotation tailing reservoir, as well as in water and sediment samples near the reservoir. The results of this study indicate that copper concentration ranges from 780 to 4390 mg/kg, 2-10 times higher than the limit values in soil, while the contents of other metals are below the limit values. Metal levels in water and sediments are high and varied widely in different sampling sites. The mean concentrations of copper, lead, zinc, cadmium, chromium and nickel in waters are 27.76, 2.28, 8.20, 0.12, 5.30 and 3.04 mg/L, while those in sediments are 557.65, 96.95, 285.20, 0.92, 94.30 and 4.75 mg/kg, respectively. All of the results indicate that the environment near the tailing reservoir is polluted to some extent by some kinds of metals, especially by copper, lead, zinc and cadmium, which may be caused not only by some discharge sources of metals, but also by life garbage and sewage. PMID:21562833

  19. Supergene processes and uranium ore formation in the Ronneburg ore field, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonin, A. V.; Gradovsky, I. F.

    2012-04-01

    The Ordovician-Lower Carboniferous sequence of slightly metamorphosed gray carbonate-terrigenous rocks contains the Silurian black cherty shales enriched in carbon (6-9%), pyrite (6-7%), and uranium (˜30 ppm). The uranium ore is localized at the pinch-out of areal and linear zones of the Early Permian supergene (exogenic) oxidation of rocks expressed in reddening (hematitization). U, As, Sb, Cu, Ni, Mo, and Ag have been removed from the oxidized black shales and concentrated in the cementation zone in form of pitchblende and sulfides in wall-rock disseminations and veinlets largely hosted in carbonate-bearing rocks. In the Late Permian, during deposition of the upper Rotliegende and Zechstein, the fractures in the basement were filled with carbonates and sulfates; uranium was partly redeposited along with enrichment in Pb and Zn. Mesozoic and Cenozoic supergene processes altered uranium ore insignificantly.

  20. Remediation of uranium mill tailings by an integrated biological and chemical process

    SciTech Connect

    Torma, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    Dilute calcium chloride brine solution was found to be effective in the solubilization of toxic heavy metals and long half-life radionuclides (Th-230, Ra-226 and Pb-210) from uranium ores and mill tailings. The recovery of heavy metals and radionuclides from uranium mill tailing effluents was studied with calcium alginate beads. The maximum cadmium and zinc uptakes by calcium alginate beads were determined to be 2.8 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] and 2.3 [times] 10[sup [minus]3] mol/dry weight of alginate. The kinetic values, V[sub m] and K, were calculated for uranium uptake by calcium alginate to be 96.2 mg/l/s and 0.125 g/l, respectively.

  1. Remediation of uranium mill tailings by an integrated biological and chemical process

    SciTech Connect

    Torma, A.E.

    1992-12-31

    Dilute calcium chloride brine solution was found to be effective in the solubilization of toxic heavy metals and long half-life radionuclides (Th-230, Ra-226 and Pb-210) from uranium ores and mill tailings. The recovery of heavy metals and radionuclides from uranium mill tailing effluents was studied with calcium alginate beads. The maximum cadmium and zinc uptakes by calcium alginate beads were determined to be 2.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} and 2.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} mol/dry weight of alginate. The kinetic values, V{sub m} and K, were calculated for uranium uptake by calcium alginate to be 96.2 mg/l/s and 0.125 g/l, respectively.

  2. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site Salt Lake City, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah, evaluates potential public health or environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium ore processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell located at Clive, Utah, in 1987 by the US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate residual ground water contamination at the former uranium processing site, known as the Vitro processing site. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the appropriate remedial action for contaminated ground water at the site.

  3. The Klyuchevskoe gold ore deposit (Eastern Transbaikalia): Formation conditions and petrogeochemical features of rocks and ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, B. N.

    2015-09-01

    It was found that the magma chambers in the Amudzhikan complex (J3) were characterized by close degrees of their differentiation and occurred at depths corresponding to the lower continental crust. The formation of explosive breccias proceeded during each period of the ore-forming process. The magma chambers of early breccias occurred at great depths. The late breccias contain carbonate cement and are characterized by an increased REE content.

  4. Ceramic colorant from untreated iron ore residue.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Oscar Costa; Bernardin, Adriano Michael

    2012-09-30

    This work deals with the development of a ceramic colorant for glazes from an untreated iron ore residue. 6 mass% of the residue was added in suspensions (1.80 g/cm(3) density and 30s viscosity) of white, transparent and matte glazes, which were applied as thin layers (0.5mm) on engobeb and not fired ceramic tiles. The tiles were fired in laboratory roller kiln in a cycle of 35 min and maximum temperatures between 1050 and 1180°C. The residue and glazes were characterized by chemical (XRF) and thermal (DTA and optical dilatometry) analyses, and the glazed tiles by colorimetric and XRD analyses. The results showed that the colorant embedded in the transparent glaze results in a reddish glaze (like pine nut) suitable for the ceramic roof tile industry. For the matte and white glazes, the residue has changed the color of the tiles with temperature. PMID:22795839

  5. Dust dispersal and Pb enrichment at the rare-metal Orlovka-Spokoinoe mining and ore processing site: insights from REE patterns and elemental ratios.

    PubMed

    Dolgopolova, Alla; Weiss, Dominik J; Seltmann, Reimar; Dulski, Peter

    2006-04-30

    Different geological, technogenic and environmental samples from the Orlovka-Spokoinoe Ta-Nb-Sn-W mining site and ore processing complex in Eastern Transbaikalia (Russia), were analysed for Pb, Y, Zr, Hf and rare earth elements (REE) to assess the effect of dust and metal dispersal on the environment within the Orlovka-Spokoinoe mining site. Potential source material analysed included ore-bearing and barren granites, host rocks, tailing pond sediments, and ore concentrates. Lichens and birch leaves were used as receptor samples. The REE enrichment relative to chondrite, the extent of the Eu anomalies, the enrichments of heavy REE (HREE), and Zr/Hf and Yb/Y ratios suggest that tailings, barren granites, and metasedimentary host rocks are the main sources of dust in the studied mining environment. In addition, calculated lead enrichment (relative to host rocks) suggests that the environment is polluted with Pb. Our results clearly demonstrate the potential of REE patterns and elemental ratios as a reliable technique to trace dust and metals sources and dispersal within a confined mining area offering a new tool for environmental assessment studies. PMID:16427193

  6. CFB roasting for gold ore processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, G.; D'Acierno, J.P.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes how KTI/Dorr-Oliver applied the results from CFB boiler technology to the design for a CFB mineral processing plant built in Africa in 1992. The whole ore gold roaster plant located in Syama, Mali is presently owned and operated by Randgold of South Africa and it processes over 216 tons per hour of whole gold ore. The plant has operated continuously for over four years. The CFB reactor operates in the turbulent CFB mode of fluidization with over 40 minutes of solids residence time in the dense phase for optimum conversion of the feed material. The success of the plant after four years of operation is in large part due to the choice of the turbulent CFB mode of fluidization. This mode is very flexible in face of significant variations in feed composition and size distribution. Sulfur capture takes place in situ and the sorbent is present naturally in the feed. An electrostatic precipitator is used for particulate removal from the flue gas. The energy balance for the system requires auxiliary fuel oil burned in the CFB reactor. Energy from the 1,200--1,350 F roasted product stream is recovered and recycled back into the CFB using two fluidized bed coolers; one to directly heat the secondary air and the other to indirectly heat the primary fluidizing air. Pilot plant testing and the scale up of pilot plant results to the full scale plant is described. The plant start up including resolution of some unique start up difficulties is covered. A comparison of results for the pilot plant and commercial plant is presented.

  7. Ore minerals textural characterization by hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Picone, Nicoletta; Serranti, Silvia

    2013-02-01

    The utilization of hyperspectral detection devices, for natural resources mapping/exploitation through remote sensing techniques, dates back to the early 1970s. From the first devices utilizing a one-dimensional profile spectrometer, HyperSpectral Imaging (HSI) devices have been developed. Thus, from specific-customized devices, originally developed by Governmental Agencies (e.g. NASA, specialized research labs, etc.), a lot of HSI based equipment are today available at commercial level. Parallel to this huge increase of hyperspectral systems development/manufacturing, addressed to airborne application, a strong increase also occurred in developing HSI based devices for "ground" utilization that is sensing units able to play inside a laboratory, a processing plant and/or in an open field. Thanks to this diffusion more and more applications have been developed and tested in this last years also in the materials sectors. Such an approach, when successful, is quite challenging being usually reliable, robust and characterised by lower costs if compared with those usually associated to commonly applied analytical off- and/or on-line analytical approaches. In this paper such an approach is presented with reference to ore minerals characterization. According to the different phases and stages of ore minerals and products characterization, and starting from the analyses of the detected hyperspectral firms, it is possible to derive useful information about mineral flow stream properties and their physical-chemical attributes. This last aspect can be utilized to define innovative process mineralogy strategies and to implement on-line procedures at processing level. The present study discusses the effects related to the adoption of different hardware configurations, the utilization of different logics to perform the analysis and the selection of different algorithms according to the different characterization, inspection and quality control actions to apply.

  8. Direct Biohydrometallurgical Extraction of Iron from Ore

    SciTech Connect

    T.C. Eisele

    2005-10-01

    A completely novel approach to iron extraction was investigated, based on reductive leaching of iron by anaerobic bacteria. Microorganisms were collected from an anaerobic bog where natural seepage of dissolved iron was observed. This mixed culture was used to reduce insoluble iron in a magnetite ore to the soluble ferrous (Fe{sup +2}) state. While dissolution rates were slow, concentrations of dissolved iron as high as 3487 mg/l could be reached if sufficient time was allowed. A factorial study of the effects of trace nutrients and different forms of organic matter indicated that the best dissolution rates and highest dissolved iron concentrations were achieved using soluble carbohydrate (sucrose) as the bacterial food source, and that nutrients other than nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and acetate were not necessary. A key factor in reaching high levels of dissolved iron was maintaining a high level of carbon dioxide in solution, since the solubility of iron carbonates increases markedly as the quantity of dissolved carbon dioxide increases. Once the iron is dissolved, it has been demonstrated that the ferrous iron can then be electroplated from solution, provided that the concentration of iron is sufficiently high and the hydrogen ion concentration is sufficiently low. However, if the leaching solution is electrolyzed directly, organic matter precipitates at the cathode along with the metallic iron. To prevent this problem, the ferrous iron should be separated from the bulk solution in a more concentrated, purified form. One route to accomplishing this is to take advantage of the change in solubility of ferrous iron as a function of carbon dioxide concentration. By cycling the concentration of carbon dioxide in solution, it is possible to produce an iron-rich concentrate that should be suitable for electrolysis. This represents the first viable hydrometallurgical method for leaching iron directly from ore and producing metallic iron.

  9. Bog Manganese Ore: A Resource for High Manganese Steel Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, Swatirupa; Singh, Saroj K.; Mohapatra, Birendra K.

    2016-06-01

    Bog manganese ore, associated with the banded iron formation of the Iron Ore Group (IOG), occurs in large volume in northern Odisha, India. The ore is powdery, fine-grained and soft in nature with varying specific gravity (2.8-3.9 g/cm3) and high thermo-gravimetric loss, It consists of manganese (δ-MnO2, manganite, cryptomelane/romanechite with minor pyrolusite) and iron (goethite/limonite and hematite) minerals with sub-ordinate kaolinite and quartz. It shows oolitic/pisolitic to globular morphology nucleating small detritus of quartz, pyrolusite/romanechite and hematite. The ore contains around 23% Mn and 28% Fe with around 7% of combined alumina and silica. Such Mn ore has not found any use because of its sub-grade nature and high iron content, and is hence considered as waste. The ore does not respond to any physical beneficiation techniques because of the combined state of the manganese and iron phases. Attempts have been made to recover manganese and iron value from such ore through smelting. A sample along with an appropriate charge mix when processed through a plasma reactor, produced high-manganese steel alloy having 25% Mn within a very short time (<10 min). Minor Mn content from the slag was recovered through acid leaching. The aim of this study has been to recover a value-added product from the waste.

  10. Bog Manganese Ore: A Resource for High Manganese Steel Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, Swatirupa; Singh, Saroj K.; Mohapatra, Birendra K.

    2016-05-01

    Bog manganese ore, associated with the banded iron formation of the Iron Ore Group (IOG), occurs in large volume in northern Odisha, India. The ore is powdery, fine-grained and soft in nature with varying specific gravity (2.8-3.9 g/cm3) and high thermo-gravimetric loss, It consists of manganese (δ-MnO2, manganite, cryptomelane/romanechite with minor pyrolusite) and iron (goethite/limonite and hematite) minerals with sub-ordinate kaolinite and quartz. It shows oolitic/pisolitic to globular morphology nucleating small detritus of quartz, pyrolusite/romanechite and hematite. The ore contains around 23% Mn and 28% Fe with around 7% of combined alumina and silica. Such Mn ore has not found any use because of its sub-grade nature and high iron content, and is hence considered as waste. The ore does not respond to any physical beneficiation techniques because of the combined state of the manganese and iron phases. Attempts have been made to recover manganese and iron value from such ore through smelting. A sample along with an appropriate charge mix when processed through a plasma reactor, produced high-manganese steel alloy having 25% Mn within a very short time (<10 min). Minor Mn content from the slag was recovered through acid leaching. The aim of this study has been to recover a value-added product from the waste.

  11. Did the Kiruna iron ores form as a result of a metasomatic or igneous process? New U-Pb and Nd data for the iron oxide apatite ores and their host rocks in the Norrbotten region of northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westhues, A.; Hanchar, J. M.; Whitehouse, M. J.; Fisher, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    A number of iron deposits near Kiruna in the Norrbotten region of northern Sweden are of the iron oxide apatite (IOA) type of deposits; also referred to as Kiruna-type deposits. They are commonly considered a subgroup or end-member of iron oxide copper gold (IOCG) deposits, containing no economic grades of copper or gold. Both IOCG and IOA deposits are characterized by abundant low-Ti Fe oxides, an enrichment in REE, and intense sodium and potassium wall-rock alteration adjacent to the ores. Deposits of these types are of a great economic importance, not only for iron, but also for other elements such as rare earth elements (REE) or uranium. Kiruna, the type locality of the IOA type of mineral deposits, is the focus of this study. Despite a century-long mining history and 2500 Mt of iron ore produced in the region to date (with grades of 30 to 70 wt.% Fe), the genesis of these deposits is poorly understood: theories of a magmatic vs. a hydrothermal or metasomatic origin have been debated, and the timing of mineralization of the ores in the Norbotten region has never been directly dated. The results anticipated from this study will provide a better understanding of the nature of the IOA type of mineral deposits and their relation to IOCG deposits such as Olympic Dam in Australia. An array of geochemical methods is used in order to gain insights on the emplacement history of the host rocks, their subsequent alteration, and the ore genesis of these deposits. This includes in situ U/Pb geochronology of zircon, monazite, and titanite to constrain the timing between host rock emplacement, alteration and mineralization. Isotopic data from whole rocks and in situ at mineral scale will provide constraints on the involvement of hydrothermal fluids and their possible sources, as well as on the sources of Fe, U, and the REE. Newly obtained Sm-Nd isotopic data points to distinct source differences between host rocks, ore and alteration related samples. Preliminary in situ U

  12. Sulfur isotope geochemistry of ore and gangue minerals from the Silesian-Cracow Mississippi Valley-type ore district, Poland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leach, D.L.; Vets, J.G.; Gent, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of the sulfur isotopic composition of ore and gangue minerals from the Silesian-Cracow Zn-Pb district were conducted to gain insights into processes that controlled the location and distribution of the ore deposits. Results of this study show that minerals from the Silesian-Cracow ore district have the largest range of sulfur isotope compositions in sulfides observed from any Mississippi Valley-type ore district in the world. The ??34S values for sulfide minerals range from +38 to -32 per mil for the entire paragenetic sequence but individual stages exhibit smaller ranges. There is a well developed correlation between the sulfur isotope composition and paragenetic stage of ore deposition. The first important ore stage contains mostly positive ??34S values, around 5 per mil. The second stage of ore formation are lower, with a median value of around -5 to -15 per mil, and with some values as low as -32 per mil. Late stage barite contains isotopically heavy sulfur around +32 per mil. The range in sulfur isotope compositions can be explained by contributions of sulfur from a variety of source rocks together with sulfur isotope fractionations produced by the reaction paths for sulfate reduction. Much of the variation in sulfur isotope compositions can be explained by bacterial reduction of sedimentary sulfate and disequilibrium reactions by intermediate-valency sulfur species, especially in the late-stage pyrite and sphalerite. Organic reduction of sulfate and thermal release of sulfur from coals in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin may have been important contributors to sulfur in the ore minerals. The sulfur isotopic data, ore mineral textures, and fluid inclusion data, are consistent with the hypothesis that fluid mixing was the dominant ore forming mechanism. The rather distinct lowering of ?? 34S values in sulfides from stage 2 to stage 3 is believed to reflect some fundamental change in the source of reduced sulfur and/or hydrology of the ore

  13. Application of three tailing-based composites in treating comprehensive electroplating wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbo; Zhu, Mengling; Gao, Saisai

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals and chemical oxygen demand (COD) are major challenging pollutants for most electroplating wastewater treatment plants. A novel composite material, prepared with a mixture of calcium and sodium compounds and tailings, was simply mixed by ratios and used to treat a comprehensive electroplating wastewater with influent COD, total copper (T-Cu), and total nickel (T-Ni) respectively as 690, 4.01, and 20.60 mg/L on average. Operational parameters, i.e. the contact time, pH, mass ratio of calcium and sodium compounds and tailings, were optimized as 30 min, 10.0, and 4:2:1. Removal rates for COD, T-Cu, and T-Ni could reach 71.8, 90.5, and 98.1%, respectively. No significant effect of initial concentrations on removal of T-Cu and T-Ni was observed for the composite material. The adsorption of Cu(II) and Ni(II) on the material fitted Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms respectively. Weight of waste sludge from the calcium/sodium-tailing system after reaction was 10% less than that from the calcium-tailing system. The tailing-based composite is cost-effective in combating comprehensive electroplating pollution, which shows a possibility of applying the tailings in treating electroplating wastewater. PMID:25026578

  14. Radon emanation from low-grade uranium ore.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Patitapaban; Mishra, Devi Prasad; Panigrahi, Durga Charan; Jha, Vivekanand; Patnaik, R Lokeswara

    2013-12-01

    Estimation of radon emanation in uranium mines is given top priority to minimize the risk of inhalation exposure due to short-lived radon progeny. This paper describes the radon emanation studies conducted in the laboratory as well as inside an operating underground uranium mine at Jaduguda, India. Some of the important parameters, such as grade/(226)Ra activity, moisture content, bulk density, porosity and emanation fraction of ore, governing the migration of radon through the ore were determined. Emanation from the ore samples in terms of emanation rate and emanation fraction was measured in the laboratory under airtight condition in glass jar. The in situ radon emanation rate inside the mine was measured from drill holes made in the ore body. The in situ(222)Rn emanation rate from the mine walls varied in the range of 0.22-51.84 × 10(-3) Bq m(-2) s(-1) with the geometric mean of 8.68 × 10(-3) Bq m(-2) s(-1). A significant positive linear correlation (r = 0.99, p < 0.001) between in situ(222)Rn emanation rate and the ore grade was observed. The emanation fraction of the ore samples, which varied in the range of 0.004-0.089 with mean value of 0.025 ± 0.02, showed poor correlation with ore grade and porosity. Empirical relationships between radon emanation rate and the ore grade/(226)Ra were also established for quick prediction of radon emanation rate from the ore body. PMID:23974076

  15. Lobster Tail Ice Formation on Aerosurface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Glace Ice formation commonly refered to as 'Lobster Tail' by scientists and engineers, is caused to form on the leading edge of a aircraft tail section in the icing research tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio.

  16. Tourmaline as a recorder of ore-forming processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, J.F.; Trumbull, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Tourmaline occurs in diverse types of hydrothermal mineral deposits and can be used to constrain the nature and evolution of ore-forming fl uids. Because of its broad range in composition and retention of chemical and isotopic signatures, tourmaline may be the only robust recorder of original mineralizing processes in some deposits. Microtextures and in situ analysis of compositional and isotopic variations in ore-related tourmaline provide valuable insights into hydrothermal systems in seafl oor, sedimentary, magmatic, and metamorphic environments. Deciphering the hydrothermal record in tourmaline also holds promise for aiding exploration programs in the search for new ore deposits.

  17. 36. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM UNDERNEATH THE ORE BINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST FROM UNDERNEATH THE ORE BINS LOOKING AT THE BACK SIDE OF THE HENDY CHALLENGE CONTINUOUS ORE FEEDERS, #1 IS ON THE LEFT, #2 IS CENTER, AND #3 IS ON THE RIGHT. THESE ARE USED TO KEEP A CONTINUOUS FLOW OF ORE INTO THE STAMP MILLS. NOTE THE SPARE FEEDER DISKS ON THE FLOOR BOTTOM CENTER AND SPARE STAMP HEADS AND SHOES ON THE FLOOR BOTTOM LEFT OF THE IMAGE. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  18. The long-term environmental impacts of the Mount Polley mine tailings spill, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Patrick; Hudson-Edwards, Karen; Macklin, Mark; Brewer, Paul; Bird, Graham; Williams, Richard

    2015-04-01

    On the 4th August 2014 a tailings impoundment failure at the Mount Polley gold and copper mine in British Columbia, Canada, released approximately 25 million m3 of solid and liquid waste into Hazeltine Creek, Quesnel Lake and Polley Lake. The sheer volume of the tailings released caused Haseltine Creek channel to expand from 2m to over 25m in width and Polley Lake water level to rise by 1.7m. The spill also removed trees in a 900 km2 corridor either side of Hazeltine Creek. Local residents and government officials have expressed serious concerns regarding the potential long-term effects on regional biodiversity, water security and to the livelihoods of First Nation communities. Among impoundment failures, the Mount Polley disaster is unique in that the solid tailings contain an unusual mixture of metal contaminants (arsenic, copper, gold, manganese, nickel, lead, vanadium). As particulate matter is the principal carrier of metal contaminants, the spilled tailings may reside in the regional soils and sediments for 1000s of years serving as a secondary source of pollution. The environmental risk posed by the spilled tailings is compounded by the location of the spill in a mountainous forested catchment, affected by severe winters with prominent spring snow melts that have the potential to remobilise very large quantities of spilled tailings. No data currently exist on the short- to long-term behaviour of these tailings in soils and sediments and the effects of the clean-up operations on their behaviour in this type of river environment. In this study, we adopt a multidisciplinary approach to determine the environmental and geomorphological impacts of the tailings spill. We have two specific objectives. (1) The physicochemical speciation and geochemical stability of spilled tailings will be characterised in surface and hyporheic sediments using bulk chemistry, mineralogical (XRD and SEM) and speciation methods (sequential extractions, electron microprobe analysis, XAS

  19. Copper isotopes as monitors of redox processes in hydrothermal mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markl, Gregor; Lahaye, Yann; Schwinn, Gregor

    2006-08-01

    The stable copper isotope composition of 79 samples of primary and secondary copper minerals from hydrothermal veins in the Schwarzwald mining district, South Germany, shows a wide variation in δ65Cu ranging from -2.92 to 2.41‰. We investigated primary chalcopyrite, various kinds of fahlores and emplectite, as well as supergene native copper, malachite, azurite, cuprite, tenorite, olivenite, pseudomalachite and chrysocolla. Fresh primary Cu(I) ores have at most localities copper isotope ratios ( δ65Cu values) of 0 ± 0.5‰ despite the fact that the samples come from mineralogically different types of deposits covering an area of about 100 by 50 km and that they formed during three different mineralization events spanning the last 300 Ma. Relics of the primary ores in oxidized samples (i.e., chalcopyrite relics in an iron oxide matrix with an outer malachite coating) display low isotope ratios down to -2.92‰. Secondary Cu(I) minerals such as cuprite have high δ65Cu values between 0.4 and 1.65‰, whereas secondary Cu(II) minerals such as malachite show a range of values between -1.55 and 2.41‰, but typically have values above +0.5‰. Within single samples, supergene oxidation of fresh chalcopyrite with a δ value of 0‰ causes significant fractionation on the scale of a centimetre between malachite (up to 1.49‰) and relict chalcopyrite (down to -2.92‰). The results show that—with only two notable exceptions—high-temperature hydrothermal processes did not lead to significant and correlatable variations in copper isotope ratios within a large mining district mineralized over a long period of time. Conversely, low-temperature redox processes seriously affect the copper isotope compositions of hydrothermal copper ores. While details of the redox processes are not yet understood, we interpret the range in compositions found in both primary Cu(I) and secondary Cu(II) minerals as a result of two competing controls on the isotope fractionation process

  20. Monitoring pool-tail fines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunte, K.; Potyondy, J. P.; Abt, S. R.; Swingle, K. W.

    2010-12-01

    Fine sediment < 2 and < 6 mm deposited in pool-tail areas of mountain streams is often measured to monitor changes in the supply of fines (e.g., by dam removal, bank erosion, or watershed effects including fires and road building) or to assess the status and trend of aquatic ecosystems. Grid counts, pebble counts, and volumetric bedmaterial samples are typically used to quantify pool-tail fines. Grid-count results exhibit a high degree of variability not only among streams and among operators, but also among crews performing a nearly identical procedure (Roper et al. 2010). Variability is even larger when diverse methods are employed, each of which quantifies fines in a different way: grid counts visually count surface fines on small patches within the pool-tail area, pebble counts pick up and tally surface particles along (riffle) transects, and volumetric samples sieve out fines from small-scale bulk samples; and even when delimited to pool-tail areas, individual methods focus on different sampling locales. Two main questions were analyzed: 1) Do pool-tail fines exhibit patterns of spatial variability and are some grid count schemes more likely to provide accurate results than others. 2) How and why does the percentage of fines vary among grid counts, pebble counts, and volumetric samples. In a field study, grids were placed at 7 locales in two rows across the wetted width of 10 pool tails in a 14-m wide 3rd order coarse gravel-bed mountain stream with <4% sand and <8% < 6 mm. Several pebble count transects were placed across each pool-tail area, and three volumetric samples were collected in each of three pool tails. Pebble and grid counts both indicated a fining trend towards one or both banks, sometimes interrupted by a secondary peak of fines within the central half of the wetted width. Among the five sampling schemes tested, grid counts covering the wetted width with 7 locales produced the highest accuracy and the least variability among the pools of the

  1. 14 CFR 29.1565 - Tail rotor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tail rotor. 29.1565 Section 29.1565 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS....1565 Tail rotor. Each tail rotor must be marked so that its disc is conspicuous under normal...

  2. 14 CFR 27.1565 - Tail rotor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tail rotor. 27.1565 Section 27.1565 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Tail rotor. Each tail rotor must be marked so that its disc is conspicuous under normal daylight...

  3. Timing of multiple hydrothermal events in the iron oxide-copper-gold deposits of the Southern Copper Belt, Carajás Province, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreto, Carolina P. N.; Monteiro, Lena V. S.; Xavier, Roberto P.; Creaser, Robert A.; DuFrane, S. Andrew; Melo, Gustavo H. C.; Delinardo da Silva, Marco A.; Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; Sato, Kei

    2015-06-01

    The Southern Copper Belt, Carajás Province, Brazil, hosts several iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits, including Sossego, Cristalino, Alvo 118, Bacuri, Bacaba, Castanha, and Visconde. Mapping and U-Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) IIe zircon geochronology allowed the characterization of the host rocks, situated within regional WNW-ESE shear zones. They encompass Mesoarchean (3.08-2.85 Ga) TTG orthogneiss, granites, and remains of greenstone belts, Neoarchean (ca. 2.74 Ga) granite, shallow-emplaced porphyries, and granophyric granite coeval with gabbro, and Paleoproterozoic (1.88 Ga) porphyry dykes. Extensive hydrothermal zones include albite-scapolite, biotite-scapolite-tourmaline-magnetite alteration, and proximal potassium feldspar, chlorite-epidote and chalcopyrite formation. U-Pb laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) analysis of ore-related monazite and Re-Os NTIMS analysis of molybdenite suggest multiple Neoarchean (2.76 and 2.72-2.68 Ga) and Paleoproterozoic (2.06 Ga) hydrothermal events at the Bacaba and Bacuri deposits. These results, combined with available geochronological data from the literature, indicate recurrence of hydrothermal systems in the Southern Copper Belt, including 1.90-1.88-Ga ore formation in the Sossego-Curral ore bodies and the Alvo 118 deposit. Although early hydrothermal evolution at 2.76 Ga points to fluid migration coeval with the Carajás Basin formation, the main episode of IOCG genesis (2.72-2.68 Ga) is related to basin inversion coupled with Neoarchean (ca. 2.7 Ga) felsic magmatism. The data suggest that the IOCG deposits in the Southern Copper Belt and those in the Northern Copper Belt (2.57-Ga Salobo and Igarapé Bahia-Alemão deposits) do not share a common metallogenic evolution. Therefore, the association of all IOCG deposits of the Carajás Province with a single extensive hydrothermal system is precluded.

  4. 40 CFR 440.60 - Applicability; description of the tungsten ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... tungsten ore subcategory. 440.60 Section 440.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tungsten Ore Subcategory § 440.60 Applicability; description of the tungsten ore subcategory. The provisions of...

  5. 46 CFR 97.12-1 - Bulk ores and similar cargoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk ores and similar cargoes. 97.12-1 Section 97.12-1... OPERATIONS Cargo Stowage § 97.12-1 Bulk ores and similar cargoes. (a) The owners or operators of general cargo vessels which carry bulk cargoes such as ore, ore concentrates, and similar cargoes shall...

  6. 40 CFR 440.90 - Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... antimony ore subcategory. 440.90 Section 440.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.90 Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory....

  7. 40 CFR 440.20 - Applicability; description of the aluminum ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... aluminum ore subcategory. 440.20 Section 440.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Ore Subcategory § 440.20 Applicability; description of the aluminum ore subcategory....

  8. 40 CFR 440.70 - Applicability; description of the nickel ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... nickel ore subcategory. 440.70 Section 440.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Ore Subcategory § 440.70 Applicability; description of the nickel ore subcategory. The provisions of this...

  9. 40 CFR 440.60 - Applicability; description of the tungsten ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... tungsten ore subcategory. 440.60 Section 440.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tungsten Ore Subcategory § 440.60 Applicability; description of the tungsten ore subcategory....

  10. 40 CFR 440.50 - Applicability; description of the titanium ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... titanium ore subcategory. 440.50 Section 440.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory § 440.50 Applicability; description of the titanium ore subcategory....

  11. 40 CFR 440.40 - Applicability; description of the mercury ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... mercury ore subcategory. 440.40 Section 440.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory § 440.40 Applicability; description of the mercury ore subcategory. The...

  12. 40 CFR 440.90 - Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... antimony ore subcategory. 440.90 Section 440.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.90 Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory....

  13. 40 CFR 440.40 - Applicability; description of the mercury ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... mercury ore subcategory. 440.40 Section 440.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory § 440.40 Applicability; description of the mercury ore subcategory. The...

  14. 40 CFR 440.50 - Applicability; description of the titanium ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... titanium ore subcategory. 440.50 Section 440.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory § 440.50 Applicability; description of the titanium ore subcategory....

  15. 40 CFR 440.90 - Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... antimony ore subcategory. 440.90 Section 440.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.90 Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory. The provisions of...

  16. 40 CFR 440.60 - Applicability; description of the tungsten ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... tungsten ore subcategory. 440.60 Section 440.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tungsten Ore Subcategory § 440.60 Applicability; description of the tungsten ore subcategory....

  17. 40 CFR 440.40 - Applicability; description of the mercury ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... mercury ore subcategory. 440.40 Section 440.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory § 440.40 Applicability; description of the mercury ore subcategory. The provisions of subpart...

  18. 40 CFR 440.90 - Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... antimony ore subcategory. 440.90 Section 440.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.90 Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory. The provisions of...

  19. 40 CFR 440.90 - Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... antimony ore subcategory. 440.90 Section 440.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Antimony Ore Subcategory § 440.90 Applicability; description of the antimony ore subcategory....

  20. 40 CFR 440.10 - Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ore subcategory. 440.10 Section 440.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore Subcategory § 440.10 Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory. The provisions...

  1. 40 CFR 440.10 - Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ore subcategory. 440.10 Section 440.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore Subcategory § 440.10 Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  2. 40 CFR 440.40 - Applicability; description of the mercury ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... mercury ore subcategory. 440.40 Section 440.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory § 440.40 Applicability; description of the mercury ore subcategory. The...

  3. 40 CFR 440.50 - Applicability; description of the titanium ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... titanium ore subcategory. 440.50 Section 440.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory § 440.50 Applicability; description of the titanium ore subcategory. The provisions of...

  4. 40 CFR 440.20 - Applicability; description of the aluminum ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... aluminum ore subcategory. 440.20 Section 440.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Ore Subcategory § 440.20 Applicability; description of the aluminum ore subcategory....

  5. 40 CFR 440.20 - Applicability; description of the aluminum ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... aluminum ore subcategory. 440.20 Section 440.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Ore Subcategory § 440.20 Applicability; description of the aluminum ore subcategory. The provisions of...

  6. 40 CFR 440.70 - Applicability; description of the nickel ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... nickel ore subcategory. 440.70 Section 440.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Ore Subcategory § 440.70 Applicability; description of the nickel ore subcategory. The...

  7. 40 CFR 440.60 - Applicability; description of the tungsten ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... tungsten ore subcategory. 440.60 Section 440.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tungsten Ore Subcategory § 440.60 Applicability; description of the tungsten ore subcategory. The provisions of...

  8. 40 CFR 440.10 - Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ore subcategory. 440.10 Section 440.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore Subcategory § 440.10 Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory. The provisions...

  9. 40 CFR 440.10 - Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ore subcategory. 440.10 Section 440.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Iron Ore Subcategory § 440.10 Applicability; description of the iron ore subcategory. The provisions...

  10. 40 CFR 440.20 - Applicability; description of the aluminum ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... aluminum ore subcategory. 440.20 Section 440.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Ore Subcategory § 440.20 Applicability; description of the aluminum ore subcategory....

  11. 40 CFR 440.50 - Applicability; description of the titanium ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... titanium ore subcategory. 440.50 Section 440.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory § 440.50 Applicability; description of the titanium ore subcategory. The provisions of...

  12. 40 CFR 440.70 - Applicability; description of the nickel ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... nickel ore subcategory. 440.70 Section 440.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Ore Subcategory § 440.70 Applicability; description of the nickel ore subcategory. The provisions of this...

  13. 40 CFR 440.70 - Applicability; description of the nickel ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... nickel ore subcategory. 440.70 Section 440.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Ore Subcategory § 440.70 Applicability; description of the nickel ore subcategory. The...

  14. 40 CFR 440.50 - Applicability; description of the titanium ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... titanium ore subcategory. 440.50 Section 440.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Titanium Ore Subcategory § 440.50 Applicability; description of the titanium ore subcategory....

  15. 40 CFR 440.110 - Applicability; description of the platinum ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... platinum ore subcategory. 440.110 Section 440.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.110 Applicability; description of the platinum ore subcategory. The provisions of...

  16. 40 CFR 440.110 - Applicability; description of the platinum ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... platinum ore subcategory. 440.110 Section 440.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.110 Applicability; description of the platinum ore subcategory....

  17. 40 CFR 440.60 - Applicability; description of the tungsten ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... tungsten ore subcategory. 440.60 Section 440.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tungsten Ore Subcategory § 440.60 Applicability; description of the tungsten ore subcategory....

  18. 40 CFR 440.70 - Applicability; description of the nickel ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... nickel ore subcategory. 440.70 Section 440.70 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Nickel Ore Subcategory § 440.70 Applicability; description of the nickel ore subcategory. The...

  19. 40 CFR 440.110 - Applicability; description of the platinum ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... platinum ore subcategory. 440.110 Section 440.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.110 Applicability; description of the platinum ore subcategory....

  20. 40 CFR 440.110 - Applicability; description of the platinum ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... platinum ore subcategory. 440.110 Section 440.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.110 Applicability; description of the platinum ore subcategory. The provisions of...

  1. 40 CFR 440.110 - Applicability; description of the platinum ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... platinum ore subcategory. 440.110 Section 440.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Platinum Ores Subcategory § 440.110 Applicability; description of the platinum ore subcategory....

  2. 40 CFR 440.40 - Applicability; description of the mercury ore subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... mercury ore subcategory. 440.40 Section 440.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Mercury Ore Subcategory § 440.40 Applicability; description of the mercury ore subcategory. The provisions of subpart...

  3. Aquatic impact investigation from the Lynn Lake tailings: Status report, 1998. Report number 98-09

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.J.

    1998-12-31

    Mining activity in the vicinity of Lynn Lake in north-west Manitoba resulted in development of a number of tailings ponds that are potential sources of acid drainage. Observations such as the presence of dead trees in the vicinity of tailings pond dikes and a distinctive green coloration in one effluent pond raised concerns that confinement of acid drainage in the tailings area may be compromised and causing renewed detrimental impacts to the Lynn River and surrounding area. This report presents results of water quality and sediment surveys conducted in the Lynn Lake area. Parameters studied include pH, conductivity, calcium, sulfate, iron, nickel, zinc, copper, cyanide, and presence of benthos. Comparisons of the results are made with results from earlier surveys in order to determine temporal trends.

  4. Metal-sulfide mineral ores, Fenton chemistry and disease. Particle induced inflammatory stress response in lung cells

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, Andrea D.; Smirnov, Alexander; Tsirka, Stella E.; Schoonen, Martin A. A.

    2014-07-10

    The inhalation of mineral particulates and other earth materials, such as coal, can initiate or enhance disease in humans. Workers in occupations with high particulate exposure, such as mining, are particularly at risk. The ability of a material to generate an inflammatory stress response (ISR), a measure of particle toxicity, is a useful tool in evaluating said exposure risk. ISR is defined as the upregulation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) normalized to cell viability. This study compares the ISR of A549 human lung epithelial cells after exposure to well-characterized common metal-sulfide ore mineral separates. The evaluation of the deleterious nature of ore minerals is based on a range of particle loadings (serial dilutions of 0.002 m2/mL stock) and exposure periods (beginning at 30 min and measured systematically for up to 24 h). There is a wide range in ISR values generated by the ore minerals. The ISR values produced by the sphalerite samples are within the range of inert materials. Arsenopyrite generated a small ISR that was largely driven by cell death. Galena showed a similar, but more pronounced response. Copper-bearing ore minerals generated the greatest ISR, both by upregulating cellular ROS and generating substantial and sustained cell death. Chalcopyrite and bornite, both containing ferrous iron, generated the greatest ISR overall. Particles containing Fenton metals as major constituents produce the highest ISR, while other heavy metals mainly generate cell death. Furthermore, this study highlights the importance of evaluating the chemistry, oxidation states and structure of a material when assessing risk management.

  5. Metal-sulfide mineral ores, Fenton chemistry and disease. Particle induced inflammatory stress response in lung cells

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Harrington, Andrea D.; Smirnov, Alexander; Tsirka, Stella E.; Schoonen, Martin A. A.

    2014-07-10

    The inhalation of mineral particulates and other earth materials, such as coal, can initiate or enhance disease in humans. Workers in occupations with high particulate exposure, such as mining, are particularly at risk. The ability of a material to generate an inflammatory stress response (ISR), a measure of particle toxicity, is a useful tool in evaluating said exposure risk. ISR is defined as the upregulation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) normalized to cell viability. This study compares the ISR of A549 human lung epithelial cells after exposure to well-characterized common metal-sulfide ore mineral separates. The evaluation of the deleteriousmore » nature of ore minerals is based on a range of particle loadings (serial dilutions of 0.002 m2/mL stock) and exposure periods (beginning at 30 min and measured systematically for up to 24 h). There is a wide range in ISR values generated by the ore minerals. The ISR values produced by the sphalerite samples are within the range of inert materials. Arsenopyrite generated a small ISR that was largely driven by cell death. Galena showed a similar, but more pronounced response. Copper-bearing ore minerals generated the greatest ISR, both by upregulating cellular ROS and generating substantial and sustained cell death. Chalcopyrite and bornite, both containing ferrous iron, generated the greatest ISR overall. Particles containing Fenton metals as major constituents produce the highest ISR, while other heavy metals mainly generate cell death. Furthermore, this study highlights the importance of evaluating the chemistry, oxidation states and structure of a material when assessing risk management.« less

  6. Metal-Sulfide Mineral Ores, Fenton Chemistry and Disease – Particle Induced Inflammatory Stress Response in Lung Cells

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Andrea D.; Smirnov, Alexander; Tsirka, Stella E.; Schoonen, Martin A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The inhalation of mineral particulates and other earth materials, such as coal, can initiate or enhance disease in humans. Workers in occupations with high particulate exposure, such as mining, are particularly at risk. The ability of a material to generate an inflammatory stress response (ISR), a measure of particle toxicity, is a useful tool in evaluating said exposure risk. ISR is defined as the upregulation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) normalized to cell viability. This study compares the ISR of A549 human lung epithelial cells after exposure to well-characterized common metal-sulfide ore mineral separates. The evaluation of the deleterious nature of ore minerals is based on a range of particle loadings (serial dilutions of 0.002 m2/mL stock) and exposure periods (beginning at 30 minutes and measured systematically for up to 24 hours). There is a wide range in ISR values generated by the ore minerals. The ISR values produced by the sphalerite samples are within the range of inert materials. Arsenopyrite generated a small ISR that was largely driven by cell death. Galena showed a similar, but more pronounced response. Copper-bearing ore minerals generated the greatest ISR, both by upregulating cellular ROS and generating substantial and sustained cell death. Chalcopyrite and bornite, both containing ferrous iron, generated the greatest ISR overall. Particles containing Fenton metals as major constituents produce the highest ISR, while other heavy metals mainly generate cell death. This study highlights the importance of evaluating the chemistry, oxidation states and structure of a material when assessing risk management. PMID:25107347

  7. Metal-sulfide mineral ores, Fenton chemistry and disease--particle induced inflammatory stress response in lung cells.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Andrea D; Smirnov, Alexander; Tsirka, Stella E; Schoonen, Martin A A

    2015-01-01

    The inhalation of mineral particulates and other earth materials, such as coal, can initiate or enhance disease in humans. Workers in occupations with high particulate exposure, such as mining, are particularly at risk. The ability of a material to generate an inflammatory stress response (ISR), a measure of particle toxicity, is a useful tool in evaluating said exposure risk. ISR is defined as the upregulation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) normalized to cell viability. This study compares the ISR of A549 human lung epithelial cells after exposure to well-characterized common metal-sulfide ore mineral separates. The evaluation of the deleterious nature of ore minerals is based on a range of particle loadings (serial dilutions of 0.002m(2)/mL stock) and exposure periods (beginning at 30min and measured systematically for up to 24h). There is a wide range in ISR values generated by the ore minerals. The ISR values produced by the sphalerite samples are within the range of inert materials. Arsenopyrite generated a small ISR that was largely driven by cell death. Galena showed a similar, but more pronounced response. Copper-bearing ore minerals generated the greatest ISR, both by upregulating cellular ROS and generating substantial and sustained cell death. Chalcopyrite and bornite, both containing ferrous iron, generated the greatest ISR overall. Particles containing Fenton metals as major constituents produce the highest ISR, while other heavy metals mainly generate cell death. This study highlights the importance of evaluating the chemistry, oxidation states and structure of a material when assessing risk management. PMID:25107347

  8. Recovery of Nickel and Cobalt from Laterite Tailings by Reductive Dissolution under Aerobic Conditions Using Acidithiobacillus Species.

    PubMed

    Marrero, J; Coto, O; Goldmann, S; Graupner, T; Schippers, A

    2015-06-01

    Biomining of sulfidic ores has been applied for almost five decades. However, the bioprocessing of oxide ores such as laterites lags commercially behind. Recently, the Ferredox process was proposed to treat limonitic laterite ores by means of anaerobic reductive dissolution (AnRD), which was found to be more effective than aerobic bioleaching by fungi and other bacteria. We show here that the ferric iron reduction mediated by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans can be applied to an aerobic reductive dissolution (AeRD) of nickel laterite tailings. AeRD using a consortium of Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans extracted similar amounts of nickel (53-57%) and cobalt (55-60%) in only 7 days as AnRD using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The economic and environmental advantages of AeRD for processing of laterite tailings comprise no requirement for an anoxic atmosphere, 1.8-fold less acid consumption than for AnRD, as well as nickel and cobalt recovered in a ferrous-based pregnant leach solution (PLS), facilitating the subsequent metal recovery. In addition, an aerobic acid regeneration stage is proposed. Therefore, AeRD process development can be considered as environmentally friendly for treating laterites with low operational costs and as an attractive alternative to AnRD. PMID:25923144

  9. Hyperspectral Mapping of Bif and Iron Ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanaidou, E. R.; Schodlok, M.

    2012-12-01

    INTRODUCTION In the last 20 years, hyperspectral reflectance in the visible and near infrared (VNIR), shortwave infrared (SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) wavelength ranges have emerged as an objective and quick method to map minerals. The combination of these wavelength ranges is ideal to characterize most of the minerals occurring in banded iron-formation (BIF) and BIF-hosted high grade iron ores. VNIR is ideal for characterizing and mapping the abundance of hematite and goethite. The SWIR provides information on OH-bearing silicates and carbonates. TIR shows specific spectral absorption for anhydrous minerals. INSTRUMENTS AND SAMPLES Three hyperspectral sensors were used: (1) the NEO HYSPEX, (2) the SPECIM TIR and the CSIRO HyLogging™ systems. Samples include drill core and hand samples of Australian BIF and iron ore. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION In the VNIR and SWIR, magnetite has a very low reflectance and a featureless spectrum. The main diagnostic feature for hematite and goethite is the wavelength of the ferric oxide absorption near 900 nm. The shift of the minimum wavelength and the width of the feature are correlated to the hematite goethite ratio. In the TIR range magnetite shows a significant spectral peak at around 17.5 μm and an increase in reflectance between 6 and 14.5 μm ranging from 5 to 10%. Hematite shows an absorption at 6.5 μm. Goethite has a reflectance peak doublet; the first at 11.3 μm and the second at 12.6 μm. In the VNIR and SWIR, quartz shows no diagnostic feature. In the TIR, quartz has been identified by an absorption feature at 8.625 μm. The spectral shape of the main quartz feature shows high variability due to surface scattering. The second characteristic quartz feature is the doublet peaks at 12.5 μm and 12.8 μm. In the VNIR and SWIR, the carbonates are detected by their reflectance absorption at around 2.33 μm, a wavelength region already occupied by OH bearing Fe-Mg minerals. On the other end, in the TIR, carbonates show a

  10. Crystal morphology and thermal EMF of pyrites in the western flank of Sukholozhsky gold ore field (Lenski ore area)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilov, R.; Pshenichkin, A.; Ponamarenko, M.; Abramova, R.

    2015-11-01

    The investigated crystal morphology and thermal EMF of pyrites in the western flank of Sukholozsky ore field showed that the pyrite crystals have cubic habitus with a weakly-developed face {210}. The crystal faces {100} and {210} are covered with multiple irregular-oriented growth laminae. It has been determined that pyrites have such a property as p-type conduction and embrace insignificant thermal EMF variations. The results of the research indicated the fact of upper ore zone erosion in the western flank of Sukholozhsky ore field and its area potential at depth.

  11. Acid neutralization mechanisms and metal release in mine tailings: a laboratory column experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurjovec, Jasna; Ptacek, Carol J.; Blowes, David W.

    2002-05-01

    Mining and milling of base metal ore deposits can result in the release of metals to the environment. When sulfide minerals contained in mine tailings are exposed to oxygen and water, they oxidize and dissolve. Two principal antagonistic geochemical processes affect the migration of dissolved metals in tailings impoundments: sulfide oxidation and acid neutralization. This study focuses on acid neutralization reactions occurring in the saturated zone of tailings impoundments. To simulate conditions prevailing in many tailings impoundments, 0.1 mol/L sulfuric acid was passed continuously through columns containing fresh, unoxidized tailings, collected at Kidd Creek metallurgical site. The results of this column experiment represent a detailed temporal observation of pH, Eh, and metal concentrations. The results are consistent with previous field observations, which suggest that a series of mineral dissolution-precipitation reactions control pH and metal mobility. Typically, the series consists of carbonate minerals, Al and Fe(III) hydroxides, and aluminosilicates. In the case of Kidd Creek tailings, the dissolution series consists of ankerite-dolomite, siderite, gibbsite, and aluminosilicates. In the column experiment, three distinct pH plateaus were observed: 5.7, 4.0, and 1.3. The releases of trace elements such as Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn were observed to be related to the pH buffering zones. High concentrations of Zn, Ni, and Co were observed at the first pH plateau (pH 5.7), whereas Cd, Cr, Pb, As, V, and Al were released as the pH of the pore water decreased to 4.0 or less.

  12. Jasperoid float and stream cobbles as tools in geochemical exploration for hydrothermal ore deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovering, T.G.

    1981-01-01

    Fragments of silicified rocks that are associated with deposits of base and precious metals may be transported as cobbles and pebbles in alluvium far downstream from the source outcrop. These rocks commonly exhibit certain characteristics which distinguish them from other detrital siliceous material, and may thus serve as a useful tool in reconnaissance geochemical exploration. The predominant characteristics of jasperoid samples, classified according to genesis, type of host rock, and proximity to base and precious metal deposits have been tabulated from a large master file containing descriptive and analytical information on jasperoid samples representing more than a hundred areas in the United States. Jasperoid that is genetically and spatially associated with ore deposits is generally dark gray or brown in color, brecciated, phaneritic, and vuggy. Jasperoids associated with lead and zinc deposits exhibit extensive halos of lead and silver anomalies, and more restricted zinc and gold anomalies. Those related to copper deposits show extensive copper, silver, and gold anomalies, and more restricted bismuth and molybdenum anomalies. Jasperoid related to gold deposits tends to exhibit extensive gold and silver anomalies and more restricted titanium, barium, vanadium, molybdenum, and rare-earth element anomalies. ?? 1981.

  13. Arsenic exposure levels in relation to different working departments in a copper mining and smelting plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qingshan; Song, Yingli; Liu, Shengnan; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Lin; Xi, Shuhua; Sun, Guifan

    2015-10-01

    The investigation was carried out to evaluate arsenic exposure and the urine metabolite profiles of workers with different working departments, including administration (Group1), copper ore mining (Group2), copper ore grinding (Group3), electrolytic procession (Group4) and copper smelting (Group5) in a Copper mining and processing plant in China. Information about characteristics of each subject was obtained by questionnaire and inorganic arsenic (iAs), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in urine were determined. The highest urinary levels of iAs, MMA and DMA all were found in the Group 5. Group 4 workers had a higher iAs% and a lower PMI compared to Group 3. The urinary total As (TAs) levels of 54.7% subjects exceeded 50 μg/g Cr, and the highest percentage (93.3%) was found in Group 5, smelters. The results of the present study indicate that workers in copper production plant indeed exposed to As, especially for smelters and workers of electrolytic process.

  14. Uranium mill tailings quarterly report, January-March 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Latkovich, J.M.

    1982-05-01

    Progress is reported on: radon barrier systems for uranium mill tailings; liner evaluation for uranium mill tailings; revegetation/rock cover for stabilization of inactive U-tailings sites; and application of long-term chemical biobarriers for uranium tailings.

  15. Total Ore Processing Integration and Management

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie Gertsch

    2006-05-15

    This report outlines the technical progress achieved for project DE-FC26-03NT41785 (Total Ore Processing Integration and Management) during the period 01 January through 31 March of 2006. (1) Work in Progress: Minntac Mine--Graphical analysis of drill monitor data moved from two-dimensional horizontal patterns to vertical variations in measured and calculated parameters. The rock quality index and the two dimensionless ({pi}) indices developed by Kewen Yin of the University of Minnesota are used by Minntac Mine to design their blasts, but the drill monitor data from any given pattern is obviously not available for the design of that shot. Therefore, the blast results--which are difficult to quantify in a short time--must be back-analyzed for comparison with the drill monitor data to be useful for subsequent blast designs. {pi}{sub 1} indicates the performance of the drill, while {pi}{sub 2} is a measure of the rock resistance to drilling. As would be expected, since a drill tends to perform better in rock that offers little resistance, {pi}{sub 1} and {pi}{sub 2} are strongly inversely correlated; the relationship is a power function rather than simply linear. Low values of each Pi index tend to be quantized, indicating that these two parameters may be most useful above certain minimum magnitudes. (2) Work in Progress: Hibtac Mine--Statistical examination of a data set from Hibtac Mine (Table 1) shows that incorporating information on the size distribution of material feeding from the crusher to the autogenous mills improves the predictive capability of the model somewhat (43% vs. 44% correlation coefficient), but a more important component is production data from preceding days (26% vs. 44% correlation coefficient), determined using exponentially weighted moving average predictive variables. This lag effect likely reflects the long and varied residence times of the different size fragments in the grinding mills. The rock sizes are also correlated with the geologic

  16. Microstructure of bentonite in iron ore green pellets.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, Iftekhar U; Mouzon, Johanne; Schröppel, Birgit; Kaech, Andres; Dobryden, Illia; Forsmo, Seija P E; Hedlund, Jonas

    2014-02-01

    Sodium-activated calcium bentonite is used as a binder in iron ore pellets and is known to increase strength of both wet and dry iron ore green pellets. In this article, the microstructure of bentonite in magnetite pellets is revealed for the first time using scanning electron microscopy. The microstructure of bentonite in wet and dry iron ore pellets, as well as in distilled water, was imaged by various imaging techniques (e.g., imaging at low voltage with monochromatic and decelerated beam or low loss backscattered electrons) and cryogenic methods (i.e., high pressure freezing and plunge freezing in liquid ethane). In wet iron ore green pellets, clay tactoids (stacks of parallel primary clay platelets) were very well dispersed and formed a voluminous network occupying the space available between mineral particles. When the pellet was dried, bentonite was drawn to the contact points between the particles and formed solid bridges, which impart strength to the solid compact. PMID:24397939

  17. Effect of shelf aging on O-ring materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, T. E.; Stone, W. P.

    1978-01-01

    Commercial O-rings made from 13 different rubber compounds were tested for physical properties after 7 and 12 years of shelf aging. No gross changes were observed in tensile strength, elongation, or compression deflection characteristics.

  18. OVERVIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, TRAM TRESTLE, AND PRIMARY ORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF UPPER TRAM TERMINAL, TRAM TRESTLE, AND PRIMARY ORE BIN, LOOKING NORTHEAST. REMAINS OF A PRIVY ARE LOCATED IN BOTTOM RIGHT CORNER. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  19. VIEW FACING EAST. ORE TRESTLE WINDS AROUND THE INGOT MOLD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FACING EAST. ORE TRESTLE WINDS AROUND THE INGOT MOLD CONDITIONING BUILDING IN FOREGROUND. PITTSBURGH & LAKE ERIE TRACKS WIND THROUGH TOWN TOWARDS PITTSBURGH AT RIGHT. - Pittsburgh Steel Company, Monessen Works, Donner Avenue, Monessen, Westmoreland County, PA

  20. [Periodic bioleaching of refractory gold-bearing pyrite ore].

    PubMed

    Vardanian, N S; Nagdalian, S Z

    2009-01-01

    The main characteristics of a periodic bioleaching of the refractory gold-bearing pyrite ore from the Tandzut deposit (Armenia) with the help of moderate thermophilic bacterium Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxi-dans subsp. asporogenes and original thermotolerant strains Leptospirillum spp. were studied. The optimal pH for oxidizing the ore by S. thermosulfidooxidans subsp. asporogenes was 1.8; the pulp density providing maximal iron leaching rate was 10%. The intensity of oxidation processes decreased at higher ore concentrations. When using S. thermosulfidooxidans subsp. asporogenes, the largest amount of iron passed into the solution at the initial oxidant (Fe3+) concentration of 1.3 g/l. Cocultivation of S. thermosulfidooxidans subsp. asporogenes and Leptospirillum spp. increased the degree of pyrite ore leaching to 98.4% vs. 34.1% in the case of the former bacterium alone. PMID:19764614

  1. 53. VIEW OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. VIEW OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FROM EAST. SHOWS ACCESS STAIR TO FEED LEVEL; DUST COLLECTOR ON LEFT. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  2. Geochemical constraints on adakites of different origins and copper mineralization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, W.-D.; Ling, M.-X.; Chung, S.-L.; Ding, X.; Yang, X.-Y.; Liang, H.-Y.; Fan, W.-M.; Goldfarb, R.; Yin, Q.-Z.

    2012-01-01

    The petrogenesis of adakites holds important clues to the formation of the continental crust and copper ?? gold porphyry mineralization. However, it remains highly debated as to whether adakites form by slab melting, by partial melting of the lower continental crust, or by fractional crystallization of normal arc magmas. Here, we show that to form adakitic signature, partial melting of a subducting oceanic slab would require high pressure at depths of >50 km, whereas partial melting of the lower continental crust would require the presence of plagioclase and thus shallower depths and additional water. These two types of adakites can be discriminated using geochemical indexes. Compiled data show that adakites from circum-Pacific regions, which have close affinity to subduction of young hot oceanic plate, can be clearly discriminated from adakites from the Dabie Mountains and the Tibetan Plateau, which have been attributed to partial melting of continental crust, in Sr/Y-versus-La/Yb diagram. Given that oceanic crust has copper concentrations about two times higher than those in the continental crust, whereas the high oxygen fugacity in the subduction environment promotes the release of copper during partial melting, slab melting provides the most efficient mechanism to concentrate copper and gold; slab melts would be more than two times greater in copper (and also gold) concentrations than lower continental crust melts and normal arc magmas. Thus, identification of slab melt adakites is important for predicting exploration targets for copper- and gold-porphyry ore deposits. This explains the close association of ridge subduction with large porphyry copper deposits because ridge subduction is the most favorable place for slab melting. ?? 2012 by The University of Chicago.

  3. Extracting aluminum from dross tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amer, A. M.

    2002-11-01

    Aluminum dross tailings, an industrial waste, from the Egyptian Aluminium Company (Egyptalum) was used to produce two types of alums: aluminum-sulfate alum [itAl2(SO4)3.12H2O] and ammonium-aluminum alum [ (NH 4)2SO4AL2(SO4)3.24H2O]. This was carried out in two processes. The first process is leaching the impurities using diluted H2SO4 with different solid/liquid ratios at different temperatures to dissolve the impurities present in the starting material in the form of solute sulfates. The second process is the extraction of aluminum (as aluminum sulfate) from the purifi ed aluminum dross tailings thus produced. The effects of temperature, time of reaction, and acid concentration on leaching and extraction processes were studied. The product alums were analyzed using x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis techniques.

  4. Microbiological and geochemical dynamics in simulated-heap leaching of a polymetallic sulfide ore.

    PubMed

    Wakeman, Kathryn; Auvinen, Hannele; Johnson, D Barrie

    2008-11-01

    The evolution of microbial populations involved in simulated-heap leaching of a polymetallic black schist sulfide ore (from the recently-commissioned Talvivaara mine, Finland) was monitored in aerated packed bed column reactors over a period of 40 weeks. The influence of ore particle size (2-6.5 mm and 6.5-12 mm) on changes in composition of the bioleaching microflora and mineral leaching dynamics in columns was investigated and compared to fine-grain (<2 microm) ore that was bioprocessed in shake flask cultures. Both column reactors and shake flasks were inoculated with 24 different species and strains of mineral-oxidizing and other acidophilic micro-organisms, and maintained at 37 degrees C. Mineral oxidation was most rapid in shake flask cultures, with about 80% of both manganese and nickel and 68% of zinc being leached within 6 weeks, though relatively little of the copper present in the ore was solubilised. The microbial consortium that emerged from the original inoculum was relatively simple in shake flasks, and was dominated by the iron-oxidizing autotroph Leptospirillum ferriphilum, with smaller numbers of Acidimicrobium ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus caldus and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans. Both metal recovery and (for the most part) total numbers of prokaryotes were greater in the column reactor containing the medium-grain than that containing the coarse-grain ore. The bioleaching communities in the columns displayed temporal changes in composition and differed radically from those in shake flask cultures. While iron-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria were always the most numerically dominant bacteria in the medium-grain column bioreactor, there were major shifts in the most abundant species present, with the type strain of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans dominating in the early phase of the experiment and other bacteria (At. ferrooxidans NO37 and L. ferriphilum) dominating from week 4 to week 40. With the coarse-grain column bioreactor, similar

  5. Constraints on Variable Ag:Au:Cu Ore-Metal Ratios in Felsic Arc-Magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccoli, P.; Englander, L.; Candela, P.

    2004-12-01

    Silver:gold:copper ratios are variable in porphyry-type ore systems. In an attempt to better understand why, we have employed experimental techniques to determine how silver and copper, and gold from previous experiments, are sequestered in felsic magmas. To this end, we are performing sealed silica tube experiments on the equilibria among pyrrhotite-magnetite-silver alloy at 800C and at vapor pressure. Run times for the preliminary experiments were 144 hours; runs had magnetite/pyrrhotite ratio of 4. The source of silver in the runs was AgCl. Analysis of reconnaissance experiments demonstrates the stability of magnetite, pyrrhotite and a silver sulfide solid solution under the conditions of the experiments. Equilibrium concentrations of ore metals in the run products are ~3000 ppm Ag and 3500 ppm Cu in the pyrrhotite. However, the concentrations in magnetite are significantly different: 100 ppm Ag and ~20 ppm Cu. Like copper and gold (Jugo et al., 1999; Lithos), silver is concentrated in pyrrhotite relative to magnetite. The equilibrium Ag-sulfide composition in the run products is Ag53Fe8Cu3S36, with a mole fraction of Ag2S of 0.74. The log fS2 is approximated as ~ -4. The mole fraction of Ag in an ideal metal solid solution in equilibrium with an ideal model Ag2S solid solution, and a log fS2 of -4, is ~0.4. By analogy with Au, the substitution of Ag into pyrrhotite may occur as an AgFeS2 component. The substitutional mechanism for Ag in magnetite is not clear: silver may substitute as AgFe(3+)(Fe(2+))-2, but may also be present in defects in the magnetite structure. The partition coefficient (D(po/mt)) for approximately 30 for Ag. The partition coefficient for Au is higher (~120) based on the data of Simon et al. (2003; Am. Min,) and Jugo et al. (1999; Lithos). These data can be combined with data on the solubility of Ag in silicate melts to calculate mineral-melt partition coefficients. These data suggest that the role of pyrrhotite crystallization in felsic

  6. Copper isotope variations of copper-rich minerals in seafloor hydrothermal deposits and igneous rocks, measured by a femtosecond LA-MC-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikehata, K.; Ishibashi, J.; Suzuki, R.; Hirata, T.

    2013-05-01

    In recent years, the copper isotope systematics has seen an increased interest as a potential tool for understanding copper sources and geochemical processes of copper transport and deposition in ore-forming systems. The copper isotope variations of primary and secondary copper-rich minerals from modern (Mariana Trough) and ancient (Besshi-type and Kuroko-type volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, Japan) seafloor hydrothermal deposits have been analyzed by a femtosecond-pulsed laser ablation multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (fs-LA-MC-ICP-MS). The δ65Cu (where δ65Cu = [(65Cu/63Cu)sample/ (65Cu/63Cu)NIST-SRM976-1] × 1000) values of copper-rich sulfide minerals of chimney samples from active seafloor hydrothermal deposits are significantly large (δ65Cu = -0.7 to 4.0‰) compared to those of copper-rich minerals in ancient submarine hydrothermal deposits (δ65Cu = -0.3 to 0.4‰; e.g., Ikehata et al., 2011) and in igneous rocks (δ65Cu = -0.3 to 0.3‰; e.g., Ikehata et al., 2012). These large copper isotopic variations in the chimney samples are most likely explained in terms of a redox-controlled isotope fractionation during hydrothermal reworking of copper sulfides below sea floor or alteration of primary hydrothermal copper sulfides by seawater, involving the preferential incorporation of heavy copper isotopes in secondary Cu(II) solutions. These results also suggest that sub-seafloor recrystallization and metamorphic reequilibration may have reduced the original range of copper isotopes. Secondary malachite (δ65Cu = 2.6 to 3.0‰) and native copper (δ65Cu = 1.4 to 1.7‰) in the Besshi-type deposits have heavier copper isotopic values compared to precursor copper-rich minerals. These variations are mainly due to isotope fractionations during redox reactions (weathering) at low temperatures involving the preferential incorporation of heavy copper isotopes in secondary Cu(II) solutions.

  7. The action of macrosounds on graphite ore and derived products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradeteanu, C.; Dragan, O.

    1974-01-01

    A suspension of graphite ore, floated graphite, and the gangue left over from flotation were subjected to the action of macrosounds under determinant conditions. The following was found: (1) The graphite ore undergoes an efficient settling action. (2) The floated graphite is strongly crushed down to the dimensions of colloidal graphite. (3) The gangue left over from flotation can be further processed to recuperate graphite from its nuclei.

  8. A geochemical assessment of possible lunar ore formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, Larry A.; Colson, Russell O.; Vaniman, David

    1991-01-01

    The Moon apparently formed without appreciable water or other relatively volatile materials. Interior concentrations of water or other volatile substances appear to be extremely low. On Earth, water is important to the genesis of nearly all types of ores. Thus, some have reasoned that only abundant elements would occur in ore concentrations. The definition and recognition of ores on the Moon challenge the imaginations and the terrestrial perceptions of ore bodies. Lunar ores included solar-wind soaked soils, which contain abundant but dilute H, C, N, and noble gases (including He-3). Oxygen must be mined; soils contain approximately 45 percent (wt). Mainstream processes of rock formation concentrated Si, Mg, Al, Fe, and Ca, and possibly Ti and Cr. The highland surface contains approximately 70 percent (wt) feldspar (mainly CaAl2Si2O8), which can be separated from some highland soils. Small fragments of dunite were collected; dunite may occur in walls and central peaks of some craters. Theoretical extensions of observations of lunar samples suggest that the Moon may have produced ores of trace elements. Some small fragments have trace-element concentrations 10(exp 4) times higher than the lunar average, indicating that effective geochemical separations occurred; processes included fractional crystallization, silicate immiscibility, vaporization and condensation, and sulfide metamorphism. Operations of these processes acting on indigenous materials and on meteoritic material in the regolith could have produced ores. Infalling carbonaceous meteorites and comets have added water and hydrocarbons that may have been cold-trapped. Vesicles in basalts, pyroclastic beads, and reported transient events suggest gag emission from the lunar interior; such gas might concentrate and transport rare elements. Large impacts may disperse ores or produce them through deposition of heat at depth and by vaporization and subsequent condensation. The main problem in assessing lunar

  9. Instanton calculus of Lifshitz tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaida, Sho

    2016-02-01

    Some degree of quenched disorder is present in nearly all solids, and can have a marked impact on their macroscopic properties. A manifestation of this effect is the Lifshitz tail of localized states that then gets attached to the energy spectrum, resulting in the nonzero density of states in the band gap. We present here a systematic approach for deriving the asymptotic behavior of the density of states and of the typical shape of the disorder potentials in the Lifshitz tail. The analysis is carried out first for the well-controlled case of noninteracting particles moving in a Gaussian random potential and then for a broad class of disordered scale-invariant models—pertinent to a variety of systems ranging from semiconductors to semimetals to quantum critical systems. For relevant Gaussian disorder, we obtain the general expression for the density of states deep in the tail, with the rate of exponential suppression governed by the dynamical exponent and spatial dimensions. For marginally relevant disorder, however, we would expect a power-law scaling. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding conduction in disordered materials.

  10. Mercury exposure aboard an ore boat.

    PubMed

    Roach, Richard R; Busch, Stephanie

    2004-06-01

    Two maritime academy interns (X and Y) were exposed to mercury vapor after spilling a bottle of mercury on the floor in an enclosed storeroom while doing inventory aboard an ore boat. During a 3-day period, intern Y suffered transient clinical intoxication that resolved after he was removed from the environment and he showered and discarded all clothing. His initial serum mercury level dropped from 4 ng/mL to < 0.05 ng/mL. Intern X had an initial level of 11 ng/mL, which continued to rise to a maximum of 188.8 ng/mL. He complained of tremulousness, insomnia, and mild agitation and was hospitalized. He had showered and discarded all clothing except his footwear earlier than intern Y. Intern X's continued exposure due to mercury in the contaminated boots during the 2 weeks before hospitalization was presumed to be the cause. Removing his footwear led to resolution of his toxic symptoms and correlated with subsequent lowered serum mercury levels. Chelation was initiated as recommended, despite its uncertain benefit for neurologic intoxication. Mercury is used in the merchant marine industry in ballast monitors called king gauges. New engineering is recommended for ballast monitoring to eliminate this hazard. PMID:15175181

  11. IN-SITU MINING OF PHOSPHATE ORES

    SciTech Connect

    H. El-Shall; R. Stana; A. El-Midany; S. Malekzadah

    2004-12-17

    Presently the mining of Florida phosphate requires the movement of over a 100-ton of materials (overburden, sand, clay) for every ton of phosphate concentrate recovered. Not only is this energy intensive, but it also causes significant stress on the environment. In 2003, the Department of Energy solicited ideas for innovative mining ideas that could significantly improve the efficiency of mining. An award was made to the University of Florida Engineering Research Center to evaluate the in situ mining of phosphates using an aqueous CO{sub 2} solution. Tests were carried out in a 15.2 cm (6-inch) diameter column, 1.83 meter (6 feet) long at pressures up to 117.2 kg/cm{sup 2} (40 psi). Results to date demonstrate that initially the MgO is leached from the ore and then the phosphate. While the tests are continuing, so far they have not demonstrated P{sub 2}O{sub 5} concentrations that are economically attractive.

  12. Surfacing With Tungsten-containing Ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrev, N. A.; Galevsky, G. V.; Valuev, D. V.; Shurupov, V. M.; Kozyreva, O. E.

    2015-09-01

    Experimental research has been carried out into AN 26C flux surfacing with flux cored wires made of dust-like carbon and fluorine containing components and tungsten- containing ores. The investigations have revealed the fact that tungsten can be reduced immediately from tungsten-containing oxide materials. The chemical composition of added metal has been determined, as well as slag compositions after surfacing; hardness, wear resistance have been investigated and metallographic tests have been carried out. Thermodynamic calculations of reactions of WO3, as well as W2C and WC carbides reduction to W by carbon and carbon oxide have been made in standard conditions at temperature T = 1500 - 6000 K. The obtained thermodynamic characteristics of reactions have demonstrated that in the course of WO3 reduction tungsten is most likely to be obtained in terms of thermodynamics, subsequently W2C and WC carbides. After these reactions those of W2C and WC carbides obtaining are thermodynamically possible via reduced tungsten and carbon composition.

  13. Fluid evolution of Cerro Colorado Porphyry Copper Mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Debbie Pui Wai; Wallis, Simon

    2014-05-01

    The Cerro Colorado porphyry copper deposit is the northernmost currently active copper mine in Chile, producing 90.5kt copper per year. It belongs to one of the Paleocene to early Eocene porphyry copper deposits that are distributed along the western slope of the main Andean Cordillera in Northern Chile (Bouzari & Clark, 2002). Active commercial production began in 1994, and the estimated reserves within the supergene blanket can sustain further 12 years of copper mining. Field studies of the well-exposed geology around the mine site and the access to drilled cores that penetrate into the hypogene zone provide a good opportunity to study the temporal relationship between magmatism, hypogene and supergene ore formation of the region. The geological evolution of Cerro Colorado area can be generalized as follows. The Cretaceous Cerro Empexa Formation, consisting of a sequence of volcanic rocks, mainly andesitic lava and breccia, lahars, some ignimbrite intercalations and dacitic tuff (Charrier, Pinto & Rodrigues, 2007), was intruded by tonalitic to dioritic magma in Middle-Eocene. Magmatic activities generated brecciated rocks accompanying with different alteration zones radiate outward from the intrusion. The mineralized hypogene protore later interacted with ground water, creating the supergene blanket, which is now the principal mining target of Cerro Colorado. Several plutonic lithologies with slight but distinct compositional differences were exposed in the valleys around the mine site. The presence of these several phases of small-scale intrusions suggests the ore genesis may be related to multiple pulses of heating and associated fluid flow. Complementarily, on-site geologists have reported occurrences of early stage biotites vein cutting into phyllitic alteration zone, or across terminal stage quartz-pyrite veins in the drilled cores. These observations are direct evidences of at least two major distinct phases of fluid flow, and imply the ore mineralization

  14. Cu-Mo-Au Partitioning and Ore Mineral Solubility: Constraints on the Role of Temperature, Pressure, and Volatile Fugacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tattitch, Brian; Blundy, Jon

    2014-05-01

    The complex conditions under which volatile phases are exsolved from arc magmas play a key role in the formation of Porphyry Copper Deposits (PCD). Specifically, the efficiency by which ore metals are removed from melts by these 'proto-ore fluids', metal ratios in the fluid(s), the mass of metals available for transport, and ultimately deposit grades are affected by several key intensive variables and volatile fugacitites. Previous experiments have shown that fluid salinity [1] as well as sulfur content [2] can strongly affect the ore metal partitioning. In addition, more subtle parameters such as cation ratios (e.g Na/K/H - [3]) along with melt ASI and fH2S/fSO2, may influence both Cu and Au. We present experiments designed to constrain the role of key variables (T, P, fO2, fH2S, fSO2, δΣ Clv) in influencing metal partitioning on a suite of ore metals in equilibrium. In order to simulate complex, natural proto-ore fluids, we have performed CuFeS2-MoS2 saturated, Cu-Au-Mo-Re partitioning experiments using pumice from the Cardones Ignimbrite in northern Chile. These experiments examine fluid-melt-crystal partitioning and ore mineral solubility for a magmatic system similar to those found in major PCD. Experiments were performed at 100 & 200 MPa and super-solidus conditions (810 oC) in oxidized (NNO + 2) and reduced (NNO + 0.75) environments with respect to sulphur, as well as at near-solidus conditions (740 oC and NNO + 0.75). Observed Cu concentrations are consistent with Cl-dependent partitioning, modified by the presence of sulfur. The vapour/melt partitioning of Cu is enhanced by increased fH2S at reduced conditions at 810 oC, but returns to Cl-dependence for high fSO2 at oxidized conditions (DCuv/m decreases from 40 ± 20 to 10 ± 5). In contrast, molybdenum partitioning remains constant with changing fO2 (DMov/m = 3 ± 1 and 4 ± 2 respectively). This corresponds to a change in the vapour Cu/Mo ratio from ~40:1 down to ~1:1. The decrease in DCuv/m is likely

  15. Testing the functional significance of tail streamers

    PubMed Central

    Evans, M. R.; Thomas, A. L. R.

    1997-01-01

    Studies of the evolution of elaborate ornaments have concentrated on their role in increasing attractiveness to mates. The classic examples of such sexually selected structures are the elongated tails of some bird species. Elongated tails can be divided into three categories: graduated tails, pin tails and streamers. There seems to be little debate about whether graduated and pin tails are ornaments; i.e. costly signals used in mate choice. However, in the case of streamers there is considerable discussion about their function. It has been suggested that tail streamers could be (i) entirely naturally selected, (ii) entirely sexually selected, (iii) partly naturally and partly sexually selected. The prime example of a species with tail streamers is the swallow (Hirundo rustica) in which both sexes have tail streamers. In this paper we discuss the aerodynamic consequences of different types of manipulation of the streamer and/or outer tail feather. We make qualitative predictions about the aerodynamic performance of swallows with manipulated tail streamers; these predictions differ depending on whether streamers have a naturally or sexually selected function. We demonstrate that these hypotheses can only be separated if tail streamers are shortened and changes in aerodynamic performance measured during turning flight.

  16. [RESULTS OF DUST FACTOR IN COPPER PYROMETALLURGY].

    PubMed

    Adrianovskiy, V I; Lipatov, G Ya; Zebzeeva, N V; Kuzmina, E A

    2016-01-01

    The dust entering the air of the working zone of metallurgical shops was shown to be presented by a disintegration aerosols originating in crushing and transporting ore materials and condensation occurring in the course of smelting, converting and fire-refining copper. The overwhelming majority of the grains have a size of 2.1-5.0 mm, which determines a fixed condition of the presence of given dust in the working area, its long presence in the deeper parts of the respiratory system. At the preparatory stages in the composition of the dust there are presented significant amounts of crystalline silicon dioxide possessing of the fibrogenic impact on the body. In the dust the presence of the crystalline silicon dioxide, arsenic, nickel, cadmium determines its carcinogenic hazard. The elevated dustiness of the air is noted with the reflective and especially mine melting, due to the imperfection of the technological equipment and sanitary technical devices. Autogenous smelting processes have demonstrated their hygienic advantage over outdated methods of producing blister copper mining and smelting reflectivity. PMID:27430065

  17. High adherence copper plating process

    DOEpatents

    Nignardot, Henry

    1993-01-01

    A process for applying copper to a substrate of aluminum or steel by electrodeposition and for preparing an aluminum or steel substrate for electrodeposition of copper. Practice of the invention provides good adhesion of the copper layer to the substrate.

  18. Assessing Natural Radionuclide Migration in the Legacy Tailings of Uranium Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, G.; Koliabina, I.; Marinich, O.

    2011-12-01

    The former Prydniprovsky Chemical Plant in Dniprodzerzhynsk, Ukraine, processed uranium ore from 1949 until 1991. Multiple tailing ponds containing solid residual waste products from the uranium leaching and processing of uranium were accumulated along the Dnieper River, including the largest, adjacent to the Dnieper Reservoir, containing over 12 million tons of tailings. Samples for this study were selected from a core recovered from the Dnieper tailing pit in 2009, and used to assess radionuclide migration from tailing ponds. Samples were selected from different depths of the tailing pit core, analyzed for total radionuclide concentrations [Marinich et al., 2009], and successively leached using distilled water, followed by 1N ammonium acetate solution, and finally by 1N HCl solution. Leaching times were ~24 h at 15.17 °C. 238U, 230Th and 226Ra leachate activities were measured by γ-spectrometry with a Ge(Li) detector. 210Pb activity was measured using a SEB-01 scintillation β-spectrometer. Errors depended on measuring method, radionuclide, activity and exposure time: 238U, 11.9%; 230Th, 10.9%; 226Ra, 9.3%; 210Pb ~30%. The average total 238U activity in the tailing profile was 4 Bq/g. The concentration of 238U in the water leachates increased with depth from 14.5% (7-7.5 m), to 43% (11-11.5 m). The concentration of 238U in the acid leachates behaved similarly, increasing from 5.5 % to 15.5% with depth. While the total 230Th activity in increased from 30 Bq/g (7-7.5 m) to 540 Bq/g (11-11.5 m), the 230Th concentration in ammonium acetate leachates decreased from ˜15% to ˜1%. The concentration of 226Ra in all leachates was <1%, indicating that, under conditions of the Dnieper tailing pit, 226Ra is essentially immobile. The concentration of 210Pb in the leachates was as high as 10%. In general, the magnitude of mobile activity from the Dnieper tailing pit core samples decreases in the order 238U>230Th≥210Pb> 226Ra. Secular radioactive equilibrium in the 238U

  19. Surficial weathering of iron sulfide mine tailings under semi-arid climate

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Sarah M.; Root, Robert A.; Perdrial, Nicolas; Maier, Raina; Chorover, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Mine wastes introduce anthropogenic weathering profiles to the critical zone that often remain unvegetated for decades after mining cessation. As such, they are vulnerable to wind and water dispersion of particulate matter to adjacent ecosystems and residential communities. In sulfide-rich ore tailings, propagation to depth of the oxidative weathering front controls the depth-variation in speciation of major and trace elements. Despite the prevalence of surficial mine waste deposits in arid regions of the globe, few prior studies have been conducted to resolve the near-surface profile of sulfide ore tailings weathered under semi-arid climate. We investigated relations between gossan oxidative reaction-front propagation and the molecular speciation of iron and sulfur in tailings subjected to weathering under semi-arid climate at an EPA Superfund Site in semi-arid central Arizona (USA). Here we report a multi-method data set combining wet chemical and synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) methods to resolve the tight coupling of iron (Fe) and sulfur (S) geochemical changes in the top 2 m of tailings. Despite nearly invariant Fe and S concentration with depth (130–140 and 100–120 g kg−1, respectively), a sharp redox gradient and distinct morphological change was observed within the top 0.5 m, associated with a progressive oxidative alteration of ferrous sulfides to (oxyhydr)oxides and (hydroxy)sulfates. Transformation is nearly complete in surficial samples. Trends in molecular-scale alteration were co-located with a decrease in pH from 7.3 to 2.3, and shifts in Fe and S lability as measured via chemical extraction. Initial weathering products, ferrihydrite and gypsum, transform to schwertmannite, then jarosite-group minerals with an accompanying decrease in pH. Interestingly, thermodynamically stable phases such as goethite and hematite were not detected in any samples, but ferrihydrite was observed even

  20. Surficial weathering of iron sulfide mine tailings under semi-arid climate.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Sarah M; Root, Robert A; Perdrial, Nicolas; Maier, Raina; Chorover, Jon

    2014-09-15

    Mine wastes introduce anthropogenic weathering profiles to the critical zone that often remain unvegetated for decades after mining cessation. As such, they are vulnerable to wind and water dispersion of particulate matter to adjacent ecosystems and residential communities. In sulfide-rich ore tailings, propagation to depth of the oxidative weathering front controls the depth-variation in speciation of major and trace elements. Despite the prevalence of surficial mine waste deposits in arid regions of the globe, few prior studies have been conducted to resolve the near-surface profile of sulfide ore tailings weathered under semi-arid climate. We investigated relations between gossan oxidative reaction-front propagation and the molecular speciation of iron and sulfur in tailings subjected to weathering under semi-arid climate at an EPA Superfund Site in semi-arid central Arizona (USA). Here we report a multi-method data set combining wet chemical and synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) methods to resolve the tight coupling of iron (Fe) and sulfur (S) geochemical changes in the top 2 m of tailings. Despite nearly invariant Fe and S concentration with depth (130-140 and 100-120 g kg(-1), respectively), a sharp redox gradient and distinct morphological change was observed within the top 0.5 m, associated with a progressive oxidative alteration of ferrous sulfides to (oxyhydr)oxides and (hydroxy)sulfates. Transformation is nearly complete in surficial samples. Trends in molecular-scale alteration were co-located with a decrease in pH from 7.3 to 2.3, and shifts in Fe and S lability as measured via chemical extraction. Initial weathering products, ferrihydrite and gypsum, transform to schwertmannite, then jarosite-group minerals with an accompanying decrease in pH. Interestingly, thermodynamically stable phases such as goethite and hematite were not detected in any samples, but ferrihydrite was observed even in