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Sample records for copper temperature dependence

  1. Dependence of the critical temperature in overdoped copper oxides on superfluid density.

    PubMed

    Božović, I; He, X; Wu, J; Bollinger, A T

    2016-08-18

    The physics of underdoped copper oxide superconductors, including the pseudogap, spin and charge ordering and their relation to superconductivity, is intensely debated. The overdoped copper oxides are perceived as simpler, with strongly correlated fermion physics evolving smoothly into the conventional Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer behaviour. Pioneering studies on a few overdoped samples indicated that the superfluid density was much lower than expected, but this was attributed to pair-breaking, disorder and phase separation. Here we report the way in which the magnetic penetration depth and the phase stiffness depend on temperature and doping by investigating the entire overdoped side of the La2-xSrxCuO4 phase diagram. We measured the absolute values of the magnetic penetration depth and the phase stiffness to an accuracy of one per cent in thousands of samples; the large statistics reveal clear trends and intrinsic properties. The films are homogeneous; variations in the critical superconducting temperature within a film are very small (less than one kelvin). At every level of doping the phase stiffness decreases linearly with temperature. The dependence of the zero-temperature phase stiffness on the critical superconducting temperature is generally linear, but with an offset; however, close to the origin this dependence becomes parabolic. This scaling law is incompatible with the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer description. PMID:27535534

  2. Time-, stress-, and temperature-dependent deformation in nanostructured copper: Creep tests and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xu-Sheng; Wang, Yun-Jiang; Zhai, Hui-Ru; Wang, Guo-Yong; Su, Yan-Jing; Dai, L. H.; Ogata, Shigenobu; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, we performed experiments, atomistic simulations, and high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) to study the creep behaviors of the nanotwinned (nt) and nanograined (ng) copper at temperatures of 22 °C (RT), 40 °C, 50 °C, 60 °C, and 70 °C. The experimental data at various temperatures and different sustained stress levels provide sufficient information, which allows one to extract the deformation parameters reliably. The determined activation parameters and microscopic observations indicate transition of creep mechanisms with variation in stress level in the nt-Cu, i.e., from the Coble creep to the twin boundary (TB) migration and eventually to the perfect dislocation nucleation and activities. The experimental and simulation results imply that nanotwinning could be an effective approach to enhance the creep resistance of twin-free ng-Cu. The experimental creep results further verify the newly developed formula (Yang et al., 2016) that describes the time-, stress-, and temperature-dependent plastic deformation in polycrystalline copper.

  3. Temperature-dependent dielectric properties and line profile analysis of zinc-substituted copper ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamani, A. R.; Jayanna, H. S.; Naveen, C. S.; Rajeeva, M. P.; Prasanna, G. D.; Chaturmukha, V. S.; Harish, B. M.; Suresh, S.; Avinash, B. S.

    2016-05-01

    Temperature dependence of dielectric constant and loss has been investigated for different compositions of Zinc substituted copper ferrites with general formula Cu1-xZnxFe2O4 (x = 0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0) prepared by ceramic method. XRD analysis confirms all the samples exhibit single phase cubic spinel structure. The dielectric constant and loss of the sample were studied in the temperature ranges from RT to 1000K at different constant frequency. Samples of the composition with x = 0.8 show low dielectric loss up to a measured temperature around 770 °C at higher frequencies as compared to samples of other compositions. A plot of dielectric constant versus temperature shows a transition near the Curie temperature, an attempt is made to explain the possible mechanism for this observation. The dielectric constant increases slowly from 309°C to 770°C with temperature in the beginning and sharply decreases with increase in frequency for all the samples. The variation of tanδ with frequency shows cusps for all the samples except for x = 0.6. These variations have been explained on the basis of Koop's phenomenological theory. The variation of dielectric loss tangent with frequency showed maxima for the 1 KHz. These maxima are also found to shift towards low-frequency region as the content of Zn increases.

  4. Dependence of the critical temperature in overdoped copper oxides on superfluid density

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Božović, I.; He, X.; Wu, J.; Bollinger, A. T.

    2016-08-17

    The physics of underdoped copper-oxide superconductors, including the pseudogap, spin and charge ordering, and their relation to superconductivity1-3, is intensely debated. The overdoped side is perceived as simpler, with strongly-correlated fermion physics evolving smoothly into the conventional Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) behavior. Pioneering studies on a few overdoped samples4-11 indicated that the superfluid density was much smaller than expected, but this was attributed to pair-breaking, disorder, and phase separation. Here, we test this conjecture by studying how the magnetic penetration depth λ and the phase stiffness ρs depend on temperature and doping, scanning densely the entire overdoped side of the La2-xSrxCuO4 (LSCO)more » phase diagram. We have measured the absolute values of λ and ρs to the accuracy of ±1% in thousands of cuprate samples; the large statistics reveals clear trends and intrinsic properties. The films are quite homogeneous; variations in the critical temperature (Tc) within a film are very small (< 1 K). At every doping, ρs(T) decreases linearly with temperature. The Tc(ρ s0) dependence is linear but with an offset, (Tc - T0) ∝ ρs0 where T0 ≈ 7 K, except very close to the origin where Tc ∝ √ρ s0. This scaling law defies the standard BCS description, posing a challenge to theory.« less

  5. Size Dependence of a Temperature-Induced Solid-Solid Phase Transition in Copper(I) Sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Rivest, Jessy B; Fong, Lam-Kiu; Jain, Prashant K; Toney, Michael F; Alivisatos, A Paul

    2011-07-24

    Determination of the phase diagrams for the nanocrystalline forms of materials is crucial for our understanding of nanostructures and the design of functional materials using nanoscale building blocks. The ability to study such transformations in nanomaterials with controlled shape offers further insight into transition mechanisms and the influence of particular facets. Here we present an investigation of the size-dependent, temperature-induced solid-solid phase transition in copper sulfide nanorods from low- to high-chalcocite. We find the transition temperature to be substantially reduced, with the high chalcocite phase appearing in the smallest nanocrystals at temperatures so low that they are typical of photovoltaic operation. Size dependence in phase trans- formations suggests the possibility of accessing morphologies that are not found in bulk solids at ambient conditions. These other- wise-inaccessible crystal phases could enable higher-performing materials in a range of applications, including sensing, switching, lighting, and photovoltaics.

  6. Temperature-dependent templated growth of porphine thin films on the (111) facets of copper and silver

    SciTech Connect

    Diller, Katharina; Klappenberger, Florian; Allegretti, Francesco; Papageorgiou, Anthoula C.; Fischer, Sybille; Duncan, David A.; Lloyd, Julian A.; Oh, Seung Cheol; Barth, Johannes V.; Maurer, Reinhard J.; Reuter, Karsten

    2014-10-14

    The templated growth of the basic porphyrin unit, free-base porphine (2H-P), is characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy measurements and density functional theory (DFT). The DFT simulations allow the deconvolution of the complex XPS and NEXAFS signatures into contributions originating from five inequivalent carbon atoms, which can be grouped into C–N and C–C bonded species. Polarization-dependent NEXAFS measurements reveal an intriguing organizational behavior: On both Cu(111) and Ag(111), for coverages up to one monolayer, the molecules adsorb undeformed and parallel to the respective metal surface. Upon increasing the coverage, however, the orientation of the molecules in the thin films depends on the growth conditions. Multilayers deposited at low temperatures exhibit a similar average tilting angle (30° relative to the surface plane) on both substrates. Conversely, for multilayers grown at room temperature a markedly different scenario exists. On Cu(111) the film thickness is self-limited to a coverage of approximately two layers, while on Ag(111) multilayers can be grown easily and, in contrast to the bulk 2H-P crystal, the molecules are oriented perpendicular to the surface. This difference in molecular orientation results in a modified line-shape of the C 1s XPS signatures, which depends on the incident photon energy and is explained by comparison with depth-resolved DFT calculations. Simulations of ionization energies for differently stacked molecules show no indication for a packing-induced modification of the multilayer XP spectra, thus indicating that the comparison of single molecule calculations to multilayer data is justified.

  7. Temperature-dependent templated growth of porphine thin films on the (111) facets of copper and silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diller, Katharina; Klappenberger, Florian; Allegretti, Francesco; Papageorgiou, Anthoula C.; Fischer, Sybille; Duncan, David A.; Maurer, Reinhard J.; Lloyd, Julian A.; Oh, Seung Cheol; Reuter, Karsten; Barth, Johannes V.

    2014-10-01

    The templated growth of the basic porphyrin unit, free-base porphine (2H-P), is characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy measurements and density functional theory (DFT). The DFT simulations allow the deconvolution of the complex XPS and NEXAFS signatures into contributions originating from five inequivalent carbon atoms, which can be grouped into C-N and C-C bonded species. Polarization-dependent NEXAFS measurements reveal an intriguing organizational behavior: On both Cu(111) and Ag(111), for coverages up to one monolayer, the molecules adsorb undeformed and parallel to the respective metal surface. Upon increasing the coverage, however, the orientation of the molecules in the thin films depends on the growth conditions. Multilayers deposited at low temperatures exhibit a similar average tilting angle (30° relative to the surface plane) on both substrates. Conversely, for multilayers grown at room temperature a markedly different scenario exists. On Cu(111) the film thickness is self-limited to a coverage of approximately two layers, while on Ag(111) multilayers can be grown easily and, in contrast to the bulk 2H-P crystal, the molecules are oriented perpendicular to the surface. This difference in molecular orientation results in a modified line-shape of the C 1s XPS signatures, which depends on the incident photon energy and is explained by comparison with depth-resolved DFT calculations. Simulations of ionization energies for differently stacked molecules show no indication for a packing-induced modification of the multilayer XP spectra, thus indicating that the comparison of single molecule calculations to multilayer data is justified.

  8. Copper regulates cyclic-AMP-dependent lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Krishnamoorthy, Lakshmi; Cotruvo, Joseph A; Chan, Jefferson; Kaluarachchi, Harini; Muchenditsi, Abigael; Pendyala, Venkata S; Jia, Shang; Aron, Allegra T; Ackerman, Cheri M; Wal, Mark N Vander; Guan, Timothy; Smaga, Lukas P; Farhi, Samouil L; New, Elizabeth J; Lutsenko, Svetlana; Chang, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    Cell signaling relies extensively on dynamic pools of redox-inactive metal ions such as sodium, potassium, calcium and zinc, but their redox-active transition metal counterparts such as copper and iron have been studied primarily as static enzyme cofactors. Here we report that copper is an endogenous regulator of lipolysis, the breakdown of fat, which is an essential process in maintaining body weight and energy stores. Using a mouse model of genetic copper misregulation, in combination with pharmacological alterations in copper status and imaging studies in a 3T3-L1 white adipocyte model, we found that copper regulates lipolysis at the level of the second messenger, cyclic AMP (cAMP), by altering the activity of the cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterase PDE3B. Biochemical studies of the copper-PDE3B interaction establish copper-dependent inhibition of enzyme activity and identify a key conserved cysteine residue in a PDE3-specific loop that is essential for the observed copper-dependent lipolytic phenotype. PMID:27272565

  9. Temperature-dependent formation of metallic copper and metal sulfide nanoparticles during flooding of a contaminated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofacker, Anke F.; Voegelin, Andreas; Kaegi, Ralf; Weber, Frank-Andreas; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2013-02-01

    Riparian floodplains in temperate regions are affected by pronounced seasonal variations in soil and water temperature. This affects the rates and interplay of microbial and abiotic geochemical processes that control the fate of metals in contaminated floodplain soils, including potential release into surface and groundwater during periodic flooding. Here, we investigated how temperature affects chalcophile trace metal contaminants (Cu, Cd, Pb) upon flooding of a riparian soil contaminated by past mining activities. In soil microcosms incubated at 23, 14, and 5 °C, the reductive dissolution of Mn(III,IV) and Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides and the release of dissolved Mn2+ and Fe2+ were significantly slower and less intense at the lower temperatures, which was reflected in a decrease of trace metal mobilization via the dissolution of metal oxide sorbents and cation competition for sorption sites. The onset of sulfate reduction was significantly delayed at lower temperatures and the apparent rate of sulfate reduction was decreased, especially at 5 °C. This resulted in elevated high dissolved Cu, Cd, and Pb concentrations over weeks of flooding at 5 °C, whereas colloidal metal sulfide formation dominated Cu, Cd, and Pb pore water dynamics at higher temperatures of 14 and 23 °C due to fast sulfate reduction. Cu K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy revealed metallic Cu(0) as the main colloidal Cu species prior to sulfate reduction at all three temperatures. Analytical electron microscopy showed that Cu(0) particles were associated with suspended bacteria, suggesting biomineralization of Cu(0). Upon onset of sulfate reduction, metallic Cu particles were transformed into CuxS with incorporation of smaller amounts of Cd and Pb. Concomitantly, freely dispersed mixed Cu-Cd-Pb sulfide nanoparticles precipitated in the pore water. Other metals with higher metal sulfide solubility products did not react with the limited amounts of biogenic sulfide. The median size

  10. High temperature oxidation of copper and copper aluminium alloys: Impact on furnace side wall cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plascencia Barrera, Gabriel

    The high temperature oxidation behaviours of copper and dilute Cu-Al alloys were investigated. Experiments were carried out by: (i) Oxidizing under various oxygen potentials at different temperatures using a combined TG-DTA apparatus. (ii) Oxidizing in a muffle furnace (in air) at different temperatures for extended periods of time. The oxidation mechanisms were evaluated based upon the kinetic data obtained as well as by X-ray diffraction and microscopical (SEM and optical) analyses. It was found that oxidation of copper strongly depends on the temperature. Two distinct mechanisms were encountered. Between 300 and 500°C, the oxidation rate is controlled by lateral growth of the oxide on the metal surface, whereas between 600 and 1000°C oxidation is controlled by lattice diffusion of copper ions through the oxide scale. On the other hand, the partial pressure of oxygen only has a small effect on the oxidation of copper. Alloy oxidation is also dependent on the temperature. As temperature increases, more aluminium is required to protect copper from being oxidized. It was shown that if the amount of oxygen that dissolves in the alloy exceeds the solubility limit of oxygen in copper, an internal oxidation layer will develop, leading to the formation of a tarnishing scale. On the other hand if the oxygen content in the alloy lies below the solubility limit of oxygen in copper, no oxidation products will form since a tight protective alumina layer will form on the alloy surface. Surface phenomena may affect the oxidation behaviour of dilute Cu-Al alloys. Immersion tests in molten copper matte and copper converting slag, using laboratory scale cooling elements with various copper based materials, were conducted. Results from these tests showed that alloying copper with 3 to 4 wt% Al decreases the oxidation rate of pure copper by 4 orders of magnitude; however due to a significant drop in thermal conductivity, the ability to extract heat is compromised, leading to

  11. Surface plasmon enhanced photoluminescence from copper nanoparticles: Influence of temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Yeshchenko, Oleg A. Bondarchuk, Illya S.; Losytskyy, Mykhaylo Yu.

    2014-08-07

    Anomalous temperature dependence of surface plasmon enhanced photoluminescence from copper nanoparticles embedded in a silica host matrix has been observed. The quantum yield of photoluminescence increases as the temperature increases. The key role of such an effect is the interplay between the surface plasmon resonance and the interband transitions in the copper nanoparticles occurring at change of the temperature. Namely, the increase of temperature leads to the red shift of the resonance. The shift leads to increase of the spectral overlap of the resonance with photoluminescence band of copper as well as to the decrease of plasmon damping caused by interband transitions. Such mechanisms lead to the increase of surface plasmon enhancement factor and, consequently, to increase of the quantum yield of the photoluminescence.

  12. Temperature-dependent polymorphism and magnetic properties of three-dimensional copper pyromellitate coordination polymers containing 4,4′-dipyridylamine

    SciTech Connect

    Mizzi, Jessica E.; Staples, Richard J.; LaDuca, Robert L.

    2015-05-15

    A pair of three-dimensional divalent copper pyromellitate (1,2,4,5-benzene-tetracarboxylate, pyro) coordination polymers containing 4,4′-dipyridylamine (dpa) was hydrothermally prepared and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The higher-temperature phase ([H{sub 2}dpa][Cu{sub 3}(pyro){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]·2.5H{sub 2}O){sub n} (1) displays an acentric 3-D 4,4,6-connected anionic network with (4{sup 4}5.6)(5{sup 4}8{sup 2})(4{sup 4}5{sup 4}6{sup 3}7{sup 4}) topology, featuring (Cu{sub 2}(OCO){sub 4}) paddlewheel dimers and isolated copper ions. Charge-balancing H{sub 2}dpa cations are embedded in incipient voids. Prepared at lower temperature, ([Cu{sub 3}(pyro){sub 2}(dpa){sub 2}(dpaH){sub 2}]·3H{sub 2}O){sub n} (2) manifests a 3-D 4,4,4-connected neutral network with uncommon (4{sup 2}6{sup 4}){sub 4}(6{sup 4}8{sup 2}) frl topology based on (Cu{sub 3}(OCO){sub 2}) linear trimers. Antiferromagnetic coupling (J=–82(5) cm{sup –1}) was observed within the (Cu{sub 2}(OCO){sub 4}) dimeric units in 1, while weak ferromagnetic coupling (J=1.0(4) cm{sup –1}) was evident for the (Cu{sub 3}(OCO){sub 2}) linear trimers in 2. Thermal degradation behavior of these new materials is also presented. - Graphical abstract: Two copper pyromellitate coordination polymers containing 4,4′-dipyridylamine were prepared. The higher-temperature phase ([H{sub 2}dpa][Cu{sub 3}(pyro){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}]∙2.5H{sub 2}O){sub n} displays an acentric 3-D trinodal anionic network with (4{sup 4}5.6)(5{sup 4}8{sup 2})(4{sup 4}5{sup 4}6{sup 3}7{sup 4}) topology, featuring antiferromagnetically coupled (Cu{sub 2}(OCO){sub 4}) paddlewheel dimers and isolated copper ions. - Highlights: • Copper pyromellitate (pyro) coordination polymers with 4,4′-dipyridylamine (dpa). • Higher-temperature phase 1 has 3-D anionic trinodal network with H{sub 2}dpa cations. • Lower-temperature phase 2 has rare 3-D frl network. • Dimers and chains in 1 show

  13. In-situ transmission electron microscopy study of ion-irradiated copper : comparison of the temperature dependence of cascade collapse in FCC- and BCC- metals.

    SciTech Connect

    Daulton, T. L.

    1998-10-23

    The kinetics which drive cascade formation and subsequent collapse into point-defect clusters is investigated by analyzing the microstructure produced in situ by low fluence 100 keV Kr ion irradiations of fcc-Cu over a wide temperature range (18-873 K). The yield of collapsed point-defect clusters is demonstrated unequivocally to be temperature dependent, remaining approximately constant up to lattice temperatures of 573 K and then abruptly decreasing with increasing temperature. This drop in yield is not caused by defect loss during or following ion irradiation. This temperature dependence can be explained by a thermal spike effect. These in-situ yield measurements are compared to previous ex-situ yield measurements in fcc-Ni and bcc-Mo.

  14. Human copper-dependent amine oxidases.

    PubMed

    Finney, Joel; Moon, Hee-Jung; Ronnebaum, Trey; Lantz, Mason; Mure, Minae

    2014-03-15

    Copper amine oxidases (CAOs) are a class of enzymes that contain Cu(2+) and a tyrosine-derived quinone cofactor, catalyze the conversion of a primary amine functional group to an aldehyde, and generate hydrogen peroxide and ammonia as byproducts. These enzymes can be classified into two non-homologous families: 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone (TPQ)-dependent CAOs and the lysine tyrosylquinone (LTQ)-dependent lysyl oxidase (LOX) family of proteins. In this review, we will focus on recent developments in the field of research concerning human CAOs and the LOX family of proteins. The aberrant expression of these enzymes is linked to inflammation, fibrosis, tumor metastasis/invasion and other diseases. Consequently, there is a critical need to understand the functions of these proteins at the molecular level, so that strategies targeting these enzymes can be developed to combat human diseases. PMID:24407025

  15. The effect of silicon and copper-indium-gallium-selenide based solar cell structures and processing on temperature dependent performance losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Judith

    Temperature dependent current voltage measurements (J-V-T) of solar cells. provide both fundamental and practical information. They give detailed insight into. recombination losses within the device as well as information about module. performance losses at higher outdoor operating temperatures. In this thesis, J-V-T. measurements were applied to two distinctly different types of solar cells: crystalline. silicon heterojunction cells and thin film (AgCu)(InGa)Se2 or ACIGS polycrystalline. cells. Crystalline silicon solar cells with heterojunction structure improve the opencircuit. voltage and efficiency. Interdigitated back contact (IBC) Si solar cells obtain a. higher short-circuit current and fill factor compared to front heterojunction (FHJ) solar. cells. ACIGS solar cells have shown higher efficiencies at wider bandgap compared to. the baseline CIGS solar cells. Two high open-circuit voltage CIGS solar cells are. included and compared with ACIGS solar cells. In this thesis, the impact of different. types of solar cells structure and fabrication on temperature dependent performance. losses will be discussed. Devices with higher bandgap are predicted to have higher. open-circuit voltage and lower temperature coefficient of maximum power output. (Pmax). The correlation between temperature coefficient of Pmax and open-circuit. voltage can be found in Si FHJ cells but not Si IBC or ACIGS cells. However, ACIGS. cells show an inverse correlation between temperature coefficient of Pmax and bandgap. as expected. Analysis of diode quality factor and other parameters are interpreted. Sshape. J-V curve can reduce the device's fill factor with a relative high series resistance. This phenomenon tends to occur in FHJ cells rather than IBC at low temperature. Light-dark crossover and roll over effects are commonly seen in ACIGS cells and the. anomaly is enhanced at lower temperature. Most of FHJ and IBC cells obtain the. ideality factor between 1 and 2 while some of ACIGS

  16. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 °C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense β″-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 °C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 °C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

  17. Pyridine-copper(ii) formates for the generation of high conductivity copper films at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Paquet, C; Lacelle, T; Deore, B; Kell, A J; Liu, X; Korobkov, I; Malenfant, P R L

    2016-02-11

    Pyridine derivatives coordinated to copper(ii) formates are shown to have lower decomposition temperatures than the alkylamine analogues. Using heating profiles compatible with low temperature substrates, deposited inks made from these compounds are transformed into copper traces with a resistivity value of 14 μΩ cm when sintered at 135 °C in <5 minutes. PMID:26750775

  18. Temperature dependent BRDF facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airola, Marc B.; Brown, Andrea M.; Hahn, Daniel V.; Thomas, Michael E.; Congdon, Elizabeth A.; Mehoke, Douglas S.

    2014-09-01

    Applications involving space based instrumentation and aerodynamically heated surfaces often require knowledge of the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of an exposed surface at high temperature. Addressing this need, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) developed a BRDF facility that features a multiple-port vacuum chamber, multiple laser sources covering the spectral range from the longwave infrared to the ultraviolet, imaging pyrometry and laser heated samples. Laser heating eliminates stray light that would otherwise be seen from a furnace and requires minimal sample support structure, allowing low thermal conduction loss to be obtained, which is especially important at high temperatures. The goal is to measure the BRDF of ceramic-coated surfaces at temperatures in excess of 1000°C in a low background environment. Most ceramic samples are near blackbody in the longwave infrared, thus pyrometry using a LWIR camera can be very effective and accurate.

  19. Temperature effects on EPR spectra of a linear chain copper complex-copper calcium acetate hexahydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, D. K.

    1981-03-01

    The observed angular dependence of the electron paramagnetic resonance linewidth in the ab and ac planes of CuCa(AC)2, 6H2O in the temperature interval 77K-12K was explained by considering dipolar interactions along with hyperfine and isotropic exchange interactions in these two planes. It was found that this so called linear-chain copper compound can be better described by a three dimensional paramagnet. The exchange interaction is very nearly isotropic with values Jab = 0.0098 cm-1 and Jc = 0.0103 cm-1. The values of the A⊥ derived from the linewidth fit in the ab plane are 14G at 77K and 60.5G at 1.2K. Due to insufficiency of data in the ac plane, the fit was done with the measured value of A∥. Although the exchange interaction has been found to be temperature independent the hyperfine interaction increases very much at low temperatures. The high temperature (300-460K) EPR spectra are quite different from the low temperature spectra. High temperature differential thermal analyses and thermogravimetric analyses have been carried out and corroborated with the EPR findings.

  20. Thermal conductance measurements of bolted copper to copper joints at sub-Kelvin temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didschuns, I.; Woodcraft, A. L.; Bintley, D.; Hargrave, P. C.

    2004-05-01

    We have measured the thermal contact conductance of several demountable copper joints below 1 K. Joints were made by bolting together either two flat surfaces or a clamp around a rod. Surfaces were gold plated, and no intermediate materials were used. A linear dependence on temperature was seen. Most of the measured conductance values fell into a narrow range: 0.1-0.2 W K -1 at 1 K. Results in the literature for similar joints consist of predictions based on electrical resistance measurements using the Wiedemann-Franz law. There is little evidence of the validity of this law in the case of joints. Nevertheless, our results are in good agreement with the literature predictions, suggesting that such predictions are a reasonable approximation.

  1. Identification of temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and experimental verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Weizhen; Yi, Fajun; Zhu, Yanwei; Meng, Songhe

    2016-07-01

    A modified Levenberg–Marquardt method (LMM) for the identification of temperature-dependent thermal conductivity is proposed; the experiment and structure of the specimen for identification are also designed. The temperature-dependent thermal conductivities of copper C10200 and brass C28000 are identified to verify the effectiveness of the proposed identification method. The comparison between identified results and the measured data of laser flash diffusivity apparatus indicates the fine consistency and potential usage of the proposed method.

  2. Nano copper based high temperature solder alternative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Akshay

    Nano Cu an alternative to high temperature solder is developed by the Advance Technological Center at the Lockheed Martin Corporation. A printable paste of Cu nano particles is developed with an ability to fuse at 200°C in reflow oven. After reflow the deposited material has nano crystalline and nano porous structure which affects its properties. Accelerated test are performed on nano Cu deposition having nano porous and nano crystalline structure for assessment and prediction of reliability. Nano Cu assemblies with different bond layer thickness are sheared to calculate the strength of the material and are correlated with the porous and crystalline structure of nano Cu. Thermal and isothermal fatigue test are performed on nano Cu to see the dependency of life on stress and further surface of failed assemblies were observed to determine the type of failure. Creep test at RT are performed to find the type of creep mechanism and how they are affected when subjected to high temperature. TEM, SEM, X-ray, C-SAM and optical microscopy is done on the nano Cu sample for structure and surface analysis.

  3. Temperature-dependent Luttinger surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ito, T; Chainani, A; Haruna, T; Kanai, K; Yokoya, T; Shin, S; Kato, R

    2005-12-01

    The Luttinger surface of an organic metal (TTF-TCNQ), possessing charge order and spin-charge separated band dispersions, is investigated using temperature-dependent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The Luttinger surface topology, obtained from momentum distribution curves, changes from quasi-2D (dimensional) to quasi-1D with temperature. The high temperature quasi-2D surface exhibits 4kF charge-density-wave (CDW) superstructure in the TCNQ derived holon band, in the absence of 2kF order. Decreasing temperature results in quasi-1D nested 2kF CDW order in the TCNQ spinon band and in the TTF surface. The results establish the link in momentum space between charge order and spin-charge separation in a Luttinger liquid. PMID:16384402

  4. Low-temperature thermal conductivity of highly porous copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomás, G.; Martins, D.; Cooper, A.; Bonfait, G.

    2015-12-01

    The development and characterization of new materials is of extreme importance in the design of cryogenic apparatus. Recently Versarien® PLC developed a technique capable of producing copper foam with controlled porosity and pore size. Such porous materials could be interesting for cryogenic heat exchangers as well as of special interest in some devices used in microgravit.y environments where a cryogenic liquid is confined by capillarity. In the present work, a system was developed to measure the thermal conductivity by the differential steady-state mode of four copper foam samples with porosity between 58% and 73%, within the temperatures range 20 - 260 K, using a 2 W @ 20 K cryocooler. Our measurements were validated using a copper control sample and by the estimation of the Lorenz number obtained from electrical resistivity measurements at room temperature. With these measurements, the Resistivity Residual Ratio and the tortuosity were obtained.

  5. Recrystallization at ambient temperature of heavily deformed ETP copper wire

    SciTech Connect

    Schamp, J.; Verlinden, B.; Van Humbeeck, J.

    1996-06-01

    Recrystallization of electrolytic tough pitch (ETP) copper wire at room temperature has been reported by several authors. The phenomenon changes the mechanical properties of the wire which can cause a loss of process control, but remains largely unpredictable. The aim of this study is to get a better understanding of the conditions under which partial recrystallization can be expected. It is observed that the recrystallization pattern is non-homogeneous across the cross-section of the wire. Recrystallization starts in a cylindrical zone with diameter 0.5 to 0.8 times the wire diameter. The core and the surface of the wire recrystallize at a later stage. It is proposed that this is due to different modes of deformation along the wire diameter. The progress of recrystallization at room temperature depends on a large extent on the chemical composition of the material. It is well known that all impurity elements slow down recrystallization, but some elements, such as Se, Te, Bi, S and Pb are more deleterious than others. It is shown that a few tenths of ppm`s of these impurities determine whether the wire is stable in time or not.

  6. Field dependent surface resistance of niobium on copper cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junginger, T.

    2015-07-01

    The surface resistance RS of superconducting cavities prepared by sputter coating a niobium film on a copper substrate increases significantly stronger with the applied rf field compared to cavities of bulk material. A possible cause is that the thermal boundary resistance between the copper substrate and the niobium film induces heating of the inner cavity wall, resulting in a higher RS. Introducing helium gas in the cavity, and measuring its pressure as a function of applied field allowed to conclude that the inner surface of the cavity is heated up by less than 120 mK when RS increases with Eacc by 100 n Ω . This is more than one order of magnitude less than what one would expect from global heating. Additionally, the effects of cooldown speed and low temperature baking have been investigated in the framework of these experiments. It is shown that for the current state of the art niobium on copper cavities there is only a detrimental effect of low temperature baking. A fast cooldown results in a lowered RS.

  7. Copper oxide as a high temperature battery cathode material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, A. G.; Mullins, A. P.

    1994-10-01

    Copper oxide has been tested as a cathode material for high temperature primary reserve thermal batteries in single cells at 530 to 600 C and at current densities of 0.1 to 0.25 A cm(exp -2) using lithium-aluminium alloy anodes and lithium fluoride-lithium chloride-lithium bromide molten salt electrolytes. Initial on-load voltages were around 2.3 V, falling to 1.5 V after about 0.5 F mol(exp -1) had been withdrawn. Lithium copper oxide, LiCu2O2, and cuprous oxide, Cu2O, were identified as discharge products.

  8. Temperature evolution of copper oxide nanoparticles in porous glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Golosovsky, I. V.; Naberezhnov, A. A.; Kurdyukov, D. A.; Mirebeau, I.; Andre, G.

    2011-01-15

    The temperature evolution of copper oxide nanoparticles in the temperature range of 1.5-250 K has been investigated by thermal-neutron diffraction. CuO particles were obtained by Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} {center_dot} 3H{sub 2}O decomposition directly in the pores of porous glass with an average pore diameter of 7 nm. The characteristic nanoparticle size and linear thermal expansion coefficients have been determined.

  9. Temperature dependence of basalt weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gaojun; Hartmann, Jens; Derry, Louis A.; West, A. Joshua; You, Chen-Feng; Long, Xiaoyong; Zhan, Tao; Li, Laifeng; Li, Gen; Qiu, Wenhong; Li, Tao; Liu, Lianwen; Chen, Yang; Ji, Junfeng; Zhao, Liang; Chen, Jun

    2016-06-01

    The homeostatic balance of Earth's long-term carbon cycle and the equable state of Earth's climate are maintained by negative feedbacks between the levels of atmospheric CO2 and the chemical weathering rate of silicate rocks. Though clearly demonstrated by well-controlled laboratory dissolution experiments, the temperature dependence of silicate weathering rates, hypothesized to play a central role in these weathering feedbacks, has been difficult to quantify clearly in natural settings at landscape scale. By compiling data from basaltic catchments worldwide and considering only inactive volcanic fields (IVFs), here we show that the rate of CO2 consumption associated with the weathering of basaltic rocks is strongly correlated with mean annual temperature (MAT) as predicted by chemical kinetics. Relations between temperature and CO2 consumption rate for active volcanic fields (AVFs) are complicated by other factors such as eruption age, hydrothermal activity, and hydrological complexities. On the basis of this updated data compilation we are not able to distinguish whether or not there is a significant runoff control on basalt weathering rates. Nonetheless, the simple temperature control as observed in this global dataset implies that basalt weathering could be an effective mechanism for Earth to modulate long-term carbon cycle perturbations.

  10. Temperature and size-dependent Hamaker constants for metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jiang, K; Pinchuk, P

    2016-08-26

    Theoretical values of the Hamaker constant have been calculated for metal nanoparticles using Lifshitz theory. The theory describes the Hamaker constant in terms of the permittivity of the interacting bodies. Metal nanoparticles exhibit an internal size effect that alters the dielectric permittivity of the particle when its size falls below the mean free path of the conducting electrons. This size dependence of the permittivity leads to size-dependence of the Hamaker constant for metal nanoparticles. Additionally, the electron damping and the plasma frequency used to model the permittivity of the particle exhibit temperature-dependence, which lead to temperature dependence of the Hamaker constant. In this work, both the size and temperature dependence for gold, silver, copper, and aluminum nanoparticles is demonstrated. The results of this study might be of interest for studying the colloidal stability of nanoparticles in solution. PMID:27454147

  11. Temperature and size-dependent Hamaker constants for metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, K.; Pinchuk, P.

    2016-08-01

    Theoretical values of the Hamaker constant have been calculated for metal nanoparticles using Lifshitz theory. The theory describes the Hamaker constant in terms of the permittivity of the interacting bodies. Metal nanoparticles exhibit an internal size effect that alters the dielectric permittivity of the particle when its size falls below the mean free path of the conducting electrons. This size dependence of the permittivity leads to size-dependence of the Hamaker constant for metal nanoparticles. Additionally, the electron damping and the plasma frequency used to model the permittivity of the particle exhibit temperature-dependence, which lead to temperature dependence of the Hamaker constant. In this work, both the size and temperature dependence for gold, silver, copper, and aluminum nanoparticles is demonstrated. The results of this study might be of interest for studying the colloidal stability of nanoparticles in solution.

  12. Room-temperature direct alkynylation of arenes with copper acetylides.

    PubMed

    Theunissen, Cédric; Evano, Gwilherm

    2014-09-01

    C-H bond in azoles and polyhalogenated arenes can be smoothly activated by copper acetylides to give the corresponding alkynylated (hetero)arenes by simple reaction at room temperature in the presence of phenanthroline and lithium tert-butoxide under an oxygen atmosphere. These stable, unreactive, and readily available polymers act as especially efficient and practical reagents for the introduction of an alkyne group to a wide number of arenes under remarkably mild conditions. PMID:25115357

  13. High temperature fatigue behavior of tungsten copper composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verrilli, M. J.; Kim, Y.-S.; Gabb, T. P.

    1990-01-01

    The present study investigates the high-temperature fatigue behavior of a 9-v/o tungsten fiber-reinforced copper matrix composite. Load-controlled isothermal fatigue at 260 and 560 C and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) experiments, both in-phase and out-of-phase between 260 and 560 C, were performed. The stress-strain response under all conditions displayed considerable inelasticity. Strain ratchetting was observed during all the fatigue experiments. For the isothermal fatigue and in-phase TMF tests, the ratchetting was always in a tensile direction, continuing until failure. The ratchetting during the out-of-phase TMF test shifted from a tensile to a compressive direction. For all cases, the fatigue lives were found to be controlled by the damage of the copper matrix. On a stress basis, TMF loading substantially reduced lives relative to isothermal cycling.

  14. Temperature dependent stability model for graphene nanoribbon interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanu, Waikhom Mona; Das, Debaprasad

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a temperature dependent equivalent circuit model for graphene nanoribbon (GNR) interconnects is proposed. The stability analysis of GNR interconnects is performed using this proposed model and its performance is compared with respect to that of the copper based interconnects. The analysis is performed for different interconnect systems for 16nm ITRS technology node. With increase in the length of interconnects, the relative stability increases. GNR interconnect shows less increase of resistance with the increase in temperature as compared to Cu interconnects.

  15. Effects of reduction temperature on copper nanowires growth by thermal reduction of copper oxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Norhana Mohamed; Kishi, Naoki; Soga, Tetsuo

    2016-06-01

    Metallic Cu nanowires have been synthesized by thermal reduction of CuO nanowires in low concentration hydrogen environment. The Cu nanowires can be formed after removing oxide group from the metal oxide nanowires within temperature range from 200∘C to 500∘C. These nanowires have twisted structure with 100-200 nm and average lengths of 10 μm can be obtained in optimum temperature range 300-400∘C reduced for 30 min. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern shows Cu peaks recognized at (111), (200) and (220). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images reveal the reduction temperatures strongly affect the nanowires formation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images confirmed that Cu nanowires have single crystalline structures with 0.21 nm fringe spacing which correspond to (111) growth direction. The results indicate that thermal reduction of copper oxide nanowires in low concentration hydrogen environment can produce high purity and single crystalline Cu nanowires.

  16. Chemical vapor deposition of graphene on copper at reduced temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallo, Eric M.; Willner, Bruce I.; Hwang, Jeonghyun; Sun, Shangzhu; Spencer, Michael; Salagaj, Tom; Mitchel, William C.; Sbrockey, Nick; Tompa, Gary S.

    2012-09-01

    A preliminary study on reduced temperature chemical vapor deposition of graphene on copper substrates was performed. Graphene's exceptional mechanical strength, very high electrical and thermal conductivity, and stability at atomic layer thicknesses, generates potential for a broad range of applications, from nanodevices to transparent conductor to chemical sensor. Of the techniques demonstrated for graphene formation, chemical vapor deposition is the sole process suitable for manufacturing large area films. While large area film deposition of graphene has been shown on metal substrates, this process has been limited to high temperatures, 900-1000C, which increases the cost of production and limits methods of integrating the graphene with other material structures. In this work, CVD of graphene on copper foil was attempted over a range of temperatures (650 - 950C) on substrates as large as 5 x 15 cm in a horizontal tube reactor. Depositions were performed using both CVD and upstream Plasma-Enhanced CVD (PECVD), and the results are compared for both techniques. Quality of graphene films deposited with and without plasma enhancement was characterized by micro Raman spectroscopy.

  17. Application of High-Temperature Mold Materials to Die Cast Copper Motor Rotor for Improved Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    John G. Cowie; Edwin F. Brush, Jr.; Dale T. Peters; Stephen P. Midson; Darryl J. Van Son

    2003-05-01

    The objective of the study, Application of High-Temperature Mold Materials to Die Cast Copper Motor Rotor for Improved Efficiency, was to support the Copper Development Association (CDA) in its effort to design, fabricate and demonstrate mold technologies designed to withstand the copper motor rotor die casting environment for an economically acceptable life. The anticipated result from the compiled data and tests were to: (1) identify materials suitable for die casting copper, (2) fabricate motor rotor molds and (3) supply copper rotor motors for testing in actual compressor systems. Compressor manufacturers can apply the results to assess the technical and economical viability of copper rotor motors.

  18. Ternary copper complexes and manganese (III) tetrakis(4-benzoic acid) porphyrin catalyze peroxynitrite-dependent nitration of aromatics.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Sueta, G; Ruiz-Ramírez, L; Radi, R

    1997-12-01

    Peroxynitrite is a powerful oxidant formed in biological systems from the reaction of nitrogen monoxide and superoxide and is capable of nitrating phenols at neutral pH and ambient temperature. This peroxynitrite-mediated nitration is catalyzed by a number of Lewis acids, including CO2 and transition-metal ion complexes. Here we studied the effect of ternary copper-(II) complexes constituted by a 1,10-phenanthroline and an amino acid as ligands. All the complexes studied accelerate both the decomposition of peroxynitrite and its nitration of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid at pH > 7. The rate of these reactions depends on the copper complex concentration in a hyperbolic plus linear manner. The yield of nitrated products increases up to 2.6-fold with respect to proton-catalyzed nitration and has a dependency on the concentration of copper complexes which follows the same function as observed for the rate constants. The manganese porphyrin complex, Mn(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin [Mn(tbap)], also promoted peroxynitrite-mediated nitration with an even higher yield (4-fold increase) than the ternary copper complexes. At pH = 7.5 +/- 0.2 the catalytic behavior of the copper complexes can be linearly correlated with the pKa of the phenanthroline present as a ligand, implying that a peroxynitrite anion is coordinated to the copper ion prior to the nitration reaction. These observations may prove valuable to understand the biological effects of these transition-metal complexes (i.e., copper and manganese) that can mimic superoxide dismutase activity and, in the case of the ternary copper complexes, show antineoplastic activity. PMID:9437523

  19. Stress versus temperature dependent activation energies in creep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, A. D.; Raj, S. V.; Walker, K. P.

    1990-01-01

    The activation energy for creep at low stresses and elevated temperatures is lattice diffusion, where the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is dislocation climb. At higher stresses and intermediate temperatures, the rate controlling mechanism changes from that of dislocation climb to one of obstacle-controlled dislocation glide. Along with this change, there occurs a change in the activation energy. It is shown that a temperature-dependent Gibbs free energy does a good job of correlating steady-state creep data, while a stress-dependent Gibbs free energy does a less desirable job of correlating the same data. Applications are made to copper and a LiF-22 mol. percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt.

  20. Stress versus temperature dependence of activation energies for creep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, A. D.; Raj, S. V.; Walker, K. P.

    1992-01-01

    The activation energy for creep at low stresses and elevated temperatures is associated with lattice diffusion, where the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is dislocation climb. At higher stresses and intermediate temperatures, the rate controlling mechanism changes from dislocation climb to obstacle-controlled dislocation glide. Along with this change in deformation mechanism occurs a change in the activation energy. When the rate controlling mechanism for deformation is obstacle-controlled dislocation glide, it is shown that a temperature-dependent Gibbs free energy does better than a stress-dependent Gibbs free energy in correlating steady-state creep data for both copper and LiF-22mol percent CaF2 hypereutectic salt.

  1. Synergistic effect of copper and low temperature over Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Latorre, Mauricio; Quesille-Villalobos, Ana María; Maza, Felipe; Parra, Angel; Reyes-Jara, Angélica

    2015-12-01

    The capacity to grow at low temperatures has allowed Listeria monocytogenes to become one of the primary food pathogens to date, representing a major public health problem worldwide. Several works have described the homeostatic response of L. monocytogenes under different copper (Cu) treatments growing at mild temperature (30 °C). The aims of this report were to evaluate if changes in the external concentration of Cu affected viability and Cu homeostasis of L. monocytogenes growing at low temperature. Ours results showed that L. monocytogenes growing at 8 °C had a reduced viability relative to 30 °C when exposed to Cu treatments. This decrease was correlated with an increase in the internal concentration of Cu, probably linked to the transcriptional down-regulation of mechanisms involved in Cu homeostasis. This combined effect of Cu and low temperature showed a synergistic impact over the viability and homeostasis of L. monocytogenes, where low temperature exacerbated the toxic effect of Cu. These results can be useful in terms of the use of Cu as an antibacterial agent. PMID:26515293

  2. High temperature fatigue behavior of tungsten copper composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verrilli, Michael J.; Kim, Yong-Suk; Gabb, Timothy P.

    1989-01-01

    The high temperature fatigue behavior of a 9 vol percent, tungsten fiber reinforced copper matrix composite was investigated. Load-controlled isothermal fatigue experiments at 260 and 560 C and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) experiments, both in phase and out of phase between 260 and 560 C, were performed. The stress-strain response displayed considerable inelasticity under all conditions. Also, strain ratcheting was observed during all the fatigue experiments. For the isothermal fatigue and in-phase TMF tests, the ratcheting was always in a tensile direction, continuing until failure. The ratcheting during the out-of-phase TMF test shifted from a tensile direction to a compressive direction. This behavior was thought to be associated with the observed bulging and the extensive cracking of the out-of-phase specimen. For all cases, the fatigue lives were found to be controlled by damage to the copper matrix. Grain boundary cavitation was the dominant damage mechanism of the matrix. On a stress basis, TMF loading reduced lives substantially, relative to isothermal cycling. In-phase cycling resulted in the shortest lives, and isothermal fatigue at 260 C, the longest.

  3. Temperature modulates phototrophic periphyton response to chronic copper exposure.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Anne Sophie; Dabrin, Aymeric; Morin, Soizic; Gahou, Josiane; Foulquier, Arnaud; Coquery, Marina; Pesce, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Streams located in vineyard areas are highly prone to metal pollution. In a context of global change, aquatic systems are generally subjected to multi-stress conditions due to multiple chemical and/or physical pressures. Among various environmental factors that modulate the ecological effects of toxicants, special attention should be paid to climate change, which is driving an increase in extreme climate events such as sharp temperature rises. In lotic ecosystems, periphyton ensures key ecological functions such as primary production and nutrient cycling. However, although the effects of metals on microbial communities are relatively well known, there is scant data on possible interactions between temperature increase and metal pollution. Here we led a study to evaluate the influence of temperature on the response of phototrophic periphyton to copper (Cu) exposure. Winter communities, collected in a 8 °C river water, were subjected for six weeks to four thermal conditions in microcosms in presence or not of Cu (nominal concentration of 15 μg L(-1)). At the initial river temperature (8 °C), our results confirmed the chronic impact of Cu on periphyton, both in terms of structure (biomass, distribution of algal groups, diatomic composition) and function (photosynthetic efficiency). At higher temperatures (13, 18 and 23 °C), Cu effects were modulated. Indeed, temperature increase reduced Cu effects on algal biomass, algal class proportions, diatom assemblage composition and photosynthetic efficiency. This reduction of Cu effects on periphyton may be related to lower bioaccumulation of Cu and/or to selection of more Cu-tolerant species at higher temperatures. PMID:26608872

  4. Temperature dependence of thermopower in molecular junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngsang; Lenert, Andrej; Meyhofer, Edgar; Reddy, Pramod

    2016-07-01

    The thermoelectric properties of molecular junctions are of considerable interest due to their promise for efficient energy conversion. While the dependence of thermoelectric properties of junctions on molecular structure has been recently studied, their temperature dependence remains unexplored. Using a custom built variable temperature scanning tunneling microscope, we measured the thermopower and electrical conductance of individual benzenedithiol junctions over a range of temperatures (100 K-300 K). We find that while the electrical conductance is independent of temperature, the thermopower increases linearly with temperature, confirming the predictions of the Landauer theory.

  5. COPPER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a review of current knowledge of the distribution of copper in the environment and living things. Metabolism and the effects of copper in the biosphere are also considered. Copper compounds are common and widely distributed in nature. They are also extensively mined...

  6. Size-dependent thermal oxidation of copper: single-step synthesis of hierarchical nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Christopher J.; Smith, J. David; Cui, Yuehua; Varanasi, Kripa K.

    2011-12-01

    Thermal oxidation of copper is a simple and scalable method to produce copper oxide nanowires. We report for the first time the formation of nanowires on copper powder during thermal oxidation and the resulting nanowire coverage that is dependent on the initial particle size. Systematic thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies of thermal oxidation of particles of different sizes provide insights into the size-dependent process and evolution of the various phases of copper and copper oxide with time. Furthermore, we find that a large void is formed within these particles after oxidation and propose a mechanism based on the Kirkendall effect. The unique tunability of hierarchical features and hollow interior can be used to create new scalable structures for applications in a variety of areas including thermal management and catalysis.Thermal oxidation of copper is a simple and scalable method to produce copper oxide nanowires. We report for the first time the formation of nanowires on copper powder during thermal oxidation and the resulting nanowire coverage that is dependent on the initial particle size. Systematic thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies of thermal oxidation of particles of different sizes provide insights into the size-dependent process and evolution of the various phases of copper and copper oxide with time. Furthermore, we find that a large void is formed within these particles after oxidation and propose a mechanism based on the Kirkendall effect. The unique tunability of hierarchical features and hollow interior can be used to create new scalable structures for applications in a variety of areas including thermal management and catalysis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM images, XRD spectra, and calculations. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10993f

  7. The CTR/COPT-dependent copper uptake and SPL7-dependent copper deficiency responses are required for basal cadmium tolerance in A. thaliana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copper (Cu) homeostasis in plants is maintained by at least two mechanisms: 1) the miRNA-dependent reallocation of intracellular Cu among major Cu-enzymes and important energy-related functions; 2) the regulation of the expression of Cu transporters including members of the CTR/COPT family. These ev...

  8. Temperature Dependence of Factors Controlling Isoprene Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Damon, Megan R.; Douglass, Anne R.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of variability in the formaldehyde (HCHO) columns measured by the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to isoprene emissions in the southeastern United States for 2005-2007. The data show that the inferred, regional-average isoprene emissions varied by about 22% during summer and are well correlated with temperature, which is known to influence emissions. Part of the correlation with temperature is likely associated with other causal factors that are temperature-dependent. We show that the variations in HCHO are convolved with the temperature dependence of surface ozone, which influences isoprene emissions, and the dependence of the HCHO column to mixed layer height as OMI's sensitivity to HCHO increases with altitude. Furthermore, we show that while there is an association of drought with the variation in HCHO, drought in the southeastern U.S. is convolved with temperature.

  9. Escherichia coli survival in waters: Temperature dependence

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q10 mo...

  10. E. coli survival in waters: temperature dependence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important for evaluating microbial contamination and in making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature; this dependency is routinely expressed using an analog of the Q10 model. This suggestion...

  11. Structural Dependence of Grain Boundary Resistance in Copper Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Tae Hwan; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Nicholson, Don M; Radhakrishnan, Bala; Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam; Evans III, Boyd Mccutchen; Kulkarni, Nagraj S; Kenik, Edward A; Meyer III, Harry M; Li, An-Ping

    2011-01-01

    The current choice of the interconnect metal in integrated circuits is copper due to its higher electrical conductivity and improved electromigration reliability in comparison with aluminum. However, with reducing feature sizes, the resistance of copper interconnects (lines) increases dramatically. Greater resistance will result in higher energy use, more heat generation, more failure due to electromigration, and slower switching speeds. To keep pace with the projected planar transistor density, the first challenge is to identify the dominant factors that contribute to the high interconnect resistance. Here we directly measure individual grain boundary (GB) resistances in copper nanowires with a one-to-one correspondence to the GB structure. The specific resistivities of particular GBs are measured using four-probe scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to establish a direct link between GB structure and the resistance. High-angle random GBs contribute to a specific resistivity of about 25 10-12 cm2 for each boundary, while coincidence boundaries are significantly less-resistive than random boundaries. Thus, replacing random boundaries with coincidence ones would be a route to suppress the GB impact to the resistivity of polycrystalline conductors. Acknowledgement: The research was supported by the Division of Scientific User Facilities, U. S. Department of Energy.

  12. Temperature dependence diode parameters studies of Al/CuPc/n-Si/Al structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ratnesh; Kaur, Ramneek; Sharma, Mamta; Kaur, Maninder; Tripathi, S. K.

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the fabrication of Al/CuPc/n-Si/Al metal-organic-semiconductor diode. The copper phthalocyanine as organic layer is deposited on Si substrate by thermal evaporation technique. The temperature dependent current-voltage measurements are performed on Al/CuPc/n-Si structure. The important diode parameters i.e. the barrier height and ideality factor have been calculated. The temperature dependence of barrier height and ideality factor has been studied.

  13. Thermal resistance across a copper/Kapton/copper interface at cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, L.; Phelan, P.E.; Niemann, R.C.; Weber, B.R.

    1997-09-01

    The high-{Tc} superconductor current lead heat intercept connection, which is utilized as a thermal intercept to remove the Joule heat from the upper stage lead to a heat sink operating at 50--77 K, consists of a structure where a 152-{micro}m film is sandwiched between two concentric copper cylinders. The material chosen for the insulating film is Kapton MT, a composite film which has a relatively low thermal resistance, but yet a high voltage standoff capability. Here, the measured thermal conductance of a copper/Kapton MT/copper junction in a flat-plate geometry is compared to the results obtained from the actual heat intercept connection. Increasing the contact pressure reduces the thermal resistance to a minimum value determined by the film conduction resistance. A comparison between the resistance of the copper/Kapton MT/copper junction and a copper/G-10/copper junction demonstrates that the Kapton MT layer yields a lower thermal resistance while still providing adequate electrical isolation.

  14. Reciprocal influences of temperature and copper on survival of fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, V.L.; Beitinger, T.L.

    1995-08-01

    Contemporary ecological concerns of accelerated global warming, increase in toxic chemicals and loss of biodiversity make relevant studies of tolerance of various organisms to abiotic variables. In this study, the reciprocal effects of temperature and copper on survival of fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, were determined. Temperature tolerance of fishes is limited by a cornucopia of biotic and abiotic factors, including various toxicants. Not only do chemicals affect temperature tolerance of fishes, temperature influences the sensitivity of fish to toxic chemicals; however, the relationship between temperature and lethality is complex, difficult to predict, and has not been the focus of many studies. Copper, a necessary trace element in animal metabolism and ubiquitous in aquatic environments, was selected as our test toxicant. Hodson et al. (1979) reported copper concentrations of one to 29 {mu}g/L in unpolluted surface waters in the United States. Copper sulfate (CuSO{sub 4}), is an algicide, bactericide and herbicide for ponds, lakes and fish hatcheries. Also, copper is recommended as a fungicide for a variety of ornamental plants and crops, and in various chemical forms enters the environment through mining, smelting, and refining activities. Copper is toxic in parts per billion concentrations ({mu}g/L) and is an EPA priority pollutant. In this research two null hypotheses were tested: (1) temperature has no effect on the lethality of copper sulfate, and (2) sublethal concentrations of copper do not affect the upper temperature tolerance of fathead minnows. It was found that acclimation temperature significantly affects the 96-hr median lethal concentration. Exposure to copper adversely affects the ability of minnows to withstand high temperatures. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Shape-dependent bactericidal activity of copper oxide nanoparticle mediated by DNA and membrane damage

    SciTech Connect

    Laha, Dipranjan; Pramanik, Arindam; Laskar, Aparna; Jana, Madhurya; Pramanik, Panchanan; Karmakar, Parimal

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Spherical and sheet shaped copper oxide nanoparticles were synthesized. • Physical characterizations of these nanoparticles were done by TEM, DLS, XRD, FTIR. • They showed shape dependent antibacterial activity on different bacterial strain. • They induced both membrane damage and ROS mediated DNA damage in bacteria. - Abstract: In this work, we synthesized spherical and sheet shaped copper oxide nanoparticles and their physical characterizations were done by the X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The antibacterial activity of these nanoparticles was determined on both gram positive and gram negative bacterial. Spherical shaped copper oxide nanoparticles showed more antibacterial property on gram positive bacteria where as sheet shaped copper oxide nanoparticles are more active on gram negative bacteria. We also demonstrated that copper oxide nanoparticles produced reactive oxygen species in both gram negative and gram positive bacteria. Furthermore, they induced membrane damage as determined by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Thus production of and membrane damage are major mechanisms of the bactericidal activity of these copper oxide nanoparticles. Finally it was concluded that antibacterial activity of nanoparticles depend on physicochemical properties of copper oxide nanoparticles and bacterial strain.

  16. Strength of copper alloys in high temperature environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Y.; Suzuki, R.; Saito, M.

    2002-12-01

    The first wall of ITER is expected to be hot isostatic pressing (HIP) bonded structure of copper-alloy/SS316. Firstly, fracture toughness and crack propagation tests were performed on DS-Cu and DS-Cu/SS316 HIP joints at ambient temperature and 573 K T. Yamada, M. Uno, M. Saito, Fall Meeting of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan, vol. I, 1998, p. 187 (in Japanese). JIC values of DS-Cu and DS-Cu/SS316 decreased significantly at 573 K. In crack propagation test, DS-Cu lost its ductility at 573 K. Secondly, we performed fracture toughness tests on CuCrZr and CuCrZr/CuCrZr, CuCrZr/SS316 HIP joints at ambient and 573 K. CuCrZr base metal had higher JIC values than DS-Cu. Concerning CuCrZr/CuCrZr and CuCrZr/SS316 HIP joint, its JIC value decreased to less than that of CuCrZr base metal.

  17. Effects of ultrasound and temperature on copper electro reduction in Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES).

    PubMed

    Mandroyan, Audrey; Mourad-Mahmoud, Mahmoud; Doche, Marie-Laure; Hihn, Jean-Yves

    2014-11-01

    This paper concerns a preliminary study for a new copper recovery process from ionic solvent. The aim of this work is to study the reduction of copper in Deep Eutectic Solvent (choline chloride-ethylene glycol) and to compare the influence of temperature and the ultrasound effects on kinetic parameters. Solutions were prepared by dissolution of chloride copper salt CuCl2 (to obtain Copper in oxidation degree II) or CuCl (to obtain Copper in oxidation degree I) and by leaching metallic copper directly in DES. The spectrophotometry UV-visible analysis of the leached solution showed that the copper soluble form obtained is at oxidation degree I (Copper I). Both cyclic voltammetry and linear voltammetry were performed in the three solutions at three temperatures (25, 50 and 80°C) and under ultrasonic conditions (F=20kHz, PT=5.8W) to calculate the mass transfer diffusion coefficient kD and the standard rate coefficient k°. These parameters are used to determine that copper reduction is carried out via a mixed kinetic-diffusion control process. Temperature and ultrasound have the same effect on mass transfer for reduction of Cu(II)/Cu(I). On the other hand, temperature is more beneficial than ultrasound for mass transfer of Cu(I)/Cu. Standard rate constant improvement due to temperature increase is of the same order as that obtained with ultrasound. But, by combining higher temperature and ultrasound (F=20kHz, PT=5.6W at 50°C), reduction limiting current is increased by a factor of 10 compared to initial conditions (T=25°C, silent), because ultrasonic stirring is more efficient in lower viscosity fluid. These values can be considered as key-parameters in the design of copper recovery in global processes using ultrasound. PMID:24629581

  18. Temperature dependence of sapphire fiber Raman scattering

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Bo; Yu, Zhihao; Tian, Zhipeng; Homa, Daniel; Hill, Cary; Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary

    2015-04-27

    Anti-Stokes Raman scattering in sapphire fiber has been observed for the first time. Temperature dependence of Raman peaks’ intensity, frequency shift, and linewidth were also measured. Three anti-Stokes Raman peaks were observed at temperatures higher than 300°C in a 0.72-m-long sapphire fiber excited by a second-harmonic Nd YAG laser. The intensity of anti-Stokes peaks are comparable to that of Stokes peaks when the temperature increases to 1033°C. We foresee the combination of sapphire fiber Stokes and anti-Stokes measurement in use as a mechanism for ultrahigh temperature sensing.

  19. Scaling temperature dependent rheology of magnetorheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, Stephen G.; Powell, Louise A.; Becnel, Andrew C.; Wereley, Norman M.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) fluids are suspensions of micron-scale magnetizable particles suspended in a carrier fluid. When field is applied, MR fluids develop a field controllable yield stress and a field independent post-yield viscosity. However, this viscosity has substantial temperature dependence, varying by up to an order of magnitude over the operating temperature range of MR fluid devices. We apply non-Brownian suspension theory to explain this result and find that the majority of this effect should be caused by the temperature dependent behavior of the carrier fluid. Thus, if two fluids share the same carrier fluid, then their fluid properties should scale in temperature similarly. This result is first validated by measuring viscosity across temperature for custom model fluids designed to conform to theory, showing temperature scaling within 5% for both the MR fluids and their carrier fluid. Then, on a series of related commercially available fluids with unknown additive content, we show that the MR fluids exhibit common scaling to within 4%. We also investigate the effects of magnetic hysteresis and find that it induces a negligible increase in yield stress and no measurable change in viscosity. We conclude that our non-dimensional analysis enables the temperature dependence of novel MR fluids to be characterized with fewer experiments.

  20. Temperature dependence of standard model CP violation.

    PubMed

    Brauner, Tomáš; Taanila, Olli; Tranberg, Anders; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2012-01-27

    We analyze the temperature dependence of CP violation effects in the standard model by determining the effective action of its bosonic fields, obtained after integrating out the fermions from the theory and performing a covariant gradient expansion. We find nonvanishing CP violating terms starting at the sixth order of the expansion, albeit only in the C-odd-P-even sector, with coefficients that depend on quark masses, Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements, temperature and the magnitude of the Higgs field. The CP violating effects are observed to decrease rapidly with temperature, which has important implications for the generation of a matter-antimatter asymmetry in the early Universe. Our results suggest that the cold electroweak baryogenesis scenario may be viable within the standard model, provided the electroweak transition temperature is at most of order 1 GeV. PMID:22400822

  1. High-temperature decomposition of solid solutions of beta-tantalum with copper in films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuleushev, Yu. Zh.; Volodin, V. N.; Zhakanbaev, E. A.

    2014-05-01

    Using high-temperature X-ray diffractometry and electron microprobe analysis decomposition of alloys of beta-tantalum with copper produced by codeposition of sputtered ultradisperse particles of tantalum and copper has been established. At a temperature of 900°C, the precipitation of copper from the solid solution into an individual phase starts, and its diffusion onto the film surface with the formation of globular particles and simultaneous transition of the matrix β-modification into α-tantalum. The suggested mechanism of decomposition of solid solutions includes the following stages: the precipitation of copper into an individual phase, its diffusion onto the surface because of lattice pressure and the concentration gradient inside and outside the tantalum matrix, the coalescence of nanosized formations into drops at the coating surface, and the subsequent evaporation of copper from them in a vacuum.

  2. Effect of Pedestal Temperature on Bonding Strength and Deformation Characteristics for 5N Copper Wire Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gurbinder; Haseeb, A. S. M. A.

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, copper has increasingly been used to replace gold to create wire-bonded interconnections in microelectronics. While engineers and researchers in the semiconductor packaging field are continuously working on this transition from gold to copper wires to reduce costs, the challenge remains in producing robust and reliable joints for semiconductor devices. This research paper investigates the effect of pedestal temperature on bonding strength and deformation for 99.999% purity (5N) copper wire bonding on nickel-palladium-gold (NiPdAu) bond pads. With increasing pedestal temperature, significant thinning of the copper ball bond can be achieved, resulting in higher as-bonded ball shear strengths while producing no pad damage. This can be helpful for low-k devices with thin structures, so as to prevent the use of excessive bond force and ultrasonic energy during copper wire bonding.

  3. Enhanced room-temperature corrosion of copper in the presence of graphene.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Feng; Li, Zhiting; Shenoy, Ganesh J; Li, Lei; Liu, Haitao

    2013-08-27

    This paper reports the enhancement of long-term oxidation of copper at room temperature by a graphene coating. Previous studies showed that graphene is an effective anticorrosion barrier against short-term thermal and electrochemical oxidation of metals. Here, we show that a graphene coating can, on the contrary, accelerate long-term oxidation of an underlying copper substrate in ambient atmosphere at room temperature. After 6 months of exposure in air, both Raman spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that graphene-coated copper foil had a higher degree of oxidation than uncoated foil, although X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the surface concentration of Cu(2+) was higher for the uncoated sample. In addition, we observed that the oxidation of graphene-coated copper foil was not homogeneous and occurred within micrometer-sized domains. The corrosion enhancement effect of graphene was attributed to its ability to promote electrochemical corrosion of copper. PMID:23883292

  4. Investigations of Low Temperature Time Dependent Cracking

    SciTech Connect

    Van der Sluys, W A; Robitz, E S; Young, B A; Bloom, J

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to investigate metallurgical and mechanical phenomena associated with time dependent cracking of cold bent carbon steel piping at temperatures between 327 C and 360 C. Boiler piping failures have demonstrated that understanding the fundamental metallurgical and mechanical parameters controlling these failures is insufficient to eliminate it from the field. The results of the project consisted of the development of a testing methodology to reproduce low temperature time dependent cracking in laboratory specimens. This methodology was used to evaluate the cracking resistance of candidate heats in order to identify the factors that enhance cracking sensitivity. The resultant data was integrated into current available life prediction tools.

  5. Temperature dependence of polymer photovoltaic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazawa, Yuko

    One of many steps to develop a sustainable society is to reduce the use of fossil fuels by replacing them with renewable energy sources, such as solar energy. This dissertation concerns one of the most contemporary methods to harvest solar radiation and covert it to electricity, using thin polymer films. The photovoltaic devices in this study consisted of a thin layer of p-phenylenevinylene (PPV) based semiconducting polymer sandwiched between two metals (semi-transparent ITO and evaporated metal electrode). Two modified device structures were studied, an interfacial heterojunction device, which includes an additional layer of inorganic n-type semiconductor (Ti-oxides) and a bulk heterojunction device, which is formed by blending electron-attracting materials. Both modifications resulted in higher device performances under ambient conditions due to an increased number of dissociation sites. From studies of inorganic solar cells, it is well known that temperature has a large effect on device performance. However, there are only a few studies on organic Solar cells, concerning the temperature dependence. This thesis focuses on understanding the temperature dependent behaviors of polymer photovoltaic devices. Temperature dependence study allows us to examine how the device parameters such as short circuit current (Isc) and open circuit voltage (Voc) are affected by the material properties and the device architectures. The current-voltage relationships were measured in a temperature controlled OXFORD cryostat operating between 150K and 404K. From the dark current-voltage measurements, the field-independent hole mobility (mu0) was extracted, using a space charge limited current analysis. From the photocurrent-voltage measurements, the temperature dependence on Isc, Voc, and fill factor were studied. The temperature characteristics of Isc (T) were compared to that of mu0(T), and two different dependencies were obtained for different device architectures. The temperature

  6. Temperature dependence of fluid transport in nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Baoxing; Wang, Binglei; Park, Taehyo; Qiao, Yu; Zhou, Qulan; Chen, Xi

    2012-05-01

    Understanding the temperature-dependent nanofluidic transport behavior is critical for developing thermomechanical nanodevices. By using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, the thermally responsive transport resistance of liquids in model carbon nanotubes is explored as a function of the nanopore size, the transport rate, and the liquid properties. Both the effective shear stress and the nominal viscosity decrease with the increase of temperature, and the temperature effect is coupled with other non-thermal factors. The molecular-level mechanisms are revealed through the study of the radial density profile and hydrogen bonding of confined liquid molecules. The findings are verified qualitatively with an experiment on nanoporous carbon.

  7. Structural Dependence of Grain Boundary Resistivity in Copper Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Evans III, Boyd Mccutchen; Kenik, Edward A; Kim, Tae Hwan; Kulkarni, Nagraj S; Li, An-Ping; Meyer III, Harry M; Nicholson, Don M; Radhakrishnan, Bala; Zhang, Xiaoguang

    2011-01-01

    We report the direct measurement of individual grain boundary (GB) resistances and the critical role of GB structure in the increased resistivity in copper nanowires. By measuring both intra- and inter-grain resistance with a four-probe scanning tunneling microscope, large resistance jumps are revealed owing to successive scattering across high-angle random GBs, while the resistance changes at twin and other coincidence boundaries are negligibly small. The impurity distributions in the nanowires are characterized in correlating to the microstructures. The resistance of high symmetry coincidence GBs and the impurity contributions are then calculated using a first-principle method which confirms that the coincidence GBs have orders of magnitude smaller resistance than the high-angle random GBs.

  8. Experimental Determination of Phase Equilibria in the Silver-Copper Oxide System at High Temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Darsell, Jens T.; Weil, K. Scott

    2007-06-01

    The phase diagram of silver-copper oxide was studied using thermal, microstructural and compositional analysis of quenched samples. The eutectic and monotectic temperature were found and compared to previous data. The miscibility gap was analyzed at higher temperatures than previous experimental work. The profile of the miscibility gap was found to extend from the monotectic composition and extend further into the copper rich portion than previously experimental work had show, which verifies a previous computational study.

  9. Temperature dependence of BCF plastic scintillation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wootton, Landon; Beddar, Sam

    2013-05-01

    We examined temperature dependence in plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) made of BCF-60 or BCF-12 scintillating fiber coupled to optical fiber with cyanoacrylate. PSDs were subjected to a range of temperatures using a temperature-controlled water bath and irradiated at each temperature while either the dose was measured using a CCD camera or the spectral output was measured using a spectrometer. The spectrometer was used to examine the intensity and spectral distribution of scintillation light emitted by the PSDs, Cerenkov light generated within the PSD, and light transmitted through an isolated optical coupling. BCF-60 PSDs exhibited a 0.50% decrease and BCF-12 PSDs a 0.09% decrease in measured dose per °C increase, relative to dose measured at 22 °C. Spectrometry revealed that the total intensity of the light generated by BCF-60 and BCF-12 PSDs decreased by 0.32% and 0.13%, respectively, per °C increase. The spectral distribution of the light changed slightly with temperature for both PSDs, accounting for the disparity between the change in measured dose and total light output. The generation of Cerenkov light was temperature independent. However, light transmitted through optical coupling between the scintillator and the optical fiber also exhibited temperature dependence.

  10. Temperature dependence of optically induced cell deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsch, Anatol; Kiessling, Tobias R.; Stange, Roland; Kaes, Josef A.

    2012-02-01

    The mechanical properties of any material change with temperature, hence this must be true for cellular material. In biology many functions are known to undergo modulations with temperature, like myosin motor activity, mechanical properties of actin filament solutions, CO2 uptake of cultured cells or sex determination of several species. As mechanical properties of living cells are considered to play an important role in many cell functions it is surprising that only little is known on how the rheology of single cells is affected by temperature. We report the systematic temperature dependence of single cell deformations in Optical Stretcher (OS) measurements. The temperature is changed on a scale of about 20 minutes up to hours and compared to defined temperature shocks in the range of milliseconds. Thereby, a strong temperature dependence of the mechanics of single suspended cells is revealed. We conclude that the observable differences arise rather from viscosity changes of the cytosol than from structural changes of the cytoskeleton. These findings have implications for the interpretation of many rheological measurements, especially for laser based approaches in biological studies.

  11. ROS dependent copper toxicity in Hydra-biochemical and molecular study.

    PubMed

    Zeeshan, Mohammed; Murugadas, Anbazhagan; Ghaskadbi, Surendra; Rajendran, Ramasamy Babu; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkader

    2016-01-01

    Copper, an essential microelement, is known to be toxic to aquatic life at concentrations higher than that could be tolerated. Copper-induced oxidative stress has been documented in vitro, yet the in vivo effects of metal-induced oxidative stress have not been extensively studied in the lower invertebrates. The objective of the present study has been to find the effect of ROS-mediated toxicity of environmentally relevant concentrations of copper at organismal and cellular levels in Hydra magnipapillata. Exposure to copper at sublethal concentrations (0.06 and 0.1mg/L) for 24 or 48h resulted in generation of significant levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). We infer that the free radicals here originate predominantly at the lysosomes but partly at the mitochondria also as visualized by H2-DHCFDA staining. Quantitative real-time PCR of RNA extracted from copper-exposed polyps revealed dose-dependent up-regulation of all antioxidant response genes (CAT, SOD, GPx, GST, GR, G6PD). Concurrent increase of Hsp70 and FoxO genes suggests the ability of polyps to respond to stress, which at 48h was not the same as at 24h. Interestingly, the transcript levels of all genes were down-regulated at 48h as compared to 24h incubation period. Comet assay indicated copper as a powerful genotoxicant, and the DNA damage was dose- as well as duration-dependent. Western blotting of proteins (Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase-3) confirmed ROS-mediated mitochondrial cell death in copper-exposed animals. These changes correlated well with changes in morphology, regeneration and aspects of reproduction. Taken together, the results indicate increased production of intracellular ROS in Hydra on copper exposure. PMID:26945520

  12. Frequency doubling of copper lasers using temperature-tuned ADP

    SciTech Connect

    Molander, W.A.

    1994-03-01

    The ability to generate high average power uv at 255 nm by frequency doubling the green line (510.6 nm) of copper lasers would greatly extend the utility of copper lasers. Material processing and microlithography are two areas of interest. The frequency-doubled copper laser could replace the KrF excimer laser, which has a similar wavelength (248 nm), in some applications. The frequency-doubled copper laser has a narrow linewidth and excellent beam quality at a competitive cost. Other attractive features are high reliability, low operating costs, and the absence of toxic gases. This paper will report recent progress in high-efficiency, high-average-power harmonic generation of the copper laser green line using noncritical phase matching in ADP. Frequency doubling of the yellow line (578.2 nm) and sum-frequency mixing of the two lines are also of interest. These processes, however, cannot be phase-matched in ADP and, therefore, will not be discussed here. The results reported and the issues identified here would be important in these other processes and also in many other frequency conversion schemes in the uv such as 4{omega} conversion of Nd{sup 3+}:YAG lasers.

  13. Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature Dependent Thermophysical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czél, Balázs; Gróf, Gyula; Kiss, László

    2011-11-01

    A new evaluation method for a transient measurement of thermophysical properties is presented in this paper. The aim of the research was to couple a new automatic evaluation procedure to the BICOND thermophysical property measurement method to enhance the simultaneous determination of the temperature dependent thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity. The thermophysical properties of two different polymers were measured and compared with the literature data and with the measurement results that were done by well-known, traditional methods. The BICOND method involves a step-down cooling, recording the temperature histories of the inner and the outer surfaces of a hollow cylindrical sample and the thermophysical properties are evaluated from the solution of the corresponding inverse heat conduction using a genetic algorithm-based method (BIGEN) developed by the authors. The BIGEN is able to find the material properties with any kind of temperature dependency, that is illustrated through the measurement results of poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) and polyamide (PA) samples.

  14. Isothermal Cyclic Conversion of Methane into Methanol over Copper-Exchanged Zeolite at Low Temperature.

    PubMed

    Tomkins, Patrick; Mansouri, Ali; Bozbag, Selmi E; Krumeich, Frank; Park, Min Bum; Alayon, Evalyn Mae C; Ranocchiari, Marco; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A

    2016-04-25

    Direct partial oxidation of methane into methanol is a cornerstone of catalysis. The stepped conversion of methane into methanol currently involves activation at high temperature and reaction with methane at decreased temperature, which limits applicability of the technique. The first implementation of copper-containing zeolites in the production of methanol directly from methane is reported, using molecular oxygen under isothermal conditions at 200 °C. Copper-exchanged zeolite is activated with oxygen, reacts with methane, and is subsequently extracted with steam in a repeated cyclic process. Methanol yield increases with methane pressure, enabling reactivity with less reactive oxidized copper species. It is possible to produce methanol over catalysts that were inactive in prior state of the art systems. Characterization of the activated catalyst at low temperature revealed that the active sites are small clusters of copper, and not necessarily di- or tricopper sites, indicating that catalysts can be designed with greater flexibility than formerly proposed. PMID:27010863

  15. The Effects of Test Temperature, Temper, and Alloyed Copper on the Hydrogen-Controlled Crack Growth Rate of an Al-Zn-Mg-(Cu) Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Young, Jr.; J.R. Scully

    2000-09-17

    The hydrogen embrittlement controlled stage II crack growth rate of AA 7050 (6.09 wt.% Zn, 2.14 wt% Mg, 2.19 wt.% Cu) was investigated as a function of temper and alloyed copper level in a humid air environment at various temperatures. Three tempers representing the underaged, peak aged, and overaged conditions were tested in 90% relative humidity (RH) air at temperatures between 25 and 90 C. At all test temperatures, an increased degree of aging (from underaged to overaged) produced slower stage II crack growth rates. The stage II crack growth rate of each alloy and temper displayed Arrhenius-type temperature dependence with activation energies between 58 and 99 kJ/mol. For both the normal copper and low copper alloys, the fracture path was predominantly intergranular at all test temperatures (25-90 C) in each temper investigated. Comparison of the stage II crack growth rates for normal (2.19 wt.%) and low (0.06 wt.%) copper alloys in the peak aged and overaged tempers showed the beneficial effect of copper additions on stage II crack growth rate in humid air. In the 2.19 wt.% copper alloy, the significant decrease ({approx} 10 times at 25 C) in stage II crack growth rate upon overaging is attributed to an increase in the apparent activation energy for crack growth. IN the 0.06 wt.% copper alloy, overaging did not increase the activation energy for crack growth but did lower the pre-exponential factor, {nu}{sub 0}, resulting in a modest ({approx} 2.5 times at 25 C) decrease in crack growth rate. These results indicate that alloyed copper and thermal aging affect the kinetic factors that govern stage II crack growth rate. Overaged, copper bearing alloys are not intrinsically immune to hydrogen environment assisted cracking but are more resistant due to an increased apparent activation energy for stage II crack growth.

  16. Copper inhibits the HIV-1 protease by both oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Karlstroem, A.R.; Levine, R.L. )

    1991-03-11

    The protease encoded by HIV-1 is essential for the processing of the viral polyproteins encoded by the gag and pol genes into mature viral proteins. Mutation or deletion of the protease gene blocks replication of the virus, making the protease an attractive target for antiviral therapy. The authors found that the HIV-1 protease is inhibited by micromolar concentrations of Cu{sup 2+}. Protease was 50% inhibited by exposure to 5 {mu}M copper for 5 min while exposure to 25 {mu}M caused complete inhibition. This inhibition was not oxygen-dependent and was not reversed by treatment with EDTA, presumably due to the slow off-rate of copper from the protease. Consistent with this interpretation, enzyme activity was recovered after denaturation and refolding of the copper exposed protease. Titration of the inactivated enzyme with Ellman's reagent demonstrated a loss of one of the two sulfhydryl groups present in the molecule, suggesting that copper inhibition was mediated through binding to a cysteine. This was confirmed in studies with a chemically synthesize, mutant protease in which the two cysteine residues were replaced by {alpha}-amino butyrate: The mutant protease was not inhibited by copper. However, both the wild-type and mutant protease were inactivated when exposed to copper, oxygen, and dithiothreitol. This inactivation required oxygen. Thus, the protease can also be inactivated by metal catalyzed oxidation (MCO), a presumably irreversible covalent modification.

  17. Temperature dependent phonon properties of thermoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellman, Olle; Broido, David; Fultz, Brent

    2015-03-01

    We present recent developments using the temperature dependent effective potential technique (TDEP) to model thermoelectric materials. We use ab initio molecular dynamics to generate an effective Hamiltonian that reproduce neutron scattering spectra, thermal conductivity, phonon self energies, and heat capacities. Results are presented for (among others) SnSe, Bi2Te3, and Cu2Se proving the necessity of careful modelling of finite temperature properties for strongly anharmonic materials. Supported by the Swedish Research Council (VR) Project Number 637-2013-7296.

  18. A cofactor approach to copper-dependent catalytic antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Kenneth M.; Wentworth, Paul; Harwig, Curtis W.; Wentworth, Anita D.; Shafton, Asher; Janda, Kim D.

    2002-01-01

    A strategy for the preparation of semisynthetic copper(II)-based catalytic metalloproteins is described in which a metal-binding bis-imidazole cofactor is incorporated into the combining site of the aldolase antibody 38C2. Antibody 38C2 features a large hydrophobic-combining site pocket with a highly nucleophilic lysine residue, LysH93, that can be covalently modified. A comparison of several lactone and anhydride reagents shows that the latter are the most effective and general derivatizing agents for the 38C2 Lys residue. A bis-imidazole anhydride (5) was efficiently prepared from N-methyl imidazole. The 38C2–5-Cu conjugate was prepared by either (i) initial derivatization of 38C2 with 5 followed by metallation with CuCl2, or (ii) precoordination of 5 with CuCl2 followed by conjugation with 38C2. The resulting 38C2–5-Cu conjugate was an active catalyst for the hydrolysis of the coordinating picolinate ester 11, following Michaelis–Menten kinetics [kcat(11) = 2.3 min−1 and Km(11) 2.2 mM] with a rate enhancement [kcat(11)kuncat(11)] of 2.1 × 105. Comparison of the second-order rate constants of the modified 38C2 and the Cu(II)-bis-imidazolyl complex k(6-CuCl2) gives a rate enhancement of 3.5 × 104 in favor of the antibody complex with an effective molarity of 76.7 M, revealing a significant catalytic benefit to the binding of the bis-imidazolyl ligand into 38C2. PMID:11880619

  19. LOW TEMPERATURE PLASMA ETCHING OF COPPER FOR MINIMIZING SIZE EFFECTS IN SUB-100 NM FEATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, Nagraj S; Tamirisa, Prabhakar; Levitin, Galit; Kasica, Richard J; Hess, Dennis W

    2006-01-01

    A low temperature plasma etching process for patterning copper interconnects is proposed as a solution to the size effect issue in the resistivity of copper. Key features of this etching process based on a previous thermochemical analysis of the Cu-Cl-H system are discussed. Potential benefits of a subtractive etching scheme based on this process in comparison with the damascene scheme for copper-based interconnect processing in sub-100 nm features are presented in the context of the ITRS roadmap. Preliminary experimental work on plasma etching of Cu thin films using the proposed process is discussed.

  20. Temperature-dependent reflectivity of silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    The spectral reflectivity of a commercial silicon carbide (SiC) ceramic surface was measured at wavelengths from 2.5 to 14.5 microns and at temperatures ranging from 358 to 520 K using a NASA-developed multiwavelength pyrometer. The SiC surface reflectivity was low at the short wavelengths, decreasing to almost zero at 10 microns, then increasing rapidly to a maximum at approximately 12.5 microns, and decreasing gradually thereafter. The reflectivity maximum increased in magnitude with increasing surface temperature. The wavelength and temperature dependence can be explained in terms of the classical dispersion theory of crystals and the Lorentz electron theory. Electronic transitions between the donor state and the conduction band states were responsible for the dispersion. The concentration of the donor state in SiC was determined to be approximately 4 x 10 exp 18 and its ionization energy was determined to be approximately 71 meV.

  1. Copper

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Copper ; CASRN 7440 - 50 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects )

  2. Combined effects of water temperature and copper ion concentration on catalase activity in Crassostrea ariakensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Yang, Hongshuai; Liu, Jiahui; Li, Yanhong; Liu, Zhigang

    2015-07-01

    A central composite experimental design and response surface method were used to investigate the combined effects of water temperature (18-34°C) and copper ion concentration (0.1-1.5 mg/L) on the catalase (CAT) activity in the digestive gland of Crassostrea ariakensis. The results showed that the linear effects of temperature were significant ( P<0.01), the quadratic effects of temperature were significant ( P<0.05), the linear effects of copper ion concentration were not significant ( P>0.05), and the quadratic effects of copper ion concentration were significant ( P<0.05). Additionally, the synergistic effects of temperature and copper ion concentration were not significant ( P>0.05), and the effect of temperature was greater than that of copper ion concentration. A model equation of CAT enzyme activity in the digestive gland of C. ariakensis toward the two factors of interest was established, with R 2, Adj. R 2 and Pred. R 2 values as high as 0.943 7, 0.887 3 and 0.838 5, respectively. These findings suggested that the goodness of fit to experimental data and predictive capability of the model were satisfactory, and could be practically applied for prediction under the conditions of the study. Overall, the results suggest that the simultaneous variation of temperature and copper ion concentration alters the activity of the antioxidant enzyme CAT by modulating active oxygen species metabolism, which may be utilized as a biomarker to detect the effects of copper pollution.

  3. Temperature dependent phonon mode coupling in YBCO_6.95

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stercel, Ferenc; Chung, Jae-Ho; Egami, Takeshi; Mook, Herb; Frost, Chris

    2004-03-01

    While the majority in the field of high-temperature superconductivity believe in the magnetic mechanism, experimental evidence of phonon involvement is increasing. We carried out inelastic neutron scattering measurements of c-axis phonons with a YBa_2Cu_3O_6.95 single crystal at the MAPS of the ISIS facility. We found distinct temperature dependence of the 63 meV apical oxygen phonon mode, which correlates well with that of the in-plane Cu-O bond-stretching phonon mode observed earlier. The result indicates that the coupling between the two modes changes with temperature, similar to the superconducting order parameter. The coupling is mainly due to the Coulomb repulsion between the in-plane oxygen and the apical oxygen. The phonon-induced hole transfer from oxygen to copper introduces attractive force and offsets this repulsion. The observed effect can be explained by the enhancement of offset due to the off-diagonal transfer of Cooper pairs. Thus this observation constitutes the direct confirmation of involvement of the in-plane Cu-O bond-stretching phonons in the superconductivity of YBCO_6.95.

  4. Temperature dependent light transmission in ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brojabasi, Surajit; Mahendran, V.; Lahiri, B. B.; Philip, John

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the influence of temperature on the magnetic field induced light transmission in a kerosene based ferrofluid containing oleic acid coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles, where the direction of propagation of light is parallel to the direction of the external magnetic field. At a fixed temperature the transmitted light intensity is found to monotonically increase with incident wavelength due to reduced extinction efficiency at higher wavelength. The transmitted intensity decreases with external magnetic field due to enhanced scattering from the field induced linear chain like structures along the direction of the external magnetic field and due to the build-up of standing waves inside the scattering medium. The extinction of the field induced transmitted light intensity is found to occur at a lower external field as the sample temperature is lowered. The rate of extinction of normalized transmitted light intensity decreased linearly with increasing sample temperature due to slower field induced aggregation kinetics because of an increased Brownian motion of the suspended nanoparticles and a reduced coupling constant. The observed temperature dependent magneto-optical properties of magnetic nanofluids can be exploited for applications in optical devices.

  5. Effects of copper, hypoxia and acute temperature shifts on mitochondrial oxidation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) acclimated to warm temperature.

    PubMed

    Sappal, Ravinder; Fast, Mark; Stevens, Don; Kibenge, Fred; Siah, Ahmed; Kamunde, Collins

    2015-12-01

    Temperature fluctuations, hypoxia and metals pollution frequently occur simultaneously or sequentially in aquatic systems and their interactions may confound interpretation of their biological impacts. With a focus on energy homeostasis, the present study examined how warm acclimation influences the responses and interactions of acute temperature shift, hypoxia and copper (Cu) exposure in fish. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were acclimated to cold (11°C; control) and warm (20°C) temperature for 3 weeks followed by exposure to environmentally realistic levels of Cu and hypoxia for 24h. Subsequently, mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) respiratory activity supported by complexes I-IV (CI-IV), plasma metabolites and condition indices were measured. Warm acclimation reduced fish condition, induced aerobic metabolism and altered the responses of fish to acute temperature shift, hypoxia and Cu. Whereas warm acclimation decelerated the ETS and increased the sensitivity of maximal oxidation rates of the proximal (CI and II) complexes to acute temperature shift, it reduced the thermal sensitivity of state 4 (proton leak). Effects of Cu with and without hypoxia were variable depending on the acclimation status and functional index. Notably, Cu stimulated respiratory activity in the proximal ETS segments, while hypoxia was mostly inhibitory and minimized the stimulatory effect of Cu. The effects of Cu and hypoxia were modified by temperature and showed reciprocal antagonistic interaction on the ETS and plasma metabolites, with modest additive actions limited to CII and IV state 4. Overall, our results indicate that warm acclimation came at a cost of reduced ETS efficiency and increased sensitivity to added stressors. PMID:26513222

  6. Copper-dependent degradation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae plasma membrane copper transporter Ctr1p in the apparent absence of endocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, C E; Rabinovich, E; Dancis, A; Bonifacino, J S; Klausner, R D

    1996-01-01

    The cell surface protein repertoire needs to be regulated in response to changes in the extracellular environment. In this study, we investigate protein turnover of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae plasma membrane copper transporter Ctr1p, in response to a change in extra-cellular copper levels. As Ctr1p mediates high affinity uptake of copper into the cell, modulation of its expression is expected to be involved in copper homeostasis. We demonstrate that Ctr1p is a stable protein when cells are grown in low concentrations of copper, but that exposure of cells to high concentrations of copper (10 microM) triggers degradation of cell surface Ctr1p. This degradation appears to be specific for Ctr1p and does not occur with another yeast plasma membrane protein tested. Internalization of some Ctr1p can be seen when cells are exposed to copper. However, yeast mutant strains defective in endocytosis (end3, end4 and chc1-ts) and vacuolar degradation (pep4) exhibit copper-dependent Ctr1p degradation, indicating that internalization and delivery to the vacuole is not the principal mechanism responsible for degradation. In addition, a variant Ctr1p with a deletion in the cytosolic tail is not internalized upon exposure of cells to copper, but is nevertheless degraded. These observations indicate that proteolysis at the plasma membrane most likely explains copper-dependent turnover of Ctr1p and point to the existence of a novel pathway in yeast for plasma membrane protein turnover. Images PMID:8670854

  7. Ac susceptibility of a coated conductor with high-temperature superconducting film and covered copper stabilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, D.-X.

    2014-07-01

    The ac susceptibility, χ=χ‧-jχ″, of a nearly square sample, cut from a coated conductor tape consisting of a high-temperature superconducting film and a covered copper stabilizer, is measured as a function of temperature, T, at several values of frequency, f. It is found that the χ(f) at T>Tc can be well simulated by a modeling eddy-current susceptibility of the stabilizer, and there is an extra low-T stage, where χ is not constant as expected and may be separated into two parts. The T-independent part is contributed by Meissner currents in the film with over-low |χ‧|, indicating that the film edge was damaged by cutting during tape and sample preparation. The T-dependent part is contributed by both eddy-currents and supercurrents, having a special f dependence with unknown mechanism. Both currents are interacted to each other in a complex way in the T range below and near Tc, resulting in interesting features in χ(T,f).

  8. Temperature dependent spin structures in Hexaferrite crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Y. C.; Lin, J. G.; Chun, S. H.; Kim, K. H.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the Hexaferrite Ba0.5Sr1.5Zn2Fe12O22 (BSZFO) is studied due to its interesting characteristics of long-wavelength spin structure. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) is used to probe the magnetic states of BSZFO single crystal and its temperature dependence behavior is analyzed by decomposing the multiple lines of FMR spectra into various phases. Distinguished phase transition is observed at 110 K for one line, which is assigned to the ferro(ferri)-magnetic transition from non-collinear to collinear spin state.

  9. Escherichia coli survival in waters: temperature dependence.

    PubMed

    Blaustein, R A; Pachepsky, Y; Hill, R L; Shelton, D R; Whelan, G

    2013-02-01

    Knowing the survival rates of water-borne Escherichia coli is important in evaluating microbial contamination and making appropriate management decisions. E. coli survival rates are dependent on temperature, a dependency that is routinely expressed using an analogue of the Q₁₀ model. This suggestion was made 34 years ago based on 20 survival curves taken from published literature, but has not been revisited since then. The objective of this study was to re-evaluate the accuracy of the Q₁₀ equation, utilizing data accumulated since 1978. We assembled a database of 450 E. coli survival datasets from 70 peer-reviewed papers. We then focused on the 170 curves taken from experiments that were performed in the laboratory under dark conditions to exclude the effects of sunlight and other field factors that could cause additional variability in results. All datasets were tabulated dependencies "log concentration vs. time." There were three major patterns of inactivation: about half of the datasets had a section of fast log-linear inactivation followed by a section of slow log-linear inactivation; about a quarter of the datasets had a lag period followed by log-linear inactivation; and the remaining quarter were approximately linear throughout. First-order inactivation rate constants were calculated from the linear sections of all survival curves and the data grouped by water sources, including waters of agricultural origin, pristine water sources, groundwater and wells, lakes and reservoirs, rivers and streams, estuaries and seawater, and wastewater. Dependency of E. coli inactivation rates on temperature varied among the water sources. There was a significant difference in inactivation rate values at the reference temperature between rivers and agricultural waters, wastewaters and agricultural waters, rivers and lakes, and wastewater and lakes. At specific sites, the Q₁₀ equation was more accurate in rivers and coastal waters than in lakes making the value of

  10. Bi-modal Structure of Copper via Room-Temperature Partial Recrystallization After Cryogenic Dynamic Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Dong Jun; Kang, Minju; Park, Lee Ju; Lee, Sunghak; Kim, Hyoung Seop

    2016-04-01

    P ure copper was compressed at high strain rates (over ~3 × 103 s-1) under liquid nitrogen. This deformation resulted in bi-modal microstructures of ultrafine grains and abnormally grown micro grains, and in greater hardness (by ~30 Hv) than room-temperature, dynamically deformed copper. This bi-modal microstructure is attributable to partial recrystallization at room temperature, activated by high-energy states and by twins generated at high Zener-Hollomon parameter conditions. This result demonstrates a new approach for producing bi-modally structured materials.

  11. Low temperature solder process to join a copper tube to a silicon wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versteeg, Christo; Scarpim de Souza, Marcio

    2014-06-01

    With the application for wafer level packages, which could be Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) based, and which requires a reduced atmosphere, a copper tube connection to a vacuum pump and the package is proposed. The method evaluated uses laser assisted brazing of a solder, to join the copper tube to a silicon wafer. The method was applied to a silicon wafer coated with a metallic interface to bond to the solder. The hermeticity of the joint was tested with a helium leak rate tester and the bonding energy thermal extent was verified with a thin layer of indium that melted wherever the substrate temperature rose above its melting temperature.

  12. Temperature Dependent Kinetics DNA Charge Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlgamuth, Chris; McWilliams, Marc; Slinker, Jason

    2012-10-01

    Charge transport (CT) through DNA has been extensively studied, and yet the mechanism of this process is still not yet fully understood. Besides the benefits of understanding charge transport through this fundamental molecule, further understanding of this process will elucidate the biological implications of DNA CT and advance sensing technology. Therefore, we have investigated the temperature dependence of DNA CT by measuring the electrochemistry of DNA monolayers modified with a redox-active probe. By using multiplexed electrodes on silicon chips, we compare square wave voltammetry of distinct DNA sequences under identical experimental conditions. We vary the probe length within the well matched DNA duplex in order to investigate distance dependent kinetics. This length dependent study is a necessary step to understanding the dominant mechanism behind DNA CT. Using a model put forth by O'Dea and Osteryoung and applying a nonlinear least squares analysis we are able to determine the charge transfer rates (k), transfer coefficients (α), and the total surface concentration (&*circ;) of the DNA monolayer. Arrhenius like behavior is observed for the multiple probe locations, and the results are viewed in light of and compared to the prominent charge transport mechanisms.

  13. Interface resistance in copper coated carbon determined by frequency dependent photothermal radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kijamnajsuk, P.; Giuliani, F.; Chirtoc, M.; Horny, N.; Gibkes, J.; Chotikaprakhan, S.; Bein, B. K.; Pelzl, J.

    2010-03-01

    The heat transfer in copper-carbon flat model systems was studied by frequency dependent photothermal radiometry. A novel approach which relies on the frequency dependence of the photothermal signal phase and amplitude at intermediate frequencies was introduced to determine the thermal interface resistance between the Cu-film and the substrate. The frequency dependent amplitude and phase of the photothermal signals were analyzed in the frame of a model of a one- dimensional heat flow perpendicular to the film plane. The interface resistance of the investigated CuC-sample with a Ti-bonding layer was found to increase by a factor two on heat treatment.

  14. Room-temperature dislocation climb in copper-niobium interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jian; Hoagland, Richard G; Hirth, John P; Misra, Amit

    2008-01-01

    Using atomistic simulations, we show that dislocations climb efficiently in metallic copper-niobium interfaces through absorption and emission of vacancies in the dislocation core, as well as an associated counter diffusion of Cu atoms in the interfacial plane. The high efficiency of dislocation climb in the interface is ascribed to the high vacancy concentration of 0.05 in the interfacial plane, the low formation energy of 0.12 e V with respect to removal or insertion of Cu atoms, as well as the low kinetic barrier of 0.10 eV for vacancy migration in the interfacial Cu plane. Dislocation climb in the interface facilitates reactions of interfacial dislocations, and enables interfaces to be in the equilibrium state with respect to concentrations ofpoint defects.

  15. Effect of low temperatures on tensile properties of ultrathin copper films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qiao-Neng; Pan, Ernie; Yang, Shi-E.; Wang, Mingxing; Sun, Qiang; Wang, Jie-Fang; Jia, Yu

    2014-03-01

    The recent developments in MEMS have created a requirement for comprehending the mechanical properties of copper thin films. Moreover, the serviceability temperature of the films used for space research, superconductivity and so on is mainly low temperature. Thus, the molecular dynamics is employed to simulate the mechanical responses of single-crystal copper thin films under uniaxial tensile loading in different low temperature environments. With varying applied temperatures to the thin films, the variation of the maximum stress, Young's modulus and maximal potential energy is characterized and three different deformation mechanisms in the low temperature range from 40 to 250 K are identified. These different mechanisms of copper films in different temperature ranges are then explained via the continuum damage mechanics based on the evolutionary features of the slip and twin in the thin film. It is concluded that at temperatures above 200 K normal slip process occurs; whereas at temperatures below 70 K, twin nucleation process appears. However, when the temperature is between 70 K and 200 K, both twin and slip processes happen. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11372283) and the Foundation of Henan Educational Committee, China (Grant No.13A140674).

  16. Dependence of the elastic strain coefficient of copper on the pre-treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntze, Wilhelm

    1950-01-01

    The effect of various pre-treatments on the elastic strain coefficient (alpha) (defined as the reciprocal of the modulus of elasticity E) (Epsilon) and on the mechanical hysteresis of copper has been investigated. Variables comprising the pre-treatments were pre-straining by stretching in a tensile testing machine and by drawing through a die, aging at room and elevated temperatures and annealing. The variation of the elastic strain coefficient with test stress was also investigated.

  17. Temperature-Dependent Photoluminescence of Graphene Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadhav, S. T.; Rajoba, S. J.; Patil, S. A.; Han, S. H.; Jadhav, L. D.

    2016-01-01

    Graphene oxide thin films have been deposited by spray pyrolysis using graphene oxide powder prepared by modified Hummers method. These thin films were characterized by different physico-chemical techniques. The x-ray diffraction studies revealed the structural properties of GO (graphene oxide) while the Raman spectrum showed the presence of D and G and two-dimensional bands. The D/G intensity ratio for spray-deposited GO film is 1.10. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed 67% and 33% atomic percentages of carbon and oxygen, respectively. The ratio of O1s/C1s was found to be 0.49. The temperature-dependent photoluminescence of GO thin film and GO solution showed a blue emission.

  18. Thermal contact conductance of metallic coated BiCaSrCuO superconductor/copper interfaces at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochterbeck, J. M.; Peterson, G. P.; Fletcher, L. S.

    1992-02-01

    The effects of vapor deposited coatings on the thermal contact conductance of cold pressed, normal state BiCaSrCuO superconductor/oxygen-free copper interfaces were experimentally investigated over a pressure range of 200 to 2000 kPa. Using traditional vapor deposition processes, thin coatings of indium or lead were applied to the superconductor material to determine the effect on the heat transfer occurring at the interface. The test data indicate that the contact conductance can be enhanced using these coatings, with indium providing the greater enhancement. The experimental program revealed the need for a better understanding and control of the vapor deposition process when using soft metallic coatings. Also, the temperature-dependent microhardness of copper was experimentally determined and found to increase by approximately 35 percent as the temperature decreased from 300 to 85 K. An empirical model was developed to predict the effect of soft coatings on the thermal contact conductance of the superconductor/copper interfaces. When applied, the model agreed well with the data obtained in this investigation at low coating thicknesses but overpredicted the data as the thickness increased. In addition, the model agreed very well with data obtained in a previous investigation for silver-coated nickel substrates at all coating thicknesses.

  19. Thermal contact conductance of metallic coated BiCaSrCuO superconductor/copper interfaces at cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Ochterbeck, J.M.; Peterson, G.P.; Fletcher, L.S. )

    1992-02-01

    The effects of vapor deposited coatings on the thermal contact conductance of cold pressed, normal state BiCaSrCuO superconductor/oxygen-free copper interfaces were experimentally investigated over a pressure range of 200 to 2,000 kPa. Using traditional vapor deposition processes, thin coatings of indium or lead were applied to the superconductor material to determine the effect on the heat transfer occurring at the interface. The test data indicate that the contact conductance can be enhanced using these coatings, with indium providing the greater enhancement. The experimental program revealed the need for a better understanding and control of the vapor deposition process when using soft metallic coatings. Also, the temperature-dependent microhardness of copper was experimentally determined and found to increase by approximately 35 percent as the temperature decreased from 300 to 85 K. An empirical model was developed to predict the effect of soft coatings on the thermal contact conductance of the superconductor/copper interfaces. When applied, the model agreed well with the data obtained in this investigation at low coating thicknesses but overpredicted the data as the thickness increased. In addition, the model agreed very well with data obtained in a previous investigation for silvercoated nickel substrates at all coating thicknesses.

  20. Temperature dependent nonlinear metal matrix laminae behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, D. J.; Buesking, K. W.

    1986-01-01

    An analytical method is described for computing the nonlinear thermal and mechanical response of laminated plates. The material model focuses upon the behavior of metal matrix materials by relating the nonlinear composite response to plasticity effects in the matrix. The foundation of the analysis is the unidirectional material model which is used to compute the instantaneous properties of the lamina based upon the properties of the fibers and matrix. The unidirectional model assumes that the fibers properties are constant with temperature and assumes that the matrix can be modelled as a temperature dependent, bilinear, kinematically hardening material. An incremental approach is used to compute average stresses in the fibers and matrix caused by arbitrary mechanical and thermal loads. The layer model is incorporated in an incremental laminated plate theory to compute the nonlinear response of laminated metal matrix composites of general orientation and stacking sequence. The report includes comparisons of the method with other analytical approaches and compares theoretical calculations with measured experimental material behavior. A section is included which describes the limitations of the material model.

  1. Amyloid precursor protein dimerization and synaptogenic function depend on copper binding to the growth factor-like domain.

    PubMed

    Baumkötter, Frederik; Schmidt, Nadine; Vargas, Carolyn; Schilling, Sandra; Weber, Rebecca; Wagner, Katja; Fiedler, Sebastian; Klug, Wilfried; Radzimanowski, Jens; Nickolaus, Sebastian; Keller, Sandro; Eggert, Simone; Wild, Klemens; Kins, Stefan

    2014-08-13

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the copper-binding amyloid precursor protein (APP) has an essential synaptic function. APP synaptogenic function depends on trans-directed dimerization of the extracellular E1 domain encompassing a growth factor-like domain (GFLD) and a copper-binding domain (CuBD). Here we report the 1.75 Å crystal structure of the GFLD in complex with a copper ion bound with high affinity to an extended hairpin loop at the dimerization interface. In coimmunoprecipitation assays copper binding promotes APP interaction, whereas mutations in the copper-binding sites of either the GFLD or CuBD result in a drastic reduction in APP cis-orientated dimerization. We show that copper is essential and sufficient to induce trans-directed dimerization of purified APP. Furthermore, a mixed culture assay of primary neurons with HEK293 cells expressing different APP mutants revealed that APP potently promotes synaptogenesis depending on copper binding to the GFLD. Together, these findings demonstrate that copper binding to the GFLD of APP is required for APP cis-/trans-directed dimerization and APP synaptogenic function. Thus, neuronal activity or disease-associated changes in copper homeostasis likely go along with altered APP synaptic function. PMID:25122912

  2. Experimental Consequences of Mottness in High-Temperature Copper-Oxide Superconductors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakraborty, Shiladitya

    2009-01-01

    It has been more than two decades since the copper-oxide high temperature superconductors were discovered. However, building a satisfactory theoretical framework to study these compounds still remains one of the major challenges in condensed matter physics. In addition to the mechanism of superconductivity, understanding the properties of the…

  3. Copper modified austenitic stainless steel alloys with improved high temperature creep resistance

    DOEpatents

    Swindeman, R.W.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1987-04-28

    An improved austenitic stainless steel that incorporates copper into a base Fe-Ni-Cr alloy having minor alloying substituents of Mo, Mn, Si, T, Nb, V, C, N, P, B which exhibits significant improvement in high temperature creep resistance over previous steels. 3 figs.

  4. High Temperature Flue Gas Desulfurization In Moving Beds With Regenerable Copper Based Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Cengiz, P.A.; Ho, K.K.; Abbasian, J.; Lau, F.S.

    2002-09-20

    The objective of this study was to develop new and improved regenerable copper based sorbent for high temperature flue gas desulfurization in a moving bed application. The targeted areas of sorbent improvement included higher effective capacity, strength and long-term durability for improved process control and economic utilization of the sorbent.

  5. Combinatorial phenotypic screen uncovers unrecognized family of extended thiourea inhibitors with copper-dependent anti-staphylococcal activity.

    PubMed

    Dalecki, Alex G; Malalasekera, Aruni P; Schaaf, Kaitlyn; Kutsch, Olaf; Bossmann, Stefan H; Wolschendorf, Frank

    2016-04-01

    The continuous rise of multi-drug resistant pathogenic bacteria has become a significant challenge for the health care system. In particular, novel drugs to treat infections of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (MRSA) are needed, but traditional drug discovery campaigns have largely failed to deliver clinically suitable antibiotics. More than simply new drugs, new drug discovery approaches are needed to combat bacterial resistance. The recently described phenomenon of copper-dependent inhibitors has galvanized research exploring the use of metal-coordinating molecules to harness copper's natural antibacterial properties for therapeutic purposes. Here, we describe the results of the first concerted screening effort to identify copper-dependent inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus. A standard library of 10 000 compounds was assayed for anti-staphylococcal activity, with hits defined as those compounds with a strict copper-dependent inhibitory activity. A total of 53 copper-dependent hit molecules were uncovered, similar to the copper independent hit rate of a traditionally executed campaign conducted in parallel on the same library. Most prominent was a hit family with an extended thiourea core structure, termed the NNSN motif. This motif resulted in copper-dependent and copper-specific S. aureus inhibition, while simultaneously being well tolerated by eukaryotic cells. Importantly, we could demonstrate that copper binding by the NNSN motif is highly unusual and likely responsible for the promising biological qualities of these compounds. A subsequent chemoinformatic meta-analysis of the ChEMBL chemical database confirmed the NNSNs as an unrecognized staphylococcal inhibitor, despite the family's presence in many chemical screening libraries. Thus, our copper-biased screen has proven able to discover inhibitors within previously screened libraries, offering a mechanism to reinvigorate exhausted molecular collections. PMID:26935206

  6. Effects of Phase Lags on Three-Dimensional Wave Propagation with Temperature-Dependent Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalkal, Kapil Kumar; Deswal, Sunita

    2014-05-01

    A three-dimensional model of equations for a homogeneous and isotropic medium with temperature-dependent mechanical properties is established under the purview of two-phase-lag thermoelasticity theory. The modulus of elasticity is taken as a linear function of the reference temperature. The resulting non-dimensional coupled equations are applied to a specific problem of a half-space whose surface is traction-free and is subjected to a time-dependent thermal shock. The analytical expressions for the displacement component, stress, temperature field, and strain are obtained in the physical domain by employing normal mode analysis. These expressions are also calculated numerically for a copper-like material and depicted graphically. Discussions have been made to highlight the joint effects of the temperature-dependent modulus of elasticity and time on these physical fields. The phenomenon of a finite speed of propagation is observed graphically for each field.

  7. Oxidative cleavage of cellulose by fungal copper-dependent polysaccharide monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Beeson, William T; Phillips, Christopher M; Cate, Jamie H D; Marletta, Michael A

    2012-01-18

    Fungal-derived, copper-dependent polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs), formerly known as GH61 proteins, have recently been shown to catalyze the O(2)-dependent oxidative cleavage of recalcitrant polysaccharides. Different PMOs isolated from Neurospora crassa were found to generate oxidized cellodextrins modified at the reducing or nonreducing ends upon incubation with cellulose and cellobiose dehydrogenase. Here we show that the nonreducing end product formed by an N. crassa PMO is a 4-ketoaldose. Together with isotope labeling experiments, further support is provided for a mechanism involving oxygen insertion and subsequent elimination to break glycosidic bonds in crystalline cellulose. PMID:22188218

  8. Expeditious low-temperature sintering of copper nanoparticles with thin defective carbon shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Changkyu; Lee, Gyoungja; Rhee, Changkyu; Lee, Minku

    2015-04-01

    The realization of air-stable nanoparticles, well-formulated nanoinks, and conductive patterns based on copper is a great challenge in low-cost and large-area flexible printed electronics. This work reports the synthesis of a conductively interconnected copper structure via thermal sintering of copper inks at a low temperature for a short period of time, with the help of thin defective carbon shells coated onto the copper nanoparticles. Air-stable copper/carbon core/shell nanoparticles (typical size ~23 nm, shell thickness ~1.0 nm) are prepared by means of an electric explosion of wires. Gaseous oxidation of the carbon shells with a defective structure occurs at 180 °C, impacting the choice of organic solvents as well as the sintering conditions to create a crucial neck formation. Isothermal oxidation and reduction treatment at 200 °C for only about 10 min yields an oxide-free copper network structure with an electrical resistivity of 25.1 μΩ cm (14.0 μΩ cm at 250 °C). Finally, conductive copper line patterns are achieved down to a 50 μm width with an excellent printing resolution (standard deviation ~4.0%) onto a polyimide substrate using screen printing of the optimized inks.The realization of air-stable nanoparticles, well-formulated nanoinks, and conductive patterns based on copper is a great challenge in low-cost and large-area flexible printed electronics. This work reports the synthesis of a conductively interconnected copper structure via thermal sintering of copper inks at a low temperature for a short period of time, with the help of thin defective carbon shells coated onto the copper nanoparticles. Air-stable copper/carbon core/shell nanoparticles (typical size ~23 nm, shell thickness ~1.0 nm) are prepared by means of an electric explosion of wires. Gaseous oxidation of the carbon shells with a defective structure occurs at 180 °C, impacting the choice of organic solvents as well as the sintering conditions to create a crucial neck formation

  9. Concept for a high-resolution thermometer utilizing the temperature dependence of the magnetic penetration depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirron, P. J.; Dipirro, M. J.

    1993-03-01

    A thermometer using the temperature dependence of the magnetic penetration depth in superconductors is described which has the potential for temperature resolution, when using a dc SQUID readout, on the order of 1 pK. One such device has been fabricated and characterized to demonstrate proof of concept. It consists of primary and secondary coils of NbTi wire wound on a copper toroidal core on which a thin layer of In (Tc = 3.4 K) has been deposited. The temperature dependence of the mutual inductance, M(T), or self-inductance, is used to detect changes in temperature. Measurements of M(T) have been made with an ac excitation of the primary for various frequencies and peak magnetic field strengths. Estimates of ultimate temperature resolution are given.

  10. Concept for a high-resolution thermometer utilizing the temperature dependence of the magnetic penetration depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, P. J.; Dipirro, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    A thermometer using the temperature dependence of the magnetic penetration depth in superconductors is described which has the potential for temperature resolution, when using a dc SQUID readout, on the order of 1 pK. One such device has been fabricated and characterized to demonstrate proof of concept. It consists of primary and secondary coils of NbTi wire wound on a copper toroidal core on which a thin layer of In (Tc = 3.4 K) has been deposited. The temperature dependence of the mutual inductance, M(T), or self-inductance, is used to detect changes in temperature. Measurements of M(T) have been made with an ac excitation of the primary for various frequencies and peak magnetic field strengths. Estimates of ultimate temperature resolution are given.

  11. Luminescence properties of potassium aluminoborate glasses with copper(I) ions at cryogenic temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babkina, A. N.; Sidorov, A. I.; Shirshnev, P. S.

    2014-04-01

    Luminescence spectra of potassium aluminoborate glasses with copper(I) ions have been recorded in the temperature range from +20 to -196°C. It is shown that a decrease in the glass temperature gives rise to thermochromic luminescence, which manifests itself as a red shift of the luminescence band, a value of which reaches 95 nm. This spectral shift is accompanied by a decrease in the luminescence-band amplitude by 30%.

  12. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Crystallographic Orientation Dependence of Nanoscratching of Single Crystalline Copper.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yanquan; Zhang, Junjie; Yan, Yongda; Yu, Bowen; Geng, Lin; Sun, Tao

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, we perform experiments and molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate the underlying deformation mechanisms of single crystalline copper under the load-controlled multi-passes nanoscratching using a triangular pyramidal probe. The correlation of microscopic deformation behavior of the material with macroscopically-observed machining results is revealed. Moreover, the influence of crystallographic orientation on the nanoscratching of single crystalline copper is examined. Our simulation results indicate that the plastic deformation of single crystalline Cu under the nanoscratching is exclusively governed by dislocation mechanisms. However, there is no glissile dislocation structure formed due to the probe oscillation under the load-controlled mode. Both experiments and MD simulations demonstrate that the machined surface morphologies in terms of groove depth and surface pile-up exhibit strong crystallographic orientation dependence, because of different geometries of activated slip planes cutting with free surfaces and strain hardening abilities associated with different crystallographic orientations. PMID:26147506

  13. Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of Crystallographic Orientation Dependence of Nanoscratching of Single Crystalline Copper

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Yanquan; Zhang, Junjie; Yan, Yongda; Yu, Bowen; Geng, Lin; Sun, Tao

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, we perform experiments and molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate the underlying deformation mechanisms of single crystalline copper under the load-controlled multi-passes nanoscratching using a triangular pyramidal probe. The correlation of microscopic deformation behavior of the material with macroscopically-observed machining results is revealed. Moreover, the influence of crystallographic orientation on the nanoscratching of single crystalline copper is examined. Our simulation results indicate that the plastic deformation of single crystalline Cu under the nanoscratching is exclusively governed by dislocation mechanisms. However, there is no glissile dislocation structure formed due to the probe oscillation under the load-controlled mode. Both experiments and MD simulations demonstrate that the machined surface morphologies in terms of groove depth and surface pile-up exhibit strong crystallographic orientation dependence, because of different geometries of activated slip planes cutting with free surfaces and strain hardening abilities associated with different crystallographic orientations. PMID:26147506

  14. The gene ICS3 from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is involved in copper homeostasis dependent on extracellular pH.

    PubMed

    Alesso, C A; Discola, K F; Monteiro, G

    2015-09-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, many genes are involved in the uptake, transport, storage and detoxification of copper. Large scale studies have noted that deletion of the gene ICS3 increases sensitivity to copper, Sortin 2 and acid exposure. Here, we report a study on the Δics3 strain, in which ICS3 is related to copper homeostasis, affecting the intracellular accumulation of this metal. This strain is sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and copper exposure, but not to other tested transition metals. At pH 6.0, the Δics3 strain accumulates a larger amount of intracellular copper than the wild-type strain, explaining the sensitivity to oxidants in this condition. Unexpectedly, sensitivity to copper exposure only occurs in acidic conditions. This can be explained by the fact that the exposure of Δics3 cells to high copper concentrations at pH 4.0 results in over-accumulation of copper and iron. Moreover, the expression of ICS3 increases in acidic pH, and this is correlated with CCC2 gene expression, since both genes are regulated by Rim101 from the pH regulon. CCC2 is also upregulated in Δics3 in acidic pH. Together, these data indicate that ICS3 is involved in copper homeostasis and is dependent on extracellular pH. PMID:26127016

  15. High temperature tension-compression fatigue behavior of a tungsten copper composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verrilli, Michael J.; Gabb, Timothy P.

    1990-01-01

    The high temperature fatigue of a (O)12 tungsten fiber reinforced copper matrix composite was investigated. Specimens having fiber volume percentages of 10 and 36 were fatigued under fully-reversed, strain-controlled conditions at both 260 and 560 C. The fatigue life was found to be independent of fiber volume fraction because fatigue damage preferentially occurred in the matrix. Also, the composite fatigue lives were shorter at 560 C as compared to 260 C due to changes in mode of matrix failure. On a total strain basis, the fatigue life of the composite at 560 C was the same as the life of unreinforced copper, indicating that the presence of the fibers did not degrade the fatigue resistance of the copper matrix in this composite system. Comparison of strain-controlled fatigue data to previously-generated load-controlled data revealed that the strain-controlled fatigue lives were longer because of mean strain and mean stress effects.

  16. High-temperature interface superconductivity between metallic and insulating copper oxides.

    PubMed

    Gozar, A; Logvenov, G; Kourkoutis, L Fitting; Bollinger, A T; Giannuzzi, L A; Muller, D A; Bozovic, I

    2008-10-01

    The realization of high-transition-temperature (high-T(c)) superconductivity confined to nanometre-sized interfaces has been a long-standing goal because of potential applications and the opportunity to study quantum phenomena in reduced dimensions. This has been, however, a challenging target: in conventional metals, the high electron density restricts interface effects (such as carrier depletion or accumulation) to a region much narrower than the coherence length, which is the scale necessary for superconductivity to occur. By contrast, in copper oxides the carrier density is low whereas T(c) is high and the coherence length very short, which provides an opportunity-but at a price: the interface must be atomically perfect. Here we report superconductivity in bilayers consisting of an insulator (La(2)CuO(4)) and a metal (La(1.55)Sr(0.45)CuO(4)), neither of which is superconducting in isolation. In these bilayers, T(c) is either approximately 15 K or approximately 30 K, depending on the layering sequence. This highly robust phenomenon is confined within 2-3 nm of the interface. If such a bilayer is exposed to ozone, T(c) exceeds 50 K, and this enhanced superconductivity is also shown to originate from an interface layer about 1-2 unit cells thick. Enhancement of T(c) in bilayer systems was observed previously but the essential role of the interface was not recognized at the time. PMID:18843365

  17. Barrier Integrity of Electroless Diffusion Barriers and Organosilane Monolayer against Copper Diffusion under Bias Temperature Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsumori, Akiyoshi; Fujishima, Shota; Ueno, Kazuyoshi

    2012-05-01

    Barrier integrity of electroless NiB and CoWP/NiB thin layers against copper (Cu) diffusion was evaluated by time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) under bias temperature stress (BTS) using metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) test structures. The BTS tests were carried out also for an approximately 2.2-nm-thick organosilane monolayer (OSML), which has been used as the underlayer of the electroless barrier layers (EBLs). It was found that the barrier integrity of the EBLs was NiB 40 nm > NiB 10 nm > CoWP/NiB 40 nm = CoWP/NiB 10 nm in this order. The field acceleration parameter of the TDDB lifetime was almost the same for all EBLs. Initial failures and wide lifetime distributions were observed for CoWP/NiB when the NiB catalyst layer for CoWP was not thick enough, which is considered to be due to the large surface roughness. In addition, the OSML was found to have some barrier properties. Although the reliability of OSML was inferior to electroless NiB and CoWP/NiB barrier layers, it is considered that the barrier integrity of the EBLs was partially supported by the OSML.

  18. GRCop-84: A High-Temperature Copper Alloy for High-Heat-Flux Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.

    2005-01-01

    GRCop-84 (Cu-8 at.% Cr-4 at.% Nb) is a new high-temperature copper-based alloy. It possesses excellent high-temperature strength, creep resistance and low-cycle fatigue up to 700 C (1292 F) along with low thermal expansion and good conductivity. GRCop-84 can be processed and joined by a variety of methods such as extrusion, rolling, bending, stamping, brazing, friction stir welding, and electron beam welding. Considerable mechanical property data has been generated for as-produced material and following simulated braze cycles. The data shows that the alloy is extremely stable during thermal exposures. This paper reviews the major GRCop-84 mechanical and thermophysical properties and compares them to literature values for a variety of other high-temperature copper-based alloys.

  19. Enhanced copper micro/nano-particle mixed paste sintered at low temperature for 3D interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Y. Y.; Ng, M. Z.; Anantha, P.; Lin, Y. D.; Li, Z. G.; Gan, C. L.; Tan, C. S.

    2016-06-01

    An enhanced copper paste, formulated by copper micro- and nano-particles mixture, is reported to prevent paste cracking and obtain an improved packing density. The particle mixture of two different sizes enables reduction in porosity of the micro-paste and resolves the cracking issue in the nano-paste. In-situ temperature and resistance measurements indicate that the mixed paste has a lower densification temperature. Electrical study also shows a ˜12× lower sheet resistance of 0.27 Ω/sq. In addition, scanning electron microscope image analysis confirms a ˜50% lower porosity, which is consistent with the thermal and electrical results. The 3:1 (micro:nano, wt. %) mixed paste is found to have the strongest synergistic effect. This phenomenon is discussed further. Consequently, the mixed paste is a promising material for potential low temperature 3D interconnects fabrication.

  20. Crystallization from high temperature solutions of Si in copper

    DOEpatents

    Ciszek, Theodore F.

    1994-01-01

    A liquid phase epitaxy method for forming thin crystalline layers of device quality silicon having less than 5X10.sup.16 Cu atoms/cc impurity, comprising: preparing a saturated liquid solution melt of Si in Cu at about 16% to about 90% wt. Si at a temperature range of about 800.degree. C. to about 1400.degree. C. in an inert gas; immersing a substrate in the saturated solution melt; supersaturating the solution by lowering the temperature of the saturated solution melt and holding the substrate immersed in the solution melt for a period of time sufficient to cause growing Si to precipitate out of the solution to form a crystalline layer of Si on the substrate; and withdrawing the substrate from the solution.

  1. Competing ferromagnetism in high-temperature copper oxide superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Angela; Ghosal, Amit; Chakravarty, Sudip

    2007-01-01

    The extreme variability of observables across the phase diagram of the cuprate high-temperature superconductors has remained a profound mystery, with no convincing explanation for the superconducting dome. Although much attention has been paid to the underdoped regime of the hole-doped cuprates because of its proximity to a complex Mott insulating phase, little attention has been paid to the overdoped regime. Experiments are beginning to reveal that the phenomenology of the overdoped regime is just as puzzling. For example, the electrons appear to form a Landau Fermi liquid, but this interpretation is problematic; any trace of Mott phenomena, as signified by incommensurate antiferromagnetic fluctuations, is absent, and the uniform spin susceptibility shows a ferromagnetic upturn. Here, we show and justify that many of these puzzles can be resolved if we assume that competing ferromagnetic fluctuations are simultaneously present with superconductivity, and the termination of the superconducting dome in the overdoped regime marks a quantum critical point beyond which there should be a genuine ferromagnetic phase at zero temperature. We propose experiments and make predictions to test our theory and suggest that an effort must be mounted to elucidate the nature of the overdoped regime, if the problem of high-temperature superconductivity is to be solved. Our approach places competing order as the root of the complexity of the cuprate phase diagram. PMID:17404239

  2. Copper Binding Depending on Source and Chemical Quality of DOM in the Colorado Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, C. N.; McKnight, D. M.; Miller, M. P.

    2007-12-01

    In alpine and sub-alpine lakes and the Colorado Front Range, the source, concentration and quality of the dissolved organic material (DOM) changes during the spring snowmelt and summer period because of decreasing rates of mountain run-off and increasing algal growth in the lakes. We examined seasonal changes in copper binding properties of DOM in an alpine lake (Green Lake 4) and a subalpine lake (Lake Albion) in Green Lakes Valley by conducting potentiometric titrations of lake water using a cupric ion selective electrode. Depending on the copper-binding characteristics of the DOM, the concentration of bioavailable cupric ion (Cu2+) and other metal ions may be below the toxicity threshold for aquatic biota. The seasonal DOC trend showed the expected decrease throughout the summer months because of the decrease in streamflow and decreasing source of terrestrial DOM. Lake Albion had a greater DOC concentration because of the more extensive surrounding vegetation at the lower elevation. DOM from Green Lake 4 was found to have more Cu binding capacity than DOM from Lake Albion, due to the different quality of DOM. The lesser copper- binding capacity in the summer in both lakes was associated with the decrease in DOC and relative stable level of fulvic acid percentage. The changes in metal binding capacity may also be related to changes in source of DOM and UV induced photodegradation. These data indicate that the seasonal DOM source changes may influence metal binding properties in an ecologically relevant manner.

  3. Temperature Dependence of Photosynthesis in Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Downton, Joy; Slatyer, R. O.

    1972-01-01

    Cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum L., var. Deltapine Smooth Leaf) were grown under controlled environmental conditions over a range of day/night temperatures from 20/15 to 40/35 C. Their photosynthetic characteristics were then measured over a comparable temperature range. Net photosynthesis tended stongly to be greatest, and intracellular resistance to CO2 transport to be lowest, when the measurement temperature corresponded to the daytime growth temperature, suggesting pronounced acclimation of the plants to the growth temperature. The preferred growth temperature was close to the 25/20 C regime, since net photosynthesis of these plants, regardless of measurement temperature, was higher and intracellular resistance lower, than in plants from any other regime. Ribulose diphosphate carboxylase activity per unit leaf area was highest in plants grown at 25/20 C, but did not show pronounced changes with growth temperature. Glycolate oxidase activity decreased and NADH-malate dehydrogenase activity tended to increase with increasing growth temperature. In contrast, changes in carbonic anhydrase activity with growth temperature showed a general similarity to changes in photosynthetic rate. This may suggest that the “chemical resistance” component of the intracellular resistance bears a relationship to the amount of carbonic anhydrase in the leaf. PMID:16658208

  4. Toxicity of two fungicides in Daphnia: is it always temperature-dependent?

    PubMed

    Cuco, Ana P; Abrantes, Nelson; Gonçalves, Fernando; Wolinska, Justyna; Castro, Bruno B

    2016-09-01

    The joint effect of increasing temperature and pollution on aquatic organisms is important to understand and predict, as a combination of stressors might be more noxious when compared to their individual effects. Our goal was to determine the sensitivity of a model organism (Daphnia spp.) to contaminants at increasing temperatures, allowing prior acclimation of the organisms to the different temperatures. Prior to exposure, two Daphnia genotypes (Daphnia longispina species complex) were acclimated to three temperatures (17, 20, and 23 °C). Afterwards, a crossed design was established using different exposure temperatures and a range of concentrations of two common fungicides (tebuconazole and copper). Daphnia life history parameters were analysed in each temperature × toxicant combination for 21 days. Temperature was the most influencing factor: Daphnia reproduced later and had lower fecundity at 17 °C than at 20 and 23 °C. Both copper and tebuconazole also significantly reduced the fecundity and survival of Daphnia at environmentally-relevant concentrations. Temperature-dependence was found for both toxicants, but the response pattern was endpoint- and genotype-specific. The combination of contaminant and high temperature often had severe effects on survival. However, unlike some literature on the subject, our results do not support the theory that increasing temperatures consistently foment increasing reproductive toxicity. The absence of a clear temperature-dependent toxicity pattern may result from the previous acclimation to the temperature regime. However, a proper framework is lacking to compare such studies and to avoid misleading conclusions for climate change scenarios. PMID:27381036

  5. The influence of copper precipitation and plastic deformation hardening on the impact-transition temperature of rolled structural steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aróztegui, Juan J.; Urcola, José J.; Fuentes, Manuel

    1989-09-01

    Commercial electric arc melted low-carbon steels, provided as I beams, were characterized both microstructurally and mechanically in the as-rolled, copper precipitation, and plastically pre-deformed conditions. Inclusion size distribution, ferrite grain size, pearlite volume fraction, precipitated volume fraction of copper, and size distribution of these precipitates were deter-mined by conventional quantitative optical and electron metallographic techniques. From the tensile tests conducted at a strain rate of 10-3 s-1 and impact Charpy V-notched tests carried out, stress/strain curves, yield stress, and impact-transition temperature were obtained. The spe-cific fractographic features of the fracture surfaces also were quantitatively characterized. The increases in yield stress and transition temperature experienced upon either aging or work hard-ening were related through empirical relationships. These dependences were analyzed semi-quantitatively by combining microscopic and macroscopic fracture criteria based on measured fundamental properties (fracture stress and yield stress) and observed fractographic parameters (crack nucleation distance and nuclei size). The rationale developed from these fracture criteria allows the semiquantitative prediction of the temperature transition shifts produced upon aging and work hardening. The values obtained are of the right order of magnitude.

  6. The CTR/COPT-dependent copper uptake and SPL7-dependent copper deficiency responses are required for basal cadmium tolerance in A. thaliana.

    PubMed

    Gayomba, Sheena R; Jung, Ha-il; Yan, Jiapei; Danku, John; Rutzke, Michael A; Bernal, Maria; Krämer, Ute; Kochian, Leon V; Salt, David E; Vatamaniuk, Olena K

    2013-09-01

    Copper (Cu) homeostasis in plants is maintained by at least two mechanisms: (1) the miRNA-dependent reallocation of intracellular Cu among major Cu-enzymes and important energy-related functions; (2) the regulation of the expression of Cu transporters including members of the CTR/COPT family. These events are controlled by the transcription factor SPL7 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Cadmium (Cd), on the other hand, is a non-essential and a highly toxic metal that interferes with homeostasis of essential elements by competing for cellular binding sites. Whether Cd affects Cu homeostasis in plants is unknown. We found that Cd stimulates Cu accumulation in roots of A. thaliana and increases mRNA expression of three plasma membrane-localized Cu uptake transporters, COPT1, COPT2 and COPT6. Further analysis of Cd sensitivity of single and triple copt1copt2copt6 mutants, and transgenic plants ectopically expressing COPT6 suggested that Cu uptake is an essential component of Cd resistance in A. thaliana. Analysis of the contribution of the SPL7-dependent pathway to Cd-induced expression of COPT1, COPT2 and COPT6 showed that it occurs, in part, through mimicking the SPL7-dependent transcriptional Cu deficiency response. This response also involves components of the Cu reallocation system, miRNA398, FSD1, CSD1 and CSD2. Furthermore, seedlings of the spl7-1 mutant accumulate up to 2-fold less Cu in roots than the wild-type, are hypersensitive to Cd, and are more sensitive to Cd than the triple copt1copt2copt6 mutant. Together these data show that exposure to excess Cd triggers SPL7-dependent Cu deficiency responses that include Cu uptake and reallocation that are required for basal Cd tolerance in A. thaliana. PMID:23835944

  7. ACE1, a copper-dependent transcription factor, activates expression of the yeast copper, zinc superoxide dismutase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Gralla, E B; Thiele, D J; Silar, P; Valentine, J S

    1991-01-01

    Copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1 gene product) (superoxide:superoxide oxidoreductase, EC 1.15.1.1) is a copper-containing enzyme that functions to prevent oxygen toxicity. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, copper levels exert some control over the level of SOD1 expression. We show that the ACE1 transcriptional activator protein, which is responsible for the induction of yeast metallothionein (CUP1) in response to copper, also controls the SOD1 response to copper. A single binding site for ACE1 is present in the SOD1 promoter region, as demonstrated by DNase I protection and methylation interference experiments, and is highly homologous to a high-affinity ACE1 binding site in the CUP1 promoter. The functional importance of this DNA-protein interaction is demonstrated by the facts that (i) copper induction of SOD1 mRNA does not occur in a strain lacking ACE1 and (ii) it does not occur in a strain containing a genetically engineered SOD1 promoter that lacks a functional ACE1 binding site. Images PMID:1924315

  8. Support- dependent evolution of oxidation state and nanoassembly formation of subnanometer copper clusters under carbon dioxide conversion conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halder, Avik; Yang, Bing; Kolipaka, Karthika L.; Pellin, Michael; Seifert, Soenke; Vajda, Stefan; Materials Science Division Team

    Size- and support- dependence of the properties of copper clusters have been investigated during carbon dioxide conversion with hydrogen at high reactant concentrations and atmospheric pressure. The model catalyst systems were prepared by depositing size-selected Cun clusters (n = 3, 4, 12 and 20) on various amorphous metal oxide (Al2O3, ZnO, and ZrO2) , and carbon-based (UNCD = ultrananocrystaline diamond) supports. During the temperature ramp, the evolution of the chemical state and size of the particles were characterized by in situ grazing incidence X-ray absorption near edge structure (GIXANES), and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) respectively. Under reaction conditions the initially oxidized Cu clusters reduced at various temperatures depending on cluster size and support. Clusters supported on ZnO and UNCD were found to be sinter-resistant under reactive gases at elevated temperatures and atmospheric pressures, whereas on ZrO2 support the clusters formed stable aggregates. Clusters on Al2O3 support demonstrated unique properties, where a formation of a nanostructure was observed during heating, which then disintegrated during the cool down. Under applied conditions, Cu4 clusters on Al2O3 were found to be the most efficient in methanol formation.

  9. Prooxidant action of knipholone anthrone: copper dependent reactive oxygen species generation and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Habtemariam, S; Dagne, E

    2009-07-01

    Knipholone (KP) and knipholone anthrone (KA) are natural 4-phenylanthraquinone structural analogues with established differential biological activities including in vitro antioxidant and cytotoxic properties. By using DNA damage as an experimental model, the comparative Cu(II)-dependent prooxidant action of these two compounds were studied. In the presence of Cu(II) ions, the antioxidant KA (3.1-200 microM) but not KP (6-384 microM) caused a concentration-dependent pBR322 plasmid DNA strand scission. The DNA damage induced by KA could be abolished by reactive oxygen species scavengers, glutathione and catalase as well as EDTA and a specific Cu(I) chelator bathocuproine disulfonic acid. In addition to Cu(II) chelating activity, KA readily reduces Cu(II) to Cu(I). Copper-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species and the subsequent macromolecular damage may be involved in the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of KA. PMID:19345716

  10. Temperature Dependence Of Single-Event Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coss, James R.; Nichols, Donald K.; Smith, Lawrence S.; Huebner, Mark A.; Soli, George A.

    1990-01-01

    Report describes experimental study of effects of temperature on vulnerability of integrated-circuit memories and other electronic logic devices to single-event effects - spurious bit flips or latch-up in logic state caused by impacts of energetic ions. Involved analysis of data on 14 different device types. In most cases examined, vulnerability to these effects increased or remain constant with temperature.

  11. High temperature, low-cycle fatigue of copper-base alloys in argon. Part 1: Preliminary results for 12 alloys at 1000 F (538 C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, J. B.; Stentz, R. H.; Berling, J. T.

    1973-01-01

    Short-term tensile evaluations at room temperature and 538 C and low-cycle fatigue evaluations at 538 C are presented for the following materials: Zirconium copper-annealed, Zirconium copper-1/4 hard, Zirconium copper-1/2 hard, Tellurium copper-1/2 hard, Chromium copper-SA and aged, OFHC copper-hard, OFHC copper-1/4 hard, OFHC copper-annealed, Silver-as drawn, Zr-Cr-Mg copper-SA, CW and aged, Electroformed copper-30-35 ksi, and Co-Be-Zr- copper-SA, aged. A total of 50 tensile tests and 76 low-cycle fatigue tests were performed using a strain rate of 0.2 percent per second.

  12. The effects of salinity and temperature on phase transformation of copper-laden sludge.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ching-Hong; Shih, Kaimin; Hu, Ching-Yao; Lo, Shang-Lien; Li, Nien-Hsun; Cheng, Yi-Ting

    2013-01-15

    To stabilize the copper and aluminum ions in simulated sludge, a series of sintering processes were conducted to transform Cu/Al precipitation into spinel structure, CuAl(2)O(4). The results indicated that the large amount of salt content in the simulated sludge would hinder the formation of crystalline CuAl(2)O(4) generated from the incorporation of CuO and Al(2)O(3), even after the sintering process at 1200 °C. Opposite to the amorphous CuAl(2)O(4), the crystalline CuAl(2)O(4) can be formed in the sintering process at 700-1100 °C for 3 h with the desalinating procedure. According to the theory of free energy, the experimental data and references, the best formation temperature of CuAl(2)O(4) was determined at 900-1000 °C. As the temperature rose to 1200 °C, CuAlO(2) was formed with the dissociation of CuAl(2)O(4). The XPS analysis also showed that the binding energy of copper species in the simulated sludge was switched from 933.8 eV for Cu(II) to 932.8 eV for Cu(I) with the variation of temperature. In this system, the leaching concentration of copper and aluminum ions from sintered simulated sludge was decreased with ascending temperature and reached the lowest level at 1000 °C. Furthermore, the descending tendency coincided with the formation tendency of spinel structure and the diminishing of copper oxide. PMID:23177249

  13. Copper toxicity towards Saccharomyces cerevisiae: dependence on plasma membrane fatty acid composition.

    PubMed Central

    Avery, S V; Howlett, N G; Radice, S

    1996-01-01

    One major mechanism of copper toxicity towards microorganisms is disruption of plasma membrane integrity. In this study, the influence of plasma membrane fatty acid composition on the susceptibility of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Cu2+ toxicity was investigated. Microbial fatty acid composition is highly variable, depending on both intrinsic and environmental factors. Manipulation was achieved in this study by growth in fatty acid-supplemented medium. Whereas cells grown under standard conditions contained only saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, considerable incorporation of the diunsaturated fatty acid linoleate (18:2) (to more than 65% of the total fatty acids) was observed in both whole-cell homogenates and plasma membrane-enriched fractions from cells grown in linoleate-supplemented medium. Linoleate enrichment had no discernible effect on the growth of S. cerevisiae. However, linoleate-enriched cells were markedly more susceptible to copper-induced plasma membrane permeabilization. Thus, after addition of Cu(NO3)2, rates of cellular K+ release (loss of membrane integrity) were at least twofold higher from linoleate-supplemented cells than from unsupplemented cells; this difference increased with reductions in the Cu2+ concentration supplied. Levels of cellular Cu accumulation were also higher in linoleate-supplemented cells. These results were correlated with a very marked dependence of whole-cell Cu2+ toxicity on cellular fatty acid unsaturation. For example, within 10 min of exposure to 5 microM Cu2+, only 3% of linoleate-enriched cells remained viable (capable of colony formation). In contrast, 100% viability was maintained in cells previously grown in the absence of a fatty acid supplement. Cells displaying intermediate levels of linoleate incorporation showed intermediate Cu2+ sensitivity, while cells enriched with the triunsaturated fatty acid linolenate (18:3) were most sensitive to Cu2+. These results demonstrate for the first time that changes

  14. Thermal emittance enhancement of graphite-copper composites for high temperature space based radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Forkapa, Mark J.; Cooper, Jill M.

    1991-01-01

    Graphite-copper composites are candidate materials for space based radiators. The thermal emittance of this material, however, is a factor of two lower than the desired emittance for these systems of greater than or equal to 0.85. Arc texturing was investigated as a surface modification technique for enhancing the emittance of the composite. Since the outer surface of the composite is copper, and samples of the composite could not be readily obtained for testing, copper was used for optimization testing. Samples were exposed to various frequencies and currents of arcs during texturing. Emittances near the desired goal were achieved at frequencies less than 500 Hz. Arc current did not appear to play a major role under 15 amps. Particulate carbon was observed on the surface, and was easily removed by vibration and handling. In order to determine morphology adherence, ultrasonic cleaning was used to remove the loosely adherent material. This reduced the emittance significantly. Emittance was found to increase with increasing frequency for the cleaned samples up to 500 Hz. The highest emittance achieved on these samples over the temperature range of interest was 0.5 to 0.6, which is approximately a factor of 25 increase over the untextured copper emittance.

  15. Temperature Dependence of Phonons in Pyrolitic Graphite

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Brockhouse, B. N.; Shirane, G.

    1977-01-01

    Dispersion curves for longitudinal and transverse phonons propagating along and near the c-axis in pyrolitic graphite at temperatures between 4°K and 1500°C have been measured by neutron spectroscopy. The observed frequencies decrease markedly with increasing temperature (except for the transverse optical ''rippling'' modes in the hexagonal planes). The neutron groups show interesting asymmetrical broadening ascribed to interference between one phonon and many phonon processes.

  16. GRCop-84: A High Temperature Copper-based Alloy For High Heat Flux Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.

    2005-01-01

    While designed for rocket engine main combustion chamber liners, GRCop-84 (Cu-8 at.% Cr-4 at.% Nb) offers potential for high heat flux applications in industrial applications requiring a temperature capability up to approximately 700 C (1292 F). GRCop-84 is a copper-based alloy with excellent elevated temperature strength, good creep resistance, long LCF lives and enhanced oxidation resistance. It also has a lower thermal expansion than copper and many other low alloy copper-based alloys. GRCop-84 can be manufactured into a variety of shapes such as tubing, bar, plate and sheet using standard production techniques and requires no special production techniques. GRCop-84 forms well, so conventional fabrication methods including stamping and bending can be used. GRCop-84 has demonstrated an ability to be friction stir welded, brazed, inertia welded, diffusion bonded and electron beam welded for joining to itself and other materials. Potential applications include plastic injection molds, resistance welding electrodes and holders, permanent metal casting molds, vacuum plasma spray nozzles and high temperature heat exchanger applications.

  17. The spall strength and Hugoniot elastic limit of mono-crystalline and polycrystalline copper near melting temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razorenov, S. V.; Zaretsky, E. B.; Savinykh, A. S.

    2014-05-01

    In present work, the Hugoniot elastic limit (HEL) and spall strength of polycrystalline commercial grade copper and single crystal copper of <100> and <111> orientations were determined for sample temperatures varying from 20 to 1081°C. The differently preheated samples whose thickness varied between 0.5 and 2 mm were shock-loaded by copper plates of 1-mm thickness accelerated up to 300-400 m/s velocity in the 58mm smooth bore gas gun, or by aluminium plates of 0.4 mm in thickness (~660 m/s), accelerated with explosive facilities. The velocity histories of the free rear surface of the loaded samples were recorded with VISAR laser velocimeter. The velocity histories of the samples of polycrystalline copper demonstrate 9-fold growth of the stress at HEL between room and melting temperatures. Unlike other metals commercial grade copper maintains very high spall strength near the melting point Tm; it is only twice as low as that of the copper at 0.85 Tm. The copper single crystals of both orientations also demonstrate substantial spall strength at 0.94 Tm (1000°C). At the same time, the increase of the stress at HEL with temperature in these samples is much weaker than that found for polycrystalline samples of copper.

  18. Pulse-width-dependent surface ablation of copper and silver by ultrashort laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayarny, Dmitry A.; Ionin, Andrey A.; Kudryashov, Sergey I.; Makarov, Sergey V.; Kuchmizhak, Alexander A.; Vitrik, Oleg B.; Kulchin, Yury N.

    2016-07-01

    The single-shot spallation thresholds for copper and silver surfaces demonstrate a considerable IR-laser (1030 nm) pulse-width dependent increase over a range of 0.2–12 ps for the former material and a very weak increase for the latter one, while the corresponding thresholds for visible (515 nm) laser pulses remain almost constant. The IR-laser increase of the ablation thresholds is related to two-photon interband (d–s) absorption in copper, contrasting with the linear absorption of visible laser pulses in this material. In silver, common weakly sublinear dependences on the laser pulsewidth were observed, ruling out possible multi-photon—either three(four)-photon in IR, or two-photon in the visible range—interband transitions in this material. Moreover, electron-lattice thermalization times of 1–2 ps were evaluated for these materials in the spallative ablation regime, contrasting strongly with the previously theoretically predicted multi-picosecond thermalization times.

  19. Numerical simulation of temperature field in horizontal core-filling continuous casting for copper cladding aluminum rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Ya-jun; Liu, Xin-hua; Wu, Yong-fu; Huang, Hai-you; Xie, Jian-xin

    2013-07-01

    The steady-state temperature field of horizontal core-filling continuous casting (HCFC) for producing copper cladding aluminum rods was simulated by finite element method to investigate the effects of key processing parameters on the positions of solid-liquid interfaces (SLIs) of copper and aluminum. It is found that mandrel tube length and mean withdrawing speed have significant effects on the SLI positions of both copper and aluminum. Aluminum casting temperature ( T Al) (1003-1123 K) and secondary cooling water flux (600-900 L·h-1) have little effect on the SLI of copper but cause the SLI of aluminum to move 2-4 mm. When T Al is in a range of 1043-1123 K, the liquid aluminum can fill continuously into the pre-solidified copper tube. Based on the numerical simulation, reasonable processing parameters were determined.

  20. Subneurotoxic copper(II)-induced NF-κB-dependent microglial activation is associated with mitochondrial ROS.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhuqin; Yu, Fengxiang; Gong, Ping; Qiu, Yu; Zhou, Wei; Cui, Yongyao; Li, Juan; Chen, Hongzhuan

    2014-04-15

    Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and the associated neuronal damage play critical roles in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Evidence shows an elevated concentration of extracellular copper(II) in the brains of these disorders, which may contribute to neuronal death through direct neurotoxicity. Here we explored whether extracellular copper(II) triggers microglial activation. Primary rat microglia and murine microglial cell line BV-2 cells were cultured and treated with copper(II). The content of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide in the medium was determined. Extracellular hydrogen peroxide was quantified by a fluorometric assay with Amplex Red. Mitochondrial superoxide was measured by MitoSOX oxidation. At subneurotoxic concentrations, copper(II) treatment induced a dose- and time-dependent release of TNF-α and nitric oxide from microglial cells, and caused an indirect, microglia-mediated neurotoxicity that was blocked by inhibition of TNF-α and nitric oxide production. Copper(II)-initiated microglial activation was accompanied with reduced IкB-α expression as well as phosphorylation and translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and was blocked by NF-κB inhibitors (BAY11-7082 and SC-514). Moreover, copper(II) treatment evoked a rapid release of hydrogen peroxide from microglial cells, an effect that was not affected by NADPH oxidase inhibitors. N-acetyl-cysteine, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), abrogated copper(II)-elicited microglial release of TNF-α and nitric oxide and subsequent neurotoxicity. Importantly, mitochondrial production of superoxide, paralleled to extracellular release of hydrogen peroxide, was induced after copper(II) stimulation. Our findings suggest that extracellular copper(II) at subneurotoxic concentrations could trigger NF-κB-dependent microglial activation and subsequent neurotoxicity. NADPH oxidase-independent, mitochondria-derived ROS may be involved in this activation. PMID

  1. Temperature dependence of electrical conductivity and lunar temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olhoeft, G. R.; Strangway, D. W.; Sharpe, H.; Frisillo, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    Metallic conduction mechanicsms are probably not important in lunar materials because of the small amounts of free metal and metallic oxides present. This is confirmed by the extremely low conductivities measured to date and the fact that the conductivity increases with temperature. The major conduction mechanicsm appears to be ionic. This conduction mechanism is very strongly controlled by temperature, by deviations from stoichiometry, by electric field strengths, and by oxygen fugacity.

  2. Temperature dependent electrical resistivity of liquid Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajapati, A. V.; Sonvane, Y. A.; Patel, H. P.; Thakor, P. B.

    2016-05-01

    The present paper deals with the effect of temperature variation on the electrical resistivity (ρ) of liquid Sn(Tin). We have used a new parameter free pseudopotential along with screening Taylor et al and Farid et al local field correction functions. The Percus-Yevick Hard Sphere (PYHS) reference system is used to describe structural information. Zeeman formula has been used for finding resistivity with the variation of temperature. The balanced harmonies between present data and experimental data have been achieved with a minimal deviation. So, we concluded that our newly constructed model potential is an effective one to produce the data of electrical resistivity of liquid Sn(Tin) as a function of temperature.

  3. Temperature dependence of free excitons in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, D. C.; Hoelscher, J.; Litton, C. W.; Collins, T. C.

    2002-11-01

    The excitons involved in this study are the longitudinal and the Gamma5 and Gamma6 free excitons, as well as the donor bound exciton (D0),X. The temperature dependence of the energy positions of the Gamma5, Gamma6, and (D0),X excitons are well accounted for by the Varshni equation (Y. P. Varshni, Physica (Amsterdam) 34, 149 (1967)). In the same temperature range, the energy positions of the longitudinal excitons depart from the predictions of the Varshni equation. The separation between the longitudinal- and transverse-mode free excitons has been previously reported. One component of this separation is the polarizability, which has a temperature dependence. The longitudinal exciton therefore has a band-gap temperature dependence, predicted by the Varshni equation, as well as an additional dependence due to polarizability. This temperature dependence has been accounted for by the Varshni equation, plus an additional linear and a quadratic temperature dependent term.

  4. Exploiting Innate Immune Cell Activation of a Copper-Dependent Antimicrobial Agent during Infection

    PubMed Central

    Festa, Richard A.; Helsel, Marian E.; Franz, Katherine J.; Thiele, Dennis J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Recalcitrant microbial infections demand new therapeutic options. Here we present an approach that exploits two prongs of the host immune cell antimicrobial response: the oxidative burst and the compartmentalization of copper (Cu) within phagolysosomes. The prochelator QBP is a nontoxic protected form of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) in which a pinanediol boronic ester blocks metal ion coordination by 8HQ. QBP is deprotected via reactive oxygen species produced by activated macrophages, creating 8HQ and eliciting Cu-dependent killing of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans in vitro and in mouse pulmonary infection. 8HQ ionophoric activity increases intracellular Cu, overwhelming the Cu-resistance mechanisms of C. neoformans to elicit fungal killing. The Cu-dependent antimicrobial activity of 8HQ against a spectrum of microbial pathogens suggests that this strategy may have broad utility. The conditional activation of Cu ionophores by innate immune cells intensifies the hostile antimicrobial environment and represents a promising approach to combat infectious disease. PMID:25088681

  5. Temperature Dependent Electrical Properties of PZT Wafer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, T.; Sen, S.; Seal, A.; Sen, A.

    2016-04-01

    The electrical and electromechanical properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) wafers were investigated and compared with PZT bulk. PZT wafers were prepared by tape casting technique. The transition temperature of both the PZT forms remained the same. The transition from an asymmetric to a symmetric shape was observed for PZT wafers at higher temperature. The piezoelectric coefficient (d 33) values obtained were 560 pc/N and 234 pc/N, and the electromechanical coupling coefficient (k p) values were 0.68 and 0.49 for bulk and wafer, respectively. The reduction in polarization after fatigue was only ~3% in case of PZT bulk and ~7% for PZT wafer.

  6. Evidence for Temperature-Dependent Electron Band Dispersion in Pentacene

    SciTech Connect

    Koch,N.; Vollmer, A.; Salzmann, I.; Nickel, B.; Weiss, H.; Rabe, J.

    2006-01-01

    Evidence for temperature-dependent electron band dispersion in a pentacene thin film polymorph on graphite is provided by angle- and energy-dependent ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The bands derived from the highest occupied molecular orbital exhibit dispersion of {approx}190 meV at room temperature, and {approx}240 meV at 120 K. Intermolecular electronic coupling in pentacene thin films is thus confirmed to be dependent on temperature and possibly crystal structure, as suggested by additional infrared absorption measurements.

  7. In situ oxidation study of copper, tin, and copper-tin intermetallics at low temperatures by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong-Ning

    The initial oxidation behavior of metallic copper, tin, and three single-phase Cu-Sn alloys (an alpha phase solid solution alloy, and the intermetallic compounds varepsilon-Cusb3Sn and eta-Cusb6Snsb5) has been investigated by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) at temperatures of 150sp°C, 200sp°C, and 350sp°C. The oxidation studies are performed in an XPS chamber with pure oxygen. Tin metal oxidizes to produce a combination of SnO and SnOsb2 at both 150sp°C and 200sp°C. The oxide layer consists mainly of SnO with a small fraction of SnOsb2 concentrated near the top of the surface. The oxide growth on tin metal follows a logarithmic law at 150sp°C and a parabolic law at 200sp°C. Copper metal oxidizes to Cusb2O at temperatures below 350sp°C. At 350sp°C, a graded structure of Cusb2O as the inner layer and CuO near the surface forms after 50 minutes. The copper growth kinetics follows the cubic law at all three temperatures, and the calculated activation energy of copper oxide growth is 61 kJ/mol. For all of the Cu-Sn alloys, the tin is preferentially oxidized at all temperatures; oxidation of the copper component in the two intermetallics (varepsilon-Cusb3Sn and eta-Cusb6Snsb5) is strongly suppressed. Copper oxidation is observed in the varepsilon phase oxidation only after 30 minutes at 350sp°C; no copper oxidation is seen in the eta-Cusb6Snsb5 phase under the time-temperature conditions studied. At all three temperatures, the oxide layer on the eta-Cusb6Snsb5 phase consists of the mixed tin oxides, similar to that observed for oxidation of tin metal. However, the SnOsb2/SnO ratio on the eta-Cusb6Snsb5 phase is higher than that on the tin metal. For the varepsilon-Cusb3Sn phase, at temperatures lower than 350sp°C, the oxide layer also consists of both of the tin oxides, with a higher SnOsb2/SnO ratio than the tin metal. At 350sp°C, after 30 minutes the copper component in the varepsilon phase starts to oxidize. As a result, the oxide layer changes from

  8. Temperature dependence of gramicidin channel conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hyundeok; Beck, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    The gramicidin channel is the smallest known biological ion channel, and it exhibits cation selectivity. Recently, Dr. John Cuppoletti's group at the University of Cincinnati has shown that the gramicidin channel can function at high temperatures with significant currents. This finding may have implications for fuel cell technologies. In order to explore the effect of temperature on channel conductance, we examined the gramicidin system at 300K, 330K, and 360K by computer simulation. Two forms of gramicidin, the head-to-head helical dimer and the intertwined double helix, were examined. Both the decrease of the free energy barrier and the increase of the diffusion of potassium ions inside the gramicidin channel at high temperatures imply an increase of current. We found that higher temperatures also affect the lifetime of hydrogen bonds, the distribution of the bending angle, the distribution of the distance between dimers, and the size of the pore radius for the helical dimer structure. These finding may be related to the gating of the gramicidin channel.

  9. Temperature dependence of soil water potential

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, A.M.O.; Yong, R.N. ); Cheung, S.C.H. )

    1992-12-01

    To understand the process of coupled heat and water transport, the relationship between temperature and soil water potential must be known. Two clays, Avonlea bentonite and Lake Agassiz clay, are being considered as the clay-based sealing materials for the Canadian nuclear fuel waste disposal vault. Avonlea bentonite is distinguished from Lake Agassiz clay by its high sealing potential in water. A series of experiments was performed in which the two clays were mixed with equal amounts of sand and were compacted to a dry density of 1.67 Mg/m[sup 3] under various moisture contents and temperatures. A psychrometer was placed within the compacted clay-sand to measure the soil water potential based on the electromotive force measured by the psychrometer. The results indicate that the soil water potential at a particular temperature is higher for both clay-sand mixtures than predicted by the change in the surface tension of water; this effect is much more prominent in the Avonlea bentonite and at low moisture contents. The paper presents empirical equations relating the soil water potential with the moisture content and temperature of the two clay-sand mixtures. 24 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. From quantum matter to high-temperature superconductivity in copper oxides.

    PubMed

    Keimer, B; Kivelson, S A; Norman, M R; Uchida, S; Zaanen, J

    2015-02-12

    The discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in the copper oxides in 1986 triggered a huge amount of innovative scientific inquiry. In the almost three decades since, much has been learned about the novel forms of quantum matter that are exhibited in these strongly correlated electron systems. A qualitative understanding of the nature of the superconducting state itself has been achieved. However, unresolved issues include the astonishing complexity of the phase diagram, the unprecedented prominence of various forms of collective fluctuations, and the simplicity and insensitivity to material details of the 'normal' state at elevated temperatures. PMID:25673411

  11. Reversible response to NO of copper phthalocyanine-based sensor at low temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Emelyanov, Yu.L.; Khatko, V.V.; Tomchenko, A.A.

    1996-12-31

    Recently, it have been reported that the NO{sub x} adsorption resulted in marked in the semiconducting properties of copper tetra-tert-butyl phthalocyanine Langmuir-Blodgett films (CuTTBPc LB films). However, the recovery time of these chemiresistors after NO{sub x} exposure was very long at room temperature. Because of this, the heating up to 150{degrees}C was needed for reasons of a reversibility. In the present paper, the authors report on the development of CuTTBPc-based sensor reversibly operating at low temperature (<50{degrees}C).

  12. Quasipermanent magnets of high temperature superconductor - Temperature dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, In-Gann; Liu, Jianxiong; Ren, Yanru; Weinstein, Roy; Kozlowski, Gregory; Oberly, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    We report on persistent field in quasi-permanent magnets of high temperature superconductors. Magnets composed of irradiated Y(1+)Ba2Cu3O7 trapped field Bt = 1.52 T at 77 K and 1.9 T at lower temperature. However, the activation magnet limited Bt at lower temperature. We present data on Jc(H,T) for unirradiated materials, and calculate Bt at various T. Based upon data at 65 K, we calculate Bt in unirradiated single grains at 20 K and find that 5.2 T will be trapped for grain diameter d about 1.2 cm, and 7.9 T for d = 2.3 cm. Irradiated grains will trap four times these values.

  13. Copper-dependent co-internalization of the prion protein and glypican-1.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fang; Lindqvist, Josefin; Haigh, Cathryn L; Brown, David R; Mani, Katrin

    2006-09-01

    Heparan sulfate chains have been found to be associated with amyloid deposits in a number of diseases including transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Diverse lines of evidence have linked proteoglycans and their glycosaminoglycan chains, and especially heparan sulfate, to the metabolism of the prion protein isoforms. Glypicans are a family of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored, heparan sulfate-containing, cell-associated proteoglycans. Cysteines in glypican-1 can become nitrosylated by endogenously produced nitric oxide. When glypican-1 is exposed to a reducing agent, such as ascorbate, nitric oxide is released and autocatalyses deaminative cleavage of heparan sulfate chains. These processes take place while glypican-1 recycles via a non-classical, caveolin-associated pathway. We have previously demonstrated that prion protein provides the Cu2+ ions required to nitrosylate thiol groups in the core protein of glypican-1. By using confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and immunomagnetic techniques, we now show that copper induces co-internalization of prion protein and glypican-1 from the cell surface to perinuclear compartments. We find that prion protein is controlling both the internalization of glypican-1 and its nitric oxide-dependent autoprocessing. Silencing glypican-1 expression has no effect on copper-stimulated prion protein endocytosis, but in cells expressing a prion protein construct lacking the copper binding domain internalization of glypican-1 is much reduced and autoprocessing is abrogated. We also demonstrate that heparan sulfate chains of glypican-1 are poorly degraded in prion null fibroblasts. The addition of either Cu2+ ions, nitric oxide donors, ascorbate or ectopic expression of prion protein restores heparan sulfate degradation. These results indicate that the interaction between glypican-1 and Cu2+-loaded prion protein is required both for co-internalization and glypican-1 self-pruning. PMID:16923158

  14. Temperature dependence of diffusion properties of soft sticky dipole water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ming-Liang; Brooks, Bernard R.; Ichiye, Toshiko

    2006-04-01

    The isobaric diffusivities for the soft sticky dipole water model between 230 and 330 K were studied in molecular dynamics simulations using Ewald summations for the long-range interactions. This simple single-point, angularly dependent model with parameters optimized at room temperature reproduces the experimental diffusion rates over a wide range of temperatures better than multi-point models. Its ability to reproduce the unusual temperature dependence of the diffusivities of supercooled water indicates the tetrahedral nature of water is important. Moreover, comparisons with other models indicate more tetrahedral potentials correlate with increasing the so-called Angell critical temperature and decreasing power of the temperature dependence.

  15. Equations of state, energy transport and two-temperature hydrodynamic simulations for femtosecond laser irradiated copper and gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migdal, K. P.; Il'nitsky, D. K.; Petrov, Yu V.; Inogamov, N. A.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, the model of thermodynamic and transport properties of copper and gold at electron-ion non-equilibrium state is presented. Accepted here ranges of electron temperature and pressure are enough to describe the experimentally achievable states. The changes in electron spectra due to electron heating and compression or expansion are taken into account using two-parabolic model. In our previous works, thermal conductivity and electron-ion coupling were considered as dependencies on electron and ion temperatures. Now the dependence on density for these coefficients is taken into account. To include exchange-correlation effects on electron-electron collisions we have found out how this effect can be included in electron screening. In addition, we have renewed our approach for heat conductivity calculation to include thermoelectric phenomena, which are significant at high electron temperatures. The effect of electron heating on sound velocities in aforementioned metals is investigated. The two-temperature hydrodynamics simulation of film expansion was provided with the use of the model presented here.

  16. Temperature dependent terahertz properties of energetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azad, Abul K.; Whitley, Von H.; Brown, Kathryn E.; Ahmed, Towfiq; Sorensen, Christian J.; Moore, David S.

    2016-04-01

    Reliable detection of energetic materials is still a formidable challenge which requires further investigation. The remote standoff detection of explosives using molecular fingerprints in the terahertz spectral range has been an evolving research area for the past two decades. Despite many efforts, identification of a particular explosive remains difficult as the spectral fingerprints often shift due to the working conditions of the sample such as temperature, crystal orientation, presence of binders, etc. In this work, we investigate the vibrational spectrum of energetic materials including RDX, PETN, AN, and 1,3-DNB diluted in a low loss PTFE host medium using terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) at cryogenic temperatures. The measured absorptions of these materials show spectral shifts of their characteristic peaks while changing their operating temperature from 300 to 7.5 K. We have developed a theoretical model based on first principles methods, which is able to predict most of the measured modes in 1, 3-DNB between 0.3 to 2.50 THz. These findings may further improve the security screening of explosives.

  17. Structural stability of super duplex stainless weld metals and its dependence on tungsten and copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, J.-O.; Huhtala, T.; Jonsson, P.; Karlsson, L.; Wilson, A.

    1996-08-01

    Three different superduplex stainless weld metals have been produced using manual metal arc welding under identical welding conditions. The concentration of the alloying elements tungsten and copper corresponded to the concentrations in commercial superduplex stainless steels (SDSS). Aging experiments in the temperature range 700 °C to 1110 °C showed that the formation of intermetallic phase was enhanced in tungsten-rich weld metal and also dissolved at higher temperatures compared with tungsten-poor and tungsten-free weld metals. It could be inferred from time-temperature-transformation (TTT) and continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagrams produced in the present investigation that the critical cooling rate to avoid 1 wt pct of intermetallic phase was 2 times faster for tungsten-rich weld metal. Microanalysis in combination with thermodynamic calculations showed that tungsten was accommodated in χ phase, thereby decreasing the free energy. Experimental evidence supports the view that the formation of intermetallic phase is enhanced in tungsten-rich weld metal, owing to easier nucleation of nonequilibrium χ phase compared with σ phase. The formation of secondary austenite (γ2) during welding was modeled using the thermodynamic computer program Thermo-Calc. Satisfactory agreement between theory and practice was obtained. Thermo-Calc was capable of predicting observed lower concentrations of chromium and nitrogen in γ2 compared with primary austenite. The volume fraction of γ2 was found to be significantly higher in tungsten-rich and tungsten + copper containing weld metal. The results could be explained by a higher driving force for precipitation of γ2 in these.

  18. Grain boundary sliding behaviour of copper and alpha brass at intermediate temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.

    1991-01-01

    The role of grain boundary sliding in copper and Cu-30 pct Zn in the temperature range 0.50-0.72 Tm, where Tm is the absolute melting point of the material, is examined. First, sliding data obtained on these materials are presented. The results indicate that the stress exponent for sliding is similar to that for lattice deformation, while the activation energy for sliding varies between 0.5 and 1.6 of the activation energy for creep. Several models proposed for grain boundary sliding are discussed, and it is shown that they do not account for the observed results on copper and alpha brass. A phenomenological model is proposed, where it is assumed that grain boundary sliding results from the glide of dislocations on secondary slip planes.

  19. Microwave assisted growth of copper germanide thin films at very low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sayantan; Alford, T. L.

    2013-08-26

    Herein the synthesis of Cu{sub 3}Ge films by exposing Cu-Ge alloy films to microwave radiation is reported. It is shown that microwave radiation led to the formation of copper germanide at temperatures ca. 80 °C. The electrical properties of the Cu{sub 3}Ge films are presented and compared for various annealing times. X-ray diffraction shows that the Cu{sub 3}Ge films formed after microwave annealing is crystalline in the orthorhombic phase. Rutherford backscattering and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the formation of copper oxide encapsulation layer. Despite the slight oxidation of Cu during the microwave anneal the lowest resistivity of Cu{sub 3}Ge films obtained is 14 μΩ-cm.

  20. Automated Ellipsometry and the Study of Gaseous Oxidation Kinetics of Evaporated Copper and Nickel at Low Temperatures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hanjung

    Ellipsometry is an excellent technique for measuring the thicknesses of films in a nondestructive way. The fundamental theory is well known and it has been implemented for practical applications in many fields. The Auburn University Ellipsometry Laboratory has several ellipsometers, the newest being a Rotating Analyzer Ellipsometer (RAE) with several precompiled software programs. Unfortunately the source codes are considered proprietary material by the manufacturer and thus are not supplied. To maximize the efficiency of the RAE with automatic data sampling and graphical capability, a new algorithm has been developed to interface the rotating analyzer of the RAE to an IBM PC, employing a general DA/AD converter with attendant hardware information. The time-dependence of thermally grown copper and nickel oxide films in the thickness range of 0A to 400A with the RAE in an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) chamber has been studied by using 99.996% high purity oxygen with the samples at 75^circC and 100^circC for copper and at 100^circC, 150^ circC, 200^circC, 250^circC, and 300 ^circC for nickel at the oxygen pressure range of 1 mTorr to 170 Torr. The metal substrates were originally formed by evaporation of 99.9996% copper in an auxiliary vacuum evaporator onto 13 mm by 13 mm sections of a silicon wafer having a (100) orientation. Auger and XPS techniques were used to investigate the purity of the metal samples formed. Although the oxidation of metals is a common phenomenon, the theoretical explanation of the experimental data is often very difficult. The early stages of thin film oxidation are often complex and occur so rapidly that there is little available experimental data on the kinetics of oxide formation and growth. Our objective has been to study experimentally the early stage of growth of oxides on copper and nickel. In this study, copper and nickel oxide growth curves were measured at various pressures and temperatures. The data were interpreted in terms of

  1. Temperature dependence of LRE-HRE-TM thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zuoyi; Cheng, Xiaomin; Lin, Gengqi; Li, Zhen; Huang, Zhixin; Jin, Fang; Wang, Xianran; Yang, Xiaofei

    2003-04-01

    Temperature dependence of the properties of RE-TM thin films is very important for MO recording. In this paper, we studied the temperature dependence of the magnetic and magneto-optical properties of the amorphous LRE-HRE-TM single layer thin films and LRE-HRE-TM/HRE-TM couple-bilayered thin films. For LRE-HRE-TM single layer thin films, the temperature dependence of the magnetization was investigated by using the mean field theory. The experimental and theoretical results matched very well. With the LRE substitution in HRE-TM thin film, the compensation temperature Tcomp decreased and the curie temperature Tc remained unchanged. Kerr rotation angle became larger and the saturation magnetization Ms at room temperature increased. For LRE-HRE-TM/HRE-TM couple-bilayered thin films, comparisons of the temperature dependences of the coercivities and Kerr rotation angles were made between isolated sublayers and couple-bilayered thin film.

  2. Temperature dependence of amino acid hydrophobicities

    PubMed Central

    Wolfenden, Richard; Lewis, Charles A.; Yuan, Yang; Carter, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    The hydrophobicities of the 20 common amino acids are reflected in their tendencies to appear in interior positions in globular proteins and in deeply buried positions of membrane proteins. To determine whether these relationships might also have been valid in the warm surroundings where life may have originated, we examined the effect of temperature on the hydrophobicities of the amino acids as measured by the equilibrium constants for transfer of their side-chains from neutral solution to cyclohexane (Kw>c). The hydrophobicities of most amino acids were found to increase with increasing temperature. Because that effect is more pronounced for the more polar amino acids, the numerical range of Kw>c values decreases with increasing temperature. There are also modest changes in the ordering of the more polar amino acids. However, those changes are such that they would have tended to minimize the otherwise disruptive effects of a changing thermal environment on the evolution of protein structure. Earlier, the genetic code was found to be organized in such a way that—with a single exception (threonine)—the side-chain dichotomy polar/nonpolar matches the nucleic acid base dichotomy purine/pyrimidine at the second position of each coding triplet at 25 °C. That dichotomy is preserved at 100 °C. The accessible surface areas of amino acid side-chains in folded proteins are moderately correlated with hydrophobicity, but when free energies of vapor-to-cyclohexane transfer (corresponding to size) are taken into consideration, a closer relationship becomes apparent. PMID:26034278

  3. Temperature dependence of particle-particle interactions in electrorheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonon, P.; Foulc, J.-N.

    2000-04-01

    We report on the temperature dependence of particle-particle interactions in electrorheological (ER) fluids for the temperature range 20-100 °C. The attraction force between polyamide spheres immersed in silicone oil is measured as a function of temperature. The force-temperature characteristic shows a broad maximum around 40 °C, corresponding to an increase of about 30% compared to the force measured at room temperature. In view of these results we proposed that the temperature dependence of the shear stress in ER fluids is directly related to the variation of the local particle-particle attraction forces. Data are discussed in light of models which were proposed in the literature to describe particle-particle interactions. At high electric fields "conduction models" could explain the observed temperature dependence through the variations of the oil breakdown field with temperature. However, limitations of such models are also clearly evidenced by data obtained at low electric fields.

  4. Crossing regimes of temperature dependence in animal movement.

    PubMed

    Gibert, Jean P; Chelini, Marie-Claire; Rosenthal, Malcolm F; DeLong, John P

    2016-05-01

    A pressing challenge in ecology is to understand the effects of changing global temperatures on food web structure and dynamics. The stability of these complex ecological networks largely depends on how predator-prey interactions may respond to temperature changes. Because predators and prey rely on their velocities to catch food or avoid being eaten, understanding how temperatures may affect animal movement is central to this quest. Despite our efforts, we still lack a mechanistic understanding of how the effect of temperature on metabolic processes scales up to animal movement and beyond. Here, we merge a biomechanical approach, the Metabolic Theory of Ecology and empirical data to show that animal movement displays multiple regimes of temperature dependence. We also show that crossing these regimes has important consequences for population dynamics and stability, which depend on the parameters controlling predator-prey interactions. We argue that this dependence upon interaction parameters may help explain why experimental work on the temperature dependence of interaction strengths has so far yielded conflicting results. More importantly, these changes in the temperature dependence of animal movement can have consequences that go well beyond ecological interactions and affect, for example, animal communication, mating, sensory detection, and any behavioral modality dependent on the movement of limbs. Finally, by not taking into account the changes in temperature dependence reported here we might not be able to properly forecast the impact of global warming on ecological processes and propose appropriate mitigation action when needed. PMID:26854767

  5. Modelling temperature and concentration dependent solid/liquid interfacial energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lippmann, Stephanie; Jung, In-Ho; Paliwal, Manas; Rettenmayr, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Models for the prediction of the solid/liquid interfacial energy in pure substances and binary alloys, respectively, are reviewed and extended regarding the temperature and concentration dependence of the required thermodynamic entities. A CALPHAD-type thermodynamic database is used to introduce temperature and concentration dependent melting enthalpies and entropies for multicomponent alloys in the temperature range between liquidus and solidus. Several suitable models are extended and employed to calculate the temperature and concentration dependent interfacial energy for Al-FCC with their respective liquids and compared with experimental data.

  6. High temperature, low-cycle fatigue of copper-base alloys in argon. Part 2: Zirconium-copper at 482, 538 and 593 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, J. B.; Stentz, R. H.; Berling, J. T.

    1973-01-01

    Zirconium-copper (1/2 hard) was tested in argon over the temperature range from 482 to 593 C in an evaluation of short-term tensile and low-cycle fatigue behavior. The effect of strain rate on the tensile properties was evaluated at 538 C and in general it was found that the yield and ultimate strengths increased as the strain rate was increased from 0.0004 to 0.01/sec. Ductility was essentially insensitive to strain rate in the case of the zirconium-copper alloy. Strain-rate and hold-time effects on the low cycle fatigue behavior of zirconium-copper were evaluated in argon at 538 C. These effects were as expected in that decreased fatigue life was noted as the strain rate decreased and when hold times were introduced into the tension portion of the strain-cycle. Hold times in compression were much less detrimental than hold times in tension.

  7. Subneurotoxic copper(II)-induced NF-κB-dependent microglial activation is associated with mitochondrial ROS

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Zhuqin; Yu, Fengxiang; Gong, Ping; Qiu, Yu; Zhou, Wei; Cui, Yongyao; Li, Juan Chen, Hongzhuan

    2014-04-15

    Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and the associated neuronal damage play critical roles in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Evidence shows an elevated concentration of extracellular copper(II) in the brains of these disorders, which may contribute to neuronal death through direct neurotoxicity. Here we explored whether extracellular copper(II) triggers microglial activation. Primary rat microglia and murine microglial cell line BV-2 cells were cultured and treated with copper(II). The content of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nitric oxide in the medium was determined. Extracellular hydrogen peroxide was quantified by a fluorometric assay with Amplex Red. Mitochondrial superoxide was measured by MitoSOX oxidation. At subneurotoxic concentrations, copper(II) treatment induced a dose- and time-dependent release of TNF-α and nitric oxide from microglial cells, and caused an indirect, microglia-mediated neurotoxicity that was blocked by inhibition of TNF-α and nitric oxide production. Copper(II)-initiated microglial activation was accompanied with reduced IkB-α expression as well as phosphorylation and translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and was blocked by NF-κB inhibitors (BAY11-7082 and SC-514). Moreover, copper(II) treatment evoked a rapid release of hydrogen peroxide from microglial cells, an effect that was not affected by NADPH oxidase inhibitors. N-acetyl-cysteine, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), abrogated copper(II)-elicited microglial release of TNF-α and nitric oxide and subsequent neurotoxicity. Importantly, mitochondrial production of superoxide, paralleled to extracellular release of hydrogen peroxide, was induced after copper(II) stimulation. Our findings suggest that extracellular copper(II) at subneurotoxic concentrations could trigger NF-κB-dependent microglial activation and subsequent neurotoxicity. NADPH oxidase-independent, mitochondria-derived ROS may be involved in this activation

  8. Temperature dependence of the excited state absorption of alexandrite

    SciTech Connect

    Shand, M.L.; Jenssen, H.P.

    1983-03-01

    The temperature dependence from 28 to 290/sup 0/C of the excited-state absorption cross section sigma /SUB 2a/ (E) in the gain wavelength region of alexandrite has been determined from the temperature dependence of the single pass gain (SPG) and of the fluorescence. sigma /SUB 2a/ (E) and the emission cross section increase with temperature at approximately the same rate.

  9. Haemolymph from Mytilus galloprovincialis: Response to copper and temperature challenges studied by (1)H-NMR metabonomics.

    PubMed

    Digilio, Giuseppe; Sforzini, Susanna; Cassino, Claudio; Robotti, Elisa; Oliveri, Caterina; Marengo, Emilio; Musso, Davide; Osella, Domenico; Viarengo, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies on molluscs have been carried out to clarify the physiological roles of haemolymph serum proteins and haemocytes. However, little is known about the presence and functional role of the serum metabolites. In this study, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) was used to assess whether changes of the metabolic profile of Mytilus galloprovincialis haemolymph may reflect alterations of the physiological status of the organisms due to environmental stressors, namely copper and temperature. Mussel haemolymph was taken from the posterior adductor muscle after a 4-day exposure to ambient (16°C) or high temperature (24°C) and in the absence or presence (5μg/L, 20μg/L, or 40μg/L) of sublethal copper (Cu(2+)). The total glutathione (GSH) concentration in the haemolymph of both control and treated mussels was minimal, indicating the absence of significant contaminations by muscle intracellular metabolites due to the sampling procedure. In the (1)H-NMR spectrum of haemolymph, 27 metabolites were identified unambiguously. The separate and combined effects of exposure to copper and temperature on the haemolymph metabolic profile were assessed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Ranking-PCA multivariate analysis. Changes of the metabolomic profile due to copper exposure at 16°C became detectable at a dose of 20μg/L copper. Alanine, lysine, serine, glutamine, glycogen, glucose and protein aliphatics played a major role in the classification of the metabolic changes according to the level of copper exposition. High temperature (24°C) and high copper levels caused a coherent increase of a common set of metabolites (mostly glucose, serine, and lysine), indicating that the metabolic impairment due to high temperature is enforced by the presence of copper. Overall, the results demonstrate that, as for human blood plasma, the analysis of haemolymph metabolites represents a promising tool for the diagnosis of pollutant-induced stress syndrome in marine mussels

  10. Temperature dependence of conductivity measurement for conducting polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez, Leandro; Duran, Jesus; Isah, Anne; Albers, Patrick; McDougall, Michael; Wang, Weining

    2014-03-01

    Conducting polymer-based solar cells are the newest generation solar cells. While research on this area has been progressing, the efficiency is still low because certain important parameters of the solar cell are still not well understood. It is of interest to study the temperature dependence of the solar cell parameters, such as conductivity of the polymer, open circuit voltage, and reverse saturation current to gain a better understanding on the solar cells. In this work, we report our temperature dependence of conductivity measurement using our in-house temperature-varying apparatus. In this project, we designed and built a temperature varying apparatus using a thermoelectric cooler module which gives enough temperature range as we need and costs much less than a cryostat. The set-up of the apparatus will be discussed. Temperature dependence of conductivity measurements for PEDOT:PSS films with different room-temperature conductivity will be compared and discussed. NJSGC-NASA Fellowship grant

  11. Temperature and pressure dependence of CO2 extinction coefficients.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demore, W. B.; Patapoff, M.

    1972-01-01

    Results are presented of CO2 extinction coefficient measurements that were performed under conditions of temperature and pressure different from those used by previous investigators. The results show that, whereas pressure effects are generally negligible, temperature dependence is strong enough to invalidate the use of room temperature data for the Mars atmosphere.

  12. Polarized X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy Studies of Copper in High Temperature Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mini, Susan M.

    One can take advantage of the linearly polarized nature of the x-rays from a synchrotron to study the electronic and structural properties of single crystals or magnetically aligned powders. Since the advent of layered copper oxide compounds as high temperature superconductors (1) the structures of La_{rm 2-x}Sr _{rm x}CuO _4, Nd_{rm 2-x }Ce_{rm x}CuO _4 and YBa_2Cu _3O_{rm 7-y} have been of extreme interest. In this study, the powder samples of these compounds were magnetically aligned such that the electric vector was either perpendicular or parallel to the crystallographic c axis. The results of polarized XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy) measurements at the copper K-edge (8979 eV) of all three structures will be presented. The EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) of magnetically aligned YBa_2Cu _3O_{6.9} were used to characterize the local structure as well as study the structural changes of the Cu1-O4 and Cu2-O4 bonds in as a function of temperature (20 to 300 K). In this manner, the Cu1-O4 and Cu2-O4 bonds, which are thought to play a role in the superconductivity of the sample, are distinguishable. The complementary technique of XANES is used to study the electronic structure of the superconducting copper oxides as well as alkali cuprates M^{ rm I}CuO_2 (M = Na, K, Rb and Cs) and rare earth copper oxides RE _2CuO_4 (RE = Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd). A method (2) for determining the effective charge is described and applied to the copper oxides. ftn 1. J. G. Bednorz and K. A. Muller; Z Phys. B64, 189 (1986). 2. E. E. Alp, G L. Goodman, L. Soderholm, S.M. Mini, M. Ramanathan, G. K. Shenoy and A. S. Bommannavar, J.Phys. Condens, Matter 1, 6463 (1989).

  13. Unusual temperature dependence of elastic constants of an ambient-temperature discotic nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Venkata Sai, D; Mirri, G; Kouwer, P H J; Sahoo, R; Musevic, I; Dhara, Surajit

    2016-03-01

    We report the first experimental studies on the temperature dependence of viscoelastic properties of a room temperature discotic nematic liquid crystal. The splay elastic constant is greater than the bend elastic constant and both show unusual temperature and order parameter dependence. The rotational viscosity is remarkably larger than conventional calamitic liquid crystals. We provide a simple physical explanation based on the columnar short-range order to account for the the unusual temperature dependence of the elastic constants. PMID:26883494

  14. Electrochromic performance, wettability and optical study of copper manganese oxide thin films: Effect of annealing temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falahatgar, S. S.; Ghodsi, F. E.; Tepehan, F. Z.; Tepehan, G. G.; Turhan, İ.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, the nanostructured copper manganese oxide (CMO) thin films were prepared from acetate based sol-gel precursors and deposited on glass and indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates by dip-coating technique. The films were annealed at 300, 400 and 500 °C in ambient atmosphere. The effects of annealing temperature on structural, morphological, wettability, electrochromic and optical properties of CMO thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), water contact angle measurement (WCA), cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometery. The presence of mixed oxide phases comprising of copper manganese oxide (CuMn2O4) and manganese oxide at different annealing temperature was confirmed by XRD patterns. The results showed that the Mn3O4 phase has been changed to Mn2O3 when the annealing temperature is increased from 300 to 500 °C. The FESEM images indicated that the granular surface morphology was sensitive to annealing temperature. EDX studies indicated that the thin films contained O, Mn and Cu species. Wettability studies showed that the water contact angle of the nanostructured CMO thin films coated on glass substrates was influenced by the variation of annealing temperature and the surface nature of thin films was changed from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. The results of CVs measurement indicated that the anodic and cathodic charge density and capacitance of all CMO samples decreased with increasing scan rate in potential range of -1-1 eV. Also, the annealed CMO thin film at 500 °C showed better electrochromic performance with respect to other samples at lower scan rate. The thickness, refractive index, extinction coefficient and optical band gap of thin films coated on glass substrates were calculated from reflectance and transmittance spectra using an iterative numerical method. The optical band gap of

  15. Atmospheric corrosion effects of HNO 3—Influence of temperature and relative humidity on laboratory-exposed copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samie, Farid; Tidblad, Johan; Kucera, Vladimir; Leygraf, Christofer

    The effect of HNO 3 on the atmospheric corrosion of copper has been investigated at varied temperature (15-35 °C) and relative humidity (0-85% RH). Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the existence of cuprite and gerhardtite as the two main corrosion products on the exposed copper surface. For determination of the corrosion rate and for estimation of the deposition velocity ( Vd) of HNO 3 on copper, gravimetry and ion chromatography has been employed. Temperature had a low effect on the corrosion of copper. A minor decrease in the mass gain was observed as the temperature was increased to 35 °C, possibly as an effect of lower amount of cuprite due to a thinner adlayer on the metal surface at 35 °C. The Vd of HNO 3 on copper, however, was unaffected by temperature. The corrosion rate and Vd of HNO 3 on copper was the lowest at 0% RH, i. e. dry condition, and increased considerably when changing to 40% RH. A maximum was reached at 65% RH and the mass gain remained constant when the RH was increased to 85% RH. The Vd of HNO 3 on copper at ⩾65% RH, 25 °C and 0.03 cm s -1 air velocity was as high as 0.15±0.03 cm s -1 to be compared with the value obtained for an ideal absorbent, 0.19±0.02 cm s -1. At sub-ppm levels of HNO 3, the corrosion rate of copper decreased after 14 d and the growth of the oxide levelled off after 7 d of exposure.

  16. Temperature Dependence of the Free Excitons in GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, D. C.; Collins, T. C.

    2002-03-01

    We are presenting the temperature dependence of the photoluminescence (PL) of the free excitons and donor bound exciton ( D^circ ,X) in GaN. The excitons involved are the longitudinal, the Γ5 and the Γ6 excitons as well as D^circ ,X. The temperature dependence of the energy positions of Γ_5, Γ_6, and D^circ ,X are well mapped out using the Varshni equation in a temperature range of 0 -- 60 K. In this temperature range, the energy positions of the longitudinal excitons depart from the predictions of the Varshni equation used for the other excitons. If more than one columnar structural direction is present, then in PL, more than one longitudinal mode might be observed. The sample being investigated shows two longitudinal modes. The energy separation between the longitudinal and transverse modes has been reported by Hopfield and Thomas. One component in the separation is the polarizability, which has some temperature dependence. The longitudinal exciton then has a band gap temperature dependence, which is predicted by the Varshni equation and an additional temperature dependence due to the polarizability. We have used the Varshni equation plus a linear and quadratic temperature dependence term to map the energy positions of the longitudinal excitons.

  17. Temperature dependence of the emissivity of platinum in the IR.

    PubMed

    Deemyad, Shanti; Silvera, Isaac F

    2008-08-01

    The accuracy of temperature determination by fitting the spectral irradiance to a Planck curve depends on knowledge of the emissivity at all temperatures and pressures of interest within a spectral region. Here, the emissivity of platinum is measured in the near infrared as a function of temperature. In the wavelength range of study and the temperature range of 650-1100 K, we find the emissivity to be independent of temperature to within experimental error. This result should lead to improved accuracy of temperature measurement by optical pyrometry where platinum is used as a thermal emitter. PMID:19044386

  18. Temperature dependent electrical transport of disordered reduced graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchharla, Baleeswaraiah; Narayanan, T. N.; Balakrishnan, Kaushik; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Talapatra, Saikat

    2014-06-01

    We report on the simple route for the synthesis of chemically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) using ascorbic acid (a green chemical) as a reducing agent. Temperature-dependent electrical transport properties of rGO thin films have been studied in a wide range (50 K T 400 K) of temperature. Electrical conduction in rGO thin films was displayed in two different temperature regimes. At higher temperatures, Arrhenius-like temperature dependence of resistance was observed indicating a band gap dominating transport behavior. At lower temperatures, the rGO sample showed a conduction mechanism consistent with Mott's two-dimensional variable range hopping (2D-VRH). An unsaturated negative magnetoresistance (MR) was observed up to 3 T field. A decrease in negative MR at high temperatures is attributed to the phonon scattering of charge carriers.

  19. Temperature dependence of the HNO3 UV absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, James B.; Talukdar, Ranajit K.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Solomon, Susan

    1993-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the HNO3 absorption cross sections between 240 and 360 K over the wavelength range 195 to 350 nm has been measured using a diode array spectrometer. Absorption cross sections were determined using both (1) absolute pressure measurements at 298 K and (2) a dual absorption cell arrangement in which the absorption spectrum at various temperatures is measured relative to the room temperature absorption spectrum. The HNO3 absorption spectrum showed a temperature dependence which is weak at short wavelengths but stronger at longer wavelengths which are important for photolysis in the lower stratosphere. The 298 K absorption cross sections were found to be larger than the values currently recommended for atmospheric modeling (DeMore et al., 1992). Our absorption cross section data are critically compared with the previous measurements of both room temperature and temperature-dependent absorption cross sections. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections of HNO3 are recommended for use in atmospheric modeling. These temperature dependent HNO3 absorption cross sections were used in a two-dimensional dynamical-photochemical model to demonstrate the effects of the revised absorption cross sections on loss rate of HNO3 and the abundance of NO2 in the stratosphere.

  20. Highly thymine-dependent formation of fluorescent copper nanoparticles templated by ss-DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guiying; Shao, Yong; Peng, Jian; Dai, Wei; Liu, Lingling; Xu, Shujuan; Wu, Fei; Wu, Xiaohua

    2013-08-01

    Double-stranded DNAs (ds-DNAs) have been identified as efficient templates favoring the formation of fluorescent copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs). Herein, we have tried to synthesize fluorescent Cu NPs using single-stranded DNAs (ss-DNAs) as templates and to identify the critical DNA sequences. By comparing the results using homopolymer DNAs, hairpin DNAs, and pristine ss-DNAs as templates, we found that DNA thymine base plays a dominant role in producing red-emissive fluorescent Cu NPs on ss-DNA templates. The thymine-dependent growth of the fluorescent Cu NPs is confirmed by Hg2+ mediated T-T base pair in comparison with the other non-specific metal ions, which could be developed into a practical sensor for turn-on fluorescence detection of Hg2+ with a high selectivity. The mechanism is briefly discussed according the DNA sequence-dependent formation of fluorescent Cu NPs. This work demonstrates the sequence role in producing fluorescent Cu NPs that could serve as promising fluorescent nanoprobes in biosensing and DNA-hosted Cu nanomaterials.

  1. Calibration of low-temperature ac susceptometers with a copper cylinder standard

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.-X.; Skumryev, V.

    2010-02-15

    A high-quality low-temperature ac susceptometer is calibrated by comparing the measured ac susceptibility of a copper cylinder with its eddy-current ac susceptibility accurately calculated. Different from conventional calibration techniques that compare the measured results with the known property of a standard sample at certain fixed temperature T, field amplitude H{sub m}, and frequency f, to get a magnitude correction factor, here, the electromagnetic properties of the copper cylinder are unknown and are determined during the calibration of the ac susceptometer in the entire T, H{sub m}, and f range. It is shown that the maximum magnitude error and the maximum phase error of the susceptometer are less than 0.7% and 0.3 deg., respectively, in the region T=5-300 K and f=111-1111 Hz at H{sub m}=800 A/m, after a magnitude correction by a constant factor as done in a conventional calibration. However, the magnitude and phase errors can reach 2% and 4.3 deg. at 10 000 and 11 Hz, respectively. Since the errors are reproducible, a large portion of them may be further corrected after a calibration, the procedure for which is given. Conceptual discussions concerning the error sources, comparison with other calibration methods, and applications of ac susceptibility techniques are presented.

  2. Catalytic Oxidation of Methane into Methanol over Copper-Exchanged Zeolites with Oxygen at Low Temperature

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The direct catalytic conversion of methane to liquid oxygenated compounds, such as methanol or dimethyl ether, at low temperature using molecular oxygen is a grand challenge in C–H activation that has never been met with synthetic, heterogeneous catalysts. We report the first demonstration of direct, catalytic oxidation of methane into methanol with molecular oxygen over copper-exchanged zeolites at low reaction temperatures (483–498 K). Reaction kinetics studies show sustained catalytic activity and high selectivity for a variety of commercially available zeolite topologies under mild conditions (e.g., 483 K and atmospheric pressure). Transient and steady state measurements with isotopically labeled molecules confirm catalytic turnover. The catalytic rates and apparent activation energies are affected by the zeolite topology, with caged-based zeolites (e.g., Cu-SSZ-13) showing the highest rates. Although the reaction rates are low, the discovery of catalytic sites in copper-exchanged zeolites will accelerate the development of strategies to directly oxidize methane into methanol under mild conditions. PMID:27413787

  3. Catalytic Oxidation of Methane into Methanol over Copper-Exchanged Zeolites with Oxygen at Low Temperature.

    PubMed

    Narsimhan, Karthik; Iyoki, Kenta; Dinh, Kimberly; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2016-06-22

    The direct catalytic conversion of methane to liquid oxygenated compounds, such as methanol or dimethyl ether, at low temperature using molecular oxygen is a grand challenge in C-H activation that has never been met with synthetic, heterogeneous catalysts. We report the first demonstration of direct, catalytic oxidation of methane into methanol with molecular oxygen over copper-exchanged zeolites at low reaction temperatures (483-498 K). Reaction kinetics studies show sustained catalytic activity and high selectivity for a variety of commercially available zeolite topologies under mild conditions (e.g., 483 K and atmospheric pressure). Transient and steady state measurements with isotopically labeled molecules confirm catalytic turnover. The catalytic rates and apparent activation energies are affected by the zeolite topology, with caged-based zeolites (e.g., Cu-SSZ-13) showing the highest rates. Although the reaction rates are low, the discovery of catalytic sites in copper-exchanged zeolites will accelerate the development of strategies to directly oxidize methane into methanol under mild conditions. PMID:27413787

  4. Room temperature ammonia sensor based on copper nanoparticle intercalated polyaniline nanocomposite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, U. V.; Ramgir, Niranjan S.; Karmakar, N.; Bhogale, A.; Debnath, A. K.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K.; Kothari, D. C.

    2015-06-01

    Thin films of copper nanoparticles intercalated-polyaniline nanocomposites (NC) have been deposited at room temperatures by in situ oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of different concentrations of Cu nanoparticles. The response characteristics of the NC thin films toward different gases namely NH3, CO, CO2, NO and CH4 were examined at room temperature. Both pure polyaniline (PANI) and NC films exhibited a selective response toward NH3. Incorporation of Cu nanoparticles resulted in an improvement of the sensors response and response kinetics. The response and the recovery times of composite film toward 50 ppm of NH3 were 7 and 160 s, respectively. Additionally, the NC sensor film could reversibly detect as low as 1 ppm of NH3 concentrations. The enhanced response of NC films toward NH3 is attributed to the deprotonation and reprotonation processes as also supported by Raman investigations.

  5. Electroless Silver Coating on Copper Microcones for Low-Temperature Solid-State Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fengtian; Yang, Shan; Wang, Haozhe; Hu, Anmin; Li, Ming

    2015-11-01

    A low-temperature solid-state bonding technology using silver-coated Cu microcones and Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (wt.%) solder for three-dimensional (3D) packaging is presented. Electroless silver coating on the surfaces of copper microcones effectively reduces oxide layer growth and significantly enhances the solder joint shear strength from an average of 33.5 MPa to 43.4 MPa. Low-temperature thermocompression bonding at 463 K in ambient air was achieved using silver-coated Cu microcones, with no voids found along the bonded interface. Microscopic observation revealed that the microcones were completely inserted into the soft solder. Probable mechanisms for this bonding process are proposed and discussed.

  6. Ultra-high temperature isothermal furnace liners (IFLS) for copper freeze point cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dussinger, P. M.; Tavener, J. P.

    2013-09-01

    Primary Laboratories use large fixed-point cells in deep calibration furnaces utilizing heat pipes to achieve temperature uniformity. This combination of furnace, heat pipe, and cell gives the smallest of uncertainties. The heat pipe, also known as an isothermal furnace liner (IFL), has typically been manufactured with Alloy 600/601 as the envelope material since the introduction of high temperature IFLs over 40 years ago. Alloy 600/601 is a widely available high temperature material, which is compatible with Cesium, Potassium, and Sodium and has adequate oxidation resistance and reasonable high temperature strength. Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) Alloy 600/Sodium IFLs are rated to 1100°C for approximately 1000 hours of operation (based on creep strength). Laboratories interested in performing calibrations and studies around the copper freezing point (1084.62°C) were frustrated by the 1000 hours at 1100°C limitation and the fact that expensive freeze-point cells were getting stuck and/or crushed inside the IFL. Because of this growing frustration/need, ACT developed an Ultra High Temperature IFL to take advantage of the exceptional high temperature strength properties of Haynes 230.

  7. Temperature Dependence of Thermopower in Strongly Correlated Multiorbital Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sekino, M; Okamoto, Satoshi; Koshibae, W; Mori, Michiyasu; Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2014-01-01

    Temperature dependence of thermopower in the multiorbital Hubbard model is studied by using the dynamical mean-field theory with the non-crossing approximation impurity solver. It is found that the Coulomb interaction, the Hund coupling, and the crystal filed splitting bring about nonmonotonic temperature dependence of the hermopower, including its sign reversal. The implication of our theoretical results to some materials is discussed.

  8. Temperature Dependence of Radiative and Nonradiative Rates from Time-Dependent Correlation Function Methods.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Shiladitya; Baiardi, Alberto; Bloino, Julien; Barone, Vincenzo

    2016-02-01

    The temperature dependence of the rate constants in radiative and nonradiative decays from excited electronic states has been studied using a time-dependent correlation function approach in the framework of the adiabatic representation and the harmonic oscillator approximation. The present work analyzes the vibrational aspect of the processes, which gives rise to the temperature dependence, with the inclusion of mode-mixing, as well as of frequency change effects. The temperature dependence of the rate constants shows a contrasting nature, depending on whether the process has been addressed within the Franck-Condon approximation or beyond it. The calculation of the Duschinsky matrix and the shift vector between the normal modes of the two states can be done in Cartesian and/or internal coordinates, depending on the flexibility of the investigated molecule. A new computational code has been developed to calculate the rates of intersystem crossing, internal conversion, and fluorescence for selected molecules as functions of temperature. PMID:26683207

  9. The temperature dependence of electrical excitability in fish hearts.

    PubMed

    Vornanen, Matti

    2016-07-01

    Environmental temperature has pervasive effects on the rate of life processes in ectothermic animals. Animal performance is affected by temperature, but there are finite thermal limits for vital body functions, including contraction of the heart. This Review discusses the electrical excitation that initiates and controls the rate and rhythm of fish cardiac contraction and is therefore a central factor in the temperature-dependent modulation of fish cardiac function. The control of cardiac electrical excitability should be sensitive enough to respond to temperature changes but simultaneously robust enough to protect against cardiac arrhythmia; therefore, the thermal resilience and plasticity of electrical excitation are physiological qualities that may affect the ability of fishes to adjust to climate change. Acute changes in temperature alter the frequency of the heartbeat and the duration of atrial and ventricular action potentials (APs). Prolonged exposure to new thermal conditions induces compensatory changes in ion channel expression and function, which usually partially alleviate the direct effects of temperature on cardiac APs and heart rate. The most heat-sensitive molecular components contributing to the electrical excitation of the fish heart seem to be Na(+) channels, which may set the upper thermal limit for the cardiac excitability by compromising the initiation of the cardiac AP at high temperatures. In cardiac and other excitable cells, the different temperature dependencies of the outward K(+) current and inward Na(+) current may compromise electrical excitability at temperature extremes, a hypothesis termed the temperature-dependent depression of electrical excitation. PMID:27385752

  10. Temperature dependence of electronic transport property in ferroelectric polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, X. L.; Wang, J. L.; Tian, B. B.; Liu, B. L.; Zou, Y. H.; Wang, X. D.; Sun, S.; Sun, J. L.; Meng, X. J.; Chu, J. H.

    2014-10-01

    The leakage current mechanism of ferroelectric copolymer of polyvinylidene fluoride with trifluoroethylene prepared by Langmuir-Blodgett was investigated in the temperature range from 100 K to 350 K. The electron as the dominant injected carrier was observed in the ferroelectric copolymer films. The transport mechanisms in copolymer strongly depend on the temperature and applied voltage. From 100 K to 200 K, Schottky emission dominates the conduction. With temperature increasing, the Frenkel-Poole emission instead of the Schottky emission to conduct the carrier transport. When the temperature gets to 260 K, the leakage current becomes independent of temperature, and the space charge limited current conduction was observed.

  11. Temperature dependence of photovoltaic cells, modules, and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, K.; Burdick, J.; Caiyem, Y.

    1996-05-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) cells and modules are often rated in terms of a set of standard reporting conditions defined by a temperature, spectral irradiance, and total irradiance. Because PV devices operates over a wide range of temperatures and irradiances, the temperature and irradiance related behavior must be known. This paper surveys the temperature dependence of crystalline and thin-film, state-of-the-art, research-size cells, modules, and systems measured by a variety of methods. The various error sources and measurement methods that contribute to cause differences in the temperature coefficient for a given cell or module measured with various methods are discussed.

  12. Temperature dependent droplet impact dynamics on flat and textured surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Azar Alizadeh; Vaibhav Bahadur; Sheng Zhong; Wen Shang; Ri Li; James Ruud; Masako Yamada; Liehi Ge; Ali Dhinojwala; Manohar S Sohal

    2012-03-01

    Droplet impact dynamics determines the performance of surfaces used in many applications such as anti-icing, condensation, boiling and heat transfer. We study impact dynamics of water droplets on surfaces with chemistry/texture ranging from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic and across a temperature range spanning below freezing to near boiling conditions. Droplet retraction shows very strong temperature dependence especially for hydrophilic surfaces; it is seen that lower substrate temperatures lead to lesser retraction. Physics-based analyses show that the increased viscosity associated with lower temperatures can explain the decreased retraction. The present findings serve to guide further studies of dynamic fluid-structure interaction at various temperatures.

  13. ION AND TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF ELECTRICAL CONDUCTANCE FOR NATURAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four empirical equations describing the temperature dependence of electrical conductance of aqueous solutions are compared for the case of single electrolytes. The best method uses a modified Walden product where the log of the ratio between the conductances at two temperatures i...

  14. A temperature dependent SPICE macro-model for power MOSFETs

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The power MOSFET SPICE Macro-Model has been developed suitable for use over the temperature range {minus}55 to 125 {degrees}C. The model is comprised of a single parameter set with temperature dependence accessed through the SPICE .TEMP card. SPICE parameter extraction techniques for the model and model predictive accuracy are discussed. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Temperature Dependence of Viscosities of Common Carrier Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Trent S.; Nahir, Tal M.

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental evidence for the dependence of viscosities of the real gases on temperature is described, suggesting that this dependence is greater than that predicted by the kinetic theory of gases. The experimental results were obtained using common modern instrumentation and could be reproduced by students in analytical or…

  16. Temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudyak, V. Ya.; Dubtsov, S. N.; Baklanov, A. M.

    2008-06-01

    The temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient of nanoparticles in gases has been experimentally studied. It is established that this dependence significantly differs from that predicted by various correlations, in particular, by the Cunningham-Millikan-Davies correlation that is used as an instrumental basis for virtually all methods of measurement of the diffusion coefficient in aerosols.

  17. Temperature dependence of ethanol depression in mice: dose response.

    PubMed

    Finn, D A; Syapin, P J; Bejanian, M; Jones, B L; Alkana, R L

    1994-04-01

    Manipulation of body temperature during intoxication significantly alters brain sensitivity to ethanol. The current study tested the generality of this effect within the hypnotic dose range. Drug naive, male C57BL/6J mice were injected with 3.2, 3.6, or 4.0 g/kg ethanol (20% w/v) and were exposed to 1 of 7 designated temperatures from 13 degrees to 34 degrees C to manipulate body temperature during intoxication. Rectal temperature at return of righting reflex (RORR) was significantly, positively correlated with loss of righting reflex (LORR) duration and significantly, negatively correlated with blood ethanol concentration (BEC) at RORR at all three doses. These results indicate that increasing body temperature during intoxication increased ethanol sensitivity in C57 mice at all three doses tested and demonstrate the generality of temperature dependence across hypnotic doses in these animals. Interestingly, the LORR duration was dose-dependent at each ambient temperature, but the degree of body temperature change and the BEC at RORR were not dose-dependent. Overall, these results emphasize the importance of body temperature as a variable in ethanol research. PMID:8048742

  18. The temperature dependent amide I band of crystalline acetanilide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruzeiro, Leonor; Freedman, Holly

    2013-10-01

    The temperature dependent anomalous peak in the amide I band of crystalline acetanilide is thought to be due to self-trapped states. On the contrary, according to the present model, the anomalous peak comes from the fraction of ACN molecules strongly hydrogen-bonded to a neighboring ACN molecule, and its intensity decreases because, on average, this fraction decreases as temperature increases. This model provides, for the first time, an integrated and theoretically consistent view of the temperature dependence of the full amide I band and a qualitative explanation of some of the features of nonlinear pump-probe experiments.

  19. Matching properties, and voltage and temperature dependence of MOS capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCreary, J. L.

    1981-12-01

    A technique for designing MOS capacitor arrays is discussed, which includes a method of calculating capacitance ratio errors and subsequent total yield. Data illustrating the sensitivity of the ratio matching to capacitor layout, structures, and technology are presented, and measured voltage coefficients of MOS capacitors as function of surface concentration are compared with the calculated coefficients. It is demonstrated that the temperature dependence of space charge capacitance, thermal expansion, and temperature dependence of the dielectric constant are the major components of the temperature coefficient of capacitance. It is also shown that to a first-order, heavily doped polysilicon accumulates and depletes similar to crystalline silicon.

  20. Point defects diagrams for pure and doped copper oxide Cu{sub 2{+-}{delta}}O in the temperature range of 873-1473 K

    SciTech Connect

    Stoklosa, A.

    2012-10-15

    Point defects diagrams for the Cu{sub 2{+-}{delta}}O, both pure and doped with M{sup 2+} metal ions with all the types of defects in the cation sublattice considered are presented in this work. The calculations of the diagrams were performed by a novel method. The calculations were based on the data from the results of the studies of the deviation from stoichiometry and the electrical conductivity in the temperature range of 873-1473 K. The values of {Delta}G{sup o} of the formation of Frenkel-type defects, of copper vacancies, and of interstitial copper atoms were determined and their temperature dependence. It was shown that character of the dependence of the sum of concentrations of electronic defects ([h{sup Bullet }]+b[e Prime ]) on p{sub O{sub 2}} is fully consistent with its dependence of the electrical conductivity. Their mobility ({mu}{sub e}/{mu}{sub h}=b), vary from 1300 to 30. The dope M{sup 2+} increases the concentration of electrons and shifts the minimum of electrical conductivity toward higher oxygen pressures. - Graphical abstract: This work presents point defects diagrams for the Cu{sub 2{+-}{delta}}O, with all the types of defects in the cation sublattice considered. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The point defects diagrams. Copper oxide Cu{sub 2{+-}{delta}}O, for pure and M{sup 2+} doped. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The values of {Delta}G{sup o} of the formation of Frenkel-type defects were determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The values of {Delta}G{sup o} of the formation QUOTE QUOTE of singly-ionized copper vacancies were determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The values of {Delta}G{sup o} of the formation of electroneutral copper vacancies were determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The values of {Delta}G{sup o} of the formation and of interstitial copper atoms were determined.

  1. COPPER AND BRAIN FUNCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing evidence shows that brain development and function are impaired when the brain is deprived of copper either through dietary copper deficiency or through genetic defects in copper transport. A number of copper-dependent enzymes whose activities are lowered by copper deprivation form the ba...

  2. Temperature-dependent interconversion of phosphoramidite-Cu complexes detected by combined diffusion studies, 31P NMR, and low-temperature NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schober, Katrin; Zhang, Hongxia; Gschwind, Ruth M

    2008-09-17

    For copper-catalyzed enantioselective conjugate additions, knowledge about the precatalytic and catalytic complexes has not yet been sufficiently developed to understand the strong influence of different temperatures on these famous reactions. Therefore, NMR experiments with four Cu(I) salts and two phosphoramidite ligands have been performed to elucidate the temperature dependence and the low-temperature structures of these copper complexes. The existence of the precatalytic binuclear complex with a mixed trigonal/tetrahedral coordination on copper is for the first time proven with direct NMR spectroscopic methods. Below 200 K, intermolecular interactions between free ligands and [Cu2X2L3] complexes induce binuclear [Cu2X2L4] complexes similar to the crystal structures. By combining diffusion experiments and (31)P integrals at different temperatures, it is for the first time possible to follow the formation of stoichiometrically different complexes, even under experimental conditions in which the (31)P signals of the complexes are spectroscopically not resolved due to exchange processes. This allows a first correlation between the complex species observed and the synthetic conditions reported. Furthermore, different preferences to build homo- or heterochiral complexes are detected for binaphthol and biphenol phosphoramidite complexes. PMID:18717560

  3. TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF THERMAL NEUTRONS FROM THE MOON

    SciTech Connect

    R.C. LITTLE; W. FELDMAN; ET AL

    2000-10-01

    Planetary thermal neutron fluxes provide a sensitive proxy for mafic and feldspathic terranes, and are also necessary for translating measured gamma-ray line strengths to elemental abundances. Both functions require a model for near surface temperatures and a knowledge of the dependence of thermal neutron flux on temperature. We have explored this dependence for a representative sample of lunar soil compositions and surface temperatures using MCNP{trademark}. For all soil samples, the neutron density is found to be independent of temperature, in accord with neutron moderation theory. The thermal neutron flux, however, does vary with temperature in a way that depends on {Delta}, the ratio of macroscopic absorption to energy-loss cross sections of soil compositions. The weakest dependence is for the largest {Delta} (which corresponds to the Apollo 17 high Ti basalt in our soil selection), and the largest dependence is for the lowest {Delta} (which corresponds to ferroan anorthosite, [FAN] in our selection). For the lunar model simulated, the depth at which the thermal neutron population is most sensitive to temperature is {approx}30 g/cm{sup 2}.

  4. Temperature-induced evolution of subsurface nanocavities in argon-implanted copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurnosikov, O.; Kulikov, D. V.; Kharlamov, V. S.; Swagten, H. J. M.; Trushin, Yu. V.

    2011-08-01

    The evolution of argon-filled nanocavities in a copper crystal under annealing is studied experimentally and theoretically. The subsurface argon-filled nanocavities are formed after a short annealing at a temperature ˜1000 K by coalescence of subsurface defects initially created by argon implantation. The further prolonged annealing at a temperature above 1075 K leads to decomposition of the nanocavities and diffusion of implanted argon out of the sample. According to a simple analysis, the mechanism of the nanocavity formation is governed not only by the migration of simplest defects, such as vacancies and argon and copper interstitials, but also to a large extent, by diffusion and interaction of the complexes of these simplest defects. The experimental studies with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy provide valuable data sets of the density of nanocavities and their size and depth distribution. Based on the experimental results, a theoretical model is developed. The calculation with the model proves that the growth of the nanocavities is mainly determined by the temperature-induced migration of vacancy-argon complexes. By combining the experimental data with the simulation results, the migration energy of these kinds of complexes is estimated ˜2.55-2.75 eV. Moreover, the calculation with our model provides the estimate of the dissociation energy of a multiple complex, consisting of two vacancies and two argon atoms, as 1.10-1.18 eV. These parameters, reported in this article, play a key role in the description of the kinetics of the growth and decomposition of nanocavities.

  5. Extended temperature dependence of elastic constants in cubic crystals.

    PubMed

    Telichko, A V; Sorokin, B P

    2015-08-01

    To extend the theory of the temperature dependence of the elastic constants in cubic crystals beyond the second- and third-order elastic constants, the fourth-order elastic constants, as well as the non-linearity in the thermal expansion temperature dependence, have been taken into account. Theoretical results were represented as temperature functions of the effective elastic constants and compared with experimental data for a number of cubic crystals, such as alkali metal halides, and elements gold and silver. The relations obtained give a more accurate description of the experimental temperature dependences of second-order elastic constants for a number of cubic crystals, including deviations from linear behavior. A good agreement between theoretical estimates and experimental data has been observed. PMID:25819879

  6. Copper control of bacterial nitrous oxide emission and its impact on vitamin B12-dependent metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Matthew J.; Gates, Andrew J.; Appia-Ayme, Corinne; Rowley, Gary; Richardson, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Global agricultural emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) have increased by around 20% over the last 100 y, but regulation of these emissions and their impact on bacterial cellular metabolism are poorly understood. Denitrifying bacteria convert nitrate in soils to inert di-nitrogen gas (N2) via N2O and the biochemistry of this process has been studied extensively in Paracoccus denitrificans. Here we demonstrate that expression of the gene encoding the nitrous oxide reductase (NosZ), which converts N2O to N2, is regulated in response to the extracellular copper concentration. We show that elevated levels of N2O released as a consequence of decreased cellular NosZ activity lead to the bacterium switching from vitamin B12-dependent to vitamin B12-independent biosynthetic pathways, through the transcriptional modulation of genes controlled by vitamin B12 riboswitches. This inhibitory effect of N2O can be rescued by addition of exogenous vitamin B12. PMID:24248380

  7. Temperature dependence of optical properties of GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, Huade; Snyder, Paul G.; Woollam, John A.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the optical properties of GaAs was investigated using spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements, between room temperature and about 610 C in increments of 50 C, of pseudodielectric functions and related optical constants of GaAs. A quantitative analysis of the pseudodielectric function spectrum was carried out using a harmonic-oscillator approximation (HOA) to fit the measured dielectric functions. Good fits were obtained with this model, which provides a convenient means of reproducing the GaAs dielectric function at any temperature, by using the temperature-dependent oscillator parameters. The HOA analysis also provides information about band-gap variation with temperature. Using the measured optical constants at a number of fixed temperatures, an algorithm was developed for computing the dielectric function spectrum at an arbitrary temperature in the range 22-610 C.

  8. Temperature-dependent μ-Raman investigation of struvite crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prywer, Jolanta; Kasprowicz, D.; Runka, T.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of temperature on the vibrational properties of struvite crystals grown from silica gels was systematically studied by μ-Raman spectroscopy. The time-dependent Raman spectra recorded in the process of long time annealing of struvite crystal at 353 K do not indicate structural changes in the struvite crystal with the time of annealing. The temperature-dependent Raman spectra recorded in the range 298-423 K reveal a phase transition in struvite at about 368 K. Above this characteristic temperature, some of bands assigned to vibrations of the PO4 and NH4 tetrahedra and water molecules observed in the Raman spectra in low temperatures (orthorhombic phase) change their spectral parameters or disappear, which indicates a transition to a higher symmetry structure of struvite in the range of high temperatures.

  9. Temperature dependence of proton NMR relaxation times at earth's magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedbalski, Peter; Kiswandhi, Andhika; Parish, Christopher; Ferguson, Sarah; Cervantes, Eduardo; Oomen, Anisha; Krishnan, Anagha; Goyal, Aayush; Lumata, Lloyd

    The theoretical description of relaxation processes for protons, well established and experimentally verified at conventional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) fields, has remained untested at low fields despite significant advances in low field NMR technology. In this study, proton spin-lattice relaxation (T1) times in pure water and water doped with varying concentrations of the paramagnetic agent copper chloride have been measured from 6 to 92oC at earth's magnetic field (1700 Hz). Results show a linear increase of T1 with temperature for each of the samples studied. Increasing the concentration of the copper chloride greatly reduced T1 and reduced dependence on temperature. The consistency of the results with theory is an important confirmation of past results, while the ability of an ultra-low field NMR system to do contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is promising for future applicability to low-cost medical imaging and chemical identification. This work is supported by US Dept of Defense Award No. W81XWH-14-1-0048 and the Robert A. Welch Foundation Grant No. AT-1877.

  10. Temperature dependent Raman scattering in YCrO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Mall, A. K. Sharma, Y.; Mukherjee, S.; Garg, A.; Gupta, R.

    2014-04-24

    High quality polycrystalline YCrO{sub 3} samples were synthesized using solid-state-reaction method. The samples were subsequently characterized using X-ray diffraction and magnetometry. Further, temperature dependent Raman spectroscopy over a spectral range from 100 to 800 cm{sup −1} was used to examine the variation of phonons as a function of temperature from 90 to 300 K. In the low temperature ferroelectric phase of YCrO{sub 3}, the observed phonon spectra showed softening of some Raman modes below the magnetic ordering temperature (T{sub N} ∼ 142K), suggesting a coupling between the spin and phonon degrees of freedom.

  11. Liquidus Temperatures and Solidification Behavior in the Copper-Niobium System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, D.; Robinson, M. B.; Rathz, T. J.; Williams, G.

    1998-01-01

    The copper-niobium phase diagram has been under active debate; thus, a corroboratory experimental study is needed. In this investigation, the melts of Cu-Nb alloys at compositions ranging from 5 lo 86 wt% Nb were processed in different environments and solidified at relatively low rates of 50-75 C/s to determine liquidus temperatures and to study solidification behavior. For all samples processed under very clean conditions, only Nb dendrites in a Cu matrix were observed; while in the presents of oxygen impurities, the alloys containing 5-35 wt% Nb exhibited microstructure of Nb-rich spheroids and Nb dendrites in the Cu matrix. The results obtained from clean conditions are in fair agreement with the Cu-Nb phase diagram having an S-shaped, near-horizontal appearances of the liquidus. The formation of Nb-rich droplets at slow cooling rates is discussed in terms of a stable liquid miscibility gap induced by oxygen.

  12. Effects of the size of nano-copper catalysts and reaction temperature on the morphology of carbon fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Qian; Yu Liyan; Cui Zuolin

    2008-03-04

    In this study, carbon fibers with different morphologies, including coiled carbon nanofibers and straight carbon fibers, were obtained by the chemical vapor deposition using a Cu-catalytic pyrolysis of acetylene at 250 deg. C. The influences of nano-copper catalyst particle size and the reaction temperature on the morphology of carbon fibers were investigated. Under the same reaction condition, coiled carbon nanofibers generally were synthesized using nano-copper catalyst with smaller particles size, and bigger copper particles are apt to produce straight carbon fibers. With decreasing of reaction temperature to 200 deg. C, straight carbon fibers were obtained, instead of coiled carbon nanofibers at 250 deg. C. The product was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD)

  13. Deuterium permeation through copper with trapping impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, D. J.; Harris, J. M.; Patrick, R. C.; Boespflug, E. P.; Beavis, L. C.

    1982-02-01

    The time dependence of the deuterium permeation rate through impurity-doped copper membranes was measured in the temperature range 300-700 °C. Copper membranes that were doped with Er, Zr, and Ti all exhibited permeabilities that were nearly equal to pure copper, but the apparent diffusivities were smaller than those for pure copper by factors of 10-100 over the experimental temperature range. The permeation characteristics of these alloys appear to be altered from those for pure copper due to trapping of deuterium at sites that are associated with the impurity atoms. It is shown that the deuterium permeation rate through the copper alloys can be expressed in an analytical form that is analogous to that for pure copper, except that the apparent diffusivity takes on a value which depends on the trap concentration and binding energy for deuterium. The binding energies that are calculated for the alloys are used to determine the lag time which is required for deuterium or hydrogen to permeate through initially evacuated membranes. The lag times for copper alloys containing about 1% Er, Zr, or Ti are many orders of magnitude longer than for pure copper at room temperature. Copper alloys containing Cr do not appear to exhibit deuterium trapping. Nuclear reaction and backscattering analyses were used to help determine the effect or surface oxides on the permeation measurements.

  14. Substrate-dependent temperature sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myachina, Olga; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia

    2015-04-01

    Activity of extracellular enzymes responsible for decomposition of organics is substrate dependent. Quantity of the substrate is the main limiting factor for enzymatic or microbial heterotrophic activity in soils. Different mechanisms of enzymes response to temperature suggested for low and high substrate availability were never proved for real soil conditions. We compared the temperature responses of enzymes-catalyzed reactions in soils. Basing on Michaelis-Menten kinetics we determined the enzymes affinity to substrate (Km) and mineralization potential of heterotrophic microorganisms (Vmax) 1) for three hydrolytic enzymes: β-1,4-glucosidase, N-acetyl- β -D-glucosaminidase and phosphatase by the application of fluorogenically labeled substrates and 2) for mineralization of 14C-labeled glucose by substrate-dependent respiratory response. Here we show that the amount of available substrate is responsible for temperature sensitivity of hydrolysis of polymers in soil, whereas monomers oxidation to CO2 does not depend on substrate amount and is mainly temperature governed. We also found that substrate affinity of enzymes (which is usually decreases with the temperature) differently responded to warming for the process of depolymerisation versus monomers oxidation. We suggest the mechanism to temperature acclimation based on different temperature sensitivity of enzymes kinetics for hydrolysis of polymers and for monomers oxidation.

  15. Universal temperature-dependent normalized optoacoustic response of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Elena V.; Liopo, Anton; Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Ermilov, Sergey A.

    2015-03-01

    We found and interpreted the universal temperature-dependent optoacoustic (photoacoustic) response (ThOR) in blood; the normalized ThOR is invariant with respect to hematocrit at the hemoglobin's isosbestic point. The unique compartmentalization of hemoglobin, the primary optical absorber at 805 nm, inside red blood cells (RBCs) explains the effect. We studied the temperature dependence of Gruneisen parameter in blood and aqueous solutions of hemoglobin and for the first time experimentally observed transition through the zero optoacoustic response at temperature T0, which was proved to be consistent for various blood samples. On the other hand, the hemoglobin solutions demonstrated linear concentration function of the temperature T0. When this function was extrapolated to the average hemoglobin concentration inside erythrocytes, the temperature T0 was found equivalent to that measured in whole and diluted blood. The obtained universal curve of blood ThOR was validated in both transparent and light scattering media. The discovered universal optoacoustic temperature dependent blood response provides foundation for future development of non-invasive in vivo temperature monitoring in vascularized tissues and blood vessels.

  16. Temperature Dependent Constitutive Modeling for Magnesium Alloy Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jong K.; Lee, June K.; Kim, Hyung S.; Kim, Heon Y.

    2010-06-15

    Magnesium alloys have been increasingly used in automotive and electronic industries because of their excellent strength to weight ratio and EMI shielding properties. However, magnesium alloys have low formability at room temperature due to their unique mechanical behavior (twinning and untwining), prompting for forming at an elevated temperature. In this study, a temperature dependent constitutive model for magnesium alloy (AZ31B) sheet is developed. A hardening law based on non linear kinematic hardening model is used to consider Bauschinger effect properly. Material parameters are determined from a series of uni-axial cyclic experiments (T-C-T or C-T-C) with the temperature ranging 150-250 deg. C. The influence of temperature on the constitutive equation is introduced by the material parameters assumed to be functions of temperature. Fitting process of the assumed model to measured data is presented and the results are compared.

  17. Temperature dependence of damage coefficient in electron irradiated solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faith, T. J.

    1973-01-01

    Measurements of light-generated current vs cell temperature on electron-irradiated n/p silicon solar cells show the temperature coefficient of this current to increase with increasing fluence for both 10-ohm and 20-ohm cells. A relationship between minority-carrier diffusion length and light-generated current was derived by combining measurements of these two parameters: vs fluence at room temperature, and vs cell temperature in cells irradiated to a fluence of 1 x 10 to the 15th power e/sq cm. This relationship was used, together with the light-generated current data, to calculate the temperature dependence of the diffusion-length damage coefficient. The results show a strong decrease in the damage coefficient with increasing temperature in the range experienced by solar panels in synchronous earth orbit.

  18. Temperature Dependent Constitutive Modeling for Magnesium Alloy Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong K.; Lee, June K.; Kim, Hyung S.; Kim, Heon Y.

    2010-06-01

    Magnesium alloys have been increasingly used in automotive and electronic industries because of their excellent strength to weight ratio and EMI shielding properties. However, magnesium alloys have low formability at room temperature due to their unique mechanical behavior (twinning and untwining), prompting for forming at an elevated temperature. In this study, a temperature dependent constitutive model for magnesium alloy (AZ31B) sheet is developed. A hardening law based on non linear kinematic hardening model is used to consider Bauschinger effect properly. Material parameters are determined from a series of uni-axial cyclic experiments (T-C-T or C-T-C) with the temperature ranging 150-250° C. The influence of temperature on the constitutive equation is introduced by the material parameters assumed to be functions of temperature. Fitting process of the assumed model to measured data is presented and the results are compared.

  19. On the detection of precipitation dependence on temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yu; Luo, Ming; Leung, Yee

    2016-05-01

    Employing their newly proposed interannual difference method (IADM), Liu et al. (2009) and Shiu et al. (2012) reported a shocking increase of around 100% K-1 in heavy precipitation with warming global temperature in 1979-2007. Such increase is alarming and prompts us to probe into the IADM. In this study, both analytical derivations and numerical analyses demonstrate that IADM provides no additional information to that of the conventional linear regression, and also, it may give a false indication of dependence. For clarity and simplicity, we therefore recommend linear regression analysis over the IADM for the detection of dependence. We also find that heavy precipitation decreased during the global warming hiatus, and the precipitation dependence on temperature drops by almost 50% when the study period is extended to 1979-2014 and it may keep dropping in the near future. The risk of having heavy precipitation under warming global temperature may have been overestimated.

  20. Temperature dependence of the Soret coefficient of ionic colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sehnem, A. L.; Figueiredo Neto, A. M.; Aquino, R.; Campos, A. F. C.; Tourinho, F. A.; Depeyrot, J.

    2015-10-01

    The temperature dependence of the Soret coefficient ST(T ) in electrostatically charged magnetic colloids is investigated. Two different ferrofluids, with different particles' mean dimensions, are studied. In both cases we obtain a thermophilic behavior of the Soret effect. The temperature dependence of the Soret coefficient is described assuming that the nanoparticles migrate along the ionic thermoelectric field created by the thermal gradient. A model based on the contributions from the thermoelectrophoresis and variation of the double-layer energy, without fitting parameters, is used to describe the experimental results of the colloid with the bigger particles. To do so, independent measurements of the ζ potential, mass diffusion coefficient, and Seebeck coefficient are performed. The agreement of the theory and the experimental results is rather good. In the case of the ferrofluid with smaller particles, it is not possible to get experimentally reliable values of the ζ potential and the model described is used to evaluate this parameter and its temperature dependence.

  1. Copper-dependent reciprocal transcriptional regulation of methane monooxygenase genes in Methylococcus capsulatus and Methylosinus trichosporium.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, A K; Gerdes, K; Murrell, J C

    1997-07-01

    The methanotrophic bacteria Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) and Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b convert methane to methanol using the enzyme, methane monooxygenase (MMO). These bacteria are able to express two distinct MMOs: a cytoplasmic or soluble form (sMMO) and a membrane-bound or particulate form (pMMO). Differential expression of sMMO and pMMO is regulated by the amount of copper ions available to the cells; sMMO is expressed at low copper-biomass ratios, whereas pMMO is expressed at high copper-biomass ratios. In both methanotrophs, transcription of the sMMO gene cluster is negatively regulated by copper ions. Data suggest that transcription of the M. trichosporium OB3b sMMO gene cluster is directed from a sigma54-like and a sigma70-like promoter. The pMMO (pmo) genes of M. capsulatus (Bath) are transcribed into a polycistronic mRNA of 3.3 kb. The synthesis of this mRNA was activated by copper ions. Activation of pmo transcription by copper ions was concomitant with repression of sMMO gene transcription in both methanotrophs. This suggests that a common regulatory pathway may be involved in the transcriptional switch between sMMO and pMMO gene expression. PMID:9282751

  2. A framework for elucidating the temperature dependence of fitness.

    PubMed

    Amarasekare, Priyanga; Savage, Van

    2012-02-01

    Climate warming is predicted to cause large-scale extinctions, particularly of ectothermic species. A striking difference between tropical and temperate ectotherms is that tropical species experience a mean habitat temperature that is closer to the temperature at which fitness is maximized (T(opt)) and an upper temperature limit for survival (T(max)) that is closer to T(opt) than do temperate species. Thus, even a small increase in environmental temperature could put tropical ectotherms at high risk of extinction, whereas temperate ectotherms have a wider temperature cushion. Although this pattern is widely observed, the mechanisms that produce it are not well understood. Here we develop a mathematical framework to partition the temperature response of fitness into its components (fecundity, mortality, and development) and test model predictions with data for insects. We find that fitness declines at high temperatures because the temperature responses of fecundity and mortality act in opposite ways: fecundity decreases with temperature when temperatures exceed the optimal range, whereas mortality continues to increase. The proximity of T(opt) to T(max) depends on how the temperature response of development mediates the interaction between fecundity and mortality. When development is highly temperature sensitive, mortality exceeds reproduction only after fecundity has started to decline with temperature, which causes fitness to decline rapidly to zero when temperatures exceed T(opt). The model correctly predicts empirically observed fitness-temperature relationships in insects from different latitudes. It also suggests explanations for the widely reported phenological shifts in many ectotherms and the latitudinal differences in fitness responses. PMID:22218308

  3. Origins of the temperature dependence of hammerhead ribozyme catalysis.

    PubMed Central

    Peracchi, A

    1999-01-01

    The difficulties in interpreting the temperature dependence of protein enzyme reactions are well recognized. Here, the hammerhead ribozyme cleavage was investigated under single-turnover conditions between 0 and 60 degrees C as a model for RNA-catalyzed reactions. Under the adopted conditions, the chemical step appears to be rate-limiting. However, the observed rate of cleavage is affected by pre-catalytic equilibria involving deprotonation of an essential group and binding of at least one low-affinity Mg2+ion. Thus, the apparent entropy and enthalpy of activation include contributions from the temperature dependence of these equilibria, precluding a simple physical interpretation of the observed activation parameters. Similar pre-catalytic equilibria likely contribute to the observed activation parameters for ribozyme reactions in general. The Arrhenius plot for the hammerhead reaction is substantially curved over the temperature range considered, which suggests the occurrence of a conformational change of the ribozyme ground state around physiological temperatures. PMID:10390528

  4. Temperature dependence of coherent oscillations in Josephson phase qubits.

    PubMed

    Lisenfeld, J; Lukashenko, A; Ansmann, M; Martinis, J M; Ustinov, A V

    2007-10-26

    We experimentally investigate the temperature dependence of Rabi oscillations and Ramsey fringes in superconducting phase qubits. In a wide range of temperatures, we find that both the decay time and the amplitude of these coherent oscillations remain nearly unaffected by thermal fluctuations. In the two-level limit, coherent qubit response rapidly vanishes as soon as the energy of thermal fluctuations k(B)T becomes larger than the energy level spacing variant Planck's over h omega of the qubit. In contrast, a sample of much shorter coherence times displayed semiclassical oscillations very similar to Rabi oscillation, but showing a qualitatively different temperature dependence. Our observations shed new light on the origin of decoherence in superconducting qubits. The experimental data suggest that, without degrading already achieved coherence times, phase qubits can be operated at temperatures much higher than those reported till now. PMID:17995313

  5. Ionisation of C60: is it temperature dependent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, M. Sai; Narasimhan, T. S. Lakshmi; Balasubramanian, R.; Mathews, C. K.

    1994-01-01

    In a recent paper, Drewello [T. Drewello, W. Kratschmer, M. Fieber-Erdmann and A. Ding, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes, 124 (1993) R1] reported a temperature dependent ionisation cross section for the formation of C2+60 in their photoionisation dynamic studies on C60 using synchrotron radiation. To check this, the ratio of ion intensities of C2+60 to that of C60 was determined as a function of temperature of C60 samples using a Knudsen effusion mass spectrometer. Our results indicate the absence of any temperature dependence of cross section for the formation of C2+60 in the temperature range of measurement (600-800 K) using electron impact ionisation.

  6. Temperature-dependent absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

    1988-01-01

    Relative absorption cross sections for hydrogen peroxide vapor were measured over the temperature ranges 285-381 K for lambda = 230 nm-295 nm and 300-381 K for lambda = 193 nm-350 nm. The well established 298 K cross sections at 202.6 and 228.8 nm were used as an absolute calibration. A significant temperature dependence was observed at the important tropospheric photolysis wavelengths lambda over 300 nm. Measured cross sections were extrapolated to lower temperatures, using a simple model which attributes the observed temperature dependence to enhanced absorption by molecules possessing one quantum of O-O stretch vibrational excitation. Upper tropospheric photodissociation rates calculated using the extrapolated cross sections are about 25 percent lower than those calculated using currently recommended 298 K cross sections.

  7. Temperature dependence of protein hydration hydrodynamics by molecular dynamics simulations.

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, E Y; Krishnan, V V

    2007-07-18

    The dynamics of water molecules near the protein surface are different from those of bulk water and influence the structure and dynamics of the protein itself. To elucidate the temperature dependence hydration dynamics of water molecules, we present results from the molecular dynamic simulation of the water molecules surrounding two proteins (Carboxypeptidase inhibitor and Ovomucoid) at seven different temperatures (T=273 to 303 K, in increments of 5 K). Translational diffusion coefficients of the surface water and bulk water molecules were estimated from 2 ns molecular dynamics simulation trajectories. Temperature dependence of the estimated bulk water diffusion closely reflects the experimental values, while hydration water diffusion is retarded significantly due to the protein. Protein surface induced scaling of translational dynamics of the hydration waters is uniform over the temperature range studied, suggesting the importance protein-water interactions.

  8. Temperature dependence of temporal resolution in an insect nervous system.

    PubMed

    Franz, A; Ronacher, B

    2002-05-01

    The vast majority of animals are poikilotherms, and thus face the problem that the temperature of their nervous systems rather smoothly follows the temperature changes imposed by their environment. Since basic properties of nerve cells, e.g., the time constants of ion channels, strongly depend on temperature, a temperature shift likely affects the processing of the temporal structure of sensory stimuli. This can be critical in acoustic communication systems in which time patterns of signals are decisive for recognition by the receiver. We investigated the temperature dependence of the responses of locust auditory receptors and interneurons by varying the temperature of the experimental animals during intracellular recordings. The resolution of fast amplitude modulations of acoustic signals was determined in a gap detection paradigm. In auditory receptors and local (second order) interneurons, temporal resolution was improved at higher temperatures. This gain could be attributed to a higher precision of spike timing. In a third-order neuron, a rise in temperature affected the interactions of inhibition and excitation in a complex manner, also resulting in a better resolution of gaps in the millisecond range. PMID:12012097

  9. Anomalous temperature dependence of the IR spectrum of polyalanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helenius, V.; Korppi-Tommola, J.; Kotila, S.; Nieminen, J.; Lohikoski, R.; Timonen, J.

    1997-12-01

    We have studied the temperature dependence of the infrared spectra of acetanilide (ACN), tryptophan-(alanine) 15, and tyrosine-(alanine) 15. No sidebands of the amide-I vibration were observed in the polypeptides, but two anomalous sidebands of the NH stretch with a similar temperature dependence as that of the anomalous amide-I vibrational mode at 1650 cm -1 of crystalline ACN were detected. Fermi resonance combined with the appearance of a red-shifted sideband of NH stretch through coupling to lattice modes seems to explain this band structure. Observations are indicative of excitons that may occur in polypeptides as well as in single crystals of ACN.

  10. Temperature dependence of VUV transmission of synthetic fused silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, St.; Lange, H.; Schoepp, H.; Witzke, H.-D.

    2006-07-01

    The temperature dependence of the VUV transmission of synthetic fused silica is of interest for commercial applications as well as for fundamental research. In this work the transmission properties of Suprasil 2 from Heraeus with an absorption edge at very low wavelengths is investigated. The absorption edge of this quartz glass shifts from 170 to 180 nm between 789 and 1129 K. The Urbach rule is discussed for the characterization of the temperature dependent transmission curves. The results are applied to the diagnostics of the Hg 185 nm line from a high pressure mercury discharge lamp.

  11. Temperature dependence of self-broadened halfwidths of CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suarez, Carlos B.; Valero, Francisco P. J.

    1990-01-01

    The temperature dependence of self-broadened halfwidths of CO2 was studied in the temperature range 165-300 K for the band at 4978/cm. Assuming a power-law of the form gamma(T) = delta(T0)(T0/T)-exp n, the exponent has been determined for J = 6-32. An average value of n = 0.745 + or - 7 percent has been found.

  12. Copper-catalyzed N-arylation of amines with part-per-million catalyst loadings under air at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ruilong; Fu, Hua; Ling, Yun

    2011-08-21

    An efficient copper-catalyzed method for N-arylation of amines has been developed with part-per-million catalyst loadings at room temperature under air. Reactions of substituted (E)-1-(2-halophenyl)alkanone oximes with aliphatic amines or aromatic amines provided the N-arylation products in good to excellent yields. PMID:21727962

  13. Models for predicting temperature dependence of material properties of aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marla, Deepak; Bhandarkar, Upendra V.; Joshi, Suhas S.

    2014-03-01

    A number of processes such as laser ablation, laser welding, electric discharge machining, etc involve high temperatures. Most of the processes involve temperatures much higher than the target melting and normal boiling point. Such large variation in target temperature causes a significant variation in its material properties. Due to the unavailability of experimental data on material properties at elevated temperatures, usually the data at lower temperatures is often erroneously extrapolated during modelling of these processes. Therefore, this paper attempts to evaluate the variation in material properties with temperature using some general and empirical theories, along with the available experimental data for aluminum. The evaluated properties of Al using the proposed models show a significant variation with temperature. Between room temperature and near-critical temperature (0.9Tc), surface reflectivity of Al varies from more than 90% to less than 50%, absorption coefficient decreases by a factor of 7, thermal conductivity decreases by a factor of 5, density decreases by a factor of 4, specific heat and latent heat of vapourization vary by a factor between 1.5 and 2. Applying these temperature-dependent material properties for modelling laser ablation suggest that optical properties have a greater influence on the process than thermophysical properties. The numerical predictions of the phase explosion threshold in laser ablation are within 5% of the experimental values.

  14. Temperature dependence of myosin-II tail fragment assembly.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Peggy M; Hostetter, Daniel R; Rice, Sarah E

    2008-01-01

    Dictyostelium myosin-II bipolar thick filament (BTF) assembly is heavily dependent on ionic strength and temperature and is reversible by the phosphorylation of just three threonines. Truncated tail fragments of Dictyostelium myosin-II are commonly used as models for BTF assembly, as they self-assemble into regular paracrystals that recapitulate the ionic strength and phosphorylation dependence of full-length Dictyostelium myosin-II BTF assembly. Here we show that Dictyostelium myosin-II tail fragment assembly is highly temperature dependent, similar to full-length Dictyostelium myosin-II. Assembly of paracrystals was far more robust at 4 degrees C than at higher temperatures. Pre-assembled paracrystals disassembled completely when shifted to 37 degrees C, indicating that assembly does not greatly improve the thermostability of these tail fragments. The melting temperatures of individual Dictyostelium myosin-II tail coiled-coils under both low and high ionic strength conditions that prohibit paracrystal assembly are extremely low, 21 degrees C and 28 degrees C, respectively. These data are consistent with reversible thermal denaturation of the coiled-coil as the most likely explanation for assembly incompetence under either very low ionic strength or high temperature conditions. Assembled paracrystals of a structurally similar fragment of nonmuscle myosin-IIA were far more thermodynamically stable than their Dictyostelium counterparts at the temperatures examined here. PMID:18784979

  15. Temperature dependence of electrical resistivity measurements: A useful infiltration tracer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pidlisecky, A.; Knight, R.

    2008-12-01

    As part of an ongoing monitoring project, three resistivity probes were installed to a depth of 2m below a seasonal infiltration pond on the central coast of California. The probes were instrumented with 35 resistivity electrodes and 5 temperature loggers. They were designed to monitor the change in bulk resistivity beneath the pond during infiltration. The pond was filled in January 2008 and resistivity measurements were made on each probe every hour for a period of 4 months. In addition to changes in bulk resistivity, we observed diurnal fluctuations in the apparent resistivity signal due to the temperature dependence of in-situ resistivity. By processing the resistivity data, using a band pass filter, we can recover a time-depth section of pseudo- temperature data. We refer to these data as pseudo-temperature because they can be treated as a surrogate for temperature in terms of phase but not amplitude. These pseudo-temperature sections can be used as a tracer to calculate 1D infiltration rates. When compared with in-situ temperature loggers, we see good agreement. Moreover, we note that the resistivity fluctuations correspond to temperature variations that are less than one degree Celsius. The use of the temperature dependence of measured resistivity is a promising field technique. The pseudo-temperature data may prove more robust than using traditional temperature probes given that the larger sampling volume of the resistivity measurement will limit the influence local flow path perturbations caused by probe installation. Future research will involve extending this approach to 2D tomography in hopes of providing us with a technique for obtaining spatially exhaustive estimates of near-surface infiltration rates.

  16. Temperature Dependence of Photosynthesis in Agropyron smithii Rydb. 1

    PubMed Central

    Monson, Russell K.; Stidham, Mark A.; Williams, George J.; Edwards, Gerald E.; Uribe, Ernest G.

    1982-01-01

    As part of an extensive analysis of the factors regulating photosynthesis in Agropyron smithii Rydb., a C3 grass, we have examined the response of leaf gas exchange and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase activity to temperature. Emphasis was placed on elucidating the specific processes which regulate the temperature response pattern. The inhibitory effects of above-optimal temperatures on net CO2 uptake were fully reversible up to 40°C. Below 40°C, temperature inhibition was primarily due to O2 inhibition of photosynthesis, which reached a maximum of 65% at 45°C. The response of stomatal conductance to temperature did not appear to have a significant role in determining the overall temperature response of photosynthesis. The intracellular conductance to CO2 increased over the entire experimental temperature range, having a Q10 of 1.2 to 1.4. Increases in the apparent Michaelis constant (Kc) for RuBP carboxylase were observed in both in vitro and in vivo assays. The Q10 values for the maximum velocity (Vmax) of CO2 fixation by RuBP carboxylase in vivo was lower (1.3-1.6) than those calculated from in vitro assays (1.8-2.2). The results suggest that temperature-dependent changes in enzyme capacity may have a role in above-optimum temperature limitations below 40°C. At leaf temperatures above 40°C, decreases in photosynthetic capacity were partially dependent on temperature-induced irreversible reductions in the quantum yield for CO2 uptake. PMID:16662320

  17. Temperature Dependent Fluorescence Lifetime Measurements in a Phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nettles, Charles J.; Smith, R. Seth; Heath, Jonathan J.

    2012-03-01

    This poster will describe an undergraduate senior research project involving fluorescence lifetime measurements in a LaSO4:Eu phosphor compound. Specifically, this project seeks to determine the temperature dependence of the lifetime. The temperature of the phosphor will be varied using a heater block with temperature control. The phosphor will be excited with the 337 nm output of a Nitrogen Laser. An Oriel Monochromator will be used to disperse the fluorescence, and the lifetime for a particular wavelength will be determined from a photomultiplier tube signal. At the time of the presentation, this project will be nearing completion; and I will discuss my progress, successes, and challenges.

  18. Temperature dependence of nucleation rate in a binary solid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. Y.; Philippe, T.; Duguay, S.; Blavette, D.

    2012-12-01

    The influence of regression (partial dissolution) effects on the temperature dependence of nucleation rate in a binary solid solution has been studied theoretically. The results of the analysis are compared with the predictions of the simplest Volmer-Weber theory. Regression effects are shown to have a strong influence on the shape of the curve of nucleation rate versus temperature. The temperature TM at which the maximum rate of nucleation occurs is found to be lowered, particularly for low interfacial energy (coherent precipitation) and high-mobility species (e.g. interstitial atoms).

  19. Temperature dependence of atomic-scale stick-slip friction.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Lars; Hölscher, Hendrik; Fuchs, Harald; Schirmeisen, André

    2010-06-25

    We report experiments of atomic stick-slip friction on graphite as an explicit function of surface temperature between 100 and 300 K under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. A statistical analysis of the individual stick-slip events as a function of the velocity reveals an agreement with the thermally activated Prandtl-Tomlinson model at all temperatures. Taking into account an explicit temperature-dependence of the attempt frequency all data points collapse onto one single master curve. PMID:20867399

  20. NICMOS Flats and temperature dependence of the DQE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boeker, Torsten

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this proposal is to obtain initial estimates of the detective quantum efficiency {DQE} of the NICMOS detectors and its temperature dependence in the previously uncharted temperature regime expected for operation under the NICMOS Cooling System {NCS}. The observations will measure the relative {via flat field morphology} and absolute DQE variation at three temperature setpoints. In addition, they will provide a monitor for particulate contamination {"Grot"} and detector lateral position {from the coronagraphic spot and FDA vignetting}. When stars are present in the field of view, they will enable a preliminary focus determination.

  1. Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Benjamin J.; Marlowe, Daniel L.; Choi, Joshua J. E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu; Sun, Keye; Gupta, Mool C. E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu; Saidi, Wissam A.; Scudiero, Louis E-mail: mgupta@virginia.edu

    2015-06-15

    Temperature dependent energy levels of methylammonium lead iodide are investigated using a combination of ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy. Our results show that the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum shift down in energy by 110 meV and 77 meV as temperature increases from 28 °C to 85 °C. Density functional theory calculations using slab structures show that the decreased orbital splitting due to thermal expansion is a major contribution to the experimentally observed shift in energy levels. Our results have implications for solar cell performance under operating conditions with continued sunlight exposure and increased temperature.

  2. High temperature dependence of thermal transport in graphene foam.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Sun, Yi; Xiao, Huying; Hu, Xuejiao; Yue, Yanan

    2015-03-13

    In contrast to the decreased thermal property of carbon materials with temperature according to the Umklapp phonon scattering theory, highly porous free-standing graphene foam (GF) exhibits an abnormal characteristic that its thermal property increases with temperature above room temperature. In this work, the temperature dependence of thermal properties of free-standing GF is investigated by using the transient electro-thermal technique. Significant increase for thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity from ∼0.3 to 1.5 W m(-1) K(-1) and ∼4 × 10(-5) to ∼2 × 10(-4) m(2) s(-1) respectively is observed with temperature from 310 K to 440 K for three GF samples. The quantitative analysis based on a physical model for porous media of Schuetz confirms that the thermal conductance across graphene contacts rather than the heat conductance inside graphene dominates thermal transport of our GFs. The thermal expansion effect at an elevated temperature makes the highly porous structure much tighter is responsible for the reduction in thermal contact resistance. Besides, the radiation heat exchange inside the pores of GFs improves the thermal transport at high temperatures. Since free-standing GF has great potential for being used as supercapacitor and battery electrode where the working temperature is always above room temperature, this finding is beneficial for thermal design of GF-based energy applications. PMID:25683178

  3. The pH-dependent contaminant leaching from the copper smelter fly ash and slag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosikova, Alice; Ettler, Vojtech; Mihaljevic, Martin; Penizek, Vit

    2014-05-01

    Metallurgical wastes produced during smelting processes represent a potential risk of environmental contamination, depending particularly on the content and mobility of the elements contained. Due to leaching, serious environmental impact especially in contaminated soil systems in the vicinity of the smelting plants may occur. In this respect two potentially hazardous metallurgical wastes from the copper smelter Tsumeb (Namibia, Africa) were investigated by laboratory leaching experiments. The leaching behaviours of (i) Ausmelt slag from Cu smelting (9500 ppm As, 24000 ppm Cu, 10200 ppm Pb, 24500 ppm Zn; mineralogy: glass, fayalite, spinel, metallic/sulphide droplets) and (ii) fly ash from Cu smelter bag house filters (43.7 wt% As, 13000 ppm Cu, 39700 ppm Pb, 20000 ppm Zn; mineralogy: arsenolite, galena, gypsum, litharge, anglesite) were studied using a 48-h pH-static leaching test (CEN/TS 14997). The release of metals/metalloids at a range of pH 3-12, investigation of changes in mineralogical composition and PHREEQC speciation-solubility modelling were used to understand processes governing the contaminant leaching from these waste materials. It was observed that the contaminant leaching was highly pH-dependent. The release of metals from slag corresponded to "L-type" leaching curve with Cu being the key contaminant leached (up to 1780 mg/kg). In contrast, As was highly leached also in alkaline conditions (31-173 mg/kg) and significantly exceeded the limit value for hazardous waste materials in all cases (25 mg/kg). Fly ash was found to be extremely reactive in terms of the As release with a "J-type" leaching curve indicating the highest leaching at pH of 11 and 12 (up to 314 g/kg). Arsenic was considered to be the most important contaminant for both waste materials and its release can represent a risk for the environment, especially in case, where the fly ash- or slag-derived particulates are deposited into the soil systems. This study was supported by the Czech

  4. Time- and temperature-dependent failures of a bonded joint

    SciTech Connect

    Sihn, Sangwook; Miyano, Yasushi; Tsai, S.W.

    1997-07-01

    Time and temperature dependent properties of a tubular lap bonded joint are reported. The joint bonds a cast iron rod and a composite pipe together with an epoxy type of an adhesive material containing chopped glass fiber. A new fabrication method is proposed.

  5. Anomalous temperature dependence of the fluorescence lifetime of phycobiliproteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimov, E. G.; Schmitt, F.-J.; Hätti, P.; Klementiev, K. E.; Paschenko, V. Z.; Renger, G.; Rubin, A. B.

    2013-05-01

    Using a single photon counting technique we have investigated fluorescence decay spectra of phycobiliproteins with picosecond time resolution. The studies were performed in a wide range of temperatures—from 4 to 300 K. Comparing the fluorescence decay kinetics of samples rapidly frozen in liquid nitrogen with samples that were frozen slowly revealed that the temperature-dependent changes of phycobiliproteins fluorescence lifetime reflect the presence of three different stages, with a phase transition between 273 and 263 K that strongly depends on the rate of freezing. When the temperature decreases from 300 to 273 K, the fluorescence lifetime increases from 1.6 to 1.8 ns. In the region from 273 to 263 K we observed a decrease of the fluorescence lifetime, which strongly depends on the freezing rate: a slight decrease at high freezing rate and a drop down to 200 ps lifetime at slow freezing rate. In the low-temperature regime from 263 to 4 K a linear increase in the fluorescence lifetime was observed for all samples. It was found that the strong temperature dependence of the phycobiliprotein fluorescence, especially in the range between 263 and 273 K, is due to the interaction of the solvent with the chromophore bound to the protein. This feature is explained by a photoisomerization of the phycobiliproteins into a quenching form which is naturally prevented by the protein environment. The formation of ice microcrystals at low freezing rate eliminates this ‘protective’ effect of the protein environment.

  6. Temperature dependence of soliton diffusion in trans-polyacetylene

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, J.; Norris, J.R.; Isoya, J.

    1997-07-01

    The temperature dependence of 1-D diffusion rate of solitons in transpolyacetylene is determined by time-domain analysis of ESR measurements. The diffusion rate appears to obey a simple power law. Monte Carlo simulation of 1-D diffusion process in impure chains indicates that overall diffusion can be much slower than that without traps.

  7. Efficiencies of thermodynamics when temperature-dependent energy levels exist.

    PubMed

    Yamano, Takuya

    2016-03-14

    Based on a generalized form of the second law of thermodynamics, in which the temperature-dependent energy levels of a system are appropriately included in entropy generation, we show that the effect reasonably appears in efficiencies of thermodynamic processes. PMID:26890276

  8. Investigation of temperature dependence of development and aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacher, G. A.

    1969-01-01

    Temperature dependence of maturation and metabolic rates in insects, and the failure of vital processes during development were investigated. The paper presented advances the general hypothesis that aging in biological systems is a consequence of the production of entropy concomitant with metabolic activity.

  9. Temperature-dependent absorption cross-sections of perfluorotributylamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godin, Paul J.; Cabaj, Alex; Conway, Stephanie; Hong, Angela C.; Le Bris, Karine; Mabury, Scott A.; Strong, Kimberly

    2016-05-01

    Cross-sections of perfluorotributylamine (PFTBA) were derived from Fourier transform spectroscopy at 570-3400 cm-1 with a resolution of 0.1 cm-1 over a temperature range of 298-344 K. These results were compared to theoretical density functional theory (DFT) calculations and to previous measurements of PFTBA made at room temperature. DFT calculations were performed using the B3LYP method and the 6-311G(d,p) basis set. We find good agreement between our experimentally derived results, DFT calculations, and previously published data. No significant temperature dependence in the PFTBA cross-sections was observed for the temperature range studied. We calculate an average integrated band strength of 7.81 × 10-16 cm/molecule for PFTBA over the spectral range studied. Radiative efficiencies (RE) and global warming potentials (GWP) for PFTBA were also derived. The calculated radiative efficiencies show no dependence on temperature and agree with prior publications. We find an average RE of 0.77 Wm-2 ppbv-1 and a range of GWP from 6874 to 7571 depending on the lifetime used. Our findings are consistent with previous studies and increase our confidence in the value of the GWP of PFTBA.

  10. Temperature dependence of protein folding kinetics in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Minghao; Xu, Yangfan; Gruebele, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We measure the stability and folding rate of a mutant of the enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) inside bone tissue cells as a function of temperature from 38 to 48 °C. To facilitate measurement in individual living cells, we developed a rapid laser temperature stepping method capable of measuring complete thermal melts and kinetic traces in about two min. We find that this method yields improved thermal melts compared to heating a sample chamber or microscope stage. By comparing results for six cells with in vitro data, we show that the protein is stabilized by about 6 kJ/mole in the cytoplasm, but the temperature dependence of folding kinetics is similar to in vitro. The main difference is a slightly steeper temperature dependence of the folding rate in some cells that can be rationalized in terms of temperature-dependent crowding, local viscosity, or hydrophobicity. The observed rate coefficients can be fitted within measurement uncertainty by an effective two-state model, even though PGK folds by a multistate mechanism. We validate the effective two-state model with a three-state free energy landscape of PGK to illustrate that the effective fitting parameters can represent a more complex underlying free energy landscape. PMID:22665776

  11. Surface-Bound Intermediates in Low-Temperature Methanol Synthesis on Copper. Participants and Spectators

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yong; Mei, Donghai; Peden, Charles H.F.; Campbell, Charles T.; Mims, Charles A.

    2015-11-03

    The reactivity of surface adsorbed species present on copper catalysts during methanol synthesis at low temperatures was studied by simultaneous infrared spectroscopy (IR) and mass spectroscopy (MS) measurements during “titration” (transient surface reaction) experiments with isotopic tracing. The results show that adsorbed formate is a major bystander species present on the surface under steady-state methanol synthesis reaction conditions, but it cannot be converted to methanol by reaction with pure H2, nor with H2 plus added water. Formate-containing surface adlayers for these experiments were produced during steady state catalysis in (a) H2:CO2 (with substantial formate coverage) and (b) moist H2:CO (with no IR visible formate species). Both these reaction conditions produce methanol at steady state with relatively high rates. Adlayers containing formate were also produced by (c) formic acid adsorption. Various "titration" gases were used to probe these adlayers at modest temperatures (T = 410-450K) and 6 bar total pressure. Methanol gas (up to ~1% monolayer equivalent) was produced in "titration" from the H2:CO2 catalytic adlayers by H2 plus water, but not by dry hydrogen. The decay in the formate IR features accelerated in the presence of added water vapor. The H2:CO:H2O catalytic adlayer produced similar methanol titration yields in H2 plus water but showed no surface formate features in IR (less than 0.2% monolayer coverage). Finally, formate from formic acid chemisorption produced no methanol under any titration conditions. Even under (H2:CO2) catalytic reaction conditions, isotope tracing showed that pre-adsorbed formate from formic acid did not contribute to the methanol produced. Although non-formate intermediates exist during low temperature methanol synthesis on copper which can be converted to methanol gas

  12. Temperature dependence of angular momentum transport across interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kai; Lin, Weiwei; Chien, C. L.; Zhang, Shufeng

    2016-08-01

    Angular momentum transport in magnetic multilayered structures plays a central role in spintronic physics and devices. The angular momentum currents or spin currents are carried by either quasiparticles such as electrons and magnons, or by macroscopic order parameters such as local magnetization of ferromagnets. Based on the generic interface exchange interaction, we develop a microscopic theory that describes interfacial spin conductance for various interfaces among nonmagnetic metals, ferromagnetic insulators, and antiferromagnetic insulators. Spin conductance and its temperature dependence are obtained for different spin batteries including spin pumping, temperature gradient, and spin Hall effect. As an application of our theory, we calculate the spin current in a trilayer made of a ferromagnetic insulator, an antiferromagnetic insulator, and a nonmagnetic heavy metal. The calculated results on the temperature dependence of spin conductance quantitatively agree with the existing experiments.

  13. Temperature dependence of penetration depth in thin film niobium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    More, N.; Muhlfelder, B.; Lockhart, J.

    1989-01-01

    A novel technique is presented which should allow precise determination of the temperature dependence of the inductance, and hence of the penetration depth, of superconducting niobium thin-film structures. Four niobium thin-film stripline inductors are arranged in a bridge configuration, and inductance differences are measured using a potentiometric technique with a SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device) as the null detector. Numerical simulations of the stripline inductances are presented which allow the performance of the measurement technique to be evaluated. The prediction of the two-fluid model for the penetration-depth temperature dependence is given for reduced temperatures of 0.3 to 0.9. The experimental apparatus and its resolution and accuracy are discussed.

  14. Temperature dependence of APD-based PET scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Keereman, Vincent; Van Holen, Roel; Vandenberghe, Stefaan; Vanhove, Christian

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: Solid state detectors such as avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are increasingly being used in PET detectors. One of the disadvantages of APDs is the strong decrease of their gain factor with increasing ambient temperature. The light yield of most scintillation crystals also decreases when ambient temperature is increased. Both effects lead to considerable temperature dependence of the performance of APD-based PET scanners. In this paper, the authors propose a model for this dependence and the performance of the LabPET8 APD-based small animal PET scanner is evaluated at different temperatures.Methods: The model proposes that the effect of increasing temperature on the energy histogram of an APD-based PET scanner is a compression of the histogram along the energy axis. The energy histogram of the LabPET system was acquired at 21 °C and 25 °C to verify the validity of this model. Using the proposed model, the effect of temperature on system sensitivity was simulated for different detector temperature coefficients and temperatures. Subsequently, the effect of short term and long term temperature changes on the peak sensitivity of the LabPET system was measured. The axial sensitivity profile was measured at 21 °C and 24 °C following the NEMA NU 4-2008 standard. System spatial resolution was also evaluated. Furthermore, scatter fraction, count losses and random coincidences were evaluated at different temperatures. Image quality was also investigated.Results: As predicted by the model, the photopeak energy at 25 °C is lower than at 21 °C with a shift of approximately 6% per °C. Simulations showed that this results in an approximately linear decrease of sensitivity when temperature is increased from 21 °C to 24 °C and energy thresholds are constant. Experimental evaluation of the peak sensitivity at different temperatures showed a strong linear correlation for short term (2.32 kcps/MBq/°C = 12%/°C, R = −0.95) and long term (1.92 kcps/MBq/°C = 10%/

  15. Finite element simulation of temperature dependent free surface flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelman, M. S.; Sani, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    The method of Engelman and Sani (1984) for a finite-element simulation of incompressible surface flows with a free and/or moving fluid interface, such as encountered in crystal growth and coating and polymer technology, is extended to temperature-dependent flows, including the effect of temperature-dependent surface tension. The basic algorithm of Saito and Scriven (1981) and Ruschak (1980) has been generalized and implemented in a robust and versatile finite-element code that can be employed with relative ease for the simulation of free-surface problems in complex geometries. As a result, the costly dependence on the Newton-Raphson algorithm has been eliminated by replacing it with a quasi-Newton iterative method, which nearly retains the superior convergence properties of the Newton-Raphson method.

  16. Intensity-dependent response to temperature in hydra clones.

    PubMed

    Kaliszewicz, Anita

    2015-01-01

    The intensity of environmental factors differs in natural habitats and could shape the response of an animal that is able to assess a factor's gradient. However, intensity-dependent response to environmental factors has been only occasionally reported in animals. In laboratory experiments, I studied changes in sexual induction in response to a series of temperature decreases in different clones of Hydra oligactis. The percentage of sexually-induced clone-mates was related to the temperature gradient intensity. This intensity-dependent response was observed independently of the H. oligactis clone and gender. The magnitude of the response differed significantly between the clones originated from the distinct sites. The possible significance of the intensity-dependent response in the Hydra clones is discussed in evolutionary terms. PMID:25660699

  17. Orientation-dependent mechanical behaviour of electrodeposited copper with nanoscale twins.

    PubMed

    Mieszala, Maxime; Guillonneau, Gaylord; Hasegawa, Madoka; Raghavan, Rejin; Wheeler, Jeffrey M; Mischler, Stefano; Michler, Johann; Philippe, Laetitia

    2016-09-21

    The mechanical properties of electrodeposited copper with highly-oriented nanoscale twins were investigated by micropillar compression. Uniform nanotwinned copper films with preferred twin orientations, either vertical or horizontal, were obtained by controlling the plating conditions. In addition, an ultrafine grained copper film was synthesized to be used as a reference sample. The mechanical properties were assessed by in situ SEM microcompression of micropillars fabricated with a focused ion beam. Results show that the mechanical properties are highly sensitive to the twin orientation. When compared to the ultrafine grained sample, an increase of 44% and 130% in stress at 5% offset strain was observed in quasi-static tests for vertically and horizontally aligned twins, respectively. Inversely strain rate jump microcompression testing reveals higher strain sensitivity for vertical twins. These observations are attributed to a change in deformation mechanism from dislocation pile-ups at the twin boundary for horizontal twins to dislocations threading inside the twin lamella for vertical twins. PMID:27546468

  18. Phase diagram, thermal stability, and high temperature oxidation of the ternary copper-nickel-iron system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallino, Isabella

    Due to the aluminum industry demands, a large effort has recently been devoted to the development of special alloys to be used as inert anodes for a newly designed aluminum reduction cell. The implementation of this new technology aims at the replacement of the graphite anodes that have been used for over 100 years in aluminum smelting, which would reduce fossil carbon consumption, and eliminate the emission of carbon dioxide and of perfluorocarbons. Ternary alloys containing copper, nickel, and iron have been the subject of the research activities. The present research focused on the stability of the Cu-Ni-Fe alloys at high temperatures in oxidizing and fluoridating environments. The experimental methods included thermodynamic calculations of the phase diagram (Thermocalc), optical microscopy and microprobe microstructural and chemical investigations (EMPA), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and air-oxidation studies. The results have led to the optimization of the Cu-Ni-Fe ternary phase diagram and to an extensive study of the thermodynamics and kinetics of the spinodal decomposition and discontinuous reactions occurring during ageing as a function of alloy composition. The oxidizing reactions occurring in air at high temperatures at the surface of the alloys have been also discussed in terms of thermodynamic and kinetic laws. The phase formation in a fluorine containing environment as encountered in an aluminum electrolytic cell is predicted using principles of physical chemistry.

  19. TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT INFRARED OPTICAL CONSTANTS OF OLIVINE AND ENSTATITE

    SciTech Connect

    Zeidler, S.; Mutschke, H.; Posch, Th. E-mail: harald.mutschke@uni-jena.de

    2015-01-10

    Since the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) mission, it has become clear that dust in circumstellar disks and outflows consists partly of crystalline silicates of pyroxene and olivine type. An exact mineralogical analysis of the dust infrared emission spectra relies on laboratory spectra, which, however, have been mostly measured at room temperature so far. Given that infrared spectral features depend on the thermal excitation of the crystal's vibrational modes, laboratory spectra measured at various (low and high) temperatures, corresponding to the thermal conditions at different distances from the star, can improve the accuracy of such analyses considerably. We have measured the complex refractive index in a temperature range of 10-973 K for one mineral of each of those types of silicate, i.e., for an olivine and an enstatite of typical (terrestrial) composition. Thus, our data extend the temperature range of previous data to higher values and the compositional range to higher iron contents. We analyze the temperature dependence of oscillator frequencies and damping parameters governing the spectral characteristics of the bands and calculate absorption cross-sectional spectra that can be compared with astronomical emission spectra. We demonstrate the usefulness of our new data by comparing spectra calculated for a 100 K dust temperature with the ISO SWS spectrum of IRAS 09425-6040.

  20. Temperature Dependence of Carbon Isotope Fractionation in CAM Plants.

    PubMed

    Deleens, E; Treichel, I; O'leary, M H

    1985-09-01

    The carbon isotope fractionation associated with nocturnal malic acid synthesis in Kalanchoë daigremontiana and Bryophyllum tubiflorum was calculated from the isotopic composition of carbon-4 of malic acid, after appropriate corrections. In the lowest temperature treatment (17 degrees C nights, 23 degrees C days), the isotope fractionation for both plants is -4 per thousand (that is, malate is enriched in (13)C relative to the atmosphere). For K. daigremontiana, the isotope fractionation decreases with increasing temperature, becoming approximately 0 per thousand at 27 degrees C/33 degrees C. Detailed analysis of temperature effects on the isotope fractionation indicates that stomatal aperture decreases with increasing temperature and carboxylation capacity increases. For B. tubiflorum, the temperature dependence of the isotope fractionation is smaller and is principally attributed to the normal temperature dependences of the rates of diffusion and carboxylation steps. The small change in the isotopic composition of remaining malic acid in both species which is observed during deacidification indicates that malate release, rather than decarboxylation, is rate limiting in the deacidification process. PMID:16664371

  1. Temperature-Dependent Dielectric Properties of Al/Epoxy Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zijun; Zhou, Wenying; Sui, Xuezhen; Dong, Lina; Cai, Huiwu; Zuo, Jing; Chen, Qingguo

    2016-01-01

    Broadband dielectric spectroscopy was carried out to study the transition in electrical properties of Al/epoxy nanocomposites over the frequency range of 1-107 Hz and the temperature range of -20°C to 200°C. The dielectric permittivity, dissipation factor, and electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites increased with temperature and showed an abrupt increase around the glass transition temperature (T g). The results clearly reveal an interesting transition of the electrical properties with increasing temperature: insulator below 70°C, conductor at about 70°C. The behavior of the transition in electrical properties of the nanocomposites was explored at different temperatures. The presence of relaxation peaks in the loss tangent and electric modulus spectra of the nanocomposites confirms that the chain segmental dynamics of the polymer is accompanied by the absorption of energy given to the system. It is suggested that the temperature-dependent transition of the electric properties in the nanocomposite is closely associated with the α-relaxation. The large increase in the dissipation factor and electric conductivity depends on the direct current conduction of thermally activated charge carriers resulting from the epoxy matrix above T g.

  2. Temperature dependence of resonance Raman spectra of carotenoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, A.; Apostolova, I.; Velitchkova, M.

    2011-04-01

    To understand the mechanism of the photoprotective and antioxidative functions of carotenoids, it is essential to have a profound knowledge of their excited electronic and vibronic states. In the present study we investigate the most powerful antioxidants: β-carotene and lutein by means of resonance Raman spectroscopy. The aim was to study in detail their Raman spectra in solution at room temperature and their changes as a function of temperature. To measure the spectra in their natural environment pyridine has been used as a solvent. It has been chosen because of its polarizability ( n = 1.5092) which is close to that of membrane lipids and proteins. The temperature dependence of the most intensive ν1 band in the range from 77 K to 295 K at 514.5 nm excitation has been obtained. It was found that in pyridine the C dbnd C stretching frequency, its intensity, line shape, and line width are very sensitive to the temperature (the sensitivity being different for the two studied carotenoids). The observed linear temperature dependence of the C dbnd C stretching frequency is explained by a mechanism involving changes of the vibronic coupling and the extent of π-electron delocalization. The different behavior of the temperature-induced broadening of the ν1 band and its intensity for the two studied carotenoids can be associated with the different nature of their solid matrices: glassy for β-carotene and crystalline-like for lutein, owing to their different chemical structures.

  3. Temperature-dependent Infrared Optical Constants of Olivine and Enstatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeidler, S.; Mutschke, H.; Posch, Th.

    2015-01-01

    Since the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) mission, it has become clear that dust in circumstellar disks and outflows consists partly of crystalline silicates of pyroxene and olivine type. An exact mineralogical analysis of the dust infrared emission spectra relies on laboratory spectra, which, however, have been mostly measured at room temperature so far. Given that infrared spectral features depend on the thermal excitation of the crystal's vibrational modes, laboratory spectra measured at various (low and high) temperatures, corresponding to the thermal conditions at different distances from the star, can improve the accuracy of such analyses considerably. We have measured the complex refractive index in a temperature range of 10-973 K for one mineral of each of those types of silicate, i.e., for an olivine and an enstatite of typical (terrestrial) composition. Thus, our data extend the temperature range of previous data to higher values and the compositional range to higher iron contents. We analyze the temperature dependence of oscillator frequencies and damping parameters governing the spectral characteristics of the bands and calculate absorption cross-sectional spectra that can be compared with astronomical emission spectra. We demonstrate the usefulness of our new data by comparing spectra calculated for a 100 K dust temperature with the ISO SWS spectrum of IRAS 09425-6040.

  4. Temperature-Dependent Dielectric Properties of Al/Epoxy Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zijun; Zhou, Wenying; Sui, Xuezhen; Dong, Lina; Cai, Huiwu; Zuo, Jing; Chen, Qingguo

    2016-06-01

    Broadband dielectric spectroscopy was carried out to study the transition in electrical properties of Al/epoxy nanocomposites over the frequency range of 1-107 Hz and the temperature range of -20°C to 200°C. The dielectric permittivity, dissipation factor, and electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites increased with temperature and showed an abrupt increase around the glass transition temperature ( T g). The results clearly reveal an interesting transition of the electrical properties with increasing temperature: insulator below 70°C, conductor at about 70°C. The behavior of the transition in electrical properties of the nanocomposites was explored at different temperatures. The presence of relaxation peaks in the loss tangent and electric modulus spectra of the nanocomposites confirms that the chain segmental dynamics of the polymer is accompanied by the absorption of energy given to the system. It is suggested that the temperature-dependent transition of the electric properties in the nanocomposite is closely associated with the α-relaxation. The large increase in the dissipation factor and electric conductivity depends on the direct current conduction of thermally activated charge carriers resulting from the epoxy matrix above T g.

  5. New application of temperature-dependent modelling of high temperature superconductors: Quench propagation and pulse magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Matsuda, Koichi; Coombs, T. A.

    2012-08-01

    We present temperature-dependent modeling of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) to understand HTS electromagnetic phenomena where temperature fluctuation plays a nontrivial role. Thermal physics is introduced into the well-developed H-formulation model, and the effect of temperature-dependent parameters is considered. Based on the model, we perform extensive studies on two important HTS applications: quench propagation and pulse magnetization. A micrometer-scale quench model of HTS coil is developed, which can be used to estimate minimum quench energy and normal zone propagation velocity inside the coil. In addition, we study the influence of inhomogeneity of HTS bulk during pulse magnetization. We demonstrate how the inhomogeneous distribution of critical current inside the bulk results in varying degrees of heat dissipation and uniformity of final trapped field. The temperature-dependent model is proven to be a powerful tool to study the thermally coupled electromagnetic phenomena of HTS.

  6. On the Temperature Dependence of Enzyme-Catalyzed Rates.

    PubMed

    Arcus, Vickery L; Prentice, Erica J; Hobbs, Joanne K; Mulholland, Adrian J; Van der Kamp, Marc W; Pudney, Christopher R; Parker, Emily J; Schipper, Louis A

    2016-03-29

    One of the critical variables that determine the rate of any reaction is temperature. For biological systems, the effects of temperature are convoluted with myriad (and often opposing) contributions from enzyme catalysis, protein stability, and temperature-dependent regulation, for example. We have coined the phrase "macromolecular rate theory (MMRT)" to describe the temperature dependence of enzyme-catalyzed rates independent of stability or regulatory processes. Central to MMRT is the observation that enzyme-catalyzed reactions occur with significant values of ΔCp(‡) that are in general negative. That is, the heat capacity (Cp) for the enzyme-substrate complex is generally larger than the Cp for the enzyme-transition state complex. Consistent with a classical description of enzyme catalysis, a negative value for ΔCp(‡) is the result of the enzyme binding relatively weakly to the substrate and very tightly to the transition state. This observation of negative ΔCp(‡) has important implications for the temperature dependence of enzyme-catalyzed rates. Here, we lay out the fundamentals of MMRT. We present a number of hypotheses that arise directly from MMRT including a theoretical justification for the large size of enzymes and the basis for their optimum temperatures. We rationalize the behavior of psychrophilic enzymes and describe a "psychrophilic trap" which places limits on the evolution of enzymes in low temperature environments. One of the defining characteristics of biology is catalysis of chemical reactions by enzymes, and enzymes drive much of metabolism. Therefore, we also expect to see characteristics of MMRT at the level of cells, whole organisms, and even ecosystems. PMID:26881922

  7. Temperature dependent Raman and DFT study of creatine.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Debraj; Sharma, Poornima; Singh, Ranjan K

    2015-01-01

    Temperature dependent Raman spectra of creatine powder have been recorded in the temperature range 420-100K at regular intervals and different clusters of creatine have been optimized using density functional theory (DFT) in order to determine the effect of temperature on the hydrogen bonded network in the crystal structure of creatine. Vibrational assignments of all the 48 normal modes of the zwitterionic form of creatine have been done in terms of potential energy distribution obtained from DFT calculations. Precise analysis gives information about thermal motion and intermolecular interactions with respect to temperature in the crystal lattice. Formation of higher hydrogen bonded aggregates on cooling can be visualized from the spectra through clear signature of phase transition between 200K and 180K. PMID:26010702

  8. Temperature-dependent liquid metal flowrate control device

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Roger D.

    1978-01-01

    A temperature-dependent liquid metal flowrate control device includes a magnet and a ferromagnetic member defining therebetween a flow path for liquid metal, the ferromagnetic member being formed of a material having a curie temperature at which a change in the flow rate of the liquid metal is desired. According to the preferred embodiment the magnet is a cylindrical rod magnet axially disposed within a cylindrical member formed of a curie material and having iron pole pieces at the ends. A cylindrical iron shunt and a thin wall stainless steel barrier are disposed in the annulus between magnet and curie material. Below the curie temperature flow between steel barrier and curie material is impeded and above the curie temperature flow impedance is reduced.

  9. Temperature dependence of contact resistance at metal/MWNT interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Eui; Moon, Kyoung-Seok; Sohn, Yoonchul

    2016-07-01

    Although contact resistance of carbon nanotube (CNT) is one of the most important factors for practical application of electronic devices, a study regarding temperature dependence on contact resistance of CNTs with metal electrodes has not been found. Here, we report an investigation of contact resistance at multiwalled nanotube (MWNT)/Ag interface as a function of temperature, using MWNT/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite. Electrical resistance of MWNT/PDMS composite revealed negative temperature coefficient (NTC). Excluding the contact resistance with Ag electrode, the NTC effect became less pronounced, showing lower intrinsic resistivity with the activation energy of 0.019 eV. Activation energy of the contact resistance of MWNT/Ag interface was determined to be 0.04 eV, two times larger than that of MWNT-MWNT network. The increase in the thermal fluctuation assisted electron tunneling is attributed to conductivity enhancement at both MWNT/MWNT and MWNT/Ag interfaces with increasing temperature.

  10. A nanoscale temperature-dependent heterogeneous nucleation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Y. Y.; Yang, G. W.

    2015-06-14

    Classical nucleation theory relies on the hypothetical equilibrium of the whole nucleation system, and neglects the thermal fluctuations of the surface; this is because the high entropic gains of the (thermodynamically extensive) surface would lead to multiple stable states. In fact, at the nanometer scale, the entropic gains of the surface are high enough to destroy the stability of the thermal equilibrium during nucleation, comparing with the whole system. We developed a temperature-dependent nucleation theory to elucidate the heterogeneous nucleation process, by considering the thermal fluctuations based on classical nucleation theory. It was found that the temperature not only affected the phase transformation, but also influenced the surface energy of the nuclei. With changes in the Gibbs free energy barrier, nucleation behaviors, such as the nucleation rate and the critical radius of the nuclei, showed temperature-dependent characteristics that were different from those predicted by classical nucleation theory. The temperature-dependent surface energy density of a nucleus was deduced based on our theoretical model. The agreement between the theoretical and experimental results suggested that the developed nucleation theory has the potential to contribute to the understanding and design of heterogeneous nucleation at the nanoscale.

  11. Multi-Relaxation Temperature-Dependent Dielectric Model of the Arctic Soil at Positive Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savin, I. V.; Mironov, V. L.

    2014-11-01

    Frequency spectra of the dielectric permittivity of the Arctic soil of Alaska are investigated with allowance for the dipole and ionic relaxation of molecules of the soil moisture at frequencies from 40 MHz to 16 GHz and temperatures from -5 to +25°С. A generalized temperature-dependent multi-relaxation refraction dielectric model of the humid Arctic soil is suggested.

  12. Temperature-dependent internal photoemission probe for band parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lao, Yan-Feng; Perera, A. G. Unil

    2012-11-01

    The temperature-dependent characteristic of band offsets at the heterojunction interface was studied by an internal photoemission (IPE) method. In contrast to the traditional Fowler method independent of the temperature (T), this method takes into account carrier thermalization and carrier/dopant-induced band-renormalization and band-tailing effects, and thus measures the band-offset parameter at different temperatures. Despite intensive studies in the past few decades, the T dependence of this key band parameter is still not well understood. Re-examining a p-type doped GaAs emitter/undoped AlxGa1-xAs barrier heterojunction system disclosed its previously ignored T dependency in the valence-band offset, with a variation up to ˜-10-4 eV/K in order to accommodate the difference in the T-dependent band gaps between GaAs and AlGaAs. Through determining the Fermi energy level (Ef), IPE is able to distinguish the impurity (IB) and valence bands (VB) of extrinsic semiconductors. One important example is to determine Ef of dilute magnetic semiconductors such as GaMnAs, and to understand whether it is in the IB or VB.

  13. A Copper-Methionine Interaction Controls the pH-Dependent Activation of Peptidylglycine Monooxygenase†

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Andrew T.; Broers, Brenda A.; kline, Chelsey D.; Blackburn, Ninian J.

    2011-01-01

    The pH dependence of native PHM and its M314H variant have been studied in detail. For WT PHM the intensity of the Cu-S interaction visible in the Cu(I) EXAFS data is inversely proportional to catalytic activity over the pH range 3 - 8. A previous model based on more limited data was interpreted in terms of two protein conformations involving an inactive met-on form and an active flexible met-off form which derived its catalytic activity from the ability to couple into vibrational modes critical for proton tunneling. The new studies comparing the WT and M314H variant have led to an evolution of this model where the met-on form has been found to be derived from coordination of an additional Met residue, rather than a more rigid conformer of M314 as previously proposed. The catalytic activity of the mutant decreased by 96% due to effects on both kcat and KM but it displayed the same activity/pH profile with a maximum around pH 6. At pH 8, the reduced Cu(I) form gave spectra which could be simulated by replacing the CuM Cu-S(Met) interaction with a Cu-N/O but the data did not unambiguously assign the ligand to the imidazole side chain of H314. At pH 3.5 the EXAFS still showed the presence of a strong Cu-S interaction, establishing that the met-on form observed at low pH in WT cannot be due to a strengthening of the CuM-methionine interaction, but must arise from a different Cu-S interaction. Therefore, lowering the pH causes a conformational change at one of the Cu centers which brings a new S-donor residue into a favorable orientation for coordination to copper and generating an inactive form. Cys coordination is unlikely since all Cys residues in PHM are engaged in disulfide crosslinks. Sequence comparison with the PHM homologues TBM and DBM suggest that M109 (adjacent to the H-site ligands H107 and H108) is the most likely candidate. A model is presented in which H108 protonates with a pKA of 4.6 to generate the inactive low-pH form with CuH coordinated by M109, H

  14. Temperature-dependent toxicities of four common chemical pollutants to the marine medaka fish, copepod and rotifer.

    PubMed

    Li, Adela J; Leung, Priscilla T Y; Bao, Vivien W W; Yi, Andy X L; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-10-01

    We hypothesize that chemical toxicity to marine ectotherms is the lowest at an optimum temperature (OT) and it exacerbates with increasing or decreasing temperature from the OT. This study aimed to verify this hypothetical temperature-dependent chemical toxicity (TDCT) model through laboratory experiments. Acute toxicity over a range of temperatures was tested on four commonly used chemicals to three marine ectotherms. Our results confirmed that toxicities, in terms of 96-h LC50 (median lethal concentration; for the marine medaka fish Oryzias melastigma and the copepod Tigriopus japonicus) and 24-h LC50 (for the rotifer Brachionus koreanus), were highly temperature-dependent, and varied between test species and between study chemicals. The LC50 value of the fish peaked at 20 °C for copper (II) sulphate pentahydrate and triphenyltin chloride, and at 25 °C for dichlorophenyltrichloroethane and copper pyrithione, and decreased with temperature increase or decrease from the peak (i.e., OT). However, LC50 values of the copepod and the rotifer generally showed a negative relationship with temperature across all test chemicals. Both copepod and rotifer entered dormancy at the lowest temperature of 4 °C. Such metabolic depression responses in these zooplanktons could reduce their uptake of the chemical and hence minimize the chemical toxicity at low temperatures. Our TDCT model is supported by the fish data only, whereas a simple linear model fits better to the zooplankton data. Such species-specific TDCT patterns may be jointly ascribed to temperature-mediated changes in (1) the physiological response and susceptibility of the marine ectotherms to the chemical, (2) speciation and bioavailability of the chemical, and (3) toxicokinetics of the chemical in the organisms. PMID:25098775

  15. Marginal copper deficiency impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation responses across two generations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The generational effects of marginal copper (Cu) deficiency on vascular function have not been characterized.In this study, the vascular consequences of marginal Cu deficiency were determined by relaxation responses in mesenteric arteries of dams and two generations of offspring. Pups from dams (fir...

  16. The mass and speed dependence of meteor air plasma temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Laux, Christophe O.; Wilson, Michael A.; Schaller, Emily L.

    2004-01-01

    The speed and mass dependence of meteor air plasma temperatures is perhaps the most important data needed to understand how small meteoroids chemically change the ambient atmosphere in their path and enrich the ablated meteoric organic matter with oxygen. Such chemistry can play an important role in creating prebiotic compounds. The excitation conditions in various air plasma emissions were measured from high-resolution optical spectra of Leonid storm meteors during NASA's Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign. This was the first time a sufficient number and range of temperature measurements were obtained to search for meteoroid mass and speed dependencies. We found slight increases in temperature with decreasing altitude, but otherwise nearly constant values for meteoroids with speeds between 35 and 72 km/s and masses between 10(-5) g and 1 g. We conclude that faster and more massive meteoroids produce a larger emission volume, but not a higher air plasma temperature. We speculate that the meteoric plasma may be in multiphase equilibrium with the ambient atmosphere, which could mean lower plasma temperatures in a CO(2)-rich early Earth atmosphere.

  17. Temperature dependence of the scanning performance of an electrostatic microscanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Noriaki; Ikeda, Kentaro; Sawada, Renshi

    2016-03-01

    An optical microscanner is one examples of an optical-MEMS device, which scans a laser beam across one or two dimensions by reflecting it. The microscanner has a range of applications, such as laser printers, laser displays and bio-medical imaging. For each application, the mirror is required to oscillated at a certain frequency and optical scan angle. However, its scanning performance varies with temperature. To address this issue, the temperature dependence of the natural frequency of a 1D electrostatic microscanner formed of single-crystal silicon is investigated both theorectically and experimentally in this paper. As the temperature rises from 30 °C to 80 °C, the calculated value of the natural frequency decreased from 1910.81 Hz to 1908.68 Hz, and the experimental value decreased from 2123.85 Hz to 2120.56 Hz. The percentage changes in calculated and experimental results were  -0.11% and  -0.15%, and thus the former was consistent with the latter. The factors of the variation of natural frequency are the deformation caused by thermal expansion and the temperature dependence of shear modulus. The results of theoretical calculations indicated that the principal factor in the change of natural frequency was the shear modulus on the temperature.

  18. Low-temperature approach to highly emissive copper indium sulfide colloidal nanocrystals and their bioimaging applications.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kui; Ng, Peter; Ouyang, Jianying; Zaman, Md Badruz; Abulrob, Abedelnasser; Baral, Toya Nath; Fatehi, Dorothy; Jakubek, Zygmunt J; Kingston, David; Wu, Xiaohua; Liu, Xiangyang; Hebert, Charlie; Leek, Donald M; Whitfield, Dennis M

    2013-04-24

    We report our newly developed low-temperature synthesis of colloidal photoluminescent (PL) CuInS2 nanocrystals (NCs) and their in vitro and in vivo imaging applications. With diphenylphosphine sulphide (SDPP) as a S precursor made from elemental S and diphenylphosphine, this is a noninjection based approach in 1-dodecanethiol (DDT) with excellent synthetic reproducibility and large-scale capability. For a typical synthesis with copper iodide (CuI) as a Cu source and indium acetate (In(OAc)3) as an In source, the growth temperature was as low as 160 °C and the feed molar ratios were 1Cu-to-1In-to-4S. Amazingly, the resulting CuInS2 NCs in toluene exhibit quantum yield (QY) of ~23% with photoemission peaking at ~760 nm and full width at half maximum (FWHM) of ~140 nm. With a mean size of ~3.4 nm (measured from the vertices to the bases of the pyramids), they are pyramidal in shape with a crystal structure of tetragonal chalcopyrite. In situ (31)P NMR (monitored from 30 °C to 100 °C) and in situ absorption at 80 °C suggested that the Cu precursor should be less reactive toward SDPP than the In precursor. For our in vitro and in vivo imaging applications, CuInS2/ZnS core-shell QDs were synthesized; afterwards, dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) or 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) were used for ligand exchange and then bio-conjugation was performed. Two single-domain antibodies (sdAbs) were used. One was 2A3 for in vitro imaging of BxPC3 pancreatic cancer cells. The other was EG2 for in vivo imaging of a Glioblastoma U87MG brain tumour model. The bioimaging data illustrate that the CuInS2 NCs from our SDPP-based low-temperature noninjection approach are good quality. PMID:23486927

  19. High temperature silver-palladium-copper oxide air braze filler metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darsell, Jens Tommy

    The Ag-CuO system is currently being investigated as the basis for an air braze filler metal alloy to be used in SOFC components. The system is of interest because unlike most braze alloys, it is capable of wetting a variety of ceramic materials while being applied in an air. This thesis work examined modification of Ag-CuO filler metal system by alloying with palladium to increase the use temperature of the resulting air braze alloy. Thermal analysis was performed to track changes in the solidus and liquidus temperatures for these alloys and determine equilibrium phase present as a function of temperature and composition. Sessile drop experiments were performed to investigate the effect of palladium addition on braze wetability. The influence of copper-oxide and palladium contents on brazed joint strength was characterized by a combination of four-point bend testing and fractography. From combined thermal analysis and quenched data it was found that both the liquidus and solidus increase with increasing palladium content, and the silver-rich miscibility gap boundary could be shifted by the addition of palladium. This was employed as a tool to study the effects of two-liquid phase formation on wetting behavior. In addition, a mass loss likely attributable to silver volatilization is observed in the Pd-modified filler metals when heated over ˜1100°C. As volatilization should be avoided, the ternary alloys should be limited to 15mol% Pd. It was found by sessile drop wetting experiments that there is a definitive change in wetting behavior that corresponds directly to the miscibility gap boundary for the Pd-Ag-CuO system. The first order transition tracks with changes in the miscibility gap boundary that can be induced by increasing palladium content. This is the first experimental evidence of critical point wetting behavior reported for a metal-oxide system and further confirms that critical point wetting theory is universal. Four-point bend testing and

  20. Temperature dependence of the absorption edge of vitreous silica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, C. W., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    During an investigation of the optical properties of high-purity vitreous silica (fused quartz), which is being developed by NASA as a reflective and ablative heat shield, some interesting properties of theoretical and experimental nature have become apparent which otherwise may have remained unnoticed. Of particular interest for the NASA application is the shift of the absorption edge toward longer wavelengths with increasing temperature. The results of studies of this shift and of the spectral dependence of the absorption edge are summarized in the present paper. Plots of the absorption edge and the absorption spectrum of fused quartz vs temperature are given and discussed.

  1. Temperature-dependent dielectric properties of a thermoplastic gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi, Giovanni; Neitzert, Heinz C.; Sorrentino, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    The frequency and the temperature dependence of the dielectric properties of a thermoplastic gelatin based bio-material have been investigated. At lower frequencies the dielectric response is strongly affected by charge carrier accumulation at the electrodes which modifies the dominating hopping conduction mechanism. The variation of the ac conductivity with frequency obeys a Jonscher type power law except for a small deviation in the low frequency range due to the electrode polarization effect. The master curve of the ac conductivity data shows that the conductivity relaxation of the gelatin is temperature independent.

  2. A temperature dependent SPICE macro-model for power MOSFETs

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, D.G.

    1992-05-01

    A power MOSFET macro-model for use with the circuit simulator SPICE has been developed suitable for use over the temperature range of {minus}55 to 125{degrees}C. The model is comprised of a single parameter set with the temperature dependence accessed through the SPICE TEMP card. This report describes in detail the development of the model and the extraction algorithms used to obtain model parameters. The extraction algorithms are described in sufficient detail to allow for automated measurements which in turn allows for rapid and cost effective development of an accurate SPICE model for any power MOSFET. 22 refs.

  3. Potential-dependent sum frequency generation study of 5-methylbenzotriazole on polycrystalline copper, platinum, and gold.

    PubMed

    Romero, Casey; Baldelli, Steven

    2006-06-22

    In situ sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy, at varied potentials and polarization combinations, was performed on polycrystalline copper, polycrystalline platinum, and polycrystalline gold samples in 0.5 M HClO4 with 50 mM 5-methylbenzotriazole (5-methylBTAH) added. These studies were performed to determine the orientation of 5-methylBTAH on the surface at different potentials. For copper surfaces, orientation of the molecule on the surface is not affected by potential within the potential window studied (-500 to -100 mV vs saturated calomel electrode (SCE)). Sum frequency generation spectra of 5-methylBTAH on platinum show a change in orientation over the potential range studied (-250 to 750 mV vs SCE). The orientation of the methyl group tilts more toward the plane of the interface as the potential is scanned in the positive direction. This orientation change is correlated to hydrogen coadsorption on the platinum surface at low potentials. 5-Methylbenzotriazole lies in the surface plane or does not orient on gold at lower potentials but the orientation is tilted toward normal at more positive potentials over the potential range studied (-500 to 900 mV vs SCE). To compliment these results, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements were performed. Cyclic voltammograms of copper show that addition of 5-methylBTAH protects the surface from copper dissolution, increasing the electrochemical window by 450 mV. Cyclic voltammetry of 5-methylBTAH on platinum showed a partial blockage of adsorbed hydrogen and also prevented the adsorption of oxygenated species at 450-600 mV. Cyclic voltammetry on gold shows that 5-methylBTAH blocks oxide formation for 400 mV thus increasing the electrochemical window. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has been performed to determine the potential of zero charge of 5-methylBTAH on copper. PMID:16800498

  4. Temperature dependence of predation depends on the relative performance of predators and prey

    PubMed Central

    Öhlund, Gunnar; Hedström, Per; Norman, Sven; Hein, Catherine L.; Englund, Göran

    2015-01-01

    The temperature dependence of predation rates is a key issue for understanding and predicting the responses of ecosystems to climate change. Using a simple mechanistic model, we demonstrate that differences in the relative performances of predator and prey can cause strong threshold effects in the temperature dependence of attack rates. Empirical data on the attack rate of northern pike (Esox lucius) feeding on brown trout (Salmo trutta) confirm this result. Attack rates fell sharply below a threshold temperature of +11°C, which corresponded to a shift in relative performance of pike and brown trout with respect to maximum attack and escape swimming speeds. The average attack speed of pike was an order of magnitude lower than the escape speed of brown trout at 5°C, but approximately equal at temperatures above 11°C. Thresholds in the temperature dependence of ecological rates can create tipping points in the responses of ecosystems to increasing temperatures. Thus, identifying thresholds is crucial when predicting future effects of climate warming. PMID:25473013

  5. Temperature dependence of carrier capture by defects in gallium arsenide

    SciTech Connect

    Wampler, William R.; Modine, Normand A.

    2015-08-01

    This report examines the temperature dependence of the capture rate of carriers by defects in gallium arsenide and compares two previously published theoretical treatments of this based on multi phonon emission (MPE). The objective is to reduce uncertainty in atomistic simulations of gain degradation in III-V HBTs from neutron irradiation. A major source of uncertainty in those simulations is poor knowledge of carrier capture rates, whose values can differ by several orders of magnitude between various defect types. Most of this variation is due to different dependence on temperature, which is closely related to the relaxation of the defect structure that occurs as a result of the change in charge state of the defect. The uncertainty in capture rate can therefore be greatly reduced by better knowledge of the defect relaxation.

  6. Intermittent chaos in the Bray-Liebhafsky oscillator. Temperature dependence.

    PubMed

    Bubanja, I N; Maćešić, S; Ivanović-Šašić, A; Čupić, Ž; Anić, S; Kolar-Anić, Lj

    2016-03-30

    Intermittent oscillations as a chaotic mixture of large amplitude relaxation oscillations, grouped in bursts and small-amplitude sinusoidal ones or even quiescent parts between them known as gaps, were found and examined in the Bray-Liebhafsky (BL) reaction performed in CSTR under controlled temperature variations. They were obtained in a narrow temperature range from 61.0 °C to 63.1 °C, where 61.0 °C is the critical temperature for burst emergence from the stable steady state and 63.1 °C is the critical temperature for gap emergence from regular oscillations. Since intermittencies appear gradually from the regular oscillatory state, and no hysteresis was obtained with decreasing/increasing temperature in the vicinity of these two bifurcations, a linear relationship between (τB/τ)(2) and (τG/τ)(2) (where τB, τG and τ denotes duration of bursts, gaps, and whole experiment, respectively), as a function of the temperature as the control parameter, was expected and obtained. Although these intermittent oscillations are chaotic with respect to the lengths of individual gaps as well as bursts, their deterministic behavior related to temperature was additionally established. Thus, the number of bursts or gaps per unit of time (NB/τ and NG/τ) has the form of a normal distribution function over the temperature range in the region where intermittencies are obtained. Temperature dependence of the Lyapunov exponents was also described by a function of the normal distribution form. Hence, we established some regularities in the chaotic behavior of intermittent oscillations that are common in life but difficult for determinations. PMID:27001164

  7. Temperature-dependent piezoresistivity in an MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposite temperature sensor with ultrahigh performance.

    PubMed

    Alamusi; Li, Yuan; Hu, Ning; Wu, Liangke; Yuan, Weifeng; Peng, Xianghe; Gu, Bin; Chang, Christiana; Liu, Yaolu; Ning, Huiming; Li, Jinhua; Surina; Atobe, Satoshi; Fukunaga, Hisao

    2013-11-15

    A temperature sensor was fabricated from a polymer nanocomposite with multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) as nanofiller (i.e., MWCNT/epoxy). The electrical resistance and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of the temperature sensor were characterized experimentally. The effects of temperature (within the range 333-373 K) and MWCNT content (within the range 1-5 wt%) were investigated thoroughly. It was found that the resistance increases with increasing temperature and decreasing MWCNT content. However, the resistance change ratio related to the TCR increases with increasing temperature and MWCNT content. The highest value of TCR (0.021 K(-1)), which was observed in the case of 5 wt% MWCNT, is much higher than those of traditional metals and MWCNT-based temperature sensors. Moreover, the corresponding numerical simulation-conducted to explain the above temperature-dependent piezoresistivity of the nanocomposite temperature sensor-indicated the key role of a temperature-dependent tunneling effect. PMID:24121656

  8. Liquidus Temperatures and Solidification Behavior in the Copper-Niobium System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, D.; Robinson, M. B.; Rathz, T. J.; Williams, G.

    1998-01-01

    The copper-niobium phase diagram has been under active debate; thus, a corroboratory experimental study is needed. In this investigation, the melts of Cu-Nb alloys at compositions ranging from 5 to 86 wt pct Nb were processed in different environments and solidified at relatively low cooling rates of 50 to 75 C/s to determine liquidus temperatures and to study solidification behavior. For all samples processed under very clean conditions, only Nb dendrites in a Cu matrix were observed; while in the presence of oxygen impurities the alloys containing 5 to 35 wt pct Nb exhibited microstructure of Nb-rich spheroids and Nb dendrites in the Cu matrix. The results obtained from clean conditions are in fair agreement with the Cu-Nb phase diagram having an S-shaped, near-horizontal appearance of the liquidus. The formation of Nb- rich droplets at slow cooling rates is discussed in terms of a stable liquid miscibility gap induced by oxygen.

  9. Examination of some high-strength, high-conductivity copper alloys for high-temperature applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dadras, M.M.; Morris, D.G.

    1997-12-22

    Copper alloys with high strength and high thermal and electrical conductivity have received a lot of attention over the last decades. Most of such efforts have concentrated on the development of alloys containing fine, dispersed particles, and using rapid solidification techniques to ensure a sufficient volume fraction and sufficient fineness of the dispersed phase. In a recent study, a Cu-8Cr-4Nb alloy was developed which shows relatively good strength up to 700 C, a result which was explained by the resistance to coarsening of the fine Cr{sub 2}Nb intermetallic particles in this materials. The amount of intermetallic Cr{sub 2}Nb second phase in this alloy was about 14vol% and it was claimed that the special compound-nature of the intermetallic phase was responsible for the good stability and retention of strength to high temperature. In order to examine the influence of the nature of the fine particles present and their stability against coarsening, as well as to examine the influence of volume fraction of second phase on tensile strength, three different alloys have been chosen for study: Cu-2Nb and Cu-4Cr for examining the role of second phase chemistry (Nb or Cr) on structural and property stability; and a Cu-14Cr alloy, for comparison with the Cu-4Cr alloy, to examine the role of volume fraction of the second phase. The stability of these alloys will then be compared with that reported for the Cu-8Cr-4Nb alloy.

  10. Improvement of room temperature ppb level Cl2 sensing characteristics of copper phthalocyanine film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Rajan; Mahajan, Aman; Bedi, R. K.; Aswal, D. K.

    2013-02-01

    Room temperature ppb level Cl2 sensing characteristics of 50 nm films of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and its non-peripheral derivative Cu(II) 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octabutoxy-29H, 31H-phthalocyanine (CuPcOC4) have been studied in the 5-1500 ppb range. By making butoxy substitutions at non-peripheral sites of CuPc molecule, the detection limit of film is lowered from 50 ppb to 5 ppb with faster response and recovery time as compared to unsubstituted CuPc film of same thickness. For 1500 ppb of Cl2, the response of CuPcOC4 film is four times higher than CuPc film. These results are further enhanced by using self-assembled nanowires of CuPcOC4. The response of nanowires is five times higher than unsubstituted CuPc film with response and recovery time of 20 sec and 270 sec for 1500 ppb of Cl2.

  11. Temperature-Dependent Conformations of Model Viscosity Index Improvers

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasamy, Uma Shantini; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Martini, Ashlie

    2015-05-01

    Lubricants are comprised of base oils and additives where additives are chemicals that are deliberately added to the oil to enhance properties and inhibit degradation of the base oils. Viscosity index (VI) improvers are an important class of additives that reduce the decline of fluid viscosity with temperature [1], enabling optimum lubricant performance over a wider range of operating temperatures. These additives are typically high molecular weight polymers, such as, but not limited to, polyisobutylenes, olefin copolymer, and polyalkylmethacrylates, that are added in concentrations of 2-5% (w/w). Appropriate polymers, when dissolved in base oil, expand from a coiled to an uncoiled state with increasing temperature [2]. The ability of VI additives to increase their molar volume and improve the temperature-viscosity dependence of lubricants suggests there is a strong relationship between molecular structure and additive functionality [3]. In this work, we aim to quantify the changes in polymer size with temperature for four polyisobutylene (PIB) based molecular structures at the nano-scale using molecular simulation tools. As expected, the results show that the polymers adopt more conformations at higher temperatures, and there is a clear indication that the expandability of a polymer is strongly influenced by molecular structure.

  12. Temperature dependent bacteriophages of a tropical bacterial pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Jinyu; Korbsrisate, Sunee; Withatanung, Patoo; Adler, Natalie Lazar; Clokie, Martha R. J.; Galyov, Edouard E.

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness of the multiple ways that bacteriophages (phages) influence bacterial evolution, population dynamics, physiology, and pathogenicity. By studying a novel group of phages infecting a soil borne pathogen, we revealed a paradigm shifting observation that the phages switch their lifestyle according to temperature. We sampled soil from an endemic area of the serious tropical pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei, and established that podoviruses infecting the pathogen are frequently present in soil, and many of them are naturally occurring variants of a common virus type. Experiments on one phage in the related model B. thailandensis demonstrated that temperature defines the outcome of phage-bacteria interactions. At higher temperatures (37°C), the phage predominantly goes through a lytic cycle, but at lower temperatures (25°C), the phage remains temperate. This is the first report of a naturally occurring phage that follows a lytic or temperate lifestyle according to temperature. These observations fundamentally alter the accepted views on the abundance, population biology and virulence of B. pseudomallei. Furthermore, when taken together with previous studies, our findings suggest that the phenomenon of temperature dependency in phages is widespread. Such phages are likely to have a profound effect on bacterial biology, and on our ability to culture and correctly enumerate viable bacteria. PMID:25452746

  13. Temperature Dependence of Smectic Liquid Crystals Mixed With Magnetic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Jefferson W.; Kurihara, Lynn K.; Martinez-Miranda, Luz J.

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the properties of bulk liquid crystal mixed with a magnetic nanoparticle (CoFe) as a function of temperature. We compare our results to those of a heat capacity measurement of Cordoyiannis et al.ootnotetextGeorge Cordoyiannis, Lynn K. Kurihara, Luz J. Martinez-Miranda, Christ Glorieux, and Jan Thoen, Phys. Rev. E 79, 011702 (2009) and compare the way the smectic as a function of temperature the way the nematic behaves. We study how the liquid crystal reorganizes in the presence of the functionalized nanoparticles as a function of temperature and compare it to how it behaves at room temperature.ootnotetextL. J. Mart'inez-Miranda, and Lynn Kurihara, J. Appl. Phys, 105, p. 084305 (2009). The X-rays give rise to three or four peaks whose evolution in temperature varies depending on their origin. In particular the second peak does not seem to vary much with temperature, and can be associated with the first several molecular layers attached to the nanoparticles.

  14. MD Study of Stokes Shifts in Ionic Liquids: Temperature Dependence.

    PubMed

    Wu, Eric C; Kim, Hyung J

    2016-05-26

    Effects of temperature on Stokes shifts, solvation structure, and dynamics in ionic liquids EMI(+)Tf2N(-), EMI(+)PF6(-), and BMI(+)PF6(-) (EMI(+) = 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium, BMI(+) = 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium, Tf2N(-) = bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, and PF6(-) = hexafluorophosphate) are investigated via molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations in the temperature range 350 K ≤ T ≤ 500 K. Two different types of solutes are considered: a simple model diatomic solute and realistic coumarin 153, both of which are characterized by more polar S1 and less polar S0 states. In all three ionic liquids studied, the Stokes shift tends to decrease with increasing temperature. For coumarin 153, as T increases, the Franck-Condon energy for steady-state absorption decreases, whereas that for steady-state emission increases. Our findings indicate that the effective polarity of ionic liquids decreases as T increases. Their solvation dynamics are characterized by an ultrafast initial decay in the subpicosecond time scale, followed by slow dissipative relaxation, regardless of temperature. For both solutes, the solvent frequency that quantifies initial ultrafast dynamics shows little temperature dependence. By contrast, the long-time dissipative dynamics become significantly faster with rising T. Variations of solvation structure with temperature and their connection to Stokes shift and solvation dynamics are briefly examined. PMID:27133895

  15. Temperature dependence of relaxation times and temperature mapping in ultra-low-field MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesanen, Panu T.; Zevenhoven, Koos C. J.; Nieminen, Jaakko O.; Dabek, Juhani; Parkkonen, Lauri T.; Ilmoniemi, Risto J.

    2013-10-01

    Ultra-low-field MRI is an emerging technology that allows MRI and NMR measurements in microtesla-range fields. In this work, the possibilities of relaxation-based temperature measurements with ultra-low-field MRI were investigated by measuring T1 and T2 relaxation times of agarose gel at 50 μT-52 mT and at temperatures 5-45 °C. Measurements with a 3 T scanner were made for comparison. The Bloembergen-Purcell-Pound relaxation theory was combined with a two-state model to explain the field-strength and temperature dependence of the data. The results show that the temperature dependencies of agarose gel T1 and T2 in the microtesla range differ drastically from those at 3 T; the effect of temperature on T1 is reversed at approximately 5 mT. The obtained results were used to reconstruct temperature maps from ultra-low-field scans. These time-dependent temperature maps measured from an agarose gel phantom at 50 μT reproduced the temperature gradient with good contrast.

  16. Electroreduction of carbon monoxide over a copper nanocube catalyst: Surface structure and pH dependence on selectivity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Roberts, F. Sloan; Kuhl, Kendra P.; Nilsson, Anders

    2016-02-16

    The activity and selectivity for CO2/CO reduction over copper electrodes is strongly dependent on the local surface structure of the catalyst and the pH of the electrolyte. Here we investigate a unique, copper nanocube surface (CuCube) as a CO reduction electrode under neutral and basic pH, using online electrochemical mass spectroscopy (OLEMS) to determine the onset potentials and relative intensities of methane and ethylene production. To relate the unique selectivity to the surface structure, the CuCube surface reactivity is compared to polycrystalline copper and three single crystals under the same reaction conditions. Here, we find that the high selectivity formore » ethylene over the CuCube surface is most comparable to the Cu(100) surface, which has the cubic unit cell. However, the suppression of methane production over CuCube is unique to that particular surface. Basic pH is also shown to enhance ethylene selectivity on all surfaces, again with the CuCube surface being unique.« less

  17. Synthesis and copper-dependent antimycoplasmal activity of amides and amidines derived from 2-amino-1,10-phenanthroline.

    PubMed

    de Zwart, M A; Bastiaans, H M; van der Goot, H; Timmerman, H

    1991-03-01

    A series of both aliphatic and aromatic amides and aromatic amidines derived from 2-amino-1,10-phenanthroline (3) according to the Topliss scheme were synthesized and subsequently tested for antimycoplasmal potency. Although the compounds themselves showed no activity, in the presence of a nontoxic copper concentration of 40 microM all compounds appeared to be very active against Mycoplasma gallisepticum K154. The most active compounds were found in the amide series and show growth inhibition in the nanomolar range. These compounds are 4 times more active than tylosin, a macrolide antibiotic, which is used therapeutically in veterinary practice. In the presence of copper, amides derived from 3 are more active than corresponding amidines. Increased activity following derivatization of 3 may be due to the presence of a third coordination site for copper in the title compounds. Evaluation of biological data revealed that antimycoplasmal activity of amides derived from 3 is dependent on lipophilicity. For these amides a good linear correlation was found between antimycoplasmal activity and hydrophobic fragmental values for substituents considered. This quantitative structure-activity relationship study indicated that antimycoplasmal activity was increased upon a decrease of these hydrophobic fragmental values. PMID:2002460

  18. Temperature dependence of the Soret coefficient of ionic colloids.

    PubMed

    Sehnem, A L; Figueiredo Neto, A M; Aquino, R; Campos, A F C; Tourinho, F A; Depeyrot, J

    2015-10-01

    The temperature dependence of the Soret coefficient S(T)(T) in electrostatically charged magnetic colloids is investigated. Two different ferrofluids, with different particles' mean dimensions, are studied. In both cases we obtain a thermophilic behavior of the Soret effect. The temperature dependence of the Soret coefficient is described assuming that the nanoparticles migrate along the ionic thermoelectric field created by the thermal gradient. A model based on the contributions from the thermoelectrophoresis and variation of the double-layer energy, without fitting parameters, is used to describe the experimental results of the colloid with the bigger particles. To do so, independent measurements of the ζ potential, mass diffusion coefficient, and Seebeck coefficient are performed. The agreement of the theory and the experimental results is rather good. In the case of the ferrofluid with smaller particles, it is not possible to get experimentally reliable values of the ζ potential and the model described is used to evaluate this parameter and its temperature dependence. PMID:26565244

  19. Flocculation of copper(II) and tetracycline from water using a novel pH- and temperature-responsive flocculants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Jia, Shuying; Zhuo, Ning; Yang, Weiben; Wang, Yuping

    2015-12-01

    Insufficient research is available on flocculation of combined pollutants of heavy metals and antibiotics, which widely exist in livestock wastewaters. Aiming at solving difficulties in flocculation of this sort of combined pollution, a novel pH- and temperature-responsive biomass-based flocculant, carboxymethyl chitosan-graft-poly(N-isoproyl acrylamide-co-diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (denoted as CND) with two responsive switches [lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and isoelectric point (IEP)], was designed and synthesized. Its flocculation performance at different temperatures and pHs was evaluated using copper(II) and tetracycline (TC) as model contaminants. CND exhibited high efficiency for coremoval of both contaminants, whereas two commercial flocculants (polyaluminum chloride and polyacrylamide) did not. Especially, flocculation performance of the dual-responsive flocculant under conditions of temperature>LCST and IEP(contaminants)copper(II) and TC were present in bridging flocculation, including charge attraction, coordination and hydrophobic effect. Based on these pairwise interactions, copper(II) and TC exerted "aid" roles to each other's removal with the existence of CND, and preferable flocculation performance was thus achieved. PMID:26162528

  20. Temperature dependence of hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cell performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riesen, Y.; Stuckelberger, M.; Haug, F.-J.; Ballif, C.; Wyrsch, N.

    2016-01-01

    Thin-film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar (a-Si:H) cells are known to have better temperature coefficients than crystalline silicon cells. To investigate whether a-Si:H cells that are optimized for standard conditions (STC) also have the highest energy yield, we measured the temperature and irradiance dependence of the maximum power output (Pmpp), the fill factor (FF), the short-circuit current density (Jsc), and the open-circuit voltage (Voc) for four series of cells fabricated with different deposition conditions. The parameters varied during plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD) were the power and frequency of the PE-CVD generator, the hydrogen-to-silane dilution during deposition of the intrinsic absorber layer (i-layer), and the thicknesses of the a-Si:H i-layer and p-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide layer. The results show that the temperature coefficient of the Voc generally varies linearly with the Voc value. The Jsc increases linearly with temperature mainly due to temperature-induced bandgap reduction and reduced recombination. The FF temperature dependence is not linear and reaches a maximum at temperatures between 15 °C and 80 °C. Numerical simulations show that this behavior is due to a more positive space-charge induced by the photogenerated holes in the p-layer and to a recombination decrease with temperature. Due to the FF(T) behavior, the Pmpp (T) curves also have a maximum, but at a lower temperature. Moreover, for most series, the cells with the highest power output at STC also have the best energy yield. However, the Pmpp (T) curves of two cells with different i-layer thicknesses cross each other in the operating cell temperature range, indicating that the cell with the highest power output could, for instance, have a lower energy yield than the other cell. A simple energy-yield simulation for the light-soaked and annealed states shows that for Neuchâtel (Switzerland) the best cell at STC also has the best energy

  1. Room temperature reduction of multilayer graphene oxide film on a copper substrate: Penetration and participation of coper phase in redox reactions.

    SciTech Connect

    Voylov, Dmitry N; Agapov, Alexander L; Sokolov, Alexei P; Shulga, Y.M.; Arbuzov, Artem

    2014-01-01

    A self-reduction of graphene oxide (GO) at room temperature after prolonged storage on a copper substrate is evidenced by decrease of oxygen content and a dramatic, 6 orders in magnitude, increase in dc conductivity. Experiments revealed that the stored GO film contains copper hydroxide phase embedded in the reduced GO structure.

  2. Temperature dependent equation of state for HMX-based composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Melvin; Root, S.; Gustavsen, R. L.; Pierce, T.; DeFisher, S.; Travers, B.

    2012-03-01

    In order to examine the temperature dependence of the equation of state (EOS) of HMXbased explosives, two energetic composites, PBX9501 and PBXN9, were subjected to shockless compression using the Sandia VELOCE magnetic compression system. Prior to compression, the energetic samples were heated to temperatures up to 155°C, presumed to be below the HMX β - δ phase transition at atmospheric pressure conditions. A Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) was used to measure particle velocity of the transmitted compression wave. Temperature corrections in the drive plates and windows were estimated and velocity profile data was analyzed using forward/backward integration methods along with an optimization method to determine unreacted Mie-Grüneisen EOS parameters.

  3. Pressure dependence of the melting temperature of metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlosser, Herbert; Vinet, Pascal; Ferrante, John

    1989-01-01

    A new method for the analysis of the experimental data for the pressure dependence of the melting temperature of metals is presented. The method combines Lindemann's law, the Debye model, and a first-order equation of state with the experimental observation that the Grueneisen parameter divided by the volume is constant. It is observed that, based on these assumptions, in the absence of phase transitions, plots of the logarithm of the normalized melting temperature versus the logarithm of the normalized pressure are straight lines. It is found that the normalized-melting--temperature versus normalized-pressure curves accurately satisfy the linear relationship for Al, Ag, Au, Cs, Cu, K, Na, Pt, and Rb. In addition, this technique provides a sensitive tool for detecting phase transitions.

  4. Temperature Dependence of Rabi Oscillations in Phase Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustinov, Alexey; Lisenfeld, Juergen; Wirth, Tobias; Feofanov, Alexey; Lukashenko, Alexander

    2007-03-01

    Using the experimental setup in Erlangen, we compared aluminum-based phase qubits with SiNx shunting capacitors made at UCSB with similarly designed circuits fabricated at HYPRES foundry using a standard niobium-based fabrication process with SiO2 insulation. Measured decoherence times are about 100 ns and 5 ns, respectively. In both types of circuits, energy relaxation time T1 scales inversely proportional to the area of the qubit junction, which agrees with earlier data. Rabi oscillations remain visible up to the temperature T of about 400 mK (UCSB) and 800 mK (HYPRES), where the energy level separation becomes comparable with kBT. The current pulse readout in the upper temperature range is dominated by thermal escape rather then tunneling. Temperature dependence data for the decoherence time and oscillations contrast will be presented and discussed.

  5. Temperature dependence of the properties of vapor-deposited polyimide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, F. Y.; Blanton, T. N.; Harding, D. R.; Chen, S. H.

    2003-04-01

    The Young's modulus and helium gas permeability of vapor-deposited poly(4,4'-oxydiphenylenepyromellitimide) were measured at cryogenic and elevated temperatures (10-573 K). The Young's modulus decreased with increasing temperature from 5.5 GPa at 10 K to 1.8 GPa at 573 K. The temperature dependency of the permeability followed the Arrhenius' relationship, with different activation energy for permeation for samples imidized under different conditions. The effect of the imidization conditions on the permeation properties could be explained in terms of morphology/crystallinity as determined by x-ray diffraction techniques. Imidizing in air instead of nitrogen increased the permeability while lowering the activation energy for permeation and crystallinity. Imidizing at higher heating rates (in nitrogen) resulted in higher permeability, lower activation energy for permeation, and larger and fewer crystallites with better-aligned lattice planes.

  6. Temperature-dependent particle-number projected moment of inertia

    SciTech Connect

    Allal, N. H.; Fellah, M.; Benhamouda, N.; Oudih, M. R.

    2008-05-15

    Expressions of the parallel and perpendicular temperature-dependent particle-number projected nuclear moment of inertia have been established by means of a discrete projection method. They generalize that of the FTBCS method and are well adapted to numerical computation. The effects of particle-number fluctuations have been numerically studied for some even-even actinide nuclei by using the single-particle energies and eigenstates of a deformed Woods-Saxon mean field. It has been shown that the parallel moment of inertia is practically not modified by the use of the projection method. In contrast, the discrepancy between the projected and FTBCS perpendicular moment of inertia values may reach 5%. Moreover, the particle-number fluctuation effects vary not only as a function of the temperature but also as a function of the deformation for a given temperature. This is not the case for the system energy.

  7. Temperature dependence of charge transport in conjugated single molecule junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huisman, Eek; Kamenetska, Masha; Venkataraman, Latha

    2011-03-01

    Over the last decade, the break junction technique using a scanning tunneling microscope geometry has proven to be an important tool to understand electron transport through single molecule junctions. Here, we use this technique to probe transport through junctions at temperatures ranging from 5K to 300K. We study three amine-terminated (-NH2) conjugated molecules: a benzene, a biphenyl and a terphenyl derivative. We find that amine groups bind selectively to undercoordinate gold atoms gold all the way down to 5K, yielding single molecule junctions with well-defined conductances. Furthermore, we find that the conductance of a single molecule junction increases with temperature and we present a mechanism for this temperature dependent transport result. Funded by a Rubicon Grant from The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) and the NSEC program of NSF under grant # CHE-0641523.

  8. Temperature dependence of DNA translocations through solid-state nanopores

    PubMed Central

    Verschueren, Daniel V.; Jonsson, Magnus P.; Dekker, Cees

    2015-01-01

    In order to gain a better physical understanding of DNA translocations through solid-state nanopores, we study the temperature dependence of λ-DNA translocations through 10 nm-in-diameter silicon-nitride nanopores, both experimentally and theoretically. The measured ionic conductance G, the DNA-induced ionic-conductance blockades ΔG and the event frequency Γ all increase with increasing temperature while the DNA translocation time τ decreases. G and ΔG are accurately described when bulk and surface conductances of the nanopore are considered and access resistance is incorporated appropriately. Viscous drag on the untranslocated part of the DNA coil is found to dominate the temperature dependence of the translocation times and the event rate is well described by a balance between diffusion and electrophoretic motion. The good fit between modeled and measured properties of DNA translocations through solid-state nanopores in this first comprehensive temperature study, suggest that our model captures the relevant physics of the process. PMID:25994084

  9. Temperature and polarization dependence of photoluminescence in monolayer tungsten diselenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiani; Hoang, Thang; Mikkelsen, Maiken

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have recently attracted considerable research interest, due to their wide direct band-gaps, strong spin-orbit couplings and inversion symmetry breaking when compared to graphene. These properties have rich physics and applications in electronics, optics and spintronics. Here, we experimentally study the evolution of photoluminescence (PL) from mechanically exfoliated monolayer tungsten diselenide (WSe2) from T = 10 K to room temperature. At T = 10 K , we observe a clear free exciton (X0) emission at 1.75 eV together with a charged trion emission at 1.72 eV, yielding a trion binding energy of 30 meV. Temperature dependent PL measurements show that both the free exciton and trion exist up to room temperature, as a result of the large exciton (~370 meV) and trion binding energies of WSe2, while other localized and defect-related emission peaks vanish above T = 65 K . Temperature dependent polarization of the exciton and trion emisisons reveal a combined effect of large exciton binding energy, anisotropic thermal expansion and exciton-phonon interaction. These findings may provide a new platform to explore the valley polarization and valley-spin coupling in monolayer TMDCs.

  10. Temperature Dependent Cyclic Deformation Mechanisms in Haynes 188 Superalloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, K. Bhanu Sankara; Castelli, Michael G.; Allen, Gorden P.; Ellis, John R.

    1995-01-01

    The cyclic deformation behavior of a wrought cobalt-base superalloy, Haynes 188, has been investigated over a range of temperatures between 25 and 1000 C under isothermal and in-phase thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) conditions. Constant mechanical strain rates (epsilon-dot) of 10(exp -3)/s and 10(exp -4)/s were examined with a fully reversed strain range of 0.8%. Particular attention was given to the effects of dynamic strain aging (DSA) on the stress-strain response and low cycle fatigue life. A correlation between cyclic deformation behavior and microstructural substructure was made through detailed transmission electron microscopy. Although DSA was found to occur over a wide temperature range between approximately 300 and 750 C the microstructural characteristics and the deformation mechanisms responsible for DSA varied considerably and were dependent upon temperature. In general, the operation of DSA processes led to a maximum of the cyclic stress amplitude at 650 C and was accompanied by pronounced planar slip, relatively high dislocation density, and the generation of stacking faults. DSA was evidenced through a combination of phenomena, including serrated yielding, an inverse dependence of the maximum cyclic hardening with epsilon-dot, and an instantaneous inverse epsilon-dot sensitivity verified by specialized epsilon-dot -change tests. The TMF cyclic hardening behavior of the alloy appeared to be dictated by the substructural changes occuring at the maximum temperature in the TMF cycle.

  11. Temperature-dependent mechanics in suspended graphene systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storch, Isaac Robert

    Graphene is an atomically thin material with unique electrical, optical, and mechanical properties. In this thesis, we explore some of the interesting temperature-dependent mechanics of graphene membranes. We start by presenting the typical mechanical theory used by experimentalists to model a suspended graphene membrane in the presence of an electrostatic force, and we expand it to account for various effects, such as slack, capacitive softening, and dynamic changes in tension. We also perform finite element analysis using COMSOL Multiphysics software and compare the results with the analytic solution. Then, we show how to use the transfer matrix technique to model graphene optically as an infinitesimal conducting boundary. We solve for the reflectance of a graphene sheet parallel to a perfect mirror, which is important for measurements using optical detection. Next, we summarize the first measurement of photothermal optomechanics in graphene resonators, demonstrate both self-oscillation and cooling, and develop a theory to predict the optomechanical spring constant induced by photothermal forces. Finally, we develop an optical technique for sensing the static deflection of a graphene membrane and use it to measure the temperature dependence of the Young's modulus of graphene for the first time. We find that the room temperature modulus is much softer than expected from thermal rippling theories, but it stiffens significantly at low temperature.

  12. Temperature-dependent morphology of hybrid nanoflowers from elastin-like polypeptides

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Koushik; Balog, Eva Rose M.; Sista, Prakash; Williams, Darrick J.; Martinez, Jennifer S. E-mail: rcrocha@lanl.gov; Rocha, Reginaldo C. E-mail: rcrocha@lanl.gov; Kelly, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    We report a method for creating hybrid organic-inorganic “nanoflowers” using calcium or copper ions as the inorganic component and a recombinantly expressed elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) as the organic component. Polypeptides provide binding sites for the dynamic coordination with metal ions, and then such noncovalent complexes become nucleation sites for primary crystals of metal phosphates. We have shown that the interaction between the stimuli-responsive ELP and Ca{sup 2+} or Cu{sup 2+}, in the presence of phosphate, leads to the growth of micrometer-sized particles featuring nanoscale patterns shaped like flower petals. The morphology of these flower-like composite structures is dependent upon the temperature of growth and has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The composition of nanoflowers has also been analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The temperature-dependent morphologies of these hybrid nanostructures, which arise from the controllable phase transition of ELPs, hold potential for morphological control of biomaterials in emerging applications such as tissue engineering and biocatalysis.

  13. Spin Hall and spin Nernst effects: temperature dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyrdal, Anna; Barnas, Jozef; Dugaev, Vitalii

    We have considered temperature dependence of spin Hall and spin Nernst effect in two-dimensional electron gas with spin-orbit interaction of Rashba type [arXiv:1510.03080]. In our considerations we have employed the approach based on the Matsubara Green functions. The formalism used in the case of electric field as a driving force was subsequently adopted to the situation of a spin current driven by a temperature gradient. To achieve this, we have used the concept of an auxiliary vector field. Such a description gives the possibility to consider all mechanisms leading to the spin Hall and spin Nernst effect on equal footing and also their behavior at finite temperatures. Both spin Hall and spin Nernst conductivities were calculated in the approximation including the vertex correction. The total spin Hall conductivity, including vertex correction, has been shown to vanish exactly in the whole temperature range. Thus, our results extend the earlier ones to an arbitrary temperatures. In turn, the total spin Nernst conductivity remains finite when the vertex corrections are included. Using the Ioffe-Regel localization criterion, we have also estimated the range of parameters where the calculated results for the spin Hall and spin Nernst conductivities are applicable.

  14. Temperature Dependent Studies of Conformational Vibrational Modes of Biological Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markelz, A. G.; Pawar, A.

    2001-03-01

    Low frequency vibrational modes of proteins are correlated to conformation and conformational change critical to biochemical activity, however direct measurements of these modes has been impeded by limitations in spectroscopic techniques. We are presently exploring the use of the high sensitivity FIR spectroscopic technique of pulsed terahertz spectroscopy to measure these modes as a function of conformational state. Initial measurements have been preformed using bovine heart cytochrome c and the chromophore of photoactive yellow protein, p-coumaric acid (PCA). We have measured the temperature dependence (77 K - 300 K) of the far infrared absorption (2-100 cm-1) using both solid state and solution samples. Sample preparation techniques to eliminate etalon in the spectra will be discussed. For cytochrome c, a distinct absorption at 10 cm-1 is seen at room temperature that narrows and slightly red shifts as the temperature decreases. For PCA, the FIR absorption remains broad at lower temperatures, with an overall increase in FIR absorption at lower temperatures. We will discuss the implications of these measurements for future studies of conformational dynamics in these proteins.

  15. Temperature-dependent emergence of Osmia cornifrons (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) adults.

    PubMed

    White, Joseph; Son, Youngsoo; Park, Yong-Lak

    2009-12-01

    Japanese hornfaced bees Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) are used for pollination of spring blooming fruit crops such as apple, pear, and blueberry. Because O. cornifrons has a short adult life span, synchronization of bee emergence with bloom is critical to maximize crop pollination. This study was conducted to determine lower temperature thresholds (LTDs), optimum temperatures, and required degree-day accumulation for emergence of O. cornifrons adults. Patterns of temperature-dependent emergence of O. cornifrons adults at seven temperatures (3.9, 12.0, 18.6, 26.6, 30.3, 35.6, and 42.5 degrees C) were modeled and simulated with linear and nonlinear regression analyses. Results of this study showed that required degree-days (DD) for emergence of male and female O. cornifrons adults were 125.2 DD, with LTD of 8.9 degrees C and 179.8 DD, with LTD of 8.6 degrees C, respectively. The optimum temperatures for emergence were 36.5, 30.2, and 35.7 degrees C for male, female, and both sexes combined, respectively. This study indicated that emergence of O. cornifrons adults could be manipulated to synchronize with pollination periods of target fruit crops. PMID:20069827

  16. Temperature dependent deformation mechanisms in pure amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Kiran, M. S. R. N. Haberl, B.; Williams, J. S.; Bradby, J. E.

    2014-03-21

    High temperature nanoindentation has been performed on pure ion-implanted amorphous silicon (unrelaxed a-Si) and structurally relaxed a-Si to investigate the temperature dependence of mechanical deformation, including pressure-induced phase transformations. Along with the indentation load-depth curves, ex situ measurements such as Raman micro-spectroscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy analysis on the residual indents reveal the mode of deformation under the indenter. While unrelaxed a-Si deforms entirely via plastic flow up to 200 °C, a clear transition in the mode of deformation is observed in relaxed a-Si with increasing temperature. Up to 100 °C, pressure-induced phase transformation and the observation of either crystalline (r8/bc8) end phases or pressure-induced a-Si occurs in relaxed a-Si. However, with further increase of temperature, plastic flow rather than phase transformation is the dominant mode of deformation. It is believed that the elevated temperature and pressure together induce bond softening and “defect” formation in structurally relaxed a-Si, leading to the inhibition of phase transformation due to pressure-releasing plastic flow under the indenter.

  17. Copper-catalyzed P-arylation via direct coupling of diaryliodonium salts with phosphorus nucleophiles at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Zhang, Pengbo; Gao, Yuzhen; Chen, Yiyin; Tang, Guo; Zhao, Yufen

    2013-08-16

    A new method for copper-catalyzed P-C bond formation through reaction of phosphorus nucleophiles with diaryliodonium salts at room temperature is described. Most target products are obtained with this method in high yields within a short reaction time of 10 min. It can be easily adapted to large-scale preparations. When unsymmetrical iodonium salts are employed, nucleophilic substitution occurs preferentially on the sterically hindered aromatic ring or the more electron-deficient ring. PMID:23865378

  18. Electron density and temperature of gas-temperature-dependent cryoplasma jet

    SciTech Connect

    Noma, Yuri; Hyuk Choi, Jai; Muneoka, Hitoshi; Terashima, Kazuo

    2011-03-01

    A microsize cryoplasma jet was developed and analyzed at plasma gas temperatures ranging from room temperature down to 5 K. Experimental results obtained from optical emission spectroscopy and current-voltage measurements indicate that the average electron density and electron temperature of the cryoplasma jet depend on the gas temperature. In particular, the electron temperature in the cryoplasma starts to decrease rapidly near 60 K from about 13 eV at 60 K to 2 eV at 5 K, while the electron density increases from about 10{sup 9} to approximately 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3} from room temperature to 5 K. This phenomenon induces an increase in the Coulomb interaction between electrons, which can be explained by the virial equation of state.

  19. Temperature-dependent Refractive Index of Silicon and Germanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Bradley J.; Leviton, Douglas B.; Madison, Timothy J.

    2006-01-01

    Silicon and germanium are perhaps the two most well-understood semiconductor materials in the context of solid state device technologies and more recently micromachining and nanotechnology. Meanwhile, these two materials are also important in the field of infrared lens design. Optical instruments designed for the wavelength range where these two materials are transmissive achieve best performance when cooled to cryogenic temperatures to enhance signal from the scene over instrument background radiation. In order to enable high quality lens designs using silicon and germanium at cryogenic temperatures, we have measured the absolute refractive index of multiple prisms of these two materials using the Cryogenic, High-Accuracy Refraction Measuring System (CHARMS) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, as a function of both wavelength and temperature. For silicon, we report absolute refractive index and thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) at temperatures ranging from 20 to 300 K at wavelengths from 1.1 to 5.6 pin, while for germanium, we cover temperatures ranging from 20 to 300 K and wavelengths from 1.9 to 5.5 microns. We compare our measurements with others in the literature and provide temperature-dependent Sellmeier coefficients based on our data to allow accurate interpolation of index to other wavelengths and temperatures. Citing the wide variety of values for the refractive indices of these two materials found in the literature, we reiterate the importance of measuring the refractive index of a sample from the same batch of raw material from which final optical components are cut when absolute accuracy greater than k5 x 10" is desired.

  20. Latitude-Dependent Temperature Variations at the Solar Limb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fivian, M. D.; Hudson, H. S.; Lin, R. P.; Zahid, H. J.

    2009-12-01

    We use observations from the solar aspect sensor of RHESSI to characterize the latitude dependence of the temperature of the photosphere at the solar limb. Previous observations have suggested the presence of a polar temperature excess as large as 1.5 K. The RHESSI observations, made with a rotating telescope in space, have great advantages in the rejection of systematic errors in the very precise photometry required for such an observation. This photometry is differential, i.e. relative to a mean limb-darkening function. The data base consists of about 1,000 images per day from linear CCDs with 1.73 arc sec square pixels, observing a narrow band (12nm FWHM) at 670 nm. Each image shows a chord crossing the disk at a different location as the spacecraft rotates and precesses around its average solar pointing. We fit an average limb-darkening function and reassemble the residuals into synoptic maps of differential intensity variations as function of position angle. We further mask these images against SOHO/EIT 284A images in order to eliminate magnetic regions. The analysis establishes a limit on the quadrupole dependence of temperature (brightness) on position angle of 0.04 +/- 0.02 K. This results in a possible correction of our precise measurement of the solar oblateness which is smaller than its rms error of 0.14 mas.

  1. Pressure dependence of glass transition temperature of elastomeric glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pae, K. D.; Tang, C.-L.; Shin, E.-S.

    1984-11-01

    The pressure dependence of the glass transition temperature Tg of two elastomers, Solithane 113 and 3,3-bis(azidomethyl)oxetane/tetrahydrofuran (BAMO/THF) has been determined, employing high-pressure differential thermal analysis (HP-DTA) and dielectric techniques, up to 8.5 kbar. The glasses of the elastomers were named the specific (or Pi glass) or the general glass depending on how the glasses were formed. A Pi glass was formed by lowering temperature under a constant pressure (Pi) and the pressure dependency of the Pi glass was determined after changing pressure only in the glassy state. The general glass consists of a series of specific glasses but the Tg is determined only at pressures under which the glass is formed. The Tg for both glasses increased with increasing pressure. However, the Tg for the Pi glass appears to level off at very high pressures while the Tg does not level off for the general glass. Thermodynamic analysis was made to show that for many general glasses dTg/dP=Δβ/(1+n)Δα holds, in which n=1 for Solithane and many other glasses. It is also shown that a modified Gibbs and DiMarzio theory can be used effectively to predict the observed experimental results.

  2. Effect of potential on temperature-dependent SERS spectra of neuromedin B on Cu electrode.

    PubMed

    Ignatjev, Ilja; Proniewicz, Edyta; Proniewicz, Leonard M; Niaura, Gediminas

    2013-01-21

    Adsorption of decapeptide neuromedin B (NMB) on copper electrode has been investigated by in situ surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroelectrochemistry in the temperature interval from 12 to 72 °C at -0.600 and -1.000 V potentials. It was found that intensities of peptide bands decrease at temperatures above 30 °C with higher decrease slope at -1.000 V. Frequency of F12 mode (1004 cm(-1)) of non-surface-interactive phenylalanine residue was found to be insensitive to temperature variation at both studied electrode potentials, while frequency-temperature curves for surface-interactive groups (Amide-III, methylene) were found to be controlled by the potential. In particular, opposite frequency-temperature trends were detected for Amide-III (Am-III) mode indicating decrease in H-bonding interaction strength of amide C[double bond, length as m-dash]O and N-H groups above 38 °C for -0.600 V, and increase in H-bonding interaction strength between 12 and 72 °C for -1.000 V. Anomalous Am-III temperature-dependence of the frequency at -1.000 V was explained by temperature-induced transformation of a disordered secondary structure to a helix-like conformation. The potential-difference spectrum revealed interaction of methylene groups with Cu surface at sufficiently negative potential values because of the appearance of a soft C-H stretching band near 2825 cm(-1) and a broad band near 2904 cm(-1) assigned to vibration of a distal C-H bond of the surface-confined methylene group. Consequently, a rapid decrease in frequency of CH(2)-stretching band with temperature was observed at -1.000 V, while no essential frequency changes were detected for this mode at -0.600 V. The results show that electrode potential controls the temperature-dependence of the frequency for vibrations associated with surface-interactive molecular groups. PMID:23202809

  3. Temperature dependent mistranslation in a hyperthermophile adapts proteins to lower temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Michael H.; Pan, Tao

    2016-01-01

    All organisms universally encode, synthesize and utilize proteins that function optimally within a subset of growth conditions. While healthy cells are thought to maintain high translational fidelity within their natural habitats, natural environments can easily fluctuate outside the optimal functional range of genetically encoded proteins. The hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix (A. pernix) can grow throughout temperature variations ranging from 70 to 100°C, although the specific factors facilitating such adaptability are unknown. Here, we show that A. pernix undergoes constitutive leucine to methionine mistranslation at low growth temperatures. Low-temperature mistranslation is facilitated by the misacylation of tRNALeu with methionine by the methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MetRS). At low growth temperatures, the A. pernix MetRS undergoes a temperature dependent shift in tRNA charging fidelity, allowing the enzyme to conditionally charge tRNALeu with methionine. We demonstrate enhanced low-temperature activity for A. pernix citrate synthase that is synthesized during leucine to methionine mistranslation at low-temperature growth compared to its high-fidelity counterpart synthesized at high-temperature. Our results show that conditional leucine to methionine mistranslation can make protein adjustments capable of improving the low-temperature activity of hyperthermophilic proteins, likely by facilitating the increasing flexibility required for greater protein function at lower physiological temperatures. PMID:26657639

  4. Study on temperature-dependent carrier transport for bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yali; Li, Weilong; Qi, Mei; Li, Xiaojun; Zhou, Yixuan; Ren, Zhaoyu

    2015-05-01

    In order to investigate the temperature-dependent carrier transport property of the bilayer graphene, graphene films were synthesized on Cu foils by a home-built chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with C2H2. Samples regularity, transmittance (T) and layer number were analyzed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) images, transmittance spectra and Raman spectra. Van Der Pauw method was used for resistivity measurements and Hall measurements at different temperatures. The results indicated that the sheet resistance (Rs), carrier density (n), and mobility (μ) were 1096.20 Ω/sq, 0.75×1012 cm-2, and 7579.66 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature, respectively. When the temperature increased from 0 °C to 240 °C, carrier density (n) increased from 0.66×1012 cm-2 to 1.55×1012 cm-2, sheet resistance (Rs) decreased from 1215.55 Ω/sq to 560.77 Ω/sq, and mobility (μ) oscillated around a constant value 7773.99 cm2 V-1 s-1. The decrease of the sheet resistance (Rs) indicated that the conductive capability of the bilayer graphene film increased with the temperature. The significant cause of the increase of carrier density (n) was the thermal activation of carriers from defects and unconscious doping states. Because the main influence on the carrier mobility (μ) was the lattice defect scattering and a small amount of impurity scattering, the carrier mobility (μ) was temperature-independent for the bilayer graphene.

  5. Temperature dependence of the electrical properties of hydrogen titanate nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Diego C. B.; Brandão, Frederico D.; Krambrock, Klaus; Ferlauto, Andre S.; Fonseca, Fabio C.

    2014-11-14

    The temperature dependence of the electrical properties of hydrogen-rich titanate nanotubes (H-TNTs) in the 90–270 °C range was investigated by impedance spectroscopy. Three types of dominant conduction were found which depend on the previous thermal treatment of the samples. For untreated samples, at low temperatures (T < 100 °C), electrical conductivity is relatively high (>10{sup −4} S/cm at T ≈ 90 °C) and is dominated by protonic transport within structural water molecules. For thermal annealing in inert atmosphere up to 150 °C, water molecules are released from the nanotube structure resulting in a dehydrated H{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} phase. Such phase has a low, thermally-dependent, electrical conductivity (10{sup −8} S/cm at T ≈ 90 °C) with activation energy of 0.68 eV. For samples annealed up to 260 °C, loss of OH groups, and consequent generation of oxygen vacancies, occurs that result in the non-stoichiometric H{sub 2(1−z)}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7−z} phase. This phase has much higher conductivity (10{sup −5} S/cm at T ≈ 90 °C) and lower associated activation energy (0.40 eV). The generation of oxygen vacancies is confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance measurements at room temperature, which revealed the presence of single-electron-trapped oxygen vacancies. The activation energy value found is consistent with the thermal ionization energy of the oxygen vacancies. Such defect formation represents the initial stage of the phase transformation from titanate to TiO{sub 2} (B). X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy measurements also support such interpretation.

  6. Rescaled temperature dependence of dielectric behavior of ferroelectric polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Zhi-Min; Wang, Lan; Wang, Hai-Yan; Nan, Ce-Wen; Xie, Dan; Yin, Yi; Tjong, S. C.

    2005-04-01

    Rescaled temperature dependence of dielectric behavior of ferroelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) filled with electroactive ceramic particles of rocksalt-type Li and Ti codoped NiO (LTNO) was studied at wide frequency ranges. Dielectric behavior of the flexible PVDF-LTNO composites with LTNO filler at the volumetric function of 0.3 exhibits a dielectric constant value, ɛ ≈50 at broad temperature range (290-360 K), and the value is frequency independent from 103 to 106Hz. The dielectric response of the composite is almost in accordance to that of pure PVDF matrix polymer. It was found that though the dielectric constant value of the composites is high due to an introduction of the rock salt-type LTNO ceramic particles with high dielectric constant, the glass transition of the polymer and dielectric relaxation related to the wide-angle oscillation of polar groups attached to the main polymer chain determine the dielectric behavior of the composite.

  7. Temperature dependent photoluminescence from lead sulfide nanosheets and nanocubes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungdong; Kim, Seung Gi; Oh, Eunsoon; Kim, Sang Hyuk; Choi, Won Jun

    2016-01-29

    We studied temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectra in the mid-infrared range from lead sulfide (PbS) nanosheets with an average thickness of 25 nm and nanocubes grown by solvothermal and hydrothermal methods. Distinct bandedge PL emission was observed in the whole temperature range between 10 and 300 K, indicating the high optical quality of these nanostructures. The PL peak of the nanosheets was found at 0.326 eV at 10 K, about 40 meV higher than that of bulk PbS due to the quantum confinement effect, whereas no confinement effect was observed for the nanocubes. We also demonstrate that the absorption edges of the nanocubes and nanosheets in the transmission spectra agree very well with their fundamental bandgap. PMID:26656180

  8. Temperature-dependent potential in cluster-decay process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharaei, R.; Zanganeh, V.

    2016-08-01

    Role of the thermal effects of the parent nucleus in the Coulomb barrier and the half-life of 28 cluster-decays is systematically analyzed within the framework of the proximity formalism, namely proximity potential 2010. The WKB approximation is used to determine the penetration probability of the emitted cluster. It is shown that the height and width of the Coulomb barrier in the temperature-dependent proximity potential are less than its temperature-independent version. Moreover, this investigation reveals that the calculated values of half-life for selected cluster-decays are in better agreement with the experimental data when the mentioned effects are imposed on the proximity approach. A discussion is also presented about the predictions of the present thermal approach for cluster-decay half-lives of the super-heavy-elements.

  9. On the temperature dependence of oceanic export efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cael, B. B.; Follows, Michael J.

    2016-05-01

    Quantifying the fraction of primary production exported from the euphotic layer (termed the export efficiency ef) is a complicated matter. Studies have suggested empirical relationships with temperature which offer attractive potential for parameterization. Here we develop what is arguably the simplest mechanistic model relating the two, using established thermodynamic dependencies for primary production and respiration. It results in a single-parameter curve that constrains the envelope of possible efficiencies, capturing the upper bounds of several ef-T data sets. The approach provides a useful theoretical constraint on this relationship and extracts the variability in ef due to temperature but does not idealize out the remaining variability which evinces the substantial complexity of the system in question.

  10. Temperature Dependence of the Particle Diffusion Coefficient in Dust Grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechal, Radim; Richterova, Ivana; Pavlu, Jiri; Safrankova, Jana; Nemecek, Zdenek

    2014-05-01

    During the interaction of ions/neutrals with dust grains, some of the particles are implanted into the grain and, as a consequence, the density gradient induces their diffusion toward the grain surface. Their release can cause a transport of these particles over large distances in space. In our laboratory experiment, measurements of the diffusion coefficient of the particles implanted into the dust grain are carried out in an electrodynamic quadrupole trap. Although experimental setup does not allow an assessment of the dust grain temperature, it can be modified (e.g., by changing thermal radiation from the surrounding walls, laser irradiation, etc.). We present an upgraded laboratory set-up and the resulting temperature dependence of diffusion coefficient estimations and discuss implications for the space dust.

  11. A heat exchanger computational procedure for temperature-dependent fouling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiappetta, L. M.; Szetela, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    A novel heat exchanger computational procedure is described which provides a means of rapidly calculating the distributions of fluid and wall temperatures, deposit formation, and pressure loss at various points in a heat exchanger. The procedure is unique in that it is capable of treating wide variations in heat exchanger geometry without recourse to restrictive assumptions concerning heat exchanger type (e.g., co-flow, counterflow, cross flow devices, etc.). The analysis has been used extensively to predict the performance of cross-counterflow heat exchangers in which one fluid behaves as a perfect gas (e.g., air) while the other fluid is assumed to be a distillate fuel. The model has been extended to include the effects on heat exchanger performance of time varying inflow conditions. Heat exchanger performance degradation due to deposit formation with time can be simulated, making this procedure useful in predicting the effects of temperature-dependent fouling.

  12. Temperature dependencies of Henry's law constants for different plant sesquiterpenes.

    PubMed

    Copolovici, Lucian; Niinemets, Ülo

    2015-11-01

    Sesquiterpenes are plant-produced hydrocarbons with important ecological functions in plant-to-plant and plant-to-insect communication, but due to their high reactivity they can also play a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. So far, there is little information of gas/liquid phase partition coefficients (Henry's law constants) and their temperature dependencies for sesquiterpenes, but this information is needed for quantitative simulation of the release of sesquiterpenes from plants and modeling atmospheric reactions in different phases. In this study, we estimated Henry's law constants (Hpc) and their temperature responses for 12 key plant sesquiterpenes with varying structure (aliphatic, mono-, bi- and tricyclic sesquiterpenes). At 25 °C, Henry's law constants varied 1.4-fold among different sesquiterpenes, and the values were within the range previously observed for monocyclic monoterpenes. Hpc of sesquiterpenes exhibited a high rate of increase, on average ca. 1.5-fold with a 10 °C increase in temperature (Q10). The values of Q10 varied 1.2-fold among different sesquiterpenes. Overall, these data demonstrate moderately high variation in Hpc values and Hpc temperature responses among different sesquiterpenes. We argue that these variations can importantly alter the emission kinetics of sesquiterpenes from plants. PMID:26291755

  13. Calibration of Gyros with Temperature Dependent Scale Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belur, Sheela V.; Harman, Richard

    2001-01-01

    The general problem of gyro calibration can be stated as the estimation of the scale factors, misalignments, and drift-rate biases of the gyro using the on-orbit sensor measurements. These gyro parameters have been traditionally treated as temperature-independent in the operational flight dynamics ground systems at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), a scenario which has been successfully applied in the gyro calibration of a large number of missions. A significant departure from this is the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) mission where, due to the high thermal variations expected during the mission phase, it is necessary to model the scale factors as functions of temperature. This paper addresses the issue of gyro calibration for the MAP gyro model using a manufacturer-supplied model of the variation of scale factors with temperature. The problem is formulated as a least squares problem and solved using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm in the MATLAB(R) library function NLSQ. The algorithm was tested on simulated data with Gaussian noise for the quaternions as well as the gyro rates and was found to consistently converge close to the true values. Significant improvement in accuracy was noticed due to the estimation of the temperature-dependent scale factors as against constant scale factors.

  14. Temperature Dependence of the O + HO2 Rate Coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicovich, J. M.; Wine, P. H.

    1997-01-01

    A pulsed laser photolysis technique has been employed to investigate the kinetics of the radical-radical reaction O((sup 3)P) + HO2 OH + O2 over the temperature range 266-391 K in 80 Torr of N2 diluent gas. O((sup 3)P) was produced by 248.5-nm KrF laser photolysis of O3 followed by rapid quenching of O(1D) to O((sup 3)P) while HO2 was produced by simultaneous photolysis of H2O2 to create OH radicals which, in turn, reacted with H2O2 to yield HO2. The O((sup 3)P) temporal profile was monitored by using time-resolved resonance fluorescence spectroscopy. The HO2 concentration was calculated based on experimentally measured parameters. The following Arrhenius expression describes our experimental results: k(sub 1)(T) equals (2.91 +/- 0.70) x 10(exp -11) exp[(228 +/- 75)/T] where the errors are 2 sigma and represent precision only. The absolute uncertainty in k, at any temperature within the range 266-391 K is estimated to be +/- 22 percent. Our results are in excellent agreement with a discharge flow study of the temperature dependence of k(sub 1) in 1 Torr of He diluent reported by Keyser, and significantly reduce the uncertainty in the rate of this important stratospheric reaction at subambient temperatures.

  15. Temperature Dependence of the Flare Fluence Scaling Exponent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretzschmar, M.

    2015-12-01

    Solar flares result in an increase of the solar irradiance at all wavelengths. While the distribution of the flare fluence observed in coronal emission has been widely studied and found to scale as f(E)˜ E^{-α}, with α slightly below 2, the distribution of the flare fluence in chromospheric lines is poorly known. We used the solar irradiance measurements observed by the SDO/EVE instrument at a 10 s cadence to investigate the dependency of the scaling exponent on the formation region of the lines (or temperature). We analyzed all flares above the C1 level since the start of the EVE observations (May 2010) to determine the flare fluence distribution in 16 lines covering a wide range of temperatures, several of which were not studied before. Our results show a weak downward trend with temperature of the scaling exponent of the PDF that reaches from above 2 at lower temperature (a few 104 K) to {˜ }1.8 for hot coronal emission (several 106 K). However, because colder lines also have fainter contrast, we cannot exclude that this behavior is caused by including more noise for smaller flares for these lines. We discuss the method and its limitations and tentatively associate this possible trend with the different mechanisms responsible for the heating of the chromosphere and corona during flares.

  16. Temperature and moisture dependence of dielectric constant for silica aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Hrubesh, L.H., LLNL

    1997-03-01

    The dielectric constants of silica aerogels are among the lowest measured for any solid material. The silica aerogels also exhibit low thermal expansion and are thermally stable to temperatures exceeding 500{degrees}C. However, due to the open porosity and large surface areas for aerogels, their dielectric constants are strongly affected by moisture and temperature. This paper presents data for the dielectric constants of silica aerogels as a function of moisture content at 25{degrees}C, and as a function of temperature, for temperatures in the range from 25{degrees}C to 450{degrees}C. Dielectric constant data are also given for silica aerogels that are heat treated in dry nitrogen at 500{degrees}C, then cooled to 25{degrees}C for measurements in dry air. All measurements are made on bulk aerogel spheres at 22GHz microwave frequency, using a cavity perturbation method. The results of the dependence found here for bulk materials can be inferred to apply also to thin films of silica aerogels having similar nano-structures and densities.

  17. Temperature dependent optical properties of pentacene films on zinc oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Helzel, J.; Jankowski, S.; El Helou, M.; Witte, G.; Heimbrodt, W.

    2011-11-21

    The optical transitions of pentacene films deposited on ZnO have been studied by absorption spectroscopy as a function of temperature in the range of room temperature down to 10 K. The pentacene films were prepared with thicknesses of 10 nm, 20 nm, and 100 nm on the ZnO-O(000-1) surface by molecular beam deposition. A unique temperature dependence has been observed for the two Davydov components of the excitons for different film thicknesses. At room temperature, the energetic positions of the respective absorption bands are the same for all films, whereas the positions differ more than 20 meV at 10 K caused by the very different expansion coefficients of pentacene and ZnO. Although the pentacene is just bonded via van der Waals interaction to the ZnO substrate, the very first pentacene monolayer (adlayer) is forced to keep the initial position on the ZnO surface and suffering, therefore, a substantial tensile strain. For all the subsequent pentacene monolayers, the strain is reduced step by step resulting electronically in a strong potential gradient at the interface.

  18. Azimuthal and Temperature Dependence of Hydrogen on Nickel (111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabighian, Edward; Zhu, X. D.

    1998-03-01

    Using a linear optical diffraction technique, we measure the temperature and azimuthal dependence of hydrogen diffusion rate on a nickel (111) surface with a miscut angle of less than 0.1 degrees. In the classical over-barrier hopping regime, the diffusion barrier over flat terraces is found to be 4.5 kcal/mol. From the azimuthal dependence, we found the barrier crossing a step edge is no more than 6.0 kcal/mol. This indicates that the step edge barrier, known as a Schwoebal-Erlich barrier, for hydrogen on nickel (111) is less than 1.5 kcal/mol or 30 percent of the barrier over flat terraces.

  19. Investigating temperature degradation in THz quantum cascade lasers by examination of temperature dependence of output power

    SciTech Connect

    Albo, Asaf Hu, Qing

    2015-03-30

    In this paper, we demonstrate a method to investigate the temperature degradation of THz quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) based on analyzing the dependence of lasing output power on temperature. The output power is suggested to decrease exponentially with some characteristic activation energy indicative of the degradation mechanism. As a proof of concept, Arrhenius plots of power versus temperature are used to extract the activation energy in vertical transition THz QCLs. The extracted energies are consistent with thermally activated longitudinal optical-phonon scattering being the dominant degradation mechanism, as is generally accepted. The extracted activation energy values are shown to be in good agreement with the values predicted from laser spectra.

  20. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of surface-engineered silicon nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Somak; Švrček, Vladimir; Macias-Montero, Manual; Velusamy, Tamilselvan; Mariotti, Davide

    2016-01-01

    In this work we report on temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements (15–300 K), which have allowed probing radiative transitions and understanding of the appearance of various transitions. We further demonstrate that transitions associated with oxide in SiNCs show characteristic vibronic peaks that vary with surface characteristics. In particular we study differences and similarities between silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) derived from porous silicon and SiNCs that were surface-treated using a radio-frequency (RF) microplasma system. PMID:27296771

  1. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of surface-engineered silicon nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Somak; Švrček, Vladimir; Macias-Montero, Manual; Velusamy, Tamilselvan; Mariotti, Davide

    2016-01-01

    In this work we report on temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements (15-300 K), which have allowed probing radiative transitions and understanding of the appearance of various transitions. We further demonstrate that transitions associated with oxide in SiNCs show characteristic vibronic peaks that vary with surface characteristics. In particular we study differences and similarities between silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) derived from porous silicon and SiNCs that were surface-treated using a radio-frequency (RF) microplasma system. PMID:27296771

  2. Temperature and strain-rate dependence of surface dislocation nucleation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ting; Li, Ju; Samanta, Amit; Leach, Austin; Gall, Ken

    2008-01-18

    Dislocation nucleation is essential to the plastic deformation of small-volume crystalline solids. The free surface may act as an effective source of dislocations to initiate and sustain plastic flow, in conjunction with bulk sources. Here, we develop an atomistic modeling framework to address the probabilistic nature of surface dislocation nucleation. We show the activation volume associated with surface dislocation nucleation is characteristically in the range of 1-10b3, where b is the Burgers vector. Such small activation volume leads to sensitive temperature and strain-rate dependence of the nucleation stress, providing an upper bound to the size-strength relation in nanopillar compression experiments. PMID:18232884

  3. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of surface-engineered silicon nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Somak; Švrček, Vladimir; Macias-Montero, Manual; Velusamy, Tamilselvan; Mariotti, Davide

    2016-06-01

    In this work we report on temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements (15–300 K), which have allowed probing radiative transitions and understanding of the appearance of various transitions. We further demonstrate that transitions associated with oxide in SiNCs show characteristic vibronic peaks that vary with surface characteristics. In particular we study differences and similarities between silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) derived from porous silicon and SiNCs that were surface-treated using a radio-frequency (RF) microplasma system.

  4. Luminescent thermochromism in potassium-alumina-borate glass with copper-containing molecular clusters at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babkina, Anastasiya N.; Nikonorov, Nikolaij V.; Shakhverdov, Teimur A.; Shirshnev, Pavel S.; Sidorov, Alexander I.

    2014-02-01

    It is experimentally shown that a considerable luminescent thermochromic effect occurs in potassium-alumina-borate (PAB) glasses with copper-containing molecular clusters. This effect is manifested in a reversible blue spectral shift of luminescence band about 100 nm and its narrowing, with negligible change of luminescence amplitude in maximum during heating from 20 up to 300 °C. Luminescence and excitation spectra of PAB glass at different temperatures are presented. It is shown that the temperature rise results in a red spectral shift of excitation bands and in their broadening.

  5. Distribution functions for internal interface energy as a characteristic of submicrocrystalline copper structure evolution under low-temperature annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, P.; Rakhmatulina, T.; Koznikov, A.; Belyaeva, I.

    2015-10-01

    Submicrocrystalline structure of 99.99% pure copper produced by equal channel angular pressing was under investigation. After deformation the samples were subjected to low-temperature annealing. Grain and subgrain structure was studied by scanning tunnel microscopy. Internal interface energy was estimated using the method based on measurement of dihedral angles (ψ) of the boundary grooves formed by electrochemical etching. Analysis of the differential and cumulative distribution functions for relative grain boundary energy enabled to qualitatively evaluate energy redistribution between the boundaries of different types and internal bulk crystallites and to study evolution of submicrocrystalline structure under low-temperature annealing.

  6. Temperature and strain rate effects in high strength high conductivity copper alloys tested in air

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, D.J.

    1998-03-01

    The tensile properties of the three candidate alloys GlidCop{trademark} Al25, CuCrZr, and CuNiBe are known to be sensitive to the testing conditions such as strain rate and test temperature. This study was conducted on GlidCop Al25 (2 conditions) and Hycon 3HP (3 conditions) to ascertain the effect of test temperature and strain rate when tested in open air. The results show that the yield strength and elongation of the GlidCop Al25 alloys exhibit a strain rate dependence that increases with temperature. Both the GlidCop and the Hycon 3 HP exhibited an increase in strength as the strain rate increased, but the GlidCop alloys proved to be the most strain rate sensitive. The GlidCop failed in a ductile manner irrespective of the test conditions, however, their strength and uniform elongation decreased with increasing test temperature and the uniform elongation also decreased dramatically at the lower strain rates. The Hycon 3 HP alloys proved to be extremely sensitive to test temperature, rapidly losing their strength and ductility when the temperature increased above 250 C. As the test temperature increased and the strain rate decreased the fracture mode shifted from a ductile transgranular failure to a ductile intergranular failure with very localized ductility. This latter observation is based on the presence of dimples on the grain facets, indicating that some ductile deformation occurred near the grain boundaries. The material failed without any reduction in area at 450 C and 3.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1}, and in several cases failed prematurely.

  7. Dielectric breakdown properties of hot SF6 gas contaminated by copper at temperatures of 300-3500 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Zhong, Linlin; Rong, Mingzhe; Yang, Aijun; Liu, Dingxin; Wu, Yi; Miao, Song

    2015-04-01

    The dielectric breakdown properties of hot SF6 gas during the dielectric recovery phase play an important role in understanding gas breakdown occurring in high-voltage circuit breakers. This paper is devoted to the theoretical investigation of dielectric breakdown properties of hot SF6 gas contaminated by copper at temperatures of 300-3500 K and pressures of 0.01-1.6 MPa. The equilibrium compositions of SF6-Cu mixtures are obtained with the consideration of condensed species. The unknown ionization cross sections for CuS, CuF and CuF2 are calculated using a Deutsch-Märk (DM) formalism based on quantum chemistry. The two-term Boltzmann equation is adopted to numerically calculate the electron energy distribution function, collision ionization coefficient and electron attachment coefficient. Then the reduced critical electric field strength is determined when the effective ionization coefficient equals to zero. The influences of the Cu proportion and gas pressure on the dielectric breakdown properties are investigated. It is shown that the existence of copper compounds increases the concentration of high-energy electrons significantly, even for the case with a very low percentage (e.g. 1% Cu). With the increase of copper content, the value of (E/N)cr is reduced remarkably at temperatures below 3000 K, but enhanced slightly above 3000 K. It is also found that the increase of pressure can improve the dielectric breakdown performance of hot SF6-Cu mixtures.

  8. Prominence oscillations: Effect of a time-dependent background temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballester, J. L.; Carbonell, M.; Soler, R.; Terradas, J.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Small amplitude oscillations in prominences have been known about for a long time, and from a theoretical point of view, these oscillations have been interpreted in terms of standing or propagating linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. In general, these oscillations were studied by producing small perturbations in a background equilibrium with stationary physical properties. Aims: Taking into account that prominences are dynamic plasma structures, the assumption of a stationary equilibrium is not realistic. Therefore, our main aim is to study the effects produced by a non-stationary background on slow MHD waves, which could be responsible for prominence oscillations. Methods: Assuming that the radiation term is proportional to temperature and constant external heating, we have derived an expression for the temporal variation of the background temperature, which depends on the imbalance between heating and cooling processes. Furthermore, radiative losses, together with parallel thermal conduction, have also been included as damping mechanisms for the waves. Results: As temperature increases with time, the period of slow waves decreases and the amplitude of the velocity perturbations is damped. The inclusion of radiative losses enhances the damping. As temperature decreases with time, the period of slow waves increases and the amplitude of velocity perturbations grows while, as expected, the inclusion of radiative losses contributes to the damping of oscillations. Conclusions: There is observational evidence that, in different locations of the same prominence, oscillations are damped or amplified with time. This temporal damping or amplification can be obtained by a proper combination of a variable background temperature, together with radiative damping. Furthermore, decayless oscillations can also be obtained with an appropriate choice of the characteristic radiation time.

  9. Temperature dependence of quantum dot fluorescence assisted by plasmonic nanoantennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le-Van, Q.; Le Roux, X.; Teperik, T. V.; Habert, B.; Marquier, F.; Greffet, J.-J.; Degiron, A.

    2015-02-01

    Optical antennas based on noble metal nanoparticles can increase the photoluminescence of quantum dots, but the exact strength of this enhancement depends on the brightness (i.e., the intrinsic quantum yield ηi ) of the emitters. Here we perform temperature-dependent measurements on a system of PbS colloidal quantum dots coupled with Au ring arrays that bring quantitative insight into this phenomenon. We show that although the boost in photoluminescence is lower at cryogenic temperatures where the nanocrystals become very bright emitters, the spectral signature of this enhancement is remarkably independent of ηi. These observations remain true even at wavelengths where the losses by absorption in the metal nanoparticles considerably increase due to the excitation of localized plasmon resonances, in contradiction with standard theory that treats the emitters as a collection of two-level systems. We propose a mechanism in which the quantum dots are modeled as multilevel and inhomogeneously broadened emitters to account for these findings.

  10. Temperature dependent transport characteristics of graphene/n-Si diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Parui, S.; Ruiter, R.; Zomer, P. J.; Wojtaszek, M.; Wees, B. J. van; Banerjee, T.

    2014-12-28

    Realizing an optimal Schottky interface of graphene on Si is challenging, as the electrical transport strongly depends on the graphene quality and the fabrication processes. Such interfaces are of increasing research interest for integration in diverse electronic devices as they are thermally and chemically stable in all environments, unlike standard metal/semiconductor interfaces. We fabricate such interfaces with n-type Si at ambient conditions and find their electrical characteristics to be highly rectifying, with minimal reverse leakage current (<10{sup −10} A) and rectification of more than 10{sup 6}. We extract Schottky barrier height of 0.69 eV for the exfoliated graphene and 0.83 eV for the CVD graphene devices at room temperature. The temperature dependent electrical characteristics suggest the influence of inhomogeneities at the graphene/n-Si interface. A quantitative analysis of the inhomogeneity in Schottky barrier heights is presented using the potential fluctuation model proposed by Werner and Güttler.

  11. Interpretation of the temperature dependence of equilibrium and rate constants.

    PubMed

    Winzor, Donald J; Jackson, Craig M

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this review is to draw attention to potential pitfalls in attempts to glean mechanistic information from the magnitudes of standard enthalpies and entropies derived from the temperature dependence of equilibrium and rate constants for protein interactions. Problems arise because the minimalist model that suffices to describe the energy differences between initial and final states usually comprises a set of linked equilibria, each of which is characterized by its own energetics. For example, because the overall standard enthalpy is a composite of those individual values, a positive magnitude for DeltaH(o) can still arise despite all reactions within the subset being characterized by negative enthalpy changes: designation of the reaction as being entropy driven is thus equivocal. An experimenter must always bear in mind the fact that any mechanistic interpretation of the magnitudes of thermodynamic parameters refers to the reaction model rather than the experimental system. For the same reason there is little point in subjecting the temperature dependence of rate constants for protein interactions to transition-state analysis. If comparisons with reported values of standard enthalpy and entropy of activation are needed, they are readily calculated from the empirical Arrhenius parameters. PMID:16897812

  12. Temperature dependence of the two photon absorption in indium arsenide

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, K.W.; Rella, C.W.

    1995-12-31

    Nonlinear optical processes in semiconductors have long been a source of interesting physics. Two photon absorption (TPA) is one such process, in which two photons provide the energy for the creation of an electron-hole pair. Researchers at other FEL centers have studied room temperature TPA in InSb, InAs, and HgCdTe. Working at the Stanford Picosecond FEL Center, we have extended and refined this work by measuring the temperature dependence of the TPA coefficient in InAs over the range from 80 to 350 K at four wavelengths: 4.5, 5.06, 6.01, and 6.3 microns. The measurements validate the functional dependence of recent band structure calculations with enough precision to discriminate parabolic from non-parabolic models, and to begin to observe smaller effects, such as contributions due to the split-off band. These experiments therefore serve as a strong independent test of the Kane band theory, as well as providing a starting point for detailed observations of other nonlinear absorption mechanisms.

  13. Electrochemical properties and temperature dependence of a recombinant laccase from Thermus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Gillespie, Megan; Ozel, Ayca Demirel; Dikici, Emre; Daunert, Sylvia; Bachas, Leonidas G

    2011-01-01

    The electrochemical properties of a laccase from Thermus thermophilus HB27 (Tth-laccase) were characterized. The gene encoding the laccase was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. One-step purification of the corresponding apo-enzyme was achieved by nickel-affinity chromatography. Copper was incorporated into the apo-laccase as the cofactor to yield the holo-enzyme. The temperature-dependent catalytic activity of the laccase was investigated by spectrophotometric as well as electrochemical methods. Specifically, the catalytic properties of the enzyme were characterized by employing a photometric assay based on the oxidation of the substrate 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS). The electroactive substrate ABTS can be also monitored by cyclic voltammetry, thus allowing for determination of the enzymatic activity electrochemically. It was found that the recombinant laccase exhibited higher activity as the temperature increased up to 65 °C. Spectroscopic studies of Tth-laccase based on circular dichroism and fluorescence measurements are consistent with a thermally stable secondary structure of the protein. PMID:21076916

  14. Low-temperature direct copper-to-copper bonding enabled by creep on (111) surfaces of nanotwinned Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chien-Min; Lin, Han-Wen; Huang, Yi-Sa; Chu, Yi-Cheng; Chen, Chih; Lyu, Dian-Rong; Chen, Kuan-Neng; Tu, King-Ning

    2015-05-01

    Direct Cu-to-Cu bonding was achieved at temperatures of 150-250 °C using a compressive stress of 100 psi (0.69 MPa) held for 10-60 min at 10-3 torr. The key controlling parameter for direct bonding is rapid surface diffusion on (111) surface of Cu. Instead of using (111) oriented single crystal of Cu, oriented (111) texture of extremely high degree, exceeding 90%, was fabricated using the oriented nano-twin Cu. The bonded interface between two (111) surfaces forms a twist-type grain boundary. If the grain boundary has a low angle, it has a hexagonal network of screw dislocations. Such network image was obtained by plan-view transmission electron microscopy. A simple kinetic model of surface creep is presented; and the calculated and measured time of bonding is in reasonable agreement.

  15. Low-temperature direct copper-to-copper bonding enabled by creep on (111) surfaces of nanotwinned Cu

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chien-Min; Lin, Han-Wen; Huang, Yi-Sa; Chu, Yi-Cheng; Chen, Chih; Lyu, Dian-Rong; Chen, Kuan-Neng; Tu, King-Ning

    2015-01-01

    Direct Cu-to-Cu bonding was achieved at temperatures of 150–250 °C using a compressive stress of 100 psi (0.69 MPa) held for 10–60 min at 10−3 torr. The key controlling parameter for direct bonding is rapid surface diffusion on (111) surface of Cu. Instead of using (111) oriented single crystal of Cu, oriented (111) texture of extremely high degree, exceeding 90%, was fabricated using the oriented nano-twin Cu. The bonded interface between two (111) surfaces forms a twist-type grain boundary. If the grain boundary has a low angle, it has a hexagonal network of screw dislocations. Such network image was obtained by plan-view transmission electron microscopy. A simple kinetic model of surface creep is presented; and the calculated and measured time of bonding is in reasonable agreement. PMID:25962757

  16. Frequency and field dependent susceptibility of magnetite at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, Özden; Dunlop, David J.; Jackson, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We report the temperature dependence of in-phase and quadrature susceptibilities, k' and k″, between 20 K and 300 K for a stoichiometric natural single crystal of magnetite. Measurements were made for amplitudes of the AC driving field ranging from H = 30 A/m to 2 kA/m and frequencies ranging from f = 40 Hz to 4 kHz. In cubic magnetite above the Verwey transition, TV = 120 K, k' is limited by self-demagnetization and does not vary greatly with T, H or f. As the crystal cools through TV and transforms to monoclinic structure, k' decreases by about a factor 2, with a further more gradual decrease of 10-20% in cooling from 40 to 20 K. Saturation remanence also drops sharply at T V but shows no further change in cooling below 40 K. Thus it appears that domain walls remain pinned throughout the 20-40 K range but small segments undergo reversible oscillations in an AC field, the amplitude of oscillation decreasing steadily with cooling below 40 K. In this same range, k″ reaches a peak, while the temperature at which k' decreases most rapidly changes with frequency. Both observations indicate that domain wall oscillations lag appreciably behind the driving field at very low temperature. Both k' and k″ increase markedly with increasing AC field amplitude below TV. The field dependence is particularly strong below 40 K. Analysis of the k'( f) data between 20 and 40 K based on an Arrhenius thermal activation equation gives a pre-exponential frequency factor f o ≈ 2.5 × 108 s-1 and an activation energy ΔE = 0.035 eV. The ΔE is appropriate for electron hopping but f o suggests an indirect mechanism for wall mobility related to changes in electron ordering within walls.

  17. In-Situ X-Ray Diffraction Observations of Low Temperature Ag-Nanoink Sintering and High Temperature Eutectic Reaction with Copper

    SciTech Connect

    Elmer, J. W.; Specht, Eliot D

    2012-01-01

    Nanoinks, which contain nm sized metallic particles suspended in an organic dispersant fluid, are finding numerous microelectronic applications. Nanoinks sinter at much lower temperatures than bulk metals due to their high surface area to volume ratio and small radius of curvature, which reduces their melting points significantly below their bulk values. The unusually low melting and sintering temperatures have unique potential for materials joining since their melting points increase dramatically after initial sintering. In this paper Ag nanoink is studied using in-situ synchrotron based x-ray diffraction to follow the kinetics of the initial sintering step by analysis of diffraction patterns, and to directly observe the high remelt temperature of sintered nanoinks. Ag nanoink is further explored as a possible eutectic bonding medium with copper by tracking phase transformations to high temperatures where melting occurs at the Ag-Cu eutectic temperature, demonstrating nanoinks as a viable eutectic bonding medium.

  18. Cluster SIMS and the Temperature Dependence of Molecular Depth Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Dan; Wucher, Andreas; Brenes, Daniel A; Lu, Caiyan; Winograd, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    The quality of molecular depth profiles created by erosion of organic materials by cluster ion beams exhibits a strong dependence upon temperature. To elucidate the fundamental nature of this dependence, we employ the Irganox 3114/1010 organic delta layer reference material as a model system. This delta-layer system is interrogated using a 40 keV C60+ primary ion beam. Parameters associated with the depth profile such as depth resolution, uniformity of sputtering yield and topography are evaluated between 90 K and 300 K using a unique wedge-crater beveling strategy that allows these parameters to be determined as a function of erosion depth from atomic force microscope measurements. The results show that the erosion rate calibration performed using the known Δ-layer depth in connection with the fluence needed to reach the peak of the corresponding SIMS signal response is misleading. Moreover, we show that the degradation of depth resolution is linked to a decrease of the average erosion rate and the buildup of surface topography in a thermally activated manner. This underlying process starts to influence the depth profile above a threshold temperature between 210 and 250 K for the system studied here. Below that threshold, the process is inhibited and steady-state conditions are reached with constant erosion rate, depth resolution and molecular secondary ion signals from both the matrix and the Δ-layers. In particular, the results indicate that further reduction of the temperature below 90 K does not lead to further improvement of the depth profile. Above the threshold, the process becomes stronger at higher temperature, leading to an immediate decrease of the molecular secondary ion signals. This signal decay is most pronounced for the highest m/z ions but is less for the smaller m/z ions, indicating a shift toward small fragments by accumulation of chemical damage. The erosion rate decay and surface roughness buildup, on the other hand, exhibit a rather sudden

  19. Anomalous Temperature Dependence of the Band Gap in Black Phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Cesar E P; Rocha, A R; Marini, Andrea

    2016-08-10

    Black phosphorus (BP) has gained renewed attention due to its singular anisotropic electronic and optical properties that might be exploited for a wide range of technological applications. In this respect, the thermal properties are particularly important both to predict its room temperature operation and to determine its thermoelectric potential. From this point of view, one of the most spectacular and poorly understood phenomena is indeed the BP temperature-induced band gap opening; when temperature is increased, the fundamental band gap increases instead of decreases. This anomalous thermal dependence has also been observed recently in its monolayer counterpart. In this work, based on ab initio calculations, we present an explanation for this long known and yet not fully explained effect. We show that it arises from a combination of harmonic and lattice thermal expansion contributions, which are in fact highly interwined. We clearly narrow down the mechanisms that cause this gap opening by identifying the peculiar atomic vibrations that drive the anomaly. The final picture we give explains both the BP anomalous band gap opening and the frequency increase with increasing volume (tension effect). PMID:27428304

  20. Dependence of friction on roughness, velocity, and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Yi; Dubé, Martin; Grant, Martin

    2008-03-01

    We study the dependence of friction on surface roughness, sliding velocity, and temperature. Expanding on the classic treatment of Greenwood and Williamson, we show that the fractal nature of a surface has little influence on the real area of contact and the static friction coefficient. A simple scaling argument shows that the static friction exhibits a weak anomaly μ˜A0-χ/4 , where A0 is the apparent area and χ is the roughness exponent of the surface. We then develop a method to calculate atomic-scale friction between a microscopic asperity, such as the tip of a friction force microscope (FFM) and a solid substrate. This method, based on the thermal activation of the FFM tip, allows a quantitative extraction of all the relevant microscopic parameters and reveals a universal scaling behavior of atomic friction on velocity and temperature. This method is extended to include a soft atomic substrate in order to simulate FFM scans more realistically. The tip is connected with the support of the cantilever by an ideal spring and the substrate is simulated with a ball-spring model. The tip and substrate are coupled with repulsive potentials. Simulations are done at different temperatures and scanning velocities on substrates with different elastic moduli. Stick-slip motion of the tip is observed, and the numerical results of the friction force and distribution of force maxima match the theoretical framework.

  1. Temperature dependence of Jc for in situ superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Ostenson, J.E.; Finnemore, D.K.; Gibson, E.D.; Sue, J.J.; Verhoeven, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The experiments reported in this study seek to define the temperature dependence of the critical current densities for in situ superconducting wire in order to be able to predict the response of magnets when they are treated to temperature excursions well above 4.2 K. Studies of flux pinning in Nb/sub 3/Sn in situ filaments have determined that core pinning at grain boundary surface locations is the dominant factor controlling the critical current density. On the premise that proximity coupling may become a more important factor in the loss of critical current densities at high temperatures than a grain boundary breakdown, and to test whether the breakdown of the proximity effect degrades those densities, samples were chosen in which the proximity effect would show most readily, that is, those samples which have, owing to coarsening, rather short filaments. The samples were prepared from a dendritic Cu-Nb alloy that contained 20 wt% Nb, wound on a 1.27 cm diameter mandrel, and tested. It was found that the critical current density drops by 10% per degree K increase.

  2. Temperature dependence of elastic properties in alkali borate binary glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Mitsuru; Matsuda, Yu; Kojima, Seiji

    2011-05-01

    The elastic properties of alkali borate glasses, xM 2O·(100 - x)B 2O 3 (M = Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, x = 14, 28), have been investigated by Brillouin scattering spectroscopy from room temperature up to 1100 °C. Above the glass transition temperature, Tg, the longitudinal sound velocity, VL, decreases markedly on heating. Such significant changes of the elastic properties result from the breakdown of the glass network above Tg. Alkali borate family with the same x shows the similar behavior in the temperature variations of VL up to around Tg. The absorption coefficient, αL, increases gradually above Tg. With the increase of the size of an alkali ion, the slope of VL just above Tg decreases. Since the fragility is related to the slope, the present results suggest that the fragility of alkali borate glasses increases as the size of alkali ion decreases. Such an alkali dependence of the fragility is discussed on the basis of the fluctuation of the boron coordination number.

  3. Temperature Dependent Absorption Cross-sections of PFTBA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godin, Paul J.; Conway, Stephanie; Hong, Angela; Mabury, Scott; Strong, Kimberly

    2014-06-01

    We present temperature-dependent absorption cross sections of perfluorotributylamine (PFTBA). PFTBA is a fully-fluorinated liquid commonly used in electronic reliability and quality testing. PFTBA vapour can be considered a potential greenhouse gas due being radiatively active in the mid-IR spectral region and having a long atmospheric lifetime. A recent paper by Hong et al.1 as well as comparisons with previous works for the ethylene calculationsc determined that PFTBA has the highest radiative efficiency of any compound detected in the atmosphere with a detected a mixing ratio of 0.18 parts per trillion by volume over Toronto, ON. Theoretical density functional theory (DFT) calculations are done using the B3LYP method and the 6-311G(d,p) basis set. The calculations have determined the optimized geometrical configuration and IR intensities and wavenumbers of the harmonic frequencies for both PFBAm (N(CF2CF2CF2CF3)3) and its congener (F3CN(CF2CF2CF2CF3)2). Experimental cross sections are derived from Fourier transform spectroscopy performed from 600-1450 cm-1 at a resolution of 0.02 cm-1 for room temperature and above. These experimental results are compared to compared to previous measurements of PFTBA made at room temperature by Young2.

  4. Anomalous Temperature Dependence of Magnetic Moment in Monodisperse Antiferromagnetic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillaspie, Dane; Gu, B.; Wang, W.; Shen, J.

    2005-03-01

    1 Condensed Matter Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory*, TN 37831 2 Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Tennessee, TN 37996 3 Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory*, TN 37831 Recent experiments [1] and theory [2] from AFM nanoparticles showed that they exhibit sizable net magnetization, which increases with increasing temperature. In order to further understand such peculiar temperature dependence, we have measured the magnetic properties of monodisperse hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles, grown using a microemulsion precipitation technique, which minimizes the impact of the particle moment distribution on the measured properties of the samples. Our measured results indicate that the net magnetization of these nanoparticles, when small, indeed increases linearly with increasing temperature. This is in sharp contrast to the bulk-like behavior of α-Fe2O3, which was observed in particles with size larger than 120 nm. [1] M. Seehra et al, Phys. Rev. B 61, 3513 (2000) [2] S. Mørup, C. Frandsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 217201 (2004) *Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Dept. of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725

  5. Temperature-dependent transient creep and dynamics of cratonic lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birger, Boris I.

    2013-11-01

    Large-scale mantle convection forms the upper boundary layer (lithosphere) where the vertical temperature drop is about 1300 K. Theoretical rheology and laboratory experiments with rock samples show that transient creep occurs while creep strains are sufficiently small. The transient creep is described by the temperature-dependent Andrade rheological model. Since plate tectonics allows only small deformations in lithospheric plates, creep of the lithosphere plates is transient whereas steady-state creep, described by non-Newtonian power-law rheological model, takes place in the underlying mantle. The solution of stability problem shows that the lithosphere is stable but small-scale convective oscillations are attenuated very weakly in regions of thickened lithosphere beneath continental cratons (subcratonic roots) where the thickness of the lithosphere is about 200 km. These oscillations create small-scale convective cells (the horizontal dimensions of the cells are of the order of the subcratonic lithosphere thickness). Direction of motion within the cells periodically changes (the period of convective oscillations is of the order of 3 × 108 yr). In this study, the oscillations of cratonic lithosphere caused by initial relief perturbation are considered. This relief perturbation is assumed to be created by overthrusting in orogenic belts surrounding cratons. The perturbation of the Earth's surface relief leads to a fast isothermal process of isostatic recovery. In the presence of vertical temperature gradient, vertical displacements, associated with the recovery process in the lithosphere interior, instantly produce the initial temperature perturbations exciting thermoconvective oscillations in the cratonic lithosphere. These small-amplitude convective oscillations cause oscillatory crustal movements which form sedimentary basins on cratons.

  6. Cube texture generation dependence on deformation textures in cold rolled OFE copper

    SciTech Connect

    Necker, C.T.; Rollett, A.D.; Doherty, R.D.

    1993-10-01

    The evolution of the {alpha} and {beta} fiber deformation textures in OFE copper for von Mises strains of 1.0 to 4.5 is reported as well as how it affects the generation of cube recrystallization textures. Computational volume fraction analysis of the fibers indicates that the deformation texture evolves evenly along the length of the fibers. Fiber weakening during recrystallization does not occur more selectively in any one component or section of the fiber but occurs relatively evenly across the fiber. Cube grains grow without misorientation preference into the deformed structure. Microtextural analysis of the fully recrystallized samples indicates that the cube component (defined as less than 20{degrees} misorientation from {l_brace}100{r_brace}<001>) not only strengthens with increasing prior strain but also becomes much sharper, more closely aligned with the exact cube position. These results are explained by the evolution of the environment (texture and microstructure) surrounding potential nucleation sites.

  7. Progress report on the influence of test temperature and grain boundary chemistry on the fracture behavior of ITER copper alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Li, M.; Stubbins, J.F.; Edwards, D.J.

    1998-09-01

    This collaborative study was initiated to determine mechanical properties at elevated temperatures of various copper alloys by University of Illinois and Pacific Northwestern National Lab (PNNL) with support of OMG Americas, Inc. and Brush Wellman, Inc. This report includes current experimental results on notch tensile tests and pre-cracked bend bar tests on these materials at room temperature, 200 and 300 C. The elevated temperature tests were performed in vacuum and indicate that a decrease in fracture resistance with increasing temperature, as seen in previous investigations. While the causes for the decreases in fracture resistance are still not clear, the current results indicate that environmental effects are likely less important in the process than formerly assumed.

  8. Phase-dependent photocatalytic H2 evolution of copper zinc tin sulfide under visible light.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zhi-Xian; Zhou, Wen-Hui; Kou, Dong-Xing; Zhou, Zheng-Ji; Wu, Si-Xin

    2014-10-28

    CZTS exhibited apparently phase-dependent photocatalytic H2 evolution under visible light. Possible factors for the phase-dependent photocatalytic activity of CZTS were discussed in detail. PMID:25205452

  9. Copper-Assisted Direct Growth of Vertical Graphene Nanosheets on Glass Substrates by Low-Temperature Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yifei; Jang, Haegyu; Kim, Sun Jung; Pang, Changhyun; Chae, Heeyeop

    2015-08-01

    Vertical graphene (VG) nanosheets are directly grown below 500 °C on glass substrates by a one-step copper-assisted plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) process. A piece of copper foil is located around a glass substrate as a catalyst in the process. The effect of the copper catalyst on the vertical graphene is evaluated in terms of film morphology, growth rate, carbon density in the plasma and film resistance. The growth rate of the vertical graphene is enhanced by a factor of 5.6 with the copper catalyst with denser vertical graphene. The analysis of optical emission spectra suggests that the carbon radical density is increased with the copper catalyst. Highly conductive VG films having 800 Ω/□ are grown on glass substrates with Cu catalyst at a relatively low temperature.

  10. PALLADIUM/COPPER ALLOY COMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE HYDROGEN SEPARATION

    SciTech Connect

    J. Douglas Way

    2004-08-31

    This report summarizes progress made during the first year of research funding from DOE Grant No. DE-FG26-03NT41792 at the Colorado School of Mines. The period of performance was September 1, 2003 through August of 2004. Composite membranes, consisting of a thin Pd alloy film supported on a porous substrate have been investigated as a means of reducing the membrane cost and improving H{sub 2} flux. An electroless plating technique was utilized to deposit subsequent layers of palladium and copper over zirconia and alumina-based microfilters. The composite membranes thus made were annealed and tested at temperatures ranging from 250 to 500 C, under very high feed pressures (up to 450 psig) using pure gases and gaseous mixtures containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}S, with the purpose of determining the effects these variables had on the H{sub 2} permeation rate, selectivity and percent recovery. The inhibition caused by CO/CO{sub 2} gases on a 7 {micro}m thick Pd-Cu composite membrane was less than 17% over a wide range of compositions at 350 C. H{sub 2}S caused a strong inhibition of the H{sub 2} flux of the same Pd-Cu composite membrane, which is accentuated at levels of 100 ppm or higher. The membrane was exposed to 50 ppm three times without permanent damage. At higher H{sub 2}S levels, above 100 ppm the membrane suffered some physical degradation and its performances was severely affected. The use of sweep gases improved the hydrogen flux and recovery of a Pd-Cu composite membrane. Recently, we have been able to dramatically reduce the thickness of these Pd alloy membranes to approximately one micron. This is significant because at this thickness, it is the cost of the porous support that controls the materials cost of a composite Pd alloy membrane, not the palladium inventory. Very recent results show that the productivity of our membranes is very high, essentially meeting the DOE pure hydrogen flux target value set by the DOE Hydrogen

  11. Temperature dependence of the deformation behavior of type 316 stainless steel after low temperature neutron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, J.P.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Ioka, Ikuo; Jitsukawa, Shiro

    1996-12-31

    A single heat of solution annealed 316 ss was irradiated to 7 and 18 dpa at 60, 200, 330, and 400 C. Tensile properties were studied vs dose and temperature. Large changes in yield strength, deformation mode, strain to necking (STN), and strain hardening capacity were seen. Magnitude of the changes are dependent on both irradiation temperature and neutron dose. Irradiation can more than triple the yield strength and decrease STN to <0.5% under certain conditions. A maximum increase in yield strength and a minimum in STN occur after irradiation at 330 C but failure mode remains ductile.

  12. Relating temperature dependence of atom scattering spectra to surface corrugation.

    PubMed

    Hayes, W W; Manson, J R

    2011-12-01

    It is suggested that a measurement of the temperature dependence of the most probable intensity of energy-resolved atom-surface scattering spectra can reveal the strength of the surface corrugation. To support this conjecture, a classical mechanical theory of atom scattering from a corrugated surface, valid in the weak corrugation limit, is developed. The general result for the scattering probability is expressed in terms of spatial integrals over the impact parameter within a surface unit cell. For the case of a one-dimensional corrugation, approximate expressions for the scattering probability are obtained in terms of analytic closed form expressions. As an indicator of its relation to experimental measurements, calculations using a one-dimensional corrugation model are compared with data for Ar scattering from a molten Ga surface and an approximate value of the corrugation height parameter is extracted. PMID:22085838

  13. Temperature dependence of the electronic structure of semiconductors and insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Poncé, S. Gillet, Y.; Laflamme Janssen, J.; Gonze, X.; Marini, A.; Verstraete, M.

    2015-09-14

    The renormalization of electronic eigenenergies due to electron-phonon coupling (temperature dependence and zero-point motion effect) is sizable in many materials with light atoms. This effect, often neglected in ab initio calculations, can be computed using the perturbation-based Allen-Heine-Cardona theory in the adiabatic or non-adiabatic harmonic approximation. After a short description of the recent progresses in this field and a brief overview of the theory, we focus on the issue of phonon wavevector sampling convergence, until now poorly understood. Indeed, the renormalization is obtained numerically through a slowly converging q-point integration. For non-zero Born effective charges, we show that a divergence appears in the electron-phonon matrix elements at q → Γ, leading to a divergence of the adiabatic renormalization at band extrema. This problem is exacerbated by the slow convergence of Born effective charges with electronic wavevector sampling, which leaves residual Born effective charges in ab initio calculations on materials that are physically devoid of such charges. Here, we propose a solution that improves this convergence. However, for materials where Born effective charges are physically non-zero, the divergence of the renormalization indicates a breakdown of the adiabatic harmonic approximation, which we assess here by switching to the non-adiabatic harmonic approximation. Also, we study the convergence behavior of the renormalization and develop reliable extrapolation schemes to obtain the converged results. Finally, the adiabatic and non-adiabatic theories, with corrections for the slow Born effective charge convergence problem (and the associated divergence) are applied to the study of five semiconductors and insulators: α-AlN, β-AlN, BN, diamond, and silicon. For these five materials, we present the zero-point renormalization, temperature dependence, phonon-induced lifetime broadening, and the renormalized electronic band structure.

  14. Temperature dependence of the electronic structure of semiconductors and insulators.

    PubMed

    Poncé, S; Gillet, Y; Laflamme Janssen, J; Marini, A; Verstraete, M; Gonze, X

    2015-09-14

    The renormalization of electronic eigenenergies due to electron-phonon coupling (temperature dependence and zero-point motion effect) is sizable in many materials with light atoms. This effect, often neglected in ab initio calculations, can be computed using the perturbation-based Allen-Heine-Cardona theory in the adiabatic or non-adiabatic harmonic approximation. After a short description of the recent progresses in this field and a brief overview of the theory, we focus on the issue of phonon wavevector sampling convergence, until now poorly understood. Indeed, the renormalization is obtained numerically through a slowly converging q-point integration. For non-zero Born effective charges, we show that a divergence appears in the electron-phonon matrix elements at q → Γ, leading to a divergence of the adiabatic renormalization at band extrema. This problem is exacerbated by the slow convergence of Born effective charges with electronic wavevector sampling, which leaves residual Born effective charges in ab initio calculations on materials that are physically devoid of such charges. Here, we propose a solution that improves this convergence. However, for materials where Born effective charges are physically non-zero, the divergence of the renormalization indicates a breakdown of the adiabatic harmonic approximation, which we assess here by switching to the non-adiabatic harmonic approximation. Also, we study the convergence behavior of the renormalization and develop reliable extrapolation schemes to obtain the converged results. Finally, the adiabatic and non-adiabatic theories, with corrections for the slow Born effective charge convergence problem (and the associated divergence) are applied to the study of five semiconductors and insulators: α-AlN, β-AlN, BN, diamond, and silicon. For these five materials, we present the zero-point renormalization, temperature dependence, phonon-induced lifetime broadening, and the renormalized electronic band structure

  15. Temperature Dependent Equations of State for HMX-based Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Melvin; Root, S.; Gustavsen, R.; Pierce, T.; Defisher, S.; Travers, B.; Sandia National Laboratories Collaboration; Los Alamos National Laboratory Collaboration; U. S. Army Ardec Collaboration

    2011-06-01

    In order to examine the temperature dependence of the equation of state (EOS) of two HMX-based explosives, PBX9501 and PBXN9, samples were subjected to shockless compression using the Sandia VELOCE magnetic compression system. Prior to compression, the energetic composites were heated to temperatures up to 155° C , just below the HMX β - δ phase transition at atmospheric pressure conditions. The phase transition is explored at higher stress conditions when subjected to near isentropic loading. A Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) was used to measure particle velocity of the transmitted compression wave. The velocity profile data was analyzed using forward/backward integration methods along with an optimization method to determine unreacted EOS parameters. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  16. Model for temperature-dependent magnetization of nanocrystalline materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bian, Q.; Niewczas, M.

    2015-01-07

    A magnetization model of nanocrystalline materials incorporating intragrain anisotropies, intergrain interactions, and texture effects has been extended to include the thermal fluctuations. The method relies on the stochastic Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert theory of magnetization dynamics and permits to study the magnetic properties of nanocrystalline materials at arbitrary temperature below the Currie temperature. The model has been used to determine the intergrain exchange constant and grain boundary anisotropy constant of nanocrystalline Ni at 100 K and 298 K. It is found that the thermal fluctuations suppress the strength of the intergrain exchange coupling and also reduce the grain boundary anisotropy. In comparison with its value at 2 K, the interparticle exchange constant decreases by 16% and 42% and the grain boundary anisotropy constant decreases by 28% and 40% at 100 K and 298 K, respectively. An application of the model to study the grain size-dependent magnetization indicates that when the thermal activation energy is comparable to the free energy of grains, the decrease in the grain size leads to the decrease in the magnetic permeability and saturation magnetization. The mechanism by which the grain size influences the magnetic properties of nc–Ni is discussed.

  17. Model for temperature-dependent magnetization of nanocrystalline materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Q.; Niewczas, M.

    2015-01-01

    A magnetization model of nanocrystalline materials incorporating intragrain anisotropies, intergrain interactions, and texture effects has been extended to include the thermal fluctuations. The method relies on the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert theory of magnetization dynamics and permits to study the magnetic properties of nanocrystalline materials at arbitrary temperature below the Currie temperature. The model has been used to determine the intergrain exchange constant and grain boundary anisotropy constant of nanocrystalline Ni at 100 K and 298 K. It is found that the thermal fluctuations suppress the strength of the intergrain exchange coupling and also reduce the grain boundary anisotropy. In comparison with its value at 2 K, the interparticle exchange constant decreases by 16% and 42% and the grain boundary anisotropy constant decreases by 28% and 40% at 100 K and 298 K, respectively. An application of the model to study the grain size-dependent magnetization indicates that when the thermal activation energy is comparable to the free energy of grains, the decrease in the grain size leads to the decrease in the magnetic permeability and saturation magnetization. The mechanism by which the grain size influences the magnetic properties of nc-Ni is discussed.

  18. Boundary formulations for shape sensitivity of temperature dependent conductivity problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, James H.; Wang, Hua

    1992-01-01

    Used in concert with the Kirchhoff transformation, implicit differentiation of the discretized boundary integral equations governing the conduction of heat in solids with temperature dependent thermal conductivity is shown to generate an accurate and economical approach for computation of shape sensitivities. For problems with specified temperature and heat flux boundary conditions, a linear problem results for both the analysis and sensitivity analysis. In problems with either convection or radiation boundary conditions, a nonlinear problem is generated. Several iterative strategies are presented for the solution of the resulting sets of nonlinear equations and the computational performances examined in detail. Multizone analysis and zone condensation strategies are demonstrated to provide substantive computational economies in this process for models with either localized nonlinear boundary conditions or regions of geometric insensitivity to design variables. A series of nonlinear example problems is presented that have closed form solutions. Exact analytical expressions for the shape sensitivities associated with these problems are developed and these are compared with the sensitivities computed using the boundary element formulation.

  19. Temperature dependences of rate coefficients for electron catalyzed mutual neutralization

    SciTech Connect

    Shuman, Nicholas S.; Miller, Thomas M.; Friedman, Jeffrey F.; Viggiano, Albert A.; Maeda, Satoshi; Morokuma, Keiji

    2011-07-14

    The flowing afterglow technique of variable electron and neutral density attachment mass spectrometry (VENDAMS) has recently yielded evidence for a novel plasma charge loss process, electron catalyzed mutual neutralization (ECMN), i.e., A{sup +}+ B{sup -}+ e{sup -}{yields} A + B + e{sup -}. Here, rate constants for ECMN of two polyatomic species (POCl{sub 3}{sup -} and POCl{sub 2}{sup -}) and one diatomic species (Br{sub 2}{sup -}) each with two monatomic cations (Ar{sup +}and Kr{sup +}) are measured using VENDAMS over the temperature range 300 K-500 K. All rate constants show a steep negative temperature dependence, consistent with that expected for a three body process involving two ions and an electron. No variation in rate constants as a function of the cation type is observed outside of uncertainty; however, rate constants of the polyatomic anions ({approx}1 x 10{sup -18} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1} at 300 K) are measurably higher than that for Br{sub 2}{sup -}[(5.5 {+-} 2) x 10{sup -19} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1} at 300 K].

  20. Fish introductions reveal the temperature dependence of species interactions.

    PubMed

    Hein, Catherine L; Öhlund, Gunnar; Englund, Göran

    2014-01-22

    A major area of current research is to understand how climate change will impact species interactions and ultimately biodiversity. A variety of environmental conditions are rapidly changing owing to climate warming, and these conditions often affect both the strength and outcome of species interactions. We used fish distributions and replicated fish introductions to investigate environmental conditions influencing the coexistence of two fishes in Swedish lakes: brown trout (Salmo trutta) and pike (Esox lucius). A logistic regression model of brown trout and pike coexistence showed that these species coexist in large lakes (more than 4.5 km(2)), but not in small, warm lakes (annual air temperature more than 0.9-1.5°C). We then explored how climate change will alter coexistence by substituting climate scenarios for 2091-2100 into our model. The model predicts that brown trout will be extirpated from approximately half of the lakes where they presently coexist with pike and from nearly all 9100 lakes where pike are predicted to invade. Context dependency was critical for understanding pike-brown trout interactions, and, given the widespread occurrence of context-dependent species interactions, this aspect will probably be critical for accurately predicting climate impacts on biodiversity. PMID:24307673

  1. Fish introductions reveal the temperature dependence of species interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hein, Catherine L.; Öhlund, Gunnar; Englund, Göran

    2014-01-01

    A major area of current research is to understand how climate change will impact species interactions and ultimately biodiversity. A variety of environmental conditions are rapidly changing owing to climate warming, and these conditions often affect both the strength and outcome of species interactions. We used fish distributions and replicated fish introductions to investigate environmental conditions influencing the coexistence of two fishes in Swedish lakes: brown trout (Salmo trutta) and pike (Esox lucius). A logistic regression model of brown trout and pike coexistence showed that these species coexist in large lakes (more than 4.5 km2), but not in small, warm lakes (annual air temperature more than 0.9–1.5°C). We then explored how climate change will alter coexistence by substituting climate scenarios for 2091–2100 into our model. The model predicts that brown trout will be extirpated from approximately half of the lakes where they presently coexist with pike and from nearly all 9100 lakes where pike are predicted to invade. Context dependency was critical for understanding pike–brown trout interactions, and, given the widespread occurrence of context-dependent species interactions, this aspect will probably be critical for accurately predicting climate impacts on biodiversity. PMID:24307673

  2. Temperature dependence of polyhedral cage volumes in clathrate hydrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chakoumakos, B.C.; Rawn, C.J.; Rondinone, A.J.; Stern, L.A.; Circone, S.; Kirby, S.H.; Ishii, Y.; Jones, C.Y.; Toby, B.H.

    2003-01-01

    The polyhedral cage volumes of structure I (sI) (carbon dioxide, methane, trimethylene oxide) and structure II (sII) (methane-ethane, propane, tetrahydrofuran, trimethylene oxide) hydrates are computed from atomic positions determined from neutron powder-diffraction data. The ideal structural formulas for sI and sII are, respectively, S2L6 ?? 46H2O and S16L???8 ?? 136H2O, where S denotes a polyhedral cage with 20 vertices, L a 24-cage, and L??? a 28-cage. The space-filling polyhedral cages are defined by the oxygen atoms of the hydrogen-bonded network of water molecules. Collectively, the mean cage volume ratio is 1.91 : 1.43 : 1 for the 28-cage : 24-cage : 20-cage, which correspond to equivalent sphere radii of 4.18, 3.79, and 3.37 A??, respectively. At 100 K, mean polyhedral volumes are 303.8, 227.8, and 158.8 A??3 for the 28-cage, 24-cage, and 20-cage, respectively. In general, the 20-cage volume for a sII is larger than that of a sI, although trimethylene oxide is an exception. The temperature dependence of the cage volumes reveals differences between apparently similar cages with similar occupants. In the case of trimethylene oxide hydrate, which forms both sI and sII, the 20-cages common to both structures contract quite differently. From 220 K, the sII 20-cage exhibits a smooth monotonic reduction in size, whereas the sI 20-cage initially expands upon cooling to 160 K, then contracts more rapidly to 10 K, and overall the sI 20-cage is larger than the sII 20-cage. The volumes of the large cages in both structures contract monotonically with decreasing temperature. These differences reflect reoriented motion of the trimethyelene oxide molecule in the 24-cage of sI, consistent with previous spectroscopic and calorimetric studies. For the 20-cages in methane hydrate (sI) and a mixed methane-ethane hydrate (sII), both containing methane as the guest molecule, the temperature dependence of the 20-cage volume in sII is much less than that in sI, but sII is overall

  3. A fluorescence turn-on detection of copper(II) based on the template-dependent click ligation of oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fangyuan; Li, Yongxin; Li, Wenying; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Qingfeng; Anjum Shahzad, Sohail; Yu, Cong

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a fluorescence turn-on method for copper(II) detection is reported. A molecular beacon (MB) was designed as a template. Cu(2+) was reduced to Cu(+) in the presence of a reductant (ascorbic acid). Two short single-stranded oligonucleotides one was labeled with a 5'-alkyne and the other with 3'-azide group, proceeded a template-dependent chemical ligation through the Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition. The newly generated click-ligated long chain oligonucleotide, which was complementary to the MB, opened the MB hairpin structure and resulted in a turn on fluorescence. The increase in fluorescence intensity is directly proportional to the amount of Cu(2+) added to the assay solution. The present assay is quite sensitive and allows the detection of 2 nM Cu(2+). The described assay also exhibits high selectivity over other metal ions. PMID:25476281

  4. Hierarchical copper-decorated nickel nanocatalysts supported on La2O3 for low-temperature steam reforming of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jyong-Yue; Su, Wei-Nien; Rick, John; Yang, Sheng-Chiang; Cheng, Ju-Hsiang; Pan, Chun-Jern; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2014-02-01

    Copper/nickel nanocatalysts with a unique morphology were prepared by thermal reduction of a perovskite LaNix Cu1-x O3 precursor (x=1, 0.9, and 0.7). During thermal reduction, copper was first reduced and reacted with lanthanum to form metastable Cu5 La and Cu13 La. When the thermal reduction temperature was increased, the perovskite decomposed to Ni and La2 O3 , CuLa alloys disappeared, and Cu deposits on Ni nanoparticles were generated, thereby forming Cu/Ni nanocatalysts with hierarchical structures. Nanosized nickel, decorated with copper and supported on La2 O3 , could be produced at 520-550 °C. The steam reforming of ethanol was used as a model reaction to demonstrate the catalytic capability of the materials formed. The hierarchical structure of the Cu/Ni/La2 O3 catalysts confers synergetic effects that greatly favor the dehydrogenation of ethanol and which break the C-C bond to produce a higher yield of hydrogen at a low reaction temperature, whereas La2 O3 provides the required stability during the reaction. The reaction at 290 °C achieved almost 100 % conversion with a hydrogen yield reaching 2.21 molH2  mol(-1) EtOH thus indicating that this special structural feature can achieve high activity for the SRE at low temperatures. The proposed synthesis of nanocatalysts appears to be a good way to generate oxide-supported hierarchically structured nanoparticles that can also be applied to other reactions catalyzed by a heterogeneous metal oxide system. PMID:24307476

  5. Temperature dependence of the deformation behavior of 316 stainless steel after low temperature neutron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel-Robertson, J.E.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Grossbeck, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    The effects of low temperature neutron irradiation on the tensile behavior of 316 stainless steel have been investigated. A single heat of solution annealed 316 was irradiated to 7 and 18 dpa at 60, 200, 330, and 400{degrees}C. The tensile properties as a function of dose and as a function of temperature were examined. Large changes in yield strength, deformation mode, strain to necking, and strain hardening capacity were seen in this irradiation experiment. The magnitudes of the changes are dependent on both irradiation temperature and neutron dose. Irradiation can more than triple the yield strength over the unirradiated value and decrease the strain to necking (STN) to less than 0.5% under certain conditions. A maximum increase in yield strength and a minimum in the STN occur after irradiation at 330{degrees}C but the failure mode remains ductile.

  6. Simultaneous Grain Growth and Grain Refinement in Bulk Ultrafine-Grained Copper under Tensile Deformation at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hailiang; Lu, Cheng; Tieu, Anh Kiet; Li, Huijun; Godbole, Ajit; Kong, Charlie; Zhao, Xing

    2016-08-01

    Grain growth and grain refinement behavior during deformation determine the strength and ductility of ultrafine-grained materials. We used asymmetric cryorolling to fabricate ultrafine-grained copper sheets with an average grain width of 230 nm and having a laminate structure. The sheets show a high-true failure strain of 1.5. Observation of the microstructure at the fracture surface reveals that ultrafine laminate-structured grains were simultaneously transformed into both equiaxed nanograins and coarse grains under tensile deformation at room temperature.

  7. Salinity-dependent mechanisms of copper toxicity in the galaxiid fish, Galaxias maculatus.

    PubMed

    Glover, Chris N; Urbina, Mauricio A; Harley, Rachel A; Lee, Jacqueline A

    2016-05-01

    The euryhaline galaxiid fish, inanga (Galaxias maculatus) is widely spread throughout the Southern hemisphere occupying near-coastal streams that may be elevated in trace elements such as copper (Cu). Despite this, nothing is known regarding their sensitivity to Cu contamination. The mechanisms of Cu toxicity in inanga, and the ameliorating role of salinity, were investigated by acclimating fish to freshwater (FW), 50% seawater (SW), or 100% SW and exposing them to a graded series of Cu concentrations (0-200μgL(-1)) for 48h. Mortality, whole body Cu accumulation, measures of ionoregulatory disturbance (whole body ions, sodium (Na) influx, sodium/potassium ATPase activity) and ammonia excretion were monitored. Toxicity of Cu was greatest in FW, with mortality likely resulting from impaired Na influx. In both FW and 100% SW, ammonia excretion was significantly elevated, an effect opposite to that observed in previous studies, suggesting fundamental differences in the effect of Cu in this species relative to other studied fish. Salinity was protective against Cu toxicity, and physiology seemed to play a more important role than water chemistry in this protection. Inanga are sensitive to waterborne Cu through a conserved impairment of Na ion homeostasis, but some effects of Cu exposure in this species are distinct. Based on effect concentrations, current regulatory tools and limits are likely protective of this species in New Zealand waters. PMID:26966874

  8. Concentration dependent toxicokinetics of copper in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    PubMed

    Bednarska, Agnieszka J; Stępień, Katarzyna

    2015-11-01

    To predict internal metal concentrations in animals under specific environmental exposures, the relationship between the exposure concentrations and values of toxicokinetic parameters must be known. At high exposure levels, the availability of carriers transporting metal ions through cellular membranes may become limited, thereby decreasing the assimilation rates (k A ). Furthermore, increased metal concentrations in food may result in greater damage to the gut and reduce the assimilation efficiency and/or increase the elimination rate (k E ). Therefore, k A should decrease and k E should increase with increasing metal concentrations. In fact, our study on Tribolium castaneum exposed to Cu at 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg kg(-1) of dry flour showed that with increasing Cu concentrations, k A decreased from 0.0042 day(-1) at 500 mg kg(-1) to 0.0026 day(-1) at 4000 mg kg(-1) in females and from 0.0029 to 0.001 day(-1) in males and k E increased from 0.027 to 0.064 day(-1) and from 0.018 to 0.04 day(-1) in females and males, respectively. Significant differences in k A between the sexes were observed at 2000 and 4000 mg kg(-1), whereas significant differences between treatments were found for k A in males. Copper was efficiently regulated by T. castaneum: an eightfold increase in exposure concentrations resulted in only a ca. twofold increase in the internal concentration. No Cu effect on the respiratory metabolism of T. castaneum was found. PMID:26169625

  9. Position-dependent performance of copper phthalocyanine based field-effect transistors by gold nanoparticles modification.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiao; Li, Yao; Lv, Wenli; Zhao, Feiyu; Sun, Lei; Peng, Yingquan; Wen, Zhanwei; Zhong, Junkang; Zhang, Jianping

    2015-01-21

    A facile fabrication and characteristics of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)-based organic field-effect transistor (OFET) using the gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) modification is reported, thereby achieving highly improved performance. The effect of Au NPs located at three different positions, that is, at the SiO2/CuPc interface (device B), embedding in the middle of CuPc layer (device C), and on the top of CuPc layer (device D), is investigated, and the results show that device D has the best performance. Compared with the device without Au NPs (reference device A), device D displays an improvement of field-effect mobility (μ(sat)) from 1.65 × 10(-3) to 5.51 × 10(-3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), and threshold voltage decreases from -23.24 to -16.12 V. Therefore, a strategy for the performance improvement of the CuPc-based OFET with large field-effect mobility and saturation drain current is developed, on the basis of the concept of nanoscale Au modification. The model of an additional electron transport channel formation by FET operation at the Au NPs/CuPc interface is therefore proposed to explain the observed performance improvement. Optimum CuPc thickness is confirmed to be about 50 nm in the present study. The device-to-device uniformity and time stability are discussed for future application. PMID:25548878

  10. Nanocrystalline copper sulfide of varying morphologies and stoichiometries in a low temperature solvothermal process using a new single-source molecular precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Pulakesh; Seok, Sang Il

    2012-08-01

    Surfactantless synthesis of copper sulfide nanoparticles (NPs) with varied morphologies such as hexagonal rods, rhombohedral, and spherical, has been carried out via low-temperature thermolysis of a new single-source precursor, [Cu(SMDTC)Cl2], (where SMDTC is S-methyl dithiocarbazate). The reaction parameters e.g., temperature and nature of solvent can be used to control the size and morphology of the nanoparticles. It is observed that the solvents played an important role to control the morphology and stoichiometry of copper sulfide. The anisotropic absorption by the chelating solvent (diamine or ethyleneglycol) at the different facets of the newborn microcrystals results the growth of one-dimensional (1D) copper sulfide NPs. The possible formation mechanism of copper sulfide NPs has also been discussed.

  11. High-temperature, low-cycle fatigue of advanced copper-base alloys for rocket nozzles. Part 1: Narloy Z

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, J. B.; Stentz, R. H.; Berling, J. T.

    1974-01-01

    Short-term tensile and low-cycle fatigue data are reported for Narloy Z, a centrifugally cast, copper-base alloy. Tensile tests were performed at room temperature in air and in argon at 482, 538 and 593 C using an axial strain rate of .002/sec to the -1 power. In addition tensile tests were performed at 538 C in an evaluation of tensile properties at strain rates of .004 and .01/sec to the -1 power. Ultimate and yield strength values of about 315 and 200 MN/sq m respectively were recorded at room temperature and these decreased to about 120 and 105 respectively as the temperature was increased to 593 C. Reduction in area values were recorded in the range from 40 to 50% with some indication of a minimum ductility point at 538 C.

  12. Temperature-Dependent Henry's Law Constants of Atmospheric Amines.

    PubMed

    Leng, Chunbo; Kish, J Duncan; Roberts, Jason E; Dwebi, Iman; Chon, Nara; Liu, Yong

    2015-08-20

    There has been growing interest in understanding atmospheric amines in the gas phase and their mass transfer to the aqueous phase because of their potential roles in cloud chemistry, secondary organic aerosol formation, and the fate of atmospheric organics. Temperature-dependent Henry's law constants (KH) of atmospheric amines, a key parameter in atmospheric chemical transport models to account for mass transfer, are mostly unavailable. In this work, we investigated gas-liquid equilibria of five prevalent atmospheric amines, namely 1-propylamine, di-n-propylamine, trimethylamine, allylamine, and 4-methylmorpholine using bubble column technique. We reported effective KH, intrinsic KH, and gas phase diffusion coefficients of these species over a range of temperatures relevant to the lower atmosphere for the first time. The measured KH at 298 K and enthalpy of solution for 1-propylamine, di-n-propylamine, trimethylamine, allylamine, and 4-methylmorpholine are 61.4 ± 4.9 mol L(-1) atm(-1) and -49.0 ± 4.8 kJ mol(-1); 14.5 ± 1.2 mol L(-1) atm(-1) and -72.5 ± 6.8 kJ mol(-1); 8.9 ± 0.7 mol L(-1) atm(-1) and -49.6 ± 4.7 kJ mol(-1); 103.5 ± 10.4 mol L(-1) atm(-1) and -42.7 ± 4.3 kJ mol(-1); and 952.2 ± 114.3 mol L(-1) atm(-1) and -82.7 ± 9.7 kJ mol(-1), respectively. In addition, we evaluated amines' characteristic times to achieve gas-liquid equilibrium for partitioning between gas and aqueous phases. Results show gas-liquid equilibrium can be rapidly established at natural cloud droplets surface, but the characteristic times may be extended substantially at lower temperatures and pHs. Moreover, our findings imply that atmospheric amines are more likely to exist in cloud droplets, and ambient temperature, water content, and pH of aerosols play important roles in their partitioning. PMID:26200814

  13. Physical and Material Properties of Yttrium Barium Copper Oxide High Critical Temperature Superconducting Thin Films.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qiyuan

    1990-01-01

    A simple method of using layered structures and rapid thermal annealing to produce Y_1 Ba_2 Cu_3 O_{7-x} (YBCO) superconducting thin films is presented. Material properties of the films depend strongly on the processing conditions, the film stoichiometry, and the substrates. The films with critical temperature (T_{ rm c}) higher than liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K) have been made on various substrates including magnesium oxide, sapphire, and silicon. The best film was obtained on a MgO substrate with T_{rm c} of 84 K. Silicon diffusion and reaction with oxygen during a high temperature anneal degrade the superconductivity of the film on a Si substrate. Using a buffer layer of gold, the Si-YBCO interaction is greatly reduced. Typical resistivity of the film shows a linear temperature dependence which may be attributed to an electron -phonon interaction. Anisotropic resistance behavior has been observed due to the layered structures. Different metal contacts to the YBCO films have been used to study the chemical and electrical properties of metal-YBCO film interfaces. Gold has been found nonreactive to YBCO film, thus, it has the lowest contact resistivity. Near the T_{rm c}, the contact resistivity of a Au-YBCO contact approaches zero. This may be due to the proximity effect. Other metals such as Pt, Pd, Sn and Ti, react with the YBCO film and form thin oxide layers at the interfaces. The oxide layer acts as an insulating barrier which forbids the proximity effect and causes a large contact resistivity. The structural and electrical properties of the Si-YBCO intermixed film have been studied for different thicknesses of the silicon layers. A novel patterning technique of using Si-YBCO intermixing has been developed for fabricating the YBCO superconducting device structures. A superconductor sample has a critical current value I _{rm c}. Below the I _{rm c} the material is superconducting, and above I_{rm c} the sample has a finite resistance. Based on this effect

  14. Effect of Gly-Gly-His, Gly-His-Lys and their copper complexes on TNF-alpha-dependent IL-6 secretion in normal human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Gruchlik, Arkadiusz; Jurzak, Magdalena; Chodurek, Ewa; Dzierzewicz, Zofia

    2012-01-01

    Cosmeceuticals represent a marriage between cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. There are numerous cosmeceutically active products which can be broadly classified into the following categories: antioxidants, oligopeptides, growth factors and pigment lightning agents. Much attention has been focused on the tripeptides such as Gly-His-Lys (GHK) and Gly-Gly-His (GGH) and their copper complexes, which have a high activity and good skin tolerance. Recent data suggested their physiological role in process of wound healing, tissue repair and skin inflammation. The mechanism of anti-inflammatory properties of these peptides is not clear. The aim of the study was evaluation of influence of two peptides GGH. GHK and their copper complexes and saccharomyces/copper ferment (Oligolides Copper) on secretion of pro-inflammatory IL-6 in normal human dermal fibroblasts NHDF cell line. IL-6 was evaluated using the ELISA kit. GGH, GHK, CuCl2 and their copper complexes decreased TNF-alpha-dependent IL-6 secretion in fibroblasts. IL-6 is crucial for normal wound healing, skin inflammation and UVB-induced erythema. Because of the anti-inflammatory properties, the copper-peptides could be used on the skin surface instead of corticosteroids or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which have more side effects. Our observations provide some new information about the role of these tripeptides in skin inflammation. PMID:23285694

  15. Universal framework for temperature dependence prediction of the negative bias temperature instability based on microscope pictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chenyue; Zhang, Lining; Lin, Xinnan; Chan, Mansun

    2016-04-01

    A universal framework for describing the temperature enhanced negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) is developed in this paper. Analytical time evolution models of the NBTI mechanisms, as Pb center generation and hole-transport in the oxygen vacancies, are proposed based on careful investigation of atom-level microscopic pictures. A logarithmic time function is derived to describe the interface state (Pb center) generation and recovery evolution by revealing a fact that the activation energy is significantly modified by the accumulation of generated defects. Corresponding coefficients, including the generation amplitudes and time constant, are identified depending on temperature linearly and exponentially. Moreover, the unrecoverable oxide hole-trapping is proposed resulted from the hole-transport among deep-level oxygen vacancies driven by electrical field within the gate oxide. A power-law time function is derived to describing this evolution, with time exponent linear to temperature. Parameters calculated by the proposed analytical models reveal good consistent with the parameters directly extracted from the measured data, indicating the validation and universality of the physical based framework in reproducing the parametric shift of the NBTI degradation under various temperature conditions and process technologies.

  16. Nontoxic and abundant copper zinc tin sulfide nanocrystals for potential high-temperature thermoelectric energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haoran; Jauregui, Luis A; Zhang, Genqiang; Chen, Yong P; Wu, Yue

    2012-02-01

    Improving energy/fuel efficiency by converting waste heat into electricity using thermoelectric materials is of great interest due to its simplicity and reliability. However, many thermoelectric materials are composed of either toxic or scarce elements. Here, we report the experimental realization of using nontoxic and abundant copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS) nanocrystals for potential thermoelectric applications. The CZTS nanocrystals can be synthesized in large quantities from solution phase reaction and compressed into robust bulk pellets through spark plasma sintering and hot press while still maintaining nanoscale grain size inside. Electrical and thermal measurements have been performed from 300 to 700 K to understand the electron and phonon transports. Extra copper doping during the nanocrystal synthesis introduces a significant improvement in the performance. PMID:22214524

  17. Copper-catalyzed electrophilic amination of sodium sulfinates at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haibo; Shen, Yajing; Deng, Qinyue; Tu, Tao

    2015-11-28

    By using O-benzoyl hydroxylamines as amine sources, the first convenient copper-catalyzed electrophilic amination of sodium sulfinates has been realized. Even with 2 mol% catalyst loading, the protocol provided an efficient and straightforward synthesis of a broad range of functional sulfonamides under ambient reaction conditions without an additional base and ligand. Based on the control experiments, a plausible mechanism was proposed. PMID:26419424

  18. Thermal conductance measurements of pressed OFHC copper contacts at liquid helium temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, L. J.; Kittel, P.; Spivak, A. L.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal conductance of oxygen-free high conductivity (COFHC) copper sample pairs with surface finishes ranging from 0.1 to 1.6-micrometers rms roughness was investigated over the range of 1.6 to 6.0-K under applied contact forces up to 670 N. The thermal conductance increases with increasing contact force; however, no correlation can be drawn with respect to surface finish.

  19. Thermal conductance measurements of pressed OFHC copper contacts at liquid helium temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salerno, L. J.; Kittel, P.; Spivak, A. L.

    1983-01-01

    The thermal conductance of oxygen-free high conductivity (OFHC) copper sample pairs with surface finishes ranging from 0.1 to 1.6-micrometers rms roughness was investigated over the range of 1.6 to 6.0-K under applied contact forces up to 670 N. The thermal conductance increases with increasing contact force; however, no correlation can be drawn with respect to surface finish.

  20. Temperature dependence of microwave oscillations in magnetic tunnel junctions with a perpendicularly magnetized free layer

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Peng; Feng, Jiafeng E-mail: jiafengfeng@iphy.ac.cn; Wei, Hongxiang E-mail: jiafengfeng@iphy.ac.cn; Han, Xiufeng; Fang, Bin; Zhang, Baoshun; Zeng, Zhongming

    2015-01-05

    We experimentally study the temperature dependence of the spin-transfer-torque-induced microwave oscillations in MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction nanopillars with a perpendicularly magnetized free layer. We demonstrate that the oscillation frequency increases rapidly with decreasing temperature, which is mainly ascribed to the temperature dependence of both the saturation magnetization and the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. We also find that a strong temperature dependence of the output power while a nonmonotonic temperature dependence of spectral linewidth are maintained for a constant dc bias in measured temperature range. Possible mechanisms leading to the different dependences of oscillation frequency, output power, and linewidth are discussed.

  1. Soft self-assembled nanoparticles with temperature-dependent properties.

    PubMed

    Rovigatti, Lorenzo; Capone, Barbara; Likos, Christos N

    2016-02-14

    The fabrication of versatile building blocks that reliably self-assemble into desired ordered and disordered phases is amongst the hottest topics in contemporary materials science. To this end, microscopic units of varying complexity, aimed at assembling the target phases, have been thought, designed, investigated and built. Such a path usually requires laborious fabrication techniques, especially when specific functionalisation of the building blocks is required. Telechelic star polymers, i.e., star polymers made of a number of f di-block copolymers consisting of solvophobic and solvophilic monomers grafted on a central anchoring point, spontaneously self-assemble into soft patchy particles featuring attractive spots (patches) on the surface. Here we show that the tunability of such a system can be widely extended by controlling the physical and chemical parameters of the solution. Indeed, under fixed external conditions the self-assembly behaviour depends only on the number of arms and on the ratio of solvophobic to solvophilic monomers. However, changes in temperature and/or solvent quality make it possible to reliably change the number and size of the attractive patches. This allows the steering of the mesoscopic self-assembly behaviour without modifying the microscopic constituents. Interestingly, we also demonstrate that diverse combinations of the parameters can generate stars with the same number of patches but different radial and angular stiffness. This mechanism could provide a neat way of further fine-tuning the elastic properties of the supramolecular network without changing its topology. PMID:26467391

  2. Thermoelectronic emission from monolayer graphene with temperature dependent work functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de, Dilip; Olawole, Olukunle

    For the first time we have derived an equation for the temperature (T) dependent work function (W(T)) that will be important for modeling thermoelectronic current density (J) and energy distribution of emitted electrons specially, from nano-materials. The equation containing terms up to fifth power of T gives a modified Richardson-Dushman (MRDE) equation that fits excellently well the experimental data of J vs T for suspended graphene. It provides a unique technique for accurate determination of W0, Fermi energy, EF0 at 0 K and surface density of charge carriers, ns of graphene. The corresponding values obtained for suspended graphene are: W0 = 4.42 + 0.01 eV, EF0 = 0.166 + 0.002 eV; ns = 2.34x1012 cm-2. The model gives -ve thermal expansion coefficient of graphene (-8x10-6 /K) which has been experimentally confirmed. The equations are expected to hold for carbon nanotubes. Please send us acceptance notice early so that we can apply for sponsorship from our University in time.

  3. Soft self-assembled nanoparticles with temperature-dependent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovigatti, Lorenzo; Capone, Barbara; Likos, Christos N.

    2016-02-01

    The fabrication of versatile building blocks that reliably self-assemble into desired ordered and disordered phases is amongst the hottest topics in contemporary materials science. To this end, microscopic units of varying complexity, aimed at assembling the target phases, have been thought, designed, investigated and built. Such a path usually requires laborious fabrication techniques, especially when specific functionalisation of the building blocks is required. Telechelic star polymers, i.e., star polymers made of a number of f di-block copolymers consisting of solvophobic and solvophilic monomers grafted on a central anchoring point, spontaneously self-assemble into soft patchy particles featuring attractive spots (patches) on the surface. Here we show that the tunability of such a system can be widely extended by controlling the physical and chemical parameters of the solution. Indeed, under fixed external conditions the self-assembly behaviour depends only on the number of arms and on the ratio of solvophobic to solvophilic monomers. However, changes in temperature and/or solvent quality make it possible to reliably change the number and size of the attractive patches. This allows the steering of the mesoscopic self-assembly behaviour without modifying the microscopic constituents. Interestingly, we also demonstrate that diverse combinations of the parameters can generate stars with the same number of patches but different radial and angular stiffness. This mechanism could provide a neat way of further fine-tuning the elastic properties of the supramolecular network without changing its topology.

  4. Temperature Dependence of Lateral Charge Transport in Silicon Nanomembranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Weiwei; Scott, Shelley; Jacobson, Rb; Sookchoo, Pornsatit; Savage, Donald; Eriksson, Mark; Lagally, Max

    2014-03-01

    Thin sheets of single-crystal silicon (nanomembranes), electrically isolated from a bulk substrate by a dielectric layer, are an exceptional tool for studying the electronic transport properties of surfaces in the absence of an extended bulk. Under UHV, we measure the conductivity, and a back gate allows us to look into the depletion region, where we can determine the minimum conductance. For hydrogen-terminated Si(001) NMs, for which the surface has no conductivity, the minimum conductance decreases with decreasing NM thickness (220-42nm), demonstrating the reduction in carriers for thinner NMs. For the clean Si(2 ×1)surface, mobile charge exists in the π* surface band. For thicknesses below 200nm surface conduction dominates, rendering the thickness independence of the minimum. We determine a surface charge mobility of ~50cm2V-1s-1. We have measured the temperature dependence of the conductance of a 42nm thick HF treated SiNM. The results show that the Fermi level is pinned 0.21 +/- 0 . 01 eV below the conduction band minimum, in agreement with XPS results. Supported by DOE.

  5. Facile chemical synthesis and structure characterization of copper molybdate nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi; Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi; Khalilian-Shalamzari, Morteza

    2015-03-01

    Experimental parameters of a synthesis route were optimized by Taguchi robust design for the facile and controllable synthesis of copper molybdate nanoparticles. CuMoO4 nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical precipitation followed by hydrothermal process. Effects of different parameters of synthesis procedure, i.e. concentrations of both reagents, copper feeding flow rate and temperature of reactor on the particle size of prepared copper molybdate nanoparticles were investigated. The results of statistical optimization revealed that the size of copper molybdate particles is dependent on the procedure variables involving copper concentrations, flow rate and temperature of the reactor; while, molybdate concentration has a no considerable role in determining the size of CuMoO4 particles. Based on the results obtained by statistical optimization process, the nanoparticles of copper molybdate were prepared and then their structure and chemical composition were characterized by various techniques, i.e. SEM, TEM, XRD, EDX, FT-IR, UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy.

  6. Generalized Procedure for Improved Accuracy of Thermal Contact Resistance Measurements for Materials With Arbitrary Temperature-Dependent Thermal Conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Sayer, Robert A.

    2014-06-26

    Thermal contact resistance (TCR) is most commonly measured using one-dimensional steady-state calorimetric techniques. In the experimental methods we utilized, a temperature gradient is applied across two contacting beams and the temperature drop at the interface is inferred from the temperature profiles of the rods that are measured at discrete points. During data analysis, thermal conductivity of the beams is typically taken to be an average value over the temperature range imposed during the experiment. Our generalized theory is presented and accounts for temperature-dependent changes in thermal conductivity. The procedure presented enables accurate measurement of TCR for contacting materials whose thermal conductivity is any arbitrary function of temperature. For example, it is shown that the standard technique yields TCR values that are about 15% below the actual value for two specific examples of copper and silicon contacts. Conversely, the generalized technique predicts TCR values that are within 1% of the actual value. The method is exact when thermal conductivity is known exactly and no other errors are introduced to the system.

  7. Generalized Procedure for Improved Accuracy of Thermal Contact Resistance Measurements for Materials With Arbitrary Temperature-Dependent Thermal Conductivity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sayer, Robert A.

    2014-06-26

    Thermal contact resistance (TCR) is most commonly measured using one-dimensional steady-state calorimetric techniques. In the experimental methods we utilized, a temperature gradient is applied across two contacting beams and the temperature drop at the interface is inferred from the temperature profiles of the rods that are measured at discrete points. During data analysis, thermal conductivity of the beams is typically taken to be an average value over the temperature range imposed during the experiment. Our generalized theory is presented and accounts for temperature-dependent changes in thermal conductivity. The procedure presented enables accurate measurement of TCR for contacting materials whose thermalmore » conductivity is any arbitrary function of temperature. For example, it is shown that the standard technique yields TCR values that are about 15% below the actual value for two specific examples of copper and silicon contacts. Conversely, the generalized technique predicts TCR values that are within 1% of the actual value. The method is exact when thermal conductivity is known exactly and no other errors are introduced to the system.« less

  8. Low temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of thin vanadium nitride layers for copper diffusion barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Rampelberg, Geert; Devloo-Casier, Kilian; Deduytsche, Davy; Detavernier, Christophe; Blasco, Nicolas

    2013-03-18

    Thin vanadium nitride (VN) layers were grown by atomic layer deposition using tetrakis(ethylmethylamino)vanadium and NH{sub 3} plasma at deposition temperatures between 70 Degree-Sign C and 150 Degree-Sign C on silicon substrates and polymer foil. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed a composition close to stoichiometric VN, while x-ray diffraction showed the {delta}-VN crystal structure. The resistivity was as low as 200 {mu}{Omega} cm for the as deposited films and further reduced to 143 {mu}{Omega} cm and 93 {mu}{Omega} cm by annealing in N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/He/N{sub 2}, respectively. A 5 nm VN layer proved to be effective as a diffusion barrier for copper up to a temperature of 720 Degree-Sign C.

  9. Dose-dependent genotoxicity of copper oxide nanoparticles stimulated by reactive oxygen species in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Mohammad Javed; Kumar, Sudhir; Alhadlaq, Hisham A; Alrokayan, Salman A; Abu-Salah, Khalid M; Ahamed, Maqusood

    2016-05-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are of great interest in nanoscience and nanotechnology because of their broad industrial and commercial applications. Therefore, toxicity of CuO NPs needs to be thoroughly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and oxidative stress induced by CuO NPs in human lung epithelial (A549) cells. CuO NPs were synthesized by solvothermal method and the size of NPs measured under transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was found to be around 23 nm. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays showed that CuO NPs (5-15 µg/ml) exert cytotoxicity in A549 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Comet assay suggested concentration-dependent induction of DNA damage due to the exposure to CuO NPs. The comet tail moment was 27% at 15 µg/ml of CuO NPs, whereas it was 5% in control (p < 0.05). The flow cytometry data revealed that CuO NPs induced micronuclei (MN) in A549 cells dose dependently. The frequency of MN was 25/10(3) cells at 15 µg/ml of CuO NPs, whereas it was 2/10(3) cells for control. CuO NPs were also found to induce oxidative stress in a concentration-dependent manner, which was indicated by induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation along with glutathione depletion. Moreover, MN induction and DNA damage were significantly correlated with ROS (R(2) = 0.937 for ROS vs. olive tail moment, and R(2) = 0.944 for ROS vs. MN). Taken together, this study suggested that CuO NPs induce genotoxicity in A549 cells, which is likely to be mediated through ROS generation and oxidative stress. PMID:24311626

  10. The combined effects of heavy metals (copper and zinc), temperature and food (Chlorella vulgaris) level on the demographic characters of Moina macrocopa (Crustacea: Cladocera).

    PubMed

    Nandini, S; Picazo-Paez, E A; Sarma, S S S

    2007-08-01

    In this work we evaluated the effect of temperature (22 degrees and 27 degrees C), algal density (Chlorella vulgaris 0.5 x 10(6) and 2.0 x 10(6) cells/mL) and different combinations of 2 heavy metals (Zn at 25.25-101.0 microg/L and Cu at 17.75-71.0 microg/L) on the population level variables of Moina macrocopa. Median lethal concentration (24 h bioassay at 1 x 10(6) cells/mL of algal diet) of Zn and Cu for M. macrocopa were 1010 microg/L and 710 microg/L, respectively. In the survivorship curves at 27 degrees C there was a reduction in the survival of cladocerans exposed to Cu compared to controls or Zn. The fecundity curves (m(x)) indicated a steady reproductive output throughout the life span of M. macrocopa, but the negative impact of copper was more than that of zinc. Reproductive phase of M. macrocopa was longer at 22 degrees C than at 27 degrees C. The average lifespan was higher at 22 degrees C and at the higher food level. It was significantly affected by temperature, food level and toxicant concentration, as well as their interaction. The net reproductive rate was also influenced by food and temperature but not by the toxicant level. The generation time ranged between 4-8 days and was lower at 27 degrees C. The population growth rate (r) derived from life table experiments varied from 0.6 to 0.9 per day, depending on the treatment. Regardless of the toxicant level, at 22 degrees C, the population growth was higher at the higher food level. In treatments containing only Cu, the population growth of M. macrocopa was lower than when present together with Zn. Peak population densities of around 30 ind./mL were reached under high food conditions. Higher temperature and lower food level had an adverse effect on M. macrocopa in treatments containing only Cu. In the presence of higher food density, the adverse impact of copper was not evident. The r derived from growth study ranged from 0.25 to 0.64 per day depending on the test conditions. Data were interpreted

  11. Temperature dependence of water diffusion pools in brain white matter.

    PubMed

    Dhital, Bibek; Labadie, Christian; Stallmach, Frank; Möller, Harald E; Turner, Robert

    2016-02-15

    Water diffusion in brain tissue can now be easily investigated using magnetic resonance (MR) techniques, providing unique insights into cellular level microstructure such as axonal orientation. The diffusive motion in white matter is known to be non-Gaussian, with increasing evidence for more than one water-containing tissue compartment. In this study, freshly excised porcine brain white matter was measured using a 125-MHz MR spectrometer (3T) equipped with gradient coils providing magnetic field gradients of up to 35,000 mT/m. The sample temperature was varied between -14 and +19 °C. The hypothesis tested was that white matter contains two slowly exchanging pools of water molecules with different diffusion properties. A Stejskal-Tanner diffusion sequence with very short gradient pulses and b-factors up to 18.8 ms/μm(2) was used. The dependence on b-factor of the attenuation due to diffusion was robustly fitted by a biexponential function, with comparable volume fractions for each component. The diffusion coefficient of each component follows Arrhenius behavior, with significantly different activation energies. The measured volume fractions are consistent with the existence of three water-containing compartments, the first comprising relatively free cytoplasmic and extracellular water molecules, the second of water molecules in glial processes, and the third comprising water molecules closely associated with membranes, as for example, in the myelin sheaths and elsewhere. The activation energy of the slow diffusion pool suggests proton hopping at the surface of membranes by a Grotthuss mechanism, mediated by hydrating water molecules. PMID:26658929

  12. Copper-dependent metabolism of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase in human K562 cells. Lack of specific transcriptional activation and accumulation of a partially inactivated enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Steinkühler, C; Carrì, M T; Micheli, G; Knoepfel, L; Weser, U; Rotilio, G

    1994-01-01

    The regulation of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase by copper was investigated in human K562 cells. Copper ions caused a dose- and time-dependent increase, up to 3-fold, of the steady-state level of Cu,Zu-superoxide dismutase mRNA. A comparable increase was also observed for actin and ribosomal protein L32 mRNAs, but not for metallothionein mRNA which was augmented more than 50-fold and showed a different induction pattern. The copper-induced mRNAs were actively translated as judged from their enhanced loading on polysomes, the concomitantly increased cellular protein levels and an augmented incorporation of [3H]lysine into acid-precipitable material. Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase protein followed this general trend, as demonstrated by dose- and time-dependent increases in immunoreactive and enzymically active protein. However, a specific accumulation of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase was noticed in cells grown in the presence of copper, that was not detectable for other proteins. Purification of the enzyme demonstrated that Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase was present as a reconstitutable, copper-deficient protein with high specific activity (kcat./Cu = 0.89 x 10(9) M-1.s-1) in untreated K562 cells and as a fully metallated protein with low specific activity (kcat./Cu = 0.54 x 10(9) M-1.s-1) in copper-treated cells. Pulse-chase experiments using [3H]lysine indicated that turnover rates of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase in K562 cells were not affected by growth in copper-enriched medium, whereas turnover of total protein was significantly enhanced as a function of metal supplementation. From these results we conclude that: (i) unlike in yeast [Carrì, Galiazzo, Ciriolo and Rotilio (1991) FEBS Lett. 278, 263-266] Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase is not specifically regulated by copper at the transcriptional level in human K562 cells, suggesting that this type of regulation has not been conserved during the evolution of higher eukaryotes; (ii) copper ions cause an inactivation of the enzyme in

  13. Copper-dependent metabolism of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase in human K562 cells. Lack of specific transcriptional activation and accumulation of a partially inactivated enzyme.

    PubMed

    Steinkühler, C; Carrì, M T; Micheli, G; Knoepfel, L; Weser, U; Rotilio, G

    1994-09-15

    The regulation of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase by copper was investigated in human K562 cells. Copper ions caused a dose- and time-dependent increase, up to 3-fold, of the steady-state level of Cu,Zu-superoxide dismutase mRNA. A comparable increase was also observed for actin and ribosomal protein L32 mRNAs, but not for metallothionein mRNA which was augmented more than 50-fold and showed a different induction pattern. The copper-induced mRNAs were actively translated as judged from their enhanced loading on polysomes, the concomitantly increased cellular protein levels and an augmented incorporation of [3H]lysine into acid-precipitable material. Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase protein followed this general trend, as demonstrated by dose- and time-dependent increases in immunoreactive and enzymically active protein. However, a specific accumulation of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase was noticed in cells grown in the presence of copper, that was not detectable for other proteins. Purification of the enzyme demonstrated that Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase was present as a reconstitutable, copper-deficient protein with high specific activity (kcat./Cu = 0.89 x 10(9) M-1.s-1) in untreated K562 cells and as a fully metallated protein with low specific activity (kcat./Cu = 0.54 x 10(9) M-1.s-1) in copper-treated cells. Pulse-chase experiments using [3H]lysine indicated that turnover rates of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase in K562 cells were not affected by growth in copper-enriched medium, whereas turnover of total protein was significantly enhanced as a function of metal supplementation. From these results we conclude that: (i) unlike in yeast [Carrì, Galiazzo, Ciriolo and Rotilio (1991) FEBS Lett. 278, 263-266] Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase is not specifically regulated by copper at the transcriptional level in human K562 cells, suggesting that this type of regulation has not been conserved during the evolution of higher eukaryotes; (ii) copper ions cause an inactivation of the enzyme in

  14. Temperature dependence of the Cl atom reaction with deuterated methanes.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Frank; Portmann, Robert W; Ravishankara, A R; Burkholder, James B

    2015-05-14

    Kinetic isotope effect (KIE) and reaction rate coefficients, k1-k4, for the gas-phase reaction of Cl atoms with (12)CH3D (k1), (12)CH2D2 (k2), (12)CHD3 (k3), and (12)CD4 (k4) over the temperature range 223-343 K in 630 Torr of synthetic air are reported. Rate coefficients were measured using a relative rate technique with (12)CH4 as the primary reference compound. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor the methane isotopologue loss. The obtained KIE values were (12)CH3D: KIE1(T) = (1.227 ± 0.004) exp((43 ± 5)/T); (12)CH2D2: KIE2(T) = (1.14 ± 0.20) exp((191 ± 60)/T); (12)CHD3: KIE3(T) = (1.73 ± 0.34) exp((229 ± 60)/T); and (12)CD4: KIE4(T) = (1.01 ± 0.3) exp((724 ± 19)/T), where KIEx(T) = kCl+(12)CH4(T)/kx(T). The quoted uncertainties are at the 2σ (95% confidence) level and represent the precision of our data. The following Arrhenius expressions and 295 K rate coefficient values (in units of cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1)) were derived from the above KIE using a rate coefficient of 7.3 × 10(-12) exp(-1280/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for the reaction of Cl with (12)CH4: k1(T) = (5.95 ± 0.70) × 10(-12) exp(-(1323 ± 50)/T), k1(295 K) = (6.7 ± 0.8) × 10(-14); k2(T) = (6.4 ± 1.3) × 10(-12) exp(-(1471 ± 60)/T), k2(295 K) = (4.4 ± 0.9) × 10(-14); k3(T) = (4.2 ± 1.0) × 10(-12) exp(-(1509 ± 60)/T), k3(295 K) = (2.53 ± 0.6) × 10(-14); and k4(T) = (7.13 ± 2.3) × 10(-12) exp(-(2000 ± 120)/T), k4(295 K) = (0.81 ± 0.26) × 10(-14). The reported uncertainties in the pre-exponential factors are 2σ and include estimated systematic errors in our measurements and the uncertainty in the reference reaction rate coefficient. The results from this study are compared with previously reported room-temperature rate coefficients for each of the deuterated methanes as well as the available temperature dependent data for the Cl atom reactions with CH3D and CD4. A two-dimensional atmospheric chemistry model was used to examine the implications of the

  15. Size dependence of transition temperature in polymer nanowires.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Sana; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Shoji, Satoru; Sekkat, Zouheir; Kawata, Satoshi

    2008-03-27

    We studied the effect of changing temperature on the mechanical properties of nanosized poly(methyl methacrylate) wires fabricated by two-photon fabrication. At around room temperature, the nanowires showed a transition temperature where the shear modulus suddenly changed. This transition temperature was observed to decrease more than 40 K by decreasing the radius of the nanowires from 450 to 150 nm. This size is several times larger in nanowires than reported values of polymer thin film thickness showing a depression of the glass transition temperature. PMID:18318534

  16. Solvent-Dependent Reaction Pathways Operating in Copper(II) Tetrafluoroborate Promoted Oxidative Ring-Opening Reactions of Cyclopropyl Silyl Ethers.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Eietsu; Nemoto, Kazuki; Nagumo, Ryosuke; Tayama, Eiji; Iwamoto, Hajime

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative ring-opening reactions of benzene-fused bicyclic cyclopropyl silyl ethers, promoted by copper(II) tetrafluoroborate, were investigated. The regioselectivity of cyclopropane ring-opening as well as product distributions were found to be highly dependent on the nature of the solvent. In alcohols, dimeric substances arising from external bond cleavage are major products. Radical rearrangement products are also formed in solvents such as ether and ethyl acetate. On the contrary, nucleophile addition to carbocation intermediates, generated by internal bond cleavage, occurs mainly in reactions taking place in acetonitrile. It is proposed that the observed solvent effects that govern the reaction pathways followed are a consequence of varying solvation of copper intermediates, which governs their reactivity and redox properties. In addition, the influence of counteranions of the copper salts, organonitriles, cyclic dienes, and substrate structures on the pathways followed in these reactions was also examined. PMID:26799089

  17. Reduction of Cu(II) by lipid hydroperoxides: implications for the copper-dependent oxidation of low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, R P; Svistunenko, D; Wilson, M T; Darley-Usmar, V M

    1997-01-01

    The Cu(II)-promoted oxidation of lipids is a lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH)-dependent process that has been used routinely to assess the oxidizability of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in human subjects. Metal-dependent redox reactions, including those mediated by copper, have been implicated in the pathogenesis ofatherosclerosis. Despite its widespread use and possible biological significance, key elements of the mechanism are not clear. For example, although it is evident that copper acts as a catalyst, which implies a redox cycle between the Cu(II) and Cu(I) redox states, the reductants remain uncertain. In LDL these could include alpha-tocopherol, amino acid residues on the protein and LOOH. However, both alpha-tocopherol and amino acid residues are probably consumed before the most rapid phase of lipid peroxidation occurs, suggesting that another reductant must be donating electrons to Cu(II), the most likely candidate being LOOH. This role has been disputed, since LDLs nominally devoid of LOOH are still capable of reducing Cu(II) to Cu(I) and thermodynamic calculations for this reaction are not favourable. Direct investigation of the role of LOOH as reductant has not been reported and in the present study, using simple lipid systems and LDL, we have re-examined this issue using the Cu(I) chelator bathocuproine. We have shown that Cu(II) may promote lipid peroxidation in liposomes, which do not contain either protein or alpha-tocopherol, and that this is associated with reduction to Cu(I). The data also indicate that an equilibrium between free Cu(II) and LOOH exists, which only in the presence of an oxidizable substrate, i.e. unsaturated fatty acids, is shifted towards formation of Cu(I) and lipid-derived peroxyl radicals. We propose that reduction of Cu(II) by LOOH is a necessary component in sustaining the propagation of lipid peroxidation and that the formation of peroxyl radicals and their products in a lipid environment is sufficient to overcome thermodynamic

  18. Crystallization of copper metaphosphate glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bae, Byeong-Soo; Weinberg, Michael C.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of the valence state of copper in copper metaphosphate glass on the crystallization behavior and glass transition temperature has been investigated. The crystallization of copper metaphosphate is initiated from the surface and its main crystalline phase is copper metaphosphate (Cu(PO)3),independent of the (Cu sup 2+)/(Cu(total)). However, the crystal morphology, the relative crystallization rates, and their temperature dependences are affected by the (Cu sup 2+)/(Cu (total)) ratio in the glass. On the other hand, the totally oxidized glass crystallizes from all over the surface. The relative crystallization rate of the reduced glass to the totally oxidized glass is large at low temperature, but small at high temperature. The glass transition temperature of the glass increases as the (Cu sup 2+)/(Cu(total)) ratio is raised. It is also found that the atmosphere used during heat treatment does not influence the crystallization of the reduced glass, except for the formation of a very thin CuO surface layer when heated in air.

  19. Coverage dependent non-adiabaticity of CO on a copper surface

    SciTech Connect

    Omiya, Takuma; Arnolds, Heike

    2014-12-07

    We have studied the coverage-dependent energy transfer dynamics between hot electrons and CO on Cu(110) with femtosecond visible pump, sum frequency probe spectroscopy. We find that transients of the C–O stretch frequency display a red shift, which increases from 3 cm{sup −1} at 0.1 ML to 9 cm{sup −1} at 0.77 ML. Analysis of the transients reveals that the non-adiabatic coupling between the adsorbate vibrational motion and the electrons becomes stronger with increasing coverage. This trend requires the frustrated rotational mode to be the cause of the non-adiabatic behavior, even for relatively weak laser excitation of the adsorbate. We attribute the coverage dependence to both an increase in the adsorbate electronic density of states and an increasingly anharmonic potential energy surface caused by repulsive interactions between neighboring CO adsorbates. This work thus reveals adsorbate-adsorbate interactions as a new way to control adsorbate non-adiabaticity.

  20. Temperature and frequency dependence of ultrasonic attenuation in selected tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammell, P. M.; Croissette, D. H. L.; Heyser, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation over the frequency range of 1.5-10 MHz has been measured as a function of temperature for porcine liver, backfat, kidney and spleen as well as for a single specimen of human liver. The attenuation in these excised specimens increases nearly linearly with frequency. Over the temperature range of approximately 4-37 C the attenuation decreases with increasing temperature for most soft tissue studied.

  1. Features of the temperature dependence of pressure of solid helium at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisunov, A. A.; Maidanov, V. A.; Rubanskii, V. Y.; Rubets, S. P.; Rudavskii, E. Y.; Rybalko, A. S.; Syrkin, E. S.

    2012-06-01

    A series of experiments has been performed to investigate the conditions of formation of a disordered (glass-like) state in crystals of 3He. With the help of precise measurements of pressure at constant volume it has been established that a glass phase is formed easily in rapidly cooled crystals grown under homogeneous temperature conditions in the presence of large numbers of nucleation centers. This phase can be removed only by careful annealing. This result has been found in both 3He and 4He, and is independent of type of quantum statistics and determined mainly by crystal growth conditions. An analysis of similar measurements has been performed using a different cell where during the crystal growth a directed temperature gradient was created. In this case, additional defects created as a result of deformation of the crystal were necessary to form a glass-like phase. The degree of deformation of a crystal, achievable in the experiment, was sufficient to form a glass-like phase in solid 4He, but not in a crystal of 3He where the atoms have a large amplitude of zero-point oscillations. Analyzing a temperature dependence of pressure, a study of the features of a phonon contribution to the pressure was also carried out. It was found that in both crystals 3He and 4He at different thicknesses of samples the phonon pressure differs by several times. This effect is qualitatively explained by that that in thin samples an interaction among layers of atoms becomes stronger. This leads to decreasing the phonon contribution to the thermodynamic properties of the helium crystal at low temperatures.

  2. Diffusion behavior of copper atoms under Cu(II) reduction in Cucurbit[8]uril cavity at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Bakovets, Vladimir V.; Nadolinnii, Vladimir A.; Kovalenko, Ekaterina A.; Plyusnin, Pavel E.; Dolgovesova, Irina P.; Zaikovskii, Vladimir I.

    2015-01-15

    In this paper we describe copper clusters and nanoparticles formation by the reduction of copper (II) ions inside cavities of macrocycle molecules using supramolecular compound [Cu(Cyclen)(H{sub 2}O)@CB[8

  3. A study of the processes during high temperature oxidation that control surface hot shortness in copper-containing low carbon steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webler, Bryan A.

    the parabolic rate for the nickel-containing alloys decreased by a factor of two. The microstructure of the iron-copper alloy consisted of a thin, copper-rich layer at the oxide/metal interface. Both nickel-containing alloys had perturbed oxide/metal interfaces consisting of alternating solid/liquid regions. The perturbed interfaces arise from unequal copper and nickel diffusivities in the ternary alloy. These diffusion effects are discussed in detail. The oxidation rate decrease is justified by the interface microstructure assuming that iron can only be rapidly supplied to the oxide through the liquid regions. Additions of manganese or aluminum to an iron-copper-nickel alloy did not lead to significant changes in behavior. Oxidation kinetics, amount of separated material, and interface roughness were unchanged. There was slightly more material occluded in the samples containing manganese and aluminum due to increased internal oxidation. These internal oxides do not affect the oxidation behavior because manganese can dissolve in wustite and the aluminum internal oxides are extremely small and heterogeneously dispersed near the oxide/metal interface. Additions of silicon, however, to an iron-copper-nickel alloy led to a significant decrease in oxidation rate, amount separated, and amount occluded. The differences in behavior are attributed to the formation of a fayalite layer at the oxide/metal interface. This layer blocks iron transport in the wustite layer, decreasing the oxidation rate and therefore the enrichment rate. Formation of the fayalite layer was found not to depend on the amount of nickel in the samples. The results above were then used to explain the oxidation behavior of low carbon steels containing copper, nickel, silicon, manganese, and aluminum. Steels containing high amounts of silicon had lower oxidation rates and higher amounts occluded. The amount of occluded material is much higher in the steels than in the iron-copper-nickel-silicon alloys. This

  4. The effect of copper and temperature on juveniles of the eurybathic brittle star Amphipholis squamata--exploring responses related to motility and the water vascular system.

    PubMed

    Black, James Geoffrey; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda Jean; Clark, Malcolm W

    2015-04-01

    The limited availability of test organisms that represent tropical and deeper water environments is a significant concern when assessing the risk of contaminants in these environments. Amphipholis squamata (Delle Chiaje 1828) is a widely distributed brittle star with many phylogenetic clades reported from different latitudes, and it also occurs from the intertidal zone to a depth of ∼1300 m. In the present study, the effect of copper on four behavioural responses and mortality of A. squamata were quantified at four different temperatures including 25, 20, 15 and 10°C. At 25°C the four behavioural responses and mortality were relatively sensitive to copper, with 96 h EC50 values of 25 (confidence interval 18-44), 24 (7-26), 32 (24-41), 29 (9-41) μg L(-1) for the measured ability to turn from the oral surface up to oral surface down, curling behaviour, tube foot movement, and tube foot retraction respectively. The average 96-h LC50 value for copper at 25°C was 46 μg L(-1). Some endpoints investigated showed significant effects of reduced temperature compared to the optimal temperature. These effects were enhanced with increasing copper concentrations and significant differences in copper toxicity between temperature treatments were most notable when measuring the ability to turn from the oral surface up to oral surface down where the EC50 changed from 25 (18 to 44) to 6 (-18 to 14) μg L(-1) with a reduction of temperature from 25 to 15°C. The results showed that A. squamata is relatively sensitive to copper and that further investigation into the effects of other stressors on these endpoints is warranted. PMID:25465949

  5. Interfacial synthesis of polyethyleneimine-protected copper nanoclusters: Size-dependent tunable photoluminescence, pH sensor and bioimaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chan; Yao, Yagang; Song, Qijun

    2016-04-01

    The copper nanoclusters (CuNCs) offer excellent potential as functional biological probes due to their unique photoluminescence (PL) properties. Herein, CuNCs capped with hyperbranched polyethylenimine (PEI) were prepared by the interfacial etching approach. The resultant PEI-CuNCs exhibited good dispersion and strong fluorescence with high quantum yields (QYs, up to 7.5%), which would be endowed for bioimaging system. By changing the reaction temperatures from 25 to 150 °C, the size of PEI-CuNCs changed from 1.8 to 3.5 nm, and thus tunable PL were achieved, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imagings and PL spectra. Besides, PEI-CuNCs had smart absorption characteristics that the color changes from colorless to blue with changing the pH value from 2.0 to 13.2, and thus they could be used as color indicator for pH detection. In addition, the PEI-CuNCs exhibited good biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity to 293T cells through MTT assay. Owing to the positively charged of PEI-CuNCs surface, they had the ability to capture DNA, and the PEI-CuNCs/DNA complexes could get access to cells for efficient gene expression. Armed with these attractive properties, the synthesized PEI-CuNCs are quite promising in biological applications. PMID:26774573

  6. Temperature-dependence of wetting properties of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Gholamian Moghaddam, Melika

    2016-07-01

    We have carried out molecular dynamics simulations to study the spontaneous imbibition of water into a single-wall carbon nanotube (CNT) at various temperatures, ranging from 270 K to 370 K. The simulations indicate that by increasing the temperature, the rate of mass uptake improves as well. Considering the end-loss friction as the main source of energy dissipation and ignoring the inertial effect on the nano-scale transport, we derive a simple expression that relates the CNT's wettability to the fluid viscosity and the rate of imbibition over the temperature range that we study. Our results also indicate that the increase in the wettability of the CNT, and the reduction in the viscosity of water at higher temperatures cause enhancement of water uptake into the nanotube. They also enable us to estimate the wetting transition temperature for TIP3P model of water in the CNTs.

  7. Temperature dependence of resistivity of RFeAsO compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, S.; Dasgupta, Papri; Poddar, Asok; Mazumdar, Chandan

    2016-06-01

    The resistivity ( ρ) data for RFeAsO compounds (R = Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm), in the temperature ( T) range 35-315 K have been analyzed to identify the dominant scattering mechanisms. Close to the room temperature, the system appears to be a metal with low electron density, and the electron-phonon scattering is the dominant one. At lower temperatures, electron-electron scattering plays an important role. In an intermediate temperature region, unlike metallic system, d ρ/d T is negative; and ρ -1 varies as ln T as in a state of weak localization. We look into the origin of negative d ρ/d T. The analysis of ρ( T) data below the SDW transition temperature shows the presence of electron-electron interaction in addition to a SDW energy gap, and also gives an estimate of the SDW energy gap.

  8. Porphyry-copper ore shells form at stable pressure-temperature fronts within dynamic fluid plumes.

    PubMed

    Weis, P; Driesner, T; Heinrich, C A

    2012-12-21

    Porphyry-type ore deposits are major resources of copper and gold, precipitated from fluids expelled by crustal magma chambers. The metals are typically concentrated in confined ore shells within vertically extensive vein networks, formed through hydraulic fracturing of rock by ascending fluids. Numerical modeling shows that dynamic permeability responses to magmatic fluid expulsion can stabilize a front of metal precipitation at the boundary between lithostatically pressured up-flow of hot magmatic fluids and hydrostatically pressured convection of cooler meteoric fluids. The balance between focused heat advection and lateral cooling controls the most important economic characteristics, including size, shape, and ore grade. This self-sustaining process may extend to epithermal gold deposits, venting at active volcanoes, and regions with the potential for geothermal energy production. PMID:23160957

  9. Temperature-dependent appearance of forensically useful flies on carcasses.

    PubMed

    Matuszewski, Szymon; Szafałowicz, Michał; Grzywacz, Andrzej

    2014-11-01

    Flies are frequently used for postmortem interval (PMI) estimations. These estimates are usually based on the age of larval or pupal specimens. However, the age defines only the minimum PMI. In order to move forensic entomology further, a method useful for the estimation of an interval preceding insect appearance on a corpse called the pre-appearance interval (PAI) is needed. Recently, it was demonstrated that the PAI of several carrion beetles is closely related to the temperature prevailing throughout this interval. Hence, it was postulated to estimate PAI from temperature. In order to check premises for using this approach with flies, a test of the relationship between adult or oviposition PAI and temperature was made for nine species of European flies. Data on PAI originated from pig carcasses decomposing under various temperatures. Adult PAI of Hydrotaea dentipes, Hydrotaea ignava, Hydrotaea similis, Phormia regina, and Stearibia nigriceps and oviposition PAI of S. nigriceps were exponentially related to temperature. Only S. nigriceps revealed a close relationship, demonstrating solid premises for PAI estimation from temperature alone. Adult and oviposition PAI of Calliphora vomitoria and adult PAI of Hydrotaea pilipes were not related to temperature. Adult and oviposition PAI of Lucilia sericata and Lucilia caesar responded similarly, with an abrupt and large increase in a narrow range of low temperatures and no response in a broad range of high temperatures. Probably, different mechanisms form the basis for the response of PAI to temperature in flies colonizing carcasses shortly after death and flies colonizing carcasses later in the decomposition process. PMID:24096988

  10. The material dependence of temperature measurement resolution in thermal scanning electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Xiaowei; Hull, Robert

    2013-03-18

    Thermal scanning electron microscopy is a recently developed temperature mapping technique based on thermal diffuse scattering in electron backscatter diffraction in a scanning electron microscope. It provides nano-scale and non-contact temperature mapping capabilities. Due to the specific temperature sensitive mechanism inherent to this technique, the temperature resolution is highly material dependent. A thorough investigation of what material properties affect the temperature resolution is important for realizing the inherent temperature resolution limit for each material. In this paper, three material dependent parameters-the Debye-Waller B-factor temperature sensitivity, backscatter yield, and lattice constant-are shown to control the temperature resolution.

  11. A Room Temperature Nitric Oxide Gas Sensor Based on a Copper-Ion-Doped Polyaniline/Tungsten Oxide Nanocomposite

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shih-Han; Shen, Chi-Yen; Su, Jian-Ming; Chang, Shiang-Wen

    2015-01-01

    The parts-per-billion-level nitric oxide (NO) gas sensing capability of a copper-ion-doped polyaniline/tungsten oxide nanocomposite (Cu2+/PANI/WO3) film coated on a Rayleigh surface acoustic wave device was investigated. The sensor developed in this study was sensitive to NO gas at room temperature in dry nitrogen. The surface morphology, dopant distribution, and electric properties were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping, and Hall effect measurements, respectively. The Cu2+/PANI/WO3 film exhibited high NO gas sensitivity and selectivity as well as long-term stability. At 1 ppb of NO, a signal with a frequency shift of 4.3 ppm and a signal-to-noise ratio of 17 was observed. The sensor exhibited distinct selectivity toward NO gas with no substantial response to O2, NH3 and CO2 gases. PMID:25811223

  12. Temperature-dependent thermal inertia of homogeneous Martian regolith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piqueux, Sylvain; Christensen, Philip R.

    2011-07-01

    Past studies of the thermophysical properties of the Martian surface layer have assumed temperature-independent thermal inertia, which is a function of the material density, specific heat, and bulk conductivity. In this paper, we evaluate the temperature-driven variations of these quantities for particulated and cemented material under Martian conditions of atmospheric pressure and temperature. Temperature-driven density variations are negligible. The specific heat of a basaltic material is strongly influenced by the temperature (˜75% increase from 150 to 315 K), inducing significant variations of the thermal inertia. The thermal conductivity of uncemented Martian regolith is weakly controlled by the solid phase conductivity and strongly controlled by the gaseous phase conductivity. As a result, the conductivity of the solid phase (i.e., composition, temperature) is unimportant, whereas medium to large variations (30-50%) of the bulk conductivity are associated with temperature-induced fluctuations of the pore-filling gas conductivity. Overall, the thermal inertia of uncemented Martian soils is predicted to vary significantly (˜80%) throughout the range of the observed surface temperatures. In the case of cemented soils, the contribution of the gas conductivity is generally small, and the solid phase (i.e., grains and cement) conductivity (i.e., composition, temperature) becomes more important. Consequently, the magnitude of the thermal inertia change for cemented soils is variable, and smaller than that predicted for uncemented materials (10-50%). Large diurnal and seasonal temperature variations only occur within the top material, and most of the near-surface regolith does not experience large thermal inertia variations. The shapes of modeled diurnal temperature curves are not significantly modified (e.g., the 0200 LT (Martian local time) apparent thermal inertia of uncemented regolith is up to ˜15% lower than the average daily inertia of the top material

  13. On the temperature dependence of possible S8 infrared bands in planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khare, B. N.; Sagan, C.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of the temperature dependence between 77 and 333 K of the infrared spectrum of cyclic octatomic sulfur are reported. It is suggested that the 23 micrometer Jovian feature is not due to 3 sub 8 and that the temperature dependence of the frequency of the 835/cm band of S sub 8 may be a useful temperature marker in planetary studies.

  14. Impact of Crystalline Structure on the Temperature Dependence of Resistivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Yutong; Yang, Gang; Mei, Dongming

    Since HPGe radiation detectors work under cryogenic temperature, the electrical properties at low temperature are essential for the detector performance. In this study, the resistivity of two types of HPGe, i.e. single crystal from Czochralski growth and poly-crystal from zone refining, was investigated in the temperature range from 4.2 to 100K. It was found that there was a turning point on the resistivity vs temperature curves for both types of crystals. However, the turning points for them were significantly different: 30K for single crystalline while 60K for polycrystalline. In order to explore the reason, microstructures of both types of crystals were investigated by optical microscopy. The results showed a very good agreement between electrical properties and microstructures. This work is supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-10ER46709 and the state of South Dakota.

  15. Size- and temperature-dependent Young's modulus and size-dependent thermal expansion coefficient of thin films.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Ye; Huang, Bao-Ling; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2016-08-21

    Nanomaterials possess a high surface/volume ratio and surfaces play an essential role in size-dependent material properties. In the present study, nanometer-thick thin films were taken as an ideal system to investigate the surface-induced size- and temperature-dependent Young's modulus and size-dependent thermal expansion coefficient. The surface eigenstress model was further developed with the consideration of thermal expansion, leading to analytic formulas of size- and temperature-dependent Young's modulus, and size-dependent thermal expansion coefficient of thin films. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on face-centered cubic (fcc) Ag, Cu, and Ni(001) thin films were conducted at temperatures ranging from 300 K to 600 K. The MD simulation results are perfectly consistent with the theoretical predictions, thereby verifying the theoretical approach. The newly developed surface eigenstress model will be able to attack similar problems in other types of nanomaterials. PMID:27426852

  16. Disulfiram (DSF) acts as a copper ionophore to induce copper-dependent oxidative stress and mediate anti-tumor efficacy in inflammatory breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Allensworth, Jennifer L; Evans, Myron K; Bertucci, François; Aldrich, Amy J; Festa, Richard A; Finetti, Pascal; Ueno, Naoto T; Safi, Rachid; McDonnell, Donald P; Thiele, Dennis J; Van Laere, Steven; Devi, Gayathri R

    2015-06-01

    Cancer cells often have increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS); however, acquisition of redox adaptive mechanisms allows for evasion of ROS-mediated death. Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a distinct, advanced BC subtype characterized by high rates of residual disease and recurrence despite advances in multimodality treatment. Using a cellular model of IBC, we identified an oxidative stress response (OSR) signature in surviving IBC cells after administration of an acute dose of an ROS inducer. Metagene analysis of patient samples revealed significantly higher OSR scores in IBC tumor samples compared to normal or non-IBC tissues, which may contribute to the poor response of IBC tumors to common treatment strategies, which often rely heavily on ROS induction. To combat this adaptation, we utilized a potent redox modulator, the FDA-approved small molecule Disulfiram (DSF), alone and in combination with copper. DSF forms a complex with copper (DSF-Cu) increasing intracellular copper concentration both in vitro and in vivo, bypassing the need for membrane transporters. DSF-Cu antagonized NFκB signaling, aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and antioxidant levels, inducing oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in multiple IBC cellular models. In vivo, DSF-Cu significantly inhibited tumor growth without significant toxicity, causing apoptosis only in tumor cells. These results indicate that IBC tumors are highly redox adapted, which may render them resistant to ROS-inducing therapies. DSF, through redox modulation, may be a useful approach to enhance chemo- and/or radio-sensitivity for advanced BC subtypes where therapeutic resistance is an impediment to durable responses to current standard of care. PMID:25769405

  17. Disulfiram (DSF) acts as a copper ionophore to induce copper-dependent oxidative stress and mediate anti-tumor efficacy in inflammatory breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Allensworth, Jennifer L.; Evans, Myron K.; Bertucci, François; Aldrich, Amy J.; Festa, Richard A.; Finetti, Pascal; Ueno, Naoto T.; Safi, Rachid; McDonnell, Donald P.; Thiele, Dennis J.; Van Laere, Steven; Devi, Gayathri R.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells often have increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS); however, acquisition of redox adaptive mechanisms allows for evasion of ROS-mediated death. Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a distinct, advanced BC subtype characterized by high rates of residual disease and recurrence despite advances in multimodality treatment. Using a cellular model of IBC, we identified an oxidative stress response (OSR) signature in surviving IBC cells after administration of an acute dose of an ROS inducer. Metagene analysis of patient samples revealed significantly higher OSR scores in IBC tumor samples compared to normal or non-IBC tissues, which may contribute to the poor response of IBC tumors to common treatment strategies, which often rely heavily on ROS induction. To combat this adaptation, we utilized a potent redox modulator, the FDA-approved small molecule Disulfiram (DSF), alone and in combination with copper. DSF forms a complex with copper (DSF-Cu) increasing intracellular copper concentration both in vitro and in vivo, bypassing the need for membrane transporters. DSF-Cu antagonized NFκB signaling, aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and antioxidant levels inducing oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in multiple IBC cellular models. In vivo, DSF-Cu significantly inhibited tumor growth without significant toxicity, causing apoptosis only in tumor cells. These results indicate that IBC tumors are highly redox adapted, which may render them resistant to ROS-inducing therapies. DSF, through redox modulation, may be a useful approach to enhance chemo- and/or radio-sensitivity for advanced BC subtypes where therapeutic resistance is an impediment to durable responses to current standard of care. PMID:25769405

  18. Theoretical analysis for temperature dependence of laser- induced damage threshold of optical thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikami, K.; Motokoshi, S.; Somekawa, T.; Jitsuno, T.; Fujita, M.; Tanaka, KA; Azechi, H.

    2016-03-01

    The temperature dependence of the laser-induced damage threshold on optical coatings was studied in detail for laser pulses from 123 K to 473 K at different temperatures. The laser-induced damage threshold increased with decreasing temperatures when we tested long pulses (200 ps and 4 ns). The temperature dependence, however, was reversed for pulses shorter than a few picoseconds (100 fs testing). We propose a scaling model with a flowchart that includes three separate processes: free-electron generation, electron multiplication, and electron heating. Furthermore, we calculated the temperature dependence of laser-induced damage thresholds at different temperatures. Our calculation results agreed well with the experimental results.

  19. Temperature-dependent phagotrophy and phototrophy in a mixotrophic chrysophyte.

    PubMed

    Princiotta, Sarah DeVaul; Smith, Brian T; Sanders, Robert W

    2016-06-01

    The roles of temperature and light on grazing and photosynthesis were examined for Dinobryon sociale, a common freshwater mixotrophic alga. Photosynthetic rate was determined for D. sociale adapted to temperatures of 8, 12, 16, and 20°C under photosynthetically active radiation light irradiances of 25, 66, and 130 μmol photons · m(-2)  · s(-1) , with concurrent measurement of bacterial ingestion at all temperatures under medium and high light (66 and 130 μmol photons · m(-2)  · s(-1) ). Rates of ingestion and photosynthesis increased with temperature to a maximum at 16°C under the two higher light regimes, and declined at 20°C. Although both light and temperature had a marked effect on photosynthesis, there was no significant difference in bacterivory at medium and high irradiances at any given temperature. At the lowest light condition (25 μmol photons · m(-2)  · s(-1) ), photosynthesis remained low and relatively stable at all temperatures. D. sociale acquired the majority of carbon from photosynthesis, although the low photosynthetic rate without a concurrent decline in feeding rate at 8°C suggested 20%-30% of the carbon budget could be attributed to bacterivory at low temperatures. Grazing experiments in nutrient-modified media revealed that this mixotroph had increased ingestion rates when either dissolved nitrogen or phosphorus was decreased. This work increases our understanding of environmental effects on mixotrophic nutrition. Although the influence of abiotic factors on phagotrophy and phototrophy in pure heterotrophs and phototrophs has been well studied, much less is known for mixotrophic organisms. PMID:27273535

  20. Temperature Dependence of Isotope Ratios in Tree Rings

    PubMed Central

    Libby, L. M.; Pandolfi, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    The stable isotope ratios of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen have been measured for a German oak in wood samples of roughly three years each, for the years 1712-1954 A.D., and correlated with the existing weather records from England, Basel, and Geneva to evaluate the empirical temperature coefficients. Isotope ratios in a second official oak, measured for the years 1530-1800 A.D., show the cold temperatures of the Little Ice Age interspersed with warm intervals. PMID:16592163

  1. Depth-dependent temperature effects on thermoluminescence in multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sangho S.; Armstrong, Philip R.; Mah, Merlin L.; Talghader, Joseph J.

    2013-08-01

    It is well known that thermal gradients penetrating deep into a material can preserve a memory of the temperature history of the surface. To date, this concept has been largely applied in the earth sciences, but there are many applications where a memory of rapid thermal events would be useful. For example, multiple layers of thermoluminescent films could serve as temperature sensors that indicate temperature versus depth in a microfabricated structure. As an advance toward this goal, this paper examines the effect of nonuniform temperature profiles on the thermoluminescence of heterogeneous multilayers. A Nd:YAG laser is used to create a known thermal event and apply pulses of heat energy of varying duration to a metalized thermoluminescent multilayer composed of LiF:Mg,Ti and CaF2:Dy. The thermoluminescence of the system is measured before and after the applied laser pulse. To model the process, a finite-difference time-domain method is used to calculate the dynamic heat transfer, and the temperature distribution is plugged into a first order kinetics model of the thermoluminescence of each film to get a final luminescent intensity. A thermal contact conductance between the critical layers is also introduced. Dynamic temperatures in durations of hundreds of milliseconds are resolved with the technique, and simulation curves match experimental measurements to within 6% at 250 ms.

  2. Dependence of Precipitation Extremes on Temperature over United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H, V.; Singh, J.; Karmakar, S.; Ghosh, S.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrologic disturbances are commonly associated with the phenomenal occurrence of extreme events. The human kind has always been facing problem with hydrologic extremes in terms of deaths and economic loss. Hence, a complete analysis of observed extreme events will have a substantial role in planning, designing and management of the water resource systems. Over the United States, precipitation extremes, temperature and streamflow, have increased during the twentieth century and has been attributed to many natural and anthropogenic influences. The present study examines the association of precipitation extremes on temperature over US for the period of 1950-2000. The annual maxima (AM) precipitation has been extracted for hot and cold years. The spatial mean of surface temperature/ sea surface temperature from 1950 to 2000, so obtained is arranged in ascending order. The corresponding years, with lowest temperature of 25 years are defined as cold years and highest temperature of 25 years are defined as hot years respectively. The spatio-temporal variability of 50 year return level (RL) for the AM is determined considering generalized extreme value (GEV) and non-parametric kernel distributions. To identify the significant changes in the derived RL from cold to hot years, a bootstrap-based approach is implemented. The results exhibited no significant changes in the 50 year RL of AM precipitation between hot and cold years, with 70% of total grids showing no significant changes with respect to both land surface and sea surface temperature at 20% significance level. The scatter plot between the spatial mean of AM precipitation and both land surface and sea surface temperature over US showed no association. Further the comparison with the CMIP5 models revealed that the models are showed significant association between both land surface and sea surface temperature with the AM of precipitation. The major decision making and planning rely on the model predictions, which

  3. Phase Relations and Defect Chemistry of Bismuth Strontium Calcium Copper Oxide Superconducting Oxides at Elevated Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Byungsun

    1992-01-01

    Subsolidus phase relations in the system (Bi-Sr -Ca-Cu)-O at 800^circC were investigated via powder X-ray diffraction and electron probe microanalysis of solid-state reaction products. The only truly quaternary compound detected is the superconducting phase of n = 2 in Bi_2(Sr _{rm x}Ca_ {rm 1-x})_{ rm n+1}Cu_{rm n}O_{rm y} . The n = 2 phase is compatible with eight different binary or ternary phases. Tie lines, tie triangles, and compatibility tetrahedra involving superconducting phases were determined. The cation solubility limits of the n = 2 and n = 3 superconducting phases were established along tie lines with compatible phases via EPMA on bi- (or poly -) phasic samples prepared at 860^circ C. In each case football-shaped volumes in composition space were established as the solubility limits which bordered on the nominal compositions 2212 or 2223 with the long axis parallel to the Sr-Ca side of the quaternary but also extending toward Bi and Cu. T_{rm c} variations could be correlated with variations in Sr or (Bi+Sr) content and the length of the c-axis parameter. Via in-situ high temperature (550-650 ^circC) electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements in Bi_ {2.1}Sr_{1.9} (Ca_{rm 1-x}Y _{rm x})Cu _2O_{rm y} , a point defect model/diagram is presented which explains the variation of thermopower with composition in the system. The reference, insulating composition should be between Bi_{2.1}Sr _{1.9}Ca_ {0.2}Y_{0.8} Cu_2O_{8.45 } and Bi_{2.1}Sr _{1.9}Ca_ {0.3}Y_{0.7} Cu_2O_{8.4 }. Y-contents higher than x = 0.8 result in a second phase. A structural phase transition from pseudo -tetragonal to orthorhombic takes place at x = 0.5, and plays a major role in determining the physical properties. Oxygen transfer from the Bi-O block to the Cu-O based perovskite block is suggested at the phase boundary of x = 0.5. Jonker analysis and oxygen pressure dependence of carrier concentration confirm p-type behavior despite the change in sign of the thermopower

  4. Temperature-dependent regulation of vocal pattern generator.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Ayako; Gooler, David; Herrold, Amy; Patel, Shailja; Pong, Winnie W

    2008-12-01

    Vocalizations of Xenopus laevis are generated by central pattern generators (CPGs). The advertisement call of male X. laevis is a complex biphasic motor rhythm consisting of fast and slow trills (a train of clicks). We found that the trill rate of these advertisement calls is sensitive to temperature and that this rate modification of the vocal rhythms originates in the central pattern generators. In vivo the rates of fast and slow trills increased linearly with an increase in temperature. In vitro a similar linear relation between temperature and compound action potential frequency in the laryngeal nerve was found when fictive advertisement calls were evoked in the isolated brain. Temperature did not limit the contractile properties of laryngeal muscles within the frequency range of vocalizations. We next took advantage of the temperature sensitivity of the vocal CPG in vitro to localize the source of the vocal rhythms. We focused on the dorsal tegmental area of the medulla (DTAM), a brain stem nucleus that is essential for vocal production. We found that bilateral cooling of DTAM reduced both fast and slow trill rates. Thus we conclude that DTAM is a source of biphasic vocal rhythms. PMID:18829853

  5. Thin-film copper indium gallium selenide solar cell based on low-temperature all-printing process.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manjeet; Jiu, Jinting; Sugahara, Tohru; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2014-09-24

    In the solar cell field, development of simple, low-cost, and low-temperature fabrication processes has become an important trend for energy-saving and environmental issues. Copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) solar cells have attracted much attention due to the high absorption coefficient, tunable band gap energy, and high efficiency. However, vacuum and high-temperature processing in fabrication of solar cells have limited the applications. There is a strong need to develop simple and scalable methods. In this work, a CIGS solar cell based on all printing steps and low-temperature annealing is developed. CIGS absorber thin film is deposited by using dodecylamine-stabilized CIGS nanoparticle ink followed by printing buffer layer. Silver nanowire (AgNW) ink and sol-gel-derived ZnO precursor solution are used to prepare a highly conductive window layer ZnO/[AgNW/ZnO] electrode with a printing method that achieves 16 Ω/sq sheet resistance and 94% transparency. A CIGS solar cell based on all printing processes exhibits efficiency of 1.6% with open circuit voltage of 0.48 V, short circuit current density of 9.7 mA/cm(2), and fill factor of 0.34 for 200 nm thick CIGS film, fabricated under ambient conditions and annealed at 250 °C. PMID:25180569

  6. Copper Import into the Mitochondrial Matrix in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Is Mediated by Pic2, a Mitochondrial Carrier Family Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Vest, Katherine E.; Leary, Scot C.; Winge, Dennis R.; Cobine, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae must import copper into the mitochondrial matrix for eventual assembly of cytochrome c oxidase. This copper is bound to an anionic fluorescent molecule known as the copper ligand (CuL). Here, we identify for the first time a mitochondrial carrier family protein capable of importing copper into the matrix. In vitro transport of the CuL into the mitochondrial matrix was saturable and temperature-dependent. Strains with a deletion of PIC2 grew poorly on copper-deficient non-fermentable medium supplemented with silver and under respiratory conditions when challenged with a matrix-targeted copper competitor. Mitochondria from pic2Δ cells had lower total mitochondrial copper and exhibited a decreased capacity for copper uptake. Heterologous expression of Pic2 in Lactococcus lactis significantly enhanced CuL transport into these cells. Therefore, we propose a novel role for Pic2 in copper import into mitochondria. PMID:23846699

  7. Copper import into the mitochondrial matrix in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is mediated by Pic2, a mitochondrial carrier family protein.

    PubMed

    Vest, Katherine E; Leary, Scot C; Winge, Dennis R; Cobine, Paul A

    2013-08-16

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae must import copper into the mitochondrial matrix for eventual assembly of cytochrome c oxidase. This copper is bound to an anionic fluorescent molecule known as the copper ligand (CuL). Here, we identify for the first time a mitochondrial carrier family protein capable of importing copper into the matrix. In vitro transport of the CuL into the mitochondrial matrix was saturable and temperature-dependent. Strains with a deletion of PIC2 grew poorly on copper-deficient non-fermentable medium supplemented with silver and under respiratory conditions when challenged with a matrix-targeted copper competitor. Mitochondria from pic2Δ cells had lower total mitochondrial copper and exhibited a decreased capacity for copper uptake. Heterologous expression of Pic2 in Lactococcus lactis significantly enhanced CuL transport into these cells. Therefore, we propose a novel role for Pic2 in copper import into mitochondria. PMID:23846699

  8. TEMPERATURE DEPENDANT BEHAVIOUR OBSERVED IN THE AFIP-6 IRRADIATION TEST

    SciTech Connect

    A. B. Robinson; D. M. Wachs; P. Medvedev; S.J. Miller; F. J. Rice; M. K. Meyer; D. M. Perez

    2012-03-01

    The AFIP-6 test assembly was irradiated for one cycle in the Advanced Test Reactor at Idaho National Laboratory. The experiment was designed to test two monolithic fuel plates at power and burn-ups which bounded the operating conditions of both ATR and HFIR driver fuel. Both plates contained a solid U-Mo fuel foil with a zirconium diffusion barrier between 6061-aluminum cladding plates bonded by hot isostatic pressing. The experiment was designed with an orifice to restrict the coolant flow in order to obtain prototypic coolant temperature conditions. While these coolant temperatures were obtained, the reduced flow resulted in a sufficiently low heat transfer coefficient that failure of the fuel plates occurred. The increased fuel temperature led to significant variations in the fission gas retention behaviour of the U-Mo fuel. These variations in performance are outlined herein.

  9. Mechanical behaviour of ferritic ODS steels - Temperature dependancy and anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, B.; Steckmeyer, A.; Rouffie, A.-L.; Malaplate, J.; Garnier, J.; Ratti, M.; Wident, P.; Ziolek, L.; Tournie, I.; Rabeau, V.; Gentzbittel, J. M.; Kruml, T.; Kubena, I.

    2012-11-01

    Ferritic 14%Cr and 18%Cr ODS steels produced at CEA in round bars or plates were tested mechanically. The present paper reports results obtained in tension, impact, fatigue, creep and toughness tests. These tests were carried out at various temperatures and in different directions. These materials show a pronounced anisotropy at all tested temperatures. No matter the loading, the transversal direction is always found to be far less resistant than the longitudinal one. This anisotropy is mainly observed in terms of damage mechanisms, with intergranular fracture preferentially occurring along the extrusion direction. This intergranular fracture mode leads to very low and anisotropic toughness values and to the absence of tertiairy creep stage, pointing out the unstable nature of fracture, even at high temperature. The unrealistically high values of the Norton exponent measured in creep suggests the existence of a threshold stress, which is consistent with the mainly kinematic nature of the stress as revealed by fatigue tests.

  10. Dynamic equilibrium explanation for nanobubbles unusual temperature and saturation dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, L. Gary

    2013-11-01

    Recent experimental evidence demonstrates that nanobubbles exhibit unusual behavior in response to changes in temperature and gas saturation in the liquid, an observation that may shed light on the mysterious origin of their stability. In this talk, we discuss an alternate formulation of the dynamic equilibrium mechanism for nanobubbles that predicts rich behavior in agreement with these measurements. Namely, we show that stable nanobubbles exist in narrow temperature and dissolved gas concentration ranges, that there is a maximum and minimum possible bubble size, and that nanobubble radii decrease with temperature. We also discuss these predictions in the context of other current hypotheses for nanobubble stability such as the recently-proposed diffusive ``traffic jam'' model.

  11. Parallel temperature-dependent microrheological measurements in a microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Josephson, Lilian Lam; Galush, William J; Furst, Eric M

    2016-07-01

    Microfluidic stickers are used as a sample environment to measure the microrheology of monoclonal antibody (mAb) protein solutions. A Peltier-based microscope stage is implemented and validated, and is capable of controlling the sample temperature over the range 0.9-40 °C. The design accounts for heat transfer to and from the objective, controls the sample environment humidity to mitigate condensation, and provides adequate damping to reduce vibration from the cooling system. A concentrated sucrose solution is used as a standard sample to provide an in situ temperature measurement by the Stokes-Einstein-Sutherland relation. By combining microfluidic stickers and microrheology, 72 temperature-concentration viscosity measurements of mAb solutions can be made in 1 day, a significant increase in throughput over conventional rheometry. PMID:27375825

  12. Temperature dependent mechanical property testing of nitrate thermal storage salts.

    SciTech Connect

    Iverson, Brian DeVon; Broome, Scott Thomas; Siegel, Nathan Phillip

    2010-08-01

    Three salt compositions for potential use in trough-based solar collectors were tested to determine their mechanical properties as a function of temperature. The mechanical properties determined were unconfined compressive strength, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and indirect tensile strength. Seventeen uniaxial compression and indirect tension tests were completed. It was found that as test temperature increases, unconfined compressive strength and Young's modulus decreased for all salt types. Empirical relationships were developed quantifying the aforementioned behaviors. Poisson's ratio tends to increase with increasing temperature except for one salt type where there is no obvious trend. The variability in measured indirect tensile strength is large, but not atypical for this index test. The average tensile strength for all salt types tested is substantially higher than the upper range of tensile strengths for naturally occurring rock salts.

  13. Temperature-dependent shock initiation of LX-17 explosive

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.S.; Chau, H.H.; Druce, R.L.; Moua, K.

    1995-02-01

    LX-17 samples, heated to temperatures up to 250 C, were impacted by 3 to 10-mm-wide, 50.8-mm-long strips of 0.13-mm-thick Kapton polyimide film at velocities up to 7.7 km/s. The Kapton strips were laminated onto a thin aluminum bridge foil and were launched to the desired velocity by discharging a capacitor bank through the foil, causing the foil to explode. The LX-17 samples were confined in a steel holder and heated in an oven to the desired temperature. After the capacitor bank was charged, the LX-17 sample in its steel holder was remotely drawn out of the oven on rails and positioned over the bridge-foil/Kapton-strip laminate. When the sample was in position, the bank was discharged, launching the Kapton strip against the LX-17 surface. The shock initiation threshold was measured for 3, 7, and 10-mm-wide strips at room temperature, 200 C and 250 C. The authors found a significant reduction in the velocity threshold and in the critical area for initiation when the samples were heated. The authors compare the results with the earlier data of Bloom, who measured the initiation threshold of LX-17 over the density range 1.8--1.91 g/cm{sup 3} at room temperature and {minus}54 C. LX-17 has a large coefficient of thermal expansion, as reported by Urtiew, et al., which reduces its density significantly t elevated temperatures. They find that the change of shock initiation threshold with temperature is consistent with the change in sample density, using the relation between threshold and density reported by Bloom.

  14. Achieving a Strongly Temperature-Dependent Casimir Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, Alejandro W.; Woolf, David; Capasso, Federico; McCauley, Alexander P.; Joannopoulos, John D.; Johnson, Steven G.

    2010-08-06

    We propose a method of achieving large temperature T sensitivity in the Casimir force that involves measuring the stable separation between dielectric objects immersed in a fluid. We study the Casimir force between slabs and spheres using realistic material models, and find large >2 nm/K variations in their stable separations (hundreds of nanometers) near room temperature. In addition, we analyze the effects of Brownian motion on suspended objects, and show that the average separation is also sensitive to changes in T. Finally, this approach also leads to rich qualitative phenomena, such as irreversible transitions, from suspension to stiction, as T is varied.

  15. Dependence of rate constants on vibrational temperatures - An Arrhenius description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, D. I.; Johnson, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    An interpretation of the variation of rate constants with vibrational temperature is proposed which introduces parameters analogous to those of the classical Arrhenius expression. The constancy of vibrational activation energy is studied for the dissociaton of NO, the ion-molecular reaction of O(+) with N2, and the atom exchange reaction of I with H2. It is found that when a Boltzmann distribution for vibrational states is applicable, the variation of the rate constant with the vibrational temperature can be used to define a vibrational activation energy. The method has application to exchange reactions where a vibrational energy threshold exists.

  16. Controllable Fluids:. the Temperature Dependence of Post-Yield Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Keith D.; Duclos, Theodore G.

    This paper represents the first detailed description of the affect of temperature on the properties exhibited by state-of-the-art electrorheological (ER) and magnetorheological (MR) fluids. In particular, shear stress versus shear strain rate curves, dynamic and static yield stress values, zero-field viscosity data, and current density measurements are discussed. Specific comments concerning the stability of both mechanical and electrical properties over broad temperature ranges are provided. Finally, insight into the advantages associated with using electrorheological and magnetorheological fluids in a controllable device is provided.

  17. Dynamic equilibrium explanation for nanobubbles' unusual temperature and saturation dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petsev, Nikolai D.; Shell, M. Scott; Leal, L. Gary

    2013-07-01

    The dynamic equilibrium model suggests that surface nanobubbles can be stable due to an influx of gas in the vicinity of the bubble contact line, driven by substrate hydrophobicity, that balances the outflux of gas from the bubble apex. Here, we develop an alternate formulation of this mechanism that predicts rich behavior in agreement with recent experimental measurements. Namely, we find that stable nanobubbles exist in narrow temperature and dissolved gas concentration ranges, that there is a maximum and minimum possible bubble size, and that nanobubble radii decrease with temperature.

  18. Size and temperature dependent plasmons of quantum particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Mufei; Rakov, Nikifor

    2015-08-01

    This work reports on the influences of temperature changes on plasmons of metallic particles that are so small that electric carriers in the conduction band are forced to be at discrete sub-bands due to quantum confinement. In the framework of the electron-in-a-box model and with an every-electron-count computational scheme, the spatial electric distribution inside the particle is calculated. In the calculations, the intra-subband fluctuations are taken into account. The numerical results have shown that the small-particle plasmon frequency shifts with the temperature. The findings suggest that it would be possible to control the plasmons of quantum particles externally.

  19. Biochemical characterization of MmoS, a sensor protein involved in copper-dependent regulation of soluble methane monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Ukaegbu, Uchechi E; Henery, Shannon; Rosenzweig, Amy C

    2006-08-29

    Methane monooxygenase (MMO) enzymes catalyze the oxidation of methane to methanol in methanotrophic bacteria. Several strains of methanotrophs, including Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), express a membrane-bound or particulate MMO (pMMO) at high copper-to-biomass ratios and a soluble MMO (sMMO) form when copper is limited. The mechanism of this "copper switch" is not understood. The mmoS gene, located downstream of the sMMO operon, encodes a sensor protein that is part of a two-component signaling system and has been proposed to play a role in the copper switch. MmoS from M. capsulatus (Bath) has been cloned, expressed, and purified. The purified protein is a tetramer of molecular mass 480 kDa. Optical spectra indicate that MmoS contains a flavin cofactor, identified as flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) by fluorescence spectroscopy and chromatographic analysis. The redox potential of the MmoS-bound FAD, which binds within the N-terminal PAS-PAC domains, is -290 +/- 2 mV at pH 8.0 and 25 degrees C. Despite extensive efforts, MmoS could not be loaded with Cu(I) or Cu(II), indicating that MmoS does not sense copper directly. These data suggest that MmoS functions as a redox sensor and provide new insight into the copper-mediated regulation of sMMO expression. PMID:16922494

  20. Amplified temperature dependence in ecosystems developing on the lava flows of Mauna Loa, Hawai'i

    PubMed Central

    Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.; Vitousek, Peter M.; Brown, James H.

    2008-01-01

    Through its effect on individual metabolism, temperature drives biologically controlled fluxes and transformations of energy and materials in ecological systems. Because primary succession involves feedbacks among multiple biological and abiotic processes, we expected it to exhibit complex dynamics and unusual temperature dependence. We present a model based on first principles of chemical kinetics to explain how biologically mediated temperature dependence of “reactant” concentrations can inflate the effective temperature dependence of such processes. We then apply this model to test the hypothesis that the temperature dependence of early primary succession is amplified due to more rapid accumulation of reactants at higher temperatures. Using previously published data from the lava flows of Mauna Loa, HI, we show that rates of vegetation and soil accumulation as well as rates of community compositional change all display amplified temperature dependence (Q10 values of ≈7–50, compared with typical Q10 values of 1.5–3 for the constituent biological processes). Additionally, in young ecosystems, resource concentrations increase with temperature, resulting in inflated temperature responses of biogeochemical fluxes. Mauna Loa's developing ecosystems exemplify how temperature-driven, biologically mediated gradients in resource availability can alter the effective temperature dependence of ecological processes. This mechanistic theory should contribute to understanding the complex effects of temperature on the structure and dynamics of ecological systems in a world where regional and global temperatures are changing rapidly. PMID:18156366

  1. Amplified temperature dependence in ecosystems developing on the lava flows of Mauna Loa, Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J; Vitousek, Peter M; Brown, James H

    2008-01-01

    Through its effect on individual metabolism, temperature drives biologically controlled fluxes and transformations of energy and materials in ecological systems. Because primary succession involves feedbacks among multiple biological and abiotic processes, we expected it to exhibit complex dynamics and unusual temperature dependence. We present a model based on first principles of chemical kinetics to explain how biologically mediated temperature dependence of "reactant" concentrations can inflate the effective temperature dependence of such processes. We then apply this model to test the hypothesis that the temperature dependence of early primary succession is amplified due to more rapid accumulation of reactants at higher temperatures. Using previously published data from the lava flows of Mauna Loa, HI, we show that rates of vegetation and soil accumulation as well as rates of community compositional change all display amplified temperature dependence (Q(10) values of approximately 7-50, compared with typical Q(10) values of 1.5-3 for the constituent biological processes). Additionally, in young ecosystems, resource concentrations increase with temperature, resulting in inflated temperature responses of biogeochemical fluxes. Mauna Loa's developing ecosystems exemplify how temperature-driven, biologically mediated gradients in resource availability can alter the effective temperature dependence of ecological processes. This mechanistic theory should contribute to understanding the complex effects of temperature on the structure and dynamics of ecological systems in a world where regional and global temperatures are changing rapidly. PMID:18156366

  2. Non-monotonic temperature dependence of thermopower in strongly correlated electron systems

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuo, M; Okamoto, Satoshi; Koshibae, W; Mori, Michiyasu; Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2011-01-01

    We examine the temperature dependence of thermopower in the single-band Hubbard model using dynamical mean-field theory. The strong Coulomb interaction brings about the coherent-to-incoherent crossover as temperature increases. As a result, the thermopower exhibits nonmonotonic temperature dependence and asymptotically approaches values given by the Mott-Heikes formula. In the light of our theoretical result, we discuss the thermopower in some transition metal oxides. The magnetic field dependence of the thermopower is also discussed.

  3. A thermally stable, durable and temperature-dependent oleophobic surface of a polymethylsilsesquioxane film.

    PubMed

    Urata, Chihiro; Masheder, Benjamin; Cheng, Dalton F; Hozumi, Atsushi

    2013-04-25

    Polymethylsilsesquioxane (PMSQ) films prepared by a simple sol-gel reaction of methyltriethoxysilane were found to possess thermally stable, durable, and temperature-dependent oleophobic properties under high temperature (~350 °C) conditions. PMID:23493793

  4. TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE OF THE EMISSION OF PERCHLOROETHYLENE FROM DRY CLEANED FABRICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses an evaluation of the emission of perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene) from freshly dry cleaned fabrics using small environment test chambers. he temperature dependence of the release of perchloroethylene was evaluated over a temperature range of 20 to 45 ...

  5. Temperature-dependent solubility of wax compounds in ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of ethanol to dissolve wax compounds was investigated as an alternative to traditional lipid solvents. The solubility of fatty esters with carbon chain lengths between 46 and 54 was measured in ethanol at elevated temperatures. The greatest increase in solubility was observed between 40°...

  6. Temperature Dependences on Various Types of Photovoltaic (PV) Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audwinto, I. A.; Leong, C. S.; Sopian, K.; Zaidi, S. H.

    2015-09-01

    Temperature is one of the key roles in PV technology performance, since with the increases of temperature the open-circuit voltage will drop accordingly so do the electrical efficiency and power output generation. Different types of Photovoltaic (PV) panels- silicon solar panels and thin film solar panels; mono-crystalline, poly-crystalline, CIS, CIGS, CdTe, back-contact, and bi-facial solar panel under 40°C to 70°C approximately with 5°C interval have been comparatively analyzed their actual performances with uniformly distribution of light illumination from tungsten halogen light source, ±500W/m2. DC-Electronic Load and Data Logger devices with “Lab View” data program interface were used to collect all the necessary parameters in this study. Time needed to achieve a certain degree of temperature was recorded. Generally, each of the panels needed 15 minutes to 20 minutes to reach 70°C. Halogen based light source is not compatible in short wave-length in response to thin-film solar cell. Within this period of times, all the panels are facing a performance loss up to 15%. Other parameters; Pmax, Vmax, Imax, Voc, Isc, Rserries, Rshunt, Fillfactor were collected as study cases. Our study is important in determining Photovoltaic type selection and system design as for study or industrial needed under different temperature condition.

  7. Temperature-dependent bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Muijs, Barry; Jonker, Michiel T O

    2009-06-15

    Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) play a key role in risk assessment of chemicals in sediments and soils. For hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs), BAFs are, however, difficult to determine and values are mostly obtained by modeling. Apart from a lack of reliable data, the applicability of lab-derived values in the field situation is unknown, as exposure conditions (e.g., temperature, pH, salinity, test species, number of chemicals) are standardized in the lab, whereas they may vary in the field. In this study, the effect of temperature on the bioaccumulation of a series of moderate to very hydrophobic PAHs in aquatic worms was studied by using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibers. The results indicated that bioaccumulation of nonmetabolizable HOCs is an exothermic, enthalpy-driven process, thus decreasing with increasing temperature. As such, biotic concentrations may be several times higher in winter than in summertime, which could have ecotoxicological consequences. A two-parameter linear free energy relationship was derived with which PAH bioaccumulation can be predicted from temperature and the chemicals' hydrophobicities. Comparing the determined (thermodynamics of) PAH partitioning into organisms and PDMS indicated that the latter phase cannot be used as a surrogate phase for animal lipids. Still, SPME provides an appropriate analytical tool for the measurement of aqueous concentrations, from which bioaccumulation can subsequently be estimated by using BAFs. PMID:19603671

  8. Temperature-dependent structure of Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Katherine P.; Russek, Stephen E. Shaw, Justin M.; Usselman, Robert J.; Evarts, Eric R.; Silva, Thomas J.; Nembach, Hans T.; Geiss, Roy H.; Arenholz, Elke; Idzerda, Yves U.

    2015-02-09

    High quality 5 nm cubic Tb-doped magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized by a wet-chemical method to investigate tailoring of magnetic properties for imaging and biomedical applications. We show that the Tb is incorporated into the octahedral 3+ sites. High-angle annular dark-field microscopy shows that the dopant is well-distributed throughout the particle, and x-ray diffraction measurements show a small lattice parameter shift with the inclusion of a rare-earth dopant. Magnetization and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism data indicate that the Tb spins are unpolarized and weakly coupled to the iron spin lattice at room temperature, and begin to polarize and couple to the iron oxide lattice at temperatures below 50 K. Broadband ferromagnetic resonance measurements show no increase in magnetic damping at room temperature for Tb-doped nanoparticles relative to undoped nanoparticles, further confirming weak coupling between Fe and Tb spins at room temperature. The Gilbert damping constant, α, is remarkably low for the Tb-doped nanoparticles, with α = 0.024 ± 0.003. These nanoparticles, which have a large fixed moment, a large fluctuating moment and optically active rare-earth elements, are potential high-relaxivity T1 and T2 MRI agents with integrated optical signatures.

  9. Enzyme surface rigidity tunes the temperature dependence of catalytic rates.

    PubMed

    Isaksen, Geir Villy; Åqvist, Johan; Brandsdal, Bjørn Olav

    2016-07-12

    The structural origin of enzyme adaptation to low temperature, allowing efficient catalysis of chemical reactions even near the freezing point of water, remains a fundamental puzzle in biocatalysis. A remarkable universal fingerprint shared by all cold-active enzymes is a reduction of the activation enthalpy accompanied by a more negative entropy, which alleviates the exponential decrease in chemical reaction rates caused by lowering of the temperature. Herein, we explore the role of protein surface mobility in determining this enthalpy-entropy balance. The effects of modifying surface rigidity in cold- and warm-active trypsins are demonstrated here by calculation of high-precision Arrhenius plots and thermodynamic activation parameters for the peptide hydrolysis reaction, using extensive computer simulations. The protein surface flexibility is systematically varied by applying positional restraints, causing the remarkable effect of turning the cold-active trypsin into a variant with mesophilic characteristics without changing the amino acid sequence. Furthermore, we show that just restraining a key surface loop causes the same effect as a point mutation in that loop between the cold- and warm-active trypsin. Importantly, changes in the activation enthalpy-entropy balance of up to 10 kcal/mol are almost perfectly balanced at room temperature, whereas they yield significantly higher rates at low temperatures for the cold-adapted enzyme. PMID:27354533

  10. Enzyme surface rigidity tunes the temperature dependence of catalytic rates

    PubMed Central

    Isaksen, Geir Villy; Åqvist, Johan; Brandsdal, Bjørn Olav

    2016-01-01

    The structural origin of enzyme adaptation to low temperature, allowing efficient catalysis of chemical reactions even near the freezing point of water, remains a fundamental puzzle in biocatalysis. A remarkable universal fingerprint shared by all cold-active enzymes is a reduction of the activation enthalpy accompanied by a more negative entropy, which alleviates the exponential decrease in chemical reaction rates caused by lowering of the temperature. Herein, we explore the role of protein surface mobility in determining this enthalpy–entropy balance. The effects of modifying surface rigidity in cold- and warm-active trypsins are demonstrated here by calculation of high-precision Arrhenius plots and thermodynamic activation parameters for the peptide hydrolysis reaction, using extensive computer simulations. The protein surface flexibility is systematically varied by applying positional restraints, causing the remarkable effect of turning the cold-active trypsin into a variant with mesophilic characteristics without changing the amino acid sequence. Furthermore, we show that just restraining a key surface loop causes the same effect as a point mutation in that loop between the cold- and warm-active trypsin. Importantly, changes in the activation enthalpy–entropy balance of up to 10 kcal/mol are almost perfectly balanced at room temperature, whereas they yield significantly higher rates at low temperatures for the cold-adapted enzyme. PMID:27354533

  11. Temperature dependence of 35Cl NQR in 3,4-Dichlorophenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandramani, R.; Devaraj, N.; Indumathy, A.; Ramakrishna, J.

    NQR frequencies in 3,4-dichlorophenol are investigated in the temperature range 77 K to room temperature. Two resonances have been observed throughout the temperature range, corresponding to the two chemically inequivalent chlorine sites. Using Bayer's theory and Brown's method torsional frequencies and their temperature dependence in this range are estimated.

  12. Temperature-dependent indentation behavior of transformation-toughened zirconia-based ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tikare, Veena; Heuer, Arthur H.

    1991-01-01

    Indentation behavior of Ce-TZP, Y-TZP, and Mg-PSZ between room temperature and 1300 C was investigated. Hardness decreased with increasing temperature for all three materials, but indentation cracking increased with increasing temperature. The opposing temperature dependences are discussed in terms of dislocation and transformation plasticity.

  13. Temperature and food concentration have limited influence on the mixture toxicity of copper and Microcystis aeruginosa to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Hochmuth, Jennifer D; Janssen, Colin R; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2016-03-01

    Standard ecotoxicity tests are conducted under constant and favorable experimental conditions. In natural communities, however, the toxicity of chemicals may be influenced by abiotic and biotic environmental factors. Firstly, the authors examined the influence of temperature and total food concentration on the nature of the combined effects of copper (Cu) and the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa to Daphnia magna (i.e., whether the combined effects deviated from noninteraction). Secondly, the authors investigated the relative influence of the percentage of M. aeruginosa in the diet, temperature, and total food concentration on chronic Cu toxicity to D. magna. The nature of the combined effects between Cu and M. aeruginosa (i.e., synergism according to the independent action reference model and noninteraction according to concentration addition reference model) was not affected by temperature and total food concentration. In line with other studies, the concentration addition reference model gave rise to more protective predictions of mixture toxicity than the independent action reference model, thus confirming the former model's suitability as a conservative scenario for evaluating mixture toxicity of Cu and M. aeruginosa under the temperature and food concentrations tested. Further, the 21-d median effective concentration for Cu based on reproduction varied between 20 μg/L and 100 μg/L, and the results indicate that the percentage of M. aeruginosa explained 76% of the variance in the Cu median effective concentration for reproduction, whereas the effects of temperature and total food were limited (together explaining 11% of the variance). The present study suggests that environmental risk assessment of Cu should consider specific situations where harmful M. aeruginosa blooms can co-occur with elevated Cu exposure. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:742-749. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26354710

  14. Strain rate, temperature and representative length scale influence on plasticity and yield stress in copper

    SciTech Connect

    Dupont, Virginie; Germann, Timothy C

    2011-01-18

    Shock compression of materials constitutes a complex process involving high strain rates, elevated temperatures and compression of the lattice. Materials properties are greatly affected by temperature, the representative length scale and the strain rate of the deformation. Experimentally, it is difficult to study the dynamic microscopic mechanisms that affect materials properties following high intensity shock loading, but they can be investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Moreover, MD allows a better control over some parameters. We are using MD simulations to study the effect of the strain rate, representative length scale and temperature on the properties of metals during compression. A half-million-atom Cu sample is subjected to strain rates ranging from 10{sup 7} s{sup -1} to 10{sup 12} s{sup -1} at different temperatures ranging from 50K to 1500K. Single crystals as well as polycrystals are investigated. Plasticity mechanisms as well as the evolution of the micro- and macro-yield stress are observed. Our results show that the yield stress increases with increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature. We also show that the strain rate at which the transition between constant and increasing yield stress as a function of the temperature occurs increases with increasing temperature. Calculations at different grain sizes will give an insight into the grain size effect on the plasticity mechanisms and the yield stress.

  15. Temperature-Dependent Survival of Adult Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae).

    PubMed

    Cooper, W Rodney; Spurgeon, Dale W

    2015-06-01

    The western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae), is a key pest of many horticultural and agronomic crops in the western United States. Despite its well documented pest status, many aspects of the basic biology, including overwintering ecology, of L. hesperus are poorly understood. We examined the influence of eight constant temperatures from 10 to 35°C on survival of nondiapausing adult L. hesperus held with or without food, and the consequences of exposure to an extended period at 10°C on subsequent reproduction. Survival analyses indicated that, on average, fed insects tended to live longer than unfed insects, females lived longer than males, and the survival time decreased with increasing temperature. Nonlinear regressions indicated that median survival for insects grouped by gender and feeding status declined exponentially with increasing temperature. Survival functions for combinations of insect class (gender and feeding status) and temperature were adequately described by the respective two-parameter logistic functions. When adults were held for 9 d at 27°C with food after a 33-d period at 10°C either with or without food, no deleterious effects of prior starvation on propensity to mate or fecundity were demonstrated. These findings indicate that when temperatures are low, nondiapausing L. hesperus adults are capable of extended host-free survival with little or no impact on subsequent reproduction. Our findings suggest the current understanding of L. hesperus overwintering dynamics is incomplete. In addition, our results provide quantitative baseline information to facilitate more comprehensive investigation of the ecology of L. hesperus overwintering. PMID:26313987

  16. A method to correct for temperature dependence and measure simultaneously dose and temperature using a plastic scintillation detector.

    PubMed

    Therriault-Proulx, Francois; Wootton, Landon; Beddar, Sam

    2015-10-21

    Plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) work well for radiation dosimetry. However, they show some temperature dependence, and a priori knowledge of the temperature surrounding the PSD is required to correct for this dependence. We present a novel approach to correct PSD response values for temperature changes instantaneously and without the need for prior knowledge of the temperature value. In addition to rendering the detector temperature-independent, this approach allows for actual temperature measurement using solely the PSD apparatus. With a temperature-controlled water tank, the temperature was varied from room temperature to more than 40 °C and the PSD was used to measure the dose delivered from a cobalt-60 photon beam unit to within an average of 0.72% from the expected value. The temperature was measured during each acquisition with the PSD and a thermocouple and values were within 1 °C of each other. The depth-dose curve of a 6 MV photon beam was also measured under warm non-stable conditions and this curve agreed to within an average of  -0.98% from the curve obtained at room temperature. The feasibility of rendering PSDs temperature-independent was demonstrated with our approach, which also enabled simultaneous measurement of both dose and temperature. This novel approach improves both the robustness and versatility of PSDs. PMID:26407188

  17. Investigation of the influence of grain boundary chemistry, test temperatures, and strain rate on the fracture behavior of ITER copper alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Leedy, K.; Stubbins, J.F.; Krus, D.

    1997-08-01

    In an effort to understand the mechanical behavior at elevated temperatures (>200{degrees}C) of the various copper alloys being considered for use in the ITER first wall, divertor, and limiter, a collaborative study has been initiated by the University of Illinois and PNNL with two industrial producers of copper alloys, Brush Wellman and OMG Americas. Details of the experimental matrix and test plans have been finalized and the appropriate specimens have already been fabricated and delivered to the University of Illinois and PNNL for testing and analysis. The experimental matrix and testing details are described in this report.

  18. Shock-induced spall in copper: the effects of anisotropy, temperature, loading pulse and defect

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Shengnian; Germann, Timothy C; An, Qi; Han, Li - Bo

    2009-07-28

    Shock-induced spall in Cu is investigated with molecular dynamics simulations. We examine spallation in initially perfect crystals and defective solids with grain boundaries (columnar bicrystals), stacking faults or vacancies, as well as the effect of temperature and loading pulses. Spall in single crystal Cu is anisotropic, and defects and high temperature may reduce the spall strength. Taylor-wave (triangular shock-release wave) loading is explored in comparison with square wave shock loading.

  19. Adsorption of linear alkanes on Cu(111): Temperature and chain-length dependence of the softened vibrational mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosser, Kari A.; Kang, Joo H.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Wöll, Christof

    2007-05-01

    The vibrational spectra of linear alkanes, with lengths ranging from n-propane to n-octane, were examined on a copper surface by reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy. The appearance and frequency of the "soft mode," a feature routinely seen in studies of saturated hydrocarbons adsorbed on metals, were examined and compared between the different adsorbates. The frequency of the mode was found to be dependent on both the number of methylene units of each alkane as well as specific aspects of the order of the monolayer phase. Studies of monolayer coverages at different temperatures provide insights into the nature of the two-dimensional (2D) melting transitions of these adlayer structures, ones that can be inferred from observed shifts in the soft vibrational modes appearing in the C-H stretching region of the infrared spectrum. These studies support recently reported hypotheses as to the origins of such soft modes: the metal-hydrogen interactions that mediate them and the dynamics that underlay their pronounced temperature dependencies. The present data strongly support a model for the 2D to one-dimensional order-order phase transition arising via a continuous rather than discrete first-order process.

  20. Rate dependent of strength in metallic glasses at different temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y. W.; Bian, X. L.; Wu, S. W.; Hussain, I.; Jia, Y. D.; Yi, J.; Wang, G.

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between the strength at the macroscale and the elastic deformation as well as shear cracking behavior at the microscale of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) is investigated. The temperatures of 298 K and 77 K as well as the strain rate ranging from 10−6 s−1 to 10−2 s−1 are applied to the BMGs, in which the mechanical responses of the BMGs are profiled through the compression tests. The yield strength is associated with the activation of the elementary deformation unit, which is insensitive to the strain rate. The maximum compressive strength is linked to the crack propagation during shear fracture process, which is influenced by the strain rate. The cryogenic temperature of 77 K significantly improves the yield strength and the maximum compressive strength of the BMGs. PMID:27270688

  1. Temperature-dependent high resolution absorption cross sections of propane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Christopher A.; Hargreaves, Robert J.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2016-10-01

    High resolution (0.005 cm-1) absorption cross sections have been measured for pure propane (C3H8). These cross sections cover the 2550-3500 cm-1 region at five temperatures (from 296 to 700 K) and were measured using a Fourier transform spectrometer and a quartz cell heated by a tube furnace. Calibrations were made by comparison to the integrated cross sections of propane from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. These are the first high resolution absorption cross sections of propane for the 3 μm region at elevated temperatures. The cross sections provided may be used to monitor propane in combustion environments and in astronomical sources such as the auroral regions of Jupiter, brown dwarfs and exoplanets.

  2. Rate dependent of strength in metallic glasses at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y W; Bian, X L; Wu, S W; Hussain, I; Jia, Y D; Yi, J; Wang, G

    2016-01-01

    The correlation between the strength at the macroscale and the elastic deformation as well as shear cracking behavior at the microscale of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) is investigated. The temperatures of 298 K and 77 K as well as the strain rate ranging from 10(-6) s(-1) to 10(-2) s(-1) are applied to the BMGs, in which the mechanical responses of the BMGs are profiled through the compression tests. The yield strength is associated with the activation of the elementary deformation unit, which is insensitive to the strain rate. The maximum compressive strength is linked to the crack propagation during shear fracture process, which is influenced by the strain rate. The cryogenic temperature of 77 K significantly improves the yield strength and the maximum compressive strength of the BMGs. PMID:27270688

  3. Rate dependent of strength in metallic glasses at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. W.; Bian, X. L.; Wu, S. W.; Hussain, I.; Jia, Y. D.; Yi, J.; Wang, G.

    2016-06-01

    The correlation between the strength at the macroscale and the elastic deformation as well as shear cracking behavior at the microscale of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) is investigated. The temperatures of 298 K and 77 K as well as the strain rate ranging from 10‑6 s‑1 to 10‑2 s‑1 are applied to the BMGs, in which the mechanical responses of the BMGs are profiled through the compression tests. The yield strength is associated with the activation of the elementary deformation unit, which is insensitive to the strain rate. The maximum compressive strength is linked to the crack propagation during shear fracture process, which is influenced by the strain rate. The cryogenic temperature of 77 K significantly improves the yield strength and the maximum compressive strength of the BMGs.

  4. Temperature dependence of porous silica antireflective (AR) coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yongxing; Le, Yueqin; Zhang, Weiqing; Jiang, Minhua; Sun, Jinren; Liu, Xiaolin

    1998-02-01

    In this paper, the antireflective coatings consisting of porous silica particles from a silica sol are applied by dip method. The relationships among composition, viscosity and temperature have been studied. The coating homogeneity is opium for the laser wavelengths of 1064 nm, 532 nm and 355 nm. The peak transmission of coated BK-7 glass substrate is higher than 99.5%. The laser induced damage thresholds of the antireflective coatings were range of 7 - 10 J/cm2, for 1 ns pulse width and 1064 nm wavelength. These damage thresholds were suitable for our national ICF program. It is noted that the optical homogeneity of coating and the viscosity of coating sol were strongly influenced by the temperatures in the duration of sol ripening.

  5. Temperature dependence of nanoscale friction for Fe on YBCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altfeder, Igor; Krim, Jacqueline

    2012-05-01

    A magnetic probe microscopy study of levitation and atomic-scale friction is reported for Fe on YBCO (Tc = 92.5 K) in the temperature range 65-293 K. Below Tc, the friction coefficient is constant and exhibits no correlation with the strength of superconducting levitation forces. Above Tc, the friction coefficient increases progressively, and nearly doubles between Tc and room temperature. The results are discussed within the context of the underlying atomic-scale electronic and phononic mechanisms that give rise to friction, and it is concluded that contact electrification and static electricity may play a significant role in the non-superconducting phase. Given that the properties of YBCO can be finely tuned, the results point the way to a variety of interesting studies of friction and superconductors.

  6. Temperature dependence of the magnetic excitations in Gd

    SciTech Connect

    Cable, J.W.; Nicklow, R.M.; Wakabayashi, N.

    1985-08-01

    Magnetic excitation spectra were measured for Gd in the and directions over the temperature range from 9 to 320/sup 0/K (T/sub c/ = 292.7/sup 0/K). Spin-wave-like modes are observed at T greater than or equal to T/sub c/. The critical wavevector for the appearance of these modes is proportional to the inverse correlation length.

  7. Temperature dependence of histidine ionization constants in myoglobin.

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, S; Lecomte, J T

    1997-01-01

    The standard enthalpy of ionization of six titratable histidines in horse metaquomyoglobin was determined by repeating proton NMR titrations as a function of temperature and using the van't Hoff relationship. It was found that deltaH degrees varies between 16 and 37 kJ mol(-1) in the protein, compared with a value of 29 kJ mol(-1) in free histidine. The standard entropy change was evaluated by combining the enthalpy and free energy changes derived from the pKa values. Although the entropy change could not be precisely and accurately obtained by this method, it could be established that it spans a wide range, from -60 to 0 J K(-1) mol(-1), about the value of -23 J K(-1) mol(-1) for the free histidine. The entropy change was used within the framework of enthalpy-entropy compensation to partition the solvation component from the standard thermodynamic quantities for each of the titrating residues. It was shown that the partitioning of the values in the protein is not readily understood in terms of solvent accessibility or electrostatic interactions. The contribution of solvation effects to the temperature response appeared to be significant only in the case of His-119 and His-48. The standard quantities were also used to explore the energetics of proton binding in the native state at temperatures below the onset of thermal denaturation. Images FIGURE 6 PMID:9414235

  8. Temperature dependences of magnetoimpedance of nanocrystalline Fe-based ribbons.

    PubMed

    Semirov, A V; Bukreev, D A; Moiseev, A A; Volchkov, S O; Kurlyandskaya, G V; Lukshina, V A; Volkova, E G

    2012-09-01

    The influence of a magnetic field or the mechanical stresses on the impedance of the Fe73.5Si16.5B6Nb3Cu1 and Fe73.5Si13.5B9Nb3Cu1 ribbons was investigated in the (297 divided by 433) K temperature range. It is shown that impedance changes, which are observed under the application of mechanical stresses and temperature, are conditioned by the structural features and magnetic properties of the alloys. The temperature increase leads to a decrease of the saturation magnetostriction constant, an increase of the anisotropy axis dispersion and a decrease of the anisotropy effective value. It was determined that the maximum sensitivity of impedance to the mechanical stresses reaches the value of about 2%/MPa for the Fe73.5Si16.5B6Nb3Cu1 and Fe73.5Si13.5B9Nb3Cu1 samples. PMID:23035492

  9. Diagnostic methods of solar cells in dependence on temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolensky, J.; Vesely, A.; Vanek, J.; Hrozek, J.

    2009-08-01

    This study is focused on testing methods determining quality of solar cells. Nowadays the development of solar cells is much faster and there is still necessary to increase their quality by removing causes of materials defects and also defects in a process of their production. Non-destructive methods are used for correct determination of defects by using of recombination effect of charge carrier in PN junction. Due to these methods can be the solar cell diagnosed and described. By using of various temperatures during the testing we can receive more objective results thanks to simulated operation conditions. Peltier cells are used for graditional change of temperature. Cooling system with liquid nitro - LN2 is used to reach the very low temperature. Diagnostic and testing methods described in this study are based on emission of light and the recombination processes in PN junction. It is especially electroluminescence and photoluminescence method. For comparison it is used the observation of emitted light from microplasma method. Described methods detect materials and process defects due to use of lownoise and very sensitive CCD camera.

  10. Efficiency and temperature dependence of water removal by membrane dryers.

    PubMed

    Leckrone, K J; Hayes, J M

    1997-03-01

    The vapor pressure of water in equilibrium with sorption sites within a Nafion membrane is given by log P(WN) = -3580/T + 10.01, where P(WN) is expressed in Torr and T is the membrane temperature, in kelvin. The efficiency of dryers based on selective permeation of water through Nafion can thus be enhanced by cooling the membrane. Residual water in effluents exceeds equilibrium levels if insufficient time is allowed for water to diffuse to the membrane surface as gas passes through the dryer. For tubular configurations, this limitation can be avoided if L > or = Fc(10(3.8)/120 pi D), where L is the length of the tubular membrane, in centimeters, Fc is the gas flow rate, in mL/ min, and D is the diffusion coefficient for water in the carrier gas at the operating temperature of the dryer, in cm2/s. An efficient dryer that at room temperature dries gas to a dew point of -61 degrees C is described; the same dryer maintained at 0 degrees C yields a dew point of -80 degrees C and removes water as effectively as Mg(ClO4)2 or a dry ice/acetone slush. The use of Nafion membranes to construct devices capable of delivering gas streams with low but precisely controlled humidities is discussed. PMID:11536807

  11. Efficiency and temperature dependence of water removal by membrane dryers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckrone, K. J.; Hayes, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    The vapor pressure of water in equilibrium with sorption sites within a Nafion membrane is given by log P(WN) = -3580/T + 10.01, where P(WN) is expressed in Torr and T is the membrane temperature, in kelvin. The efficiency of dryers based on selective permeation of water through Nafion can thus be enhanced by cooling the membrane. Residual water in effluents exceeds equilibrium levels if insufficient time is allowed for water to diffuse to the membrane surface as gas passes through the dryer. For tubular configurations, this limitation can be avoided if L > or = Fc(10(3.8)/120 pi D), where L is the length of the tubular membrane, in centimeters, Fc is the gas flow rate, in mL/ min, and D is the diffusion coefficient for water in the carrier gas at the operating temperature of the dryer, in cm2/s. An efficient dryer that at room temperature dries gas to a dew point of -61 degrees C is described; the same dryer maintained at 0 degrees C yields a dew point of -80 degrees C and removes water as effectively as Mg(ClO4)2 or a dry ice/acetone slush. The use of Nafion membranes to construct devices capable of delivering gas streams with low but precisely controlled humidities is discussed.

  12. Efficiency and temperature dependence of water removal by membrane dryers

    SciTech Connect

    Leckrone, K.J.; Hayes, J.M.

    1997-03-01

    The vapor pressure of water in equilibrium with sorption sites within a Nafion membrane is given by log P{sub WN} = -3580/T + 10.01, where P{sub WN} is expressed in Torr and T is the membrane temperature, in kelvin. The efficiency of dryers based on selective permeation of water through Nafion can thus be enhanced by cooling the membrane. Residual water in effluents exceeds equilibrium levels if insufficient time is allowed for water to diffuse to the membrane surface as gas passes through the dryer. For tubular configurations, this limitation can be avoided if L > F{sub c}(10{sup 3.8}/120{pi}D), where L is the length of the tubular membrane, in centimeters, F{sub c} is the gas flow rate, in mL/min, and D is the diffusion coefficient for water in the carrier gas at the operating temperature of the dryer, in cm{sup 2}/s. An efficient dryer that at room temperature dries gas to a dew point of -61 {degree}C is described; the same dryer maintained at 0 {degree}C yields a dew point of -80 {degree}C and removes water as effectively as Mg(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2} or a dry ice/acetone slush. The use of Nafion membranes to construct devices capable of delivering gas streams with low but precisely controlled humidities is discussed. 41 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Temperature-Dependent Development of Pasteuria penetrans in Meloidogyne arenaria.

    PubMed

    Serracin, M; Schuerger, A C; Dickson, D W; Weingartner, D P

    1997-06-01

    Pasteuria penetrans is a promising biological control agent of plant-parasitic nematodes. This study was conducted to determine effects of temperature on the bacterium's development in Meloidogyne arenaria. Developmental stages of P. penetrans were viewed with a compound microscope and verified with scanning electron microscopy within each nematode at 100 accumulated degree-day intervals by tracking accumulated degree-days at three temperatures (21, 28, and 35 degrees C). Five predominant developmental stages of P. penetrans were identified with light microscopy: endospore germination, vegetative growth, differentiation, sporulation, and maturation. Mature endospores were detected at 28, 35, and >90 calendar days at 35, 28, and 21 degrees C, respectively. The number of accumulated degree-days required for P. penetrans to reach a specific developmental stage was different for each temperature. Differences were observed in the development of P. penetrans at 21, 28, and 35 degrees C based on regression values fitted for data from 100 to 600 accumulated degree-days. A linear response was observed between 100 to 600 accumulated degree-days; however, after 600 accumulated degree-days the rate of development of P. penetrans leveled off at 21 and 28 degrees C, whereas at 35 degrees C the rate decreased. Results suggest that accumulated degree-days may be useful only in predicting early-developmental stages of P. penetrans. PMID:19274154

  14. High temperature-dependent imprint and switching mechanism of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) copolymer ultrathin films with electroactive interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiuli; Du, Xiaoli; Liu, Changli; Ji, Xin; Xu, Haisheng

    2015-01-01

    The imprint and switching behaviors at high temperature have been systematically investigated through the study on the poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) films without and with in-situ synthesized poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonic) acid, poly(vinyl phosphonic) acid (PVPA), and copper-phthalocyanine as interlayers. The lower imprint rate and the faster switching speed are observed for the sample with PVPA as interlayer even after 107 cycles at 60 °C. Combined with the results for the imprint and switching behaviors at room temperature, the temperature-dependent imprint and switching mechanisms for different electroactive interlayers in this system are proposed. Therefore, the optimum protocol could be designed for FeRAM based on P(VDF-TrFE) film, which would be in favor of the performance and the service life of the related ferroelectric devices even at high temperature.

  15. Temperature dependent elasticity and damping in dehydrated sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, T. W.; Struble, W.

    2013-12-01

    Work reported previously at this conference, outlining our observation of anomalously large elastic softening and damping in dehydrated Berea sandstone at elevated temperatures, has been analysed to study shear and compressional effects separately. Modeling of the sample using COMSOL software was necessary to identify modes, as the vibration spectrum of the sample is poorly approximated by a uniform isotropic solid. The first torsional mode of our evacuated, dry, core softens at nearly twice the rate of Young's modulus modes (bending and compressional) and is also damped nearly twice as strongly as temperature increases. We consider two possible models for explaining this behavior, based on the assumption that the mechanical properties of the sandstone are dominated by the framework of quartz grains and polycrystalline cementation, neglecting initially the effects of clay and feldspar inclusions. The 20cm x 2.54cm diameter core is dry such that the pressure of water vapor in the experiment chamber is below 1e-6 Torr at 70C, suggesting that surface water beyond a small number of monolayers is negligible. Our models consider (1) enhanced sliding of grain boundaries in the cementation at elevated temperature and reduced internal water content, and (2) strain microcracking of the cementatioin at low water content due to anisotropic expansion in the quartz grains. In model (1) interfaces parallel to polyhedral grain surfaces were placed in the cement bonds and assigned frictional properties. Model (2) has not yet been implemented. The overall elasticity of a 3-D several-grain model network was determined by modeling quasistatic loading and measuring displacements. Initial results with a small number of grains/bonds suggests that only the first model provides softening and damping for all the modes, however the details of the effects of defect motioin at individual interfaces as the source for the frictional properties is still being evaluated. Nonlinear effects are

  16. Effects of vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation on copper penetration into low-k dielectrics under bias-temperature stress

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, X.; Zheng, H.; Xue, P.; Shohet, J. L.; King, S. W.; Nishi, Y.

    2015-01-05

    The effects of vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation on copper penetration into non-porous low-k dielectrics under bias-temperature stress (BTS) were investigated. By employing x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth-profile measurements on both as-deposited and VUV-irradiated SiCOH/Cu stacks, it was found that under the same BTS conditions, the diffusion depth of Cu into the VUV-irradiated SiCOH is higher than that of as-deposited SiCOH. On the other hand, under the same temperature-annealing stress (TS) without electric bias, the Cu distribution profiles in the VUV-irradiated SiCOH were same with that for the as-deposited SiCOH. The experiments suggest that in as-deposited SiCOH, the diffused Cu exists primarily in the atomic state, while in VUV-irradiated SiCOH, the diffused Cu is oxidized by the hydroxyl ions (OH{sup −}) generated from VUV irradiation and exists in the ionic state. The mechanisms for metal diffusion and ion injection in VUV irradiated low-k dielectrics are discussed.

  17. Transmission electron microscopy study in-situ of radiation-induced defects in copper at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Daulton, T.L.; Kirk, M.A.; Rehn, L.E.

    1996-12-01

    Neutrons and high-energy ions incident upon a solid can initiate a displacement collision cascade of lattice atoms resulting in localized regions within the solid containing a high concentration of interstitial and vacancy point defects. These point defects can collapse into various types of dislocation loops and stacking fault tetrahedra (SFT) large enough that their lattice strain fields are visible under diffraction-contrast imaging using a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The basic mechanisms driving the collapse of point defects produced in collision cascades is investigated in situ with TEM for fcc-Cu irradiated with heavy (100 keV Kr) ions at elevated temperature. The isothermal stability of these clusters is also examined in situ. Areal defect yields were observed to decrease abruptly for temperatures greater than 300 C. This decrease in defect yield is attributed to a proportional decrease in the probability of collapse of point defects into clusters. The evolution of the defect density under isothermal conditions appears to be influenced by three different rate processes active in the decline of the total defect density. These rate constants can be attributed to differences in the stability of various types of defect clusters and to different loss mechanisms. Based upon observed stabilities, estimations for the average binding enthalpies of vacancies to SFT are calculated for copper.

  18. Effects of vacuum-ultraviolet irradiation on copper penetration into low-k dielectrics under bias-temperature stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X.; King, S. W.; Zheng, H.; Xue, P.; Nishi, Y.; Shohet, J. L.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation on copper penetration into non-porous low-k dielectrics under bias-temperature stress (BTS) were investigated. By employing x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy depth-profile measurements on both as-deposited and VUV-irradiated SiCOH/Cu stacks, it was found that under the same BTS conditions, the diffusion depth of Cu into the VUV-irradiated SiCOH is higher than that of as-deposited SiCOH. On the other hand, under the same temperature-annealing stress (TS) without electric bias, the Cu distribution profiles in the VUV-irradiated SiCOH were same with that for the as-deposited SiCOH. The experiments suggest that in as-deposited SiCOH, the diffused Cu exists primarily in the atomic state, while in VUV-irradiated SiCOH, the diffused Cu is oxidized by the hydroxyl ions (OH-) generated from VUV irradiation and exists in the ionic state. The mechanisms for metal diffusion and ion injection in VUV irradiated low-k dielectrics are discussed.

  19. Temperature dependence of inorganic nitrogen uptake: Reduced affinity for nitrate at suboptimal temperatures in both algae and bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Reay, D.S.; Nedwell, D.B.; Priddle, J.; Ellis-Evans, J.C.

    1999-06-01

    Nitrate utilization and ammonium utilization were studied by using three algal isolates, six bacterial isolates, and a range of temperatures in chemostat and batch cultures. The authors quantified affinities for both substrates by determining specific affinities based on estimates of kinetic parameters obtained from chemostat experiments. At suboptimal temperatures, the residual concentrations of nitrate in batch cultures and the steady-state concentrations of nitrate in chemostat cultures both increased. The specific affinity for nitrate was strongly dependent on temperature and consistently decreased at temperatures below the optimum temperature. In contrast, the steady-state concentrations of ammonium remained relatively constant over the same temperature range, and the specific affinity for ammonium exhibited no clear temperature dependence. This is the first time that a consistent effect of low temperature on affinity for nitrate has been identified for psychrophilic, mesophilic, and thermophilic bacteria and algae. The different responses of nitrate uptake and ammonium uptake to temperature imply that there is increasing dependence on ammonium as an inorganic nitrogen source at low temperatures.

  20. Molecular players involved in temperature-dependent sex determination and sex differentiation in Teleost fish

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that underlie sex determination and differentiation are conserved and diversified. In fish species, temperature-dependent sex determination and differentiation seem to be ubiquitous and molecular players involved in these mechanisms may be conserved. Although how the ambient temperature transduces signals to the undifferentiated gonads remains to be elucidated, the genes downstream in the sex differentiation pathway are shared between sex-determining mechanisms. In this paper, we review recent advances on the molecular players that participate in the sex determination and differentiation in fish species, by putting emphasis on temperature-dependent sex determination and differentiation, which include temperature-dependent sex determination and genetic sex determination plus temperature effects. Application of temperature-dependent sex differentiation in farmed fish and the consequences of temperature-induced sex reversal are discussed. PMID:24735220