Science.gov

Sample records for copy images ii

  1. Digital image forensics for photographic copying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jing; Fang, Yanmei

    2012-03-01

    Image display technology has greatly developed over the past few decades, which make it possible to recapture high-quality images from the display medium, such as a liquid crystal display(LCD) screen or a printed paper. The recaptured images are not regarded as a separate image class in the current research of digital image forensics, while the content of the recaptured images may have been tempered. In this paper, two sets of features based on the noise and the traces of double JPEG compression are proposed to identify these recaptured images. Experimental results showed that our proposed features perform well for detecting photographic copying.

  2. Teaching Ad Copy--I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welty, Ward; Vanden Bergh, Bruce G.

    1981-01-01

    Ward Welty notes that the standard advertising course could be improved by including a unit of study in rhetoric, especially Aristotelian rhetoric. Bruce Vanden Bergh reports on research on the differences in creating advertising copy for radio versus the visual media of magazines, newspapers, and television. (RL)

  3. Copy-move forgery detection in digital image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alamro, Loai; Yusoff, Nooraini

    2016-08-01

    Copy-move is considered as one of the most popular kind of digital image tempering, in which one or more parts of a digital image are copied and pasted into different locations. Geometric transformation is among the major challenges in detecting copy-move forgery of a digital image. In such forgery, the copied and moved parts of a forged image are either rotated or/and re-scaled. Hence, in this study we propose a combination of Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) to detect a copy-move activity. The experiments results prove that the proposed method is superior with overall accuracy 95%. The copy-move attacks in digital image has been successfully detected and the method is also can detect the fraud parts exposed to rotation and scaling issue.

  4. Detecting Copy Move Forgery In Digital Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Ashima; Saxena, Nisheeth; Vasistha, S. K.

    2012-03-01

    In today's world several image manipulation software's are available. Manipulation of digital images has become a serious problem nowadays. There are many areas like medical imaging, digital forensics, journalism, scientific publications, etc, where image forgery can be done very easily. To determine whether a digital image is original or doctored is a big challenge. To find the marks of tampering in a digital image is a challenging task. The detection methods can be very useful in image forensics which can be used as a proof for the authenticity of a digital image. In this paper we propose the method to detect region duplication forgery by dividing the image into overlapping block and then perform searching to find out the duplicated region in the image.

  5. Type II dehydroquinase: molecular replacement with many copies

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Kirsty Anne; Robinson, David Alexander; Lapthorn, Adrian Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The type II dehydroquinase enzyme is a symmetrical dodecameric protein which crystallizes in either high-symmetry cubic space groups or low-symmetry crystal systems with multiple copies in the asymmetric unit. Both systems have provided challenging examples for molecular replacement; for example, a triclinic crystal form has 16 dodecamers (192 monomers) in the unit cell. Three difficult examples are discussed and two are used as test cases to compare the performance of four commonly used molecular-replacement packages. Type II dehydroquinase is a small (150-amino-acid) protein which in solution packs together to form a dodecamer with 23 cubic symmetry. In crystals of this protein the symmetry of the biological unit can be coincident with the crystallographic symmetry, giving rise to cubic crystal forms with a single monomer in the asymmetric unit. In crystals where this is not the case, multiple copies of the monomer are present, giving rise to significant and often confusing noncrystallographic symmetry in low-symmetry crystal systems. These different crystal forms pose a variety of challenges for solution by molecular replacement. Three examples of structure solutions, including a highly unusual triclinic crystal form with 16 dodecamers (192 monomers) in the unit cell, are described. Four commonly used molecular-replacement packages are assessed against two of these examples, one of high symmetry and the other of low symmetry; this study highlights how program performance can vary significantly depending on the given problem. In addition, the final refined structure of the 16-dodecamer triclinic crystal form is analysed and shown not to be a superlattice structure, but rather an F-centred cubic crystal with frustrated crystallographic symmetry.

  6. Review of hard copy systems for digital medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apple, Bernard A.; Tennant, Mark H.; Thomas, Jule W., Jr.

    1996-03-01

    In this paper we review image requirements and the potential use of various printing technologies to record digital diagnostic radiographic information. An analysis of limitations and advantages of alternate imaging systems compared to current laser imager/silver halide film systems will be presented. The future move to digital radiology along with its hard copy requirements will also be discussed. The winning technologies in the market place will be determined by their ability to provide adequate image quality at low cost while meeting productivity, durability, and convenience requirements. The first technology to meet these requirements will have a tremendous advantage in the market place. Medical imaging hard copy is dominated by the use of silver halide media providing monochrome images of diagnostic image quality. As new digital medical imaging modalities have emerged they have opened the door to new hard copy technologies. These new technologies have been born and nurtured outside the medical market by small markets with high image quality requirements or by large markets with lower image quality requirements. The former have tended to provide high cost, high quality solutions and the latter low cost, low quality solutions. Silver halide media still dominates, at least in part, because it provides high image quality at a relatively low cost. Yet, the trend away from wet silver halide is evident. These new hard copy technologies are being tested to determine their applicability to the medical market and are finding niches where they provide value. A clear winner that provides the required image quality at low cost has yet to emerge.

  7. Photographic copy of computer enhanced color photographic image. Photographer and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of computer enhanced color photographic image. Photographer and computer draftsman unknown. Original photographic image located in the office of Modjeski and Masters, Consulting Engineers at 1055 St. Charles Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70130. COMPUTER ENHANCED COLOR PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING THE PROPOSED HUEY P. LONG BRIDGE WIDENING LOOKING FROM THE WEST BANK TOWARD THE EAST BANK. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  8. Aviation Pilot Training I & II. Flight Syllabus. Field Review Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upchurch, Richard

    This guide for aviation pilot training I and II begins with a course description, resource information, and a course outline. The syllabus is designed to be used concurrently with the ground school program. A minimum of 29 flights are scheduled with a minimum of 40 hours total flight time. Tasks/competencies are categorized into five concept/duty…

  9. Ordinal measure of DCT coefficients for image correspondence and its application to copy detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Changick

    2003-01-01

    Detecting unauthorized copies of digital media (images, audio and video) is a basic requirement for Intellectual Property Right (IPR) protection. This paper proposes a novel method to detect copies of digital images. This copy detection scheme can be used as either an alternative approach or a complementary approach to watermarking. A test image is first reduced to 8×8 sub-image by intensity averaging, and then, the AC coefficients of its discrete cosine transform (DCT) are used to compute distance from those generated from the query image, of which a user wants to find copies. A challenge arises when copies are processed to avoid copy detection or enhance image quality. We show the ordinal measure of DCT coefficients, which is based on relative ordering of AC magnitude values and using distance metrics between two rank permutations, are robust to various modifications of the original image. The optimal threshold selection scheme using the maximum a posteriori (MAP) criterion is also addressed. Through simulations on the database of 40,000 images we show the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  10. Passive detection of copy-move forgery in digital images: state-of-the-art.

    PubMed

    Al-Qershi, Osamah M; Khoo, Bee Ee

    2013-09-10

    Currently, digital images and videos have high importance because they have become the main carriers of information. However, the relative ease of tampering with images and videos makes their authenticity untrustful. Digital image forensics addresses the problem of the authentication of images or their origins. One main branch of image forensics is passive image forgery detection. Images could be forged using different techniques, and the most common forgery is the copy-move, in which a region of an image is duplicated and placed elsewhere in the same image. Active techniques, such as watermarking, have been proposed to solve the image authenticity problem, but those techniques have limitations because they require human intervention or specially equipped cameras. To overcome these limitations, several passive authentication methods have been proposed. In contrast to active methods, passive methods do not require any previous information about the image, and they take advantage of specific detectable changes that forgeries can bring into the image. In this paper, we describe the current state-of-the-art of passive copy-move forgery detection methods. The key current issues in developing a robust copy-move forgery detector are then identified, and the trends of tackling those issues are addressed. PMID:23890651

  11. Single-image hard copy display of musculoskeletal digital radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legendre, Kevin; Steller Artz, Dorothy E.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.

    1995-04-01

    Screen film radiography often fails to optimally display all regions of anatomy on muskuloskeletal exams due to the wide latitude of tissue densities present. Various techniques of image enhancement have been applied to such exams using computerized radiography but with limited success in improving visualization of structures whose final optical density lies at the extremes of the interpretable range of the film. An existing algorithm for compressing optical density extremes known as dynamic range compression has been used to increase the radiodensity of the retrocardiac region of the chest or to decrease the radiodensity of the edge of the breast in digital mammography. In the skeletal system, there are regions where a single image may contain both areas of decreased exposure that result in light images and areas of higher exposure that result in dark regions of the image. Faced with this problem, the senior author asked Fuji to formulate a modification of the DRC process that incorporates a combination of the curves used for chest and breast images. The newly designed algorithm can thus simultaneously lower the optical density of dark regions of the image and increase the optical density of the less exposed regions. The results of this modification of the DRC algorithm are presented in this paper.

  12. Aviation Pilot Training II. Task Analyses: [Year II.] Field Review Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upchurch, Richard

    This guide for aviation pilot II training begins with a course description, resource information, and a course outline. Tasks/competencies are categorized into 10 concept/duty areas: understanding aircraft staffs and procedures for safe recovery; understanding procedures for constant altitude turns; understanding procedures for traffic pattern…

  13. Research on Copy-Move Image Forgery Detection Using Features of Discrete Polar Complex Exponential Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Yanfen; Zhong, Junliu

    2015-12-01

    With the aid of sophisticated photo-editing software, such as Photoshop, copy-move image forgery operation has been widely applied and has become a major concern in the field of information security in the modern society. A lot of work on detecting this kind of forgery has gained great achievements, but the detection results of geometrical transformations of copy-move regions are not so satisfactory. In this paper, a new method based on the Polar Complex Exponential Transform is proposed. This method addresses issues in image geometric moment, focusing on constructing rotation invariant moment and extracting features of the rotation invariant moment. In order to reduce rounding errors of the transform from the Polar coordinate system to the Cartesian coordinate system, a new transformation method is presented and discussed in detail at the same time. The new method constructs a 9 × 9 shrunk template to transform the Cartesian coordinate system back to the Polar coordinate system. It can reduce transform errors to a much greater degree. Forgery detection, such as copy-move image forgery detection, is a difficult procedure, but experiments prove our method is a great improvement in detecting and identifying forgery images affected by the rotated transform.

  14. Image-quality assessment of monochrome monitors for medical soft copy display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weibrecht, Martin; Spekowius, Gerhard; Quadflieg, Peter; Blume, Hartwig R.

    1997-05-01

    Soft-copy presentation of medical images is becoming part of the medical routine as more and more health care facilities are converted to digital filmless hospital and radiological information management. To provide optimal image quality, display systems must be incorporated when assessing the overall system image quality. We developed a method to accomplish this. The proper working of the method is demonstrated with the analysis of four different monochrome monitors. We determined display functions and veiling glare with a high-performance photometer. Structure mottle of the CRT screens, point spread functions and images of stochastic structures were acquired by a scientific CCD camera. The images were analyzed with respect to signal transfer characteristics and noise power spectra. We determined the influence of the monitors on the detective quantum efficiency of a simulated digital x-ray imaging system. The method follows a physical approach; nevertheless, the results of the analysis are in good agreement with the subjective impression of human observers.

  15. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Connectivity Analyses Reveal Efference-Copy to Primary Somatosensory Area, BA2

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Fang; Arnstein, Dan; Thomas, Rajat Mani; Maurits, Natasha M.; Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Some theories of motor control suggest efference-copies of motor commands reach somatosensory cortices. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to test these models. We varied the amount of efference-copy signal by making participants squeeze a soft material either actively or passively. We found electromyographical recordings, an efference-copy proxy, to predict activity in primary somatosensory regions, in particular Brodmann Area (BA) 2. Partial correlation analyses confirmed that brain activity in cortical structures associated with motor control (premotor and supplementary motor cortices, the parietal area PF and the cerebellum) predicts brain activity in BA2 without being entirely mediated by activity in early somatosensory (BA3b) cortex. Our study therefore provides valuable empirical evidence for efference-copy models of motor control, and shows that signals in BA2 can indeed reflect an input from motor cortices and suggests that we should interpret activations in BA2 as evidence for somatosensory-motor rather than somatosensory coding alone. PMID:24416222

  16. TRIIG - Time-lapse reproduction of images through interactive graphics. [digital processing of quality hard copy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckner, J. D.; Council, H. W.; Edwards, T. R.

    1974-01-01

    Description of the hardware and software implementing the system of time-lapse reproduction of images through interactive graphics (TRIIG). The system produces a quality hard copy of processed images in a fast and inexpensive manner. This capability allows for optimal development of processing software through the rapid viewing of many image frames in an interactive mode. Three critical optical devices are used to reproduce an image: an Optronics photo reader/writer, the Adage Graphics Terminal, and Polaroid Type 57 high speed film. Typical sources of digitized images are observation satellites, such as ERTS or Mariner, computer coupled electron microscopes for high-magnification studies, or computer coupled X-ray devices for medical research.

  17. The gray-scale ink-jet printer: value in making hard copies of digital images.

    PubMed

    Combs, M J; Snell, J; Cail, W S; Maier, T; Buck, D A

    1995-01-01

    Referring physicians often are supplied with copies of images to illustrate a report of the findings of a radiologic study or so that the radiologist can retain the original images. The increasing costs of production, film, and recovery of chemicals have enhanced the requirement for a clean, low-cost dry printing process. An ink-jet gray-scale paper printer (Unitone, Scitex Medical Systems, Bedford, MA) can print high-quality (300 dots per inch [dpi]) images with an effective 10-bit gray scale range by using the Hertz continuous ink-jet method [1-3], which does not require the use of a darkroom or hazardous chemicals. Several types of media (matte paper, glossy paper, transparency film) with a printing area of 26.9 x 43.7 cm (10.6 x 17.4 inches) may be used. The consumables are approximately 50-70% less expensive than the cost of silver halide film, providing a cost advantage over film for referral and archival copies. The results of an initial evaluation of the ink-jet printer at our institution are reported here. PMID:7998544

  18. Single-image hard-copy display of the spine utilizing digital radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artz, Dorothy S.; Janchar, Timothy; Milzman, David; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.

    1997-04-01

    Regions of the entire spine contain a wide latitude of tissue densities within the imaged field of view presenting a problem for adequate radiological evaluation. With screen/film technology, the optimal technique for one area of the radiograph is sub-optimal for another area. Computed radiography (CR) with its inherent wide dynamic range, has been shown to be better than screen/film for lateral cervical spine imaging, but limitations are still present with standard image processing. By utilizing a dynamic range control (DRC) algorithm based on unsharp masking and signal transformation prior to gradation and frequency processing within the CR system, more vertebral bodies can be seen on a single hard copy display of the lateral cervical, thoracic, and thoracolumbar examinations. Examinations of the trauma cross-table lateral cervical spine, lateral thoracic spine, and lateral thoracolumbar spine were collected on live patient using photostimulable storage phosphor plates, the Fuji FCR 9000 reader, and the Fuji AC-3 computed radiography reader. Two images were produced from a single exposure; one with standard image processing and the second image with the standard process and the additional DRC algorithm. Both sets were printed from a Fuji LP 414 laser printer. Two different DRC algorithms were applied depending on which portion of the spine was not well visualized. One algorithm increased optical density and the second algorithm decreased optical density. The resultant image pairs were then reviewed by a panel of radiologists. Images produced with the additional DRC algorithm demonstrated improved visualization of previously 'under exposed' and 'over exposed' regions within the same image. Where lung field had previously obscured bony detail of the lateral thoracolumbar spine due to 'over exposure,' the image with the DRC applied to decrease the optical density allowed for easy visualization of the entire area of interest. For areas of the lateral cervical spine

  19. Computer Based Direct Digital Film Recording For Hard Copy Of Medical Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskin, Bruce S.

    1984-06-01

    With the introduction of digital medical imaging modalities and picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) the necessary and desirable capabilities of a film recorder for hard-copy output will vary from the specifications of the current video-based recorder. Image data can be presented to the film recorder in a digital rather than analog video format. The resulting film image is no longer subject to degradation due to nonlinearities in the video portion of the recorder. Spatial resolution is also greatly enhanced (4096 x 4096 pixels). The inherent data processing capabilities of the digital film recorder allow a number of additional functions to be performed internally. Features of the system to be discussed include automatic calibration, automatic failure diagnosis, data compression and expansion, data error detection and correction, gamma and exposure compensation, alphanumeric and graphic frame identification, graphic image recording (EKG, EEG, EMG), color capability, data format conversion, multi-format multi-modality sequences, print spooling from multiple image sources and direct connection to a PACS network.

  20. Image copy-move forgery detection based on sped-up robust features descriptor and adaptive minimal-maximal suppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bin; Sun, Xingming; Xin, Xiangyang; Hu, Weifeng; Wu, Youxin

    2015-11-01

    Region duplication is a simple and effective operation to create digital image forgeries, where a continuous portion of pixels in an image is copied and pasted to a different location in the same image. Many prior copy-move forgery detection methods suffer from their inability to detect the duplicated region, which is subjected to various geometric transformations. A keypoint-based approach is proposed to detect the copy-move forgery in an image. Our method starts by extracting the keypoints through a fast Hessian detector. Then the adaptive minimal-maximal suppression (AMMS) strategy is developed for distributing the keypoints evenly throughout an image. By using AMMS and a sped-up robust feature descriptor, the proposed method is able to deal with the problem of insufficient keypoints in the almost uniform area. Finally, the geometric transformation performed in cloning is recovered by using the maximum likelihood estimation of the homography. Experimental results show the efficacy of this technique in detecting copy-move forgeries and estimating the geometric transformation parameters. Compared with the state of the art, our approach obtains a higher true positive rate and a lower false positive rate.

  1. Zodiac II: Debris Disk Imaging Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub Wesley; Bryden, Geoff; Stapelfeldt, Karl; Chen, Pin; Trauger, John

    2011-01-01

    Zodiac II is a proposed coronagraph on a balloon-borne platform, for the purpose of observing debris disks around nearby stars. Zodiac II will have a 1.2-m diameter telescope mounted in a balloon-borne gondola capable of arcsecond quality pointing, and with the capability to make long-duration (several week) flights. Zodiac II will have a coronagraph able to make images of debris disks, meaning that its scattered light speckles will be at or below an average contrast level of about 10(exp -7) in three narrow (7 percent) bands centered on the V band, and one broad (20%) one at I band. We will discuss the potential science to be done with Zodiac II.

  2. The Value of Imaging Part II: Value beyond Image Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Pastel, David A; Sadigh, Gelareh; Ballard, David; Sullivan, Joseph C; Bresnahan, Brian; Buch, Karen; Duszak, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Although image interpretation is an essential part of radiologists' value, there are other ways in which we contribute to patient care. Part II of the value of imaging series reviews current initiatives that demonstrate value beyond the image interpretation. Standardizing processes, reducing the radiation dose of our examinations, clarifying written reports, improving communications with patients and providers, and promoting appropriate imaging through decision support are all ways we can provide safer, more consistent, and higher quality care. As payers and policy makers push to drive value, research that demonstrates the value of these endeavors, or lack thereof, will become increasingly sought after and supported. PMID:26683509

  3. Addressing the Requirements of High-Sensitivity Single-Molecule Imaging of Low-Copy-Number Proteins in Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tuson, Hannah H; Aliaj, Alisa; Brandes, Eileen R; Simmons, Lyle A; Biteen, Julie S

    2016-05-18

    Single-molecule fluorescence super-resolution imaging and tracking provide nanometer-scale information about subcellular protein positions and dynamics. These single-molecule imaging experiments can be very powerful, but they are best suited to high-copy number proteins where many measurements can be made sequentially in each cell. We describe artifacts associated with the challenge of imaging a protein expressed in only a few copies per cell. We image live Bacillus subtilis in a fluorescence microscope, and demonstrate that under standard single-molecule imaging conditions, unlabeled B. subtilis cells display punctate red fluorescent spots indistinguishable from the few PAmCherry fluorescent protein single molecules under investigation. All Bacillus species investigated were strongly affected by this artifact, whereas we did not find a significant number of these background sources in two other species we investigated, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. With single-molecule resolution, we characterize the number, spatial distribution, and intensities of these impurity spots. PMID:26888309

  4. Comparative evaluation of cephalometric measurements of monitor-displayed images by Nemoceph software and its hard copy by manual tracing

    PubMed Central

    Tikku, Tripti; Khanna, Rohit; Maurya, R.P.; Srivastava, Kamna; Bhushan, Rastra

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the cephalometric measurements obtained from computerized tracing of direct digital radiographs and hand tracing of their digital radiographic printouts. Material and methods The soft- and hard-copies of pre-treatment lateral cephalograms of 40 subjects (both males and females) within the age group of 10–30 years, irrespective of the type of malocclusion were taken. Total 26 measurements (13 linear and 13 angular) were obtained using both the manual and the digital technique. Results Amongst the linear measurements, Anterior facial height (AFH), Posterior facial height (PFH), Upper lip length (ULL), Lower lip length (LLL), Anterior cranial base length (ACBL), Posterior cranial base length (PCBL), Maxillary length (MxL), Mandibular length (MdL), Lower incisor to NB line (L1 to NB) and Lower lip protrusion (LLP) showed statistically significant difference between the two techniques but were clinically acceptable (difference between the digital and manual technique were less than 2 units (1 unit = 1 mm for linear measurements and 1° for angular measurements). While amongst the angular measurements, only occlusal plane angle showed statistically significant difference between the two techniques that was not clinically acceptable. Conclusion Digital measurements obtained from monitor-displayed images (soft copy) were found to be reproducible and comparable to the manual method done on its hard copy, for all the measurements except occlusal plane angle (SN-occlusal plane). PMID:25737917

  5. The ELISE II Project: A Digital Image Library for Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strunz, Bob; Waters, Mairead

    This paper describes the progress made under the ELISE II electronic image library project from a technical standpoint. The ELISE II project is a European-wide initiative that aims to provide a comprehensive electronic image library service for Europe. It is funded under the European Commission, DG XIII-E, Telematics for Libraries Initiative. The…

  6. Multispectral imaging with type II superlattice detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariyawansa, Gamini; Duran, Joshua M.; Grupen, Matt; Scheihing, John E.; Nelson, Thomas R.; Eismann, Michael T.

    2012-06-01

    Infrared (IR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) with multispectral detector elements promise significant advantages for airborne threat warning, surveillance, and targeting applications. At present, the use of type II superlattice (T2SL) structures based on the 6.1Å-family materials (InAs, GaSb, and AlSb) has become an area of interest for developing IR detectors and their FPAs. The ability to vary the bandgap in the IR range, suppression of Auger processes, prospective reduction of Shockley-Read-Hall centers by improved material growth capabilities, and the material stability are a few reasons for the predicted dominance of the T2SL technology over presently leading HgCdTe and quantum well technologies. The focus of the work reported here is on the development of T2SL based dual-band IR detectors and their applicability for multispectral imaging. A new NpBPN detector designed for the detection of IR in the 3-5 and 8-12 μm atmospheric windows is presented; comparing its advantages over other T2SL based approaches. One of the key challenges of the T2SL dual-band detectors is the spectral crosstalk associated with the LWIR band. The properties of the state-of-the-art T2SLs (i.e., absorption coefficient, minority carrier lifetime and mobility, etc.) and the present growth limitations that impact spectral crosstalk are discussed.

  7. Evaluation of the image quality of ink-jet printed paper copies of digital chest radiographs as compared with film: a receiver operating characteristic study.

    PubMed

    Lyttkens, K; Kirkhorn, T; Kehler, M; Andersson, B; Ebbesen, A; Hochbergs, P; Jarlman, O; Lindberg, C G; Holmer, N G

    1994-05-01

    Paper copies of digital radiographs printed with the continuous ink-jet technique have proved to be of a high enough quality for demonstration purposes. We present a study on the image quality of ink-jet printed paper copies of digital chest radiographs, based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Eighty-three digital radiographs of a chest phantom with simulated tumors in the mediastinum and right lung, derived from a computed radiography (CR) system were presented in two series of hard copies as ink-jet printed paper copies and as laser recorded film. The images, with a matrix of 1,760 x 2,140 pixels, were printed with a spatial resolution of 10 pixels/mm in the CR film recorder as well as in the ink-jet printer. On film, every image was recorded in two versions, one optimized for the mediastinum and one for the lungs. On paper, only one image was printed; this constituted an effort to optimize both the mediastinum and the lungs. The ink-jet printed images, printed on a matt coated paper, were viewed as on-sight images with reflected light. The examinations were reviewed by six radiologists, and ROC curves were constructed. No significant difference was found between the performance of film and that of ink-jet paper prints. Because the cost for a paper copy is only a tenth of that of film, remarkable cost reductions can be achieved by using the ink jet technique instead. Our results show that further quality studies of ink-jet printed images are worthwhile. PMID:8075185

  8. Chopping Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Don

    1994-01-01

    Discusses ways an editor can cut out words to help the reader understand quickly. Discusses dead wood, redundancy, redundancy in thought, smothered verbs, false precision, editing and academia, and making copy smoother. (SR)

  9. Installing a copy of the ARPA/DMA image understanding testbed at the US Army Engineer Topographic Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, A. J.

    1985-06-01

    The principal objective of this effort was to establish a functional copy of the SRI Image Understanding Testbed system of hardware and software at the U.S. Army Engineer Topographic Laboratories (ETL) Research Institute at Fort Belvoir, Virginia. Representative tasks included advising on the preparation of the ETL site for the Testbed system installation, purchasing the required hardware for installation at ETL, and arranging for availability of Testbed software systems. Other major tasks included supplementary hardware acquisition, installing Testbed software systems, and developing support software to enhance the overall capabilities of the system. We also assisted in establishing the ETL site as a node on the DDN ARPANET/MILNET network. Final tasks included installation of Lisp Machine software and associated consultation, as well as other general assistance and troubleshooting. The main beneficial results of this effort were the establishment at ETL of a state of the art research facility and the transfer to ETL of a large body of research technology carried out by SRI, as well as by other contributors to the DARPA Image Understanding research program. This project has provided essential elements of the foundation required to support the mission of the newly formed ETL Center for Artificial Intelligence.

  10. Image degradation in aerial imagery duplicates. [photographic processing of photographic film and reproduction (copying)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    A series of Earth Resources Aircraft Program data flights were made over an aerial test range in Arizona for the evaluation of large cameras. Specifically, both medium altitude and high altitude flights were made to test and evaluate a series of color as well as black-and-white films. Image degradation, inherent in duplication processing, was studied. Resolution losses resulting from resolution characteristics of the film types are given. Color duplicates, in general, are shown to be degraded more than black-and-white films because of the limitations imposed by available aerial color duplicating stock. Results indicate that a greater resolution loss may be expected when the original has higher resolution. Photographs of the duplications are shown.

  11. Coal workers pneumoconiosis - stage II #2 (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... distinct light areas. Diseases which may explain these X-ray findings include simple coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP) - stage II, silico-tuberculosis, disseminated tuberculosis, metastatic lung cancer, and other diffuse infiltrative pulmonary diseases.

  12. Texture Analysis for Classification of Risat-Ii Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, D.; Thakur, S.; Jeyaram, A.; Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2012-08-01

    RISAT-II or Radar Imaging satellite - II is a microwave-imaging satellite lunched by ISRO to take images of the earth during day and night as well as all weather condition. This satellite enhances the ISRO's capability for disaster management application together with forestry, agricultural, urban and oceanographic applications. The conventional pixel based classification technique cannot classify these type of images since it do not take into account the texture information of the image. This paper presents a method to classify the high-resolution RISAT-II microwave images based on texture analysis. It suppress the speckle noise from the microwave image before analysis the texture of the image since speckle is essentially a form of noise, which degrades the quality of an image; make interpretation (visual or digital) more difficult. A local adaptive median filter is developed that uses local statistics to detect the speckle noise of microwave image and to replace it with a local median value. Local Binary Pattern (LBP) operator is proposed to measure the texture around each pixel of the speckle suppressed microwave image. It considers a series of circles (2D) centered on the pixel with incremental radius values and the intersected pixels on the perimeter of the circles of radius r (where r = 1, 3 and 5) are used for measuring the LBP of the center pixel. The significance of LBP is that it measure the texture around each pixel of the image and computationally simple. ISODATA method is used to cluster the transformed LBP image. The proposed method adequately classifies RISAT-II X band microwave images without human intervention.

  13. Digital image centering. II. [for astronomical photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, L. H.; Van Altena, W. F.

    1978-01-01

    Digital image centering algorithms were compared in a test involving microdensitometer raster scans of a refractor parallax series consisting of 22 stars on 26 plates. The highest accuracy in determining stellar image positions was provided by an algorithm which involved fitting of a symmetric Gaussian curve and a flat background to the image marginal density distributions. Algorithms involving transmission marginals instead of density marginals were found to be less accurate. The repeatability and computational efficiency of the digital image centering technique were also studied.

  14. Bioelasticity imaging:II. Spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Larry T.; Zhu, Yanning; Hall, Timothy J.; Insana, Michael F.

    2000-04-01

    The large elasticity contrast possible with strain imaging promises new diagnostic information to augment x-ray, MRI, and ultrasound for the detection of tumors in soft tissue. In the past, we described the design of an elastographic system using the Fourier crosstalk concept introduced by Barrett and Gifford. The diagonal of the crosstalk matrix is related to the pre-sampled modulation transfer function (MTF) of the strain image. Another approach to measuring the spatial resolution of an elasticity image employs a linear frequency- modulated (chirp) strain pattern imposed upon a simulated ultrasonic echo field to study the strain modulation over a range of spatial frequencies in the image. In experiments, high contrast inclusions positioned at varying separations were imaged to apply the Rayleigh criterion for resolution measurement. We measured MTF curves that fell to 0.2 at a spatial frequency of 0.5 mm-1 to 1 mm-1 under realistic conditions. The spatial resolution for ultrasonic strain imaging strongly depends on the transducer properties and deformation patterns applied to the object. Experiments with tissue-like phantoms mimicking the properties of early breast cancer show that 2 mm spheres three times stiffer than the background can be readily resolved. Thus, the potential for using elasticity imaging to detect early breast cancers is excellent.

  15. Do SE(II) electrons really degrade SEM image quality?

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Gary H; Carter, Andrew D; Joy, David C

    2013-01-01

    Generally, in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging, it is desirable that a high-resolution image be composed mainly of those secondary electrons (SEs) generated by the primary electron beam, denoted SE(I) . However, in conventional SEM imaging, other, often unwanted, signal components consisting of backscattered electrons (BSEs), and their associated SEs, denoted SE(II) , are present; these signal components contribute a random background signal that degrades contrast, and therefore signal-to-noise ratio and resolution. Ideally, the highest resolution SEM image would consist only of the SE(I) component. In SEMs that use conventional pinhole lenses and their associated Everhart-Thornley detectors, the image is composed of several components, including SE(I) , SE(II) , and some BSE, depending on the geometry of the detector. Modern snorkel lens systems eliminate the BSEs, but not the SE(II) s. We present a microfabricated diaphragm for minimizing the unwanted SE(II) signal components. We present evidence of improved imaging using a microlithographically generated pattern of Au, about 500 nm thick, that blocks most of the undesired signal components, leaving an image composed mostly of SE(I) s. We refer to this structure as a "spatial backscatter diaphragm." PMID:22589040

  16. Autocorrelation and regularization in digital images. II - Simple image models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jupp, David L. B.; Strahler, Alan H.; Woodcock, Curtis E.

    1989-01-01

    The variogram function used in geostatistical analysis is a useful statistic in the analysis of remotely sensed images. Using the results derived by Jupp et al. (1988), the basic second-order, or covariance, properties of scenes modeled by simple disks of varying size and spacing after imaging into disk-shaped pixels are analyzed to explore the relationship betwee image variograms and discrete object scene structure. The models provide insight into the nature of real images of the earth's surface and the tools for a complete analysis of the more complex case of three-dimensional illuminated discrete-object images.

  17. Digitizing Images for Curriculum 21: Phase II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Alice D.

    Although visual databases exist for the study of art, architecture, geography, health care, and other areas, readily accessible sources of quality images are not available for engineering faculty interested in developing multimedia modules or for student projects. Presented here is a brief review of Phase I of the Engineering Visual Database…

  18. Structured Forms Reference Set of Binary Images II (SFRS2)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Structured Forms Reference Set of Binary Images II (SFRS2) (PC database for purchase)   The second NIST database of structured forms (Special Database 6) consists of 5,595 pages of binary, black-and-white images of synthesized documents containing hand-print. The documents in this database are 12 different tax forms with the IRS 1040 Package X for the year 1988.

  19. Measurement of CFHT Images II. Astrometric Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos Fierro, I. H.; Calderón, J. H.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we present the evaluations of the astrometric reduction of CFHT images that are intended to be used for the construction of a deep ecliptic catalogue, using UCAC3 as reference catalogue. We find that the average centering error for star-like objects is 0.012 pixel (2.2 mas), but for extended objects it is 0.037 pixel (6.9 mas). By comparing measurements with two different filters a strong chromatic aberration was detected, that was modeled and corrected. After that correction the differences between instrumental coordinates in both filters are (-7±11) mas in X and (-1±12) mas in Y and no systematic pattern is apparent. The differences between celestial coordinates obtained with the two filters are 15 mas in α cos(δ) and 26 mas in δ.

  20. Fluorescence imaging of single-copy DNA sequences within the human genome using PNA-directed padlock probe assembly

    PubMed Central

    Yaroslavsky, Anastasia I.; Smolina, Irina V.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY We present a novel approach for fluorescent in situ detection of short, single-copy sequences within genomic DNA in human cells. The single copy sensitivity and single base specificity of our method is achieved due to the combination of three components. First, a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probe locally opens a chosen target site, which allows a padlock DNA probe to access the site and become ligated. Second, rolling circle amplification (RCA) generates thousands of single-stranded copies of the target sequence. Finally, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) is used to visualize the amplified DNA. We validate this new technique by successfully detecting six unique target sites on human mitochondrial and autosomal DNA. We also demonstrate the high specificity of this method by detecting X- and Y- specific sequences on human sex chromosomes and by simultaneously detecting three unique target sites. Finally, we discriminate two target sites that differ by two nucleotides. The PNA-RCA-FISH approach is a unique in situ hybridization method capable of multi-target visualization within human chromosomes and nuclei that does not require DNA denaturation and is extremely sequence specific. PMID:23521801

  1. Single-beam copying system of 360-degree viewable image-plane disk-type multiplex hologram and polarization effects on diffraction efficiency.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Hung; Cheng, Yih-Shyang; Lei, Zen-Yuan

    2007-08-20

    A two-step holographic process for the fabrication of an image-plane disk-type multiplex hologram is described in this paper. The diffraction efficiency of the transfer hologram is measured as a function of exposure. It is found to be influenced by the polarization of the light beams of the copying system, resulting in different diffraction efficiencies from different areas (under different interference conditions) of the hologram transfer. The factors which cause the phenomenon of diffraction-efficiency difference are demonstrated and the corresponding experimental results are discussed. PMID:19547437

  2. Measured responsivities of generation II and hybrid image intensifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, G.J.; King, N.S.P.; Thomas, M.C.

    1995-07-01

    We have measured the absolute and coupled system responsivities of several image intensifier types at several wavelengths in the visible spectrum. Intensifiers characterized include microchannel plate (MCP) generation II proximity-focused and hybrid generation I/generation II electrostatic-focused designs. Configurations including single plate, double plate, nominal and high strip current MCPs, and standard S20 and super generation II enhanced S-20 photocathodes were evaluated. Absolute responsivity measurements were performed using NIST-traceable radiometry instrumentation. The normalized relative sensitivities and overall optical luminous gain performance provided by individual intensifiers when similarly coupled to either high resolution 10-bit RS-170 CCD or FPS cameras are presented along with their radiometric data.

  3. A small-molecule dye for NIR-II imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antaris, Alexander L.; Chen, Hao; Cheng, Kai; Sun, Yao; Hong, Guosong; Qu, Chunrong; Diao, Shuo; Deng, Zixin; Hu, Xianming; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Xiaodong; Yaghi, Omar K.; Alamparambil, Zita R.; Hong, Xuechuan; Cheng, Zhen; Dai, Hongjie

    2016-02-01

    Fluorescent imaging of biological systems in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II) can probe tissue at centimetre depths and achieve micrometre-scale resolution at depths of millimetres. Unfortunately, all current NIR-II fluorophores are excreted slowly and are largely retained within the reticuloendothelial system, making clinical translation nearly impossible. Here, we report a rapidly excreted NIR-II fluorophore (~90% excreted through the kidneys within 24 h) based on a synthetic 970-Da organic molecule (CH1055). The fluorophore outperformed indocyanine green (ICG)--a clinically approved NIR-I dye--in resolving mouse lymphatic vasculature and sentinel lymphatic mapping near a tumour. High levels of uptake of PEGylated-CH1055 dye were observed in brain tumours in mice, suggesting that the dye was detected at a depth of ~4 mm. The CH1055 dye also allowed targeted molecular imaging of tumours in vivo when conjugated with anti-EGFR Affibody. Moreover, a superior tumour-to-background signal ratio allowed precise image-guided tumour-removal surgery.

  4. A small-molecule dye for NIR-II imaging.

    PubMed

    Antaris, Alexander L; Chen, Hao; Cheng, Kai; Sun, Yao; Hong, Guosong; Qu, Chunrong; Diao, Shuo; Deng, Zixin; Hu, Xianming; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Xiaodong; Yaghi, Omar K; Alamparambil, Zita R; Hong, Xuechuan; Cheng, Zhen; Dai, Hongjie

    2016-02-01

    Fluorescent imaging of biological systems in the second near-infrared window (NIR-II) can probe tissue at centimetre depths and achieve micrometre-scale resolution at depths of millimetres. Unfortunately, all current NIR-II fluorophores are excreted slowly and are largely retained within the reticuloendothelial system, making clinical translation nearly impossible. Here, we report a rapidly excreted NIR-II fluorophore (∼90% excreted through the kidneys within 24 h) based on a synthetic 970-Da organic molecule (CH1055). The fluorophore outperformed indocyanine green (ICG)-a clinically approved NIR-I dye-in resolving mouse lymphatic vasculature and sentinel lymphatic mapping near a tumour. High levels of uptake of PEGylated-CH1055 dye were observed in brain tumours in mice, suggesting that the dye was detected at a depth of ∼4 mm. The CH1055 dye also allowed targeted molecular imaging of tumours in vivo when conjugated with anti-EGFR Affibody. Moreover, a superior tumour-to-background signal ratio allowed precise image-guided tumour-removal surgery. PMID:26595119

  5. Deep Imaging of Eridanus II and Its Lone Star Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crnojević, D.; Sand, D. J.; Zaritsky, D.; Spekkens, K.; Willman, B.; Hargis, J. R.

    2016-06-01

    We present deep imaging of the most distant dwarf discovered by the Dark Energy Survey, Eridanus II (Eri II). Our Magellan/Megacam stellar photometry reaches ∼3 mag deeper than previous work and allows us to confirm the presence of a stellar cluster whose position is consistent with Eri II’s center. This makes Eri II, at {M}V=-7.1, the least luminous galaxy known to host a (possibly central) cluster. The cluster is partially resolved, and at {M}V=-3.5 it accounts for ∼4% of Eri II’s luminosity. We derive updated structural parameters for Eri II, which has a half-light radius of ∼280 pc and is elongated (ɛ ∼ 0.48) at a measured distance of D ∼ 370 kpc. The color–magnitude diagram displays a blue, extended horizontal branch, as well as a less populated red horizontal branch. A central concentration of stars brighter than the old main-sequence turnoff hints at a possible intermediate-age (∼3 Gyr) population; alternatively, these sources could be blue straggler stars. A deep Green Bank Telescope observation of Eri II reveals no associated atomic gas. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  6. Comparison between Mg II k and Ca II H images recorded by SUNRISE/SuFI

    SciTech Connect

    Danilovic, S.; Hirzberger, J.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Berkefeld, T.; Schmidt, W.; Knölker, M.; Rodríguez, J. Blanco; Iniesta, J. C. Del Toro

    2014-03-20

    We present a comparison of high-resolution images of the solar surface taken in the Mg II k and Ca II H channels of the Filter Imager on the balloon-borne solar observatory SUNRISE. The Mg and Ca lines are sampled with 0.48 nm and 0.11 nm wide filters, respectively. The two channels show remarkable qualitative and quantitative similarities in the quiet Sun, in an active region plage and during a small flare. However, the Mg filtergrams display 1.4-1.7 times higher intensity contrast and appear more smeared and smoothed in the quiet Sun. In addition, the fibrils in a plage are wider. Although the exposure time is 100 times longer for Mg images, the evidence suggests that these differences cannot be explained only with instrumental effects or the evolution of the solar scene. The differences at least partially arise because of different line-formation heights, the stronger response of Mg k emission peaks to the higher temperatures, and the larger height range sampled by the broad Mg filter used here. This is evidently manifested during the flare when a surge in Mg evolves differently than in Ca.

  7. Comparison between Mg II k and Ca II H Images Recorded by SUNRISE/SuFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilovic, S.; Hirzberger, J.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Solanki, S. K.; Barthol, P.; Berkefeld, T.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Knölker, M.; Schmidt, W.; Blanco Rodríguez, J.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.

    2014-03-01

    We present a comparison of high-resolution images of the solar surface taken in the Mg II k and Ca II H channels of the Filter Imager on the balloon-borne solar observatory SUNRISE. The Mg and Ca lines are sampled with 0.48 nm and 0.11 nm wide filters, respectively. The two channels show remarkable qualitative and quantitative similarities in the quiet Sun, in an active region plage and during a small flare. However, the Mg filtergrams display 1.4-1.7 times higher intensity contrast and appear more smeared and smoothed in the quiet Sun. In addition, the fibrils in a plage are wider. Although the exposure time is 100 times longer for Mg images, the evidence suggests that these differences cannot be explained only with instrumental effects or the evolution of the solar scene. The differences at least partially arise because of different line-formation heights, the stronger response of Mg k emission peaks to the higher temperatures, and the larger height range sampled by the broad Mg filter used here. This is evidently manifested during the flare when a surge in Mg evolves differently than in Ca.

  8. SHIELD II: TRGB Distance Measurements from HST Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, John M.; McQuinn, Kristen B.; Skillman, Evan D.; SHIELD Team

    2016-01-01

    The "Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs II" ("SHIELD II") is a multiwavelength, legacy-class observational campaign that is facilitating the study of both internal and global evolutionary processes in low-mass dwarf galaxies discovered by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey. The observations and science expand on the results from detailed studies of 12 similarly low-mass dwarf galaxies from the original SHIELD campaign. New HST observations of 18 SHIELD II galaxies have allowed us to determine their TRGB distances, thus anchoring the physical scales on which our ongoing analysis is based. Combined with the HST observations of the original 12 SHIELD galaxies presented in McQuinn et al. (2014, 2015), these HST optical images enable a holistic study of the fundamental parameters and characteristics of a statistically robust sample of 30 extremely low-mass galaxies. Additional science goals include an accurate census of the dark matter contents of these galaxies, a spatial and temporal study of star formation within them, and a characterization of the fundamental parameters that change as galaxy masses range from "mini-halo" to star-forming dwarf.Support for this work was provided by NSF grant AST-1211683 to JMC at Macalester College, and by NASA through grant GO-13750 from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  9. Optical Imaging of Paramagnetic Bead-DNA Aggregation Inhibition Allows for Low Copy Number Detection of Infectious Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    DuVall, Jacquelyn A.; Borba, Juliane C.; Shafagati, Nazly; Luzader, Deborah; Shukla, Nishant; Li, Jingyi; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Kendall, Melissa M.; Feldman, Sanford H.; Landers, James P.

    2015-01-01

    DNA-paramagnetic silica bead aggregation in a rotating magnetic field facilitates the quantification of DNA with femtogram sensitivity, but yields no sequence-specific information. Here we provide an original description of aggregation inhibition for the detection of DNA and RNA in a sequence-specific manner following loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). The fragments generated via LAMP fail to induce chaotrope-mediated bead aggregation; however, due to their ability to passivate the bead surface, they effectively inhibit bead aggregation by longer ‘trigger’ DNA. We demonstrate the utility of aggregation inhibition as a method for the detection of bacterial and viral pathogens with sensitivity that approaches single copies of the target. We successfully use this methodology for the detection of notable food-borne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica, as well as Rift Valley fever virus, a weaponizable virus of national security concern. We also show the concentration dependence of aggregation inhibition, suggesting the potential for quantification of target nucleic acid in clinical and environmental samples. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to rapidly detect infectious pathogens by utilizing a cell phone and custom-written application (App), making this novel detection modality fully portable for point-of-care use. PMID:26068926

  10. Optical Imaging of Paramagnetic Bead-DNA Aggregation Inhibition Allows for Low Copy Number Detection of Infectious Pathogens.

    PubMed

    DuVall, Jacquelyn A; Borba, Juliane C; Shafagati, Nazly; Luzader, Deborah; Shukla, Nishant; Li, Jingyi; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Kendall, Melissa M; Feldman, Sanford H; Landers, James P

    2015-01-01

    DNA-paramagnetic silica bead aggregation in a rotating magnetic field facilitates the quantification of DNA with femtogram sensitivity, but yields no sequence-specific information. Here we provide an original description of aggregation inhibition for the detection of DNA and RNA in a sequence-specific manner following loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). The fragments generated via LAMP fail to induce chaotrope-mediated bead aggregation; however, due to their ability to passivate the bead surface, they effectively inhibit bead aggregation by longer 'trigger' DNA. We demonstrate the utility of aggregation inhibition as a method for the detection of bacterial and viral pathogens with sensitivity that approaches single copies of the target. We successfully use this methodology for the detection of notable food-borne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica, as well as Rift Valley fever virus, a weaponizable virus of national security concern. We also show the concentration dependence of aggregation inhibition, suggesting the potential for quantification of target nucleic acid in clinical and environmental samples. Lastly, we demonstrate the ability to rapidly detect infectious pathogens by utilizing a cell phone and custom-written application (App), making this novel detection modality fully portable for point-of-care use. PMID:26068926

  11. Evaluation of Laser Stabilization and Imaging Systems for LCLS-II - Oral Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, Matthew

    2015-08-19

    This presentation covers data collected on two commercial laser stabilization systems, Guidestar-II and MRC, and two optical imaging systems. Additionally, general information about LCLS-II and how to go about continuing-testing is covered.

  12. Analysis of copy-number variation, insertional polymorphism, and methylation status of the tiniest class I (TRIM) and class II (MITE) transposable element families in various rice strains.

    PubMed

    Baruch, Omer; Kashkush, Khalil

    2012-05-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) dominate the genetic capacity of most eukaryotes, especially plants, where they may compose up to 90% of the genome. Many studies, both in plants and animals reported that in fact non-autonomous elements that have lost their protein-coding sequences and became miniature elements were highly associated with genes, and showed a high level of transpositional activity such as mPing family in rice. In this study, we have investigated in detail the copy number, insertional polymorphism and the methylation status of the tiniest LTR retrotransposon family, termed TRIM, in nine rice strains, in comparison with mPing. While TRIM showed similar copy numbers (average of 79 insertions) in all the nine rice strains, the copy number of mPing varied dramatically (ranging from 6 to 203 insertions) in the same strains. Site-specific PCR analysis revealed that ~58% of the TRIM elements have identical insertion sites among the nine rice strains, while none of the mPing elements (100% polymorphism) have identical insertion sites in the same strains. Finally, over 65% of the TRIM insertion sites were cytosine methylated in all nine rice strains, while the level of the methylated mPing insertion sites ranged between 43 and 81.5%. The findings of this study indicate that unlike mPing, TRIM is most probably a fossil TE family in rice. In addition, the data shows that there might be a strong correlation between TE methylation and copy number. PMID:22183295

  13. Breaking and Entering: Copying and Copy Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westlake, Wayne; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes several commercially-available computer programs which allow users to make copies of "protected" software. Current costs, program features, and ordering information are provided for these "encryption" programs. Also describes a monthly journal (The HARDCORE Computist) which focuses on unlocking copy-protected software. (JN)

  14. Imaging of the symptomatic type II accessory navicular bone.

    PubMed

    Mosel, Leigh D; Kat, Evelyn; Voyvodic, Frank

    2004-06-01

    Accessory ossicles of the foot are commonly mistaken for fractures. The accessory navicular is one of the most common accessory ossicles of the foot. There is a higher incidence in women and the finding might be bilateral in 50-90%. This entity is usually asymptomatic, although populations with medial foot pain have a higher prevalence. Three types of accessory navicular bone have been described. The type II accessory navicular is the most commonly symptomatic variant with localized chronic or acute on chronic medial foot pain and tenderness with associated inflammation of overlying soft tissues. Plain radiographic identification of the accessory navicular is insufficient to attribute symptomatology. Ultrasound allows for comparison with the asymptomatic side and localization of pain. Bone scintigraphy has a high sensitivity but positive findings lack specificity. Magnetic resonance imaging is of high diagnostic value for demonstrating both bone marrow and soft tissue oedema. PMID:15230772

  15. Estimating the Mg II Index from 1961 Through 1981 Using Ca II K Images from the MtWilson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullin, D.; Morrill, J. S.; Floyd, L. E.; Weaver, S. J.; Ulrich, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    An empirical model of solar UV spectral irradiance has been developed that is based on observed spectral radiance measurements and full disk Ca II K images. The Mg II index is then calculated from the estimated spectra in a narrow wavelength range (180 Å) near theMg II doublet at 2800 Å. Our long term goal is to expand this wavelength range from 10 to 4000 Å in continuing studies based on spectral data covering this wavelength range (e.g. Skylab, UARS/SUSIM, TIMED/SEE, etc.). Our previous modeling effort produced spectra in this 180 Å range and the resulting Mg II index values for the period from 1991 through 1995 and we have used observations during this time period to validate the model results. The current paper presents results from this model based on a 21-year portion of the recently digitized Ca II K images from the Mt Wilson Observatory (MWO) film archive. Here we present details of the model, the required model modifications, and the resulting Mg II index from 1961 through 1981. Since the NOAA Mg II index did not begin until 1978, the present model results are compared to a Mg II index estimated from the F10.7 radio flux over this 21-year period. The NOAA Mg II index, which is derived from measured UV spectra, is also included for comparison from late 1978 through 1981.

  16. First High-resolution Images of the Sun in the 2796 Å Mg II k Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riethmüller, T. L.; Solanki, S. K.; Hirzberger, J.; Danilovic, S.; Barthol, P.; Berkefeld, T.; Gandorfer, A.; Gizon, L.; Knölker, M.; Schmidt, W.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.

    2013-10-01

    We present the first high-resolution solar images in the Mg II k 2796 Å line. The images, taken through a 4.8 Å broad interference filter, were obtained during the second science flight of Sunrise in 2013 June by the Sunrise Filter Imager (SuFI) instrument. The Mg II k images display structures that look qualitatively very similar to images taken in the core of Ca II H. The Mg II images exhibit reversed granulation (or shock waves) in the internetwork regions of the quiet Sun, at intensity contrasts that are similar to those found in Ca II H. Very prominent in Mg II are bright points, both in the quiet Sun and in plage regions, particularly near the disk center. These are much brighter than at other wavelengths sampled at similar resolution. Furthermore, Mg II k images also show fibril structures associated with plage regions. Again, the fibrils are similar to those seen in Ca II H images, but tend to be more pronounced, particularly in weak plage.

  17. Doppler images of II Pegasi for 2004-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackman, T.; Mantere, M. J.; Lindborg, M.; Ilyin, I.; Kochukhov, O.; Piskunov, N.; Tuominen, I.

    2012-02-01

    Aims: We study the spot activity of II Peg during the years 2004-2010 to determine long- and short-term changes in the magnetic activity. In a previous study, we detected a persistent active longitude, as well as major changes in the spot configuration occurring on a timescale of shorter than a year. The main objective of this study is to determine whether the same phenomena persist in the star during these six years of spectroscopic monitoring. Methods: The observations were collected with the high-resolution SOFIN spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope. The temperature maps were calculated using a Doppler imaging code based on Tikhonov regularization. Results: We present 12 new temperature maps that show spots distributed mainly over high and intermediate latitudes. In each image, 1-3 main active regions can be identified. The activity level of the star is clearly lower than during our previous study for the years 1994-2002. In contrast to the previous observations, we detect no clear drift of the active regions with respect to the rotation of the star. Conclusions: Having shown a systematic longitudinal drift of the spot-generating mechanism during 1994-2002, the star has clearly switched to a low-activity state for 2004-2010, during which the spot locations appear more random over phase space. It could be that the star is near to a minimum of its activity cycle. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.

  18. Current developments for type-II superlattice imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutz, Frank; Rehm, Robert; Walther, Martin; Kirste, Lutz; Masur, Michael; Wörl, Andreas; Schmitz, Johannes; Wauro, Matthias; Niemasz, Jasmin; Scheibner, Ralf; Ziegler, Johann

    2011-06-01

    InAs/GaSb-based type-II superlattice photodiodes have considerably gained interest as high-performance infrared detectors. Beside the excellent properties of InAs/GaSb superlattices, like the relatively high effective electron mass suppressing tunneling currents, the low Auger recombination rate, and a high quantum efficiency, the bandgap can be widely adjusted within the infrared spectral range from 3 - 30 μm depending on the layer thickness rather than on composition. Superlattice growth and process technology have shown tremendous progress during the last years. Fully integrated superlattice cameras have been demonstrated by several groups worldwide. Within very few years, the InAs/GaSb superlattice technology has proven its suitability for high-performance infrared imaging detector arrays. At Fraunhofer IAF and AIM, the efforts have been focused on developing a mature fabrication technology for bispectral InAs/GaSb superlattice focal plane arrays for a simultaneous, co-located detection at 3-4 μm and 4-5 μm in the mid-wavelength infrared atmospheric transmission window. A very low number of pixel outages and cluster defects is mandatory for dual-color detector arrays. Sources for pixel outages are manifold and might be caused by dislocations in the substrate, the epitaxial growth process or by imperfections during the focal plane array fabrication process. Process refinements, intense root cause analysis and specific test methodologies employed at various stages during the process have proven to be the key for yield enhancements.

  19. The active RS Canum Venaticorum binary II Pegasi. II. Surface images for 1992-1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdyugina, S. V.; Berdyugin, A. V.; Ilyin, I.; Tuominen, I.

    1998-12-01

    Using new high-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio spectroscopic observations carried out in 1992-1996, nine surface images of II Peg are obtained. The inversion technique applied is the recently developed Occamian approach, which does not put any artificial constraints on the solution and provides an error analysis of the solution. The surface imaging is applied to Ca{ i, Fe{ i, and Ni{ i lines simultaneously, a number of blending atomic and molecular lines being included into the line list. Two high-latitude active regions are found to dominate in all seasons, which determine the spectroscopic and photometric variability. No cool polar cap is seen. The positions of the spots are constantly migrating to earlier orbital phases with approximately the same rate. This motion of the spot configuration means a shorter rotational period, which is just about the mean photometric period. The mean longitude separation between the active regions is about 180°. This is considered as two active longitudes. The largest of the two spots seems to be close to the central meridian, i.e. tends to be faced toward the secondary. In 1994 it changed its position from one active longitude to another, showing the effect of switching the activity between the longitudes. based on observations collected at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), La Palma, Spain; the McMath telescope of the National Solar Observatory, USA; the 2.6 m and 1.25 m telescopes of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, Ukraine; the 2m telescope of the National Astronomical Observatory, Rozhen, Bulgaria; the 2m telescope of the Pic du Midi Observatory, France

  20. Study protocol: the Whitehall II imaging sub-study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Whitehall II (WHII) study of British civil servants provides a unique source of longitudinal data to investigate key factors hypothesized to affect brain health and cognitive ageing. This paper introduces the multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol and cognitive assessment designed to investigate brain health in a random sample of 800 members of the WHII study. Methods/design A total of 6035 civil servants participated in the WHII Phase 11 clinical examination in 2012–2013. A random sample of these participants was included in a sub-study comprising an MRI brain scan, a detailed clinical and cognitive assessment, and collection of blood and buccal mucosal samples for the characterisation of immune function and associated measures. Data collection for this sub-study started in 2012 and will be completed by 2016. The participants, for whom social and health records have been collected since 1985, were between 60–85 years of age at the time the MRI study started. Here, we describe the pre-specified clinical and cognitive assessment protocols, the state-of-the-art MRI sequences and latest pipelines for analyses of this sub-study. Discussion The integration of cutting-edge MRI techniques, clinical and cognitive tests in combination with retrospective data on social, behavioural and biological variables during the preceding 25 years from a well-established longitudinal epidemiological study (WHII cohort) will provide a unique opportunity to examine brain structure and function in relation to age-related diseases and the modifiable and non-modifiable factors affecting resilience against and vulnerability to adverse brain changes. PMID:24885374

  1. Copy-left and Copy-right

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanderPlas, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Any discussion of open licensing almost invariably devolves into a debate between copy-left licenses and permissive licenses, both sides defending their views with a nearly religious fervor. Copy-left licenses, typified by the GPL family of licenses, require all derived products to maintain the open, GPL license. Permissive licenses, typified by the BSD family of licenses, do not impose such requirements. I'll briefly explore the common arguments put forth in favor of either approach, and discuss some concrete examples of where these approaches have helped or hindered the software packages that used them.

  2. Image understanding and the man-machine interface II

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, E.B.; Pearson, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    Topics covered in this book include: Image understanding concepts and models, Image understanding systems and applications; and Advanced man-machine interfaces. The papers presented include Update on strategic computing computes vision: taking image understanding to the next plateau and Tiling strategies for image parallelism.

  3. Imaging the Lipid-Phase-Dependent Pore Formation of Equinatoxin II in Droplet Interface Bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Rojko, N.; Cronin, B.; Danial, J.S.H.; Baker, M.A.B.; Anderluh, G.; Wallace, M.I.

    2014-01-01

    Using phase-separated droplet interface bilayers, we observe membrane binding and pore formation of a eukaryotic cytolysin, Equinatoxin II (EqtII). EqtII activity is known to depend on the presence of sphingomyelin in the target membrane and is enhanced by lipid phase separation. By imaging the ionic flux through individual pores in vitro, we observe that EqtII pores form predominantly within the liquid-disordered phase. We observe preferential binding of labeled EqtII at liquid-ordered/liquid-disordered domain boundaries before it accumulates in the liquid-disordered phase. PMID:24739162

  4. Tandem repeats, high copy number and remarkable diel expression rhythm of form II RuBisCO in Prorocentrum donghaiense (Dinophyceae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Xinguo; Zhang, Huan; Lin, Senjie

    2013-01-01

    Gene structure and expression regulation of form II RuBisCO (rbcII) in dinoflagellates are still poorly understood. Here we isolated this gene (Pdrbc) and investigated its diel expression pattern in a harmful algal bloom forming dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense. We obtained cDNA sequences with triple tandem repeats of the coding unit (CU); the 5' region has the sequence of a typical dinoflagellate plastid gene, encoding an N-terminus with two transmembrane regions separated by a plastid transit peptide. The CUs (1,455 bp except 1464 bp in last CU) are connected through a 63 bp spacer. Phylogenetic analysis showed that rbcII CUs within species formed monophyletic clusters, indicative of intraspecific gene duplication or purifying evolution. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR) we estimated 117±40 CUs of Pdrbc in the P. donghaiense genome. Although it is commonly believed that most dinoflagellate genes lack transcriptional regulation, our RT-qPCR analysis on synchronized cultures revealed remarkable diel rhythm of Pdrbc expression, showing significant correlations of transcript abundance with the timing of the dark-to-light transition and cell cycle G2M-phase. When the cultures were shifted to continuous light, Pdrbc expression remained significantly correlated with the G2M-phase. Under continuous darkness the cell cycle was arrested at the G1 phase, and the rhythm of Pdrbc transcription disappeared. Our results suggest that dinoflagellate rbcII 1) undergoes duplication or sequence purification within species, 2) is organized in tandem arrays in most species probably to facilitate efficient translation and import of the encoded enzyme, and 3) is regulated transcriptionally in a cell cycle-dependent fashion at least in some dinoflagellates. PMID:23976999

  5. Differential polarization imaging. II. Symmetry properties and calculations.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, M; Ulibarri, L; Bustamante, C

    1987-01-01

    Various differential polarization images or Mueller images of model objects are generated using the equations derived in the previous paper (paper I of this series). These calculated images include models of the higher-order organization of metaphase chromosomes, and show the applicability of the differential polarization imaging method to the elucidation of complex molecular organizations. Then, the symmetry behavior of the Mueller matrix elements upon infinitesimal rotations of the optical components about the optical axis of the imaging system is presented. It is shown that the rotational properties of the Mueller images can be used to eliminate the linear polarization contributions to the M14 and M44 images, which appear when these images are generated with imperfect circular polarizations. The relationships between the 16 bright-field Mueller images for four different media, i.e., linearly and circularly isotropic, circularly anisotropic, linearly anisotropic, and linearly and circularly anisotropic, are also derived. For the first three cases simple relationships between the Mueller images are found and phenomenological equations in terms of the optical coefficients are derived. In the last case there are no specific relationships between the Mueller images and instead we briefly present Schellman and Jensen's method for treating this type of medium. The criterion of spatial resolution between adjacent domains of different optical anisotropy is then derived. It is found that in transitions between domains of opposite anisotropy the classical Rayleigh limit must be replaced by a magnitude criterion which depends on the limits of the sensitivity of the detection. Finally, the feasibility of optical sectioning in differential polarization imaging is demonstrated. PMID:3427200

  6. Apple Image Processing Educator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunther, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    A software system design is proposed and demonstrated with pilot-project software. The system permits the Apple II microcomputer to be used for personalized computer-assisted instruction in the digital image processing of LANDSAT images. The programs provide data input, menu selection, graphic and hard-copy displays, and both general and detailed instructions. The pilot-project results are considered to be successful indicators of the capabilities and limits of microcomputers for digital image processing education.

  7. Comparison of Soft-copy and Hard-copy Reading for Full-Field Digital Mammography

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Robert M.; Acharyya, Suddhasatta; Gatsonis, Constantine; Pisano, Etta D.; Cole, Elodia B.; Marques, Helga S.; D'Orsi, Carl J.; Farria, Dione M.; Kanal, Kalpana M.; Mahoney, Mary C.; Rebner, Murray; Staiger, Melinda J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To compare radiologists' performance in detecting breast cancer when reading full-field digital mammographic (FFDM) images either displayed on monitors or printed on film. Materials and Methods: This study received investigational review board approval and was HIPAA compliant, with waiver of informed consent. A reader study was conducted in which 26 radiologists read screening FFDM images displayed on high-resolution monitors (soft-copy digital) and printed on film (hard-copy digital). Three hundred thirty-three cases were selected from the Digital Mammography Image Screening Trial screening study (n = 49 528). Of these, 117 were from patients who received a diagnosis of breast cancer within 15 months of undergoing screening mammography. The digital mammograms were displayed on mammographic workstations and printed on film according to the manufacturer's specifications. Readers read both hard-copy and soft-copy images 6 weeks apart. Each radiologist read a subset of the total images. Twenty-two readers were assigned to evaluate images from one of three FFDM systems, and four readers were assigned to evaluate images from two mammographic systems. Each radiologist assigned a malignancy score on the basis of overall impression by using a seven-point scale, where 1 = definitely not malignant and 7 = definitely malignant. Results: There were no significant differences in the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) for the primary comparison. The AUCs for soft-copy and hard-copy were 0.75 and 0.76, respectively (95% confidence interval: −0.04, 0.01; P = .36). Secondary analyses showed no significant differences in AUCs on the basis of manufacturer type, lesion type, or breast density. Conclusion: Soft-copy reading does not provide an advantage in the interpretation of digital mammograms. However, the display formats were not optimized and display software remains an evolving process, particularly for soft-copy reading. © RSNA, 2009

  8. CMOS/LCOS-based image transceiver device: II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efron, Uzi; Davidov, Isak; Sinelnikov, Vladimir; Friesem, Asher A.

    2001-11-01

    A CMOS-liquid crystal-based image transceiver device (ITD) is under development at the Holon Institute of Technology. The device combines both functions of imaging and display in a single array configuration. This unique structure allows the combination of see-through, aiming, imaging and the displaying of a superposed image to be combined in a single, compact, head mounted display. The CMOS-based pixel elements are designed to provide efficient imaging in the visible range as well as driver capabilities for the overlying liquid crystal modulator. The image sensor part of the pixel is based on an n-well photodiode and a three-transistor readout circuit. The imaging function is based on a back- illuminated sensor configuration. In order to provide a high imager fill-factor, two pixel configurations are proposed: 1) A p++/p-/p-well silicon structure using twin- well CMOS process; 2) An n-well processed silicon structure with a micro-lens array. The display portion of the IT device is to be fabricated on a silicon-based reflective, active matrix driver, using nematic liquid crystal material, in LCOS technology. The timing, sequencing and control of the IT device array are designed in a pipeline array processing scheme. A preliminary prototype system and device design have been performed and the first test device is currently undergoing testing. Details of the device design as well as its Smart Goggle applications are presented.

  9. Aesthetic Pursuits: Windows, Frames, Words, Images--Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Ken

    2005-01-01

    In Part I of this study (Burke, 2005), the author presented the essentials of Image Presentation Theory--IPT--and its application to the analytical explication of various spatial designs in and psychological responses to images, from the illusions of depth in what is referred to as "windows" in cinema theory to the more patterned abstractions of…

  10. Wide Distribution of a Novel pmoA-Like Gene Copy among Type II Methanotrophs, and Its Expression in Methylocystis Strain SC2

    PubMed Central

    Tchawa Yimga, Merlin; Dunfield, Peter F.; Ricke, Peter; Heyer, Jürgen; Liesack, Werner

    2003-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine if a novel pmoA-like gene (pmoA2) recently discovered in the methane-oxidizing bacterium Methylocystis strain SC2 (P. F. Dunfield, M. Tchawa Yimga, S. D. Dedysh, U. Berger, W. Liesack, and J. Heyer, FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 41:17-26, 2002) is present in other methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB), and if it is expressed. A newly developed primer combination (pmoA206f-pmoA703b) allowed a differential detection of pmoA1 and pmoA2. By using this primer combination, we identified pmoA2 in a wide range of type II MOB of the Methylosinus-Methylocystis group. However, screening by PCR and by Southern hybridization using a newly developed pmoA2-specific oligonucleotide probe also showed that closely related type II MOB, exhibiting 16S rRNA gene sequence identities of higher than 97%, may or may not harbor pmoA2. No pmoA2 was detected in five type I MOB tested: Methylococcus capsulatus strain Bath, Methylocaldum strain E10A, Methylobacter luteus, Methylomicrobium album, and Methylomonas strain D1a. In comparative sequence analyses, all pmoA2-like sequences formed a coherent cluster clearly distinct from pmoA1 sequences of type I and type II MOB, and from amoA sequences of the Nitrosomonas-Nitrosospira group. Phylogenetic analysis using the paml model suggested that pmoA2 is subject to strong purifying selection and therefore has an important cellular function. We probed total RNA extracts of Methylocystis strain SC2 for gene expression of pmoA. A strong signal was observed for pmoA1 in Northern hybridization, while the results obtained for pmoA2 were ambiguous. However, reverse transcription-PCR confirmed that pmoA2 was expressed, albeit at lower level than pmoA1. This provided experimental evidence that the gene product of pmoA2 may be a functionally active enzyme. PMID:12957949

  11. Evaluation of Laser Stabilization and Imaging Systems for LCLS-II - Final Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, Matthew

    2015-08-20

    By combining the top performing commercial laser beam stabilization system with the most ideal optical imaging configuration, the beamline for the Linear Accelerator Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) will deliver the highest quality and most stable beam to the cathode. To determine the optimal combination, LCLS-II beamline conditions were replicated and the systems tested with a He-Ne laser. The Guidestar-II and MRC active laser beam stabilization systems were evaluated for their ideal positioning and stability. Both a two and four lens optical imaging configuration was then evaluated for beam imaging quality, magnification properties, and natural stability. In their best performances when tested over fifteen hours, Guidestar-II kept the beam stable over approximately 70-110um while the MRC system kept it stable over approximately 90-100um. During short periods of time, Guidestar-II kept the beam stable between 10-20um, but was more susceptible to drift over time, while the MRC system maintained the beam between 30-50um with less overall drift. The best optical imaging configuration proved to be a four lens system that images to the iris located in the cathode room and from there, imaged to the cathode. The magnification from the iris to the cathode was 2:1, within an acceptable tolerance to the expected 2.1:1 magnification. The two lens configuration was slightly more stable in small periods of time (less than 10 minutes) without the assistance of a stability system, approximately 55um compared to approximately 70um, but the four lens configurations beam image had a significantly flatter intensity distribution compared to the two lens configuration which had a Gaussian distribution. A final test still needs to be run with both stability systems running at the same time through the four lens system. With this data, the optimal laser beam stabilization system can be determined for the beamline of LCLS-II.

  12. Planetary Data Systems (PDS) Imaging Node Atlas II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanboli, Alice; McAuley, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The Planetary Image Atlas (PIA) is a Rich Internet Application (RIA) that serves planetary imaging data to the science community and the general public. PIA also utilizes the USGS Unified Planetary Coordinate system (UPC) and the on-Mars map server. The Atlas was designed to provide the ability to search and filter through greater than 8 million planetary image files. This software is a three-tier Web application that contains a search engine backend (MySQL, JAVA), Web service interface (SOAP) between server and client, and a GWT Google Maps API client front end. This application allows for the search, retrieval, and download of planetary images and associated meta-data from the following missions: 2001 Mars Odyssey, Cassini, Galileo, LCROSS, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Exploration Rover, Mars Express, Magellan, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Pathfinder, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, MESSENGER, Phoe nix, Viking Lander, Viking Orbiter, and Voyager. The Atlas utilizes the UPC to translate mission-specific coordinate systems into a unified coordinate system, allowing the end user to query across missions of similar targets. If desired, the end user can also use a mission-specific view of the Atlas. The mission-specific views rely on the same code base. This application is a major improvement over the initial version of the Planetary Image Atlas. It is a multi-mission search engine. This tool includes both basic and advanced search capabilities, providing a product search tool to interrogate the collection of planetary images. This tool lets the end user query information about each image, and ignores the data that the user has no interest in. Users can reduce the number of images to look at by defining an area of interest with latitude and longitude ranges.

  13. Geometric correction of synchronous scanned Operational Modular Imaging Spectrometer II hyperspectral remote sensing images using spatial positioning data of an inertial navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaohu; Neubauer, Franz; Zhao, Dong; Xu, Shichao

    2015-01-01

    The high-precision geometric correction of airborne hyperspectral remote sensing image processing was a hard nut to crack, and conventional methods of remote sensing image processing by selecting ground control points to correct the images are not suitable in the correction process of airborne hyperspectral image. The optical scanning system of an inertial measurement unit combined with differential global positioning system (IMU/DGPS) is introduced to correct the synchronous scanned Operational Modular Imaging Spectrometer II (OMIS II) hyperspectral remote sensing images. Posture parameters, which were synchronized with the OMIS II, were first obtained from the IMU/DGPS. Second, coordinate conversion and flight attitude parameters' calculations were conducted. Third, according to the imaging principle of OMIS II, mathematical correction was applied and the corrected image pixels were resampled. Then, better image processing results were achieved.

  14. Rank-ordered filter for edge enhancement of cellular images using interval type II fuzzy set.

    PubMed

    Chaira, Tamalika

    2015-10-01

    An edge-enhancement technique using an interval type II fuzzy set that uses rank-ordered filter to enhance the edges of cellular images is proposed. When cellular images from any laboratory are digitized, scanned, and stored, some kind of degradation occurs, and directly using a rank-ordered filter may not produce clear edges. These images contain uncertainties, present in edges or boundaries of the image. Fuzzy sets that take into account these uncertainties may be a good tool to process these images. However, a fuzzy set sometimes does not produce better results. We used an interval type II fuzzy set, which considers the uncertainty in a different way. It considers the membership function in the fuzzy set as "fuzzy," so the membership values lie within an interval range. A type II fuzzy set has upper and lower membership levels, and with the two levels, a new membership function is computed using Hamacher t-conorm. A new fuzzy image is formed. A rank-ordered filter is applied to the image to obtain an edge-enhanced image. The proposed method is compared with the existing methods visually and quantitatively using entropic method. Entropy of the proposed method is higher (0.4418) than the morphology method (0.2275), crisp method (0.3599), and Sobel method (0.2669), implying that the proposed method is better. PMID:26702406

  15. Fundamental performance differences between CMOS and CCD imagers: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janesick, James; Andrews, James; Tower, John; Grygon, Mark; Elliott, Tom; Cheng, John; Lesser, Michael; Pinter, Jeff

    2007-09-01

    A new class of CMOS imagers that compete with scientific CCDs is presented. The sensors are based on deep depletion backside illuminated technology to achieve high near infrared quantum efficiency and low pixel cross-talk. The imagers deliver very low read noise suitable for single photon counting - Fano-noise limited soft x-ray applications. Digital correlated double sampling signal processing necessary to achieve low read noise performance is analyzed and demonstrated for CMOS use. Detailed experimental data products generated by different pixel architectures (notably 3TPPD, 5TPPD and 6TPG designs) are presented including read noise, charge capacity, dynamic range, quantum efficiency, charge collection and transfer efficiency and dark current generation. Radiation damage data taken for the imagers is also reported.

  16. Imaging performance of annular apertures. II - Line spread functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tschunko, H. F. A.

    1978-01-01

    Line images formed by aberration-free optical systems with annular apertures are investigated in the whole range of central obstruction ratios. Annular apertures form lines images with central and side line groups. The number of lines in each line group is given by the ratio of the outer diameter of the annular aperture divided by the width of the annulus. The theoretical energy fraction of 0.889 in the central line of the image formed by an unobstructed aperture increases for centrally obstructed apertures to 0.932 for the central line group. Energy fractions for the central and side line groups are practically constant for all obstruction ratios and for each line group. The illumination of rectangular secondary apertures of various length/width ratios by apertures of various obstruction ratios is discussed.

  17. Ulnar-sided wrist pain. II. Clinical imaging and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Atsuya; Souza, Felipe; Vezeridis, Peter S.; Blazar, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Pain at the ulnar aspect of the wrist is a diagnostic challenge for hand surgeons and radiologists due to the small and complex anatomical structures involved. In this article, imaging modalities including radiography, arthrography, ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), CT arthrography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and MR arthrography are compared with regard to differential diagnosis. Clinical imaging findings are reviewed for a more comprehensive understanding of this disorder. Treatments for the common diseases that cause the ulnar-sided wrist pain including extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendonitis, flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU) tendonitis, pisotriquetral arthritis, triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) lesions, ulnar impaction, lunotriquetral (LT) instability, and distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) instability are reviewed. PMID:20012039

  18. 32. Photographic copy of the Post Engineer drawing (original is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Photographic copy of the Post Engineer drawing (original is located at Fort Hood) compressor, evaporative condenser & unit cooler schedules, plan number PE 1268 - Fort Hood, World War II Temporary Buildings, Cold Storage Building, Seventeenth Street, Killeen, Bell County, TX

  19. Photographic copy of reproduced photograph dated 1942. Exterior view, west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of reproduced photograph dated 1942. Exterior view, west elevation. Building camouflaged during World War II. - Grand Central Air Terminal, 1310 Air Way, Glendale, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 34. Photographic copy of the Post Engineer drawing (original is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Photographic copy of the Post Engineer drawing (original is located at Fort Hood) electrical riser plan, plan number PE 1268.2 - Fort Hood, World War II Temporary Buildings, Cold Storage Building, Seventeenth Street, Killeen, Bell County, TX

  1. LOW COST IMAGER FOR POLLUTANT GAS LEAK DETECTION - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    An inexpensive imaging Instrument to quickly locate leaks of methane and other greenhouse and VOC gases would reduce the cost and effort expended by industry to comply with EPA regulations. In Phase I, of this WBIR program, a new gas leak visualization camera was demonstrated...

  2. Biosonar navigation above water II: exploiting mirror images.

    PubMed

    Genzel, Daria; Hoffmann, Susanne; Prosch, Selina; Firzlaff, Uwe; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2015-02-15

    As in vision, acoustic signals can be reflected by a smooth surface creating an acoustic mirror image. Water bodies represent the only naturally occurring horizontal and acoustically smooth surfaces. Echolocating bats flying over smooth water bodies encounter echo-acoustic mirror images of objects above the surface. Here, we combined an electrophysiological approach with a behavioral experimental paradigm to investigate whether bats can exploit echo-acoustic mirror images for navigation and how these mirrorlike echo-acoustic cues are encoded in their auditory cortex. In an obstacle-avoidance task where the obstacles could only be detected via their echo-acoustic mirror images, most bats spontaneously exploited these cues for navigation. Sonar ensonifications along the bats' flight path revealed conspicuous changes of the reflection patterns with slightly increased target strengths at relatively long echo delays corresponding to the longer acoustic paths from the mirrored obstacles. Recordings of cortical spatiotemporal response maps (STRMs) describe the tuning of a unit across the dimensions of elevation and time. The majority of cortical single and multiunits showed a special spatiotemporal pattern of excitatory areas in their STRM indicating a preference for echoes with (relative to the setup dimensions) long delays and, interestingly, from low elevations. This neural preference could effectively encode a reflection pattern as it would be perceived by an echolocating bat detecting an object mirrored from below. The current study provides both behavioral and neurophysiological evidence that echo-acoustic mirror images can be exploited by bats for obstacle avoidance. This capability effectively supports echo-acoustic navigation in highly cluttered natural habitats. PMID:25411457

  3. Digitization and metric conversion for image quality test targets: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, William C.

    2003-12-01

    A common need of the INCITS W1.1 Macro Uniformity, Color Rendition and Micro Uniformity ad hoc efforts is to digitize image quality test targets and derive parameters that correlate with image quality assessments. The digitized data should be in a colorimetric color space such as CIELAB and the process of digitizing will introduce no spatial artifacts that reduce the accuracy of image quality parameters. Input digitizers come in many forms including inexpensive scanners used in the home, a range of sophisticated scanners used for graphic arts and scanners used for scientific and industrial measurements (e.g., microdensitometers). Some of these are capable of digitizing hard copy output for image quality objective metrices, and this report focuses on assessment of high quality flatbed scanners for that role. Digitization using flatbed scanners is attractive because they are relatively inexpensive, easy to use, and most are available with document feeders permitting analysis of a stack of documents with little user interaction. Other authors have addressed using scanners for image quality measurements. This paper focuses (1) on color transformations from RGB to CIELAB and (2) sampling issues and demonstrates that flatbed scanners can have a high level of accuracy for generating accurate, stable images in the CIELAB metric. Previous discussion and experimental results focusing on color conversions had been presented at PICS 2003. This paper reviews the past discussion with some refinement based on recent experiments and extends the analysis into color accuracy verification and sampling issues.

  4. Imaging Starspots on II Pegasi via Light-curve Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vutisalchavakul, Nalin; Deskins, Ryan; Harmon, Robert

    2007-10-01

    Starspots on the star II Pegasi were mapped via the method of Light-curve Inversion, which infers the appearance of the dark spots based on the brightness variations they produce as the star rotates. Our data were obtained with the 0.4-meter Vanderbilt/Tennessee State University Automated Photometric Telescope from September 1995 to January 1996 and from November 1988 to September 1992 (Henry, et al. 1995, ApJSS, 97, 513). For the first data set our results suggest that II Peg has opposite differential rotation to that of the Sun, with higher latitude spots having shorter rotation periods. We analyzed the second data set in an attempt to confirm this, but found that no definite conclusion could be drawn, though differential rotation is clearly present. The difficulty arises in part because the data were obtained through only two photometric filters (B and V), which limits the resolution in latitude. Future observations of the star through a larger set of filters might resolve this ambiguity.

  5. First light observations with TIFR Near Infrared Imaging Camera (TIRCAM-II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, D. K.; Ghosh, S. K.; D'Costa, S. L. A.; Naik, M. B.; Sandimani, P. R.; Poojary, S. S.; Bhagat, S. B.; Jadhav, R. B.; Meshram, G. S.; Bakalkar, C. B.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Mohan, V.; Joshi, J.

    TIFR near infrared imaging camera (TIRCAM-II) is based on the Aladdin III Quadrant InSb focal plane array (512×512 pixels; 27.6 μm pixel size; sensitive between 1 - 5.5 μm). TIRCAM-II had its first engineering run with the 2 m IUCAA telescope at Girawali during February - March 2011. The first light observations with TIRCAM-II were quite successful. Several infrared standard with TIRCAM-II were quite successful. Several infrared standard stars, the Trapezium Cluster in Orion region, McNeil's nebula, etc., were observed in the J, K and in a narrow-band at 3.6 μm (nbL). In the nbL band, some bright stars could be detected from the Girawali site. The performance of TIRCAM-II is discussed in the light of preliminary observations in near infrared bands.

  6. Difference Image Analysis of Galactic Microlensing. II. Microlensing Events

    SciTech Connect

    Alcock, C.; Allsman, R. A.; Alves, D.; Axelrod, T. S.; Becker, A. C.; Bennett, D. P.; Cook, K. H.; Drake, A. J.; Freeman, K. C.; Griest, K.

    1999-09-01

    The MACHO collaboration has been carrying out difference image analysis (DIA) since 1996 with the aim of increasing the sensitivity to the detection of gravitational microlensing. This is a preliminary report on the application of DIA to galactic bulge images in one field. We show how the DIA technique significantly increases the number of detected lensing events, by removing the positional dependence of traditional photometry schemes and lowering the microlensing event detection threshold. This technique, unlike PSF photometry, gives the unblended colors and positions of the microlensing source stars. We present a set of criteria for selecting microlensing events from objects discovered with this technique. The 16 pixel and classical microlensing events discovered with the DIA technique are presented. (c) (c) 1999. The American Astronomical Society.

  7. FT-IR microscopy imaging on oral cavity tumours, II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, C.; Giorgini, E.; Pieramici, T.; Rubini, C.; Tosi, G.

    2005-06-01

    Changes in the biochemistry of oral cavity tissues have been studied by FT-IR microscopy. Various aspects of squamous cell carcinomas of cheek mucosa, of tongue, of gingiva, and of the floor of the mouth have been analyzed through FT-IR imaging with the aim to relate spectral patterns with histopathological results. In particular, changes in frequency and intensity of proteins, connective and nucleic acids vibrational modes as well as the visualization of biochemical single wavenumber or band ratio images allowed a quali- and quantitative evaluation of the changes in the proliferating activity from displastic to neoplastic states. 'Supervised' and 'unsupervised' procedures of data handling afforded a satisfactory degree of accordance between spectroscopic and histological findings.

  8. A lucky imaging multiplicity study of exoplanet host stars - II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginski, C.; Mugrauer, M.; Seeliger, M.; Buder, S.; Errmann, R.; Avenhaus, H.; Mouillet, D.; Maire, A.-L.; Raetz, S.

    2016-04-01

    The vast majority of extrasolar planets are detected by indirect detection methods such as transit monitoring and radial velocity measurements. While these methods are very successful in detecting short-periodic planets, they are mostly blind to wide sub-stellar or even stellar companions on long orbits. In our study, we present high-resolution imaging observations of 60 exoplanet hosts carried out with the lucky imaging instrument AstraLux at the Calar Alto 2.2 m telescope as well as with the new Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch (SPHERE) high-resolution adaptive optics imager at the ESO/VLT in the case of a known companion of specific interest. Our goal is to study the influence of stellar multiplicity on the planet formation process. We detected and confirmed four previously unknown stellar companions to the exoplanet hosts HD 197037, HD 217786, Kepler-21 and Kepler-68. In addition, we detected 11 new low-mass stellar companion candidates which must still be confirmed as bound companions. We also provide new astrometric and photometric data points for the recently discovered very close binary systems WASP-76 and HD 2638. Furthermore, we show for the first time that the previously detected stellar companion to the HD 185269 system is a very low mass binary. Finally, we provide precise constraints on additional companions for all observed stars in our sample.

  9. A Comparison of Summed Continuum and CaII K-line Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, G. A.; Cookson, A. M.; Walton, S. R.; Smith, C.

    2003-05-01

    Full-disk photometric images are obtained with two telescopes on a daily basis at the following wavelengths: 393 nm (CaII K-line), 472 nm and 672 nm. In order to explore the characteristics of the fainter facular/network elements, we obtain, on occasion, up to 10 images as closely spaced in time as possible. For the work reported on here, we have used red continuum images at 672 nm (bandpass 10 nm) from the CFDT2 telescope (pixel size 2.5" x 2.5"). These images have been coaligned and summed to reduce noise from non-magnetic intensity features. The customary image processing tools have been applied (Walton et al. 1998). The quiet sun rms intensity fluctuation drops from about 0.58 % on a single image to about 0.21 % on the summed image. On the summed red image, bright facular/network features as faint as about 0.6 % become visible across the solar disk. These features will be compared with those found on images obtained in the CaII K-line to determine their reality in terms of K-line faculae. This work has been partially supported by grants from NASA (NAG5-7191) and NSF (ATM-9912132). Reference Walton, S.R., Chapman, G.A., Cookson, A.M., Dobias, J.J. and Preminger, D.G. 1998, Solar Phys. 179, 31-42.

  10. Copying could be costly.

    PubMed

    Allen, A

    1992-02-01

    Thanks to modern technology, photocopying is quick, easy, and inexpensive. Or is it? One of the largest awards ever made for copyright infringement was levied in a case involving the use of material copied from publications without permission. This article presents a short discussion about US and international copyright protection, fair use, and work for hire. Suggestions for additional information are offered. PMID:1735873

  11. Near infrared fluorescence quenching properties of copper (II) ions for potential applications in biological imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maji, Dolonchampa; Zhou, Mingzhou; Sarder, Pinaki; Achilefu, Samuel

    2014-03-01

    Fluorescence quenching properties of copper(II) ions have been used for designing Cu(II) sensitive fluorescent molecular probes. In this paper, we demonstrate that static quenching plays a key role in free Cu(II)-mediated fluorescence quenching of a near infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye cypate. The Stern-Volmer quenching constant was calculated to be KSV = 970,000 M-1 in 25 mM MES buffer, pH 6.5 at room temperature. We synthesized LS835, a compound containing cypate attached covalently to chelated Cu(II) to study fluorescence quenching by chelated Cu(II). The fluorescence quenching mechanism of chelated Cu(II) is predominantly dynamic or collisional quenching. The quenching efficiency of chelated Cu(II) was calculated to be 58% ± 6% in dimethylsulfoxide at room temperature. Future work will involve further characterization of the mechanism of NIR fluorescence quenching by Cu(II) and testing its reversibility for potential applications in designing fluorophore-quencher based molecular probes for biological imaging.

  12. DETAILED DECOMPOSITION OF GALAXY IMAGES. II. BEYOND AXISYMMETRIC MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Chien Y.; Ho, Luis C.; Impey, Chris D.; Rix, Hans-Walter E-mail: lho@obs.carnegiescience.ed E-mail: rix@mpia-hd.mpg.d

    2010-06-15

    We present a two-dimensional (2D) fitting algorithm (GALFIT, ver. 3) with new capabilities to study the structural components of galaxies and other astronomical objects in digital images. Our technique improves on previous 2D fitting algorithms by allowing for irregular, curved, logarithmic and power-law spirals, ring, and truncated shapes in otherwise traditional parametric functions like the Sersic, Moffat, King, Ferrer, etc., profiles. One can mix and match these new shape features freely, with or without constraints, and apply them to an arbitrary number of model components of numerous profile types, so as to produce realistic-looking galaxy model images. Yet, despite the potential for extreme complexity, the meaning of the key parameters like the Sersic index, effective radius, or luminosity remains intuitive and essentially unchanged. The new features have an interesting potential for use to quantify the degree of asymmetry of galaxies, to quantify low surface brightness tidal features beneath and beyond luminous galaxies, to allow more realistic decompositions of galaxy subcomponents in the presence of strong rings and spiral arms, and to enable ways to gauge the uncertainties when decomposing galaxy subcomponents. We illustrate these new features by way of several case studies that display various levels of complexity.

  13. A Survey of Partition-Based Techniques for Copy-Move Forgery Detection

    PubMed Central

    Nathalie Diane, Wandji Nanda; Xingming, Sun; Moise, Fah Kue

    2014-01-01

    A copy-move forged image results from a specific type of image tampering procedure carried out by copying a part of an image and pasting it on one or more parts of the same image generally to maliciously hide unwanted objects/regions or clone an object. Therefore, detecting such forgeries mainly consists in devising ways of exposing identical or relatively similar areas in images. This survey attempts to cover existing partition-based copy-move forgery detection techniques. PMID:25152931

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of the neck. Part II. Pathologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, D.D.; Moss, A.A.; Gamsu, G.; Clark, O.H.; Gooding, G.A.W.; Webb, W.R.

    1984-02-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the neck were obtained in 14 patients with thyroid, parathyroid, lymph node, or laryngeal lesions. Tumors and lymph nodes were more easily differentiated from muscle and blood vessels with MR than with CT because of the superior soft tissue contrast of MR. Tissue characterization allowed MR differentiation of thyroid nodules, thyroid cysts, and parathyroid tumors from normal thyroid tissue; however, nonspecifically increased T1 and T2 relaxation times overlapped for a variety of neoplastic and inflammatory conditions. Thyroid cyst fluid had the greatest water content and longest T1 and T2 times of all tissues studied. Parathyroid hyperplasia could not be differentiated from parathyroid adenoma; however, parathyroid tumors had slightly longer T1 and T2 times than thyroid nodules or lymph nodes. With further experience, MR tissue characterization may become a useful technique for evaluating neck masses.

  15. Artificial auroras in the upper atmosphere. II - Imaging results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mende, S. B.; Burch, J. L.; Swenson, G. R.; Aamodt, E. K.; Geller, S. P.; Rairden, R. L.; Hassler, P. L.

    1993-01-01

    On the ATLAS 1 mission (STS-45, launched March 24, 1992) two experiments, AEPI (Atmospheric Emissions Photometric Imaging) and SEPAC (Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators) performed the first of a series of active experiments intended to probe the atmosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere with electron beams. The luminous artificial aurora generated by the electron beam interaction was detected and measured by AEPI both in white light and in a narrow wavelength band at 427.8 nm (peak intensity 5 kR). Modelling calculation showed that there was a significant contribution from emissions originating near the spacecraft. The spatial intensity distribution of the observed auroral patch is consistent with emission contribution from both high and low altitude regions. An extended tail in the direction of the shuttle wake was observed in the 427.8 nm channel, consistent with a decay time associated with the dissipation of the hot electron plasma.

  16. Dinuclear ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes as single and two-photon luminescence cellular imaging probes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenchao; Zuo, Jiarui; Wang, Lili; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2014-02-28

    A new series of dinuclear ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes, which possess larger π-conjugated systems, good water solubility and pH resistance, and high photostability, were developed to act as single and two-photon luminescence cellular imaging probes. PMID:24418839

  17. FXI: a full-field imaging beamline at NSLS-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wah-Keat; Reininger, Ruben; Loo, William; Gambella, Richard; O'Hara, Steven; Chu, Yong S.; Zhong, Zhong; Wang, Jun

    2015-09-01

    The Full-field X-ray Imaging (FXI) beamline at the NSLS-II is designed for optimum performance of a transmission x-ray microscope (TXM). When complete, FXI will enable the TXM to obtain individual 2D projection images at 30 nm spatial resolution and up to 40 microns field of view (FOV) with exposure times of < 50 ms per image. A complete 3D nanotomography data set should take less than 1 minute. This will open opportunities for many real-time in-operando studies.

  18. Diagnostic imaging of psoriatic arthritis. Part II: magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Pracoń, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Plain radiography reveals specific, yet late changes of advanced psoriatic arthritis. Early inflammatory changes are seen both on magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound within peripheral joints (arthritis, synovitis), tendons sheaths (tenosynovitis, tendovaginitis) and entheses (enthesitis, enthesopathy). In addition, magnetic resonance imaging enables the assessment of inflammatory features in the sacroiliac joints (sacroiliitis), and the spine (spondylitis). In this article, we review current opinions on the diagnostics of some selective, and distinctive features of psoriatic arthritis concerning magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound and present some hypotheses on psoriatic arthritis etiopathogenesis, which have been studied with the use of magnetic resonance imaging. The following elements of the psoriatic arthritis are discussed: enthesitis, extracapsular inflammation, dactylitis, distal interphalangeal joint and nail disease, and the ability of magnetic resonance imaging to differentiate undifferentiated arthritis, the value of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:27446601

  19. 69. Photographic copy of blueprint copy of original elevations drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. Photographic copy of blueprint copy of original elevations drawing (C. Howard Crane, Kenneth Franzheim, architects, Chicago: sheet $6, 1922). Blueprint copy located at William J. Bachman & Partners (Architects)), 5930 Hohman Avenue, Hammond, Indiana 46230, (219) 932-6006. - Indiana Hotel, 5116 Hohman Avenue, Hammond, Lake County, IN

  20. Construction of a Ca II Core-to-Wing Ratio Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, H.

    2015-12-01

    To understand Earth's climate, we must first understand the Sun. However, there are still significant uncertainties associated with both the fundamental mechanisms of solar variability and how they enter into the Earth's climate system. An important method to study the causes of solar variability can be found through the analysis of solar images. The Precision Solar Photometric Telescope (PSPT) located at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO) acquires images of the Sun in three different photometric bands to monitor the evolution of solar surface features that change over the course of a solar cycle. These images provide a complete knowledge about the Sun by targeting different layers of the solar atmosphere. Though raw images are meaningful and important, precision image processing is required to remove instrumental artifacts and false features that may appear in these images prior to usage for scientific purposes. A scientific application of the high precision solar images is investigated by analyzing a set of narrow band of Calcium II K core and wing images. The Core and Wing images are processed to remove the influence of the center-to-limb variation; the resultant core-to-wing ratio image enhances the appearance of network structures on the entire solar disk along with the more obvious facula and plage brightening associated with the passage of active regions.

  1. Copying Machine Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Manufacturer of the Model 2210 copying machine was looking for a plastic valve bushing material that could be produced by a low-cost injection molding process to replace the unsuitable valve bushing they were using. NERAC conducted a computer search of the NASA database and was able to supply Nashua Corporation with several technical reports in their area of interest. Information aided the company's development of a urethane valve bushing which solved the problem and created a dramatic reduction in unit cost.

  2. Ultraviolet imaging telescope and optical emission-line observations of H II regions in M81

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Jesse K.; Cheng, K.-P.; Bohlin, Ralph C.; Cornett, Robert H.; Hintzen, P. M. N.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Roberts, Morton S.; Smith, Andrew M.; Smith, Eric P.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1995-01-01

    Images of the type Sab spiral galaxy M81 were obtained in far-UV and near-UV bands by the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) during the Astro-1 Spacelab mission of 1990 December. Magnitudes in the two UV bands are determined for 52 H II regions from the catalog of Petit, Sivan, & Karachentsev (1988). Fluxes of the H-alpha and H-beta emission lines are determined from CCD images. Extinctions for the brightest H II regions are determined from observed Balmer decrements. Fainter H II regions are assigned the average of published radio-H-alpha extinctions for several bright H II regions. The radiative transfer models of Witt, Thronson, & Capuano (1992) are shown to predict a relationship between Balmer Decrement and H-alpha extinction consistent with observed line and radio fluxes for the brightest 7 H II regions and are used to estimate the UV extinction. Ratios of Lyman continuum with ratios predicted by model spectra computed for initial mass function (IMF) slope equal to -1.0 and stellar masses ranging from 5 to 120 solar mass. Ages and masses are estimated by comparing the H-alpha and far-UV fluxes and their ratio with the models. The total of the estimated stellar masses for the 52 H II regions is 1.4 x 10(exp 5) solar mass. The star-formation rate inferred for M81 from the observed UV and H-alpha fluxes is low for a spiral galaxy at approximately 0.13 solar mass/yr, but consistent with the low star-formation rates obtained by Kennicutt (1983) and Caldwell et al. (1991) for early-type spirals.

  3. TU-B-19A-01: Image Registration II: TG132-Quality Assurance for Image Registration

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, K; Mutic, S

    2014-06-15

    AAPM Task Group 132 was charged with a review of the current approaches and solutions for image registration in radiotherapy and to provide recommendations for quality assurance and quality control of these clinical processes. As the results of image registration are always used as the input of another process for planning or delivery, it is important for the user to understand and document the uncertainty associate with the algorithm in general and the Result of a specific registration. The recommendations of this task group, which at the time of abstract submission are currently being reviewed by the AAPM, include the following components. The user should understand the basic image registration techniques and methods of visualizing image fusion. The disclosure of basic components of the image registration by commercial vendors is critical in this respect. The physicists should perform end-to-end tests of imaging, registration, and planning/treatment systems if image registration is performed on a stand-alone system. A comprehensive commissioning process should be performed and documented by the physicist prior to clinical use of the system. As documentation is important to the safe implementation of this process, a request and report system should be integrated into the clinical workflow. Finally, a patient specific QA practice should be established for efficient evaluation of image registration results. The implementation of these recommendations will be described and illustrated during this educational session. Learning Objectives: Highlight the importance of understanding the image registration techniques used in their clinic. Describe the end-to-end tests needed for stand-alone registration systems. Illustrate a comprehensive commissioning program using both phantom data and clinical images. Describe a request and report system to ensure communication and documentation. Demonstrate an clinically-efficient patient QA practice for efficient evaluation of image

  4. High-frequency ultrasound annular array imaging. Part II: digital beamformer design and imaging.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chang-Hong; Snook, Kevin A; Cao, Pei-Jie; Shung, K Kirk

    2006-02-01

    This is the second part of a two-paper series reporting a recent effort in the development of a high-frequency annular array ultrasound imaging system. In this paper an imaging system composed of a six-element, 43 MHz annular array transducer, a six-channel analog front-end, a field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based beamformer, and a digital signal processor (DSP) microprocessor-based scan converter will be described. A computer is used as the interface for image display. The beamformer that applies delays to the echoes for each channel is implemented with the strategy of combining the coarse and fine delays. The coarse delays that are integer multiples of the clock periods are achieved by using a first-in-first-out (FIFO) structure, and the fine delays are obtained with a fractional delay (FD) filter. Using this principle, dynamic receiving focusing is achieved. The image from a wire phantom obtained with the imaging system was compared to that from a prototype ultrasonic backscatter microscope with a 45 MHz single-element transducer. The improved lateral resolution and depth of field from the wire phantom image were observed. Images from an excised rabbit eye sample also were obtained, and fine anatomical structures were discerned. PMID:16529105

  5. A solar type II radio burst from coronal mass ejection-coronal ray interaction: Simultaneous radio and extreme ultraviolet imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yao; Du, Guohui; Feng, Shiwei; Kong, Xiangliang; Wang, Bing; Feng, Li; Guo, Fan; Li, Gang

    2014-05-20

    Simultaneous radio and extreme ultraviolet (EUV)/white-light imaging data are examined for a solar type II radio burst occurring on 2010 March 18 to deduce its source location. Using a bow-shock model, we reconstruct the three-dimensional EUV wave front (presumably the type-II-emitting shock) based on the imaging data of the two Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory spacecraft. It is then combined with the Nançay radio imaging data to infer the three-dimensional position of the type II source. It is found that the type II source coincides with the interface between the coronal mass ejection (CME) EUV wave front and a nearby coronal ray structure, providing evidence that the type II emission is physically related to the CME-ray interaction. This result, consistent with those of previous studies, is based on simultaneous radio and EUV imaging data for the first time.

  6. FastSPECT II: A Second-Generation High-Resolution Dynamic SPECT Imager

    PubMed Central

    Furenlid, Lars R.; Wilson, Donald W.; Chen, Yi-chun; Kim, Hyunki; Pietraski, Philip J.; Crawford, Michael J.; Barrett, Harrison H.

    2010-01-01

    FastSPECT II is a recently commissioned 16-camera small-animal SPECT imager built with modular scintillation cameras and list-mode data-acquisition electronics. The instrument is housed in a lead-shielded enclosure and has exchangeable aperture assemblies and adjustable camera positions for selection of magnification, pinhole size, and field of view. The calibration of individual cameras and measurement of an overall system imaging matrix (1 mm3 voxels) are supported via a five-axis motion-control system. Details of the system integration and results of characterization and performance measurements are presented along with first tomographic images. The dynamic imaging capabilities of the instrument are explored and discussed. PMID:20877439

  7. Image transfer through cirrus clouds. II. Wave-front segmentation and imaging.

    PubMed

    Landesman, Barbara T; Matson, Charles L

    2002-12-20

    A hybrid technique to simulate the imaging of space-based objects through cirrus clouds is presented. The method makes use of standard Huygens-Fresnel propagation beyond the cloud boundary and a novel vector trace approach within the cloud. At the top of the cloud, the wave front is divided into an array of input gradient vectors, which are in turn transmitted through the cloud model by use of the Coherent Illumination Ray Trace and Imaging Software for Cirrus. At the bottom of the cloud, the output vector distribution is used to reconstruct a wave front that continues propagating to the ground receiver. Images of the object as seen through cirrus clouds with different optical depths are compared with a diffraction-limited image. Turbulence effects from the atmospheric propagation are not included. PMID:12510928

  8. Near-infrared (Fe II) and Pa Beta imaging and spectroscopy of Arp 220

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armus, L.; Shupe, D. L.; Matthews, K.; Soifer, B. T.; Neugebauer, G.

    1995-01-01

    We have imaged the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Arp 220 in light of the near-infrared (Fe II) 1.257 micron and Pa-beta lines, and have obtained spectra in the J- and H-band atmospheric windows. Arp 220 is a strong source of (Fe II) and Pa-beta emission, with luminosities of 1.3 x 10(exp 41) and 9.2 x 10(exp 40) ergs/s, respectively. The (Fe II) and Pa-beta emission are both extended over the central 2 sec-3 sec, but with different morphologies. We suggest that the extended (Fe II) emission is produced through the interaction of fast shocks with ambient gas in the interstellar medium (ISM) at the base of the outflowing, supernovae-driven superwind mapped by Heckman et al. (1987). The bolometric luminosity of the starburst required to power this wind is estimated to be at least 2 x 10(exp 11) solar luminosity. If the spatially unresolved (Fe II) emission is produced via a large number of supernova remnants, the implied rate is approximately 0.6/yr. The overall luminosity of such a starburst could account for a large fraction (1/2-1/3) of the Arp 220 energy budget, but the large deficit of ionizing photons (as counted by the Pa-beta luminosity) requires that the starburst be rapidly declining and/or have a low upper mass cutoff. Alternatively, dust may effectively compete with the gas for ionizing photons, or much of the ionizing radiation may escape through 'holes' in the ISM. It is also possible that a buried active galactic nuclei (AGN) produces a large fraction of the unresolved (Fe II) and Pa-beta emission. We briefly discuss these possibilities in light of these new imaging and spectroscopic data.

  9. Simultaneous Radio and EUV Imaging of a Multi-lane Coronal Type II Radio Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, S. W.; Du, G. H.; Chen, Y.; Kong, X. L.; Li, G.; Guo, F.

    2015-04-01

    A multi-lane solar type II radio burst was observed by several solar spectrographs on 16 February 2011. The event was also recorded by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH) at several metric wavelengths, by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and by the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUVI) onboard the Solar TErrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) in a number of EUV passbands. These multi-wavelength data provide a rare opportunity to reveal the emission source of the multiple type II lanes. Our study shows that all lanes are associated with a single EUV wave, presumably the radio-emitting shock. The EUV wave was driven by a coronal mass ejection (CME) associated with an M1.6 flare and a filament eruption. With the NRH data and the three-dimensional (3D) bow-shock reconstruction that we built using the multi-viewpoint data of the EUV wave, we are able to deduce the 3D coordinates of the radio sources. We conclude that all the three type II lanes originated from the western flank of the shock, with two of them from closely adjacent locations on the southern part, the other one from a distinct location on the northern part. This case study demonstrates how the type II origin can be pinpointed by combining analyses of different data sets.

  10. Digital authentication with copy-detection patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, Justin

    2004-06-01

    Technologies for making high-quality copies of documents are getting more available, cheaper, and more efficient. As a result, the counterfeiting business engenders huge losses, ranging to 5% to 8% of worldwide sales of brand products, and endangers the reputation and value of the brands themselves. Moreover, the growth of the Internet drives the business of counterfeited documents (fake IDs, university diplomas, checks, and so on), which can be bought easily and anonymously from hundreds of companies on the Web. The incredible progress of digital imaging equipment has put in question the very possibility of verifying the authenticity of documents: how can we discern genuine documents from seemingly "perfect" copies? This paper proposes a solution based on creating digital images with specific properties, called a Copy-detection patterns (CDP), that is printed on arbitrary documents, packages, etc. CDPs make an optimal use of an "information loss principle": every time an imae is printed or scanned, some information is lost about the original digital image. That principle applies even for the highest quality scanning, digital imaging, printing or photocopying equipment today, and will likely remain true for tomorrow. By measuring the amount of information contained in a scanned CDP, the CDP detector can take a decision on the authenticity of the document.

  11. Rare Copy Number Variants

    PubMed Central

    Grozeva, Detelina; Kirov, George; Ivanov, Dobril; Jones, Ian R.; Jones, Lisa; Green, Elaine K.; St Clair, David M.; Young, Allan H.; Ferrier, Nicol; Farmer, Anne E.; McGuffin, Peter; Holmans, Peter A.; Owen, Michael J.; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Craddock, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Context Recent studies suggest that copy number variation in the human genome is extensive and may play an important role in susceptibility to disease, including neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. The possible involvement of copy number variants (CNVs) in bipolar disorder has received little attention to date. Objectives To determine whether large (>100 000 base pairs) and rare (found in <1% of the population) CNVs are associated with susceptibility to bipolar disorder and to compare with findings in schizophrenia. Design A genome-wide survey of large, rare CNVs in a case-control sample using a high-density microarray. Setting The Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. Participants There were 1697 cases of bipolar disorder and 2806 nonpsychiatric controls. All participants were white UK residents. Main Outcome Measures Overall load of CNVs and presence of rare CNVs. Results The burden of CNVs in bipolar disorder was not increased compared with controls and was significantly less than in schizophrenia cases. The CNVs previously implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia were not more common in cases with bipolar disorder. Conclusions Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder differ with respect to CNV burden in general and association with specific CNVs in particular. Our data are consistent with the possibility that possession of large, rare deletions may modify the phenotype in those at risk of psychosis: those possessing such events are more likely to be diagnosed as having schizophrenia, and those without them are more likely to be diagnosed as having bipolar disorder. PMID:20368508

  12. 12. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works construction drawing dated January 15, 1951. Drawn by W.A. Doe for the Twin Lakes Reservoir and Canal Co. (copy in possession of Bureau of Reclamation, location of original unknown) 'AS CONSTRUCTED' PLANS OF 1949-50, REHABILITATION OF TWIN LAKES RESERVOIR OUTLET WORKS, DETAILS OF DISCHARGE BASIN. - Twin Lakes Dam & Outlet Works, Beneath Twin Lakes Reservoir, T11S, R80W, S22, Twin Lakes, Lake County, CO

  13. 11. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works construction drawing dated January 15, 1951. Drawn by W.A. Doe for the Twin Lakes Reservoir and Canal Co. (copy in possession of Bureau of Reclamation, location of original unknown) 'AS CONSTRUCTED' PLANS OF 1949-1950, REHABILITATION OF TWIN LAKES RESERVOIR OUTLET WORKS, DETAILS OF UPSTREAM WING WALLS. - Twin Lakes Dam & Outlet Works, Beneath Twin Lakes Reservoir, T11S, R80W, S22, Twin Lakes, Lake County, CO

  14. An Imaging and Spectroscopic Study of Four Strong Mg II Absorbers Revealed by GRB 060418

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollack, L. K.; Chen, H.-W.; Prochaska, J. X.; Bloom, J. S.

    2009-08-01

    We present results from an imaging and spectroscopic study of four strong Mg II absorbers of W(2796) gsim 1 Å revealed by the afterglow of GRB 060418 at z GRB = 1.491. These absorbers, at z = 0.603, 0.656, 1.107, and z GRB, exhibit large ion abundances that suggest neutral gas columns characteristic of damped Lyα systems. The imaging data include optical images obtained using Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (LRIS) on the Keck I telescope and using Advanced Camera for Surveys on board Hubble Space Telescope, and near-infrared H-band images obtained using Persson's Auxiliary Nasmyth Infrared Camera on the Magellan Baade Telescope and K'-band images obtained using NIRC2 with laser guide star adaptive optics on the Keck II telescope. These images reveal six distinct objects at Δ θ lsim 3farcs5 of the afterglow's position, two of which exhibit well-resolved mature disk morphology, one shows red colors, and three are blue compact sources. Follow-up spectroscopic observations using LRIS confirm that one of the disk galaxies coincides with the Mg II absorber at z = 0.656. The observed broadband spectral energy distributions of the second disk galaxy and the red source indicate that they are associated with the absorbers at z = 0.603 and z = 1.107, respectively. These results show that strong Mg II absorbers identified in gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow spectra are associated with typical galaxies of luminosity ≈0.1 - 1 L * at impact parameter of ρ lsim 10 h -1 kpc. The close angular separation would preclude easy detections toward a bright quasar. Finally, we associate the remaining three blue compact sources with the GRB host galaxy, noting that they are likely star-forming knots located at projected distances of ρ = 2 - 12 h -1 kpc from the afterglow. At the afterglow's position, we derive a 2σ upper limit to the underlying star-formation rate intensity of 0.0074 M sun yr-1 kpc-2. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope

  15. AN IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY OF FOUR STRONG Mg II ABSORBERS REVEALED BY GRB 060418

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, L. K.; Prochaska, J. X.; Chen, H.-W.; Bloom, J. S.

    2009-08-20

    We present results from an imaging and spectroscopic study of four strong Mg II absorbers of W(2796) {approx}> 1 A revealed by the afterglow of GRB 060418 at z{sub GRB} = 1.491. These absorbers, at z = 0.603, 0.656, 1.107, and z {sub GRB}, exhibit large ion abundances that suggest neutral gas columns characteristic of damped Ly{alpha} systems. The imaging data include optical images obtained using Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (LRIS) on the Keck I telescope and using Advanced Camera for Surveys on board Hubble Space Telescope, and near-infrared H-band images obtained using Persson's Auxiliary Nasmyth Infrared Camera on the Magellan Baade Telescope and K'-band images obtained using NIRC2 with laser guide star adaptive optics on the Keck II telescope. These images reveal six distinct objects at {delta} {theta} {approx}< 3.''5 of the afterglow's position, two of which exhibit well-resolved mature disk morphology, one shows red colors, and three are blue compact sources. Follow-up spectroscopic observations using LRIS confirm that one of the disk galaxies coincides with the Mg II absorber at z = 0.656. The observed broadband spectral energy distributions of the second disk galaxy and the red source indicate that they are associated with the absorbers at z = 0.603 and z = 1.107, respectively. These results show that strong Mg II absorbers identified in gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow spectra are associated with typical galaxies of luminosity {approx}0.1 - 1 L{sub *} at impact parameter of {rho} {approx}< 10 h {sup -1} kpc. The close angular separation would preclude easy detections toward a bright quasar. Finally, we associate the remaining three blue compact sources with the GRB host galaxy, noting that they are likely star-forming knots located at projected distances of {rho} = 2 - 12 h {sup -1} kpc from the afterglow. At the afterglow's position, we derive a 2{sigma} upper limit to the underlying star-formation rate intensity of 0.0074 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} kpc

  16. Sono-photoacoustic imaging of gold nanoemulsions: Part II. Real time imaging

    PubMed Central

    Arnal, Bastien; Wei, Chen-Wei; Perez, Camilo; Nguyen, Thu-Mai; Lombardo, Michael; Pelivanov, Ivan; Pozzo, Lilo D.; O’Donnell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging using exogenous agents can be limited by degraded specificity due to strong background signals. This paper introduces a technique called sono-photoacoustics (SPA) applied to perfluorohexane nanodroplets coated with gold nanospheres. Pulsed laser and ultrasound (US) excitations are applied simultaneously to the contrast agent to induce a phase-transition ultimately creating a transient microbubble. The US field present during the phase transition combined with the large thermal expansion of the bubble leads to 20–30 dB signal enhancement. Aqueous solutions and phantoms with very low concentrations of this agent were probed using pulsed laser radiation at diagnostic exposures and a conventional US array used both for excitation and imaging. Contrast specificity of the agent was demonstrated with a coherent differential scheme to suppress US and linear PA background signals. SPA shows great potential for molecular imaging with ultrasensitive detection of targeted gold coated nanoemulsions and cavitation-assisted theranostic approaches. PMID:25893170

  17. Assessing Surface Solar Irradiance in French Guiana using the Heliosat-II method and GOES images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarelo, T.; Marie-Joseph, I.; Primerose, A.; Dolique, F.; Seyler, F.; Linguet, L.

    2014-12-01

    French Guiana is an overseas department administratively attached to France, located in the northeast of South America between Brazil and Surinam. French Guiana's distance from France (more than 8000 km) leads to varied needs, especially in energy supply. A promising solution for solar mapping of French Guiana lies in the use of satellite images as the few ground radiometric stations (6 stations) are not sufficient to create a solar mapping of French Guiana. In this work, we assess the use of the Heliosat-II method with GOES satellite images in order to develop a dynamic solar map in French Guiana. To estimate Surface Solar Irradiance (SSI) over French Guiana, the original Heliosat-II method developed for operation with METEOSAT images has been modified to be used with GOES satellite images. Modifications include a change in calibration and in the calculation of the cloud albedo. Cloud albedos were retrieved using several strategies proposed by the literature: the maximum monthly value of the apparent albedo values (ρc max), the 95th percentile of the apparent albedo values (ρc Q95) or a pixel-by-pixel formula (ρc Rig). ). By using these three different methods, SSI was calculated over French Guiana. SSI estimated with ρc max as the cloud albedo gives the best results, with an overall MBE lesser than 5% and a Correlation Coefficient greater than 0.9, for a RMSE of 25% . These results show that the use of the Heliosat-II method with GOES images provide accurate SSI estimates in French Guiana.

  18. [Digitalization, archival storage and use of image documentation in the GastroBase-II system].

    PubMed

    Kocna, P

    1997-05-14

    "GastroBase-II" is a module of the clinical information system "KIS-ComSyD"; The main part is represented by structured data-text with an expert system including on-line image digitalization in gastroenterology (incl. endoscopic, X-ray and endosonography pictures). The hardware and software of the GastroBase are described as well as six-years experiences with application of digitalized image data. An integration of a picture into text, reports, slides for a lecture or an electronic atlas is documented with examples. Briefly are reported out experiences with graphic editors (PhotoStyler), text editor (WordPerfect) and slide preparation for lecturing with the presentation software PowerPoint. The multimedia applications on the CD-ROM illustrate a modern trend using digitalized image documentation for pregradual and postgradual education. PMID:9296882

  19. Design of site specific radiopharmaceuticals for tumor imaging. (Parts I and II)

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dort, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Part I. Synthetic methods were developed for the preparation of several iodinated benzoic acid hydrazides as labeling moieties for indirect tagging of carbonyl-containing bio-molecules and potential tumor-imaging agents. Biodistribution studies conducted in mice on the derivatives having the I-125 label ortho to a phenolic OH demonstrated a rapid in vivo deiodination. Part II. The reported high melanin binding affinity of quinoline and other heterocyclic antimalarial drugs led to the development of many analogues of such molecules as potential melanoma-imaging agents. Once such analogue iodochloroquine does exhibit high melanin binding, but has found limited clinical use due to appreciable accumulation in non-target tissues such as the adrenal cortex and inner ear. This project developed a new series of candidate melanoma imaging agents which would be easier to radio-label, could yield higher specific activity product, and which might demonstrate more favorable pharmacokinetic and dosimetric characteristics compared to iodochloroquine.

  20. Synthesis and evaluation of 18F-labeled ATP competitive inhibitors of topoisomerase II as probes for imaging topoisomerase II expression

    PubMed Central

    Daumar, Pierre; Zeglis, Brian M.; Ramos, Nicholas; Divilov, Vadim; Sevak, Kuntal Kumar; Pillarsetty, NagaVaraKishore; Lewis, Jason S.

    2015-01-01

    Type II topoisomerase (Topo-II) is an ATP-dependent enzyme that is essential in the transcription, replication, and chromosome segregation processes and, as such, represents an attractive target for cancer therapy. Numerous studies indicate that the response to treatment with Topo-II inhibitors is highly dependent on both the levels and the activity of the enzyme. Consequently, a non-invasive assay to measure tumoral Topo-II levels has the potential to differentiate responders from non-responders. With the ultimate goal of developing a radiofluorinated tracer for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, we have designed, synthesized, and evaluated a set of fluorinated compounds based on the structure of the ATP-competitive Topo-II inhibitor QAP1. Compounds 18 and 19b showed inhibition of Topo-II in in vitro assays and exhibited moderate, Topo-II level dependent cytotoxicity in SK-BR-3 and MCF-7 cell lines. Based on these results, 18F-labeled analogs of these two compounds were synthesized and evaluated as PET probes for imaging Topo-II overexpression in mice bearing SK-BR-3 xenografts. [18F]-18 and [18F]-19b were synthesized from their corresponding protected tosylated derivatives by fluorination and subsequent deprotection. Small animal PET imaging studies indicated that both compounds do not accumulate in tumors and exhibit poor pharmacokinetics, clearing from the blood pool very rapidly and getting metabolized over. The insights gained from the current study will surely aid in the design and construction of future generations of PET agents for the non-invasive delineation of Topo-II expression. PMID:25240701

  1. IRMA Code II: unique annotation of medical images for access and retrieval.

    PubMed

    Piesch, Tim-Christian; Müller, Henning; Kuhl, Christiane K; Deserno, Thomas M

    2012-01-01

    Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) provides novel options to access large repositories of medical images, in particular for storing, querying and reporting. This requires a revisit of nomenclatures for image classification such as DICOM, SNOMED, and RadLex. For instance, DICOM defines only about 20 concept terms for body regions, which partly overlap. This is insufficient to access the visual image characteristics. In 2002, the Image Retrieval in Medical Applications (IRMA) project proposed a mono-hierarchic, multi-axial coding scheme called IRMA Code. It was used in the Cross Language Evaluation Forum (ImageCLEF) annotation tasks. Ten years of experience have discovered several weak points. In this paper, we propose eight axes of three levels in hierarchy for (A) anatomy, (B) biological system, (C) configuration, (D) direction, (E) equipment, (F) finding, (G) generation, and (H) human maneuver as well as additional flags for age class, body side, contrast agent, ethnicity, finding certainty, gender, quality, and scanned film, which are captured in form of another axis (I). Using a tag-based notation IRMA Code II supports multiple selection coding within one axis, which is required for the new main categories. PMID:22874172

  2. 10. Photographic copy of copy of original construction drawing, dated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photographic copy of copy of original construction drawing, dated 1899?. Original in possession of Twin Lakes Reservoir and Canal Company, Ordway, Colorado. PLAN OF DAM AND HEAD GATES FOR THE TWIN LAKES RESERVOIR. - Twin Lakes Dam & Outlet Works, Beneath Twin Lakes Reservoir, T11S, R80W, S22, Twin Lakes, Lake County, CO

  3. A functional ruthenium(ii) complex for imaging biothiols in living bodies.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhiqiang; Gao, Quankun; An, Xin; Song, Bo; Yuan, Jingli

    2015-05-01

    A unique ruthenium(ii) complex, [Ru(bpy)2(DNS-bpy)](PF6)2 [bpy: 2,2'-bipyridine, DNS-bpy: 4-(2,4-dinitrophenylthio)-2,2'-bipyridine], that can act as a probe for the recognition and luminescence sensing of biothiols has been designed and synthesized. Due to the presence of effective photo-induced electron transfer (PET) from the potent electron donor (Ru-bpy centre) to the strong electron acceptor (2,4-dinitrophenyl moiety), the Ru(ii) complex itself is weakly luminescent. Reaction of [Ru(bpy)2(DNS-bpy)](PF6)2 with biothiols leads to the replacement of the 2,4-dinitrophenyl moiety by biothiols, which results in the loss of PET within the complex, to allow recovery of the MLCT-based emission of the Ru(ii) complex with an 80-fold increase in luminescence intensity. Taking advantage of the high specificity and sensitivity, and the excellent photophysical properties of Ru(ii) complexes, [Ru(bpy)2(DNS-bpy)](PF6)2 was successfully applied to the luminescence imaging of biothiols in living Daphnia magna. The results demonstrated the practical applicability of [Ru(bpy)2(DNS-bpy)](PF6)2 as a luminescent probe for the monitoring of biothiols in living bodies. PMID:25851565

  4. Type II superlattice infrared focal plane arrays: Optical, electrical, and mid-wave infrared imaging characterization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, John; Svensson, Stefan; Goldberg, Arnie; Kennerly, Steve; Olver, Kim; Hongsmatip, Trirat; Winn, Michael; Uppal, Parvez

    2006-03-01

    We have studied the infrared optical and temperature dependent electrical properties of 320 x 256 arrays of GaSb/InAs type II superlattice infrared photodiodes. Good agreement between single-pixel and focal plane array measurements of the photon-to- electron/hole conversion efficiency was obtained, and the infrared absorption coefficient extracted from these measurements was found to be comparable to that of HgCdTe with the same bandgap as the type II superlattice. Temperature and voltage dependent dark current measurements and the voltage dependent photocurrent generated by a 300 K background scene were described well using a semi-empirical model of the photodiode. We will show high-quality images obtained from the mid-infrared focal plane array operating at 78 K.

  5. MONSTIR II: A 32-channel, multispectral, time-resolved optical tomography system for neonatal brain imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Robert J. Magee, Elliott; Everdell, Nick; Magazov, Salavat; Varela, Marta; Airantzis, Dimitrios; Gibson, Adam P.; Hebden, Jeremy C.

    2014-05-15

    We detail the design, construction and performance of the second generation UCL time-resolved optical tomography system, known as MONSTIR II. Intended primarily for the study of the newborn brain, the system employs 32 source fibres that sequentially transmit picosecond pulses of light at any four wavelengths between 650 and 900 nm. The 32 detector channels each contain an independent photo-multiplier tube and temporally correlated photon-counting electronics that allow the photon transit time between each source and each detector position to be measured with high temporal resolution. The system's response time, temporal stability, cross-talk, and spectral characteristics are reported. The efficacy of MONSTIR II is demonstrated by performing multi-spectral imaging of a simple phantom.

  6. Stereotactic Image-Guided Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy Using the HI-ART II Helical Tomotherapy System

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Timothy W. Hudes, Richard; Dziuba, Sylwester; Kazi, Abdul; Hall, Mark; Dawson, Dana

    2008-07-01

    The highly integrated adaptive radiation therapy (HI-ART II) helical tomotherapy unit is a new radiotherapy machine designed to achieve highly precise and accurate treatments at all body sites. The precision and accuracy of the HI-ART II is similar to that provided by stereotactic radiosurgery systems, hence the historical distinction between external beam radiotherapy and stereotactic procedures based on differing precision requirements is removed for this device. The objectives of this work are: (1) to describe stereotactic helical tomotherapy processes (SRS, SBRT); (2) to show that the precision and accuracy of the HI-ART meet the requirements defined for SRS and SBRT; and (3) to describe the clinical implementation of a stereotactic image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) system that incorporates optical motion management.

  7. MONSTIR II: a 32-channel, multispectral, time-resolved optical tomography system for neonatal brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Robert J; Magee, Elliott; Everdell, Nick; Magazov, Salavat; Varela, Marta; Airantzis, Dimitrios; Gibson, Adam P; Hebden, Jeremy C

    2014-05-01

    We detail the design, construction and performance of the second generation UCL time-resolved optical tomography system, known as MONSTIR II. Intended primarily for the study of the newborn brain, the system employs 32 source fibres that sequentially transmit picosecond pulses of light at any four wavelengths between 650 and 900 nm. The 32 detector channels each contain an independent photo-multiplier tube and temporally correlated photon-counting electronics that allow the photon transit time between each source and each detector position to be measured with high temporal resolution. The system's response time, temporal stability, cross-talk, and spectral characteristics are reported. The efficacy of MONSTIR II is demonstrated by performing multi-spectral imaging of a simple phantom. PMID:24880351

  8. Counting copy number and calories.

    PubMed

    White, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) at several genomic loci has been associated with different human traits and diseases, but in many cases the findings could not be replicated. A new study provides insights into the degree of variation present at the amylase locus and calls into question a previous association between amylase copy number and body mass index. PMID:26220133

  9. [Fe II] 1.64 μm IMAGING OBSERVATIONS OF THE OUTFLOW FEATURES AROUND ULTRACOMPACT H II REGIONS IN THE FIRST GALACTIC QUADRANT

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, Jong-Ho; Kim, Kee-Tae; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kyeong, Jaemann; Hwang, Narae; Park, Byeong-Gon; Lee, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Koo, Bon-Chul; Pyo, Tae-Soo

    2014-09-01

    We present [Fe II] 1.644 μm features around ultracompact H II regions (UCHIIs) found on a quest for the ''footprint'' outflow features of UCHIIs—the features produced by outflowing materials ejected during an earlier, active accretion phase of massive young stellar objects (MYSOs). We surveyed 237 UCHIIs in the first Galactic quadrant, employing the CORNISH UCHII catalog and UWIFE data, which is an imaging survey in [Fe II] 1.644 μm performed with UKIRT-WFCAM under ∼0.''8 seeing conditions. The [Fe II] features were found around five UCHIIs, one of which was less plausible. We interpret the [Fe II] features to be shock-excited by outflows from YSOs and estimate the outflow mass-loss rates from the [Fe II] flux which are ∼1 × 10{sup –6}-4 × 10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We propose that the [Fe II] features might be the ''footprint'' outflow features, but more studies are required to clarify whether or not this is the case. This is based on the morphological relation between the [Fe II] and 5 GHz radio features, the outflow mass-loss rate, the travel time of the [Fe II] features, and the existence of several YSO candidates near the UCHIIs. The UCHIIs accompanying the [Fe II] features have relatively higher peak flux densities. The fraction of UCHIIs accompanying the [Fe II] features, 5/237, is small when compared to the ∼90% detection rate of high-velocity CO gas around UCHIIs. We discuss some possible explanations for the low detection rate.

  10. DNA sequence copy number analysis by Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH)

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkel, D.; Kallioniemi, A.; Kallioniemi, O.; Waldman, F.; Sudar, D.; Gray, I. ); Rutovitz, D.; Piper, I. )

    1993-01-01

    Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) uses the kinetics of in situ hybridization to compare the copy numbers of different DNA sequences within the same genome and the copy numbers of the same sequences among different genomes. In a typical application genomic DNA from a tumor and from normal cells are differentially labeled and simultaneously hybridized to normal metaphase chromosomes, and detected with different fluorochromes. Properly registered images of each fluorochrome are obtained using a microscope equipped with multi-band filters and a CCD camera. Digital image analysis permits measurement of intensity ratio profiles along each of the target chromosomes. Studies of cells with known aberrations indicate that the intensity ratio at each position is proportional to the ratio of the copy numbers of the sequences that bind there in the tumor and normal genomes. Analytical challenges posed by the need to efficiently obtain copy number karyotypes are discussed.

  11. Detection of Copy-Rotate-Move Forgery Using Zernike Moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Seung-Jin; Lee, Min-Jeong; Lee, Heung-Kyu

    As forgeries have become popular, the importance of forgery detection is much increased. Copy-move forgery, one of the most commonly used methods, copies a part of the image and pastes it into another part of the the image. In this paper, we propose a detection method of copy-move forgery that localizes duplicated regions using Zernike moments. Since the magnitude of Zernike moments is algebraically invariant against rotation, the proposed method can detect a forged region even though it is rotated. Our scheme is also resilient to the intentional distortions such as additive white Gaussian noise, JPEG compression, and blurring. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme is appropriate to identify the forged region by copy-rotate-move forgery.

  12. Imaging and therapeutic applications of zinc(ii)-dipicolylamine molecular probes for anionic biomembranes.

    PubMed

    Rice, Douglas R; Clear, Kasey J; Smith, Bradley D

    2016-07-01

    This feature article describes the development of synthetic zinc(ii)-dipicolylamine (ZnDPA) receptors as selective targeting agents for anionic membranes in cell culture and living subjects. There is a strong connection between anionic cell surface charge and disease, and ZnDPA probes have been employed extensively for molecular imaging and targeted therapeutics. Fluorescence and nuclear imaging applications include detection of diseases such as cancer, neurodegeneration, arthritis, and microbial infection, and also quantification of cell death caused by therapy. Therapeutic applications include selective targeting of cytotoxic agents and drug delivery systems, photodynamic inactivation, and modulation of the immune system. The article concludes with a summary of expected future directions. PMID:27302091

  13. ALFALFA DISCOVERY OF THE NEARBY GAS-RICH DWARF GALAXY LEO P. II. OPTICAL IMAGING OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Rhode, Katherine L.; Salzer, John J.; Haurberg, Nathalie C.; Van Sistine, Angela; Young, Michael D.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Cannon, John M.; Skillman, Evan D.; McQuinn, Kristen B. W. E-mail: slaz@astro.indiana.edu E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: jcannon@macalester.edu E-mail: kmcquinn@astro.umn.edu

    2013-06-15

    We present results from ground-based optical imaging of a low-mass dwarf galaxy discovered by the ALFALFA 21 cm H I survey. Broadband (BVR) data obtained with the WIYN 3.5 m telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) are used to construct color-magnitude diagrams of the galaxy's stellar population down to V{sub o} {approx} 25. We also use narrowband H{alpha} imaging from the KPNO 2.1 m telescope to identify a H II region in the galaxy. We use these data to constrain the distance to the galaxy to be between 1.5 and 2.0 Mpc. This places Leo P within the Local Volume but beyond the Local Group. Its properties are extreme: it is the lowest-mass system known that contains significant amounts of gas and is currently forming stars.

  14. Tuning the cellular uptake properties of luminescent heterobimetallic iridium(III)-ruthenium(II) DNA imaging probes.

    PubMed

    Wragg, Ashley; Gill, Martin R; Turton, David; Adams, Harry; Roseveare, Thomas M; Smythe, Carl; Su, Xiaodi; Thomas, Jim A

    2014-10-20

    The synthesis of two new luminescent dinuclear Ir(III)-Ru(II) complexes containing tetrapyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c:3'',2''-h:2''',3'''-j]phenazine (tpphz) as the bridging ligand is reported. Unlike many other complexes incorporating cyclometalated Ir(III) moieties, these complexes display good water solubility, allowing the first cell-based study on Ir(III)-Ru(II) bioprobes to be carried out. Photophysical studies indicate that emission from each complex is from a Ru(II) excited state and both complexes display significant in vitro DNA-binding affinities. Cellular studies show that each complex is rapidly internalised by HeLa cells, in which they function as luminescent nuclear DNA-imaging agents for confocal microscopy. Furthermore, the uptake and nuclear targeting properties of the complex incorporating cyclometalating 2-(4-fluorophenyl)pyridine ligands around its Ir(III) centre is enhanced in comparison to the non-fluorinated analogue, indicating that fluorination may provide a route to promote cell uptake of transition-metal bioprobes. PMID:25208528

  15. Phase II Trial of Concurrent Sunitinib and Image-Guided Radiotherapy for Oligometastases

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Charles C. L.; Ko, Eric C.; Sung, Max W.; Cesaretti, Jamie A.; Stock, Richard G.; Packer, Stuart H.; Forsythe, Kevin; Genden, Eric M.; Schwartz, Myron; Lau, K. H. Vincent; Galsky, Matthew; Ozao-Choy, Junko; Chen, Shu-hsia; Kao, Johnny

    2012-01-01

    Background Preclinical data suggest that sunitinib enhances the efficacy of radiotherapy. We tested the combination of sunitinib and hypofractionated image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) in a cohort of patients with historically incurable distant metastases. Methods Twenty five patients with oligometastases, defined as 1–5 sites of active disease on whole body imaging, were enrolled in a phase II trial from 2/08 to 9/10. The most common tumor types treated were head and neck, liver, lung, kidney and prostate cancers. Patients were treated with the recommended phase II dose of 37.5 mg daily sunitinib (days 1–28) and IGRT 50 Gy (days 8–12 and 15–19). Maintenance sunitinib was used in 33% of patients. Median follow up was 17.5 months (range, 0.7 to 37.4 months). Results The 18-month local control, distant control, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 75%, 52%, 56% and 71%, respectively. At last follow-up, 11 (44%) patients were alive without evidence of disease, 7 (28%) were alive with distant metastases, 3 (12%) were dead from distant metastases, 3 (12%) were dead from comorbid illness, and 1 (4%) was dead from treatment-related toxicities. The incidence of acute grade ≥ 3 toxicities was 28%, most commonly myelosuppression, bleeding and abnormal liver function tests. Conclusions Concurrent sunitinib and IGRT achieves major clinical responses in a subset of patients with oligometastases. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00463060 PMID:22761653

  16. Photographic copy of undated drawing. Printed copy located in plan ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of undated drawing. Printed copy located in plan files at the New Orleans Public Belt Railroad Administration Office at 5100 Jefferson Highway, Jefferson, Louisiana 70123. Draftsman Unknown. DRAWING OF ENTIRE BRIDGE PLAN AND PARTIAL NORTHEAST ELEVATION. PROPERTY OF NEW ORLEANS PUBLIC BELT RAILROAD. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  17. Doppler images of the RS CVn binary II Pegasi during the years 1994-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindborg, M.; Korpi, M. J.; Hackman, T.; Tuominen, I.; Ilyin, I.; Piskunov, N.

    2011-02-01

    Aims: We publish 16 Doppler imaging temperature maps for the years 1994-2002 of the active RS CVn star II Peg. The six maps from 1999-2002 are based on previously unpublished observations. Through Doppler imaging we want to study the spot evolution of the star and in particular compare this with previous results showing a cyclic spot behaviour and persistent, active longitudes. Methods: The observations were collected with the SOFIN spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope. The temperature maps were calculated using a Doppler imaging code based on Tikhonov regularization. Results: During 1994-2001, our results show a consistent trend in the derived longitudes of the principal and secondary temperature minima over time such that the magnetic structure appears to rotate somewhat more rapidly than the orbital period of this close binary. A sudden phase jump in the active region occurred between the observing seasons of 2001 and 2002. No clear trend over time is detected in the derived latitudes of the spots, indicating that the systematic motion could be related to the drift of the spot-generating mechanism rather than to differential rotation. The derived temperature maps are quite similar to the ones obtained earlier with different methods and the main differences occur in the spot latitudes and relative strength of the spot structures. Conclusions: We observe both longitude and latitude shifts in the spot activity of II Peg. However, our results are not consistent with the periodic behaviour presented in previous studies. Full Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/526/A44

  18. Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging of Physiological Free Cu(II) Levels in Live Cells with a Cu(II)-Selective Carbonic Anhydrase-Based Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    McCranor, Bryan J.; Szmacinski, Henryk; Zeng, Hui Hui; Stoddard, A.K.; Hurst, Tamiika; Fierke, Carol A.; Lakowicz, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Copper is a required trace element that plays key roles in a number of human enzymes, such that copper deficiency or genetic defects in copper transport lead to serious or fatal disease. Rae, et al., had famously predicted that free copper ion levels in the cell cytoplasm were extremely low, typically too low to be observable. We recently developed a variant of human apocarbonic anhydrase II for sensing metal ions that exhibits 25-fold better selectivity for Cu(II) over Zn(II) than the wild type protein, enabling us to accurately measure Cu(II) in the presence of ordinary cellular (picomolar) concentrations of free zinc. We inserted a fluorescent labeled Cu(II)-specific variant of human apocarbonic anhydrase into PC-12 cells and found that the levels are indeed extremely low (in the femtomolar range). We imaged the free Cu(II) levels in living cells by means of frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime microscopy. Implications of this finding are discussed. PMID:24671220

  19. Bacterial Imaging and Photodynamic Inactivation Using Zinc(II)-Dipicolylamine BODIPY Conjugates†

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Douglas R.; Gan, Haiying; Smith, Bradley D.

    2015-01-01

    Targeted imaging and antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (PDI) are emerging methods for detecting and eradicating pathogenic microorganisms. This study describes two structurally related optical probes that are conjugates of a zinc(II)-dipicolylamine targeting unit and a BODIPY chromophore. One probe is a microbial targeted fluorescent imaging agent, mSeek, and the other is an oxygen photosensitizing analogue, mDestroy. The conjugates exhibited high fluorescence quantum yield and singlet oxygen production, respectively. Fluorescence imaging and detection studies examined four bacterial strains: E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumonia, and B. thuringiensis vegetative cells and purified spores. The fluorescent probe, mSeek, is not phototoxic and enabled detection of all tested bacteria at concentrations of ~100 CFU/mL for B. thuringiensis spores, ~1000 CFU/mL for S. aureus and ~10,000 CFU/mL for E. coli. The photosensitizer analogue, mDestroy, inactivated 99–99.99% of bacterial samples and selectively killed bacterial cells in the presence of mammalian cells. However, mDestroy was ineffective against B. thuringiensis spores. Together, the results demonstrate a new two-probe strategy to optimize PDI of bacterial infection/contamination. PMID:26063101

  20. Manganese (II) Chelate Functionalized Copper Sulfide Nanoparticles for Efficient Magnetic Resonance/Photoacoustic Dual-Modal Imaging Guided Photothermal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Renfa; Jing, Lijia; Peng, Dong; Li, Yong; Tian, Jie; Dai, Zhifei

    2015-01-01

    The integration of diagnostic and therapeutic functionalities into one nanoplatform shows great promise in cancer therapy. In this research, manganese (II) chelate functionalized copper sulfide nanoparticles were successfully prepared using a facile hydrothermal method. The obtained ultrasmall nanoparticles exhibit excellent photothermal effect and photoaoustic activity. Besides, the high loading content of Mn(II) chelates makes the nanoparticles attractive T1 contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In vivo photoacoustic imaging (PAI) results showed that the nanoparticles could be efficiently accumulated in tumor site in 24 h after systematic administration, which was further validated by MRI tests. The subsequent photothermal therapy of cancer in vivo was achieved without inducing any observed side effects. Therefore, the copper sulfide nanoparticles functionalized with Mn(II) chelate hold great promise as a theranostic nanomedicine for MR/PA dual-modal imaging guided photothermal therapy of cancer. PMID:26284144

  1. 17 CFR 232.104 - Unofficial PDF copies included in an electronic submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... electronic submission. An unofficial PDF copy may contain graphic and image material (but not animated... tabular representation of any omitted graphic or image material. (c) If a filer omits an unofficial...

  2. 17 CFR 232.104 - Unofficial PDF copies included in an electronic submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... electronic submission. An unofficial PDF copy may contain graphic and image material (but not animated... tabular representation of any omitted graphic or image material. (c) If a filer omits an unofficial...

  3. Quantitating MHC class II trafficking in primary dendritic cells using imaging flow cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Hennies, Cassandra M.; Lehn, Maria A.; Janssen, Edith M.

    2015-01-01

    Presentation of antigenic peptides in MHC class II (MHCII) on dendritic cells (DCs) is the first step in the activation of antigen-specific CD4+T cells. The expression of surface MHCII-peptide complexes is tightly regulated as the frequency of MHCII-peptide complexes can affect the magnitude, as well as the phenotype of the ensuing CD4+T cell response. The surface MHCII-peptide levels are determined by the balance between expression of newly generated complexes, complex internalization, and their subsequent re-emergence or degradation. However, the molecular mechanisms that underpin these processes are still poorly understood. Here we describe a multispectral imaging flow cytometry assay to visualize MHCII trafficking that can be used as a tool to dissect the molecular mechanisms that regulate MHCII homeostasis in primary mouse and human DCs. PMID:25967952

  4. A Study of Differential Rotation on II Pegasi Using Starspot Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roettenbacher, Rachael M.; Harmon, R. O.; Vutisalchavakul, N.; Henry, G.

    2009-01-01

    II Pegasi is an RS CVn binary consisting of a main-sequence star and a K2 subgiant which are tidally locked and orbit one another with a 6.724333-day period. The subgiant is known to exhibit exceptionally large dark starspots on its surface. In this study B- and V- filter light curves obtained from 1987-2007 via the Vanderbilt/Tennessee State 0.4-m Automated Photometric Telescope on Mount Hopkins, AZ were inverted to produce images of the starspots to look for evidence of latitude-dependent differential rotation on the spotted star's surface. The surface maps presented here provide convincing evidence that the star's equatorial regions rotate with a shorter period than do higher latitudes, as is observed on the Sun. We acknowledge the support of Ohio Wesleyan and Lehigh Universities.

  5. Images in the rocket ultraviolet - Young clusters in H II regions of M83

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohlin, Ralph C.; Cornett, Robert H.; Hill, Jesse K.; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1990-01-01

    UV images of M83 at 1540 and 2360 A reveal 18 compact sources that are associated with H II regions. E(B - V) values were estimated individually from the observed UV and optical colors and the Galactic UV extinction curve, using theoretical flux distributions. The dereddened colors are consistent with ages up to 3 x 10 to the 6th yr. A maximum possible age of 6.5 x 10 to the 6th yr is obtained assuming foreground reddening only. The distribution of observed colors is consistent with the Galactic reddening curve but not with enhanced far-UV extinction, as in the LMC 30 Dor curve. The H-alpha fluxes suggest either that dust within the H II regions absorbs up to 70 percent of the Lyman continuum radiation or that a similar fraction of the H-alpha flux is below the surface brightness detection limit. Cluster mass estimates depend on the range of stellar masses present but are probably in the range 10,000-100,000 solar masses.

  6. Terrestrial 250-m observations with ADEOS-II Global Imager (GLI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenqvist, Ake; Matsuura, Naoto; Igarashi, Tamotsu; Yamamoto, Hirokazu; Nakajima, Yukinori

    2004-02-01

    The ADEOS-II satellite was successfully launched with an H-IIA rocket from Tanegashima Space Center in southern Japan on December 14, 2002. Amongst the six remote sensing instruments on-board, the payload includes the Global Imager (GLI) - a 36-channel multi-spectral scanner developed by the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) for ocean, terrestrial, atmosphere and cryosphere applications. 30 bands operate with a 1 km spatial resolution, while the remaining six bands, primarily dedicated for terrestrial use, acquire data with 250 metres ground resolution at nadir. The cancellation of one of the two planned Data Relay Test Satellites (DRTS) required for data down-link however resulted in reduced acquisition capacity at 250 metre resolution and thus prompted the establishment of a dedicated 250-metre data observation strategy, which aims to optimise 250 m observations over land, and to provide spatially and temporally consistent, multi-seasonal global land coverage, on a repetitive basis during the life-time of the ADEOS-II satellite. Plans for 250 m data product generation are furthermore outlined briefly in this paper.

  7. Serial Assessment of Therapeutic Response to a New Radiosensitization Treatment, Kochi Oxydol-Radiation Therapy for Unresectable Carcinomas, Type II (KORTUC II), in Patients with Stage I/II Breast Cancer Using Breast Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yaogawa, Shin; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Morita-Tokuhiro, Shiho; Tsuzuki, Akira; Akima, Ryo; Itoh, Kenji; Morio, Kazuo; Yasunami, Hiroaki; Onogawa, Masahide; Kariya, Shinji; Nogami, Munenobu; Nishioka, Akihito; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Background: We have developed a new radiosensitization treatment called Kochi Oxydol-Radiation Therapy for Unresectable Carcinomas, Type II (KORTUC II). Using KORTUC II, we performed breast-conserving treatment (BCT) without any surgical procedure for elderly patients with breast cancer in stages I/II or patients refusing surgery. Since surgery was not performed, histological confirmation of the primary tumor region following KORTUC II treatment was not possible. Therefore, to precisely evaluate the response to this new therapy, a detailed diagnostic procedure is needed. The goal of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic response to KORTUC II treatment in patients with stage I/II breast cancer using annual breast contrast-enhanced (CE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: Twenty-one patients with stage I/II breast cancer who were elderly and/or refused surgery were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent MRI prior to and at 3 to 6 months after KORTUC II, and then approximately biannually thereafter. Findings from MRI were compared with those from other diagnostic modalities performed during the same time period. Results: KORTUC II was well tolerated, with minimal adverse effects. All of 21 patients showed a clinically complete response (cCR) on CE MRI. The mean period taken to confirm cCR on the breast CE MRI was approximately 14 months. The mean follow-up period for the patients was 61.9 months at the end of October 2014. Conclusions: The therapeutic effect of BCT using KORTUC II without surgery could be evaluated by biannual CE MRI evaluations. Approximately 14 months were required to achieve cCR in response to this therapy. PMID:26703733

  8. Angiotensin II-induced angiotensin II type I receptor lysosomal degradation studied by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hewang; Yu, Peiying; Felder, Robin A.; Periasamy, Ammasi; Jose, Pedro A.

    2009-02-01

    Upon activation, the angiotensin (Ang) II type 1 receptor (AT1Rs) rapidly undergoes endocytosis. After a series of intracellular processes, the internalized AT1Rs recycle back to the plasma membrane or are trafficked to proteasomes or lysosomes for degradation. We recently reported that AT1Rs degrades in proteasomes upon stimulation of the D5 dopamine receptor (D5R) in human renal proximal tubule and HEK-293 cells. This is in contrast to the degradation of AT1R in lysosomes upon binding Ang II. However, the dynamic regulation of the AT1Rs in lysosomes is not well understood. Here we investigated the AT1Rs lysosomal degradation using FRET-FLIM in HEK 293 cells heterologously expressing the human AT1R tagged with EGFP as the donor fluorophore. Compared to its basal state, the lifetime of AT1Rs decreased after a 5-minute treatment with Ang II treatment and colocalized with Rab5 but not Rab7 and LAMP1. With longer Ang II treatment (30 min), the AT1Rs lifetime decreased and co-localized with Rab5, as well as Rab7 and LAMP1. The FLIM data are corroborated with morphological and biochemical co-immunoprecipitation studies. These data demonstrate that Ang II induces the internalization of AT1Rs into early sorting endosomes prior to trafficking to late endosomes and subsequent degradation in lysosomes.

  9. Zero-Copy Objects System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Zero-Copy Objects System software enables application data to be encapsulated in layers of communication protocol without being copied. Indirect referencing enables application source data, either in memory or in a file, to be encapsulated in place within an unlimited number of protocol headers and/or trailers. Zero-copy objects (ZCOs) are abstract data access representations designed to minimize I/O (input/output) in the encapsulation of application source data within one or more layers of communication protocol structure. They are constructed within the heap space of a Simple Data Recorder (SDR) data store to which all participating layers of the stack must have access. Each ZCO contains general information enabling access to the core source data object (an item of application data), together with (a) a linked list of zero or more specific extents that reference portions of this source data object, and (b) linked lists of protocol header and trailer capsules. The concatenation of the headers (in ascending stack sequence), the source data object extents, and the trailers (in descending stack sequence) constitute the transmitted data object constructed from the ZCO. This scheme enables a source data object to be encapsulated in a succession of protocol layers without ever having to be copied from a buffer at one layer of the protocol stack to an encapsulating buffer at a lower layer of the stack. For large source data objects, the savings in copy time and reduction in memory consumption may be considerable.

  10. Photographic copy of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Fort Worth, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Fort Worth, Texas, drawing (original located at Fort Hood, Texas), 1989 Site plan of South Fort Hood - Fort Hood, World War II Temporary Buildings, Killeen, Bell County, TX

  11. Photographic copy of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Fort Worth, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Fort Worth, Texas, drawing (original located at Fort Hood, Texas), 1989 Site plan of North Fort Hood - Fort Hood, World War II Temporary Buildings, Killeen, Bell County, TX

  12. Thermal imaging QC for silicon strip staves of the ATLAS phase II upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergel Infante, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    A new silicon strip detector is part of the phase II upgrade of the ATLAS inner tracker. Light-material carbon fiber honeycomb sandwich staves serve as mechanical support for the strip sensors and readout modules and to move the dissipated heat out of the detector. A cooling pipe inside the stave is embedded in heat-conducting foam that thermally connects the pipe with the readout modules. The staves are required to pass a set of quality control (QC) tests before they are populated with readout modules. One test uses a non-invasive inspection method of infrared (IR) thermal imaging of the heat path while the stave is cooled to around -40°C at ambient room temperature. Imperfections in the manufacturing, such as the delamination of the stave facing from the foam, will exhibit a different temperature profile compared to a flawless stave. We report on the current status of the thermal imaging QC measurements including a characterization of various contributions to the uncertainties in the temperature reading of the IR camera such as pedestal variations, common-mode noise, vignetting, and statistical fluctuations across the field of view.

  13. Simulation of Collimator for Neutron Imaging Facility of TRIGA MARK II PUSPATI Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zin, Muhammad Rawi Mohamed; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Yazid, Khairiah; Hussain, Hishamuddin; Yazid, Hafizal; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid Megat; Azman, Azraf; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Hamzah, Nai'im Syaugi; Abu, Mohamad Puad

    Neutron Radiography facility in TRIGA MARK II PUSPATI reactor is being upgraded to obtain better image resolution as well as reducing exposure time. Collimator and exposure room are the main components have been designed for fabrication. This article focuses on the simulation part that was carried out to obtain the profile of collimated neutron beam by utilizing the neutron transport protocol code in the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) software. Particular interest is in the selection of materials for inlet section of the collimator. Results from the simulation indicates that a combination of Bismuth and Sapphire, each of which has 5.0 cm length that can significantly filter both the gamma radiation and the fast neutrons. An aperture made of Cadmium with 1.0 cm opening diameter provides thermal neutron flux about 1.8 x108 ncm-2s-1 at the inlet, but reduces to 2.7 x106 ncm-2s-1 at the sample plane. Still the flux obtained is expected to reduces exposure time as well as gaining better image resolution.

  14. Performance confirmation of the Belle II imaging Time Of Propogation (iTOP) prototype counter

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Alan; Liu, Yang; Belhorn, Matt; Browder, Thomas; Varner, Gary; Andrew, Matt; Rosen, Marc; Barrett, Matthew; Nishimura, Kurtis; Anderson, Eric Iijima, Toru; /Nagoya U. /PNL, Richland

    2011-10-17

    modest image expansion volume and more highly pixelated image plane improve the theoretical detector performance, since timing alone is limited by chromatic dispersion of the Cherenkov photons. This imaging-TOP (or iTOP) counter is the basis of Belle II barrel PID upgrade. However, a number of critical performance parameters must be demonstrated prior to releasing this prototype design for production manufacture.

  15. The discrimination of type I and type II collagen and the label-free imaging of engineered cartilage tissue.

    PubMed

    Su, Ping-Jung; Chen, Wei-Liang; Li, Tsung-Hsien; Chou, Chen-Kuan; Chen, Te-Hsuen; Ho, Yi-Yun; Huang, Chi-Hsiu; Chang, Shwu-Jen; Huang, Yi-You; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2010-12-01

    Using excitation polarization-resolved second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy, we measured SHG intensity as a function of the excitation polarization angle for type I and type II collagens. We determined the second order susceptibility (χ((2))) tensor ratios of type I and II collagens at each pixel, and displayed the results as images. We found that the χ((2)) tensor ratios can be used to distinguish the two types of collagen. In particular, we obtained χ(zzz)/χ(zxx) = 1.40 ± 0.04 and χ(xzx)/χ(zxx) = 0.53 ± 0.10 for type I collagen from rat tail tendon, and χ(zzz)/χ(zxx) = 1.14 ± 0.09 and χ(xzx)/χ(zxx) = 0.29 ± 0.11 for type II collagen from rat trachea cartilage. We also applied this methodology on the label-free imaging of engineered cartilage tissue which produces type I and II collagen simultaneously. By displaying the χ((2)) tensor ratios in the image format, the variation in the χ((2)) tensor ratios can be used as a contrast mechanism for distinguishing type I and II collagens. PMID:20875682

  16. To Copy-Protect or Not to Copy-Protect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Jonathan

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the issues of software piracy, why people illegally copy software, protection afforded software developers by copyright laws, and current and future methods of disk-based protection built into software by developers and the problems these methods have created. (MBR)

  17. Anterior segment OCT imaging in mucopolysaccharidoses type I, II, and VI

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, T Y; Turnbull, A M J; Attridge, N F; Biswas, S; Lloyd, I C; Au, L; Ashworth, J L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe the anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) characteristics of patients with ocular manifestations of mucopolysaccharidoses type I (Hurler), II (Hunter), and VI (Maroteaux–Lamy). Methods Prospective, observational study of nine consecutive patients with variants of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) attending the Paediatric Ophthalmology service at Manchester Royal Eye Hospital, UK. All patients underwent Visante AS-OCT imaging as part of their ophthalmic assessment. Results Ocular involvement tended to be symmetrical. Angle-to-angle distance was significantly lower in MPS VI than in MPS I (P=0.04). Anterior chamber depth, angle opening distance, trabecular-iris space area, and scleral spur angle tended to be lower in MPS VI than in MPS I, but did not reach statistical significance. Corneal thickness in the central 0–2 mm zone was greater in MPS VI than in MPS I, approaching but not attaining statistical significance (P=0.07). The 2–5 and 5–7 mm zones were significantly thicker in MPS VI than MPS I (P=0.04, P=0.04). There was no difference in corneal thickness between MPS I and MPS VI in the peripheral 7–10 mm zone (P=0.57). Measurements of the patient with MPS II resembled the mean values of the MPS I group. Conclusion AS-OCT is valuable in quantifying anterior segment pathology in MPS. It suggests more crowded anterior segments and greater corneal thickness in patients with MPS VI than MPS I. AS-OCT is useful in evaluating the risk and mechanism of glaucoma in MPS patients, and may improve our assessment of the efficacy of systemic treatment. PMID:24384963

  18. Copy number variation and mutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Brian; Weidner, Jacob; Wabick, Kevin

    2009-11-01

    Until very recently, the standard model of DNA included two genes for each trait. This dated model has given way to a model that includes copies of some genes well in excess of the canonical two. Copy number variations in the human genome play critical roles in causing or aggravating a number of syndromes and diseases while providing increased resistance to others. We explore the role of mutation, crossover, inversion, and reproduction in determining copy number variations in a numerical simulation of a population. The numerical model consists of a population of individuals, where each individual is represented by a single strand of DNA with the same number of genes. Each gene is initially assigned to one of two traits. Fitness of the individual is determined by the two most fit genes for trait one, and trait two genetic material is treated as a reservoir of junk DNA. After a sufficient number of generations, during which the genetic distribution is allowed to reach a steady-state, the mean numberof genes per trait and the copy number variation are recorded. Here, we focus on the role of mutation and compare simulation results to theory.

  19. Copying Services and Copyright Infringement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Store Journal (Sec 1), 1977

    1977-01-01

    The impact of the Copyright Revision Act of 1976 on copying services supplied by many college stores is assessed. It is suggested that even unsupervised photocopying of copyrighted books and periodicals may constitute vicarious infringement by the store, but that in an academic environment, photocopying may constitute defensible "fair use." (LBH)

  20. 53. PRODUCTION MOLDS. THESE MOLDS ARE COPIES OF THE ORIGINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. PRODUCTION MOLDS. THESE MOLDS ARE COPIES OF THE ORIGINAL MOLDS IN THE MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS COLLECTION, AND ARE USED TO PRESS TILES. THE FACTORY KEEPS TEN PRODUCTION MOLDS FOR EACH IMAGE. THE ORIGINAL MOLDS ARE NOT USED IN PRODUCTION. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  1. A STUDY OF DIFFERENTIAL ROTATION ON II PEGASI VIA PHOTOMETRIC STARSPOT IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Roettenbacher, Rachael M.; Harmon, Robert O.; Vutisalchavakul, Nalin; Henry, Gregory W.

    2011-04-15

    We present the results of a study of differential rotation on the K2 IV primary of the RS CVn binary II Pegasi (HD 224085) performed by inverting light curves to produce images of the dark starspots on its surface. The data were obtained in the standard Johnson B and V filter passbands via the Tennessee State University T3 0.4 m Automated Photometric Telescope from JD 2447115.8086-2455222.6238 (1987 November 16-2010 January 26). The observations were subdivided into 79 data sets consisting of pairs of B and V light curves, which were then inverted using a constrained nonlinear inversion algorithm that makes no a priori assumptions regarding the number of spots or their shapes. The resulting surface images were then assigned to 24 groups corresponding to time intervals over which we could observe the evolution of a given group of spots (except for three groups consisting of single data sets). Of these 24 groups, six showed convincing evidence of differential rotation over time intervals of several months. For the others, the spot configuration was such that differential rotation was neither exhibited nor contraindicated. The differential rotation we infer is in the same sense as that on the Sun: lower latitudes have shorter rotation periods. From plots of the range in longitude spanned by the spotted regions versus time, we obtain estimates of the differential rotation coefficient k defined as in earlier work by Henry et al. and show that our results for its value are consistent with the value obtained therein.

  2. A Study of Differential Rotation on II Pegasi via Photometric Starspot Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roettenbacher, Rachael M.; Harmon, Robert O.; Vutisalchavakul, Nalin; Henry, Gregory W.

    2011-04-01

    We present the results of a study of differential rotation on the K2 IV primary of the RS CVn binary II Pegasi (HD 224085) performed by inverting light curves to produce images of the dark starspots on its surface. The data were obtained in the standard Johnson B and V filter passbands via the Tennessee State University T3 0.4 m Automated Photometric Telescope from JD 2447115.8086-2455222.6238 (1987 November 16-2010 January 26). The observations were subdivided into 79 data sets consisting of pairs of B and V light curves, which were then inverted using a constrained nonlinear inversion algorithm that makes no a priori assumptions regarding the number of spots or their shapes. The resulting surface images were then assigned to 24 groups corresponding to time intervals over which we could observe the evolution of a given group of spots (except for three groups consisting of single data sets). Of these 24 groups, six showed convincing evidence of differential rotation over time intervals of several months. For the others, the spot configuration was such that differential rotation was neither exhibited nor contraindicated. The differential rotation we infer is in the same sense as that on the Sun: lower latitudes have shorter rotation periods. From plots of the range in longitude spanned by the spotted regions versus time, we obtain estimates of the differential rotation coefficient k defined as in earlier work by Henry et al. and show that our results for its value are consistent with the value obtained therein.

  3. Geometric corrections on sidescan sonar images based on bathymetry. Application with SeaMARC II and Sea Beam data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervenka, Pierre; de Moustier, Christian; Lonsdale, Peter F.

    1994-10-01

    Acoustic backscatter images of the seafloor obtained with sidescan sonar systems are displayed most often using a flat bottom assumption. Whenever this assumption is not valid, pixels are mapped incorrectly in the image frame, yielding distorted representations of the seafloor. Here, such distortions are corrected by using an appropriate representation of the relief, as measured by the sonar that collected the acoustic backscatter information. In addition, all spatial filtering operations required in the pixel relocation process take the sonar geometry into account. Examples of the process are provided by data collected in the Northeastern Pacific over Fieberling Guyot with the SeaMARC II bathymetric sidescan sonar system and the Sea Beam multibeam echo-sounder. The nearly complete (90%) Sea Beam bathymetry coverage of the Guyot serves as a reference to quantify the distortions found in the backscatter images and to evaluate the accuracy of the corrections performed with SeaMARC II bathymetry. As a byproduct, the processed SeaMARC II bathymetry and the Sea Beam bathymetry adapted to the SeaMARC II sonar geometry exhibit a 35m mean-square difference over the entire area surveyed.

  4. Mg ii Lines Observed During the X-class Flare on 29 March 2014 by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W.; Heinzel, P.; Kleint, L.; Kašparová, J.

    2015-12-01

    Mg ii lines represent one of the strongest emissions from the chromospheric plasma during solar flares. In this article, we studied the Mg ii lines observed during the X1 flare on 29 March 2014 (SOL2014-03-29T17:48) by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). IRIS detected large intensity enhancements of the Mg ii h and k lines, subordinate triplet lines, and several other metallic lines at the flare footpoints during this flare. We have used the advantage of the slit-scanning mode (rastering) of IRIS and performed, for the first time, a detailed analysis of spatial and temporal variations of the spectra. Moreover, we were also able to identify positions of strongest hard X-ray (HXR) emissions using the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) observations and to correlate them with the spatial and temporal evolution of IRIS Mg ii spectra. The light curves of the Mg ii lines increase and peak contemporarily with the HXR emissions but decay more gradually. There are large red asymmetries in the Mg ii h and k lines after the flare peak. We see two spatially well-separated groups of Mg ii line profiles, non-reversed and reversed. In some cases, the Mg ii footpoints with reversed profiles are correlated with HXR sources. We show the spatial and temporal behavior of several other line parameters (line metrics) and briefly discuss them. Finally, we have synthesized the Mg ii k line using our non-LTE code with the Multilevel Accelerated Lambda Iteration (MALI) technique. Two kinds of models are considered, the flare model F2 of Machado et al. ( Astrophys. J. 242, 336, 1980) and the models of Ricchiazzi and Canfield ( Astrophys. J. 272, 739, 1983, RC models). Model F2 reproduces the peak intensity of the non-reversed Mg ii k profile at flare maximum, but does not account for high wing intensities. On the other hand, the RC models show the sensitivity of Mg ii line intensities to various electron-beam parameters. Our simulations also show that

  5. SMILE-II: Balloon-Borne Telescope for Background-Suppressed Soft Gamma-Ray Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawano, T.; Tanimori, T.; Kubo, H.; Takada, A.; Parker, J. D.; Mizumoto, T.; Sonoda, S.; Mizumura, Y.; Tomono, D.; Nakamura, K.; Matsuoka, Y.; Komura, S.; Sato, Y.; Nakamura, S.; Miuchi, K.; Kabuki, S.; Kishimoto, Y.; Kurosawa, S.; Iwaki, S.; Tanaka, M.; Ikeno, M.; Uchida, T.

    We have developed an Electron-Tracking Compton Camera (ETCC) for an all-sky survey at the MeV gamma-ray band. The ETCC consists of a gaseous tracker and a position sensitive scintillation camera to measure the momentum of the Compton-recoil electron and the scattering gamma ray so that we can reconstruct the energy and momentum of the incident gamma ray photon by photon. Also the ETCC has strong background rejection methods using tracking information such as the dE/dx particle identification and theCompton kinematics test. To confirm feasibility of observing celestial objects in space, we performed a balloon experiment to successfully observe the diffuse cosmic and atmospheric gamma rays, which confirmed the effectiveness of the background rejection capability. Based on the first balloon experiment result, we are developing a large ETCC and plan to launch it for the test of the imaging property. The performance of the SMILE-II ETCC is simulated and then it will obtain an effective area of 1.1 cm2 for 200 keV by improving the electron track reconstruction efficiency by a factor of about 10, which results in the detection of Crab nebula at >5σ level for several-hour observation in the middle latitude with an altitude of 40 km.

  6. Demonstration of type-II superlattice MWIR minority carrier unipolar imager for high operation temperature application.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guanxi; Haddadi, Abbas; Hoang, Anh-Minh; Chevallier, Romain; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2015-01-01

    An InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice-based mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) 320×256 unipolar focal plane array (FPA) using pMp architecture exhibited excellent infrared image from 81 to 150 K and ∼98% operability, which illustrated the possibility for high operation temperature application. At 150 K and -50  mV operation bias, the 27 μm pixels exhibited dark current density to be 1.2×10(-5)  A/cm(2), with 50% cutoff wavelength of 4.9 μm, quantum efficiency of 67% at peak responsivity (4.6 μm), and specific detectivity of 1.2×10(12) Jones. At 90 K and below, the 27 μm pixels exhibited system limited dark current density, which is below 1×10(-9)  A/cm(2), and specific detectivity of 1.5×10(14) Jones. From 81 to 100 K, the FPA showed ∼11  mK NEDT by using F/2.3 optics and a 9.69 ms integration time. PMID:25531604

  7. APPLEPIPS /Apple Personal Image Processing System/ - An interactive digital image processing system for the Apple II microcomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masuoka, E.; Rose, J.; Quattromani, M.

    1981-01-01

    Recent developments related to microprocessor-based personal computers have made low-cost digital image processing systems a reality. Image analysis systems built around these microcomputers provide color image displays for images as large as 256 by 240 pixels in sixteen colors. Descriptive statistics can be computed for portions of an image, and supervised image classification can be obtained. The systems support Basic, Fortran, Pascal, and assembler language. A description is provided of a system which is representative of the new microprocessor-based image processing systems currently on the market. While small systems may never be truly independent of larger mainframes, because they lack 9-track tape drives, the independent processing power of the microcomputers will help alleviate some of the turn-around time problems associated with image analysis and display on the larger multiuser systems.

  8. CT and MR Imaging Diagnosis and Staging of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Part II. Extracellular Agents, Hepatobiliary Agents, and Ancillary Imaging Features

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin-Young; Lee, Jeong-Min

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging play critical roles in the diagnosis and staging of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The second article of this two-part review discusses basic concepts of diagnosis and staging, reviews the diagnostic performance of CT and MR imaging with extracellular contrast agents and of MR imaging with hepatobiliary contrast agents, and examines in depth the major and ancillary imaging features used in the diagnosis and characterization of HCC. © RSNA, 2014 PMID:25247563

  9. Size and orientation of the lipid II headgroup as revealed by AFM imaging.

    PubMed

    Ganchev, D N; Hasper, H E; Breukink, E; de Kruijff, B

    2006-05-16

    In this study, we investigated the size and orientation of the bacterial Lipid II (L II) headgroup when the L II molecule is present in liquid-crystalline domains of DOPC in a supported DPPC bilayer. Using atomic force microscopy, we detected that L II causes the appearance of a 1.9 nm thick layer, situated over the DOPC headgroup region. With an increased scanning force, this layer can be penetrated by the AFM tip down to the level of the DOPC bilayer. Using different L II precursor molecules, we demonstrated that the detected layer consists of the headgroups of L II and that the MurNAc-pentapeptide unit of the headgroup is responsible for the measured 1.9 nm height of that layer. Monolayer experiments provided information about the in-plane dimensions of the L II headgroup. On the basis of these results and considerations of the molecular dimensions of L II headgroup constituents, we propose a model for the orientation of the L II headgroup in the membrane. In this model, the pentapeptide of the L II headgroup is rather extended and points away from the bilayer surface, which could be important for biological processes, in which L II is involved. PMID:16681392

  10. Gribov copies and anomalous scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Holdom, B.

    2008-12-15

    Nonperturbative and lattice methods indicate that Gribov copies modify the infrared behavior of gauge theories and cause a suppression of gluon propagation. We investigate whether this can be implemented in a modified perturbation theory. The minimal modification proceeds via a nonlocal generalization of the Fadeev-Popov ghost that automatically decouples from physical states. The expected scale invariance of the physics associated with Gribov copies leads to the emergence of a nontrivial infrared fixed point. For a range of a scaling exponent the gauge bosons exhibit unparticlelike behavior in the infrared. The confining regime of interest for QCD requires a larger scaling exponent, but then the severity of ghost dominance upsets naive power counting for the infrared scaling behavior of amplitudes.

  11. Osmium(II) polypyridyl polyarginine conjugate as a probe for live cell imaging; a comparison of uptake, localization and cytotoxicity with its ruthenium(II) analogue.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Aisling; Dolan, Ciarán; Moriarty, Roisin D; Martin, Aaron; Neugebauer, Ute; Forster, Robert J; Davies, Anthony; Volkov, Yuri; Keyes, Tia E

    2015-08-28

    A first investigation into the application of a luminescent osmium(ii) bipyridine complex to live cell imaging is presented. Osmium(ii) (bis-2,2-bipyridyl)-2(4-carboxylphenyl) imidazo[4,5f][1,10]phenanthroline was prepared and conjugated to octaarginine, a cell penetrating peptide. The photophysics, cell uptake and cytotoxicity of this osmium complex conjugate were performed and compared with its ruthenium analogue. Cell uptake and distribution of both ruthenium and osmium conjugates were very similar with rapid transmembrane transport of the osmium probe (complete within approx. 20 min) and dispersion throughout the cytoplasm and organelles. The near-infrared (NIR) emission of the osmium complex (λmax 726 nm) coincides well with the biological optical window and this facilitated luminescent and luminescence lifetime imaging of the cell which was well resolved from cell autofluorescence. The large Stokes shift of the emission also permitted resonance Raman mapping of the dye within CHO cells. Rather surprisingly, the osmium conjugate exhibited very low cytotoxicity when incubated both in the dark and under visible irradiation. This was attributed to the remarkable stability of this complex which was reflected by the complete absence of photo-bleaching of the complex even under extended continuous irradiation. In addition, when compared to its ruthenium analogue its luminescence was short-lived in water therefore rendering it insensitive to O2. PMID:26197944

  12. 14 CFR § 1206.207 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Copies. § 1206.207 Section § 1206.207 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION AVAILABILITY OF AGENCY RECORDS TO MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC Records Available § 1206.207 Copies. The furnishing of a single copy of the...

  13. 36 CFR 703.20 - File copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false File copies. 703.20 Section... Is Not a Party § 703.20 File copies. The Office of the General Counsel will maintain the official file of copies of all demands served on the Library and deciding officials' responses....

  14. 48 CFR 2901.105-3 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copies. 2901.105-3 Section 2901.105-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Purpose, Authority, Issuance 2901.105-3 Copies. Copies of the DOLAR published in the Federal Register, CD-ROM, or Code...

  15. 14 CFR 187.7 - Copies; seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... H of 49 CFR part 7. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Copies; seal. 187.7 Section 187.7... REGULATIONS FEES § 187.7 Copies; seal. The fees for furnishing photostatic or similar copies of documents...

  16. 14 CFR 187.7 - Copies; seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... H of 49 CFR part 7. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Copies; seal. 187.7 Section 187.7... REGULATIONS FEES § 187.7 Copies; seal. The fees for furnishing photostatic or similar copies of documents...

  17. 14 CFR 187.7 - Copies; seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... H of 49 CFR part 7. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Copies; seal. 187.7 Section 187.7... REGULATIONS FEES § 187.7 Copies; seal. The fees for furnishing photostatic or similar copies of documents...

  18. 14 CFR 187.7 - Copies; seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... H of 49 CFR part 7. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Copies; seal. 187.7 Section 187.7... REGULATIONS FEES § 187.7 Copies; seal. The fees for furnishing photostatic or similar copies of documents...

  19. 14 CFR 187.7 - Copies; seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... H of 49 CFR part 7. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Copies; seal. 187.7 Section 187.7... REGULATIONS FEES § 187.7 Copies; seal. The fees for furnishing photostatic or similar copies of documents...

  20. Patterns, Correlates, and Reduction of Homework Copying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palazzo, David J.; Lee, Young-Jin; Warnakulasooriya, Rasil; Pritchard, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Submissions to an online homework tutor were analyzed to determine whether they were copied. The fraction of copied submissions increased rapidly over the semester, as each weekly deadline approached and for problems later in each assignment. The majority of students, who copied less than 10% of their problems, worked steadily over the three days…

  1. 48 CFR 1501.105-3 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Copies. 1501.105-3 Section 1501.105-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL GENERAL Purpose, Authority, Issuance 1501.105-3 Copies. Copies of the EPAAR in Federal Register and CFR form...

  2. 48 CFR 1501.105-3 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Copies. 1501.105-3 Section 1501.105-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL GENERAL Purpose, Authority, Issuance 1501.105-3 Copies. Copies of the EPAAR in Federal Register and CFR form...

  3. 48 CFR 1501.105-3 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Copies. 1501.105-3 Section 1501.105-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL GENERAL Purpose, Authority, Issuance 1501.105-3 Copies. Copies of the EPAAR in Federal Register and CFR form...

  4. New digital anti-copy/scan and verification technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, George K.

    2004-06-01

    This white paper reviews the method for making bearer printed information indistinguishable on a non-copyable substrate when a copied attempt is made on either an analog or digital electrostatic photocopier device. In 1995 we received patent number 5,704,651 for a non-copyable technology trademarked MetallicSafe. In this patent the abstract describes the usage of a reflective layer, formed on a complex pattern region and having graphic or font size shapes and type coordinating to particular patterns in the complex pattern region. The technology used in this patent has now been improved and evolved to new methods of creating a non-copyable substrate trademarked CopySafe+. CopySafe+ is formed of a metallic specular light reflector, a white camouflaged diffused light reflector, and the content information 'light absorption' layer. The synthesizing of these layers on a substrate creates dynamic camouflaged interference patterns and the phenomena of image chaos on a copy. In short, the orientation of a plurality of spectral and diffused light reflection camouflaged layers, mixed and coordinated with light absorption printed information, inhibits the copying device from reproducing the printed content.

  5. SynchroMed II intrathecal pump memory errors due to repeated magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kosturakis, Alyssa; Gebhardt, Rodolfo

    2012-01-01

    Cancer patients with severe refractory pain are often managed with implantable drug delivery systems (IDDS). The only drugs with US Food and Drug Administration approval for intrathecal use are morphine, ziconotide, and baclofen. Other drugs used and mixed include, hydromorphone, bupivacaine, sufentanil, and fentanyl. These patients often undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for disease-related monitoring and diagnoses. Although uncommon, IDDS can fail to resume normal functioning after MRI, potentially causing complications. The magnetic field of an MRI will temporarily stop the rotor of the pump motor and suspend drug delivery for the duration of the MRI exposure. The pump should resume normal operation when removed from the MRI magnetic field, but there is a potential for a delay in the return of proper drug infusion and a delay in the logging of motor stall events after an MRI in the SynchroMed II pumps. A 57-year-old man who underwent multiple MRIs with an implanted IDDS experienced 2 separate memory failures leading to multiple complications. After the first pump malfunction, the patient developed withdrawal symptoms and was treated in the emergency department. The first time, a memory reset resolved the problem. The second time, 29 months later, the patient was admitted to the hospital to manage withdrawal symptoms and the pump had to be exchanged with a new device. Post-MRI pump interrogation should be performed on all patients with IDDS to ensure proper functioning of the pump. Special attention should be paid to patients receiving baclofen, as acute withdrawal can be very serious, even deadly. PMID:23159963

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging arthrography following type II superior labrum from anterior to posterior repair: interobserver and intraobserver reliability

    PubMed Central

    Kurji, Hafeez M; Ono, Yohei; Nelson, Atiba A; More, Kristie D; Wong, Ben; Dyke, Corinne; Boorman, Richard S; Thornton, Gail M; Lo, Ian KY

    2015-01-01

    Background Arthroscopic repair of type II superior labrum from anterior to posterior (SLAP) lesions is a common surgical procedure. However, anatomic healing following repair has rarely been investigated. The intraobserver and interobserver reliability of magnetic resonance imaging arthrography (MRA) following type II SLAP repair has not previously been investigated. This is of particular interest due to recent reports of poor clinical results following type II SLAP lesion repair. Purpose To evaluate the MRA findings following arthroscopic type II SLAP lesion repair and determine its intraobserver and interobserver reliability. Study design Cohort study (diagnosis), Level of Evidence, 2. Methods Twenty-five patients with an isolated type II SLAP lesion (confirmed via diagnostic arthroscopy) underwent standard suture anchor-based repair. At a mean of 25.2 months post-operatively, patients underwent a standardized MRA protocol to investigate the integrity of the repair. MRAs were independently reviewed by two radiologists and a fellowship trained shoulder surgeon. The outcomes were classified as healed SLAP repair or re-torn SLAP repair. Results On average, 54% of MRAs were interpreted as healed SLAP repairs while 46% of MRAs were interpreted as having a re-torn SLAP repair. Overall, only 43% of the studies had 100% agreement across all interpretations. The intraobserver reliability ranged from 0.71 to 0.81 while the interobserver reliability between readers ranged from 0.13 to 0.44 (Table 1). Conclusion The intraobserver agreement of MRA in the evaluation of type II SLAP repair was substantial to excellent. However, the interobserver agreement of MRA was poor to fair. As a result, the routine use of MRA in the evaluation of type II SLAP lesion repair should be utilized with caution. A global evaluation of the patient, including detailed history and physical examination, is paramount in determining the cause of failure and one should not rely on MRA alone. PMID

  7. Copying and Evolution of Neuronal Topology

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Chrisantha; Karishma, K. K.; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2008-01-01

    We propose a mechanism for copying of neuronal networks that is of considerable interest for neuroscience for it suggests a neuronal basis for causal inference, function copying, and natural selection within the human brain. To date, no model of neuronal topology copying exists. We present three increasingly sophisticated mechanisms to demonstrate how topographic map formation coupled with Spike-Time Dependent Plasticity (STDP) can copy neuronal topology motifs. Fidelity is improved by error correction and activity-reverberation limitation. The high-fidelity topology-copying operator is used to evolve neuronal topologies. Possible roles for neuronal natural selection are discussed. PMID:19020662

  8. Simple approach to soft-copy quality monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiker, Gregory G.; Gohel, Nilesh R.; Muka, Edward; Blaine, G. James

    1992-07-01

    As presentation of medical radiographic images on soft-copy displays (cathode ray tubes) becomes increasingly prevalent in electronic radiography, methods of quality assurance must be developed to ensure that radiologists can effectively transfer film-based reading skills. Luminance measurements provide the basis for evaluating the state of soft-copy displays. An integrated approach has been implemented at Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology (MIR) which facilitates measurement of geographically distributed soft-copy displays with centralized data logging, performance tracking and calibration. MIR''s central radiology image manager (RIM) exercises the display station which drives the monitor, harvests the measurement data, stores the results and submits the resulting data for additional processing. The luminance measurements are collected by a small, portable photometric instrument designed at MIR that includes a serial port which is accessed via local area terminal service (LAT) supported by the RIM. The design details of the photometric instrument and example luminance characteristics of several soft-copy displays used at the Mallinckrodt Institute are presented in this paper.

  9. Automatic estimation and compensation of geometric distortions in video copies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupeau, B.; Massoudi, A.; Lefèbvre, F.

    2007-01-01

    The proliferation of pirate copies of feature films on peer-to-peer networks arouses a great interest to countermeasures such as the insertion of (invisible) forensic marks in projected movies, to deter their illegal capture. The registration of pirate copies with the original content is however a prerequisite to the recovery of such embedded messages, as severe geometric distortions often occur in illegally camcorded contents. After a brief state-of-the-art in image registration, the paper details an algorithm for video registration, focusing on the compensation of geometric distortions. Control points are automatically extracted in original and copy pictures, followed by pre- and post-matching filtering steps to discard not relevant control points and erroneous matched pairs of control points respectively. This enables the accurate numerical estimation of an 8-parameter homographic distortion model, used to register the copy frames with the original reference grid. Such an image registration algorithm is inserted into a general video registration scheme. Results are presented on both natural and synthetic test material.

  10. Chimpanzees copy dominant and knowledgeable individuals: implications for cultural diversity

    PubMed Central

    Kendal, Rachel; Hopper, Lydia M.; Whiten, Andrew; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Lambeth, Susan P.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Hoppitt, Will

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that natural selection will fashion cognitive biases to guide when, and from whom, individuals acquire social information, but the precise nature of these biases, especially in ecologically valid group contexts, remains unknown. We exposed four captive groups of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to a novel extractive foraging device and, by fitting statistical models, isolated four simultaneously operating transmission biases. These include biases to copy (i) higher-ranking and (ii) expert individuals, and to copy others when (iii) uncertain or (iv) of low rank. High-ranking individuals were relatively un-strategic in their use of acquired knowledge, which, combined with the bias for others to observe them, may explain reports that high innovation rates (in juveniles and subordinates) do not generate a correspondingly high frequency of traditions in chimpanzees. Given the typically low rank of immigrants in chimpanzees, a ‘copying dominants’ bias may contribute to the observed maintenance of distinct cultural repertoires in neighboring communities despite sharing similar ecology and knowledgeable migrants. Thus, a copying dominants strategy may, as often proposed for conformist transmission, and perhaps in concert with it, restrict the accumulation of traditions within chimpanzee communities whilst maintaining cultural diversity. PMID:27053916

  11. Advanced imaging techniques II: using a compound microscope for photographing point-mount specimens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Digital imaging technology has revolutionized the practice photographing insects for scientific study. Herein described are lighting and mounting techniques designed for imaging micro Hymenoptera. Techniques described here are applicable to all small insects, as well as other invertebrates. The ke...

  12. Quantitative annular dark-field imaging of single-layer graphene—II: atomic-resolution image contrast

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Shunsuke; Koshiya, Shogo; Nagai, Takuro; Kikkawa, Jun; Ishizuka, Kazuo; Kimoto, Koji

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated how accurately atomic-resolution annular dark-field (ADF) images match between experiments and simulations to conduct more reliable crystal structure analyses. Quantitative ADF imaging, in which the ADF intensity at each pixel represents the fraction of the incident probe current, allows us to perform direct comparisons with simulations without the use of fitting parameters. Although the conventional comparison suffers from experimental uncertainties such as an amorphous surface layer and specimen thickness, in this study we eliminated such uncertainties by using a single-layer graphene as a specimen. Furthermore, to reduce image distortion and shot noises in experimental images, multiple acquisitions with drift correction were performed, and the atomic ADF contrast was quantitatively acquired. To reproduce the experimental ADF contrast, we used three distribution functions as the effective source distribution in simulations. The optimum distribution function and its full-width at half-maximum were evaluated by measuring the residuals between the experimental and simulated images. It was found that the experimental images could be explained well by a linear combination of a Gaussian function and a Lorentzian function with a longer tail than the Gaussian function. PMID:26347577

  13. A Deep Narrowband Imaging Search for C IV and He II Emission from Lyα Blobs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigoni Battaia, Fabrizio; Yang, Yujin; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Matsuda, Yuichi; Yamada, Toru; Hayashino, Tomoki

    2015-05-01

    We conduct a deep narrowband imaging survey of 13 Lyα blobs (LABs) located in the SSA22 proto-cluster at z ˜ 3.1 in the C iv and He ii emission lines in an effort to constrain the physical process powering the Lyα emission in LABs. Our observations probe down to unprecedented surface brightness (SB) limits of (2.1-3.4) × 10-18 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2 per 1 arcsec2 aperture (5σ) for the He ii λ1640 and C iv λ1549 lines, respectively. We do not detect extended He ii and C iv emission in any of the LABs, placing strong upper limits on the He ii/Lyα and C iv/Lyα line ratios, of 0.11 and 0.16, for the brightest two LABs in the field. We conduct detailed photoionization modeling of the expected line ratios and find that, although our data constitute the deepest ever observations of these lines, they are still not deep enough to rule out a scenario where the Lyα emission is powered by the ionizing radiation from an obscured active galactic nucleus. Our models can accommodate He ii/Lyα and C iv/Lyα ratios as low as ≃0.05 and ≃0.07, respectively, implying that one needs to reach SB as low as (1-1.5) × 10-18 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2 (at 5σ) in order to rule out a photoionization scenario. These depths will be achievable with the new generation of image-slicing integral field units such as the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) on VLT and the Keck Cosmic Web Imager (KCWI). We also model the expected He ii/Lyα and C iv/Lyα in a different scenario, where Lyα emission is powered by shocks generated in a large-scale superwind, but find that our observational constraints can only be met for shock velocities vs ≳ 250 km s-1, which appear to be in conflict with recent observations of quiescent kinematics in LABs. .

  14. Development of a ruthenium(II) complex based luminescent probe for imaging nitric oxide production in living cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Run; Ye, Zhiqiang; Wang, Guilan; Zhang, Wenzhu; Yuan, Jingli

    2010-06-18

    A unique ruthenium(II) complex, bis(2,2'-bipyridine)(4-(3,4-diaminophenoxy)-2,2'-bipyridine)ruthenium(II) hexafluorophosphate ([(Ru(bpy)(2)(dabpy)][PF(6)](2)), has been designed and synthesized as a highly sensitive and selective luminescence probe for the imaging of nitric oxide (NO) production in living cells. The complex can specifically react with NO in aqueous buffers under aerobic conditions to yield its triazole derivative with a high reaction rate constant at the 10(10) M(-1) s(-1) level; this reaction is accompanied by a remarkable increase of the luminescence quantum yield from 0.13 to 2.2 %. Compared with organic probes, the new Ru(II) complex probe shows the advantages of a large Stokes shift (>150 nm), water solubility, and a wide pH-availability range (pH independent at pH>5). In addition, it was found that the new probe could be easily transferred into both living animal cells and plant cells by the coincubation method, whereas the triazole derivative was cell-membrane impermeable. The probe was successfully used for luminescence-imaging detection of the exogenous NO in mouse macrophage cells and endogenous NO in gardenia cells. The results demonstrated the efficacy and advantages of the new probe for NO detection in living cells. PMID:20458707

  15. Patterns, correlates, and reduction of homework copying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzo, David J.; Lee, Young-Jin; Warnakulasooriya, Rasil; Pritchard, David E.

    2010-06-01

    Submissions to an online homework tutor were analyzed to determine whether they were copied. The fraction of copied submissions increased rapidly over the semester, as each weekly deadline approached and for problems later in each assignment. The majority of students, who copied less than 10% of their problems, worked steadily over the three days prior to the deadline, whereas repetitive copiers (those who copied >30% of their submitted problems) exerted little effort early. Importantly, copying homework problems that require an analytic answer correlates with a 2(σ) decline over the semester in relative score for similar problems on exams but does not significantly correlate with the amount of conceptual learning as measured by pretesting and post-testing. An anonymous survey containing questions used in many previous studies of self-reported academic dishonesty showed ˜1/3 less copying than actually was detected. The observed patterns of copying, free response questions on the survey, and interview data suggest that time pressure on students who do not start their homework in a timely fashion is the proximate cause of copying. Several measures of initial ability in math or physics correlated with copying weakly or not at all. Changes in course format and instructional practices that previous self-reported academic dishonesty surveys and/or the observed copying patterns suggested would reduce copying have been accompanied by more than a factor of 4 reduction of copying from ˜11% of all electronic problems to less than 3%. As expected (since repetitive copiers have approximately three times the chance of failing), this was accompanied by a reduction in the overall course failure rate. Survey results indicate that students copy almost twice as much written homework as online homework and show that students nationally admit to more academic dishonesty than MIT students.

  16. 92. PRODUCTION MOLDS. THESE MOLDS ARE COPIES OF THE ORIGINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    92. PRODUCTION MOLDS. THESE MOLDS ARE COPIES OF THE ORIGINAL MOLDS IN THE MORAVIAN POTTERY AND TILE WORKS COLLECTION, AND ARE USED TO PRESS TILES. THE FACTORY KEEPS TEN PRODUCTION MOLDS FOR EACH IMAGE. THE ORIGINAL MOLDS ARE NOT USED IN PRODUCTION. SAME VIEW AS PA-107-53. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  17. Aggregate Remote Memory Copy Interface

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-02-23

    The purpose of the Aggregate Remote Memory Copy (ARMCI) library is to provide a general- purpose, efficient, and Widely portable remote memory access (RMA) operations (one-sided communication) optimized for Contiguous and noncontiguous (strided, scatter/gather, I/O vector) data transfers. In addition, ARMCI includes a set of atomic and mutual exclusion operations. The development ARMCI is driven by the need to support the global-addres space communication model in context of distributed regular or irregular distributed data structures,more » communication libraries, and compilers. ARMCI is a standalone system that could be used to support user-level libraries and applications that use MPI or PVM.« less

  18. Live 3D image overlay for arterial duct closure with Amplatzer Duct Occluder II additional size.

    PubMed

    Goreczny, Sebstian; Morgan, Gareth J; Dryzek, Pawel

    2016-03-01

    Despite several reports describing echocardiography for the guidance of ductal closure, two-dimensional angiography remains the mainstay imaging tool; three-dimensional rotational angiography has the potential to overcome some of the drawbacks of standard angiography, and reconstructed image overlay provides reliable guidance for device placement. We describe arterial duct closure solely from venous approach guided by live three-dimensional image overlay. PMID:26358032

  19. Deep Hubble Space Telescope Imaging of IC 1613. II. The Star Formation History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skillman, Evan D.; Tolstoy, Eline; Cole, Andrew A.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Saha, Abhijit; Gallagher, J. S.; Dohm-Palmer, R. C.; Mateo, Mario

    2003-10-01

    We have taken deep images of an outlying field in the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy IC 1613 with the WFPC2 aboard the Hubble Space Telescope in the standard broadband F555W (V, 8 orbits) and F814W (I, 16 orbits) filters. The photometry reaches to V=27.7 (MV=+3.4) and I=27.1 (MI=+2.8) at the 50% completeness level, the deepest to date for an isolated dwarf irregular galaxy. We analyze the resulting color-magnitude diagram (CMD) and compare it with CMDs created from theoretical stellar models using three different methods to derive a star formation history (SFH) as well as constrain the chemical evolution for IC 1613. All three methods find an enhanced star formation rate (SFR), at roughly the same magnitude (factor of 3), over roughly the same period (from 3 to 6 Gyr ago). Additionally, all three methods were driven to similar age-metallicity relationships (AMR) that show an increase from [Fe/H]~-1.3 at earliest times to [Fe/H]~-0.7 at present. Good agreement is found between the AMR which is derived from the CMD analysis and that which can be inferred from the derived SFH at all but the earliest ages. The agreement between the three models and the self-consistency of the derived chemical enrichment history support the reality of the derived SFH of IC 1613 and, more generally, are supportive of the practice of constructing galaxy SFHs from CMDs. A comparison of the newly observed outer field with an earlier studied central field of IC 1613 shows that the SFR in the outer field has been significantly depressed during the last Gyr. This implies that the optical scale length of the galaxy has been decreasing with time and that comparison of galaxies at intermediate redshift with present-day galaxies should take this effect into account. Comparing the CMD of the outer field of IC 1613 with CMDs of Milky Way dSph companions, we find strong similarities between IC 1613 and the more distant dSph companions (Carina, Fornax, Leo I, and Leo II) in that all are dominated

  20. Use of modulated excitation signals in medical ultrasound. Part II: Design and performance for medical imaging applications.

    PubMed

    Misaridis, Thanassis; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2005-02-01

    In the first paper, the superiority of linear FM signals was shown in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and robustness to tissue attenuation. This second paper in the series of three papers on the application of coded excitation signals in medical ultrasound presents design methods of linear FM signals and mismatched filters, in order to meet the higher demands on resolution in ultrasound imaging. It is shown that for the small time-bandwidth (TB) products available in ultrasound, the rectangular spectrum approximation is not valid, which reduces the effectiveness of weighting. Additionally, the distant range sidelobes are associated with the ripples of the spectrum amplitude and, thus, cannot be removed by weighting. Ripple reduction is achieved through amplitude or phase predistortion of the transmitted signals. Mismatched filters are designed to efficiently use the available bandwidth and at the same time to be insensitive to the transducer's impulse response. With these techniques, temporal sidelobes are kept below 60 to 100 dB, image contrast is improved by reducing the energy within the sidelobe region, and axial resolution is preserved. The method is evaluated first for resolution performance and axial sidelobes through simulations with the program Field II. A coded excitation ultrasound imaging system based on a commercial scanner and a 4 MHz probe driven by coded sequences is presented and used for the clinical evaluation of the coded excitation/compression scheme. The clinical images show a significant improvement in penetration depth and contrast, while they preserve both axial and lateral resolution. At the maximum acquisition depth of 15 cm, there is an improvement of more than 10 dB in the signal-to-noise ratio of the images. The paper also presents acquired images, using complementary Golay codes, that show the deleterious effects of attenuation on binary codes when processed with a matched filter, also confirmed by presented simulated images. PMID

  1. Anatomical noise in contrast-enhanced digital mammography. Part II. Dual-energy imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Melissa L.; Yaffe, Martin J.; Mainprize, James G.; Carton, Ann-Katherine; Saab-Puong, Sylvie; Iordache, Răzvan; Muller, Serge; Jong, Roberta A.; Dromain, Clarisse

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Dual-energy (DE) contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) uses an iodinated contrast agent in combination with digital mammography (DM) to evaluate lesions on the basis of tumor angiogenesis. In DE imaging, low-energy (LE) and high-energy (HE) images are acquired after contrast administration and their logarithms are subtracted to cancel the appearance of normal breast tissue. Often there is incomplete signal cancellation in the subtracted images, creating a background “clutter” that can impair lesion detection. This is the second component of a two-part report on anatomical noise in CEDM. In Part I the authors characterized the anatomical noise for single-energy (SE) temporal subtraction CEDM by a power law, with model parameters α and β. In this work the authors quantify the anatomical noise in DE CEDM clinical images and compare this with the noise in SE CEDM. The influence on the anatomical noise of the presence of iodine in the breast, the timing of imaging postcontrast administration, and the x-ray energy used for acquisition are each evaluated.Methods: The power law parameters, α and β, were measured from unprocessed LE and HE images and from DE subtracted images to quantify the anatomical noise. A total of 98 DE CEDM cases acquired in a previous clinical pilot study were assessed. Conventional DM images from 75 of the women were evaluated for comparison with DE CEDM. The influence of the imaging technique on anatomical noise was determined from an analysis of differences between the power law parameters as measured in DM, LE, HE, and DE subtracted images for each subject.Results: In DE CEDM, weighted image subtraction lowers β to about 1.1 from 3.2 and 3.1 in LE and HE unprocessed images, respectively. The presence of iodine has a small but significant effect in LE images, reducing β by about 0.07 compared to DM, with α unchanged. Increasing the x-ray energy, from that typical in DM to a HE beam, significantly decreases α by about 2

  2. TU-D-BRD-01: Image Guided SBRT II: Challenges ' Pitfalls

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Z; Yin, F; Cho, J

    2014-06-15

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has been effective treatment for the management of various diseases, which often delivers high radiation dose in a single or a few fractions. SBRT therefore demands precise treatment delivery to the tumor while sparing adjacent healthy tissue. Recent developments in image guidance enable target localization with increased accuracy. With such improvements in localization, image-guided SBRT has been widely adopted into clinical practice. In SBRT, high radiation dose is generally delivered with small fields. Therefore, it is crucial to accurately measure dosimetric data for the small fields during commissioning. In addition, image-guided SBRT demands accurate image localization to ensure safety and quality of patient care. Lately, the reports of AAPM TG 142 and TG 104 have been published and added recommendations for imaging devices that are integrated with the linear accelerator for SBRT. Furthermore, various challenges and potential pitfalls lie in the clinical implementation of image-guided SBRT. In this lecture, these challenges and pitfalls of image-guided SBRT will be illustrated and discussed from dosimetric, technical and clinical perspectives.Being a promising technique, image-guided SBRT has shown great potentials, and will lead to more accurate and safer SBRT treatments. Learning Objectives: To understand dosimetric challenges and pitfalls for IGRT application in SBRT. To understand major clinical challenges and pitfalls for IGRT application in SBRT. To understand major technical challenges and pitfalls for IGRT application in SBRT.

  3. Far ultraviolet wide field imaging and photometry - Spartan-202 Mark II Far Ultraviolet Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, George R.; Heckathorn, Harry M.; Opal, Chet B.; Witt, Adolf N.; Henize, Karl G.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory' Mark II Far Ultraviolet Camera, which is expected to be a primary scientific instrument aboard the Spartan-202 Space Shuttle mission, is described. This camera is intended to obtain FUV wide-field imagery of stars and extended celestial objects, including diffuse nebulae and nearby galaxies. The observations will support the HST by providing FUV photometry of calibration objects. The Mark II camera is an electrographic Schmidt camera with an aperture of 15 cm, a focal length of 30.5 cm, and sensitivity in the 1230-1600 A wavelength range.

  4. Topmetal-II-: a direct charge sensor for high energy physics and imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, C.; Huang, G.; Sun, X.

    2016-01-01

    Topmetal-II-, a direct charge sensor, was manufactured in an XFAB 350 nm CMOS process. The Topmetal-II- sensor features a 72 × 72 pixel array with an 83 μm pixel pitch which collects and measures charge directly from the surrounding media. We introduce the implementation of the circuitry in the sensor including an analogue readout channel and a column based digital readout channel. The analogue readout channel allows the access to the full waveform from each pixel through a time-shared multiplexing. The digital readout channel records hits identified by an individually settable threshold in each pixel. Some simulation and preliminary test results are also discussed.

  5. Time resolved, 2-D hard X-ray imaging of relativistic electron-beam target interactions on ETA-II

    SciTech Connect

    Crist, C.E.; Sampayan, S.; Westenskow, G.; Caporaso, G.; Houck, T.; Weir, J.; Trimble, D.; Krogh, M.

    1998-11-01

    Advanced radiographic applications require a constant source size less than 1 mm. To study the time history of a relativistic electron beam as it interacts with a bremsstrahlung converter, one of the diagnostics they use is a multi-frame time-resolved hard x-ray camera. They are performing experiments on the ETA-II accelerator at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to investigate details of the electron beam/converter interactions. The camera they are using contains 6 time-resolved images, each image is a 5 ns frame. By starting each successive frame 10 ns after the previous frame, they create a 6-frame movie from the hard x-rays produced from the interaction of the 50-ns electron beam pulse.

  6. Structurally Defined αMHC-II Nanobody-Drug Conjugates: A Therapeutic and Imaging System for B-Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Fang, Tao; Duarte, Joao N; Ling, Jingjing; Li, Zeyang; Guzman, Jonathan S; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2016-02-12

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) of defined structure hold great promise for cancer therapies, but further advances are constrained by the complex structures of full-sized antibodies. Camelid-derived single-domain antibody fragments (VHHs or nanobodies) offer a possible solution to this challenge by providing expedited target screening and validation through switching between imaging and therapeutic activities. We used a nanobody (VHH7) specific for murine MHC-II and rendered "sortase-ready" for the introduction of oligoglycine-modified cytotoxic payloads or NIR fluorophores. The VHH7 conjugates outcompeted commercial monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for internalization and exhibited high specificity and cytotoxicity against A20 murine B-cell lymphoma. Non-invasive NIR imaging with a VHH7-fluorophore conjugate showed rapid tumor targeting on both localized and metastatic lymphoma models. Subsequent treatment with the nanobody-drug conjugate efficiently controlled tumor growth and metastasis without obvious systemic toxicity. PMID:26840214

  7. Pre-clinical functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Part II: The heart.

    PubMed

    Meßner, Nadja M; Zöllner, Frank G; Kalayciyan, Raffi; Schad, Lothar R

    2014-12-01

    One third of all deaths worldwide in 2008 were caused by cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and the incidence of CVD related deaths rises ever more. Thus, improved imaging techniques and modalities are needed for the evaluation of cardiac morphology and function. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) is a minimally invasive technique that is increasingly important due to its high spatial and temporal resolution, its high soft tissue contrast and its ability of functional and quantitative imaging. It is widely accepted as the gold standard of cardiac functional analysis. In the short period of small animal MRI, remarkable progress has been achieved concerning new, fast imaging schemes as well as purpose-built equipment. Dedicated small animal scanners allow for tapping the full potential of recently developed animal models of cardiac disease. In this paper, we review state-of-the-art cardiac magnetic resonance imaging techniques and applications in small animals at ultra-high fields (UHF). PMID:25023418

  8. WE-PIS-Exhibit Hall-01: Tools for TG-142 Linac Imaging QA II

    SciTech Connect

    Childress, N; Murray, B

    2014-06-15

    Partners in Solutions is an exciting new program in which AAPM partners with our vendors to present practical “hands-on” information about the equipment and software systems that we use in our clinics. The therapy topic this year is solutions for TG-142 recommendations for linear accelerator imaging QA. Note that the sessions are being held in a special purpose room built on the Exhibit Hall Floor, to encourage further interaction with the vendors. Using DoseLab to Perform TG-142 Imaging QA The goals of this session will be to present a clinical overview of acquiring images for TG-142 Imaging QA, as well as analyzing and evaluating results using DoseLab software. DoseLab supports planar imaging QA analysis using almost any QA phantom provided by numerous vendors. General advantages and disadvantages of selecting each of these phantoms will be briefly summarized. Best practices for selecting image acquisition parameters will be presented. A demonstration of using DoseLab software to perform a series of TG-142 tests will be performed. We will disuss why DoseLab uses its own set of imaging QA formulas, and why imaging QA measurement values of the same nominal properties will vary between TG- 142 software packages. Because TG-142 does not specify baseline and tolerance values for imaging QA, the presentation will recommend performing the manufacturer's acceptance test procedure to validate the equipment is functioning correctly. Afterwards, results can be obtained using the clinic's selected set of phantoms, image acquisition parameters, and TG-142 software to set proper baseline values. This presentation will highlight the reasons why comparing imaging QA results can be trickier than comparing linear accelerator treatment results and what physicists should keep in mind when comparing imaging QA results for different machines. Physicists are often unsure of the next step when there is an issue discovered during Imaging QA. Therefore, a few common examples of

  9. The use of variograms in remote sensing. I - Scene models and simulated images. II - Real digital images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, Curtis E.; Strahler, Alan H.; Jupp, David L. B.

    1988-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical studies of variograms are presented. The sensitivity of variograms is studied through varyig parameters of scene models both in calculating explicit variograms and in simulating images. It is found that the heights of variograms are related to the proportion of an area covered by objects. It is shown that the range of influence of a variogram is related to the size of the objects in the scene and that the shape of the variogram becomes more rounded as the variance in the size distribution of objects increases. In the second part, empirically calculated variograms from real digital images are used to demonstrate these theoretical findings. These calculated variograms also show the periodicity in ground scenes and reveal anisotropy.

  10. Review of ultrasound image guidance in external beam radiotherapy part II: intra-fraction motion management and novel applications.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Tuathan; Bamber, Jeffrey; Fontanarosa, Davide; van der Meer, Skadi; Verhaegen, Frank; Harris, Emma

    2016-04-21

    Imaging has become an essential tool in modern radiotherapy (RT), being used to plan dose delivery prior to treatment and verify target position before and during treatment. Ultrasound (US) imaging is cost-effective in providing excellent contrast at high resolution for depicting soft tissue targets apart from those shielded by the lungs or cranium. As a result, it is increasingly used in RT setup verification for the measurement of inter-fraction motion, the subject of Part I of this review (Fontanarosa et al 2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 R77-114). The combination of rapid imaging and zero ionising radiation dose makes US highly suitable for estimating intra-fraction motion. The current paper (Part II of the review) covers this topic. The basic technology for US motion estimation, and its current clinical application to the prostate, is described here, along with recent developments in robust motion-estimation algorithms, and three dimensional (3D) imaging. Together, these are likely to drive an increase in the number of future clinical studies and the range of cancer sites in which US motion management is applied. Also reviewed are selections of existing and proposed novel applications of US imaging to RT. These are driven by exciting developments in structural, functional and molecular US imaging and analytical techniques such as backscatter tissue analysis, elastography, photoacoustography, contrast-specific imaging, dynamic contrast analysis, microvascular and super-resolution imaging, and targeted microbubbles. Such techniques show promise for predicting and measuring the outcome of RT, quantifying normal tissue toxicity, improving tumour definition and defining a biological target volume that describes radiation sensitive regions of the tumour. US offers easy, low cost and efficient integration of these techniques into the RT workflow. US contrast technology also has potential to be used actively to assist RT by manipulating the tumour cell environment and by

  11. Review of ultrasound image guidance in external beam radiotherapy part II: intra-fraction motion management and novel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, Tuathan; Bamber, Jeffrey; Fontanarosa, Davide; van der Meer, Skadi; Verhaegen, Frank; Harris, Emma

    2016-04-01

    Imaging has become an essential tool in modern radiotherapy (RT), being used to plan dose delivery prior to treatment and verify target position before and during treatment. Ultrasound (US) imaging is cost-effective in providing excellent contrast at high resolution for depicting soft tissue targets apart from those shielded by the lungs or cranium. As a result, it is increasingly used in RT setup verification for the measurement of inter-fraction motion, the subject of Part I of this review (Fontanarosa et al 2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 R77-114). The combination of rapid imaging and zero ionising radiation dose makes US highly suitable for estimating intra-fraction motion. The current paper (Part II of the review) covers this topic. The basic technology for US motion estimation, and its current clinical application to the prostate, is described here, along with recent developments in robust motion-estimation algorithms, and three dimensional (3D) imaging. Together, these are likely to drive an increase in the number of future clinical studies and the range of cancer sites in which US motion management is applied. Also reviewed are selections of existing and proposed novel applications of US imaging to RT. These are driven by exciting developments in structural, functional and molecular US imaging and analytical techniques such as backscatter tissue analysis, elastography, photoacoustography, contrast-specific imaging, dynamic contrast analysis, microvascular and super-resolution imaging, and targeted microbubbles. Such techniques show promise for predicting and measuring the outcome of RT, quantifying normal tissue toxicity, improving tumour definition and defining a biological target volume that describes radiation sensitive regions of the tumour. US offers easy, low cost and efficient integration of these techniques into the RT workflow. US contrast technology also has potential to be used actively to assist RT by manipulating the tumour cell environment and by

  12. GEOSTAR-II: A Prototype Water Vapor Imager/Sounder for the Path Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, Todd; Lambrigtsen, Bjorn; Kangaslahti, Pekka; Lim, Boon; Tanner, Alan; Harding, Dennis; Owen, Heather; Soria, Mary; ODwyer, Ian; Ruf, Christopher; Miller, Ryan; Block, Bruce; Flynn, Michael; Whitaker, Sterling

    2011-01-01

    We describe the development and progress of the GeoSTAR-II risk reduction activity for the NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey PATH Mission. The activity directly addresses areas of technical risk including the system design, low noise receiver production, sub-array development, signal distribution and digital signal processing.

  13. Image Making and Personal Narratives with Japanese-American Survivors of World War II Internment Camps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Carleen; Kuwada, Kali; Potter, Penelope; Cameron, Danielle; Hoshino, Janice

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the verbal and art making responses of Japanese-American elders who experienced the trauma of internment during World War II. Six Nisei (second generation Japanese-Americans) were asked to recall memories of their experiences during and immediately following internment; 3 of the participants also created art images…

  14. Prospective optimization of CT under tube current modulation: II. image quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xiaoyu; Wilson, Josh; Frush, Donald; Samei, Ehsam

    2014-03-01

    Despite the significant clinical benefits of computed tomography (CT) in providing diagnostic information for a broad range of diseases, concerns have been raised regarding the potential cancer risk induced by CT radiation exposure. In that regard, optimizing CT protocols and minimizing radiation dose have become the core problem for the CT community. To develop strategies to optimize radiation dose, it is crucial to effectively characterize CT image quality. Such image quality estimates need to be prospective to ensure that optimization can be performed before the scan is initiated. The purpose of this study was to establish a phantombased methodology to predict quantum noise in CT images as a first step in our image quality prediction. Quantum noise was measured using a variable-sized phantom under clinical protocols. The mathematical relationship between noise and water-equivalent-diameter (Dw) was further established. The prediction was achieved by ascribing a noise value to a patient according to the patient's water-equivalent-diameter. The prediction accuracy was evaluated in anthropomorphic phantoms across a broad range of sizes, anatomy, and reconstruction algorithms. The differences between the measured and predicted noise were within 10% for anthropomorphic phantoms across all sizes and anatomy. This study proposed a practically applicable technique to predict noise in CT images. With a prospective estimation of image quality level, the scanning parameters can then by adjusted to ensure optimized imaging performance.

  15. DETECTING ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI USING MULTI-FILTER IMAGING DATA. II. INCORPORATING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, X. Y.; De Robertis, M. M.

    2013-10-01

    This is the second paper of the series Detecting Active Galactic Nuclei Using Multi-filter Imaging Data. In this paper we review shapelets, an image manipulation algorithm, which we employ to adjust the point-spread function (PSF) of galaxy images. This technique is used to ensure the image in each filter has the same and sharpest PSF, which is the preferred condition for detecting AGNs using multi-filter imaging data as we demonstrated in Paper I of this series. We apply shapelets on Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey Wide Survey ugriz images. Photometric parameters such as effective radii, integrated fluxes within certain radii, and color gradients are measured on the shapelets-reconstructed images. These parameters are used by artificial neural networks (ANNs) which yield: photometric redshift with an rms of 0.026 and a regression R-value of 0.92; galaxy morphological types with an uncertainty less than 2 T types for z ≤ 0.1; and identification of galaxies as AGNs with 70% confidence, star-forming/starburst (SF/SB) galaxies with 90% confidence, and passive galaxies with 70% confidence for z ≤ 0.1. The incorporation of ANNs provides a more reliable technique for identifying AGN or SF/SB candidates, which could be very useful for large-scale multi-filter optical surveys that also include a modest set of spectroscopic data sufficient to train neural networks.

  16. A hybrid pyramid multiprocessor system for image processing. Volumes I and II

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Inching.

    1989-01-01

    Various multiprocessor architectures have been considered by many researchers to handle the high computational requirements of image processing and analysis application. However, many of these architectures are efficient only for a small class of image processing algorithms. In this research, a multiprocessor system has been proposed, designed and constructed taking into consideration various input-output and other characteristics of image processing applications. It is a hybrid pyramid with five 68020-68881 based processor nodes in the top two layers and sixteen DSP56001 based processor nodes in the third layer. The DSP (RISC) processor nodes at the bottom level are optimized for low-level image processing operations and the CISC (68020) processor nodes handle high-level tasks more efficiently. Experiments using the algorithms that have operations on neighborhoods of different sizes have shown consistent improvement in performance if the FIFO cache is enabled. Larger neighborhoods result in greater saving in time. Preliminary test indicate that the top five processor nodes can execute five times as fast as a single node for many image processing tasks. Finally, the versatile image I/O with the MMU has created a simpler programming environment, while facilitating various I/O structures. The OSU pyramid is a general-purpose image processing system, utilizing pyramidal architecture of hybrid processors, with additional hardware to retain the advantageous features of array processors, as well as to overcome some of the inherent deficiencies of pipeline processors and cellular arrays.

  17. Radio reflection imaging of asteroid and comet interiors II: Results and recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, Robert E.; Stillman, David E.; Sava, Paul; Ittharat, Detchai

    2015-05-01

    We modeled orbital surface-penetrating radar of an asteroid and comet using two-dimensional finite-difference wavefield migration, in order to assess key target properties and experiment parameters required to fully image internal structure. Migration places radar echoes in their correct positions in a complex subsurface and is a complementary tool to travel-time tomography. The target shape was scaled from 433 Eros to 0.5-km mean diameter for an asteroid and 10 km for a comet. The interiors were populated with a power-law distribution of spherical blocks. We used an image structural similarity index to compare the internal surfaces reconstructed under different assumptions to a "best" image using optimum parameters. We found that successful internal imaging of the asteroid was not sensitive to whether the block interstices were regolith or void. Frequency dependence between 5 and 15 MHz was also minor. Internal interfaces could also be imaged if the attenuation was higher than that inferred within volcanic plains on Mars, but not as high as measured in a strongly fractured volcanic tuff on Earth. The overall imaging quality for the comet was statistically similar to the asteroid, but there was less variability due to smaller internal contrasts. A key finding is that imaging was vastly improved by using a second spacecraft as a radar receiver. A subsatellite with a different orbit will eventually provide a range of different illumination geometries over each part of the target. Finally, the results depend strongly on the specified internal velocity distribution, representing partial progress in complementary tomographic velocity estimation. The modeled impedance contrasts within the asteroid are larger than those typically encountered in exploration seismology and very much larger than in medical imaging, and so the velocity used to migrate the reflections must be close to the actual distribution. This again emphasizes the need for joint traveltime tomography and

  18. The Application of Virtex-II Pro FPGA in High-Speed Image Processing Technology of Robot Vision Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Y. J.; Zhu, J. G.; Yang, X. Y.; Ye, S. H.

    2006-10-01

    The Virtex-II Pro FPGA is applied to the vision sensor tracking system of IRB2400 robot. The hardware platform, which undertakes the task of improving SNR and compressing data, is constructed by using the high-speed image processing of FPGA. The lower level image-processing algorithm is realized by combining the FPGA frame and the embedded CPU. The velocity of image processing is accelerated due to the introduction of FPGA and CPU. The usage of the embedded CPU makes it easily to realize the logic design of interface. Some key techniques are presented in the text, such as read-write process, template matching, convolution, and some modules are simulated too. In the end, the compare among the modules using this design, using the PC computer and using the DSP, is carried out. Because the high-speed image processing system core is a chip of FPGA, the function of which can renew conveniently, therefore, to a degree, the measure system is intelligent.

  19. 22 CFR 401.13 - Copies required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Copies required. 401.13 Section 401.13 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND CANADA RULES OF PROCEDURE Applications § 401.13 Copies required. (a) Subject to paragraph (c) of this section, two duplicate originals and fifty...

  20. 22 CFR 401.13 - Copies required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Copies required. 401.13 Section 401.13 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND CANADA RULES OF PROCEDURE Applications § 401.13 Copies required. (a) Subject to paragraph (c) of this section, two duplicate originals and fifty...

  1. 14 CFR 249.4 - Photographic copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Photographic copies. 249.4 Section 249.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS PRESERVATION OF AIR CARRIER RECORDS General Instructions § 249.4 Photographic copies. (a) Any record may be transferred...

  2. 48 CFR 401.105-3 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Purpose, Authority, Issuance 401.105-3 Copies. Copies of the AGAR published in CFR form may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Requests should reference Chapter 4 of Title 48 CFR....

  3. High angular resolution stellar imaging with occultations from the Cassini spacecraft - II. Kronocyclic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Paul N.; Tuthill, Peter G.; Nicholson, Philip D.; Hedman, Matthew M.; Lloyd, James P.

    2015-05-01

    We present an advance in the use of Cassini observations of stellar occultations by the rings of Saturn for stellar studies. Stewart et al. demonstrated the potential use of such observations for measuring stellar angular diameters. Here, we use these same observations, and tomographic imaging reconstruction techniques, to produce two-dimensional images of complex stellar systems. We detail the determination of the basic observational reference frame. A technique for recovering model-independent brightness profiles for data from each occulting edge is discussed, along with the tomographic combination of these profiles to build an image of the source star. Finally, we demonstrate the technique with recovered images of the α Centauri binary system and the circumstellar environment of the evolved late-type giant star, Mira.

  4. Characterization of statistical prior image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS): II. Application to dose reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Lauzier, Pascal Theriault; Chen Guanghong

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: The ionizing radiation imparted to patients during computed tomography exams is raising concerns. This paper studies the performance of a scheme called dose reduction using prior image constrained compressed sensing (DR-PICCS). The purpose of this study is to characterize the effects of a statistical model of x-ray detection in the DR-PICCS framework and its impact on spatial resolution. Methods: Both numerical simulations with known ground truth and in vivo animal dataset were used in this study. In numerical simulations, a phantom was simulated with Poisson noise and with varying levels of eccentricity. Both the conventional filtered backprojection (FBP) and the PICCS algorithms were used to reconstruct images. In PICCS reconstructions, the prior image was generated using two different denoising methods: a simple Gaussian blur and a more advanced diffusion filter. Due to the lack of shift-invariance in nonlinear image reconstruction such as the one studied in this paper, the concept of local spatial resolution was used to study the sharpness of a reconstructed image. Specifically, a directional metric of image sharpness, the so-called pseudopoint spread function (pseudo-PSF), was employed to investigate local spatial resolution. Results: In the numerical studies, the pseudo-PSF was reduced from twice the voxel width in the prior image down to less than 1.1 times the voxel width in DR-PICCS reconstructions when the statistical model was not included. At the same noise level, when statistical weighting was used, the pseudo-PSF width in DR-PICCS reconstructed images varied between 1.5 and 0.75 times the voxel width depending on the direction along which it was measured. However, this anisotropy was largely eliminated when the prior image was generated using diffusion filtering; the pseudo-PSF width was reduced to below one voxel width in that case. In the in vivo study, a fourfold improvement in CNR was achieved while qualitatively maintaining sharpness

  5. Dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging: II. Task-oriented statistical estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakatsanis, Nicolas A.; Lodge, Martin A.; Zhou, Y.; Wahl, Richard L.; Rahmim, Arman

    2013-10-01

    In the context of oncology, dynamic PET imaging coupled with standard graphical linear analysis has been previously employed to enable quantitative estimation of tracer kinetic parameters of physiological interest at the voxel level, thus, enabling quantitative PET parametric imaging. However, dynamic PET acquisition protocols have been confined to the limited axial field-of-view (˜15-20 cm) of a single-bed position and have not been translated to the whole-body clinical imaging domain. On the contrary, standardized uptake value (SUV) PET imaging, considered as the routine approach in clinical oncology, commonly involves multi-bed acquisitions, but is performed statically, thus not allowing for dynamic tracking of the tracer distribution. Here, we pursue a transition to dynamic whole-body PET parametric imaging, by presenting, within a unified framework, clinically feasible multi-bed dynamic PET acquisition protocols and parametric imaging methods. In a companion study, we presented a novel clinically feasible dynamic (4D) multi-bed PET acquisition protocol as well as the concept of whole-body PET parametric imaging employing Patlak ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to estimate the quantitative parameters of tracer uptake rate Ki and total blood distribution volume V. In the present study, we propose an advanced hybrid linear regression framework, driven by Patlak kinetic voxel correlations, to achieve superior trade-off between contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and mean squared error (MSE) than provided by OLS for the final Ki parametric images, enabling task-based performance optimization. Overall, whether the observer's task is to detect a tumor or quantitatively assess treatment response, the proposed statistical estimation framework can be adapted to satisfy the specific task performance criteria, by adjusting the Patlak correlation-coefficient (WR) reference value. The multi-bed dynamic acquisition protocol, as optimized in the preceding companion study

  6. Photographic copy of drawing by Modjeski and Masters, Engineers of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of drawing by Modjeski and Masters, Engineers of the proposed Huey P. Long Bridge Widening. Original drawing located in the office of Modjeski and Masters, Consulting Engineers at 1055 St. Charles Avenue, New Orleans, LA. 70130. MAY 13, 2005 DRAWING OF THE PROPOSED HUEY P. LONG BRIDGE WIDENING, U.S. 90, MAIN BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURE, SHOWING STRUCTURE PLAN AND ELEVATION -2 AND TYPICAL SECTION THROUGH BRIDGE AT PIER I AND II. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  7. Photographic copy of drawing by Modjeski and Masters, Engineers of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of drawing by Modjeski and Masters, Engineers of the proposed Huey P. Long Bridge Widening. Original drawing located in the office of Modjeski and Masters, Consulting Engineers at 1055 St. Charles Avenue, New Orleans, LA. 70130. MAY 13, 2005 DRAWING OF THE PROPOSED HUEY P. LONG BRIDGE WIDENING, U.S. 90, MAIN BRIDGE SUPERSTRUCTURE, SHOWING ELEVATION AND SECTIONS AT PIER I AND II AND GENERAL DETAILS – 1. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  8. A luminescent ruthenium(II) complex for light-triggered drug release and live cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Karaoun, Nora; Renfrew, Anna K

    2015-09-25

    We report a novel ruthenium(II) complex for selective release of the imidazole-based drug econazole. While the complex is highly stable and luminescent in the dark, irradiation with green light induces release of one of the econazole ligands, which is accompanied by a turn-off luminescence response and up to a 34-fold increase in cytotoxicity towards tumour cells. PMID:26248575

  9. WE-F-BRD-01: HDR Brachytherapy II: Integrating Imaging with HDR

    SciTech Connect

    Craciunescu, O; Todor, D; Leeuw, A de

    2014-06-15

    In recent years, with the advent of high/pulsed dose rate afterloading technology, advanced treatment planning systems, CT/MRI compatible applicators, and advanced imaging platforms, image-guided adaptive brachytherapy treatments (IGABT) have started to play an ever increasing role in modern radiation therapy. The most accurate way to approach IGABT treatment is to provide the infrastructure that combines in a single setting an appropriate imaging device, a treatment planning system, and a treatment unit. The Brachytherapy Suite is not a new concept, yet the modern suites are incorporating state-of-the-art imaging (MRI, CBCT equipped simulators, CT, and /or US) that require correct integration with each other and with the treatment planning and delivery systems. Arguably, an MRI-equipped Brachytherapy Suite is the ideal setup for real-time adaptive brachytherapy treatments. The main impediment to MRI-IGABT adoption is access to MRI scanners. Very few radiation oncology departments currently house MRI scanners, and even fewer in a dedicated Brachytherapy Suite. CBCT equipped simulators are increasingly offered by manufacturers as part of a Brachytherapy Suite installation. If optimized, images acquired can be used for treatment planning, or can be registered with other imaging modalities. This infrastructure is relevant for all forms of brachytherapy, especially those utilizing multi-fractionated courses of treatment such as prostate and cervix. Moreover, for prostate brachytherapy, US imaging systems can be part of the suite to allow for real-time HDR/LDR treatments. Learning Objectives: Understand the adaptive workflow of MR-based IGBT for cervical cancer. Familiarize with commissioning aspects of a CBCT equipped simulator with emphasis on brachytherapy applications Learn about the current status and future developments in US-based prostate brachytherapy.

  10. Monitoring of thermal therapy based on shear modulus changes: II. Shear wave imaging of thermal lesions.

    PubMed

    Arnal, Bastien; Pernot, Mathieu; Tanter, Mickael

    2011-08-01

    The clinical applicability of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for noninvasive therapy is currently hampered by the lack of robust and real-time monitoring of tissue damage during treatment. The goal of this study is to show that the estimation of local tissue elasticity from shear wave imaging (SWI) can lead to a precise mapping of the lesion. HIFU treatment and monitoring were respectively performed using a confocal setup consisting of a 2.5-MHz single element transducer focused at 34 mm on ex vivo samples and an 8-MHz ultrasound diagnostic probe. Ultrasound-based strain imaging was combined with shear wave imaging on the same device. The SWI sequences consisted of 2 successive shear waves induced at different lateral positions. Each wave was created with pushing beams of 100 μs at 3 depths. The shear wave propagation was acquired at 17,000 frames/s, from which the elasticity map was recovered. HIFU sonications were interleaved with fast imaging acquisitions, allowing a duty cycle of more than 90%. Thus, elasticity and strain mapping was achieved every 3 s, leading to real-time monitoring of the treatment. When thermal damage occurs, tissue stiffness was found to increase up to 4-fold and strain imaging showed strong shrinkages that blur the temperature information. We show that strain imaging elastograms are not easy to interpret for accurate lesion characterization, but SWI provides a quantitative mapping of the thermal lesion. Moreover, the concept of shear wave thermometry (SWT) developed in the companion paper allows mapping temperature with the same method. Combined SWT and shear wave imaging can map the lesion stiffening and temperature outside the lesion, which could be used to predict the eventual lesion growth by thermal dose calculation. Finally, SWI is shown to be robust to motion and reliable in vivo on sheep muscle. PMID:21859579

  11. Stokes IQUV magnetic Doppler imaging of Ap stars - II. Next generation magnetic Doppler imaging of α2 CVn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvester, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Wade, G. A.

    2014-05-01

    We present updated magnetic field maps of the chemically peculiar B9p star α2 CVn created using a series of time-resolved observations obtained using the high-resolution spectropolarimeters ESPaDOnS and Narval. We compare these new magnetic field maps with the original magnetic Doppler imaging maps based on spectra recorded with the MuSiCoS spectropolarimeter and taken a decade earlier. These new maps are inferred from line profiles in all four Stokes parameters using the magnetic Doppler imaging code INVERS10. With the addition of new lines exhibiting Stokes IQUV signatures, we have a unique insight into how the derived magnetic surface structure may be affected by the atomic lines chosen for inversion. We report new magnetic maps of α2 CVn created using strong iron lines (directly comparable to the published MuSiCoS maps), weak iron lines and chromium lines, all of which yield a magnetic field structure roughly consistent with that obtained previously. We then derive an updated magnetic structure map for α2 CVn based on the complete sample of Fe and Cr lines, which we believe to produce a more representative model of the magnetic topology of α2 CVn. In agreement with the previous mapping, this new updated magnetic map shows a dipolar-like field which has complex sub-structure which cannot be explained by a simple low-order multipolar geometry. Our new maps show that regardless of the atomic line or species choice, the reconstructed magnetic field is consistent with that published previously, suggesting that the reconstructed field is a realistic representation of the magnetic field of α2 CVn. α2 CVn is the first Ap star for which multiple, high-resolution magnetic maps have been derived, providing important observational evidence for the stability of both the large- and small-scale magnetic field.

  12. Subaru Near-Infrared Multicolor Images of Class II Young Stellar Object, RNO 91

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayama, Satoshi; Tamura, Motohide; Hayashi, Masahiko; Itoh, Yoichi; Ishii, Miki; Fukagawa, Misato; Hayashi, Saeko S.; Oasa, Yumiko; Kudo, Tomoyuki

    2007-12-01

    We conducted subarcsecond near-infrared imaging observations of RNO 91 with CIAO (Coronagraphic Imager with Adaptive Optics) mounted on the 8.2m Subaru telescope. We present our JHK band data along with optical images, which when considered together reveal a complex circumstellar structure. We examined the colors of associated nebulae and compared the geometry of the outflow/disk system suggested by our data with that already proposed on the basis of previous studies. Our K-band image shows bright circumstellar nebulosity detected within ˜ 2" around the central source, while it is less conspicuous at shorter wavelengths. PA and the size of this red color nebulosity agree with those of the previously detected polarization disk. Agreements among these data indicate that this bright nebulosity region, which follows the reddening law, might be attributed to a disklike structure. At J and optical wavelengths, several blue knotlike structures are detected around and beyond the bright circumstellar nebulosity. We suggest that these knotty reflection nebulae may represent disintegrating fragments of an infalling envelope. The three-color composite image has the appearance of arc-shaped nebulosity. We interpret these structures as being roots of a bipolar cavity opening toward the northeast and the southwest. The complex distribution of reflection nebulosity seen around RNO 91 appears to confirm the interpretation that this source is an object dispersing its molecular envelope while transitioning from protostar to T Tauri star.

  13. Demonstration of dual-band infrared thermal imaging for bridge inspection. Phase II, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, P.F.; Del Grande, N.K.; Schaich, P.C.

    1996-03-01

    Developing and implementing methods of effective bridge rehabilitation is a major issue for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). The nation spends $5 billion annually to replace, rehabilitate or construct new bridges. According to the National Bridge Inventory, over 100,000 U.S. bridges are structurally deficient. About 40,000 of these bridges have advanced deck deterioration. The most common causes of serious deck deterioration is delamination. Delaminations result when steel reinforcements within the bridge deck corrode, creating gaps that separate the concrete into layers. A reliable inspection technology, capable of identifying delaminations, would represent a power new tool in bridge maintenance. To date, most bridge inspections rely on human interpretation of surface visual features of chain dragging. These methods are slow, disruptive, unreliable and raise serious safety concerns. Infrared thermal imaging detects subsurface delaminations and surface clutter, which is introduced by foreign material on the roadway. Typically, foreign material which is not always evident on a video tape image, produces a unique IR reflectance background unlike the thermal response of a subsurface delamination. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses dual-band infrared (DBIR) thermal imaging to identify and remove nonthermal IR reflectance backgrounds from foreign material on the roadway. DBIR methods improve the performance of IR thermal imaging by a factor of ten, compared to single-band infrared (SBIR) methods. DBIR thermal imaging allows precise temperature measurement to reliably locate bridge deck delaminations and remove wavelength-dependent emissivity variations due to foreign material on the roadway.

  14. Research on copying system of dynamic multiplex holographic stereograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Huaiping; Yang, Hong; Zheng, Tong

    2003-05-01

    The most important advantage of holographic stereograms over conventional hologram is that they can produce 3D images at any desired scale with movement, holographers in many countries involved in the studies towards it. We began our works in the early 80's and accomplished two research projects automatic system for making synthetic holograms and multiplex synthetic rainbow holograms, Based on these works, a large scale holographic stereogram of an animated goldfish was made by us for practical advertisement. In order to meet the needs of the market, a copying system for making multiplex holographic stereograms, and a special kind of silver halide holographic film developed by us recently. The characteristic of the copying system and the property of the special silver-halide emulsion are introduced in this paper.

  15. Multimodality Molecular Imaging of Cardiac Cell Transplantation: Part II. In Vivo Imaging of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells in Swine with PET/CT and MR Imaging.

    PubMed

    Parashurama, Natesh; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Ziv, Keren; Ito, Ken; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Willmann, Jürgen K; Chung, Jaehoon; Ikeno, Fumiaki; Swanson, Julia C; Merk, Denis R; Lyons, Jennifer K; Yerushalmi, David; Teramoto, Tomohiko; Kosuge, Hisanori; Dao, Catherine N; Ray, Pritha; Patel, Manishkumar; Chang, Ya-Fang; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Cohen, Jeff Eric; Goldstone, Andrew Brooks; Habte, Frezghi; Bhaumik, Srabani; Yaghoubi, Shahriar; Robbins, Robert C; Dash, Rajesh; Yang, Phillip C; Brinton, Todd J; Yock, Paul G; McConnell, Michael V; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2016-09-01

    Purpose To quantitatively determine the limit of detection of marrow stromal cells (MSC) after cardiac cell therapy (CCT) in swine by using clinical positron emission tomography (PET) reporter gene imaging and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with cell prelabeling. Materials and Methods Animal studies were approved by the institutional administrative panel on laboratory animal care. Seven swine received 23 intracardiac cell injections that contained control MSC and cell mixtures of MSC expressing a multimodality triple fusion (TF) reporter gene (MSC-TF) and bearing superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (NP) (MSC-TF-NP) or NP alone. Clinical MR imaging and PET reporter gene molecular imaging were performed after intravenous injection of the radiotracer fluorine 18-radiolabeled 9-[4-fluoro-3-(hydroxyl methyl) butyl] guanine ((18)F-FHBG). Linear regression analysis of both MR imaging and PET data and nonlinear regression analysis of PET data were performed, accounting for multiple injections per animal. Results MR imaging showed a positive correlation between MSC-TF-NP cell number and dephasing (dark) signal (R(2) = 0.72, P = .0001) and a lower detection limit of at least approximately 1.5 × 10(7) cells. PET reporter gene imaging demonstrated a significant positive correlation between MSC-TF and target-to-background ratio with the linear model (R(2) = 0.88, P = .0001, root mean square error = 0.523) and the nonlinear model (R(2) = 0.99, P = .0001, root mean square error = 0.273) and a lower detection limit of 2.5 × 10(8) cells. Conclusion The authors quantitatively determined the limit of detection of MSC after CCT in swine by using clinical PET reporter gene imaging and clinical MR imaging with cell prelabeling. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:27332865

  16. A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part II. Image reconstruction, processing and analysis, and advanced applications.

    PubMed

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Many important post-acquisition aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging can impact its clinical performance. Chief among them is the reconstruction algorithm that generates the representation of the three-dimensional breast volume from the acquired projections. But even after reconstruction, additional processes, such as artifact reduction algorithms, computer aided detection and diagnosis, among others, can also impact the performance of breast tomosynthesis in the clinical realm. In this two part paper, a review of breast tomosynthesis research is performed, with an emphasis on its medical physics aspects. In the companion paper, the first part of this review, the research performed relevant to the image acquisition process is examined. This second part will review the research on the post-acquisition aspects, including reconstruction, image processing, and analysis, as well as the advanced applications being investigated for breast tomosynthesis. PMID:23298127

  17. A review of breast tomosynthesis. Part II. Image reconstruction, processing and analysis, and advanced applications

    PubMed Central

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Many important post-acquisition aspects of breast tomosynthesis imaging can impact its clinical performance. Chief among them is the reconstruction algorithm that generates the representation of the three-dimensional breast volume from the acquired projections. But even after reconstruction, additional processes, such as artifact reduction algorithms, computer aided detection and diagnosis, among others, can also impact the performance of breast tomosynthesis in the clinical realm. In this two part paper, a review of breast tomosynthesis research is performed, with an emphasis on its medical physics aspects. In the companion paper, the first part of this review, the research performed relevant to the image acquisition process is examined. This second part will review the research on the post-acquisition aspects, including reconstruction, image processing, and analysis, as well as the advanced applications being investigated for breast tomosynthesis. PMID:23298127

  18. X-ray imaging II; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, Aug. 21, 22, 1986

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Larry V.; Bowen, D. Keith

    1986-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology of X-ray imaging are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics addressed include component characteristics, detectors, optics, and applications. Consideration is given to the 1-40-keV photoabsorption cross sections of Fe, Ni, Sn, Ta, Pt, Au, Pb, and U; metal reflectors in the EUV; high-gain microchannel plate detectors for imaging at soft X-ray wavelengths; optics for X-ray astronomy; and the measured performance of a grazing-incidence relay-optics telescope for solar X-ray astronomy.

  19. Multiple copies of Shope virus DNA are present in cells of benign and malignant non-virus-producing neoplasms.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, J G; Wettstein, F O

    1979-01-01

    In an initial efforts to characterize the virological basis of neoplasia in the Shope papilloma-carcinoma system, the extent to which the viral genome is present in non-virus-producing benign and malignant tumors in domestic rabbits was established. Employing nick-translated radioactive viral DNA purified from productively infected papillomas on cotton tail rabbits as a probe, it was found that (i) papillomas, primary carcinomas, and metastatic carcinomas contain 10 to about 100 copies of the viral genome per diploid cell equivalent of DNA and (ii) viral DNA is present in detectable amounts in essentially all neoplastic cells. These results are consistent with the suggestion that continued presence of the viral genome is necessary for induction and maintenance of malignant as well as benign neoplasms. Images PMID:225548

  20. Live-cell Imaging of Pol II Promoter Activity to Monitor Gene expression with RNA IMAGEtag reporters

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Ilchung; Ray, Judhajeet; Gupta, Vinayak; Ilgu, Muslum; Beasley, Jonathan; Bendickson, Lee; Mehanovic, Samir; Kraus, George A.; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit

    2014-04-20

    We describe a ribonucleic acid (RNA) reporter system for live-cell imaging of gene expression to detect changes in polymerase II activity on individual promoters in individual cells. The reporters use strings of RNA aptamers that constitute IMAGEtags (Intracellular MultiAptamer GEnetic tags) that can be expressed from a promoter of choice. For imaging, the cells are incubated with their ligands that are separately conjugated with one of the FRET pair, Cy3 and Cy5. The IMAGEtags were expressed in yeast from the GAL1, ADH1 or ACT1 promoters. Transcription from all three promoters was imaged in live cells and transcriptional increases from the GAL1 promoter were observed with time after adding galactose. Expression of the IMAGEtags did not affect cell proliferation or endogenous gene expression. Advantages of this method are that no foreign proteins are produced in the cells that could be toxic or otherwise influence the cellular response as they accumulate, the IMAGEtags are short lived and oxygen is not required to generate their signals. The IMAGEtag RNA reporter system provides a means of tracking changes in transcriptional activity in live cells and in real time.

  1. Zn(II)-coordination modulated ligand photophysical processes – the development of fluorescent indicators for imaging biological Zn(II) ions

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhao; Simmons, J. Tyler; Sreenath, Kesavapillai

    2014-01-01

    Molecular photophysics and metal coordination chemistry are the two fundamental pillars that support the development of fluorescent cation indicators. In this article, we describe how Zn(II)-coordination alters various ligand-centered photophysical processes that are pertinent to developing Zn(II) indicators. The main aim is to show how small organic Zn(II) indicators work under the constraints of specific requirements, including Zn(II) detection range, photophysical requirements such as excitation energy and emission color, temporal and spatial resolutions in a heterogeneous intracellular environment, and fluorescence response selectivity between similar cations such as Zn(II) and Cd(II). In the last section, the biological questions that fluorescent Zn(II) indicators help to answer are described, which have been motivating and challenging this field of research. PMID:25071933

  2. AUTOMATIC DETECTION AND TRACKING OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS. II. MULTISCALE FILTERING OF CORONAGRAPH IMAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, Jason P.; Morgan, Huw; Habbal, Shadia R.; Gallagher, Peter T.

    2012-06-20

    Studying coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in coronagraph data can be challenging due to their diffuse structure and transient nature, and user-specific biases may be introduced through visual inspection of the images. The large amount of data available from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO), and future coronagraph missions also makes manual cataloging of CMEs tedious, and so a robust method of detection and analysis is required. This has led to the development of automated CME detection and cataloging packages such as CACTus, SEEDS, and ARTEMIS. Here, we present the development of a new CORIMP (coronal image processing) CME detection and tracking technique that overcomes many of the drawbacks of current catalogs. It works by first employing the dynamic CME separation technique outlined in a companion paper, and then characterizing CME structure via a multiscale edge-detection algorithm. The detections are chained through time to determine the CME kinematics and morphological changes as it propagates across the plane of sky. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by its application to a selection of SOHO/LASCO and STEREO/SECCHI images, as well as to synthetic coronagraph images created from a model corona with a variety of CMEs. The algorithms described in this article are being applied to the whole LASCO and SECCHI data sets, and a catalog of results will soon be available to the public.

  3. Automatic Detection and Tracking of Coronal Mass Ejections. II. Multiscale Filtering of Coronagraph Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Jason P.; Morgan, Huw; Habbal, Shadia R.; Gallagher, Peter T.

    2012-06-01

    Studying coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in coronagraph data can be challenging due to their diffuse structure and transient nature, and user-specific biases may be introduced through visual inspection of the images. The large amount of data available from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO), and future coronagraph missions also makes manual cataloging of CMEs tedious, and so a robust method of detection and analysis is required. This has led to the development of automated CME detection and cataloging packages such as CACTus, SEEDS, and ARTEMIS. Here, we present the development of a new CORIMP (coronal image processing) CME detection and tracking technique that overcomes many of the drawbacks of current catalogs. It works by first employing the dynamic CME separation technique outlined in a companion paper, and then characterizing CME structure via a multiscale edge-detection algorithm. The detections are chained through time to determine the CME kinematics and morphological changes as it propagates across the plane of sky. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated by its application to a selection of SOHO/LASCO and STEREO/SECCHI images, as well as to synthetic coronagraph images created from a model corona with a variety of CMEs. The algorithms described in this article are being applied to the whole LASCO and SECCHI data sets, and a catalog of results will soon be available to the public.

  4. A review of potential image fusion methods for remote sensing-based irrigation management: Part II

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Satellite-based sensors provide data at either greater spectral and coarser spatial resolutions, or lower spectral and finer spatial resolutions due to complementary spectral and spatial characteristics of optical sensor systems. In order to overcome this limitation, image fusion has been suggested ...

  5. Development of automated image co-registration techniques: Part II - multisensor imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Lundeen, T.F.; Andrews, A.K.; Perry, E.M.; Whyatt, M.V.; Steinmaus, K.L.

    1996-10-01

    This is the second in a series of PNNL Multispectral Imagery (ST474D) reports on automated co-registration and rectification of multisensor imagery. In the first report, a semi-automated registration procedure was introduced based on methods proposed by Chen and Lee which emphasized registration of same sensor imagery. The Chen and Lee approach is outlined in Figure 1, and is described in detail in the first report. PNNL made several enhancements to the Chen and Lee approach; these modifications are outlined in Figure 2 and are also described in detail in the first report. The PNNL enhancements to the Chen and Lee approach introduced in the first phase have been named Multisensor Image Registration Automation (MIRA). These improvements increased computational efficiency and offered additional algorithms for coarse matching of disparate image types. In the MIRA approach, one set of optimum GCP locations are determined based on a Delaunay triangulation technique using an initial set of GCPs provided by the user, rather than repeating this step for each added control point as is proposed by Chen and Lee. The Chen and Lee approach uses an adjacent pixel difference algorithm for coarse matching patches of the reference image with the source image, while the MIRA approach adds other algorithms. Also the MIRA approach checks to determine if the a newly determined GCP fits the existing warping equation.

  6. VLA neutral hydrogen imaging of compact groups of galaxies. II - HCG 31, 44, and 79

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.A.; Mcmahon, P.M.; Van gorkom, J.H. Columbia University, New York )

    1991-06-01

    Neutral hydrogen images of three compact groups of galaxies are presented: HCG 31, 44, and 79. The images were obtained with the very large array (VLA), an on-line Hanning smoothing was applied to the data, and the H I spectral channel was isolated. The images were made on the Pipeline, and were produced by means of a method described by Gorkon and Ekers (1988). The images of HCG 44 are compared with earlier Arecibo observations. The H I emission in HCG 44 is discovered within the galaxies, whereas the emission in 31 and 79 can be found throughout the group in clouds that are larger than the galaxies. Evidence of a relationship between the compact groups is found in the H I data, and the groups are considered to be merging into a single object. Some of the groups are theorized to be young amorphous galaxies where the H I is still bound to individual galaxies, and which have just begun to condense from the intergalactic medium. The kinematics of the gas are shown to vary, and a common gaseous envelope contains the dwarf galaxies. 42 refs.

  7. University of Texas Electrographic Imaging Laboratory - Mark II camera performance update and current projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, J. M.; Griboval, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    An account is given of the electrographic Mark II camera's most recent design improvements and their performance gains. These improvements encompass better baking; a new o-ring preparation that employs high vacuum baking, aluminization, and oxidation; and a novel rough pumping system that eliminates waiting for pumpdown, and reduces damage risks due to leaks and user error. Projects to be undertaken with this camera, whose photocathode times are now very long, are the construction of a motorized tracking guider, the addition of a focal reducer for a 2.1-m telescope, and the production of K2CsSb(O) photocathodes to increase sensitivity and spectral range.

  8. A dinuclear ruthenium(II) complex as turn-on luminescent probe for hypochlorous acid and its application for in vivo imaging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zonglun; Gao, Kuo; Wang, Beng; Yan, Hui; Xing, Panfei; Zhong, Chongmin; Xu, Yongqian; Li, Hongjuan; Chen, Jianxin; Wang, Wei; Sun, Shiguo

    2016-01-01

    A dinuclear ruthenium(II) complex Ruazo was designed and synthesized, in which oxidative cyclization of the azo and o-amino group was employed for the detection of hypochlorous acid (HClO) in aqueous solution. The non-emissive Ruazo formed highly luminescent triazole-ruthenium(II) complex in presence of HClO and successfully imaged HClO in living cell and living mouse. PMID:27356618

  9. A dinuclear ruthenium(II) complex as turn-on luminescent probe for hypochlorous acid and its application for in vivo imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zonglun; Gao, Kuo; Wang, Beng; Yan, Hui; Xing, Panfei; Zhong, Chongmin; Xu, Yongqian; Li, Hongjuan; Chen, Jianxin; Wang, Wei; Sun, Shiguo

    2016-06-01

    A dinuclear ruthenium(II) complex Ruazo was designed and synthesized, in which oxidative cyclization of the azo and o-amino group was employed for the detection of hypochlorous acid (HClO) in aqueous solution. The non-emissive Ruazo formed highly luminescent triazole-ruthenium(II) complex in presence of HClO and successfully imaged HClO in living cell and living mouse.

  10. A dinuclear ruthenium(II) complex as turn-on luminescent probe for hypochlorous acid and its application for in vivo imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zonglun; Gao, Kuo; Wang, Beng; Yan, Hui; Xing, Panfei; Zhong, Chongmin; Xu, Yongqian; Li, Hongjuan; Chen, Jianxin; Wang, Wei; Sun, Shiguo

    2016-01-01

    A dinuclear ruthenium(II) complex Ruazo was designed and synthesized, in which oxidative cyclization of the azo and o-amino group was employed for the detection of hypochlorous acid (HClO) in aqueous solution. The non-emissive Ruazo formed highly luminescent triazole-ruthenium(II) complex in presence of HClO and successfully imaged HClO in living cell and living mouse. PMID:27356618

  11. Towards an acoustic model-based poroelastic imaging method: II. experimental investigation.

    PubMed

    Berry, Gearóid P; Bamber, Jeffrey C; Miller, Naomi R; Barbone, Paul E; Bush, Nigel L; Armstrong, Cecil G

    2006-12-01

    Soft biological tissue contains mobile fluid. The volume fraction of this fluid and the ease with which it may be displaced through the tissue could be of diagnostic significance and may also have consequences for the validity with which strain images can be interpreted according to the traditional idealizations of elastography. In a previous paper, under the assumption of frictionless boundary conditions, the spatio-temporal behavior of the strain field inside a compressed cylindrical poroelastic sample was predicted (Berry et al. 2006). In this current paper, experimental evidence is provided to confirm these predictions. Finite element modeling was first used to extend the previous predictions to allow for the existence of contact friction between the sample and the compressor plates. Elastographic techniques were then applied to image the time-evolution of the strain inside cylindrical samples of tofu (a suitable poroelastic material) during sustained unconfined compression. The observed experimental strain behavior was found to be consistent with the theoretical predictions. In particular, every sample studied confirmed that reduced values of radial strain advance with time from the curved cylindrical surface inwards towards the axis of symmetry. Furthermore, by fitting the predictions of an analytical model to a time sequence of strain images, parametric images of two quantities, each related to one or more of three poroelastic material constants were produced. The two parametric images depicted the Poisson's ratio (nu(s)) of the solid matrix and the product of the aggregate modulus (H(A)) of the solid matrix with the permeability (k) of the solid matrix to the pore fluid. The means of the pixel values in these images, nu(s) = 0.088 (standard deviation 0.023) and H(A)k = 1.449 (standard deviation 0.269) x 10(-7) m(2) s(-1), were in agreement with values derived from previously published data for tofu (Righetti et al. 2005). The results provide the first

  12. MORPH-II, a software package for the analysis of scanning-electron-micrograph images for the assessment of the fractal dimension of exposed stone surfaces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mossotti, Victor G.; Eldeeb, A. Raouf

    2000-01-01

    Turcotte, 1997, and Barton and La Pointe, 1995, have identified many potential uses for the fractal dimension in physicochemical models of surface properties. The image-analysis program described in this report is an extension of the program set MORPH-I (Mossotti and others, 1998), which provided the fractal analysis of electron-microscope images of pore profiles (Mossotti and Eldeeb, 1992). MORPH-II, an integration of the modified kernel of the program MORPH-I with image calibration and editing facilities, was designed to measure the fractal dimension of the exposed surfaces of stone specimens as imaged in cross section in an electron microscope.

  13. Impact of an etched EUV mask black border on imaging: part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydova, Natalia; de Kruif, Robert; Morimoto, Hiroaki; Sakata, Yo; Kotani, Jun; Fukugami, Norihito; Kondo, Shinpei; Imoto, Tomohiro; Connolly, Brid; van Gestel, Dries; Oorschot, Dorothe; Rio, David; Zimmerman, John; Harned, Noreen

    2013-09-01

    The image border is a pattern free dark area around the die on the photomask serving as transition area between the parts of the mask that is shielded from the exposure light by the Reticle Masking (ReMa) blades and the die. When printing a die at dense spacing on an EUV scanner, the reflection from its image border overlaps with the edges of neighboring dies affecting CD and contrast in this area. This is related to the fact that EUV absorber stack has 1-3% reflectance for actinic light. For a 55nm thick absorber the induced CD drop at the edges is found to be 4-5 nm for 27 nm dense lines. In this work we will show an overview of the absorber reflection impact on CD at the edge of the field across EUV scanner generations, for several imaging nodes and multiple absorber heights. Increasing spacing between dies on the wafer would prevent the unwanted exposure but results in an unacceptable loss of valuable wafer real estate thereby reducing the yield per wafer and is thus not a viable manufacturing solution. In order to mitigate the reflection from the image border one needs to create a so called black border. The most promising approach is removal of the absorber and the underlying multilayer down to the low reflective LTEM substrate by multilayer etching. It was shown in the previous study that the impact on CD was reduced essentially for 27 nm dense lines exposed on ASML NXE:3100. In this work we will continue the study of a multilayer etched black border impact on imaging. In particular, 22 nm lines/spaces imaging on ASML NXE:3300 EUV scanner will be investigated in the areas close to the black border as well as die to die effects. We will look closer into the CD uniformity impact by DUV Out-of-Band light reflected from black border and its mitigation. A possible OPC approach will also be evaluated.

  14. Assessment of the size of acute myocardial infarction. II: Electrocardiography and imaging methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bruschke, A.V.; van der Laarse, A.; van der Wall, E.E. )

    1990-09-01

    The electrocardiogram gives a reasonable estimate of infarct size but the confidence limits are wide, and the estimates are unreliable in inferior wall infarction. Infarct size also can be determined from perfusion scintigraphy, assessment of left ventricular dimensions, wall motion disturbances, and other characteristics of the left ventricular wall. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, particularly with contrast enhancement, has the greatest potential for accuracy. 73 references.

  15. TESTING THE NO-HAIR THEOREM WITH OBSERVATIONS IN THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM. II. BLACK HOLE IMAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Johannsen, Tim; Psaltis, Dimitrios E-mail: dpsaltis@email.arizona.ed

    2010-07-20

    According to the no-hair theorem, all astrophysical black holes are fully described by their masses and spins. This theorem can be tested observationally by measuring (at least) three different multipole moments of the spacetimes of black holes. In this paper, we analyze images of black holes within a framework that allows us to calculate observables in the electromagnetic spectrum as a function of the mass, spin, and, independently, the quadrupole moment of a black hole. We show that a deviation of the quadrupole moment from the expected Kerr value leads to images of black holes that are either prolate or oblate depending on the sign and magnitude of the deviation. In addition, there is a ring-like structure around the black hole shadow with a diameter of {approx}10 black hole masses that is substantially brighter than the image of the underlying accretion flow and that is independent of the astrophysical details of accretion flow models. We show that the shape of this ring depends directly on the mass, spin, and quadrupole moment of the black hole and can be used for an independent measurement of all three parameters. In particular, we demonstrate that this ring is highly circular for a Kerr black hole with a spin a {approx}< 0.9 M, independent of the observer's inclination, but becomes elliptical and asymmetric if the no-hair theorem is violated. Near-future very long baseline interferometric observations of Sgr A* will image this ring and may allow for an observational test of the no-hair theorem.

  16. The SWAP EUV Imaging Telescope. Part II: In-flight Performance and Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halain, J.-P.; Berghmans, D.; Seaton, D. B.; Nicula, B.; De Groof, A.; Mierla, M.; Mazzoli, A.; Defise, J.-M.; Rochus, P.

    2013-08-01

    The Sun Watcher with Active Pixel System detector and Image Processing (SWAP) telescope was launched on 2 November 2009 onboard the ESA PROBA2 technological mission and has acquired images of the solar corona every one to two minutes for more than two years. The most important technological developments included in SWAP are a radiation-resistant CMOS-APS detector and a novel onboard data-prioritization scheme. Although such detectors have been used previously in space, they have never been used for long-term scientific observations on orbit. Thus SWAP requires a careful calibration to guarantee the science return of the instrument. Since launch we have regularly monitored the evolution of SWAP's detector response in-flight to characterize both its performance and degradation over the course of the mission. These measurements are also used to reduce detector noise in calibrated images (by subtracting dark-current). Because accurate measurements of detector dark-current require large telescope off-points, we also monitored straylight levels in the instrument to ensure that these calibration measurements are not contaminated by residual signal from the Sun. Here we present the results of these tests and examine the variation of instrumental response and noise as a function of both time and temperature throughout the mission.

  17. MR imaging of hindbrain deformity in Chiari II patients with and without symptoms of brainstem compression.

    PubMed

    Curnes, J T; Oakes, W J; Boyko, O B

    1989-01-01

    We examined the MR appearance of the hindbrain deformity, including the upper cervical spinal canal and craniovertebral junction, in 33 patients with Chiari II malformation. In this disorder, there is impaction at birth of the medulla and cerebellar vermis into the upper cervical spine, resulting in obliteration of the subarachnoid space and scalloping of the dens. Spinal canal enlargement during the child's growth, combined with dorsal displacement of neural tissue, eventually causes marked widening of the precervical subarachnoid space. This enlargement may simulate an intradural mass. Our series documents the changes seen at birth and the progression of the widened precervical space through the first and second decades. Twelve (36%) of the 33 patients studied were symptomatic, with brainstem or longtract symptomatology, and 11 of these required surgery. This group was compared with the remaining 21 asymptomatic Chiari II patients to identify MR features associated with clinical deterioration. The level of descent of the hindbrain hernia was critical; eight of 12 symptomatic patients had a cervicomedullary kink at C4 or lower, while no asymptomatic patients had a fourth ventricle, medulla, or kink below C3-C4. The precervical cord subarachnoid space was slightly wider in asymptomatic patients, although there was great overlap. In five patients with follow-up scans, this space was seen to increase in width after laminectomy. A CSF flow void was present in the precervical space in about 25% of patients in both groups. In nine of 12 symptomatic patients, C1 arch indentation of the dura (causing significant compression) was confirmed surgically. However, seven (33%) of the 21 asymptomatic patients also had this appearance. Absolute measurement of the anteroposterior diameter of the canal at C1 ranged from 11 to 25 mm in both groups. Retrocollis, which persisted despite sedation for MR, was seen in two patients, both symptomatic. Recognition of the vermis, medullary

  18. Cancer Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    ... I/II Trials CIP ARRA-Funded Clinical Trials Informatics The Cancer Imaging Archive TCGA Imaging Genomics Quantitative Imaging Network LIDC-IDRI Imaging Informatics Resources News & Events News and Announcements Events – Meetings ...

  19. Kinetic versus Energetic Discrimination in Biological Copying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, Pablo; Pigolotti, Simone

    2013-05-01

    We study stochastic copying schemes in which discrimination between a right and a wrong match is achieved via different kinetic barriers or different binding energies of the two matches. We demonstrate that, in single-step reactions, the two discrimination mechanisms are strictly alternative and cannot be mixed to further reduce the error fraction. Close to the lowest error limit, kinetic discrimination results in a diverging copying velocity and dissipation per copied bit. On the other hand, energetic discrimination reaches its lowest error limit in an adiabatic regime where dissipation and velocity vanish. By analyzing experimentally measured kinetic rates of two DNA polymerases, T7 and Polγ, we argue that one of them operates in the kinetic and the other in the energetic regime. Finally, we show how the two mechanisms can be combined in copying schemes implementing error correction through a proofreading pathway.

  20. Copy Number Variation across European Populations

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wanting; Hayward, Caroline; Wright, Alan F.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Vitart, Veronique; Knott, Sara; Wild, Sarah H.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Wilson, James F.; Rudan, Igor; Porteous, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Genome analysis provides a powerful approach to test for evidence of genetic variation within and between geographical regions and local populations. Copy number variants which comprise insertions, deletions and duplications of genomic sequence provide one such convenient and informative source. Here, we investigate copy number variants from genome wide scans of single nucleotide polymorphisms in three European population isolates, the island of Vis in Croatia, the islands of Orkney in Scotland and the South Tyrol in Italy. We show that whereas the overall copy number variant frequencies are similar between populations, their distribution is highly specific to the population of origin, a finding which is supported by evidence for increased kinship correlation for specific copy number variants within populations. PMID:21829696

  1. COPI Budding within the Golgi Stack

    PubMed Central

    Popoff, Vincent; Adolf, Frank; Brügger, Britta; Wieland, Felix

    2011-01-01

    The Golgi serves as a hub for intracellular membrane traffic in the eukaryotic cell. Transport within the early secretory pathway, that is within the Golgi and from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum, is mediated by COPI-coated vesicles. The COPI coat shares structural features with the clathrin coat, but differs in the mechanisms of cargo sorting and vesicle formation. The small GTPase Arf1 initiates coating on activation and recruits en bloc the stable heptameric protein complex coatomer that resembles the inner and the outer shells of clathrin-coated vesicles. Different binding sites exist in coatomer for membrane machinery and for the sorting of various classes of cargo proteins. During the budding of a COPI vesicle, lipids are sorted to give a liquid-disordered phase composition. For the release of a COPI-coated vesicle, coatomer and Arf cooperate to mediate membrane separation. PMID:21844168

  2. 20 CFR 408.405 - When do we require original records or copies as evidence?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When do we require original records or copies as evidence? 408.405 Section 408.405 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements General Information § 408.405 When do...

  3. 20 CFR 408.405 - When do we require original records or copies as evidence?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When do we require original records or copies as evidence? 408.405 Section 408.405 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements General Information § 408.405 When do...

  4. 37 CFR 202.21 - Deposit of identifying material instead of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... picture, and description of the motion picture; or (ii) A set consisting of one frame enlargement or..., transparencies, photostats, drawings, or similar two-dimensional reproductions or renderings of the work, in a... is an integral part of a motion picture, identifying material deposited in lieu of an actual copy...

  5. 37 CFR 202.21 - Deposit of identifying material instead of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... picture, and description of the motion picture; or (ii) A set consisting of one frame enlargement or..., transparencies, photostats, drawings, or similar two-dimensional reproductions or renderings of the work, in a... is an integral part of a motion picture, identifying material deposited in lieu of an actual copy...

  6. 37 CFR 202.21 - Deposit of identifying material instead of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... picture, and description of the motion picture; or (ii) A set consisting of one frame enlargement or..., transparencies, photostats, drawings, or similar two-dimensional reproductions or renderings of the work, in a... is an integral part of a motion picture, identifying material deposited in lieu of an actual copy...

  7. 20 CFR 408.405 - When do we require original records or copies as evidence?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When do we require original records or copies as evidence? 408.405 Section 408.405 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Evidence Requirements General Information § 408.405 When do...

  8. NASA printing, duplicating, and copying management handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This handbook provides information and procedures for the implementation of NASA policy and applicable laws and regulations relating to printing, duplicating, and copying. The topics addressed include a description of relevant laws and regulations, authorizations required, and responsible entities for NASA printing, duplicating, and copying. The policy of NASA is to ensure understanding and application of authority and responsibility on printing matters. Where necessary, the handbook clarifies the intent of basic laws and regulations applicable to NASA.

  9. Cognitive profile of patients with rotated drawing at copy or recall: a controlled group study.

    PubMed

    Molteni, Federica; Traficante, Debora; Ferri, Francesca; Isella, Valeria

    2014-03-01

    When copying or recalling a figure from memory, some patient with dementia or focal brain lesions may rotate the drawing through ±90° or 180°. We have tried to clarify the nature of this phenomenon by investigating the cognitive profile of 22 patients who rotated the copy of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure and 27 who rotated (only) the recall, and two control groups of cases with the same neuropsychiatric diagnoses, but no misorientation deficit. Brain MRI and FDG-PET images were also analysed. Predictor of rotation at the copy versus rotation at the recall was visuospatial impairment as measured by the copy of the Rey Figure; predictors of rotation at the copy versus no rotation were, again, visuospatial deficits, in addition to an abnormal performance at the task of selective attention. No specific profile of cognitive impairment distinguished patients with and without rotation at the recall. Disproportionate temporo-parieto-occipital atrophy or hypometabolism were evident in cases with misorientation of the copy, while predominant frontal abnormalities were found in cases of rotated recall. Based on these findings, rotated drawing at the copy is interpreted as a dorsal visual stream deficit, whose occurrence is more probable when attentional control is impaired. Rotation at recall seems to have a distinct, more anterior, neural substrate, but its dysexecutive nature has yet to be demonstrated. PMID:24509088

  10. COPI Is Required for Enterovirus 71 Replication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianmin; Wu, Zhiqiang; Jin, Qi

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a member of the Picornaviridae family, is found in Asian countries where it causes a wide range of human diseases. No effective therapy is available for the treatment of these infections. Picornaviruses undergo RNA replication in association with membranes of infected cells. COPI and COPII have been shown to be involved in the formation of picornavirus-induced vesicles. Replication of several picornaviruses, including poliovirus and Echovirus 11 (EV11), is dependent on COPI or COPII. Here, we report that COPI, but not COPII, is required for EV71 replication. Replication of EV71 was inhibited by brefeldin A and golgicide A, inhibitors of COPI activity. Furthermore, we found EV71 2C protein interacted with COPI subunits by co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assay, indicating that COPI coatomer might be directed to the viral replication complex through viral 2C protein. Additionally, because the pathway is conserved among different species of enteroviruses, it may represent a novel target for antiviral therapies. PMID:22662263

  11. Integrated imaging of hepatic tumors in childhood. Part II. Benign lesions (congenital, reparative, and inflammatory)

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.H.; Greenspan, B.S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have encountered benign liver masses as frequently as malignant lesions in children with hepatomegaly. Lesions studied included abscesses, cavernous hemangioma/hemangioendothelioma, adenoma of glycogen storage disease, choledochal cysts, focal nodular hyperplasia, cystic hepatoblastoma, and hamartoma. An intergrated imaging protocol involving ultrasound, computed tomography, and scintigraphy proved to be more helpful than any one modality in establishing the benign or malignant nature of a hepatic neoplasm and the type of tumor, which is of particular importance when surgical exploration and/or biopsy is contraindicated.

  12. Automated image processing of Landsat II digital data for watershed runoff prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasso, R. R.; Jensen, J. R.; Estes, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    Digital image processing of Landsat data from a 230 sq km area was examined as a possible means of generating soil cover information for use in the watershed runoff prediction of Kern County, California. The soil cover information included data on brush, grass, pasture lands and forests. A classification accuracy of 94% for the Landsat-based soil cover survey suggested that the technique could be applied to the watershed runoff estimate. However, problems involving the survey of complex mountainous environments may require further attention

  13. Hollow organ abdominal ischemia, part II: clinical features, etiology, imaging findings and management.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Zina J; Mazzariol, Fernanda S; Kaul, Bindu; Oh, Sarah K; Chernyak, Victoria; Flusberg, Milana; Stein, Marjorie W; Rozenblit, Alla M

    2016-01-01

    Acute hollow organ ischemia commonly presents with acute pain prompting radiologic evaluation and almost always requires urgent treatment. Despite different risk factors and anatomic differences, ischemia is commonly due to low flow states but can also be due to arterial and venous occlusion. Radiologic diagnosis is critical as many present with nonspecific symptoms. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) is the modality of choice. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is preferred in suspected appendicitis in pregnant patients and is superior in biliary necrosis. This article provides a pictorial review of the CT/MRI features of hollow abdominal organ ischemia while highlighting key clinical features, pathogenesis, and management. PMID:27317221

  14. Investigating the dopaminergic synapse in vivo. II. Molecular imaging studies in small laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Nikolaus, Susanne; Larisch, Rolf; Beu, Markus; Antke, Christina; Kley, Konstantin; Forutan, Farhad; Wirrwar, Andreas; Müller, Hans-Wilhelm

    2007-01-01

    Dopaminergic synaptic function may be assessed either at the presynaptic terminal or at the postsynaptic binding sites using molecular in vivo imaging methods. Apart from the density of binding sites, parameters such as alterations in dopamine synthesis, dopamine storage or dopamine release can be quantified either by application of specific radiotracers or by assessing the competition between the exogenous radioligand and endogenous dopamine. The performance of animal studies allows the induction of specific short-term or long-term synaptic conditions via pharmacological challenges or infliction of neurotoxic lesions. Therefore, small laboratory animals such as rats and mice have become invaluable models for a variety of human disorders. This article gives an overview of those small animal studies which have been performed so far on dopaminergic neurotransmission using in vivo imaging methods, with a special focus on the relevance of findings within the functional entity of the dopaminergic synapse. Taken together, in vivo investigations on animal models of Parkinson's disease showed decreases of dopamine storage, dopamine release and dopamine transporter binding, no alterations of dopamine synthesis and DA release, and either increases or no alterations of D2 receptor binding, while in vivo investigations of animal models of Huntington's disease. showed decreases of DAT and D1 receptor binding. For D2 receptor binding, both decreases and increases have been reported, dependent on the radioligand employed. Substances of abuse, such as alcohol, amphetamine and methylphenidate, led to an increase of dopamine release in striatal regions. This held for the acute application of substances to both healthy animals and animal models of drug abuse. Findings also showed that chronic application of cocaine induced long-term reductions of both D1 and D2 receptor binding, which disappeared after several weeks of withdrawal. Finally, preliminary results yielded the first

  15. Type-II superlattice dual-band LWIR imager with M-barrier and Fabry-Perot resonance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Edward Kwei-wei; Haddadi, Abbas; Chen, Guanxi; Nguyen, Binh-Minh; Hoang, Minh-Anh; McClintock, Ryan; Stegall, Mark; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2011-07-01

    We report a high performance long-wavelength IR dual-band imager based on type-II superlattices with 100% cutoff wavelengths at 9.5 μm (blue channel) and 13 μm (red channel). Test pixels reveal background-limited behavior with specific detectivities as high as ~5×10¹¹ Jones at 7.9 μm in the blue channel and ~1×10¹¹ Jones at 10.2 μm in the red channel at 77 K. These performances were attributed to low dark currents thanks to the M-barrier and Fabry-Perot enhanced quantum efficiencies despite using thin 2 μm absorbing regions. In the imager, the high signal-to-noise ratio contributed to median noise equivalent temperature differences of ~20 milli-Kelvin for both channels with integration times on the order of 0.5 ms, making it suitable for high speed applications. PMID:21725479

  16. STUDIES OF NGC 6720 WITH CALIBRATED HST/WFC3 EMISSION-LINE FILTER IMAGES. II. PHYSICAL CONDITIONS ,

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dell, C. R.; Ferland, G. J.; Henney, W. J.; Peimbert, M.

    2013-04-15

    We have performed a detailed analysis of the electron temperature and density in the Ring Nebula using the calibrated Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 images described in the preceding paper. The electron temperature (T{sub e}) determined from [N II] and [O III] rises slightly and monotonically toward the central star. The observed equivalent width (EW) in the central region indicates that T{sub e} rises as high as 13,000 K. In contrast, the low EWs in the outer regions are largely due to scattered diffuse Galactic radiation by dust. The images allowed determination of unprecedented small-scale variations in T{sub e}. These variations indicate that the mean square area temperature fluctuations are significantly higher than expected from simple photoionization. The power producing these fluctuations occurs at scales of less than 3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm. This scale length provides a strong restriction on the mechanism causing the large t {sup 2} values observed.

  17. THE TRENDS HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING SURVEY. II. DIRECT DETECTION OF THE HD 8375 TERTIARY

    SciTech Connect

    Crepp, Justin R.; Johnson, John Asher; Yantek, Scott M.; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoff W.; Isaacson, Howard; Fischer, Debra A.; Wright, Jason T.; Feng Ying

    2013-07-01

    We present the direct imaging detection of a faint tertiary companion to the single-lined spectroscopic binary HD 8375 AB. Initially noticed as an 53 m s{sup -1} yr{sup -1} Doppler acceleration by Bowler et al., we have obtained high-contrast adaptive optics observations at Keck using NIRC2 that spatially resolve HD 8375 C from its host(s). Astrometric measurements demonstrate that the companion shares a common proper-motion. We detect orbital motion in a clockwise direction. Multiband relative photometry measurements are consistent with an early M-dwarf spectral type ({approx}M1V). Our combined Doppler and imaging observations place a lower-limit of m {>=} 0.297 M{sub Sun} on its dynamical mass. We also provide a refined orbit for the inner pair using recent radial velocity measurements obtained with the High Resolution Echelle Spectrometer. HD 8375 is one of many triple-star systems that are apparently missing in the solar neighborhood.

  18. Intercomparison of methods for image quality characterization. II. Noise power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbins, James T. III; Samei, Ehsan; Ranger, Nicole T.; Chen Ying

    2006-05-15

    Second in a two-part series comparing measurement techniques for the assessment of basic image quality metrics in digital radiography, in this paper we focus on the measurement of the image noise power spectrum (NPS). Three methods were considered: (1) a method published by Dobbins et al. [Med. Phys. 22, 1581-1593 (1995)] (2) a method published by Samei et al. [Med. Phys. 30, 608-622 (2003)], and (3) a new method sanctioned by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC 62220-1, 2003), developed as part of an international standard for the measurement of detective quantum efficiency. In addition to an overall comparison of the estimated NPS between the three techniques, the following factors were also evaluated for their effect on the measured NPS: horizontal versus vertical directional dependence, the use of beam-limiting apertures, beam spectrum, and computational methods of NPS analysis, including the region-of-interest (ROI) size and the method of ROI normalization. Of these factors, none was found to demonstrate a substantial impact on the amplitude of the NPS estimates ({<=}3.1% relative difference in NPS averaged over frequency, for each factor considered separately). Overall, the three methods agreed to within 1.6%{+-}0.8% when averaged over frequencies >0.15 mm{sup -1}.

  19. The long-period RS CVn binary IM Pegasi --- II. First surface images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdyugina, S. V.; Berdyugin, A. V.; Ilyin, I.; Tuominen, I.

    2000-08-01

    New high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectroscopic observations and UBV photometry carried out in 1996-1999 were analysed with the surface imaging technique. A total of 8 images of IM Peg was obtained for the first time. A huge high-latitude active region was found to dominate the stellar surface and decreased in area during the period of the observations. At the same time, on the opposite hemisphere (in longitudes), smaller spots were developing. The spots were migrating in the orbital reference frame, the period of spot rotation being of 24.d73∓0.d02. The spots constitute two active longitudes on opposite stellar hemispheres, similar to other RS CVn stars. The evolution of the spot areas within the active longitudes indicates a stellar activity cycle, during which one active longitude dominates the stellar activity, to be about 6.5 years. Then, a total cycle, comprising two consecutive periods of activity of both active longitudes, is about 13 years. In 1999, the activity switched to the other active longitude. This declared the beginning of a new (half-) cycle. based on observations collected at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), La Palma, Spain; the 2.6 m and 1.25 m telescopes of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, Ukraine; the 2m telescope of the National Astronomical Observatory, Rozhen, Bulgaria.

  20. Turn-by-Turn Imaging of the Transverse Beam Profile in PEP-II

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Alan A.; Petree, Mark; /SLAC

    2006-12-18

    During injection or instability, the transverse profile of an individual bunch in a storage ring can change significantly in a few turns. However, most synchrotron-light imaging techniques are not designed for this time scale. We have developed a novel diagnostic that enhances the utility of a fast gated camera by adding, inexpensively, some features of a dual-axis streak camera, in order to watch the turn-by-turn evolution of the transverse profile, in both x and y. The beam's elliptical profile is reshaped using cylindrical lenses to form a tall and narrow ellipse--essentially the projection of the full ellipse onto one transverse axis. We do this projection twice, by splitting the beam into two paths at different heights, and rotating the ellipse by 90{sup o} on one path. A rapidly rotating mirror scans these vertical ''pencils'' of light horizontally across the photocathode of the camera, which is gated for 3 ns on every Nth ring turn. A single readout of the camera captures 100 images, looking like a stroboscopic photograph of a moving object. We have observed the capture of injected charge into a bunch and the rapid change of beam size at the onset of a fast instability.

  1. Development and Test of a Neutron Imaging Setup at the PGAA Instrument at FRM II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söllradl, S.; Mühlbauer, M. J.; Kudejova, P.; Türler, A.

    We report on the developments of a neutron tomography setup at the instrument for prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) at the Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum(MLZ). The recent developments are driven by the idea of combining the spatial information obtained with neutron tomography with the elemental information determined with PGAA, i.e. to further combine both techniques to an investigative technique called prompt gamma activation imaging (PGAI).At the PGAA instrument, a cold neutron flux of up to 6 x 1010 cm-2 s-1 (thermal equivalent) is available in the focus of an elliptically tapered neutron guide. In the reported experiments, the divergence of the neutron beam was investigated, the resolution of the installed detector system tested, and a proof-of-principle tomography experiment performed. In our study a formerly used camera box was upgraded with a better camera and an optical resolution of 8 line pairs/mm was achieved. The divergence of the neutron beam was measured by a systematic scan along the beam axis. Based on the acquired data, a neutron imaging setup with a L/D ratio of 200 was installed. The resolution of the setup was testedin combination with a gadolinium test target and different scintillator screens. The test target was irradiated at two positions to determine the maximum resolution and the resolution at the actual sample position. The performance of the installed tomography setup was demonstrated bya tomography experiment of an electric amplifier tube.

  2. The Monterey Formation of the Santa Ynez Unit, Part II: Fractures, borehole images, and production

    SciTech Connect

    Lockman, D.F.; Schwalbach, J.R. )

    1996-01-01

    The Santa Ynez Unit (SYU), operated by Exxon, USA, comprises sixteen Federal OCS leases in the western portion of the Santa Barbara Channel, offshore California. The three accumulations, Hondo, Pescado, and Sacate Fields, are trapped in a large complex of east-west trending anticlines. The Hondo and Harmony platforms produce from the Hondo structure, and the Heritage platform produces from the Pescado structure. Hondo platform production began in 1981, and approximately 130 MBO and 200 BCF have been produced. Drilling began from Harmony and Heritage platforms in 1993. The primary reservoir is the Miocene Monterey Formation, consisting of very thin interbeds of fine-grained siliceous mudstones, charts, porcelanites, and carbonate rocks. The majority of the recoverable reserves are contained in and produced from the extensive, high-permeability fracture network. Part of our formation evaluation program emphasizes fracture characterization and quantification by integrating a number of new technologies. We have calibrated borehole images to approximately 1000 feet of continuous cores from the main producing zones. This enables us to quantify levels of fracturing in wells without core, and to develop strategies for selective perforation of the most highly-productive intervals. Production logs and wireline formation tests provide valuable information about the relation between fluid entry to the well bore and fracture distribution. Borehole images also provide valuable information about fracture orientations, bed orientations, locally-developed chert folds, and lithofacies.

  3. The Monterey Formation of the Santa Ynez Unit, Part II: Fractures, borehole images, and production

    SciTech Connect

    Lockman, D.F.; Schwalbach, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    The Santa Ynez Unit (SYU), operated by Exxon, USA, comprises sixteen Federal OCS leases in the western portion of the Santa Barbara Channel, offshore California. The three accumulations, Hondo, Pescado, and Sacate Fields, are trapped in a large complex of east-west trending anticlines. The Hondo and Harmony platforms produce from the Hondo structure, and the Heritage platform produces from the Pescado structure. Hondo platform production began in 1981, and approximately 130 MBO and 200 BCF have been produced. Drilling began from Harmony and Heritage platforms in 1993. The primary reservoir is the Miocene Monterey Formation, consisting of very thin interbeds of fine-grained siliceous mudstones, charts, porcelanites, and carbonate rocks. The majority of the recoverable reserves are contained in and produced from the extensive, high-permeability fracture network. Part of our formation evaluation program emphasizes fracture characterization and quantification by integrating a number of new technologies. We have calibrated borehole images to approximately 1000 feet of continuous cores from the main producing zones. This enables us to quantify levels of fracturing in wells without core, and to develop strategies for selective perforation of the most highly-productive intervals. Production logs and wireline formation tests provide valuable information about the relation between fluid entry to the well bore and fracture distribution. Borehole images also provide valuable information about fracture orientations, bed orientations, locally-developed chert folds, and lithofacies.

  4. 8.4 GHz High-Resolution Observations of Fanaroff-Riley II 3CR Radio Sources with 0.3II. Ten New Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernini, Ilias

    2007-07-01

    VLA observations at 8.4 GHz of two Fanaroff-Riley class II (FR II) radio galaxies (RGs; 3C 265 and 3C 324) and eight FR II quasars (QSRs; 3C 175, 3C 204, 3C 215, 3C 249.1, 3C 263, 3C 336, 3C 351, and 3C 432) are presented as part of a program to obtain high-resolution images of the hot spots of 13 FR II QSRs and 13 FR II RGs with classical double structures. The 16 hot spots identified in these sources are well resolved. In terms of location, nine hot spots are ``edged'' hot spots, while the remaining are ``recessed'' hot spots. The previously known jets for all of the QSRs are well imaged at this resolution. We discuss the overall source morphology and the structure and location of the hot spot (i.e., whether it is located at the outer edges of the radio lobe or recessed).

  5. Type-II superlattice detector for long-wave infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klipstein, P. C.; Avnon, E.; Benny, Y.; Fraenkel, A.; Glozman, A.; Hojman, E.; Ilan, E.; Kahanov, E.; Klin, O.; Langof, L.; Livneh, Y.; Lukomsky, I.; Nitzani, M.; Shkedy, L.; Shtrichman, I.; Snapi, N.; Talmor, R.; Tuito, A.; Vaserman, S.; Weiss, E.

    2015-06-01

    When incorporated into the active layer of a "XBp" detector structure, Type II InAs/GaSb superlattices (T2SLs) offer a high quantum efficiency (QE) and a low diffusion limited dark current, close to MCT Rule 07. Using a simulation tool that was developed to predict the QE as a function of the T2SL period dimensions and active layer stack thickness, we have designed and fabricated a new focal plane array (FPA) T2SL XBp detector. The detector goes by the name of "Pelican-D LW", and has a format of 640 ×512 pixels with a pitch of 15 μm. The FPA has a QE of 50% (one pass), a cut-off of ~9.5 μm, and operates at 77K with a high operability, background limited performance and good stability. It uses a new digital read-out integrated circuit, and the integrated detector cooler assembly (IDCA) closely follows the configuration of SCD's Pelican-D MWIR detector.

  6. Nova Light Curves From The Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) - II. The extended catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hounsell, R.; Darnley, M. J.; Bode, M. F.; Harman, D. J.; Surina, F.; Starrfield, S.; Holdsworth, D. L.; Bewsher, D.; Hick, P. P.; Jackson, B. V.; Buffington, A.; Clover, J. M.; Shafter, A. W.

    2016-04-01

    We present the results from observing nine Galactic novae in eruption with the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) between 2004 and 2009. While many of these novae reached peak magnitudes that were either at or approaching the detection limits of SMEI, we were still able to produce light curves that in many cases contained more data at and around the initial rise, peak, and decline than those found in other variable star catalogs. For each nova, we obtained a peak time, maximum magnitude, and for several an estimate of the decline time ({t}{{2}}). Interestingly, although of lower quality than those found in Hounsell et al., two of the light curves may indicate the presence of a pre-maximum halt. In addition, the high cadence of the SMEI instrument has allowed the detection of low-amplitude variations in at least one of the nova light curves.

  7. A video imaging technique for assessing dermal exposure. II. Fluorescent tracer testing.

    PubMed

    Fenske, R A; Wong, S M; Leffingwell, J T; Spear, R C

    1986-12-01

    Laboratory and field evaluations were conducted to determine the suitability of employing a fluorescent tracer in conjunction with video imaging analysis to measure dermal exposure during pesticide applications. The Fluorescent Whitening Agent 4-methyl-7-diethylaminocoumarin and the organophosphate malathion were highly correlated (r = .985) when sprayed under controlled conditions. Deposition levels during field studies were correlated similarly (r = .942); however, variability in deposition ratios requires that field sampling be conducted to determine the ratio for a particular application. Penetration of the two compounds through cotton/polyester workshirt material demonstrated a high correlation (r = .979), whereas penetration of cotton/polyester coverall material was more variable (r = .834). The slopes of the regression lines for the two materials were not significantly different. The ratio of pesticide and tracer recovered from targets was consistently higher than the initial tank ratio due to differences in solubility and mixing. PMID:3799477

  8. Intracranial vascular malformations: imaging of charged-particle radiosurgery. Part II. Complications

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, M.P.; Delapaz, R.L.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Frankel, K.A.; Phillips, M.H.; Levy, R.P.; Enzmann, D.R.

    1988-08-01

    Seven of 24 patients with intracranial vascular malformations who were treated with helium-ion Bragg-peak radiosurgery had complications of therapy. New symptoms and corresponding radiologic abnormalities developed 4-28 months after therapy. Five patients had similar patterns of white matter changes and mass effect on computed tomographic scans and magnetic resonance images. The abnormalities were centered in the radiation field. Gray matter changes and abnormal enhancement in the thalamus and hypothalamus outside the radiation field developed in one patient. This patient also had vasculopathic changes on angiograms. Rapidly progressive large vessel vasculopathy developed in another patient and caused occlusion of major vessels. Thus, different mechanisms may be involved in the complications of heavy-ion radiosurgery.

  9. Phase II Trial of Hypofractionated Image-Guided Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Jarad M.; Rosewall, Tara; Bayley, Andrew; Bristow, Robert; Chung, Peter; Crook, Juanita; Gospodarowicz, Mary; McLean, Michael; Menard, Cynthia; Milosevic, Michael; Warde, Padraig; Catton, Charles

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: To assess in a prospective trial the feasibility and late toxicity of hypofractionated radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had clinical stage T1c-2cNXM0 disease. They received 60 Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks with intensity-modulated radiotherapy including daily on-line image guidance with intraprostatic fiducial markers. Results: Between June 2001 and March 2004, 92 patients were treated with hypofractionated RT. The cohort had a median prostate-specific antigen value of 7.06 ng/mL. The majority had Gleason grade 5-6 (38%) or 7 (59%) disease, and 82 patients had T1c-T2a clinical staging. Overall, 29 patients had low-risk, 56 intermediate-risk, and 7 high-risk disease. Severe acute toxicity (Grade 3-4) was rare, occurring in only 1 patient. Median follow-up was 38 months. According to the Phoenix definition for biochemical failure, the rate of biochemical control at 14 months was 97%. According to the previous American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology definition, biochemical control at 3 years was 76%. The incidence of late toxicity was low, with no severe (Grade {>=}3) toxicity at the most recent assessment. Conclusions: Hypofractionated RT using 60 Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks with image guidance is feasible and is associated with low rates of late bladder and rectal toxicity. At early follow-up, biochemical outcome is comparable to that reported for conventionally fractionated controls. The findings are being tested in an ongoing, multicenter, Phase III trial.

  10. THE CELESTIAL REFERENCE FRAME AT 24 AND 43 GHz. II. IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Charlot, P.; Boboltz, D. A.; Fey, A. L.; Fomalont, E. B.; Geldzahler, B. J.; Gordon, D.; Ma, C.; Romney, J. D.; Sovers, O. J.

    2010-05-15

    We have measured the submilliarcsecond structure of 274 extragalactic sources at 24 and 43 GHz in order to assess their astrometric suitability for use in a high-frequency celestial reference frame (CRF). Ten sessions of observations with the Very Long Baseline Array have been conducted over the course of {approx}5 years, with a total of 1339 images produced for the 274 sources. There are several quantities that can be used to characterize the impact of intrinsic source structure on astrometric observations including the source flux density, the flux density variability, the source structure index, the source compactness, and the compactness variability. A detailed analysis of these imaging quantities shows that (1) our selection of compact sources from 8.4 GHz catalogs yielded sources with flux densities, averaged over the sessions in which each source was observed, of about 1 Jy at both 24 and 43 GHz, (2) on average the source flux densities at 24 GHz varied by 20%-25% relative to their mean values, with variations in the session-to-session flux density scale being less than 10%, (3) sources were found to be more compact with less intrinsic structure at higher frequencies, and (4) variations of the core radio emission relative to the total flux density of the source are less than 8% on average at 24 GHz. We conclude that the reduction in the effects due to source structure gained by observing at higher frequencies will result in an improved CRF and a pool of high-quality fiducial reference points for use in spacecraft navigation over the next decade.

  11. The Lyman alpha reference sample. II. Hubble space telescope imaging results, integrated properties, and trends

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, Matthew; Östlin, Göran; Duval, Florent; Sandberg, Andreas; Guaita, Lucia; Melinder, Jens; Rivera-Thorsen, Thøger; Adamo, Angela; Schaerer, Daniel; Verhamme, Anne; Orlitová, Ivana; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Otí-Floranes, Héctor; Cannon, John M.; Pardy, Stephen; Atek, Hakim; Kunth, Daniel; Laursen, Peter; Herenz, E. Christian

    2014-02-10

    We report new results regarding the Lyα output of galaxies, derived from the Lyman Alpha Reference Sample, and focused on Hubble Space Telescope imaging. For 14 galaxies we present intensity images in Lyα, Hα, and UV, and maps of Hα/Hβ, Lyα equivalent width (EW), and Lyα/Hα. We present Lyα and UV radial light profiles and show they are well-fitted by Sérsic profiles, but Lyα profiles show indices systematically lower than those of the UV (n ≈ 1-2 instead of ≳ 4). This reveals a general lack of the central concentration in Lyα that is ubiquitous in the UV. Photometric growth curves increase more slowly for Lyα than the far ultraviolet, showing that small apertures may underestimate the EW. For most galaxies, however, flux and EW curves flatten by radii ≈10 kpc, suggesting that if placed at high-z only a few of our galaxies would suffer from large flux losses. We compute global properties of the sample in large apertures, and show total Lyα luminosities to be independent of all other quantities. Normalized Lyα throughput, however, shows significant correlations: escape is found to be higher in galaxies of lower star formation rate, dust content, mass, and nebular quantities that suggest harder ionizing continuum and lower metallicity. Six galaxies would be selected as high-z Lyα emitters, based upon their luminosity and EW. We discuss the results in the context of high-z Lyα and UV samples. A few galaxies have EWs above 50 Å, and one shows f{sub esc}{sup Lyα} of 80%; such objects have not previously been reported at low-z.

  12. Image-derived and arterial blood sampled input functions for quantitative PET imaging of the angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor in the kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Tao; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.; Li, Xin; Vranesic, Melin; Lodge, Martin A.; Gulaldi, Nedim C. M.; Szabo, Zsolt

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: The radioligand {sup 11}C-KR31173 has been introduced for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor in the kidney in vivo. To study the biokinetics of {sup 11}C-KR31173 with a compartmental model, the input function is needed. Collection and analysis of arterial blood samples are the established approach to obtain the input function but they are not feasible in patients with renal diseases. The goal of this study was to develop a quantitative technique that can provide an accurate image-derived input function (ID-IF) to replace the conventional invasive arterial sampling and test the method in pigs with the goal of translation into human studies. Methods: The experimental animals were injected with [{sup 11}C]KR31173 and scanned up to 90 min with dynamic PET. Arterial blood samples were collected for the artery derived input function (AD-IF) and used as a gold standard for ID-IF. Before PET, magnetic resonance angiography of the kidneys was obtained to provide the anatomical information required for derivation of the recovery coefficients in the abdominal aorta, a requirement for partial volume correction of the ID-IF. Different image reconstruction methods, filtered back projection (FBP) and ordered subset expectation maximization (OS-EM), were investigated for the best trade-off between bias and variance of the ID-IF. The effects of kidney uptakes on the quantitative accuracy of ID-IF were also studied. Biological variables such as red blood cell binding and radioligand metabolism were also taken into consideration. A single blood sample was used for calibration in the later phase of the input function. Results: In the first 2 min after injection, the OS-EM based ID-IF was found to be biased, and the bias was found to be induced by the kidney uptake. No such bias was found with the FBP based image reconstruction method. However, the OS-EM based image reconstruction was found to reduce variance in the subsequent

  13. Porcine oocyte mtDNA copy number is high or low depending on the donor.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard; Løvendahl, Peter; Larsen, Knud; Madsen, Lone Bruhn; Callesen, Henrik

    2016-08-01

    Oocyte capacity is relevant in understanding decreasing female fertility and in the use of assisted reproductive technologies in human and farm animals. Mitochondria are important to the development of a functionally good oocyte and the oocyte mtDNA copy number has been introduced as a useful parameter for prediction of oocyte competence. The aim of this study was to investigate: (i) if the oocyte donor has an influence on its oocyte's mtDNA copy number; and (ii) the relation between oocyte size and mtDNA copy number using pre- and postpubertal pig oocytes. Cumulus-oocyte complexes were collected from individual donor pigs. The oocytes were allocated into different size-groups, snap-frozen and single-oocyte mtDNA copy number was estimated by quantitative real-time PCR using the genes ND1 and COX1. Results showed that mean mtDNA copy number in oocytes from any individual donor could be categorized as either 'high' (≥100,000) or 'low' (<100,000) with no difference in threshold between pre- and postpubertal oocytes. No linear correlation was detected between oocyte size and mtDNA copy number within pre- and postpubertal oocytes. This study demonstrates the importance of the oocyte donor in relation to oocyte mtDNA copy number, irrespectively of the donor's puberty status and the oocyte's growth stage. Observations from this study facilitate both further investigations of the importance of mtDNA copy number and the unravelling of relations between different mitochondrial parameters and oocyte competence. PMID:26679989

  14. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. II. CATALOG OF THE IMAGE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Rosolowsky, Erik; Dunham, Miranda K.; Evans, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul; Ginsburg, Adam; Bally, John; Battersby, Cara; Glenn, Jason; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Bradley, E. Todd; Aguirre, James; Cyganowski, Claudia; Dowell, Darren; Drosback, Meredith; Walawender, Josh; Williams, Jonathan P.

    2010-05-15

    We present a catalog of 8358 sources extracted from images produced by the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS). The BGPS is a survey of the millimeter dust continuum emission from the northern Galactic plane. The catalog sources are extracted using a custom algorithm, Bolocat, which was designed specifically to identify and characterize objects in the large-area maps generated from the Bolocam instrument. The catalog products are designed to facilitate follow-up observations of these relatively unstudied objects. The catalog is 98% complete from 0.4 Jy to 60 Jy over all object sizes for which the survey is sensitive (<3.'5). We find that the sources extracted can best be described as molecular clumps-large dense regions in molecular clouds linked to cluster formation. We find that the flux density distribution of sources follows a power law with dN/dS {proportional_to} S {sup -2.4{+-}0.1} and that the mean Galactic latitude for sources is significantly below the midplane: (b) = (-0.{sup 0}095 {+-} 0.{sup 0}001).

  15. Variable copy number DNA sequences in rice.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, S; Takaiwa, F; Oono, K

    1987-12-01

    We have cloned two types of variable copy number DNA sequences from the rice embryo genome. One of these sequences, which was cloned in pRB301, was amplified about 50-fold during callus formation and diminished in copy number to the embryonic level during regeneration. The other clone, named pRB401, showed the reciprocal pattern. The copy numbers of both sequences were changed even in the early developmental stage and eliminated from nuclear DNA along with growth of the plant. Sequencing analysis of the pRB301 insert revealed some open reading frames and direct repeat structures, but corresponding sequences were not identified in the EMBL and LASL DNA databases. Sequencing of the nuclear genomic fragment cloned in pRB401 revealed the presence of the 3'rps12-rps7 region of rice chloroplast DNA. Our observations suggest that during callus formation (dedifferentiation), regeneration and the growth process the copy numbers of some DNA sequences are variable and that nuclear integrated chloroplast DNA acts as a variable copy number sequence in the rice genome. Based on data showing a common sequence in mitochondria and chloroplast DNA of maize (Stern and Lonsdale 1982) and that the rps12 gene of tobacco chloroplast DNA is a divided gene (Torazawa et al. 1986), it is suggested that the sequence on the inverted repeat structure of chloroplast DNA may have the character of a movable genetic element. PMID:3481021

  16. Creating Single-Copy Genetic Circuits.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Wook; Gyorgy, Andras; Cameron, D Ewen; Pyenson, Nora; Choi, Kyeong Rok; Way, Jeffrey C; Silver, Pamela A; Del Vecchio, Domitilla; Collins, James J

    2016-07-21

    Synthetic biology is increasingly used to develop sophisticated living devices for basic and applied research. Many of these genetic devices are engineered using multi-copy plasmids, but as the field progresses from proof-of-principle demonstrations to practical applications, it is important to develop single-copy synthetic modules that minimize consumption of cellular resources and can be stably maintained as genomic integrants. Here we use empirical design, mathematical modeling, and iterative construction and testing to build single-copy, bistable toggle switches with improved performance and reduced metabolic load that can be stably integrated into the host genome. Deterministic and stochastic models led us to focus on basal transcription to optimize circuit performance and helped to explain the resulting circuit robustness across a large range of component expression levels. The design parameters developed here provide important guidance for future efforts to convert functional multi-copy gene circuits into optimized single-copy circuits for practical, real-world use. PMID:27425413

  17. 15. Photographic copy englargement from a 4x5 copy negative (Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photographic copy englargement from a 4x5 copy negative (Original drawing located on abandoned NASA site, currently owned by the City of Downey, Downey, California). 1980 BLDG 10, BLDG 42 FLOOR PLAN, NASA MARCH 15 1980. - NASA Industrial Plant, Maintenance Facility, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 14. Photographic copy englargement from a 4x5 copy negative (Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photographic copy englargement from a 4x5 copy negative (Original photograph by original photographer located on abandoned NASA site, currently owned by the City of Downey, Downey, California). AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH 1935-1936 CONSOLIDATED VULTEE AIRCRAFT CORPORATION FROM WEST TO EAST - NASA Industrial Plant, Maintenance Facility, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 9. Photographic copy enlargement from a 4x5 copy negative. (Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photographic copy enlargement from a 4x5 copy negative. (Original drawing located on abandoned NASA site, currently owned by the City of Downey, Downey, California). 1976 BLDGS.25, 41 SITE PLAN. - NASA Industrial Plant, Storage Facility, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 22. Photographic copy enlargement from a 4x5 copy negative of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photographic copy enlargement from a 4x5 copy negative of a print. (Original print located on abandoned NASA site, currently owned by the City of Downey, Downey, California). 1954 USAF PLANT 16 AERIAL BUILDING 41 NORTH TO SOUTH. - NASA Industrial Plant, Missile Research Laboratory, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 23. Photographic copy enlargement from a 4x5 copy negative of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photographic copy enlargement from a 4x5 copy negative of a drawing (Original drawing located on abandoned NASA site, currently owned by the City of Downey, Downey, Calfornia). JANUARY 1960 USAF PLANT 16 MASTER PLOT AND GRID PLAN. - NASA Industrial Plant, Missile Research Laboratory, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. Sub-arcsecond [Fe ii] spectro-imaging of the DG Tauri jet. Periodic bubbles and a dusty disk wind?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agra-Amboage, V.; Dougados, C.; Cabrit, S.; Reunanen, J.

    2011-08-01

    Context. The origin of protostellar jets as well as their impact on the regulation of angular momentum and the inner disk physics are still crucial open questions in star formation. Aims: We aim to test the different proposed ejection processes in T Tauri stars through high-angular resolution observations of forbidden-line emission from the inner DG Tauri microjet. Methods: We present spectro-imaging observations of the DG Tauri jet obtained with SINFONI/VLT in the lines of [Fe ii]λ1.64 μm, 1.53 μm with 0.15 arcsec angular resolution and R = 3000 spectral resolution. We analyze the morphology and kinematics, derive electronic densities and mass-flux rates and discuss the implications for proposed jet launching models. Results: (1) We observe an onion-like velocity structure in [Fe ii] in the blueshifted jet, similar to that observed in optical lines. High-velocity (HV) gas at ≃ -200 km s-1 is collimated inside a half-opening angle of 4° and medium-velocity (MV) gas at ≃ -100 km s-1 in a cone with an half-opening angle 14° (2) Two new axial jet knots are detected in the blue jet, as well as a more distant bubble with corresponding counter-bubble. The periodic knot ejection timescale is revised downward to 2.5 yrs. (3) The redshifted jet is detected only beyond 0.7 arcsec from the star, yielding revised constraints on the disk surface density. (4) From comparison to [O i] data we infer iron depletion of a factor 3 at high velocities and a factor 10 at speeds below -100 km s-1. (5) The mass-fluxes in each of the medium and high-velocity components of the blueshifted lobe are ≃1.6 ± 0.8 × 10-8 M⊙ yr-1, representing 0.02 - 0.2 of the disk accretion rate. Conclusions: The medium-velocity conical [Fe ii] flow in the DG Tau jet is too fast and too narrow to trace photo-evaporated matter from the disk atmosphere. Both its kinematics and collimation cannot be reproduced by the X-wind, nor can the "conical magnetospheric wind". The level of Fe gas phase

  3. Imaging cognition II: An empirical review of 275 PET and fMRI studies.

    PubMed

    Cabeza, R; Nyberg, L

    2000-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have been extensively used to explore the functional neuroanatomy of cognitive functions. Here we review 275 PET and fMRI studies of attention (sustained, selective, Stroop, orientation, divided), perception (object, face, space/motion, smell), imagery (object, space/motion), language (written/spoken word recognition, spoken/no spoken response), working memory (verbal/numeric, object, spatial, problem solving), semantic memory retrieval (categorization, generation), episodic memory encoding (verbal, object, spatial), episodic memory retrieval (verbal, nonverbal, success, effort, mode, context), priming (perceptual, conceptual), and procedural memory (conditioning, motor, and nonmotor skill learning). To identify consistent activation patterns associated with these cognitive operations, data from 412 contrasts were summarized at the level of cortical Brodmann's areas, insula, thalamus, medial-temporal lobe (including hippocampus), basal ganglia, and cerebellum. For perception and imagery, activation patterns included primary and secondary regions in the dorsal and ventral pathways. For attention and working memory, activations were usually found in prefrontal and parietal regions. For language and semantic memory retrieval, typical regions included left prefrontal and temporal regions. For episodic memory encoding, consistently activated regions included left prefrontal and medial temporal regions. For episodic memory retrieval, activation patterns included prefrontal, medial temporal, and posterior midline regions. For priming, deactivations in prefrontal (conceptual) or extrastriate (perceptual) regions were consistently seen. For procedural memory, activations were found in motor as well as in non-motor brain areas. Analysis of regional activations across cognitive domains suggested that several brain regions, including the cerebellum, are engaged by a variety of cognitive

  4. Feasibility of High Frequency Acoustic Imaging for Inspection of Containments: Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Rudzinsky, J.; Bondaryk, J.; Conti, M.

    1999-07-01

    The nuclear power industry is concerned with corrosive thinning of portions of the metallic pressure boundary, particularly in areas that are not directly accessible for inspection. This study investigated the feasibility of detecting these thickness degradations using ultrasonic imaging. A commercial ultrasonic system was used to carry out several full-scale, controlled laboratory experiments. Measurements of 0.5 MHz shear wave levels propagated in 25-mm-thick steel plate embedded in concrete showed 1.4-1.6 dB of signal loss for each centimeter of two-way travel in the steel plate (compared to previous numerical predictions of 3-4 dB), and 1.3 dB of signal loss per centimeter of two-way travel in steel plates embedded in concrete prior to setting of the concrete (i.e., plastic). Negligible losses were measured in plates with a decoupling treatment applied between the steel and concrete to simulate the unbonded portions of the pressure boundary. Scattered signals from straight slots of different size and shape were investigated. The return from a 4-mm-deep rectangular slots exhibited levels 23 dB down relative to incidence and 4-6 dB higher than those obtained from both ''v'' shaped and rounded slots of similar depth. The system displayed an input/output dynamic range of 125 dB and measurement variability less than 1-2dB. Based on these results, a 4-mm-deep, rounded degradation embedded 30 cm in concrete has expected returns of -73dB relative to the input and should therefore be detectable. Results of this and a prior study indicate that the technique has merit and should be developed more fully and demonstrated in the field.

  5. ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGES. II. 12 KEPLER OBJECTS OF INTEREST AND 15 CONFIRMED TRANSITING PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, E. R.; Dupree, A. K.; Kulesa, C.; McCarthy, D.

    2013-07-01

    All transiting planet observations are at risk of contamination from nearby, unresolved stars. Blends dilute the transit signal, causing the planet to appear smaller than it really is, or producing a false positive detection when the target star is blended with an eclipsing binary. High spatial resolution adaptive optics images are an effective way of resolving most blends. Here we present visual companions and detection limits for 12 Kepler planet candidate host stars, of which 4 have companions within 4''. One system (KOI 1537) consists of two similar-magnitude stars separated by 0.''1, while KOI 174 has a companion at 0.''5. In addition, observations were made of 15 transiting planets that were previously discovered by other surveys. The only companion found within 1'' of a known planet is the previously identified companion to WASP-2b. An additional four systems have companions between 1'' and 4'': HAT-P-30b (3.''7, {Delta}Ks = 2.9), HAT-P-32b (2.''9, {Delta}Ks = 3.4), TrES-1b (2.''3, {Delta}Ks = 7.7), and WASP-P-33b (1.''9, {Delta}Ks = 5.5), some of which have not been reported previously. Depending on the spatial resolution of the transit photometry for these systems, these companion stars may require a reassessment of the planetary parameters derived from transit light curves. For all systems observed, we report the limiting magnitudes beyond which additional fainter objects located 0.''1-4'' from the target may still exist.

  6. Spatial distribution of intrinsic and scattering seismic attenuation in active volcanic islands - II: Deception Island images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudencio, Janire; Ibáñez, Jesús M.; García-Yeguas, Araceli; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Posadas, Antonio M.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we present regional maps of the inverse intrinsic quality factor (Qi-1), the inverse scattering quality factor (Qs-1) and total inverse quality factor (Qt-1) for the volcanic environment of Deception Island (Antarctica). Our attenuation study is based on diffusion approximation, which permits us to obtain the attenuation coefficients for every single couple source-receiver separately. The data set used in this research is derived from an active seismic experiment using more than 5200 offshore shots (air guns) recorded at 32 onshore seismic stations and four ocean bottom seismometers. To arrive at a regional distribution of these values, we used a new mapping technique based on a Gaussian space probability function. This approach led us to create `2-D probabilistic maps' of values of intrinsic and scattering seismic attenuation. The 2-D tomographic images confirm the existence of a high attenuation body below an inner bay of Deception Island. This structure, previously observed in 2-D and 3-D velocity tomography of the region, is associated with a massive magma reservoir. Magnetotelluric studies reach a similar interpretation of this strong anomaly. Additionally, we observed areas with lower attenuation effects that bear correlation with consolidated structures described in other studies and associated with the crystalline basement of the area. Our calculations of the transport mean-free path and absorption length for intrinsic attenuation gave respective values of ≈ 950 m and 5 km, which are lower than the values obtained in tectonic regions or volcanic areas such as Tenerife Island. However, as observed in other volcanic regions, our results indicate that scattering effects dominate strongly over the intrinsic attenuation.

  7. Can too many copies spoil the broth?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The success of Pichia pastoris as a heterologous expression system lies predominantly in the impressive yields that can be achieved due to high volumetric productivity. However, low specific productivity still inhibits the potential success of this platform. Multi-(gene) copy clones are potentially a quick and convenient method to increase recombinant protein titer, yet they are not without their pitfalls. It has been more than twenty years since the first reported use of multi-copy clones and it is still an active area of research to find the fastest and most efficient method for generating these strains. It has also become apparent that there is not always a linear correlation between copy number and protein titer, leading to in-depth investigations into how to minimize the negative impact of secretory stress and achieve clonal stability. PMID:24354594

  8. The Energy of COPI for Budding Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Thiam, Abdou Rachid; Pincet, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    As a major actor of cellular trafficking, COPI coat proteins assemble on membranes and locally bend them to bud 60 nm-size coated particles. Budding requires the energy of the coat assembly to overcome the one necessary to deform the membrane which primarily depends on the bending modulus and surface tension, γ. Using a COPI-induced oil nanodroplet formation approach, we modulated the budding of nanodroplets using various amounts and types of surfactant. We found a Heaviside-like dependence between the budding efficiency and γ: budding was only dependent on γ and occurred beneath 1.3 mN/m. With the sole contribution of γ to the membrane deformation energy, we assessed that COPI supplies ~1500 kBT for budding particles from membranes, which is consistent with common membrane deformation energies. Our results highlight how a simple remodeling of the composition of membranes could mechanically modulate budding in cells. PMID:26218078

  9. High-Resolution Emission-Line Imaging of Seyfert Galaxies. II. Evidence for Anisotropic Ionizing Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Andrew S.; Ward, Martin J.; Haniff, Christopher A.

    1988-11-01

    In the preceding paper, we describe a direct imaging survey of Seyfert galaxies with "linear" radio structures and find that the major axes and spatial scales of the circumnuclear emission-line gas are very similar to those of the radio continuum sources. In the present paper, the nature of this close connection between thermal and relativistic gases is assessed in detail. Models in which the kinetic energy of the radio jets or plasmoids powers shock waves, which ionize the gas, seem energetically feasible but disagree with the off-nuclear line intensity ratios. Ionization by relativistic electrons is negligible, but they may contribute to the heating of the gas. We favor a scenario in which the radio jets and plasmoids shock, accelerate, and compress ambient and entrained gas, but the dominant source of ionization is the nonstellar nuclear ultraviolet continuum. This ultraviolet source appears to be partially beamed along the axis of the radio jet. Photoionization by ultraviolet synchrotron radiation generated via shocks in the ejecta may also contribute, especially in Seyfert 2 galaxies. A comparison between the number of ionizing photons, N_i_, inferred by extrapolation of the directly observed continuum, and the number of ionizing photons, N_Hβ_, required to generate the Hβ emission has been made for six galaxies in our sample. In at least two galaxies, we find N_i_ << N_Hβ_, suggesting that the gas is exposed to a higher ionizing flux than inferred from direct observations of the nucleus, and supporting the idea of partial beaming. Similarly, the energy in the continuum between 100 A and 1 micron, if emitted isotropically, is inadequate to fuel the thermal nuclear infrared sources, implying that the radiating dust is heated by a more luminous optical-ultraviolet source. We speculate that the nuclear infrared emission of Seyfert 2 galaxies arises from dust in molecular clouds exposed to the partially beamed radiation, and we predict that the 10 micron

  10. The Effects of Answer Copying on the Ability Level Estimates of Cheater Examinees in Answer Copying Pairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zopluoglu, Cengiz; Davenport, Ernest C., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of answer copying on the ability level estimates of cheater examinees in answer copying pairs. The study generated answer copying pairs for each of 1440 conditions, source ability (12) x cheater ability (12) x amount of copying (10). The average difference between the ability level estimates…

  11. Spatial organization of RNA polymerase II inside a mammalian cell nucleus revealed by reflected light-sheet superresolution microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ziqing W.; Roy, Rahul; Gebhardt, J. Christof M.; Suter, David M.; Chapman, Alec R.; Xie, X. Sunney

    2014-01-01

    Superresolution microscopy based on single-molecule centroid determination has been widely applied to cellular imaging in recent years. However, quantitative imaging of the mammalian nucleus has been challenging due to the lack of 3D optical sectioning methods for normal-sized cells, as well as the inability to accurately count the absolute copy numbers of biomolecules in highly dense structures. Here we report a reflected light-sheet superresolution microscopy method capable of imaging inside the mammalian nucleus with superior signal-to-background ratio as well as molecular counting with single-copy accuracy. Using reflected light-sheet superresolution microscopy, we probed the spatial organization of transcription by RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) molecules and quantified their global extent of clustering inside the mammalian nucleus. Spatiotemporal clustering analysis that leverages on the blinking photophysics of specific organic dyes showed that the majority (>70%) of the transcription foci originate from single RNAP II molecules, and no significant clustering between RNAP II molecules was detected within the length scale of the reported diameter of “transcription factories.” Colocalization measurements of RNAP II molecules equally labeled by two spectrally distinct dyes confirmed the primarily unclustered distribution, arguing against a prevalent existence of transcription factories in the mammalian nucleus as previously proposed. The methods developed in our study pave the way for quantitative mapping and stoichiometric characterization of key biomolecular species deep inside mammalian cells. PMID:24379392

  12. The Surface Brightness Contribution of II Peg: A Comparison of TiO Band Analysis and Doppler Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senavci, H. V.; O'Neal, D.; Hussain, G. A. J.; Barnes, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the surface brightness contribution of the very well known active SB1 binary II Pegasi , to determine the star spot filling factor and the spot temperature parameters. In this context, we analyze 54 spectra of the system taken over 6 nights in September - October of 1996, using the 2.1m Otto Struve Telescope equipped with SES at the McDonald Observatory. We measure the spot temperatures and spot filling factors by fitting TiO molecular bands in this spectroscopic dataset, with model atmosphere approximation using ATLAS9 and with proxy stars obtained with the same instrument. The same dataset is then used to also produce surface spot maps using the Doppler imaging technique. We compare the spot filling factors obtained with the two independent techniques in order to better characterise the spot properties of the system and to better assess the limitations inherent to both techniques. The results obtained from both techniques show that the variation of spot filling factor as a function of phase agree well with each other, while the amount of TiO and DI spot

  13. Design of a Highly Specific And Noninvasive Biosensor Suitable for Real-Time in Vivo Imaging of Mercury (II) Uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Chapleau, R.R.; Blomberg, R.; Ford, P.C.; Sagermann, M.

    2009-05-12

    Mercury is a ubiquitous pollutant that when absorbed is extremely toxic to a wide variety of biochemical processes. Mercury (II) is a strong, invisible poison that is rapidly absorbed by tissues of the intestinal tract, kidneys, and liver upon ingestion. In this study, a novel fluorescence-based biosensor is presented that allows for the direct monitoring of the uptake and distribution of the metal under noninvasive in vivo conditions. With the introduction of a cysteine residue at position 205, located in close proximity to the chromophore, the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from Aequorea victoria was converted into a highly specific biosensor for this metal ion. The mutant protein exhibits a dramatic absorbance and fluorescence change upon mercuration at neutral pH. Absorbance and fluorescence properties with respect to the metal concentration exhibit sigmoidal binding behavior with a detection limit in the low nanomolar range. Time-resolved binding studies indicate rapid subsecond binding of the metal to the protein. The crystal structures obtained of mutant eGFP205C indicate a possible access route of the metal into the core of the protein. To our knowledge, this engineered protein is a first example of a biosensor that allows for noninvasive and real-time imaging of mercury uptake in a living cell. A major advantage is that its expression can be genetically controlled in many organisms to enable unprecedented studies of tissue specific mercury uptake.

  14. Theoretical Design and Material Growth of Type-II Antimonide-based Superlattices for Infrared Detection and Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Binh-Minh

    dark current until the device performance is dominated by the surface component. The results of this thesis' work show that the design and material quality of bulk Type-II-superlattice is thus not a limiting factor for optimal device performance. Further employment of the M-structure superlattice has resulted in a novel device architecture called the pMp design. This novel device is a hybrid between conventional photoconductive and photovoltaic detectors. Profiting from the advantages of its parents' configurations, the pMp design has shown numerous advantageous for infrared detections such as low generation-recombination current, suppressed tunneling current, and reduced surface leakage while keeping high optical efficiency of the detectors based on long-diffusion-length minority electrons. This design can also be used as a simple architecture for bias-selectable dual color detection which is proven to mitigate the difficulties of both the material growth and the device fabrication. In addition to improving the performance of single element detectors, this work also contributed to the successful demonstration of focal plane arrays at the Center for Quantum Devices. For the first time, the polarity of Type-II photodiodes has been matched with the requirement of commercially available Read Out Integrated Circuits (ROICs) through the realization of n-type InAsSb This polarity matching has significantly improved the imaging quality because it allows the bias and carrier types to be correctly utilized. Furthermore, attempts on 3" in diameter superlattice growth wafer were made, which resulted in excellent material uniformity across the whole wafer. Finally, targetting "color" imaging, different sophisticated architectures for dual spectral detection were demonstrated, in which each channel exhibited similar performance as that of single element detectors. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  15. Ribosomal DNA and Stellate gene copy number variation on the Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Lyckegaard, E M; Clark, A G

    1989-01-01

    Multigene families on the Y chromosome face an unusual array of evolutionary forces. Both ribosomal DNA and Stellate, the two families examined here, have multiple copies of similar sequences on the X and Y chromosomes. Although the rate of sequence divergence on the Y chromosome depends on rates of mutation, gene conversion and exchange with the X chromosome, as well as purifying selection, the regulation of gene copy number may also depend on other pleiotropic functions, such as maintenance of chromosome pairing. Gene copy numbers were estimated for a series of 34 Y chromosome replacement lines using densitometric measurements of slot blots of genomic DNA from adult Drosophila melanogaster. Scans of autoradiographs of the same blots probed with the cloned alcohol dehydrogenase gene, a single copy gene, served as internal standards. Copy numbers span a 6-fold range for ribosomal DNA and a 3-fold range for Stellate DNA. Despite this magnitude of variation, there was no association between copy number and segregation variation of the sex chromosomes. Images PMID:2494656

  16. Horizontal flow fields observed in Hinode G-band images. II. Flow fields in the final stages of sunspot decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, M.; Balthasar, H.; Deng, N.; Liu, C.; Shimizu, T.; Wang, H.; Denker, C.

    2012-02-01

    Context. Generation and dissipation of magnetic fields is a fundamental physical process on the Sun. In comparison to flux emergence and the initial stages of sunspot formation, the demise of sunspots still lacks a comprehensive description. Aims: The evolution of sunspots is most commonly discussed in terms of their intensity and magnetic field. Here, we present additional information about the three-dimensional flow field in the vicinity of sunspots towards the end of their existence. Methods: We present a subset of multi-wavelengths observations obtained with the Japanese Hinode mission, the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain during the time period 2010 November 18-23. Horizontal proper motions were derived from G-band and Ca ii H images, whereas line-of-sight velocities were extracted from VTT echelle Hα λ656.28 nm spectra and Fe i λ630.25 nm spectral data of the Hinode/Spectro-Polarimeter, which also provided three-dimensional magnetic field information. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board SDO provided continuum images and line-of-sight magnetograms, in addition to the high-resolution observations for the entire disk passage of the active region. Results: We perform a quantitative study of photospheric and chromospheric flow fields in and around decaying sunspots. In one of the trailing sunspots of active region NOAA 11126, we observe moat flow and moving magnetic features (MMFs), even after its penumbra had decayed. We also detect a superpenumbral structure around this pore. We find that MMFs follow well-defined, radial paths from the spot all the way to the border of a supergranular cell surrounding the spot. In contrast, flux emergence near the other sunspot prevents the establishment of similar well ordered flow patterns, which could be discerned around a tiny pore of merely 2 Mm diameter. After the disappearance of the sunspots/pores, a coherent patch of abnormal

  17. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) mapping of single copy genes on Trichomonas vaginalis chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Zubáčová, Zuzana; Krylov, Vladimír; Tachezy, Jan

    2011-04-01

    The highly repetitive nature of the Trichomonas vaginalis genome and massive expansion of various gene families has caused difficulties in genome assembly and has hampered genome mapping. Here, we adapted fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for T. vaginalis, which is sensitive enough to detect single copy genes on metaphase chromosomes. Sensitivity of conventional FISH, which did not allow single copy gene detection in T. vaginalis, was increased by means of tyramide signal amplification. Two selected single copy genes, coding for serine palmitoyltransferase and tryptophanase, were mapped to chromosome I and II, respectively, and thus could be used as chromosome markers. This established protocol provides an amenable tool for the physical mapping of the T. vaginalis genome and other essential applications, such as development of genetic markers for T. vaginalis genotyping. PMID:21195113

  18. Copy Number Variation in the Cattle Genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Copy number variations (CNVs) are gains and losses of genomic sequence greater than 50 bp between two individuals of a species. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are more frequent, CNVs impact a higher percentage of genomic sequence and have potentially greater effects, including the chan...

  19. Mechanisms of copying behaviour in zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Guillette, Lauren M; Healy, Susan D

    2014-10-01

    When an individual is faced with choosing between unfamiliar food options, it may benefit initially by choosing the option chosen by other animals so avoiding potentially poisonous food. It is not clear which cues the naïve forager learns from the demonstrator for choosing between food options. To determine firstly which birds (zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata) would copy a demonstrator's choice, in Experiment 1 we presented each observer with a demonstrator feeding from one of two differently coloured feeders and then tested the observer's feeder colour preference. Of the same-sex/mixed-sex demonstrator-observer pairs tested only females copied male demonstrators. In Experiment 2, birds did not prefer either feeder colour in the absence of demonstrators confirming the social learning effect observed in Experiment 1. In Experiment 3, copying females fed significantly more at the feeder of the demonstrated colour, rather than at the location of the demonstrated feeder. These data point not just to the identity of the individual to be copied but also to the kind of information learned. PMID:25444776

  20. 48 CFR 401.105-3 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CFR form may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. Requests should reference Chapter 4 of Title 48 CFR. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Copies. 401.105-3...

  1. 36 CFR 703.20 - File copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 703.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS DISCLOSURE OR PRODUCTION OF RECORDS OR INFORMATION Testimony by Employees and Production of Documents in Certain Legal Proceedings Where the Library... file of copies of all demands served on the Library and deciding officials' responses....

  2. 36 CFR 703.20 - File copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 703.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS DISCLOSURE OR PRODUCTION OF RECORDS OR INFORMATION Testimony by Employees and Production of Documents in Certain Legal Proceedings Where the Library... file of copies of all demands served on the Library and deciding officials' responses....

  3. 36 CFR 703.20 - File copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 703.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS DISCLOSURE OR PRODUCTION OF RECORDS OR INFORMATION Testimony by Employees and Production of Documents in Certain Legal Proceedings Where the Library... file of copies of all demands served on the Library and deciding officials' responses....

  4. 48 CFR 2001.104-3 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the NRCAR in Federal Register and CFR form may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Copies. 2001.104-3 Section 2001.104-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL...

  5. 48 CFR 2001.104-3 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the NRCAR in Federal Register and CFR form may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Copies. 2001.104-3 Section 2001.104-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION GENERAL...

  6. Copy to contiguous example using C descriptor

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, Craig E

    2011-01-18

    In N1838-2 there is an example of how to use the CFI-cdesc-t type in a C implementation of a BIND (C) interface. This paper provides another example of using the CFI-cdesc-t type in C. This new example provides code to copy an array (possibly noncontiguous) into a contiguous buffer.

  7. Genomic characteristics of cattle copy number variations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We performed a systematic analysis of cattle copy number variations (CNVs) using the Bovine HapMap SNP genotyping data, including 539 animals of 21 modern cattle breeds and 6 outgroups. After correcting genomic waves and considering the trio information, we identified 682 candidate CNV regions (CNVR...

  8. From traditional reading rooms to a soft copy environment: radiologist satisfaction survey.

    PubMed

    Rumreich, Lori L; Johnson, Annette J

    2003-09-01

    Academic radiologists are experiencing increased clinical workloads. New technology such as picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) are often justified on the premise of increased efficiency. The authors believe that efficiency can be influenced by the image interpretation environment, and thus they set out to establish baseline satisfaction levels with this environment. The authors surveyed 90 Indiana University (IU) faculty radiologists, fellows, and residents. Their survey was implemented with a questionnaire sent via e-mail. Questions focused on satisfaction with the current soft-copy reading environments and preferences regarding improvements. Of the 90 radiologists surveyed, 55 (61%) responded. Several key findings emerged: (1) Overall satisfaction with the soft-copy environment is low, with nearly half (46%) of respondents rating themselves as "very dissatisfied" or "dissatisfied." (2) Faculty are least satisfied regarding work space ergonomics, room layout, and amount of work space. Appropriate lighting also emerged as an area with low satisfaction and high importance. (3) Ninety-eight percent of respondents indicated that an "ideal" soft-copy environment would have a positive effect on their efficiency. The dissatisfaction with the current soft-copy interpretation environments used by the IU radiologists indicates that this is an area that requires attention. Furthermore, there may be a direct relationship between radiologist efficiency and satisfaction with the image interpretation environment. Attention should be focused on this environment during a soft-copy technology implementation to ensure that planned efficiency gains are realized. PMID:14669068

  9. COPI selectively drives maturation of the early Golgi

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Papanikou, Effrosyni; Day, Kasey J.; Austin, Jotham; Glick, Benjamin S.

    2015-12-28

    COPI coated vesicles carry material between Golgi compartments, but the role of COPI in the secretory pathway has been ambiguous. Previous studies of thermosensitive yeast COPI mutants yielded the surprising conclusion that COPI was dispensable both for the secretion of certain proteins and for Golgi cisternal maturation. To revisit these issues, we optimized the anchor-away method, which allows peripheral membrane proteins such as COPI to be sequestered rapidly by adding rapamycin. Video fluorescence microscopy revealed that COPI inactivation causes an early Golgi protein to remain in place while late Golgi proteins undergo cycles of arrival and departure. These dynamics generatemore » partially functional hybrid Golgi structures that contain both early and late Golgi proteins, explaining how secretion can persist when COPI has been inactivated. Our findings suggest that cisternal maturation involves a COPI-dependent pathway that recycles early Golgi proteins, followed by multiple COPI-independent pathways that recycle late Golgi proteins.« less

  10. In vivo imaging of oxidative stress in the kidney of diabetic mice and its normalization by angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker

    SciTech Connect

    Sonta, Toshiyo; Inoguchi, Toyoshi . E-mail: toyoshi@intmed3.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Matsumoto, Shingo; Yasukawa, Keiji; Inuo, Mieko; Tsubouchi, Hirotaka; Sonoda, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Kunihisa; Utsumi, Hideo; Nawata, Hajime

    2005-05-06

    This study was undertaken to evaluate oxidative stress in the kidney of diabetic mice by electron spin resonance (ESR) imaging technique. Oxidative stress in the kidney was evaluated as organ-specific reducing activity with the signal decay rates of carbamoyl-PROXYL probe using ESR imaging. The signal decay rates were significantly faster in corresponding image pixels of the kidneys of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice than in those of controls. This technique further demonstrated that administration of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB), olmesartan (5 mg/kg), completely restored the signal decay rates in the diabetic kidneys to control values. In conclusion, this study provided for the first time the in vivo evidence for increased oxidative stress in the kidneys of diabetic mice and its normalization by ARB as evaluated by ESR imaging. This technique would be useful as a means of further elucidating the role of oxidative stress in diabetic nephropathy.

  11. Luminescent Ruthenium(II) Complex Bearing Bipyridine and N-Heterocyclic Carbene-based C∧N∧C Pincer Ligand for Live-Cell Imaging of Endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, Wai-Kuen; Chung, Lai-Hon; Wong, Matthew Man-Kin; Tsang, Wai-Him; Lo, Hoi-Shing; Liu, Yaxiang; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung; Chiu, Sung-Kay; Wong, Chun-Yuen

    2015-03-01

    Luminescent ruthenium(II)-cyanide complex with N-heterocyclic carbene pincer ligand C∧N∧C = 2,6-bis(1-butylimidazol-2-ylidene)pyridine and 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) shows minimal cytotoxicity to both human breast carcinoma cell (MCF-7) and human retinal pigmented epithelium cell (RPE) in a wide range of concentration (0.1-500 μM), and can be used for the luminescent imaging of endocytosis of the complex in these cells.

  12. Thermal infrared properties of classical and type II Cepheids. Diffraction limited 10 μm imaging with VLT/VISIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallenne, A.; Kervella, P.; Mérand, A.

    2012-02-01

    We present new thermal infrared (IR) photometry and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of eight classical Cepheids (type I) and three type II Cepheids, using VISIR thermal IR photometric measurements, supplemented with literature data. We used the BURST mode of the instrument to get diffraction-limited images at 8.59, 11.25, and 11.85 μm. The SEDs show a IR excess at wavelengths longer than 10 μm in ten of the eleven stars. We tentatively attribute these excesses to circumstellar emission created by mass loss from the Cepheids. On the basis of some hypotheses for the dust composition, we estimate a total mass of the envelope ranging from 10-10 to 10-8 M⊙. We also detect a spatially extended emission around AX Cir, X Sgr, W Sgr, Y Oph, and U Car, while we do not resolve the circumstellar envelope (CSE) of the other stars. The averaged circumstellar envelope brightnesses relative to the stellar photosphere are α(AX Cir) = 13.8 ± 2.5%,α(X Sgr) = 7.9 ± 1.4%,α(W Sgr) = 3.8 ± 0.6%,α(Y Oph) = 15.1 ± 1.4%, and α(U Car) = 16.3 ± 1.4% at 8.59 μm. With this study, we extend the number of classical Cepheids with detected CSEs from 9 to 14, confirming that at least a large fraction of all Cepheids are experiencing significant mass loss. The presence of these CSEs may also impact the future use of Cepheids as standard candles at near and thermal infrared wavelengths. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at Paranal observatory under program ID 081.D-0165(A).Table 2 is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  13. Architecture For An Image Filing And Indexing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hack, Stanley N.; Paoni, Robert A.; Robeson, Glenn H.

    1986-06-01

    We are developing an in-house Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) targeted to the centralized storage of images acquired from our computer-assisted imaging modalities and to the display of these images on multi-modality viewing stations. The central image database is distributed between two system modules with image processing capabilities located at the viewing stations. The first module of the image database is an image filing subsystem used for the storage and retrieval of complete image files. In our initial work, this module consists of a Data General MV/6000 computer system with 1.16 Gbytes of on-line disk storage. However, more efficient dedicated filing systems may be substituted for this general purpose computer in future revisions. The second module is an image file indexing subsystem which has been implemented on a DEC PDP-11/44 computer and is tightly integrated with our MARS II (ADAC Laboratories) Radiology Information System. These two image database modules communicate via low-speed, serial communications lines. This report focuses on our developmental work on the image file indexing subsystem and its communications protocol with the image filing subsystem. The image file indexing subsystem automatically inserts image file locators for studies referenced by patient when an image is transmitted from the acquisition device (eg, CT) to the image filing subsystem. It also locates image files at the request of a viewing station user based on patient name, physician name, or study type for either read or unread studies. Other capabilities include cross-referencing patient attributes with the MARS II system, deleting studies based on predefined criteria, storing requests for hard copy, storing user selected image processing attributes for individual images, flagging the archival status of an image, and complete managerial functions. This central-ized image filing and indexing system comprises what will become the central element of our PACS.

  14. Image understanding and the man-machine interface II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 17, 18, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, E.B.; Pearson, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    Image understanding concepts and models, image understanding systems and applications, advanced digital processors and software tools, and advanced man-machine interfaces are among the topics discussed. Particular papers are presented on such topics as neural networks for computer vision, object-based segmentation and color recognition in multispectral images, the application of image algebra to image measurement and feature extraction, and the integration of modeling and graphics to create an infrared signal processing test bed.

  15. Demonstration of digital radiographs by means of ink jet-printed paper copies: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kirkhorn, T; Kehler, M; Nilsson, J; Lyttkens, K; Andersson, B; Holmer, N G

    1992-11-01

    Different digital medical images have been printed on paper with a continuous ink jet printer, and the quality has been evaluated. The emphasis has been on digital chest radiographs from a computed radiography system. The ink jet printing technique is described as well as the handling of the image data from image source to printer. Different versions of paper prints and viewing conditions were compared to find the optimum alternative. The evaluation has been performed to maximize the quality of the paper images to make them conform with the corresponding film prints and monitor images as much as possible. The continuous ink jet technique offers high-quality prints on paper at a considerably lower cost per copy compared with the cost of a film print. With a future switch-over from diagnosing of digital images on film to diagnosing them on monitors, hard copies for demonstration purposes will occasionally be needed. This need can be filled by ink jet-printed paper copies. PMID:1457540

  16. [Create or copy... Which is the difference?].

    PubMed

    López P, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Creating and copying are two different processes; we must not confuse creativity with plagiarism. However, this distinction is problematic, because there is no possibility of creating from scratch, this implies that any creative act necessarily arises from accumulative experience, inevitably producing a continuity between old and new. Even so it is necessary to establish clearly the difference between creating and copying. It is not desirable that a matter of such importance remains in the nebula or that the relationship between creativity and ethics is kept unaware. There are many cases of plagiarism, but this cannot be a consolation. There is no gain when the existence of a plagiarism is ignored or concealed and less when it is unjustified. PMID:19399333

  17. A Simulation Model for Purchasing Duplicate Copies in a Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arms, W. Y.; Walter, T. P.

    1974-01-01

    A method of estimating the number of duplicate copies of books needed based on a computer simulation which takes into account number of copies available, number of loans, total underlying demand, satisfaction level, percentage time on shelf. (LS)

  18. 42 CFR 456.612 - Copies of reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Institutions for Mental Diseases § 456.612 Copies of reports. The agency must send a copy of each inspection... function, including, if inspection reports concern IMD's, the appropriate State mental health authorities....

  19. 37 CFR 1.95 - Copies of exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Specimens § 1.95 Copies of exhibits. Copies of models or other physical exhibits will not ordinarily be furnished by the Office, and any model or exhibit in an application or patent shall not be taken from...

  20. 37 CFR 1.95 - Copies of exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Specimens § 1.95 Copies of exhibits. Copies of models or other physical exhibits will not ordinarily be furnished by the Office, and any model or exhibit in an application or patent shall not be taken from...

  1. 37 CFR 1.95 - Copies of exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Specimens § 1.95 Copies of exhibits. Copies of models or other physical exhibits will not ordinarily be furnished by the Office, and any model or exhibit in an application or patent shall not be taken from...

  2. 37 CFR 1.95 - Copies of exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Specimens § 1.95 Copies of exhibits. Copies of models or other physical exhibits will not ordinarily be furnished by the Office, and any model or exhibit in an application or patent shall not be taken from...

  3. 37 CFR 1.95 - Copies of exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Specimens § 1.95 Copies of exhibits. Copies of models or other physical exhibits will not ordinarily be furnished by the Office, and any model or exhibit in an application or patent shall not be taken from...

  4. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Copied by Stanley Jones, Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Copied by Stanley Jones, Photographer February 3, 1937 COPY OF PHOTOGRAPH SHOWING NORTH WEST ELEVATION. - Father Snowden House, 991 Wyoming Avenue, Forty Fort, Luzerne County, PA

  5. 19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate...

  6. 19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate...

  7. 19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate...

  8. 19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate...

  9. 19 CFR 151.64 - Extra copy of entry summary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Wool and Hair § 151.64 Extra copy of entry summary. One extra copy of the entry summary covering wool or hair subject to duty at a rate...

  10. Copying Computer Software For Educational Purposes: Is It Allowed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Trudy

    1983-01-01

    Addresses the question of whether it is legitimate to make multiple copies of computer programs for class use. Considers "fair use" in schools, liability of libraries, copying of programs in computer-aided instruction networks, and other areas. (JN)

  11. 40 CFR 262.22 - Number of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.22 Number of copies. The manifest consists of at least the number of copies which will provide the generator, each transporter, and the owner... returned to the generator....

  12. 40 CFR 262.22 - Number of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.22 Number of copies. The manifest consists of at least the number of copies which will provide the generator, each transporter, and the owner... returned to the generator....

  13. 40 CFR 262.22 - Number of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.22 Number of copies. The manifest consists of at least the number of copies which will provide the generator, each transporter, and the owner... returned to the generator....

  14. 40 CFR 262.22 - Number of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.22 Number of copies. The manifest consists of at least the number of copies which will provide the generator, each transporter, and the owner... returned to the generator....

  15. 40 CFR 262.22 - Number of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE The Manifest § 262.22 Number of copies. The manifest consists of at least the number of copies which will provide the generator, each transporter, and the owner... returned to the generator....

  16. Gene copy number and cell cycle arrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Bhaswar; Bose, Indrani

    2006-03-01

    The cell cycle is an orderly sequence of events which ultimately lead to the division of a single cell into two daughter cells. In the case of DNA damage by radiation or chemicals, the damage checkpoints in the G1 and G2 phases of the cell cycle are activated. This results in an arrest of the cell cycle so that the DNA damage can be repaired. Once this is done, the cell continues with its usual cycle of activity. We study a mathematical model of the DNA damage checkpoint in the G2 phase which arrests the transition from the G2 to the M (mitotic) phase of the cell cycle. The tumor suppressor protein p53 plays a key role in activating the pathways leading to cell cycle arrest in mammalian systems. If the DNA damage is severe, the p53 proteins activate other pathways which bring about apoptosis, i.e., programmed cell death. Loss of the p53 gene results in the proliferation of cells containing damaged DNA, i.e., in the growth of tumors which may ultimately become cancerous. There is some recent experimental evidence which suggests that the mutation of a single copy of the p53 gene (in the normal cell each gene has two identical copies) is sufficient to trigger the formation of tumors. We study the effect of reducing the gene copy number of the p53 and two other genes on cell cycle arrest and obtain results consistent with experimental observations.

  17. Changes in temporomandibular joint morphology in class II patients treated with fixed mandibular repositioning and evaluated through 3D imaging: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, M A Q; Alsufyani, N; Flores-Mir, C; Nebbe, B; Major, P W

    2015-11-01

    To estimate the effects of skeletal class II malocclusion treatment using fixed mandibular repositioning appliances on the position and morphology of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Two independent reviewers performed comprehensive electronic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBM reviews and Scopus (until May 5, 2015). The references of the identified articles were also manually searched. All studies investigating morphological changes of the TMJ articular disc, condyle and glenoid fossa with 3D imaging following non-surgical fixed mandibular repositioning appliances in growing individuals with class II malocclusions were included in the analysis. Of the 269 articles initially reviewed, only 12 articles used magnetic resonance imaging and two articles used computed tomography (CT) or cone-beam CT images. Treatment effect on condyle and glenoid fossa was discussed in eight articles. Treatment effect on TMJ articular disc position and morphology was discussed in seven articles. All articles showed a high risk of bias due to deficient methodology: inadequate consideration of confounding variables, blinding of image assessment, selection or absence of control group and outcome measurement. Reported changes in osseous remodelling, condylar and disc position were contradictory. The selected articles failed to establish conclusive evidence of the exact nature of TMJ tissue response to fixed mandibular repositioning appliances. PMID:26260422

  18. c-myc copy number gains in bladder cancer detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, G.; Carroll, P.; Moch, H.; Kallioniemi, A.; Kerschmann, R.; Narayan, P.; Mihatsch, M. J.; Waldman, F. M.

    1995-01-01

    Amplification and overexpression of c-myc have been suggested as prognostic markers in human cancer. To assess the role of c-myc gene copy number alterations in bladder cancer, 87 bladder tumors were examined for c-myc aberrations by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Dual labeling hybridization with a repetitive pericentromeric probe specific for chromosome 8 and a probe for the c-myc locus (at 8q24) was performed to analyze c-myc copy number in relation to chromosome 8 copy number on a cell by cell basis. A clear-cut c-myc amplification (up to 40 to 150 copies per cell) was found in 3 tumors. There was a low level c-myc copy number increase in 32 of the remaining 84 tumors. There was no association of low level c-myc copy number increase with c-myc protein overexpression. This suggests that a c-myc gene copy number gain as detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization does not necessarily reflect a disturbed c-myc gene function but may indicate a structural chromosome 8 abnormality including gain of distal 8q. The strong association of low level c-myc (8q) gains with tumor grade (P < 0.0001), stage (P < 0.0001), chromosome polysomy (P < 0.0001), p53 protein expression (P = 0.0019), p53 deletion (P = 0.0403), and tumor cell proliferation (Ki67 labeling index; P = 0.0021) is consistent with a role of chromosome 8 alterations in bladder cancer progression. Images Figure 1 PMID:7747807

  19. 19 CFR 210.56 - Notice accompanying service copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice accompanying service copies. 210.56 Section 210.56 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Temporary Relief § 210.56 Notice accompanying service copies. (a) Each service copy of the...

  20. 19 CFR 103.4 - Public inspection and copying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 177.10 of this chapter, to make available for public inspection and copying or, in the alternative....C. 552(a)(2) to maintain and make available for public inspection and copying those current indexes... current indexes. Facilities are provided whereby a person may inspect and obtain copies of the...

  1. 31 CFR 1.4 - Public inspection and copying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conformance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2), make available for public inspection and copying, or, in the alternative... maintain and make available for public inspection and copying current indexes identifying any material... provide copies of the index on request at a cost not to exceed the direct cost of duplication. (2)...

  2. 19 CFR 103.4 - Public inspection and copying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 177.10 of this chapter, to make available for public inspection and copying or, in the alternative....C. 552(a)(2) to maintain and make available for public inspection and copying those current indexes... current indexes. Facilities are provided whereby a person may inspect and obtain copies of the...

  3. 12 CFR 1301.4 - Public inspection and copying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... public inspection and copying, or, in the alternative, promptly publish and offer for sale: (1) Final...) Indices. (1) The Council shall maintain and make available for public inspection and copying current... nonetheless provide copies of the index on request at a cost not to exceed the direct cost of duplication....

  4. 19 CFR 103.4 - Public inspection and copying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 177.10 of this chapter, to make available for public inspection and copying or, in the alternative....C. 552(a)(2) to maintain and make available for public inspection and copying those current indexes... current indexes. Facilities are provided whereby a person may inspect and obtain copies of the...

  5. 19 CFR 103.4 - Public inspection and copying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 177.10 of this chapter, to make available for public inspection and copying or, in the alternative....C. 552(a)(2) to maintain and make available for public inspection and copying those current indexes... current indexes. Facilities are provided whereby a person may inspect and obtain copies of the...

  6. Readability as a Factor in Magazine Ad Copy Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the relationship between advertising copy readability and advertising effectiveness. Finds that recall is improved when the copy style is either fairly easy or fairly hard to read. Suggests the value of considering copy readability as a potential contributor, though a minor one, to the success of magazine advertising. (RS)

  7. Syllables as Functional Units in a Copying Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Sonia; Valdois, Sylviane

    2006-01-01

    This research used a copying task to study spelling acquisition from a perception and action perspective. First to fifth graders copied words and pseudo-words on a digitiser. Simultaneously, a camera registered the children's gaze lifts. First and second graders copied the first syllable and then produced a gaze lift to obtain information on the…

  8. 47 CFR 78.67 - Copies of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Copies of rules. 78.67 Section 78.67 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.67 Copies of rules. The licensee of a CARS station shall have a current copy of this part 78, and,...

  9. 47 CFR 78.67 - Copies of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Copies of rules. 78.67 Section 78.67 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.67 Copies of rules. The licensee of a CARS station shall have a current copy of this part 78, and,...

  10. 47 CFR 78.67 - Copies of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copies of rules. 78.67 Section 78.67 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.67 Copies of rules. The licensee of a CARS station shall have a current copy of this part 78, and,...

  11. 47 CFR 78.67 - Copies of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Copies of rules. 78.67 Section 78.67 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.67 Copies of rules. The licensee of a CARS station shall have a current copy of this part 78, and,...

  12. 47 CFR 78.67 - Copies of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Copies of rules. 78.67 Section 78.67 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.67 Copies of rules. The licensee of a CARS station shall have a current copy of this part 78, and,...

  13. 1 CFR 18.1 - Original and copies required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Original and copies required. 18.1 Section 18.1... PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION AND TRANSMITTAL OF DOCUMENTS GENERALLY § 18.1 Original and copies... two duplicate originals or certified copies. 1 However, if the document is printed or processed...

  14. 1 CFR 18.1 - Original and copies required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Original and copies required. 18.1 Section 18.1... PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION AND TRANSMITTAL OF DOCUMENTS GENERALLY § 18.1 Original and copies... two duplicate originals or certified copies. 1 However, if the document is printed or processed...

  15. 1 CFR 18.1 - Original and copies required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Original and copies required. 18.1 Section 18.1... PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION AND TRANSMITTAL OF DOCUMENTS GENERALLY § 18.1 Original and copies... two duplicate originals or certified copies. 1 However, if the document is printed or processed...

  16. 1 CFR 18.1 - Original and copies required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Original and copies required. 18.1 Section 18.1... PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION AND TRANSMITTAL OF DOCUMENTS GENERALLY § 18.1 Original and copies... two duplicate originals or certified copies. 1 However, if the document is printed or processed...

  17. 1 CFR 18.1 - Original and copies required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Original and copies required. 18.1 Section 18.1... PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS PREPARATION AND TRANSMITTAL OF DOCUMENTS GENERALLY § 18.1 Original and copies... two duplicate originals or certified copies. 1 However, if the document is printed or processed...

  18. 30 CFR 47.72 - Cost for copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Making HazCom Information Available § 47.72 Cost for copies. (a) The operator must provide the first copy and each revision of the HazCom material without cost. (b) Fees for a subsequent copy of the HazCom material must be non-discriminatory and reasonable....

  19. 30 CFR 47.72 - Cost for copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Making HazCom Information Available § 47.72 Cost for copies. (a) The operator must provide the first copy and each revision of the HazCom material without cost. (b) Fees for a subsequent copy of the HazCom material must be non-discriminatory and reasonable....

  20. 30 CFR 47.72 - Cost for copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Making HazCom Information Available § 47.72 Cost for copies. (a) The operator must provide the first copy and each revision of the HazCom material without cost. (b) Fees for a subsequent copy of the HazCom material must be non-discriminatory and reasonable....

  1. 30 CFR 47.72 - Cost for copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Making HazCom Information Available § 47.72 Cost for copies. (a) The operator must provide the first copy and each revision of the HazCom material without cost. (b) Fees for a subsequent copy of the HazCom material must be non-discriminatory and reasonable....

  2. 30 CFR 47.72 - Cost for copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Making HazCom Information Available § 47.72 Cost for copies. (a) The operator must provide the first copy and each revision of the HazCom material without cost. (b) Fees for a subsequent copy of the HazCom material must be non-discriminatory and reasonable....

  3. 40 CFR 265.53 - Copies of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copies of contingency plan. 265.53... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 265.53 Copies of contingency plan. A copy of the contingency plan and all revisions to the plan must be: (a) Maintained at the facility; and...

  4. 40 CFR 264.53 - Copies of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copies of contingency plan. 264.53 Section 264.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 264.53 Copies of contingency plan. A copy of the contingency...

  5. A Fluorescent Indicator for Imaging Lysosomal Zinc(II) with Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-Enhanced Photostability and a Narrow Band of Emission

    PubMed Central

    Sreenath, Kesavapillai; Yuan, Zhao; Allen, John R.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a strategy to transfer the zinc(II) sensitivity of a fluoroionophore with low photostability and a broad emission band to a bright and photostable fluorophore with a narrow emission band. The two fluorophores are covalently connected to afford an intramolecular Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) conjugate. The FRET donor in the conjugate is a zinc(II)-sensitive arylvinylbipyridyl fluoroionophore, the absorption and emission of which undergo bathochromic shifts upon zinc(II) coordination. When the FRET donor is excited, efficient intramolecular energy transfer occurs to result in the emission of the acceptor boron dipyrromethene (4,4-difluoro-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene or BODIPY) as a function of zinc(II) concentration. The broad emission band of the donor/zinc(II) complex is transformed into the strong, narrow emission band of the BODIPY acceptor in the FRET conjugates, which can be captured within the narrow emission window that is preferred for multicolor imaging experiments. In addition to competing with other nonradiative decay processes of the FRET donor, the rapid intramolecular FRET of the excited FRET-conjugate molecule protects the donor fluorophore from photobleaching, thus enhancing the photostability of the indicator. FRET conjugates 3 and 4 contain aliphatic amino groups, which selectively target lysosomes in mammalian cells. This subcellular localization preference was verified by using confocal fluorescence microscopy, which also shows the zinc(II)-enhanced emission of 3 and 4 in lysosomes. It was further shown using two-color structured illumination microscopy (SIM), which is capable of extending the lateral resolution over the Abbe diffraction limit by a factor of two, that the morpholino-functionalized compound 4 localizes in the interior of lysosomes, rather than anchoring on the lysosomal membranes, of live HeLa cells. PMID:25382395

  6. Ohnologs are overrepresented in pathogenic copy number mutations

    PubMed Central

    McLysaght, Aoife; Makino, Takashi; Grayton, Hannah M.; Tropeano, Maria; Mitchell, Kevin J.; Vassos, Evangelos; Collier, David A.

    2014-01-01

    A number of rare copy number variants (CNVs), including both deletions and duplications, have been associated with developmental disorders, including schizophrenia, autism, intellectual disability, and epilepsy. Pathogenicity may derive from dosage sensitivity of one or more genes contained within the CNV locus. To understand pathophysiology, the specific disease-causing gene(s) within each CNV need to be identified. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that ohnologs (genes retained after ancestral whole-genome duplication events, which are frequently dosage sensitive) are overrepresented in pathogenic CNVs. We selected three sets of genes implicated in copy number pathogenicity: (i) genes mapping within rare disease-associated CNVs, (ii) genes within de novo CNVs under negative genetic selection, and (iii) genes identified by clinical array comparative genome hybridization studies as potentially pathogenic. We compared the proportion of ohnologs between these gene sets and control genes, mapping to CNVs not known to be disease associated. We found that ohnologs are significantly overrepresented in genes mapping to pathogenic CNVs, irrespective of how CNVs were identified, with over 90% containing an ohnolog, compared with control CNVs >100 kb, where only about 30% contained an ohnolog. In some CNVs, such as del15p11.2 (CYFIP1) and dup/del16p13.11 (NDE1), the most plausible prior candidate gene was also an ohnolog, as were the genes VIPR2 and NRXN1, each found in short CNVs containing no other genes. Our results support the hypothesis that ohnologs represent critical dosage-sensitive elements of the genome, possibly responsible for some of the deleterious phenotypes observed for pathogenic CNVs and as such are readily identifiable candidate genes for further study. PMID:24368850

  7. Single copy insertion of transgenes in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Frøkjær-Jensen, Christian; Davis, M. Wayne; Hopkins, Christopher E.; Newman, Blake; Thummel, Jason M.; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Grunnet, Morten; Jorgensen, Erik M.

    2009-01-01

    Currently transgenes in C. elegans are generated by injecting DNA into the germline. The DNA assembles into a semi-stable extrachromosomal array composed of many copies of injected DNA. These transgenes are typically overexpressed in somatic cells and silenced in the germline. We have developed a method called MosSCI (Mos1-mediated Single Copy Insertion) that inserts a single copy of a transgene into a defined site. Mobilization of a Mos1 transposon generates a double strand break in non-coding DNA. The break is repaired by copying DNA from an extrachromosomal template into the chromosomal site. Homozygous single copy insertions can be obtained in less than two weeks by injecting approximately twenty animals. We have successfully inserted transgenes as long as 9 kb and verified that single copies are inserted at the targeted site. Single copy transgenes are expressed at endogenous levels and can be expressed in the female and male germlines. PMID:18953339

  8. Copy number variants, aneuploidies, and human disease.

    PubMed

    Martin, Christa Lese; Kirkpatrick, Brianne E; Ledbetter, David H

    2015-06-01

    In the perinatal setting, chromosome imbalances cause a range of clinically significant disorders and increase the risk for other particular phenotypes. As technologies have improved to detect increasingly smaller deletions and duplications, collectively referred to as copy number variants (CNVs), clinicians are learning the significant role that these types of genomic variants play in human disease and their high frequency in ∼ 1% of all pregnancies. This article highlights key aspects of CNV detection and interpretation used during the course of clinical care in the prenatal and neonatal periods. Early diagnosis and accurate interpretation are important for targeted clinical management. PMID:26042902

  9. Thinking beyond the block: block matching for copy-move forgery detection revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, Matthias; Schöttle, Pascal; Riess, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Detection of copy{move forgeries is one of the most actively researched topics in image forensics. It has been shown that so-called block-based methods give the highest pixel-wise accuracy for detecting copy{move forgeries. However, matching of block-based features can be computationally extremely demanding. Hence, the current predominant line of thought is that block-based algorithms are too slow to be applicable in practice. In this paper, we revisit the matching stage of block-based copy{move forgery detection methods. We propose an efficient approach for finding duplicate patterns of a given size in integer-valued input data. By design, we focus on the spatial relation of potentially duplicated elements. This allows us to locate copy{move forgeries via bit-wise operations, without expensive block comparisons in the feature space. Experimental investigation of different matching strategies shows that the proposed method has its benefits. However, on a broader scale, our experiments demonstrate that the performance of matching by lexicographic sorting might have been underestimated in previous work, despite its remarkable speed benefit on large images. In fact, in a practical setting, where accuracy and computational efficiency have to be balanced, lexicographic sorting may be considered the method of choice.

  10. Application of PILATUS II Detector Modules for High Resolution X-Ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometers on the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    M.L. Bitter, Ch. Borennimann, E.F. Eikenberry, K.W. Hill, A. Ince-Chushman, S.G. Lee, J.E. Rice, and S. Scott.

    2007-07-23

    A new type of X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer for Doppler measurements of the radial profiles of the ion temperature and plasma rotation velocity in tokamak plasmas is presently being developed in a collaboration between various laboratories. The spectrometer will consist of a spherically bent crystal and a two-dimensional position sensitive detector; and it will record temporally and spatially resolved X-ray line spectra from highly-charged ions. The detector must satisfy challenging requirements with respect to count rate and spatial resolution. The paper presents the results from a recent test of a PILATUS II detector module on Alcator C-Mod, which demonstrate that the PILATUS II detector modules will satisfy these requirements.

  11. Late diagenetic indicators of buried oil and gas: II, Direct detection experiment at Cement and Garza oil fields, Oklahoma and Texas, using enhanced LANDSAT I and II images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donovan, Terrence J.; Termain, Patricia A.; Henry, Mitchell E.

    1979-01-01

    The Cement oil field, Oklahoma, was a test site for an experiment designed to evaluate LANDSAT's capability to detect an alteration zone in surface rocks caused by hydrocarbon microseepage. Loss of iron and impregnation of sandstone by carbonate cements and replacement of gypsum by calcite are the major alteration phenomena at Cement. The bedrock alterations are partially masked by unaltered overlying beds, thick soils, and dense natural and cultivated vegetation. Interpreters biased by detailed ground truth were able to map the alteration zone subjectively using a magnified, filtered, and sinusoidally stretched LANDSAT composite image; other interpreters, unbiased by ground truth data, could not duplicate that interpretation. Similar techniques were applied at a secondary test site (Garza oil field, Texas), where similar alterations in surface rocks occur. Enhanced LANDSAT images resolved the alteration zone to a biased interpreter and some individual altered outcrops could be mapped using higher resolution SKYLAB color and conventional black and white aerial photographs suggesting repeat experiments with LANDSAT C and D.

  12. The use of the decision tree technique and image cytometry to characterize aggressiveness in World Health Organization (WHO) grade II superficial transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder.

    PubMed

    Decaestecker, C; van Velthoven, R; Petein, M; Janssen, T; Salmon, I; Pasteels, J L; van Ham, P; Schulman, C; Kiss, R

    1996-03-01

    The aggressiveness of human bladder tumours can be assessed by means of various classification systems, including the one proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO). According to the WHO classification, three levels of malignancy are identified as grades I (low), II (intermediate), and III (high). This classification system operates satisfactorily for two of the three grades in forecasting clinical progression, most grade I tumours being associated with good prognoses and most grade III with bad. In contrast, the grade II group is very heterogeneous in terms of their clinical behaviour. The present study used two computer-assisted methods to investigate whether it is possible to sub-classify grade II tumours: computer-assisted microscope analysis (image cytometry) of Feulgen-stained nuclei and the Decision Tree Technique. This latter technique belongs to the Supervised Learning Algorithm and enables an objective assessment to be made of the diagnostic value associated with a given parameter. The combined use of these two methods in a series of 292 superficial transitional cell carcinomas shows that it is possible to identify one subgroup of grade II tumours which behave clinically like grade I tumours and a second subgroup which behaves clinically like grade III tumours. Of the nine ploidy-related parameters computed by means of image cytometry [the DNA index (DI), DNA histogram type (DHT), and the percentages of diploid, hyperdiploid, triploid, hypertriploid, tetraploid, hypertetraploid, and polyploid cell nuclei], it was the percentage of hyperdiploid and hypertetraploid cell nuclei which enabled identification, rather than conventional parameters such as the DI or the DHT. PMID:8778332

  13. Transmission of holographic 3D images using infrared transmitter(II): on a study of transmission of holographic 3D images using infrared transmitter safe to medical equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Kunihiko; Muto, Kenji; Tian, Lan; Sato, Koki

    2007-09-01

    An infrared transmitting technique for 3D holographic images is studied. It seems to be very effective as a transmitting technique for 3D holographic images in the places where electric wave is prohibited to be used for transmission. In this paper, we first explain our infrared transmitting system for holograms and a display system for the presentation of holographic 3D images reconstructed from the received signal. Next, we make a report on the results obtained by infrared transmission of CGH and a comparison of the real and the reconstructed 3D images in our system. As this result, it is found that reconstructed holographic 3D images do not suffer a large deterioration in the quality and highly contrasted ones can be presented.

  14. Fault systems of the 1971 San Fernando and 1994 Northridge earthquakes, southern California: Relocated aftershocks and seismic images from LARSE II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuis, G.S.; Clayton, R.W.; Davis, P.M.; Ryberg, T.; Lutter, W.J.; Okaya, D.A.; Hauksson, E.; Prodehl, C.; Murphy, J.M.; Benthien, M.L.; Baher, S.A.; Kohler, M.D.; Thygesen, K.; Simila, G.; Keller, Gordon R.

    2003-01-01

    We have constructed a composite image of the fault systems of the M 6.7 San Fernando (1971) and Northridge (1994), California, earthquakes, using industry reflection and oil test well data in the upper few kilometers of the crust, relocated aftershocks in the seismogenic crust, and LARSE II (Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, Phase II) reflection data in the middle and lower crust. In this image, the San Fernando fault system appears to consist of a decollement that extends 50 km northward at a dip of ???25?? from near the surface at the Northridge Hills fault, in the northern San Fernando Valley, to the San Andreas fault in the middle to lower crust. It follows a prominent aseismic reflective zone below and northward of the main-shock hypocenter. Interpreted upward splays off this decollement include the Mission Hills and San Gabriel faults and the two main rupture planes of the San Fernando earthquake, which appear to divide the hanging wall into shingle- or wedge-like blocks. In contrast, the fault system for the Northridge earthquake appears simple, at least east of the LARSE II transect, consisting of a fault that extends 20 km southward at a dip of ???33?? from ???7 km depth beneath the Santa Susana Mountains, where it abuts the interpreted San Fernando decollement, to ???20 km depth beneath the Santa Monica Mountains. It follows a weak aseismic reflective zone below and southward of the mainshock hypocenter. The middle crustal reflective zone along the interpreted San Fernando decollement appears similar to a reflective zone imaged beneath the San Gabriel Mountains along the LARSE I transect, to the east, in that it appears to connect major reverse or thrust faults in the Los Angeles region to the San Andreas fault. However, it differs in having a moderate versus a gentle dip and in containing no mid-crustal bright reflections.

  15. Fault systems of the 1971 San Fernando and 1994 Northridge earthquakes, southern California: Relocated aftershocks and seismic images from LARSE II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuis, Gary S.; Clayton, Robert W.; Davis, Paul M.; Ryberg, Trond; Lutter, William J.; Okaya, David A.; Hauksson, Egill; Prodehl, Claus; Murphy, Janice M.; Benthien, Mark L.; Baher, Shirley A.; Kohler, Monica D.; Thygesen, Kristina; Simila, Gerry; Keller, G. Randy

    2003-02-01

    We have constructed a composite image of the fault systems of the M 6.7 San Fernando (1971) and Northridge (1994), California, earthquakes, using industry reflection and oil test well data in the upper few kilometers of the crust, relocated aftershocks in the seismogenic crust, and LARSE II (Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, Phase II) reflection data in the middle and lower crust. In this image, the San Fernando fault system appears to consist of a decollement that extends 50 km northward at a dip of ˜25° from near the surface at the Northridge Hills fault, in the northern San Fernando Valley, to the San Andreas fault in the middle to lower crust. It follows a prominent aseismic reflective zone below and northward of the main-shock hypocenter. Interpreted upward splays off this decollement include the Mission Hills and San Gabriel faults and the two main rupture planes of the San Fernando earthquake, which appear to divide the hanging wall into shingle- or wedge-like blocks. In contrast, the fault system for the Northridge earthquake appears simple, at least east of the LARSE II transect, consisting of a fault that extends 20 km southward at a dip of ˜33° from ˜7 km depth beneath the Santa Susana Mountains, where it abuts the interpreted San Fernando decollement, to ˜20 km depth beneath the Santa Monica Mountains. It follows a weak aseismic reflective zone below and southward of the main-shock hypocenter. The middle crustal reflective zone along the interpreted San Fernando decollement appears similar to a reflective zone imaged beneath the San Gabriel Mountains along the LARSE I transect, to the east, in that it appears to connect major reverse or thrust faults in the Los Angeles region to the San Andreas fault. However, it differs in having a moderate versus a gentle dip and in containing no mid-crustal bright reflections.

  16. State-of-the-art aortic imaging: Part II - applications in transcatheter aortic valve replacement and endovascular aortic aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Rengier, Fabian; Geisbüsch, Philipp; Schoenhagen, Paul; Müller-Eschner, Matthias; Vosshenrich, Rolf; Karmonik, Christof; von Tengg-Kobligk, Hendrik; Partovi, Sasan

    2014-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) as well as thoracic and abdominal endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR and EVAR) rely on accurate pre- and postprocedural imaging. This review article discusses the application of imaging, including preprocedural assessment and measurements as well as postprocedural imaging of complications. Furthermore, the exciting perspective of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based on cross-sectional imaging is presented. TAVR is a minimally invasive alternative for treatment of aortic valve stenosis in patients with high age and multiple comorbidities who cannot undergo traditional open surgical repair. Given the lack of direct visualization during the procedure, pre- and peri-procedural imaging forms an essential part of the intervention. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is the imaging modality of choice for preprocedural planning. Routine postprocedural follow-up is performed by echocardiography to confirm treatment success and detect complications. EVAR and TEVAR are minimally invasive alternatives to open surgical repair of aortic pathologies. CTA constitutes the preferred imaging modality for both preoperative planning and postoperative follow-up including detection of endoleaks. Magnetic resonance imaging is an excellent alternative to CT for postoperative follow-up, and is especially beneficial for younger patients given the lack of radiation. Ultrasound is applied in screening and postoperative follow-up of abdominal aortic aneurysms, but cross-sectional imaging is required once abnormalities are detected. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound may be as sensitive as CTA in detecting endoleaks. PMID:24429327

  17. Luminescent Ruthenium(II) Complex Bearing Bipyridine and N-Heterocyclic Carbene-based C∧N∧C Pincer Ligand for Live-Cell Imaging of Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Wai-Kuen; Chung, Lai-Hon; Wong, Matthew Man-Kin; Tsang, Wai-Him; Lo, Hoi-Shing; Liu, Yaxiang; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung; Chiu, Sung-Kay; Wong, Chun-Yuen

    2015-01-01

    Luminescent ruthenium(II)-cyanide complex with N-heterocyclic carbene pincer ligand C∧N∧C = 2,6-bis(1-butylimidazol-2-ylidene)pyridine and 2,2′-bipyridine (bpy) shows minimal cytotoxicity to both human breast carcinoma cell (MCF-7) and human retinal pigmented epithelium cell (RPE) in a wide range of concentration (0.1–500 μM), and can be used for the luminescent imaging of endocytosis of the complex in these cells. PMID:25765974

  18. Development of a 144-channel Hybrid Avalanche Photo-Detector for Belle II ring-imaging Cherenkov counter with an aerogel radiator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, S.; Adachi, I.; Hamada, N.; Hara, K.; Iijima, T.; Iwata, S.; Kakuno, H.; Kawai, H.; Korpar, S.; Kriz^an, P.; Ogawa, S.; Pestotnik, R.; Ŝantelj, L.; Seljak, A.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Tabata, M.; Tahirovic, E.; Yoshida, K.; Yusa, Y.

    2015-07-01

    The Belle II detector, a follow up of the very successful Belle experiment, is under construction at the SuperKEKB electron-positron collider at KEK in Japan. For the PID system in the forward region of the spectrometer, a proximity-focusing ring-imaging Cherenkov counter with an aerogel radiator is being developed. For the position sensitive photon sensor, a 144-channel Hybrid Avalanche Photo-Detector has been developed with Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. In this report, we describe the specification of the Hybrid Avalanche Photo-Detector and the status of the mass production.

  19. Copy variations in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lachman, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of copy number variations (CNVs) is an emerging tool for identifying genetic factors underlying complex traits. In this chapter I will review studies that have been carried out showing that CNVs play a role in the development of two such complex traits; schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). There are two aspects to consider regarding the role of copy variations in these conditions. One is gene discovery in which DNA from patients is analyzed for the purpose of identifying rare, patient-specific CNVs that may be informative to a larger population of affected individuals. The model for this concept is based on the emergence of DISC1 as a SZ candidate gene, which was discovered in a single informative family with a rare chromosomal translocation. Another aspect revolves around the idea that polymorphic CNVs found in the general population, many of which appear to disrupt previously identified SZ and BD candidate genes, contribute to disease pathogenesis. Here, gene-disrupting CNVs are viewed in the same manner as functional SNPs and analyzed for involvement in disease susceptibility using genetic association. Although the analysis of CNVs in patients with psychiatric disorders is in its infancy, informative new findings have already been made, suggesting that this is a very promising line of research. PMID:19287136

  20. A new rhodamine-based "off-on" fluorescent chemosensor for Hg (II) ion and its application in imaging Hg (II) in living cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fanyong; Cao, Donglei; Wang, Meng; Yang, Ning; Yu, Qiuhua; Dai, Linfeng; Chen, Li

    2012-09-01

    A novel rhodamine derivative (Rh-C), synthesized by the reaction of rhodamine ethylenediamine and cinnamoyl chloride, was evaluated as a chemoselective Hg(2+) ion sensor. Addition of Hg(2+) to an ethanol aqueous solution of the Rh-C resulted in a color change from colorless to obvious pink color together with distinctive changes in UV-vis absorption spectrum and fluorescence spectrum. However, other common alkali-, alkaline earth-, transition- and rare earth metal ions induced no or minimal spectral changes. The interaction of Hg(2+) and sensor Rh-C was proven to adopt a 1:1 binding stoichiometry and the recognition process is reversible. The chemosensor displayed a linear response to Hg(2+) in the range of 0.4-5 μM with a detection limit of 7.4 × 10(-8) M. The sensor Rh-C was also successfully applied to the imaging of Hg(2+) in HL-7702 cells. PMID:22695925

  1. To Copy or Not to Copy for Teaching and Scholarship: What Shall I Tell My Client?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardozo, Michael H.

    1976-01-01

    A clear description of what educators, administrators, or students may and may not copy under the various provisions of the Copyright Law Revision of 1976 is attempted, but the author concludes that the language of the law itself makes such a description impossible. (LBH)

  2. Imitation in Young Children: When Who Gets Copied Is More Important than What Gets Copied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Mark; Blank, Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    Unlike other animals, human children will copy all of an adult's goal-directed actions, including ones that are clearly unnecessary for achieving the demonstrated goal. Here we highlight how social affiliation is key to this species-specific behavior. Preschoolers watched 2 adults retrieve a toy from a novel apparatus. One adult included…

  3. Copying Actions and Copying Outcomes: Social Learning through the Second Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The present work documents how the logic of a model's demonstration and the communicative cues that the model provides interact with age to influence how children engage in social learning. Children at ages 12, 18, and 24 months (n = 204) watched a model open a series of boxes. Twelve-month-old subjects only copied the specific actions of the…

  4. Urinary Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number Identifies Chronic Renal Injury in Hypertensive Patients.

    PubMed

    Eirin, Alfonso; Saad, Ahmed; Tang, Hui; Herrmann, Sandra M; Woollard, John R; Lerman, Amir; Textor, Stephen C; Lerman, Lilach O

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondrial injury contributes to renal dysfunction in several models of renal disease, but its involvement in human hypertension remains unknown. Fragments of the mitochondrial genome released from dying cells are considered surrogate markers of mitochondrial injury. We hypothesized that hypertension would be associated with increased urine mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy numbers. We prospectively measured systemic and urinary copy number of the mtDNA genes cytochrome-c oxidase-3 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit-1 by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in essential (n=25) and renovascular (RVH, n=34) hypertensive patients and compared them with healthy volunteers (n=22). Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin served as indices of renal injury. Renal blood flow and oxygenation were assessed by multidetector computed tomography and blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging. Blood pressure, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, and kidney injury molecule-1 were similarly elevated in essential hypertension and RVH, and estimated glomerular filtration rate was lower in RVH versus healthy volunteers and essential hypertension. Renal blood flow was lower in RVH compared with essential hypertension. Urinary mtDNA copy number was higher in hypertension compared with healthy volunteers, directly correlated with urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and kidney injury molecule-1 and inversely with estimated glomerular filtration rate. In RVH, urinary mtDNA copy number correlated directly with intrarenal hypoxia. Furthermore, in an additional validation cohort, urinary mtDNA copy number was higher in RVH compared with healthy volunteers (n=10 each). The change in serum creatinine levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate 3 months after medical therapy without or with revascularization correlated with the change in urinary mtDNA. Therefore, elevated urinary mtDNA copy numbers in

  5. Filtering Chromatic Aberration for Wide Acceptance Angle Electrostatic Lenses II--Experimental Evaluation and Software-Based Imaging Energy Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Fazekas, Ádám; Daimon, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Tóth, László

    2016-03-01

    Here, the experimental results of the method of filtering the effect of chromatic aberration for wide acceptance angle electrostatic lens-based system are described. This method can eliminate the effect of chromatic aberration from the images of a measured spectral image sequence by determining and removing the effect of higher and lower kinetic energy electrons on each different energy image, which leads to significant improvement of image and spectral quality. The method is based on the numerical solution of a large system of linear equations and equivalent with a multivariate strongly nonlinear deconvolution method. A matrix whose elements describe the strongly nonlinear chromatic aberration-related transmission function of the lens system acts on the vector of the ordered pixels of the distortion free spectral image sequence, and produces the vector of the ordered pixels of the measured spectral image sequence. Since the method can be applied not only on 2D real- and $k$ -space diffraction images, but also along a third dimension of the image sequence that is along the optical or in the 3D parameter space, the energy axis, it functions as a software-based imaging energy analyzer (SBIEA). It can also be applied in cases of light or other type of optics for different optical aberrations and distortions. In case of electron optics, the SBIEA method makes possible the spectral imaging without the application of any other energy filter. It is notable that this method also eliminates the disturbing background significantly in the present investigated case of reflection electron energy loss spectra. It eliminates the instrumental effects and makes possible to measure the real physical processes better. PMID:26863662

  6. Selective removal of natural occlusal caries by coupling near-infrared imaging with a CO II laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, You-Chen; Fried, Daniel

    2008-02-01

    Laser removal of dental hard tissue can be combined with optical, spectral or acoustic feedback systems to selectively ablate dental caries and restorative materials. Near-infrared (NIR) imaging has considerable potential for the optical discrimination of sound and demineralized tissue. Last year we successfully demonstrated that near-IR images can be used to guide a CO2 laser ablation system for the selective removal of artificial caries lesions on smooth surfaces. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that two-dimensional near-infrared images of natural occlusal caries can be used to guide a CO2 laser for selective removal. Two-dimensional NIR images were acquired at 1310-nm of extracted human molar teeth with occlusal caries. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) was also used to acquire depth-resolved images of the lesion areas. An imaging processing module was developed to analyze the NIR imaging output and generate optical maps that were used to guide a CO2 laser to selectively remove the lesions at a uniform depth. Post-ablation NIR images were acquired to verify caries removal. Based on the analysis of the NIR images, caries lesions were selectively removed with a CO2 laser while sound tissues were conserved. However, the removal rate varied markedly with the severity of decay and multiple passes were required for caries removal. These initial results are promising but indicate that the selective removal of natural caries is more challenging than the selective removal of artificial lesions due to varying tooth geometry, the highly variable organic/mineral ratio in natural lesions and more complicated lesion structure.

  7. Assimilation of spatially distributed water levels into a shallow-water flood model. Part II: Use of a remote sensing image of Mosel River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostache, Renaud; Lai, Xijun; Monnier, Jérôme; Puech, Christian

    2010-09-01

    SummaryWith rapid flood extent mapping capabilities, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images of river inundation prove to be very relevant to operational flood management. In this context, a recently developed method provides distributed water levels from SAR images. Furthermore, in view of improving numerical flood prediction, a variational data assimilation method (4D-var) using such distributed water level has been developed in Part I of this study. This method combines an optimal sense remote sensing data (distributed water levels extracted from spatial images) and a 2D shallow water model. In the present article (Part II of the study), we also derive water levels with a ±40 cm average vertical uncertainty from a RADARSAT-1 image of a Mosel River flood event (1997, France). Assimilated in a 2D shallow water hydraulic model using the 4D-var developed method, these SAR derived spatially distributed water levels prove to be capable of enhancing model calibration. Indeed, the assimilation process can identify optimal Manning friction coefficients, at least in the river channel. Moreover, used as a guide for sensitivity analysis, remote sensing water levels allow also identifying some areas in the floodplain and the channel where Manning friction coefficients are homogeneous. This allows basing the spatial segmentation of roughness coefficient on floodplain hydraulic functioning.

  8. In vivo real-time visualization of mesenchymal stem cells tropism for cutaneous regeneration using NIR-II fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guangcun; Tian, Fei; Li, Chunyan; Zhang, Yejun; Weng, Zhen; Zhang, Yan; Peng, Rui; Wang, Qiangbin

    2015-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown great potential for cutaneous wound regeneration in clinical practice. However, the in vivo homing behavior of intravenously transplanted MSCs to the wounds is still poorly understood. In this work, fluorescence imaging with Ag2S quantum dots (QDs) in the second near-infrared (NIR-II) window was performed to visualize the dynamic homing behavior of transplanted human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to a cutaneous wound in mice. Benefiting from the desirable spatial and temporal resolution of Ag2S QDs-based NIR-II imaging, for the first time, the migration of hMSCs to the wound was dynamically visualized in vivo. By transplanting a blank collagen scaffold in the wound to help the healing, it was found that hMSCs were slowly recruited at the wound after intravenous injection and were predominantly accumulated around the edge of wound. This resulted in poor healing effects in terms of slow wound closure and thin thickness of the regenerated skin. In contrast, for the wound treated by the collagen scaffold loaded with stromal cell derived factor-1α (SDF-1α), more hMSCs were recruited at the wound within a much shorter time and were homogenously distributed across the whole wound area, which enhances the re-epithelialization, the neovascularization, and accelerates the wound healing. PMID:25890725

  9. Double-copy constructions and unitarity cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bern, Zvi; Davies, Scott; Nohle, Josh

    2016-05-01

    The duality between color and kinematics enables the construction of multiloop gravity integrands directly from corresponding gauge-theory integrands. This has led to new nontrivial insights into the structure of gravity theories, including the discovery of enhanced ultraviolet cancellations. To continue to gain deeper understandings and probe these new properties, it is crucial to further improve techniques for constructing multiloop gravity integrands. In this paper, we show by example how one can alleviate difficulties encountered at the multiloop level by relaxing the color-kinematics duality conditions to hold manifestly only on unitarity cuts instead of globally on loop integrands. As an example, we use a minimal Ansatz to construct an integrand for the two-loop four-point nonsupersymmetric pure Yang-Mills amplitude in D dimensions that is compatible with these relaxed color-kinematics duality constraints. We then immediately obtain a corresponding gravity integrand through the double-copy procedure. Comments on ultraviolet divergences are also included.

  10. Imperfect mirror copies of the standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berryman, Jeffrey M.; de Gouvêa, André; Hernández, Daniel; Kelly, Kevin J.

    2016-08-01

    Inspired by the standard model of particle physics, we discuss a mechanism for constructing chiral, anomaly-free gauge theories. The gauge symmetries and particle content of such theories are identified using subgroups and complex representations of simple anomaly-free Lie groups, such as S O (10 ) or E6. We explore, using mostly S O (10 ) and the 16 representation, several of these "imperfect copies" of the standard model, including U (1 )N theories, S U (5 )⊗U (1 ) theories, S U (4 )⊗U (1 )2 theories with 4-plets and 6-plets, and chiral S U (3 )⊗S U (2 )⊗U (1 ) . A few general properties of such theories are discussed, as is how they might shed light on nonzero neutrino masses, the dark matter puzzle, and other phenomenologically relevant questions.

  11. Activity, regulation, copy number and function in the glyoxalase system.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Naila; Xue, Mingzhan; Thornalley, Paul J

    2014-04-01

    Molecular, catalytic and structural properties of glyoxalase pathway enzymes of many species are now known. Current research has focused on the regulation of activity and expression of Glo1 (glyoxalase I) and Glo2 (glyoxalase II) and their role in health and disease. Human GLO1 has MRE (metal-response element), IRE (insulin-response element), E2F4 (early gene 2 factor isoform 4), AP-2α (activating enhancer-binding protein 2α) and ARE (antioxidant response-element) regulatory elements and is a hotspot for copy number variation. The human Glo2 gene, HAGH (hydroxyacylglutathione hydrolase), has a regulatory p53-response element. Glo1 is linked to healthy aging, obesity, diabetes and diabetic complications, chronic renal disease, cardiovascular disease, other disorders and multidrug resistance in cancer chemotherapy. Mathematical modelling of the glyoxalase pathway predicts that pharmacological levels of increased Glo1 activity markedly decrease cellular methylglyoxal and related glycation, and pharmacological Glo1 inhibition markedly increases cellular methylglyoxal and related glycation. Glo1 inducers are in development to sustain healthy aging and for treatment of vascular complications of diabetes and other disorders, and cell-permeant Glo1 inhibitors are in development for treatment of multidrug-resistant tumours, malaria and potentially pathogenic bacteria and fungi. PMID:24646254

  12. 38 CFR 1.526 - Copies of records and papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... papers. 1.526 Section 1.526 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Copies of records and papers. (a) Any person desiring a copy of any record or document in the custody of... plain one-sided paper copies of a standard size (81/2″ × 11″; 81/2″ × 14″; 11″ × 14″) $0.15 per...

  13. 38 CFR 1.526 - Copies of records and papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... papers. 1.526 Section 1.526 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Copies of records and papers. (a) Any person desiring a copy of any record or document in the custody of... plain one-sided paper copies of a standard size (81/2″ × 11″; 81/2″ × 14″; 11″ × 14″) $0.15 per...

  14. COPI selectively drives maturation of the early Golgi

    PubMed Central

    Papanikou, Effrosyni; Day, Kasey J; Austin, Jotham; Glick, Benjamin S

    2015-01-01

    COPI coated vesicles carry material between Golgi compartments, but the role of COPI in the secretory pathway has been ambiguous. Previous studies of thermosensitive yeast COPI mutants yielded the surprising conclusion that COPI was dispensable both for the secretion of certain proteins and for Golgi cisternal maturation. To revisit these issues, we optimized the anchor-away method, which allows peripheral membrane proteins such as COPI to be sequestered rapidly by adding rapamycin. Video fluorescence microscopy revealed that COPI inactivation causes an early Golgi protein to remain in place while late Golgi proteins undergo cycles of arrival and departure. These dynamics generate partially functional hybrid Golgi structures that contain both early and late Golgi proteins, explaining how secretion can persist when COPI has been inactivated. Our findings suggest that cisternal maturation involves a COPI-dependent pathway that recycles early Golgi proteins, followed by multiple COPI-independent pathways that recycle late Golgi proteins. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13232.001 PMID:26709839

  15. 6. Photographic copy of historic photograph (from Wind Cave National ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of historic photograph (from Wind Cave National Park), photographer unknown, date unknown. Route 87, Pigtail Bridge, elevation. - Pigtail Bridge, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

  16. Sociobiological Control of Plasmid Copy Number in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Watve, Mukta M.; Dahanukar, Neelesh; Watve, Milind G.

    2010-01-01

    All genes critical for plasmid replication regulation are located on the plasmid rather than on the host chromosome. It is possible therefore that there can be copy-up “cheater” mutants. In spite of this possibility, low copy number plasmids appear to exist stably in host populations. We examined this paradox using a multilevel selection model. Simulations showed that, a slightly higher copy number mutant could out-compete the wild type. Consequently, another mutant with still higher copy number could invade the first invader. However, the realized benefit of increasing intra-host fitness was saturating whereas that of inter-host fitness was exponential. As a result, above a threshold, intra-host selection was overcompensated by inter-host selection and the low copy number wild type plasmid could back invade a very high copy number plasmid. This led to a rock-paper-scissor (RPS) like situation that allowed the coexistence of plasmids with varied copy numbers. Furthermore, another type of cheater that had lost the genes required for conjugation but could hitchhike on a conjugal plasmid, could further reduce the advantage of copy-up mutants. These sociobiological interactions may compliment molecular mechanisms of replication regulation in stabilizing the copy numbers. PMID:20195362

  17. Low-cost soft-copy mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derenyi, Eugene E.

    1993-09-01

    A digital image restitution and mensuration software package was developed and installed in a geographic information system. Mapping is performed by monoscopic digitization in the image display screen. Three of the four image restitution schemes employ a rigorous mathematical model for generating the object space coordinates, while the fourth one provides a close approximation. The primary application of this mapping tool is in map revision and natural resource inventory mapping. It is suitable for those with no photogrammetric experience.

  18. Quantification of Fewer than Ten Copies of a DNA Biomarker without Amplification or Labeling.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Youngkyu; Lee, Donggyu; Roy, Dhruvajyoti; Park, Joon Won

    2016-06-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a highly sensitive diagnosis technique for detection of nucleic acids and for monitoring residual disease; however, PCR can be unreliable for samples containing very few target molecules. Here, we describe a quantification method, using force-distance (FD) curve based atomic force microscopy (AFM) to detect a target DNA bound to small (1.4-1.9 μm diameter) probe DNA spots, allowing mapping of entire spots to nanometer resolution. Using a synthetic BCR-ABL fusion gene sequence target, we examined samples containing between one and 10 target copies. A high degree of correlation (r(2) = 0.994) between numbers of target copies and detected probe clusters was observed, and the approach could detect the BCR-ABL biomarker when only a single copy was present, although multiple screens were required. Our results clearly demonstrate that FD curve-based imaging is suitable for quantitative analysis of fewer than 10 copies of DNA biomarkers without amplification, modification, or labeling. PMID:27175474

  19. Imaging the Moon II: Webcam CCD Observations and Analysis (a Two-Week Lab for Non-Majors)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.

    2014-07-01

    Imaging the Moon is a successful two-week lab involving real sky observations of the Moon in which students make telescopic observations and analyze their own images. Originally developed around the 35 mm film camera, a common household object adapted for astronomical work, the lab now uses webcams as film photography has evolved into an obscure specialty technology and increasing numbers of students have little familiarity with it. The printed circuit board with the CCD is harvested from a commercial webcam and affixed to a tube to mount on a telescope in place of an eyepiece. Image frames are compiled to form a lunar mosaic, and crater sizes are measured. Students also work through the logistical steps of telescope time assignment and scheduling. They learn to keep a schedule and work with uncertainties of weather in ways paralleling research observations. Because there is no need for a campus observatory, this lab can be replicated at a wide variety of institutions.

  20. Toward in vivo diagnosis of skin cancer using multimode imaging dermoscopy: (II) molecular mapping of highly pigmented lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasefi, Fartash; MacKinnon, Nicholas; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2014-03-01

    We have developed a multimode imaging dermoscope that combines polarization and hyperspectral imaging with a computationally rapid analytical model. This approach employs specific spectral ranges of visible and near infrared wavelengths for mapping the distribution of specific skin bio-molecules. This corrects for the melanin-hemoglobin misestimation common to other systems, without resorting to complex and computationally intensive tissue optical models that are prone to inaccuracies due to over-modeling. Various human skin measurements including a melanocytic nevus, and venous occlusion conditions were investigated and compared with other ratiometric spectral imaging approaches. Access to the broad range of hyperspectral data in the visible and near-infrared range allows our algorithm to flexibly use different wavelength ranges for chromophore estimation while minimizing melanin-hemoglobin optical signature cross-talk.

  1. Diffraction image formation in optical systems with polarization aberrations. II - Amplitude response matrices for rotationally symmetric systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, James P., Jr.; Chipman, Russell A.

    1991-01-01

    In the previous paper in this series (McGuire and Chipman, 1990), a formulation was established for the calculation and analysis of diffraction image quality in polarizing optical systems illuminated with partially polarized, partially coherent light. In the present paper, the effect of second- and fourth-order polarization aberrations on the image plane diffraction patterns are examined. The amplitude response matrix is calculated for optical systems with small numerical apertures. Numerical results are presented for optical systems with circular apertures for three of the aberration types.

  2. Image

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2007-08-31

    The computer side of the IMAGE project consists of a collection of Perl scripts that perform a variety of tasks; scripts are available to insert, update and delete data from the underlying Oracle database, download data from NCBI's Genbank and other sources, and generate data files for download by interested parties. Web scripts make up the tracking interface, and various tools available on the project web-site (image.llnl.gov) that provide a search interface to the database.

  3. PICASSO: an end-to-end image simulation tool for space and airborne imaging systems II. Extension to the thermal infrared: equations and methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cota, Stephen A.; Lomheim, Terrence S.; Florio, Christopher J.; Harbold, Jeffrey M.; Muto, B. Michael; Schoolar, Richard B.; Wintz, Daniel T.; Keller, Robert A.

    2011-10-01

    In a previous paper in this series, we described how The Aerospace Corporation's Parameterized Image Chain Analysis & Simulation SOftware (PICASSO) tool may be used to model space and airborne imaging systems operating in the visible to near-infrared (VISNIR). PICASSO is a systems-level tool, representative of a class of such tools used throughout the remote sensing community. It is capable of modeling systems over a wide range of fidelity, anywhere from conceptual design level (where it can serve as an integral part of the systems engineering process) to as-built hardware (where it can serve as part of the verification process). In the present paper, we extend the discussion of PICASSO to the modeling of Thermal Infrared (TIR) remote sensing systems, presenting the equations and methods necessary to modeling in that regime.

  4. Fidelity analysis of mechanically aided copying/enlarging of Jan van Eyck's Portrait of Niccolo Albergati

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stork, David G.; Duarte, Marco

    2007-01-01

    The contemporary artist David Hockney has hypothesized that some early Renaissance painters secretly projected optical images onto their supports (canvas, paper, oak panel, ...), directly traced these projections, and then filled in the tracings with paint[1]. Hockney has presented somewhat impressionistic image evidence for this claim, but he and thin-film physicist Charles Falco also point to perspective anomalies, to the fidelity of passages in certain paintings, and to historical documents in search of support for this direct tracing claim[2]. Key visual evidence adduced in support of this tracing claim is a pair of portraits by Jan van Eyck of Cardinal Niccolo Albergati - a small informal silverpoint study of 1431 and a slightly larger formal work in oil on panel of 1432. The contours in these two works bear striking resemblance in shape (after being appropriately scaled) and there are at least two "relative shifts" - passages that co-align well after a spatial shift of one of the images [2]. This evidence has led the theory's proponents to claim that van Eyck copied the silverpoint by means of an optical projector, or epidiascope, the relative shifts due to him accidentally bumping the setup during the copying. Previous tests of the tracing theory for these works considered four candidate methods van Eyck might have used to copied and enlarged the image in the silverpoint study: unaided ("by eye"), mechanical, grid, and the optical projection method itself [3]. Based on the full evidence, including the recent discovery of tiny pinprick holes in the silverpoint, reenactments, material culture and optical knowledge in the early 15th century, the mechanical method was judged most plausible and optical method the least plausible[3]. However, this earlier work did not adequately test whether a trained artist could "re-enact" the copying by mechanical methods: "Although we have not explicitly verified that high fidelities can be achieved through the use of a

  5. 37 CFR 203.5 - Inspection and copying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inspection and copying. 203.5 Section 203.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE... listed in § 203.4(d). Such material may be copied manually without charge, and reasonable facilities...

  6. 37 CFR 203.5 - Inspection and copying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inspection and copying. 203.5 Section 203.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE... listed in § 203.4(d). Such material may be copied manually without charge, and reasonable facilities...

  7. 37 CFR 203.5 - Inspection and copying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection and copying. 203.5 Section 203.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT OFFICE... listed in § 203.4(d). Such material may be copied manually without charge, and reasonable facilities...

  8. 7 CFR 3601.2 - Public inspection, copying, and indexing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public inspection, copying, and indexing. 3601.2 Section 3601.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PUBLIC INFORMATION § 3601.2 Public inspection, copying,...

  9. 7 CFR 3601.2 - Public inspection, copying, and indexing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public inspection, copying, and indexing. 3601.2 Section 3601.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PUBLIC INFORMATION § 3601.2 Public inspection, copying,...

  10. 25 CFR 571.13 - Copies of audit reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .../or reports as a result of the audit setting forth the results of each fiscal year. The submission... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Copies of audit reports. 571.13 Section 571.13 Indians... MONITORING AND INVESTIGATIONS Audits § 571.13 Copies of audit reports. (a) Each tribe shall prepare...

  11. 25 CFR 571.13 - Copies of audit reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .../or reports as a result of the audit setting forth the results of each fiscal year. The submission... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Copies of audit reports. 571.13 Section 571.13 Indians... MONITORING AND INVESTIGATIONS Audits § 571.13 Copies of audit reports. (a) Each tribe shall prepare...

  12. 25 CFR 571.13 - Copies of audit reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .../or reports as a result of the audit setting forth the results of each fiscal year. The submission... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Copies of audit reports. 571.13 Section 571.13 Indians... MONITORING AND INVESTIGATIONS Audits § 571.13 Copies of audit reports. (a) Each tribe shall prepare...

  13. 25 CFR 571.13 - Copies of audit reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .../or reports as a result of the audit setting forth the results of each fiscal year. The submission... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Copies of audit reports. 571.13 Section 571.13 Indians... MONITORING AND INVESTIGATIONS Audits § 571.13 Copies of audit reports. (a) Each tribe shall prepare...

  14. 33 CFR 88.05 - Copy of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Copy of rules. 88.05 Section 88.05 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.05 Copy of rules. The operator of each self-propelled vessel 12...

  15. 33 CFR 88.05 - Copy of rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Copy of rules. 88.05 Section 88.05 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.05 Copy of rules. The operator of each self-propelled vessel 12...

  16. 38. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by Kansas City Structural Steel Company, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department. Details of 200' span - Van Buren Bridge, Spanning Current River at US Route 60, Van Buren, Carter County, MO

  17. 34. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by Kansas City Structural Steel Company, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department. Plans and elevations - Van Buren Bridge, Spanning Current River at US Route 60, Van Buren, Carter County, MO

  18. 39. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by Kansas City Structural Steel Company, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department. Details of 80' span - Van Buren Bridge, Spanning Current River at US Route 60, Van Buren, Carter County, MO

  19. 30. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by Missouri State Highway Department, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department. Details of pier 2 and 3 - Van Buren Bridge, Spanning Current River at US Route 60, Van Buren, Carter County, MO

  20. 37. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by Kansas City Structural Steel Company, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department. Details of 200' span - Van Buren Bridge, Spanning Current River at US Route 60, Van Buren, Carter County, MO

  1. 36. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by Kansas City Structural Steel Company, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department. Beams and laterals - Van Buren Bridge, Spanning Current River at US Route 60, Van Buren, Carter County, MO

  2. 31. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by Missouri State Highway Department, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department. Details of pier 9 and abutment 1 - Van Buren Bridge, Spanning Current River at US Route 60, Van Buren, Carter County, MO

  3. 29. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by Missouri State Highway Department, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department. General elevation and plan - Van Buren Bridge, Spanning Current River at US Route 60, Van Buren, Carter County, MO

  4. 32. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by Missouri State Highway Department, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department. Details of intermediate bends and bent 14 - Van Buren Bridge, Spanning Current River at US Route 60, Van Buren, Carter County, MO

  5. 35. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1924, by Kansas City Structural Steel Company, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department. Details of 120' span - Van Buren Bridge, Spanning Current River at US Route 60, Van Buren, Carter County, MO

  6. 33. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1925, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1925, by Missouri State Highway Department, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department. Details of abutment no. 1 (revised) - Van Buren Bridge, Spanning Current River at US Route 60, Van Buren, Carter County, MO

  7. 5 CFR 9301.16 - Requests for copies of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requests for copies of records. 9301.16 Section 9301.16 Administrative Personnel SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL FOR AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION Privacy Act § 9301.16 Requests for copies of records. Rules...

  8. 5 CFR 9301.16 - Requests for copies of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requests for copies of records. 9301.16 Section 9301.16 Administrative Personnel SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL FOR AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION Privacy Act § 9301.16 Requests for copies of records. Rules...

  9. 24. Wayne Chandler, Photographer, March 1996 Photographic copy of blueprint ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Wayne Chandler, Photographer, March 1996 Photographic copy of blueprint copy of original plans, dated 1921, by Strauss Bascule Bridge Company. Blueprint in possession of City of Green Bay, Green Bay, Wisconsin. BASCULE PIERS. GENERAL LAYOUT. - Main Street Bridge, Spanning Fox River on Main Street, Green Bay, Brown County, WI

  10. 25. Wayne Chandler, Photographer, March 1996 Photographic copy of blueprint ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Wayne Chandler, Photographer, March 1996 Photographic copy of blueprint copy of original plans, dated 1921, by Strauss Bascule Bridge Company. Blueprint in possession of City of Green Bay, Green Bay, Wisconsin. DETAILS OF BASCULE PIERS. - Main Street Bridge, Spanning Fox River on Main Street, Green Bay, Brown County, WI

  11. 27. Wayne Chandler, Photographer, March 1996 Photographic copy of blueprint ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Wayne Chandler, Photographer, March 1996 Photographic copy of blueprint copy of original plans, dated 1921, by Strauss Bascule Bridge Company. Blueprint in possession of City of Green Bay, Green Bay, Wisconsin. BASCULE GIRDER. TRUNNION END. - Main Street Bridge, Spanning Fox River on Main Street, Green Bay, Brown County, WI

  12. 31. Wayne Chandler, Photographer, March 1996 Photographic copy of blueprint ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Wayne Chandler, Photographer, March 1996 Photographic copy of blueprint copy of original plans, dated 1921, by Strauss Bascule Bridge Company. Blueprint in possession of City of Green Bay, Green Bay, Wisconsin. CONCRETE COUNTERWEIGHT. - Main Street Bridge, Spanning Fox River on Main Street, Green Bay, Brown County, WI

  13. 34. Wayne Chandler, Photographer, March 1996 Photographic copy of blueprint ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Wayne Chandler, Photographer, March 1996 Photographic copy of blueprint copy of original plans, dated 1921, by Strauss Bascule Bridge Company. Blueprint in possession of City of Green Bay, Green Bay, Wisconsin. OPERATOR'S HOUSE AND COMFORT STATIONS. ELEVATIONS. CORNICE DETAILS. FLOOR PLANS. - Main Street Bridge, Spanning Fox River on Main Street, Green Bay, Brown County, WI

  14. 33. Wayne Chandler, Photographer, March 1996 Photographic copy of blueprint ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Wayne Chandler, Photographer, March 1996 Photographic copy of blueprint copy of original plans, dated 1921, by Strauss Bascule Bridge Company. Blueprint in possession of City of Green Bay, Green Bay, Wisconsin. OPERATING MACHINERY. - Main Street Bridge, Spanning Fox River on Main Street, Green Bay, Brown County, WI

  15. 29. Wayne Chandler, Photographer, March 1996 Photographic copy of blueprint ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Wayne Chandler, Photographer, March 1996 Photographic copy of blueprint copy of original plans, dated 1921, by Strauss Bascule Bridge Company. Blueprint in possession of City of Green Bay, Green Bay, Wisconsin. TRUNNION GIRDER BETWEEN TRUNNION POSTS. - Main Street Bridge, Spanning Fox River on Main Street, Green Bay, Brown County, WI

  16. 32. Wayne Chandler, Photographer, March 1996 Photographic copy of blueprint ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Wayne Chandler, Photographer, March 1996 Photographic copy of blueprint copy of original plans, dated 1921, by Strauss Bascule Bridge Company. Blueprint in possession of City of Green Bay, Green Bay, Wisconsin. TRUNNIONS. PINS. BEARINGS. - Main Street Bridge, Spanning Fox River on Main Street, Green Bay, Brown County, WI

  17. 23. Wayne Chandler, Photographer, March 1996 Photographic copy of blueprint ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Wayne Chandler, Photographer, March 1996 Photographic copy of blueprint copy of original plans, dated 1921, by Strauss Bascule Bridge Company. Blueprint in possession of City of Green Bay, Green Bay, Wisconsin. GENERAL PLAN AND ELEVATION OF BRIDGE. - Main Street Bridge, Spanning Fox River on Main Street, Green Bay, Brown County, WI

  18. 26. Wayne Chandler, Photographer, March 1996 Photographic copy of blueprint ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Wayne Chandler, Photographer, March 1996 Photographic copy of blueprint copy of original plans, dated 1921, by Strauss Bascule Bridge Company. Blueprint in possession of City of Green Bay, Green Bay, Wisconsin. BASCULE GIRDER. FRONT END. - Main Street Bridge, Spanning Fox River on Main Street, Green Bay, Brown County, WI

  19. 35. Wayne Chandler, photographer, March 1996 Photographic copy of blueprint ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Wayne Chandler, photographer, March 1996 Photographic copy of blueprint copy of original plans, dated 1921, by Strauss Bascule Bridge Company. Blueprint in possession of City of Green Bay, Green Bay, Wisconsin. OPERATOR'S HOUSE AND COMFORT STATIONS. ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS AND TROLLEY POLES. - Main Street Bridge, Spanning Fox River on Main Street, Green Bay, Brown County, WI

  20. 30. Wayne Chandler, Photographer, March 1996 Photographic copy of blueprint ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Wayne Chandler, Photographer, March 1996 Photographic copy of blueprint copy of original plans, dated 1921, by Strauss Bascule Bridge Company. Blueprint in possession of City of Green Bay, Green Bay, Wisconsin. COUNTERWEIGHT FRAME. - Main Street Bridge, Spanning Fox River on Main Street, Green Bay, Brown County, WI

  1. 28. Wayne Chandler, Photographer, March 1996 Photographic copy of blueprint ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Wayne Chandler, Photographer, March 1996 Photographic copy of blueprint copy of original plans, dated 1921, by Strauss Bascule Bridge Company. Blueprint in possession of City of Green Bay, Green Bay, Wisconsin. TRUNNION POSTS. - Main Street Bridge, Spanning Fox River on Main Street, Green Bay, Brown County, WI

  2. 45. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 192627, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1926-27, by Harrington, Howard, and Ash, Consulting Engineers, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department, Jefferson City, Missouri. 671 FT. SPAN, SWAYS AND PORTALS AT U8 - Cape Girardeau Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River at State Highway 146, Cape Girardeau, Cape Girardeau County, MO

  3. 53. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1934, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1934, by Sverdrup and Parcel, Consulting Engineers, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department. Lighting details and collector's booth - Mark Twain Memorial Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River at US Route 36, Hannibal, Marion County, MO

  4. 53. Photocopy of copy of original Officers' Duplex Quarters drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photocopy of copy of original Officers' Duplex Quarters drawing by A.G.D., 7 April 1932 (original in possession of Veterans Administration, Wichita, Kansas, copy at Ablah Library, Wichita State University). Electrical - Veterans Administration Center, Officers Duplex Quarters, 5302 East Kellogg (Legal Address); 5500 East Kellogg (Common Address), Wichita, Sedgwick County, KS

  5. 36 CFR 1254.64 - Will NARA certify copies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will NARA certify copies? 1254.64 Section 1254.64 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE USING RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL MATERIALS Copying...

  6. 36 CFR 1254.60 - What are NARA's copying services?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are NARA's copying services? 1254.60 Section 1254.60 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE USING RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL MATERIALS Copying...

  7. 36 CFR 902.31 - Access, inspection and copying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Access, inspection and... Access, inspection and copying. (a) Records listed in § 902.30(a), are available for inspection and..., Washington, DC 20004. Facilities for inspection and copying shall be open to the public every workday....

  8. 36 CFR 902.31 - Access, inspection and copying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access, inspection and... Access, inspection and copying. (a) Records listed in § 902.30(a), are available for inspection and..., Washington, DC 20004. Facilities for inspection and copying shall be open to the public every workday....

  9. Defining Error Rates and Power for Detecting Answer Copying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollack, James A.; Cohen, Allan S.; Serlin, Ronald C.

    2001-01-01

    Developed a family wise approach for evaluating the significance of copying indices designed to hold the Type I error rate constant for each examinee. Examined the Type I error rate and power of two indices under a variety of copying situations. Results indicate the superiority of a family wise definition of Type I error rate over a pair-wise…

  10. 49 CFR 1310.6 - Furnishing copies of tariff publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Furnishing copies of tariff publications. 1310.6 Section 1310.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE... copies of tariff publications to interested persons. If a charge is made, the charge must be...

  11. 49 CFR 1001.2 - Certified copies of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certified copies of records. 1001.2 Section 1001.2 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF RECORDS § 1001.2 Certified copies...

  12. 49 CFR 1001.2 - Certified copies of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Certified copies of records. 1001.2 Section 1001.2 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF RECORDS § 1001.2 Certified copies...

  13. 49 CFR 1310.6 - Furnishing copies of tariff publications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Furnishing copies of tariff publications. 1310.6 Section 1310.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE... copies of tariff publications to interested persons. If a charge is made, the charge must be...

  14. 7 CFR 510.2 - Public inspection, copying, and indexing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public inspection, copying, and indexing. 510.2 Section 510.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PUBLIC INFORMATION § 510.2 Public inspection, copying, and indexing. 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2) requires that...

  15. 25 CFR 571.13 - Copies of audit reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Copies of audit reports. 571.13 Section 571.13 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT PROVISIONS MONITORING AND INVESTIGATIONS Audits § 571.13 Copies of audit reports. (a) Each tribe shall prepare...

  16. 4. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION DRAWING, DATED MAY 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION DRAWING, DATED MAY 13, 1919, DETACHMENT BARRACK WITHOUT MESS, WAR DEPARTMENT, CONSTRUCTION DIVISION, PLAN # 353, COPY ON FILE IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OFFICE, FORT BLISS - Fort Bliss, 7th Cavalry Buildings, U.S. Army Air Defence Artillery Center & Fort Bliss, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  17. 18. Photocopy of copy of drawing of boiler plant and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of copy of drawing of boiler plant and shops building, dated June 15, 1944. Copy of drawing stored at 436 Civil Engineer Squadron, Design Management Element Cece, 600 8th Street, Dover AFB, DE - Dover Air Force Base, Hangar No. 1301, Dover, Kent County, DE

  18. 17. Photocopy of copy of drawing of Hangar 1301, dated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of copy of drawing of Hangar 1301, dated June 15, 1944. Copy of drawing stored at 436 Civil Engineer Squadron, Design Management Element Cece, 600 8th Street, Dover Air Force Base, DE - Dover Air Force Base, Hangar No. 1301, Dover, Kent County, DE

  19. 5. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION DRAWING, DATED JUNE 14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION DRAWING, DATED JUNE 14, 1919, 7TH CAVALRY CANTONMENT MESS BUILDING, WAR DEPARTMENT, CONSTRUCTION DIVISION, PLAN No. 316A, COPY ON FILE IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OFFICE, FORT BLISS - Fort Bliss, 7th Cavalry Buildings, U.S. Army Air Defence Artillery Center & Fort Bliss, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  20. 8. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH, DATED CA. 19201925, FORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH, DATED CA. 1920-1925, FORT BLISS, ARROW POINTS TO 7TH CAVALRY CANTONMENT, COPY ON FILE IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OFFICE, FORT BLISS - Fort Bliss, 7th Cavalry Buildings, U.S. Army Air Defence Artillery Center & Fort Bliss, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  1. 6. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION DRAWING, DATED MAY 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTION DRAWING, DATED MAY 15, 1919, 7TH CAVALRY CANTONMENT POST EXCHANGE, WAR DEPARTMENT, CONSTRUCTION DIVISION, PLAN No. 357, COPY ON FILE IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT OFFICE, FORT BLISS - Fort Bliss, 7th Cavalry Buildings, U.S. Army Air Defence Artillery Center & Fort Bliss, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  2. 40 CFR 716.30 - Submission of copies of studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Submission of copies of studies. 716.30 Section 716.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT HEALTH AND SAFETY DATA REPORTING General Provisions § 716.30 Submission of copies of studies. (a)(1) Except as provided in §§...

  3. 6. Photo copy of photograph, (original owned by Mary Gaudineer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photo copy of photograph, (original owned by Mary Gaudineer, Beckley, WV, copy at National Forest Office, Elkins, WV), Don Gaudineer, 1934. CONSTRUCTION OF FERNOW EXPERIMENTAL FOREST BUNKHOUSE AND GARAGE. (see also historic photograph WV-237-13) - Parsons Nursery, Fernow Experimental Forest Residence, South side of U.S. Route 219, Parsons, Tucker County, WV

  4. 56. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 192627, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1926-27, by Harrington, Howard, and Ash, Consulting Engineers, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department, Jefferson City, Missouri. 671 FT. SPAN, SPECIAL FEATURES FOR SPAN 1 - Cape Girardeau Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River at State Highway 146, Cape Girardeau, Cape Girardeau County, MO

  5. 36 CFR 902.31 - Access, inspection and copying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Access, inspection and... Access, inspection and copying. (a) Records listed in § 902.30(a), are available for inspection and..., Washington, DC 20004. Facilities for inspection and copying shall be open to the public every workday....

  6. 13. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, dated August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, dated August 1914, from blueprint copy in possession of Utah County Engineering office, Provo, Utah. JORDAN RIVER BRIDGE ON NORTH BOUNDARY, SECTION 12T5S, R1W (SIDE AND END VIEWS) - Jordan Narrows Bridge, Crossing Jordan River at 9600 North, Lehi, Utah County, UT

  7. 57. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 192627, by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. Photographic copy of the original construction drawing, 1926-27, by Harrington, Howard, and Ash, Consulting Engineers, from microfilm copy at Bridge Division, Missouri Highway and Transportation Department, Jefferson City, Missouri. NAME PLATE - Cape Girardeau Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River at State Highway 146, Cape Girardeau, Cape Girardeau County, MO

  8. 47 CFR 3.25 - Number of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Application Procedures § 3.25 Number of copies. One original and one copy of FCC Form 44, “Application For Certification As An Accounting... application forms will be considered. Applications should be mailed at least 90 days prior to...

  9. 39. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, dated June 1911 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, dated June 1911 (from paper-copy of aperture-card negative at Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Regional Office, Boise, ID). SECOND FLOOR PLAN. - Boise Project, Boise Project Office, 214 Broadway, Boise, Ada County, ID

  10. 40. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, dated June 1911 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, dated June 1911 (from paper-copy of aperture-card negative at Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Regional Office, Boise, ID). ROOF PLAN. - Boise Project, Boise Project Office, 214 Broadway, Boise, Ada County, ID

  11. 45. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, dated 16 February ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, dated 16 February 1916 (from paper-copy of aperture-card negative at Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Regional Office, Boise, ID). LOT SURVEY. - Boise Project, Boise Project Office, 214 Broadway, Boise, Ada County, ID

  12. 42. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, dated June 1911 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, dated June 1911 (from paper-copy of aperture-card negative at Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Regional Office, Boise, ID). EAST ELEVATION (EAST SIDE) AND SOUTH ELEVATION (SOUTH SIDE). - Boise Project, Boise Project Office, 214 Broadway, Boise, Ada County, ID

  13. 44. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, dated August 1911 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, dated August 1911 (from paper-copy of aperture-card negative at Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Regional Office, Boise, ID). PLANS AND SECTIONS OF VAULTS. - Boise Project, Boise Project Office, 214 Broadway, Boise, Ada County, ID

  14. 41. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, dated June 1911 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, dated June 1911 (from paper-copy of aperture-card negative at Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Regional Office, Boise, ID). CROSS SECTIONS. - Boise Project, Boise Project Office, 214 Broadway, Boise, Ada County, ID

  15. 37. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, dated June 1911 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, dated June 1911 (from paper-copy of aperture-card negative at Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Regional Office, Boise, ID). BASEMENT PLAN. - Boise Project, Boise Project Office, 214 Broadway, Boise, Ada County, ID

  16. 43. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, dated June 1911 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, dated June 1911 (from paper-copy of aperture-card negative at Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Regional Office, Boise, ID). NORTH ELEVATION (NORTH SIDE) AND WEST ELEVATION (WEST SIDE). - Boise Project, Boise Project Office, 214 Broadway, Boise, Ada County, ID

  17. 38. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, dated June 1911 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photographic copy of original construction drawing, dated June 1911 (from paper-copy of aperture-card negative at Bureau of Reclamation, Pacific Northwest Regional Office, Boise, ID). FIRST FLOOR PLAN. - Boise Project, Boise Project Office, 214 Broadway, Boise, Ada County, ID

  18. 51. Photocopy of copy of original Officers' Duplex Quarters drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Photocopy of copy of original Officers' Duplex Quarters drawing by B.S. Elliott, 7 April 1932 (original in possession of Veterans Administration, Wichita, Kansas, copy at Ablah Library, Wichita State University). Plumbing - Veterans Administration Center, Officers Duplex Quarters, 5302 East Kellogg (Legal Address); 5500 East Kellogg (Common Address), Wichita, Sedgwick County, KS

  19. 29 CFR 2570.51 - Public inspection and copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Public inspection and copies. 2570.51 Section 2570.51 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Prohibited Transaction Exemption Applications § 2570.51 Public inspection and copies. (a) The...

  20. 29 CFR 2570.51 - Public inspection and copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Public inspection and copies. 2570.51 Section 2570.51 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Prohibited Transaction Exemption Applications § 2570.51 Public inspection and copies. (a) The...