Science.gov

Sample records for copying foreign policies

  1. Morality and Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissinger, Henry

    1985-01-01

    Morality as an enduring element in United States foreign policy is discussed. In order to strengthen the steady purpose and responsible involvement of the American people, human rights policy must be presented in the context of a realistic assessment of world affairs. (RM)

  2. Foreign Policy: A Campaign Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2008-01-01

    Presidential campaigns are usually eager to provide mind-numbingly detailed domestic-policy proposals. When it comes to foreign policy, however, campaigns often prefer to operate on the plane of generality and gesture. In the absence of blueprints, journalists and tea-leaf readers scrutinize the foreign-policy advisers attached to each candidate:…

  3. Global Health and Foreign Policy

    PubMed Central

    Feldbaum, Harley; Lee, Kelley; Michaud, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention to select global health issues. However, there has been less examination of the tensions that characterize the relationship between global health and foreign policy and of the potential effects of linking global health efforts with the foreign-policy interests of states. In this paper, the authors review the relationship between global health and foreign policy by examining the roles of health across 4 major components of foreign policy: aid, trade, diplomacy, and national security. For each of these aspects of foreign policy, the authors review current and historical issues and discuss how foreign-policy interests have aided or impeded global health efforts. The increasing relevance of global health to foreign policy holds both opportunities and dangers for global efforts to improve health. PMID:20423936

  4. Biotechnology's foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Feldbaum, Carl

    2002-01-01

    From its inception, biotechnology has been a uniquely international enterprise. An American and an Englishman working together elucidated the structure of DNA almost 50 years ago; more recently, the Human Genome Project linked researchers around the world, from the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston to the Beijing Human Genome Center. Today our industry's researchers hail from African villages and Manhattan high rises; from Munich and Melbourne; from London, Ontario, and London, England; from Scotland and Nova Scotia--New Scotland; from Calcutta and Calgary. But in the beginning, the infrastructure that supported these efforts--intellectual property, venture capital, streamlined technology transfer--was less widely dispersed and the world's brightest biotech researchers clustered in only half a dozen scientific Meccas. Previous technological revolutions have spread around the world. Following in their footsteps, biotechnology's global diaspora seems inevitable, especially since governments are promoting it. But as our science and business emigrate from early strongholds in the United States, Canada and Europe across oceans and borders and into new cultures, international tensions over biotechnology continue to grow. In just the last few years, controversies have rolled over R&D spending priorities, genetic patents, bioprospecting, transgenic agriculture and drug pricing. My premise today is that our industry needs to formulate its first foreign policy, one which is cognizant of the miserable judgments and mistakes of other industries--and avoids them. PMID:12402751

  5. 22 CFR 92.79 - Procuring copies of foreign public documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procuring copies of foreign public documents... foreign public documents. (a) Nature of services. When requested to do so by United States citizens or by... foreign officials copies of birth, death, and marriage certificates, or copies of other public...

  6. Educational Policy in Foreign Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Barbara, Ed.

    Five talks given at a seminar on educational policy in foreign countries are presented in this document. The first contends that while schools established for Americans abroad tend to be isolated from the local community for several reasons, opportunities for extended cultural interchange exist and should be used. The second examines the nature of…

  7. Human Rights and Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Jeane J.

    1984-01-01

    United States foreign policy should serve moral goals. The U.S. identity is inextricably involved with the Constitution and with the ethos expressed by and through it. Moral purpose is, therefore, indissolubly involved with our conception of national identity. (RM)

  8. Foreign Students: Developing Institutional Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert B.

    1987-01-01

    The academic sector must demonstrate its awareness of the implications of international educational exchange on particular disciplines, the quality of U.S. academic institutions amd on their economic health, the economic and social conditions of surrounding communities, and U.S. foreign policies. (MLW)

  9. 77 FR 24452 - Foreign Ownership Policies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... related to national security, law enforcement, foreign policy and trade policy. Foreign Participation... U.S. trade policy, explain their positions in detail and provide support for their conclusions. In..., www.bcpiweb.com ; telephone: (800) 378-3160, fax: (202) 488-5563; (2) James Ball, Chief,...

  10. U. S. Foreign Policy and South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierce, Milfred C.

    1987-01-01

    Maintains that United States foreign policy toward South Africa has been "found wanting" since 1948. Focuses on the failure of President Reagan's policy of "constructive engagement," and details what must be done to bring about an end to apartheid. (JDH)

  11. Bridging the Gap: Pracademics in Foreign Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Ann Marie; Fulda, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    In his seminal work "Bridging the Gap: Theory and Practice in Foreign Policy", Alexander George (1993) lamented the great divide between academia and the foreign policymaking community, arguing that greater interaction between scholars and policymakers would produce better policy. We share George's belief that scholars and practitioners each have…

  12. American Students' Perceptions of American Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Robert N.

    The perception of typical U.S. college students toward the Reagan administration's foreign policy is that it is based on the principle that Communism must be stopped at any cost. Students' beliefs are defined according to their reactions to specific U.S. foreign policy initiatives. Three areas have aroused considerable campus reaction and…

  13. Restructuring of Soviet foreign policy

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, A.

    1988-03-01

    Viewed historically, current Soviet attitudes toward foreign affairs, which suggest a more realistic Soviet adaptation to the international environment, may be interpreted as confirmation of a patient Western policy combining military strength and political flexibility. Ironically, many of the contemporary Soviet statements on mutual security and interdependence echo prevailing Western views of the early 1970s. In response to a series of aggressive projections of political-military power by the Soviets in the mid-to-late 1970s which culminated in the invasion of Afghanistan, the West - and especially the United States - quickly shed this rhetoric and downplayed arms control and collaborative security approaches. While the West remains transfixed by a late-1970s image of Soviet power, the Soviets are adopting approaches comparable to those widespread in the West in the early 1970s. To break this cycle, both sides must adapt creatively to the break that Gorbachev is making with important aspects of the Soviet past. The West can test the seriousness of Soviet initiatives by encouraging Moscow to continue developing negotiable proposals and practical approaches to issues of common security. 5 references

  14. Reagan's Foreign Policy: An Assessment (I) Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Whittle

    1990-01-01

    Examines the relationship between former U.S. President Ronald Reagan's foreign policy and those of his predecessors. Focuses on the differences between Reagan's policies and those of former U.S. President Jimmy Carter. Analyzes Reagan's policies of containment, human rights, and arms control. Discusses criticisms launched against Reagan's…

  15. FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM POLICY. (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Language Association of America, New York, NY.

    IN THE HOPE THAT FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS MIGHT DISCUSS THEM AT PROFESSIONAL MEETINGS, THE MODERN LANGUAGE ASSOCIATION HAS RELEASED THESE POLICY STATEMENTS FORMULATED TO GOVERN THE CONDUCT OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAMS. FOLLOWING A REFERENCE TO THE VALUE OF ACQUIRING NOT ONLY THE LANGUAGE SKILLS BUT ALSO A DEEPER UNDERSTANDING OF LANGUAGE AND…

  16. The Criticism of Foreign Policy Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Robert P.

    This survey of the state-of-the-art of research in international relations suggests that principles of sound argumentation can apply to major decisions in foreign policy. An analysis and critique of policy arguments regarding the Cuban Missile Crisis, the China-Korea-Vietnam embroilment, and the reestablishment of diplomatic relations with…

  17. 22 CFR 92.79 - Procuring copies of foreign public documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... pay for copies of or extracts from foreign public records obtained at the request of private persons... documents, and express willingness to supply documents gratis in analogous circumstances, the consular... authorities should be informed that they must pay the charges of the foreign officials, as well as any...

  18. Recent Foreign Language Education Policies in Palestine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amara, Muhammad Hasan

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the development of foreign language education policies in Palestine at a time when the establishment of a Palestinian state has become a real option, and when, following the Oslo agreements, the Palestinians have become responsible for Palestinian education. (Author/VWL)

  19. U.S. Foreign Policy Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pell, Claiborne

    1983-01-01

    The three highest priorities for American foreign policy are avoiding nuclear war by working with the Soviet leadership to alter our present collision course, demonstrating our commitment to human rights throughout the world, and ensuring American economic prosperity by strengthening exports and ensuring the stability of the international monetary…

  20. 22 CFR 40.33 - Foreign policy. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign policy. 40.33 Section 40.33 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Security and Related Grounds § 40.33 Foreign policy....

  1. Foreign Policy Choices for Americans: A Nonpartisan Guide for Voters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepli, Nancy L., Ed.; And Others

    Eighteen foreign policy topics are presented in this book to provide voters, officeholders, candidates, students, and teachers with background information, facts, and U.S. foreign policies. A fact list, historical background information, current administration policy, and policy alternatives are described for most of these topics. Part 1 discusses…

  2. Great Decisions 1988: Foreign Policy Issues Facing the Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepli, Nancy, Ed.

    Eight selected U.S. foreign policy issues are explored in this study and discussion guide. Issue 1, "U.S. Foreign Policy: Projecting U.S. Influence," describes United States involvement in diplomacy, military power, intelligence, trade, and foreign aid since World War II. U.S.-Mexico relations are considered in issue 2, "Mexico and the United…

  3. Foreign Students and Government Policy: Britain, France, and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Alice

    The impact of European government policy on the movement of foreign students in Great Britain, France, and West Germany is discussed by a member of the American Council on Education Committee on Foreign Students. Foreign student enrollments have increased dramatically in these three countries in the 1960s and 1970s, and foreign students also make…

  4. Globalisation, health and foreign policy: emerging linkages and interests

    PubMed Central

    Owen, John Wyn; Roberts, Olivia

    2005-01-01

    A discussion of the growing links between the issues of globalisation, health and foreign policy. This article examines the effect this has on health, development and foreign policy communities in the UK and internationally and considers what steps the policy community must take to address the challenges and opportunities of this new relationship. PMID:16053520

  5. 78 FR 34702 - Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office STATE DEPARTMENT Foreign..., 5 U.S.C. App., the Department of State announces a meeting of the Foreign Affairs Policy Board to take place on July 15, 2013, at the Department of State, Washington, DC. The Foreign Affairs...

  6. 78 FR 51266 - Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Foreign..., 5 U.S.C. App., the Department of State announces a meeting of the Foreign Affairs Policy Board to take place on September 9, 2013, at the Department of State, Washington, DC. The Foreign Affairs...

  7. Global health in foreign policy--and foreign policy in health? Evidence from the BRICS.

    PubMed

    Watt, Nicola F; Gomez, Eduardo J; McKee, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Amidst the growing literature on global health, much has been written recently about the Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa (BRICS) countries and their involvement and potential impact in global health, particularly in relation to development assistance. Rather less has been said about countries' motivations for involvement in global health negotiations, and there is a notable absence of evidence when their motivations are speculated on. This article uses an existing framework linking engagement in global health to foreign policy to explore differing levels of engagement by BRICS countries in the global health arena, with a particular focus on access to medicines. It concludes that countries' differing and complex motivations reinforce the need for realistic, pragmatic approaches to global health debates and their analysis. It also underlines that these analyses should be informed by analysis from other areas of foreign policy. PMID:24072881

  8. 21 CFR 20.65 - National defense and foreign policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false National defense and foreign policy. 20.65 Section 20.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Exemptions § 20.65 National defense and foreign policy. (a) Records or information...

  9. 21 CFR 20.65 - National defense and foreign policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false National defense and foreign policy. 20.65 Section 20.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Exemptions § 20.65 National defense and foreign policy. (a) Records or information...

  10. 21 CFR 20.65 - National defense and foreign policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false National defense and foreign policy. 20.65 Section 20.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Exemptions § 20.65 National defense and foreign policy. (a) Records or information...

  11. 21 CFR 20.65 - National defense and foreign policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false National defense and foreign policy. 20.65 Section 20.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Exemptions § 20.65 National defense and foreign policy. (a) Records or information...

  12. 21 CFR 20.65 - National defense and foreign policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false National defense and foreign policy. 20.65 Section 20.65 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Exemptions § 20.65 National defense and foreign policy. (a) Records or information...

  13. Personality Traits and Foreign Policy Attitudes in German Public Opinion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoen, Harald

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the effects of personality traits on attitudes toward foreign policy issues among the German public. Building on previous research, it argues that personality characteristics shape an individual's motivation, goals, and values, thereby providing criteria to evaluate external stimuli and affecting foreign policy opinions. An…

  14. Health in All (Foreign) Policy: challenges in achieving coherence.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Ronald

    2014-06-01

    Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach is generally perceived as an intersectoral approach to national or sub-national public policy development, such that health outcomes are given full consideration by non-health sectors. Globalization, however, has created numerous 'inherently global health issues' with cross-border causes and consequences, requiring new forms of global governance for health. Although such governance often includes both state and non-state (private, civil society) actors in agenda setting and influence, different actors have differing degrees of power and authority and, ultimately, it is states that ratify intergovernmental covenants or normative declarations that directly or indirectly affect health. This requires public health and health promotion practitioners working within countries to give increased attention to the foreign policies of their national governments. These foreign policies include those governing national security, foreign aid, trade and investment as well as the traditional forms of diplomacy. A new term has been coined to describe how health is coming to be positioned in governments' foreign policies: global health diplomacy. To become adept at this nuanced diplomatic practice requires familiarity with the different policy frames by which health might be inserted into the foreign policy deliberations, and thence intergovernmental/global governance negotiations. This article discusses six such frames (security, trade, development, global public goods, human rights, ethical/moral reasoning) that have been analytically useful in assessing the potential for greater and more health-promoting foreign policy coherence: a 'Health in All (Foreign) Policies' approach. PMID:25217356

  15. Identifying geoscience knowledge likely to affect foreign policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelmelis, J. A.

    2006-12-01

    The earth sciences play an important role in foreign policy and have done so throughout history. Whether it is access to resources, knowledge of weather or other earth system conditions, planning for or responding to disasters, protecting the environment, facilitating transportation and communication, or any of a number of other important topics, the geosciences continue to inform our decision making. The importance of science, technology, and health (STH) is being increasingly recognized in the foreign policy community. The National Research Council (NRC) recommended that the Department of State (State) expand its scientific base to address the importance of STH issues. In part, this consists of increasing the number of scientists within State. Another important aspect is not only identifying the STH issues that are of current concern, but also the issues that will be of importance in the future. A number of studies funded by the U.S. Government have identified some important STH areas of concern at a high level. These provide a basis for more in-depth investigations. However, there are additional phenomena, beyond those identified in the studies, which have foreign policy implications. The scientific findings may be well known to scientists but their foreign policy importance is not always obvious. The scientific and foreign policy communities could improve their dialog to better develop strategies for foreign policy and future scientific research. One way to help facilitate that is to ease identification of scientific issues with potential significance to foreign policy and to clarify uncertainties around those issues. A qualitative method relating the likelihood that the scientific finding has foreign policy importance to the potential level of foreign policy importance has been used to clarify the significance of a variety of scientific findings including Arctic warming, methane hydrates, atmospheric dust, disease, and natural hazards. From a foreign policy

  16. Framing health and foreign policy: lessons for global health diplomacy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Global health financing has increased dramatically in recent years, indicative of a rise in health as a foreign policy issue. Several governments have issued specific foreign policy statements on global health and a new term, global health diplomacy, has been coined to describe the processes by which state and non-state actors engage to position health issues more prominently in foreign policy decision-making. Their ability to do so is important to advancing international cooperation in health. In this paper we review the arguments for health in foreign policy that inform global health diplomacy. These are organized into six policy frames: security, development, global public goods, trade, human rights and ethical/moral reasoning. Each of these frames has implications for how global health as a foreign policy issue is conceptualized. Differing arguments within and between these policy frames, while overlapping, can also be contradictory. This raises an important question about which arguments prevail in actual state decision-making. This question is addressed through an analysis of policy or policy-related documents and academic literature pertinent to each policy framing with some assessment of policy practice. The reference point for this analysis is the explicit goal of improving global health equity. This goal has increasing national traction within national public health discourse and decision-making and, through the Millennium Development Goals and other multilateral reports and declarations, is entering global health policy discussion. Initial findings support conventional international relations theory that most states, even when committed to health as a foreign policy goal, still make decisions primarily on the basis of the 'high politics' of national security and economic material interests. Development, human rights and ethical/moral arguments for global health assistance, the traditional 'low politics' of foreign policy, are present in discourse but do

  17. Framing health and foreign policy: lessons for global health diplomacy.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Ronald; Gagnon, Michelle L

    2010-01-01

    Global health financing has increased dramatically in recent years, indicative of a rise in health as a foreign policy issue. Several governments have issued specific foreign policy statements on global health and a new term, global health diplomacy, has been coined to describe the processes by which state and non-state actors engage to position health issues more prominently in foreign policy decision-making. Their ability to do so is important to advancing international cooperation in health. In this paper we review the arguments for health in foreign policy that inform global health diplomacy. These are organized into six policy frames: security, development, global public goods, trade, human rights and ethical/moral reasoning. Each of these frames has implications for how global health as a foreign policy issue is conceptualized. Differing arguments within and between these policy frames, while overlapping, can also be contradictory. This raises an important question about which arguments prevail in actual state decision-making. This question is addressed through an analysis of policy or policy-related documents and academic literature pertinent to each policy framing with some assessment of policy practice. The reference point for this analysis is the explicit goal of improving global health equity. This goal has increasing national traction within national public health discourse and decision-making and, through the Millennium Development Goals and other multilateral reports and declarations, is entering global health policy discussion. Initial findings support conventional international relations theory that most states, even when committed to health as a foreign policy goal, still make decisions primarily on the basis of the 'high politics' of national security and economic material interests. Development, human rights and ethical/moral arguments for global health assistance, the traditional 'low politics' of foreign policy, are present in discourse but do

  18. Human Rights and Foreign Policy. Headline Series 241.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Charles

    A discussion is presented of the meaning of human rights, implications of human rights for foreign policy, and obstacles to its realization on a global scale. Chapter I identifies human rights as a critical issue, commends President Carter's initiative in this area, and points out difficulties of implementing a human rights policy. Chapter II…

  19. A Foreign Policy for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Albert, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Presents 1988 Democratic presidential candidate, Albert Gore, Jr.'s views about the future direction of U.S. foreign policy. Discusses the U.S. role as leader of the Western world and Gore's policies for dealing with allies and the Soviet Union, while maintaining U.S. respect and power. (GEA)

  20. China's nuclear agenda and the implications for United States foreign policy. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Olmo, E.D.

    1993-09-01

    This thesis covers the history of China's nuclear development and examines the changes in its nuclear policies over the past three decades. It examines the issues of China's nuclear and defense strategies, nuclear and defense policies, arms transfers policies, proliferation policies and its foreign policies. Implications for American foreign policy vis-a-vis China's evolving nuclear status are discussed.

  1. Alternative American foreign policy for Ukraine. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.G.

    1993-06-01

    American policy makers have largely ignored Ukraine in their global policy planning. This lack of consideration shows a neglect of the potential for conflict in Eastern Europe. American foreign policy toward Ukraine, that is rooted in the START and NPT Treaties, is doomed to fail, and will actually sow the seeds of chaos, unless the United States: (1) comes to understand the motivations that drive Ukrainian foreign policy, and (2) facilitate significant positive alterations to the security and economic environment that has developed since the breakup of the Soviet Union. This thesis examines Western security goals and analyzes the current means available to achieve those goals. The contention of this thesis is that present Western policy pursuits will lead to a regenerated authoritarian Russian superpower that will be a threat to the security of Ukraine and Europe. The potentially dangerous consequences of an authoritarian Russia could be avoided by facilitating the development of a strong and stable Ukraine to act as a balance to Russian power in Eastern Europe. United States, Ukraine, Foreign policy, Nuclear arms negotiations, Economic aid, Russia.

  2. Health and foreign policy: an American view.

    PubMed

    Cahill, K M

    1997-10-01

    Health and humanitarian complications of conflicts and disasters are, increasingly, the bases for international intervention. Concerns about widespread starvation, the spread of epidemic diseases, and a whole range of human-rights violations are now central factors in foreign affairs. Emphasising health issues can offer an innovative approach to the resolution of apparently intractable problems. Identifying the common concerns, of even the most bitter enemies, can provide an initial basis for dialogue and lead to diplomatic initiatives. Further, the methodology of public health and the metaphors of medicine provide a needed structure for a new era in post-Cold-War international relations; this would include an emphasis on preventive diplomacy that, the author argues, is as essential for the United States as it is for the United Nations. PMID:9625928

  3. A Brief Introduction to Foreign Languages Education Policy in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Weiwen

    2012-01-01

    Based on a series of official published documents and relevant research reports, the paper make a brief introduction to foreign languages education policies in China, which included national English teaching guidance, national English language textbooks, national English curriculum standard and the massive English teachers training program, etc.…

  4. Foreign Policy News in the 1980 Presidential Election Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stovall, James Glen

    A survey was conducted to determine the extent and content of newspaper coverage of foreign policy issues in the 1980 United States presidential campaign. Fifty daily newspapers from every region of the country were selected randomly based on circulation. A list of 757 news events was divided into party and nonparty events, and the party events…

  5. Personality Variables in Foreign Policy Decision Making Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karen S.

    Described and critiqued are studies that attempt to describe how personality factors affect foreign policy decision making. Political behavior cannot be explained in terms of personality alone. Such an attempt is a psychological reductionism that ignores the chains of causation that run from underlying personality construct to social and political…

  6. Global health diplomacy: advancing foreign policy and global health interests.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Josh; Kates, Jennifer

    2013-03-01

    Attention to global health diplomacy has been rising but the future holds challenges, including a difficult budgetary environment. Going forward, both global health and foreign policy practitioners would benefit from working more closely together to achieve greater mutual understanding and to advance respective mutual goals. PMID:25276514

  7. Great Decisions 1989. Foreign Policy Issues Facing the Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepli, Nancy L., Ed.

    This briefing book provides the only material needed to participate in the 1989 Great Decisions national non-partisan program of volunteer run discussions on U.S. foreign policy issues for classrooms and community groups. Everyone who participates in the program is invited to fill out the opinion ballots provided in the back of the book; the…

  8. Great Decisions 1990: Foreign Policy Issues Facing the Nation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepli, Nancy L., Ed.

    The 1990 Great Decisions program, part of an annual series on foreign policy issues, is intended to create better better public understanding through information and analyses of important international issues. Current information is presented so that participants may be stimulated toward discussion, form opinions and contribute to the policy…

  9. Morality and Foreign Policy. A Symposium on President Carter's Stance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefever, Ernest W., Ed.

    This monograph contains a critical examination of President Carter's view on ethics and foreign policy as expressed in his commencement speech at Notre Dame University on May 22, 1977. The book is organized into three parts. Part 1 contains Mr. Carter's speech entitled, "Power for Humane Purposes." Part 2 contains nine responses to the speech:…

  10. [Xenophobia in Austria? Attitudes toward migration, foreign population, and the state's policy on foreigners].

    PubMed

    Holzer, W; Munz, R

    1995-01-01

    "At present some 700,000 foreigners (almost 9% of the total population) are living in Austria, about 280,000 of which are in the labor market. A representative sample of Austrians between 20 and 54 years [of age] were asked about their attitudes toward foreign population and migration policy." The findings indicate that various degrees of higher tolerance were correlated with being young, male, urban, living in a province with a high foreign population, and high socioeconomic status. "Stepping up the integration of the foreign population...is supported by a minority of Austrians only; as for the education of the children of immigrants, the Austrian attitude is a more generous one." (EXCERPT) PMID:12321137

  11. Challenges : adopting GIS for diplomacy and foreign policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Carol

    Foreign policy and diplomacy are, by definition, location specific. GIS-related tools can be useful to decision makers and problem solvers to merge diverse data that impinges on policy issues. While to a degree, such technologies have been adopted for natural disaster response, security, and environmental studies, widespread adoption of GIS into policy tasks has been slow. Decision makers and nonexperts are reluctant to assimilate new tools into old cultures because of a number of hurdles. Yet clearly, information sharing would be advantageous and allow visualization of information and situations in a more productive environment. This presentation will touch upon some of the challenges and stimulate discussion.

  12. 49 CFR 801.51 - National defense and foreign policy secrets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National defense and foreign policy secrets. 801... defense and foreign policy secrets. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(1), national defense and foreign policy secrets established by Executive Order, as well as properly classified documents, are exempt from...

  13. 49 CFR 801.51 - National defense and foreign policy secrets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false National defense and foreign policy secrets. 801... defense and foreign policy secrets. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(1), national defense and foreign policy secrets established by Executive Order, as well as properly classified documents, are exempt from...

  14. 49 CFR 801.51 - National defense and foreign policy secrets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National defense and foreign policy secrets. 801... defense and foreign policy secrets. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(1), national defense and foreign policy secrets established by Executive Order, as well as properly classified documents, are exempt from...

  15. 49 CFR 801.51 - National defense and foreign policy secrets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false National defense and foreign policy secrets. 801... defense and foreign policy secrets. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(1), national defense and foreign policy secrets established by Executive Order, as well as properly classified documents, are exempt from...

  16. 20 CFR 703.105 - Copies of forms of policies to be submitted with application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Copies of forms of policies to be submitted with application. 703.105 Section 703.105 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED STATUTES...

  17. 20 CFR 703.105 - Copies of forms of policies to be submitted with application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Copies of forms of policies to be submitted with application. 703.105 Section 703.105 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED STATUTES INSURANCE REGULATIONS Authorization of...

  18. 20 CFR 703.105 - Copies of forms of policies to be submitted with application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Copies of forms of policies to be submitted with application. 703.105 Section 703.105 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED STATUTES...

  19. 20 CFR 703.105 - Copies of forms of policies to be submitted with application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Copies of forms of policies to be submitted with application. 703.105 Section 703.105 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED STATUTES...

  20. The Soviet Breakup and U.S. Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Allen

    1991-01-01

    This issue of a quarterly publication on world affairs explores the historical significance of the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the implication for U.S. foreign policy. With the breakup of the USSR in 1990-91, Russia for the first time this century does not have control over the non-Russian nations of its former empire in Central Asia,…

  1. Teaching Foreign Policy in the Post-Cold War Era. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graseck, Susan

    This ERIC Digest discusses issues relating to teaching about U.S. foreign policy in the changing international environment following the end of the Cold War era and the disintegration of the Soviet Union. The document treats: (1) the need and rationale for teaching and learning about current foreign policy issues; (2) main themes in foreign policy…

  2. World population growth, family planning, and American foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, J

    1995-01-01

    The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of

  3. 76 FR 65472 - Review of Foreign Ownership Policies for Common Carrier and Aeronautical Radio Licensees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... protect important interests related to national security, law enforcement, foreign policy, and trade... Filing System (ECFS). See Electronic Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (1998... security, law enforcement, foreign policy, and trade policy. The NPRM does not address Commission...

  4. [On the formulation of TCM foreign exchange policy after the reform and opening-up].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingfang; Zhu, Jianping

    2015-03-01

    The foreign exchange activities of traditional Chinese medicine are conducted under the guidance of the policy of the CPC and Chinese government. After the carrying out of the reform and opening-up policy, foreign exchange policy of TCM has experienced the process of growing up from nothing, from less to more, and from coarse to fine, which is closely related to our country's foreign policy, the cause of Chinese medicine development, and urgent need of international communication. In the three decades after the reform and opening-up policy, the formulation of foreign exchange policy of TCM can be divided into three stages: viz., inclusion in the framework of national foreign policy (1978-1985), embodiment in the policy of developing TCM cause (1986-1996), and appearance in the special policy of foreign exchange of Chinese medicine (since 1997). From the development process of these policies, the development of each policy gradually complies with the process of the development of the times, with its contents basically in line with the requirements of the times. The implementation of some policies promotes the foreign exchanges and cooperation of Chinese medicine. PMID:26420412

  5. Health imperatives in foreign policy: the case of Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, Simon; Phua, Kai-Lit

    2007-03-01

    Malaysia's global, regional and bilateral international health relations are surveyed against the historical backdrop of the country's foreign policy. Malaysia has always participated in multilateral agencies, most notably the World Health Organization, as such agencies are part of the longstanding fabric of "good international citizenship". The threats of infectious diseases to human health and economic activity have caused an intensification and an organizational formalization of Malaysian health diplomacy, both regionally and bilaterally. Such diplomacy has also established a basis for developing a wider set of cooperative relationships that go beyond responding to the threat of pandemics. As Malaysia approaches "developed" status, its health sector is becoming increasingly integrated into the global economy through joint research and development ventures and transnational investment. At the same time, it will have the technological, financial and human resources to play an expanded altruistic role in global and regional health. PMID:17486215

  6. 45 CFR 5.62 - Exemption one: National defense and foreign policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exemption one: National defense and foreign policy. 5.62 Section 5.62 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... defense and foreign policy. We are not required to release records that, as provided by FOIA, are...

  7. 77 FR 38126 - Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App Sec. 10(a)(2), the Department of State announces a meeting of the Foreign Affairs Policy Board to take...

  8. The Public Looks at Foreign Policy: A Report from Five Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, John P.; Holm, John D.

    The document examines the American public stand on foreign policy and explores the extent of citizen support for six basic foreign policy orientations--anti-Communism, internationalism, democracy, isolationism, interventionism, and self-interest. The extent of public support within these orientations among subgroups in the populace is also…

  9. American Foreign Policy for the '80s: A Voter's Guide to the Facts and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Wallace, Jr., Ed.; And Others

    The purpose of this guide is to provide voters, officeholders, and candidates with background information on major foreign policy issues so that they can follow the 1980 presidential debates and reach their own informed conclusions. Thirteen major foreign policy topics are covered. The material is written in telegraphic style to get the essential…

  10. U.S. Foreign Policy: Illusions of Powerlessness and Realities of Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Harlan

    The foreign policy of the United States has not taken into consideration the dynamics of world politics and the kinds of power required to participate in it. Foreign policy makers need a post-Kissinger, post-Brzezinski doctrine that corrects the distorted focus on U.S.-Soviet relations as on our central problem, accepts the inherent linkage…

  11. Television and U.S. Foreign Policy: The Case of the Iran Hostage Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, James F.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews three major roles identified for the press in the foreign policy process: observer, participant, and catalyst. Claims that these roles circumscribe the structural relationship of media to foreign policy and provide a framework for some general propositions against which the particulars of the Iran case may be interpreted. (JD)

  12. The Public Controversy Over the Panama Canal Treaties: An Analysis of American Foreign Policy Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollihan, Thomas A.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the public rhetoric created during the debate over the Panama Canal treaties. Examines three foreign policy dramas that emerged: Cold War, New World Order, and Power Politics. Argues that these dramas provide insight into how foreign policy rhetoric reflects Americans' conceptions of themselves and their global responsibility. (JD)

  13. 26 CFR 46.4371-4 - Records required with respect to foreign insurance policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Records required with respect to foreign... with respect to foreign insurance policies. (a) Each person required under the provisions of § 46.4374... the tax with respect to such policy was paid....

  14. 32 CFR Appendix F to Part 197 - Procedures for Copying of Documents for the Foreign Relations of the United States Series

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for Copying of Documents for the Foreign Relations of the United States Series F Appendix F to Part 197 National Defense Department of... THE FILES OF THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (OSD) Pt. 197, App. F Appendix F to Part...

  15. 78 FR 41314 - Review of Foreign Ownership Policies for Common Carrier and Aeronautical Radio Licensees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... trade policy. DATES: Effective August 9, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Susan O'Connell or James... station licensee. In the First Report and Order in this docket (77 FR 50628, August 22, 2012) the... consistent with national security, law enforcement, foreign policy, and trade policy concerns. Under the...

  16. Globalisation and the Political Economy of Singapore's Policy on Foreign Talent and High Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Linda

    2002-01-01

    Faced with an aging population, economic restructuring, and cyclical economic change, Singapore's government adopted flow-through policy of bringing in foreign capital, technology, and workers. The challenges of balancing the delicate sociopolitical compact between foreign talent and local skills are increasingly complex. (Contains 32 references.)…

  17. Foreign Policy Communication Dramas: How Mediated Rhetoric Played in Peoria in Campaign '76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cragan, John F.; Shields, Donald C.

    A message-centered dramatistic theory of communication was used in conjunction with Q-sort technique and factor analysis to build and test a message-centered foreign-policy inventory that contained three dramatic interpretations of U.S. involvement in foreign affairs: cold war, power politics, and neo-isolationism. Analysis of results from two…

  18. The Conduct of United States Foreign Policy in the Nation's Third Century. Headline Series. No. 231.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Bayless

    This Headline Series, focusing on U.S. foreign policy, is adapted from a series of four lectures by the author delivered at the Claremont University Center in April 1975. Part one discusses the 1973 Mideast oil embargo and the impact of the crisis on future U.S. foreign relations. Especially affected are questions of interdependence, raw…

  19. 78 FR 44028 - Review of Foreign Ownership Policies for Common Carrier and Aeronautical Radio Licensees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... 10, 2013 (78 FR 41314). The document issued final rules that apply to foreign ownership of common... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2013-15314 appearing on page 41314 in the Federal Register of Wednesday... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 1 Review of Foreign Ownership Policies for Common Carrier and Aeronautical...

  20. 77 FR 13383 - Foreign Affairs Policy Board Meeting Notice; Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office STATE DEPARTMENT Foreign... Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. App. 10(a)(2), the Department of State announces a meeting of the Foreign Affairs Policy Board to take place on March 19, 2012, at the Department of State, Washington, DC....

  1. Lessons from History: Defining Moments in the American Presidency and Foreign Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claunch, Ann

    2008-01-01

    For much of American history, political leaders have stood by a principle that "politics stops at the water's edge." While political disagreements about domestic policies are seen as inevitable and even healthy, there has been a tradition of trying to avoid partisan disagreements over foreign policy. As a result, intense disagreements over foreign…

  2. Oslo Ministerial Declaration--global health: a pressing foreign policy issue of our time.

    PubMed

    2007-04-21

    Under their initiative on Global Health and Foreign Policy, launched in September, 2006, in New York, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Brazil, France, Indonesia, Norway, Senegal, South Africa, and Thailand issued the following statement in Oslo on March 20, 2007-In today's era of globalisation and interdependence there is an urgent need to broaden the scope of foreign policy. Together, we face a number of pressing challenges that require concerted responses and collaborative efforts. We must encourage new ideas, seek and develop new partnerships and mechanisms, and create new paradigms of cooperation. We believe that health is one of the most important, yet still broadly neglected, long-term foreign policy issues of our time. Life and health are our most precious assets. There is a growing awareness that investment in health is fundamental to economic growth and development. It is generally acknowledged that threats to health may compromise a country's stability and security. We believe that health as a foreign policy issue needs a stronger strategic focus on the international agenda. We have therefore agreed to make impact on health a point of departure and a defining lens that each of our countries will use to examine key elements of foreign policy and development strategies, and to engage in a dialogue on how to deal with policy options from this perspective. As Ministers of Foreign Affairs, we will work to: increase awareness of our common vulnerability in the face of health threats by bringing health issues more strongly into the arenas of foreign policy discussions and decisions, in order to strengthen our commitment to concerted action at the global level; build bilateral, regional and multilateral cooperation for global health security by strengthening the case for collaboration and brokering broad agreement, accountability, and action; reinforce health as a key element in strategies for development and for fighting poverty, in order to reach the

  3. International Education as Soft Power? The Contributions and Challenges of Canadian Foreign Policy to the Internationalization of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trilokekar, Roopa Desai

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the role of the Canadian federal government in two foreign policy areas: overseas development assistance and international cultural relations by providing a brief history of the federal government's engagement in both policy areas and highlighting the contributions and challenges of Canadian foreign policy to the…

  4. Global health diplomacy: barriers to inserting health into Canadian foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Runnels, Vivien; Labonté, Ronald; Ruckert, Arne

    2014-01-01

    Health opportunities and risks have become increasingly global in both cause and consequence. Governments have been slow to recognise the global dimensions of health, although this is beginning to change. A new concept - global health diplomacy (GHD) - has evolved to describe how health is now being positioned within national foreign policies and entering into regional or multilateral negotiations. Traditionally, health negotiations have been seen as 'low politics' in international affairs: however, attention is now being given to understanding better how health can increase its prominence in foreign policy priorities and multilateral forums. We sought to identify how these efforts were manifested in Canada, with a focus on current barriers to inserting health in foreign policy. We conducted individual interviews with Canadian informants who were well placed through their diplomatic experience and knowledge to address this issue. Barriers identified by the respondents included a lack of content expertise (scientific and technical understanding of health and its practice), insufficient diplomatic expertise (the practice and art of diplomacy, including legal and technical expertise), the limited ways in which health has become framed as a foreign policy issue, funding limitations and cuts for global health, and lack of cross-sectoral policy coordination and coherence, given the important role that non-health foreign policy interests (notably in trade and investment liberalisation) can play in shaping global health outcomes. We conclude with some reflections on how regime change and domestic government ideology can also function as a barrier to GHD, and what this implies for retaining or expanding the placement of health in foreign policy. PMID:25005028

  5. Policies and Procedures for Foreign Exchange Agencies. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Donald D.

    The guide details the policy of the Jefferson County (Alabama) Board of Education policy concerning international exchange of students (travel both to and from United States) in elementary and secondary grades. The first section specifies the standards by which the county will evaluate all international exchange agencies concerning structure,…

  6. Cosmopolitanism and foreign policy for health: ethics for and beyond the state

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Foreign policy holds great potential to improve the health of a global citizenship. Our contemporary political order is, in part, characterized by sovereign states acting either in opposition or cooperation with other sovereign states. This order is also characterized by transnational efforts to address transnational issues such as those featured so prominently in the area of global health, such as the spread of infectious disease, health worker migration and the movement of health-harming products. These two features of the current order understandably create tension for truly global initiatives. Discussion National security has become the dominant ethical frame underlying the health-based foreign policy of many states, despite the transnational nature of many contemporary health challenges. This ethical approach engages global health as a means to achieving national security objectives. Implicit in this ethical frame is the version of humanity that dichotomizes between “us” and “them”. What has been left out of this discourse, for the most part, is the role that foreign policy can play in extending the responsibility of states to protect and promote health of the other, for the sake of the other. Summary The principal purpose of this paper is to review arguments for a cosmopolitan ethics of health-based foreign policy. I will argue that health-based foreign policy that is motivated by security interests is lacking both morally and practically to further global health goals. In other words, a cosmopolitan ethic is not only intrinsically superior as a moral ideal, but also has potential to contribute to utilitarian ends. This paper draws on the cosmopolitanism literature to build robust support for foreign policies that contribute to sustainable systems of global health governance. PMID:23829176

  7. National Opinion Ballot Report, October 1993. Results of National Opinion Survey on U.S. Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norpoth, Helmut

    This publication reports on the results of 35,793 high school participants in the Foreign Policy Association's 1993 study and discussion program focusing on opinions about U.S. foreign policy. The topics highlighted in the research include: (1) the U.S. in a New World; (2) the United Nations; (3) Germany's role; (4) China; (5) Trade; (6) Russian…

  8. A Policy of Inclusion: Alternative Foreign Language Curriculum for High-Risk and Learning-Disabled Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritikin, Lorin

    As an alternative to waiving foreign language requirements for students with learning disabilities or learning problems, a policy of inclusion in foreign language programs is proposed, based on research suggesting that alternative language teaching methods can be effective with these populations. The rationale for such a policy and the theoretical…

  9. 45 CFR 5.62 - Exemption one: National defense and foreign policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption one: National defense and foreign policy. 5.62 Section 5.62 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION FREEDOM OF INFORMATION REGULATIONS Reasons for Withholding Some Records § 5.62 Exemption one:...

  10. 49 CFR 801.51 - National defense and foreign policy secrets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National defense and foreign policy secrets. 801.51 Section 801.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Exemption From Public Disclosure § 801.51...

  11. Policies and Practices in Foreign Language Writing at the College Level: Survey Results and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Mary E.

    2007-01-01

    This article contains results from an online survey that asked 66 college-level language program directors of French, German, and Spanish in (he United States about policies and procedures governing foreign language writing at their respective institutions. Survey categories included (1) general Information, (2) Information regarding practices and…

  12. Simulating the Foreign Policy Decision-Making Process in the Undergraduate Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loggins, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation of the foreign policy decision-making process, as described in this article, can assist an instructor in linking students' abstract understanding of complex political events, circumstances, and decision making to the real-world interplay of the multiple factors involved in decision making. It is this type of active learning that helps…

  13. Guide to Manuscripts and Archives and the American Foreign Policy Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaddy, Robert Alan

    This guide describes the holdings in the manuscript collections, the university archives, and the American Foreign Policy Center, all of which are located in Louisiana Tech University's Prescott Memorial Library. The guide is divided into three sections. The first section, "Manuscript Collections," presents descriptions of 197 collections of…

  14. "New York Times" Editorial Position and the U.S. Foreign Policy: The Case of Iran.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malek, Abbas

    A study examined the similarity or dissimilarity between the "New York Times'" editorial position on Iran and Iranian affairs and the official United States foreign policy towards Iran as reflected in the "Department of State Bulletin" for the period of 1968-1981. Each piece was categorized by major category and sub-category by three coders who…

  15. English Language Ideologies in the Chinese Foreign Language Education Policies: A World-System Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Lin

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the Chinese state's English language ideologies as reflected in official Chinese foreign language education policies (FLEP). It contends that the Chinese FLEP not only indicate a way by which the state gains consent, maintains cultural governance, and exerts hegemony internally, but also shows the traces of the combined…

  16. The Impact of Foreign Policy on Educational Exchange: The Swedish State Scholarship Programme 1938-1990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Åkerlund, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Programmes of international educational exchange are not only carried out for educational purposes, but form an important part of modern-day public diplomacy. Through exchange programmes education and research are linked with foreign policy interests, which then in turn should affect the international contacts of universities and research…

  17. Policy solutions to address the foreign-educated and foreign-born health care workforce in the United States.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peggy G; Auerbach, David I; Muench, Ulrike; Curry, Leslie A; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2013-11-01

    Foreign-educated and foreign-born health workers constitute a sizable and important portion of the US health care workforce. We review the distribution of these workers and their countries of origin, and we summarize the literature concerning their contributions to US health care. We also report on these workers' experiences in the United States and the impact their migration has on their home countries. Finally, we present policy strategies to increase the benefits of health care worker migration to the United States while mitigating its negative effects on the workers' home countries. These strategies include attracting more people with legal permanent residency status into the health workforce, reimbursing home countries for the cost of educating health workers who subsequently migrate to the United States, improving policies to facilitate the entry of direct care workers into the country, advancing efforts to promote and monitor ethical migration and recruitment practices, and encouraging the implementation of programs by US employers to improve the experience of immigrating health workers. PMID:24191079

  18. 'Cold reality in the land of fire': The interrelations of Azerbaijan's natural gas export and foreign policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marosvari, Csaba

    Azerbaijan, a landlocked post-Soviet country since its independence has been trying to utilize its energy resources in its foreign policy. With production-sharing agreements with Western oil companies beginning with the 1994 signing of the "Contract of the Century" and the construction of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline Azerbaijan successfully opened up its energy sector for foreign investment and used pipelines to stabilize its economy and underpin its foreign policy. The discovery of the Shah Deniz gas field opened up new opportunities for Baku to buttress its foreign policy goals with the export of natural gas. In this Master's thesis I will evaluate and show the importance and significance of natural gas export in Azerbaijani foreign policy.

  19. Soviet perceptions of the oil factor in US foreign policy: the Middle East-Gulf region

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    The goal of this book is to understand Moscow's convictions regarding recent events in the Middle East-Persian Gulf region and the motivations underlying US policy there. It identifies and analyzes the Soviet view of how America's energy problem has influenced US-Soviet relations in that area. Some attention also goes to the implications for American policy in the region. Key topics include Soviet perceptions of American foreign policy aims, US goals in the Middle East, US-Iranian relations during the Shah's region and after his fall, and the negative aspects of the energy problems for Moscow. Some speculative remarks are made regarding likely future directions of Soviet policies and the implications of such policies for the US. 95 references.

  20. Great Decisions '82: Impartial Background and Analysis of Eight of the Most Important Foreign Policy Issues Facing the U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepli, Nancy L.; And Others

    This study and discussion guide covers eight major U.S. foreign policy issues. It is designed to help high school and college level students and adults understand the complexities of foreign policy issues and to articulate their own informed opinions. Sponsored nationally by the nonpartisan Foreign Policy Association and now in its 28th year, the…

  1. Gazprom and Russia: The economic rationality of Russian foreign energy policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaloudis, Stergos Carl Thornton

    Charges of imperialism underpinned by coercive economic tactics are some of the accusations leveled against Vladimir Putin's foreign energy policy during his presidential tenure. However, after the traditional policies of coercion failed to secure Russian interests in Europe during the 1990's, this dissertation argues Putin adopted a radically different approach upon his rise to the Presidency. Driven by public demand to continue the domestic subsidization of natural gas and realizing that the chief avenue for securing revenue was in gas sales to Europe, this project suggests that Putin developed a new foreign energy policy approach meant to secure Russian interests. This transformation was accomplished by the Presidential Administration's efforts during Putin's tenure to bring the Russian natural gas monopoly, Gazprom, under its control. Dubbed Persuasive Politics, this paradigm suggests that the foreign energy policies of the Presidential Administration and Gazprom during Putin's tenure were underpinned by the rational economic argument that the only route to Russian resurgence in the medium term was through profitable economic relations with the European states. To test this theoretical approach the author employs a case study analysis of Russian relations with the European Union member state Greece as well as the non-EU state of Ukraine. The intent is to identify how a mutually beneficial relationship was constructed to persuade both governments through the utilization of economic inducements that cooperation with Russia in the natural gas sphere was in their own best interest.

  2. Understanding the cost bases of Space Shuttle pricing policies for commercial and foreign customers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Barbara A.

    1984-01-01

    The principles and underlying cost bases of the 1977 and 1982 Space Shuttle Reimbursement Policies are compared and contrasted. Out-of-pocket cost recovery has been chosen as the base of the price for the 1986-1988 time period. With this cost base, it is NASA's intent to recover the total cost of consumables and the launch and flight operations costs added by commercial and foreign customers over the 1986-1988 time period. Beyond 1988, NASA intends to return to its policy of full cost recovery.

  3. Past Fame, Present Frames and Future Flagship? An Exploration of How Health is Positioned in Canadian Foreign Policy

    PubMed Central

    Labonté, Ronald; Runnels, Vivien; Gagnon, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Canada has been regarded as a model global citizen with firm commitments to multilateralism. It has also played important roles in several international health treaties and conventions in recent years. There are now concerns that its interests in health as a foreign policy goal may be diminishing. This article reports on a thematic analysis of key Canadian foreign policy statements issued over the past decade, and interviews with key informants knowledgeable of, or experienced in the interstices of Canadian health and foreign policy. It finds that health is primarily and increasingly framed in relation to national security and economic interests. Little attention has been given to human rights obligations relevant to health as a foreign policy issue, and global health is not seen as a priority of the present government. Global health is nonetheless regarded as something with which Canadian foreign policy must engage, if only because of Canada’s membership in many United Nations and other multilateral fora. Development of a single global health strategy or framework is seen as important to improve intersectoral cooperation on health issues, and foreign policy coherence. There remains a cautious optimism that health could become the base from which Canada reasserts its internationalist status. PMID:24977037

  4. Past Fame, Present Frames and Future Flagship? An Exploration of How Health is Positioned in Canadian Foreign Policy.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Ronald; Runnels, Vivien; Gagnon, Michelle

    2012-06-01

    Canada has been regarded as a model global citizen with firm commitments to multilateralism. It has also played important roles in several international health treaties and conventions in recent years. There are now concerns that its interests in health as a foreign policy goal may be diminishing. This article reports on a thematic analysis of key Canadian foreign policy statements issued over the past decade, and interviews with key informants knowledgeable of, or experienced in the interstices of Canadian health and foreign policy. It finds that health is primarily and increasingly framed in relation to national security and economic interests. Little attention has been given to human rights obligations relevant to health as a foreign policy issue, and global health is not seen as a priority of the present government. Global health is nonetheless regarded as something with which Canadian foreign policy must engage, if only because of Canada's membership in many United Nations and other multilateral fora. Development of a single global health strategy or framework is seen as important to improve intersectoral cooperation on health issues, and foreign policy coherence. There remains a cautious optimism that health could become the base from which Canada reasserts its internationalist status. PMID:24977037

  5. A brief history of the Commission on Graduates of Foreign Nursing Schools: shaping policy through collaboration.

    PubMed

    O'Day, Veronica

    2007-01-01

    In the late 1960s many foreign nurses arriving in New York City were unable to pass the New York State Board licensing examination. In this article, the author explains how a group of leaders and organizations proceeded systematically to address this problem through effective policy development. The process is presented from the establishment of a local program to meet the needs of this group of nurses to the creation of a national commission to oversee issues encountered by professionals seeking employment in the United States. Today, the Commission on Graduates of Foreign Nursing Schools is recognized worldwide as an authority on the education, registration, and licensure of nurses and other healthcare professionals. PMID:17941612

  6. 77 FR 4807 - Revised Fee Policy for Acceptance of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel From High-Income...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel'' (61 FR 25092, May... FR 26507, May 28, 1996). The policy was subsequently revised only to address the question of how... SNF is shipped would affect the fee charged for participation (64 FR 18006, April 13, 1999)....

  7. In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkasian, Mark; Davidson, Louise K.

    With the improvement of U.S.-Soviet relations in recent years, there is much reason to take a fresh look at U.S. foreign policy. This unit provides secondary students with an opportunity to examine U.S. policy toward the Caribbean and Central America. Composed of four chapters, the first chapter examines the economic and military concerns that…

  8. Foreign policy matters: a normative view of the G8 and population health.

    PubMed

    Labonte, Ronald; Schrecker, Ted

    2007-03-01

    The Group of Eight (G8) countries occupy a dominant position in the international economic and political order. Given what is known about influences on the social determinants of health in an interconnected world, the G8 are a logical starting point for any enquiry into the relations between foreign policy and health. We first make five arguments for adopting an explicitly normative, equity-oriented perspective on the performance of G8 policy in areas related to population health. We then examine G8 performance with respect to the crucial policy triad of development assistance, debt relief and trade, finding that neither rhetoric nor promising institutional innovation has been matched by resources commensurate with demonstrated levels of need. We conclude that it is necessary to pursue advocacy efforts based on the normative perspective we have put forward and that doing so effectively requires further investigation of why some policies are more receptive than others to policies of redistribution both within and outside their borders. PMID:17486209

  9. The sources of foreign policy: The Carter administration and NATO nuclear forces, 1977-80

    SciTech Connect

    Auger, V.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Carter administration entered office committed to the goal of reducing the United States; dependence on nuclear weaponry. This was especially clear in the administration's initial policy towards NATO and the defense of Western Europe. In retrospect, however, what is striking is the degree to which nuclear forces and strategy dominated the Carter administration's policymaking efforts regarding NATO. Decisions about enhanced radiation warheads (or neutron bombs) and long-range theater nuclear forces (ground-launched cruise missiles and Pershing 2 ballistic missiles) created divisions within the alliance and complicated the administration's attempts to control domestic debate over its foreign and defense policies. How did this reversal of emphasis occur Most examinations of this policy change have focused on the existence of a new Soviet threat to Europe or the alliance politics of NATO to explain the dramatic turnabout in American policy. This thesis argues that a close examination of US domestic political factors significantly enhances our understanding of why the Carter administration arrived at the policy decisions it made concerning US theater nuclear forces in Europe.

  10. Soviet perceptions of the oil factor in U. S. foreign policy: The Middle East-Gulf Region

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    How Soviet leaders perceive U.S. intentions, capabilities, and actions plays an important role in the formulation of the Soviet Union's foreign policy and its relations with the United States. This book focuses on one such set of Soviet perceptions - how the oil factor and subsequent developments have influenced U.S. policy in the Middle East-Gulf region and what the implications of that policy are for the Soviet Union.

  11. US foreign policy and the Baltic states. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Shuey, K.A.

    1996-03-01

    This thesis examines U. S. foreign policy toward the Baltic states from 1918 to 1991 to determine if the U.S. has been realistic in its dealings with small nations. An analysis of U.S. policy indicates that the United States acts hypocritically by accepting compromises on the very moral principals to which it claims to be the protectorate of when domestic political costs are high. The sacrifice of national values degrades the credibility of the moral high ground necessary for U.S. policy. This study reviews the events that occurred during the three major periods in U.S.-Baltic relations: The initial period of Baltic independence following World War I; the Soviet annexation of the Baltics during World War II: and finally the beginning of the second period of Baltic independence during the breakup of the Soviet Union. In all three cases U.S. policy was unclear and contradictory. The Baltic case provides a good example of the tendency for U.S. policy to be paradoxical and ineffective. This study concludes that despite the U.S. policy of nonrecognition of the Soviet annexation of the Baltic states during the Cold War, the United States failed to adhere to its principals when given the opportunity. In the process, it also neglected problems within its borders that required attention perhaps more urgently than those outside. The tendency for U.S. policy to ignore the issues that actually threaten its security internally and placing a higher priority on external matters that do not have a real impact on its standing could likely lead to its inadvertent downfall.

  12. Oil and diplomacy: the evolution of American foreign policy in Saudi Arabia, 1933-1945

    SciTech Connect

    Casillas, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    This study examines the transformation of American foreign policy in Saudi Arabia between the years 1933 and 1945. At the beginning of this period American-Saudi relations were negligible. However, by the end of World War II in 1945, American policy-makers had concluded that the Saudi Kingdom was a nation vital to America's long-term economic and strategic interests. This remarkable official about face was the result of several factors including the potential of Saudi Arabian oilfields, the shifting priorities of Washington policy-makers and the lobbying efforts of a Saudi-based American commercial concern, the Arabian American Oil Company (ARAMCO). ARAMCO entered Saudi Arabia in 1933. As the only all-American oil concession in the Middle East they feared European, especially British, interference in their operations. To forestall this possibility, real or imagined, the oilmen turned to Washington for help. Although official assistance was not immediately forthcoming, ARAMCO did find support in the Near Eastern Affairs Division (NEA) of the Department of State.

  13. A Survey of Policy Changes: Foreign Students in Public Institutions of Higher Education from 1983 to 1985. IEE Research Report No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, William J., Jr.

    Changes in foreign student services and tuition and admission policies affecting foreign students from 1983 to 1985 were surveyed at 681 public colleges and universities. With annual percentage increases below 1%, most colleges had stable (42%) or declining (30%) foreign enrollment since 1983. A third of the schools did not maintain foreign…

  14. Political conservatism, rigidity, and dogmatism in American foreign policy officials: the 1966 Mennis data.

    PubMed

    Kemmelmeier, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Researchers have established a relationship between political orientation and cognitive styles (A. Chirumbolo, 2002; J. T. Jost, J. Glaser, A. W. Kruglanski, & F. Sulloway, 2003a, 2003b; M. Kemmelmeier, 1997). In this article, the author examined whether this finding is true in the political elite, whether the relationship is linear or curvilinear, and whether interest in politics moderates the relationship between political orientation and cognitive styles. He used a 1966 sample of American foreign policy officials (N = 95) to examine the relationship between self-described conservatism and party identification and individual differences in rigidity and dogmatism. Rigidity was related to self-described conservatism, but this relationship was only significant among participants high in political interest, whereas dogmatism was unconditionally related to party identification. All relationships were linear and did not contain a curvilinear component. PMID:17312688

  15. Network-based study on the relationship between arms exports and foreign policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xing; Zhao, Ru-lan; Zhang, Zi-ke; Zhao, Jing

    2016-02-01

    According to the data of arms exports of the top 20 largest arms exports countries in 1993-2012, an arms exports network is constructed to study the relationship of the exporters. Then the topological properties of the network and its minimal spanning tree are calculated to weigh the influence and importance of a country in all exporters, and the time evolution of the properties. It turns out that the properties fluctuate with the time. Consequently, the correlations of the arms exporters are discussed with the recipients during and after the wars. Besides, a time delayed network is constructed. The correlations of the exporters with time lag are discussed by filtering the time delayed network in different ways. The interactions between the exporters are visualized after filtering. This study may shed new light on how arms exports reflect foreign policies.

  16. In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy. Teacher's Resource Book. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkasian, Mark; Davidson, Louise K.

    This teacher's resource book is designed to be used with "In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy," which was written to help high school students to weigh important U.S. foreign policy issues. The resource book includes eight lessons. Lessons 3-6 focus specifically on the dimension of the triangular…

  17. In Search of Consensus: Role Versus Belief Systems in Bureaucratic Bargaining. An American Foreign Policy Simulation (AFPS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Heidi H.; Moreno, Dario V.

    Reported are results from two runs of the simulation "Bureaucratic Bargaining," developed to help students understand the inherent tension between roles and belief systems in American foreign policy decision making. To determine their belief systems, 165 students enrolled in an introductory international relations course were tested with a…

  18. The Role of the United States in a Changing World. A Curriculum Unit on Foreign Policy Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Center for Foreign Policy Development.

    This 3- to 5-day currriculum unit for secondary students centers around four possible directions for U.S. foreign policy during the 1990s. Designed as a culminating exercise at the end of the year or as an introductory activity to open the semester, this unit, and the possible futures it presents, should be thought of as a vehicle for guiding…

  19. Research Self-Efficacy Sources and Research Motivation in a Foreign Language University Faculty in Mexico: Implications for Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes-Cruz, María del Rosario; Perales-Escudero, Moisés Damián

    2016-01-01

    The research self-efficacy and motivation of foreign language (FL) faculty in periphery countries is under-researched, yet there is a need to understand the impact of public policies that drive such faculty to conduct research. This paper reports a qualitative case study investigating research self-efficacy and research motivation in a group of…

  20. A Citizen's Guide to U.S. Foreign Policy: Election '88. Nonpartisan Briefs on 18 Key Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepli, Nancy, Ed.; And Others

    In order to make informed voting decisions citizens need background information on complex foreign policy issues facing the United States. This guide presents current issues and provides information to help citizens cast a thoughtful vote. The guide is divided into six main headings: Leadership; Security; Economic and Social Issues; Critical…

  1. "The CNN Effect:" TV & Foreign Policy. Study Guide. Episode #834. America's Defense Monitor, Educational TV for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, B. T.

    This program examines the current acceleration of the decision-making cycle in the conduct of foreign policy due to the instantaneous reporting of events, called "The CNN Effect." The sometimes paradoxical consequences of global media coverage are noted, along with the examination of the medium of television itself, and its shortcomings in…

  2. Misleading and dangerous: the use of the precautionary principle in foreign policy debates.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Alan; McLean, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Recent scholarly research has suggested that the Bush Administration embraced the Precautionary Principle (PP) to formulate its policy on Iraq before the coalition invasion in 2003. The article below challenges this argument. Demonstrating the Bush Administration's antipathy--and at times hostility--to the PP in environmental politics, the article outlines the similarities and differences between usage of the PP in foreign policy debates on the one hand, and the established risk strategies of pre-emption and prevention on the other. The article examines the Bush Administration's reaction to Saddam's alleged weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programme by drawing on earlier conceptual work of the PP in international affairs: an acceptance of the limits of the usefulness of intelligence assessments; an openness to alternative solutions; proportionality of response; and reversing the onus of persuasion. Based on these four strands the article argues that the Bush Administration's decision to invade Iraq was based less on the PP and more on the idea of fighting a preventive war. PMID:20411855

  3. Sustainable development as an organizing principle for US foreign policy: Opportunities and enduring constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, J.F.

    1995-07-01

    The disintegration of the Soviet Union has dramatically changed the international topography. Bipolar international relations have given way to a multipolar world wherein the United States is the only true superpower as gauged by both economic and military might. The decline of the Soviet Union has removed an important stabilizing force in international politics and a critical organizing principle for American Foreign Policy -- namely, the containment of international communism. The Soviet Union`s dismantlement has created opportunities for both cooperation and conflict. It means that increasingly cooperative relations between Russia and the United States have reduced the threat of nuclear war while intensifying regional political instability among present and former allies and former client states. Without the Soviet threat more resources are available to restore the nation`s transportation, communications, and industrial infrastructure, clean up the environment, and to develop technologies that promise to increase US economic competitiveness while minimizing environmental impacts. Internationally, there should be additional resources to promote international economic growth, to preserve natural environments, and to build democratic institutions in developing nations.

  4. 22 CFR 401.13 - Copies required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Copies required. 401.13 Section 401.13 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND CANADA RULES OF PROCEDURE Applications § 401.13 Copies required. (a) Subject to paragraph (c) of this section, two duplicate originals and fifty...

  5. 22 CFR 401.13 - Copies required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Copies required. 401.13 Section 401.13 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL JOINT COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND CANADA RULES OF PROCEDURE Applications § 401.13 Copies required. (a) Subject to paragraph (c) of this section, two duplicate originals and fifty...

  6. 36 CFR 1256.100 - What is the copying policy for USIA audiovisual records that either have copyright protection or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... copied as follows: (a) USIA audiovisual records prepared for dissemination abroad that NARA determines... audiovisual records prepared for dissemination abroad that NARA determines may have copyright protection or.... (c) If NARA determines that a USIA audiovisual record prepared for dissemination abroad may...

  7. How sustainable is Japan's foreign aid policy? An analysis of Japan's official development assistance and funding for energy sector projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hideka

    Japan has adopted a sustainable development strategy since the late 1980s in the effort to address social and environmental damages caused by past Japan-funded projects in partner nations. Even after about a decade and a half of the policy implementation, however, there are few reports which critically examine effects of the adoption of the idea of sustainable development. This dissertation evaluates Japan's foreign aid policy to determine the extent to which new revisions of aid policy have improved the environmental sustainability of the policy. This dissertation reviews the mainstream idea of sustainable development (also known as the sustainable development paradigm in this dissertation) to reveal the nature of the idea of sustainable development that Japan's foreign aid policy depends on. A literature review of two development discourses---modernization theory and ecological modernization theory---and three types of critiques against the sustainable development paradigm---focused on adverse impacts of modern science, globalization, and environmental overuse---reveals core logics of and problems with the sustainable development paradigm. Japan's foreign aid policy impacts on energy sector development in recipient countries is examined by means of a quantitative analysis and a qualitative analysis. Specifically, it examines the effect of Japan's ODA program over fifteen years that proposed to facilitate sustainable development in developing countries. Special emphasis is given to investigation of ODA disbursements in the energy sector and detailed case studies of several individual energy projects are performed. The dissertation discovers that the sustainable development paradigm guiding Japan's ODA has little capacity to accomplish its goals to bring about social and ecological improvement in developing countries. This dissertation finds three fundamental weaknesses in Japanese ODA policy on energy sector development as well as the sustainable development

  8. 22 CFR 1429.25 - Number of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Number of copies. 1429.25 Section 1429.25 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL... AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General Requirements § 1429.25 Number of copies. Unless otherwise provided...

  9. 22 CFR 1429.25 - Number of copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Number of copies. 1429.25 Section 1429.25 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL... AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS General Requirements § 1429.25 Number of copies. Unless otherwise provided...

  10. Chopping Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Don

    1994-01-01

    Discusses ways an editor can cut out words to help the reader understand quickly. Discusses dead wood, redundancy, redundancy in thought, smothered verbs, false precision, editing and academia, and making copy smoother. (SR)

  11. In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy. Teacher's Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkasian, Mark; Davidson, Louise K.

    With the improvement of U.S.-Soviet relations in recent years, there is much reason to take a fresh look at U.S. foreign policy. This teacher's resource book is designed to accompany a unit that provides high school students with an opportunity to examine U.S. policy toward the Caribbean and Central America. Composed of four chapters, the first…

  12. An Analysis of U.S. Foreign Direct Investment Policy and Economic Development. A.I.D. Discussion Paper No. 36.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergsten, C. Fred; De Castro, Bruce

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze U.S. policies toward financial investment in developing nations. The paper is presented in two sections. In section I, the controversial effects of direct foreign investment on development are discussed. Case studies of investment policies toward India, the Philippines, Ghana, Guatemala, and Argentina are…

  13. 77 FR 50628 - Review of Foreign Ownership Policies for Common Carrier and Aeronautical Radio Licensees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... Public Notice in this docket (77 FR 24452, April 24, 2012) inviting comment on the legal and policy... Collins or Susan O'Connell, Policy Division, International Bureau, FCC, (202) 418-1460 or via the Internet... approach, the approval process will be consistent with the Commission's policy framework for...

  14. Foreign investment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    This report focuses on the effects of foreign direct investment in the United States. GAO examines foreign investment in four industries: baking, where possible control over bank lending is of concern; petroleum, where questions about increased dependence on foreign oil have arisen; chemicals, where the foreign-owned share of U.S. assets is among the highest of all industry sectors; and biotechnology, an emerging sector of potentially strategic commercial importance. In this report, GAO spells out the policy concerns in each sector, identifies the data available to analyze these concerns, and evaluates the concerns.

  15. Crafting AIDS policy in Brazil and Russia: State-civil societal ties, institutionalised morals, and foreign policy aspiration.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2016-10-01

    During the 1990s, Brazil and Russia diverged in their policy response to AIDS. This is puzzling considering that both nations were globally integrated emerging economies transitioning to democracy. This article examines to what extent international pressures and partnerships with multilateral donors motivated these governments to increase and sustain federal spending and policy reforms. Contrary to this literature, the cases of Brazil and Russia suggest that these external factors were not important in achieving these outcomes. Furthermore, it is argued that Brazil's policy response was eventually stronger than Russia's and that it had more to do with domestic political and social factors: specifically, AIDS officials' efforts to cultivate a strong partnership with NGOs, the absence of officials' moral discriminatory outlook towards the AIDS community, and the government's interest in using policy reform as a means to bolster its international reputation in health. PMID:27564438

  16. 21 CFR 1312.14 - Distribution of copies of import permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... importation, and shall transmit the original copy (Copy 1) to the foreign exporter. The foreign exporter will... port of importation, date prepared, name and net quantity of each substance, and report of analysis...

  17. 21 CFR 1312.14 - Distribution of copies of import permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... importation, and shall transmit the original copy (Copy 1) to the foreign exporter. The foreign exporter will... port of importation, date prepared, name and net quantity of each substance, and report of analysis...

  18. 21 CFR 1312.14 - Distribution of copies of import permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... importation, and shall transmit the original copy (Copy 1) to the foreign exporter. The foreign exporter will... port of importation, date prepared, name and net quantity of each substance, and report of analysis...

  19. 21 CFR 1312.14 - Distribution of copies of import permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... importation, and shall transmit the original copy (Copy 1) to the foreign exporter. The foreign exporter will... port of importation, date prepared, name and net quantity of each substance, and report of analysis...

  20. 21 CFR 1312.14 - Distribution of copies of import permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... importation, and shall transmit the original copy (Copy 1) to the foreign exporter. The foreign exporter will... port of importation, date prepared, name and net quantity of each substance, and report of analysis...

  1. Policy Direction and Development Trends for Sino-Foreign Partnership Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    This paper details the background and substance of the "Regulations of the People's Republic of China on Chinese-Foreign Cooperation in Running Schools." It specifies both the contributions and limitations of the regulations for the sound development of such schools. At a time when international cooperation in running schools is intensifying,…

  2. Spanish Only for Foreign Language in the Elementary School (FLES): Competing Discourses in Local Language Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubota, Ryuko; Catlett, Shawna

    2008-01-01

    Teaching Spanish has become increasingly popular in the United States due to demographic shifts. This study focuses on a Spanish-only initiative for an existing Foreign Language in the Elementary School (FLES) program proposed by a southeastern public school district's school board. It analyzes discourses underlying the policymakers' rationales…

  3. Global Change and Africa: Implications for U.S. Policy. Report of the Strategy for Peace, U.S. Foreign Policy Conference (30th, Warrenton, Virginia, October 19-21, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Kathy, Comp.; And Others

    The Stanley Foundation annually assembles a panel of experts from the public and private sectors to assess specific foreign policy issues and to recommend future directions. The round-table discussion summarized in this report focused on the future of Africa and the changing global context of U.S. policy toward Africa. While the Cold War has…

  4. Woodrow Wilson's hidden stroke of 1919: the impact of patient-physician confidentiality on United States foreign policy.

    PubMed

    Menger, Richard P; Storey, Christopher M; Guthikonda, Bharat; Missios, Symeon; Nanda, Anil; Cooper, John M

    2015-07-01

    World War I catapulted the United States from traditional isolationism to international involvement in a major European conflict. Woodrow Wilson envisaged a permanent American imprint on democracy in world affairs through participation in the League of Nations. Amid these defining events, Wilson suffered a major ischemic stroke on October 2, 1919, which left him incapacitated. What was probably his fourth and most devastating stroke was diagnosed and treated by his friend and personal physician, Admiral Cary Grayson. Grayson, who had tremendous personal and professional loyalty to Wilson, kept the severity of the stroke hidden from Congress, the American people, and even the president himself. During a cabinet briefing, Grayson formally refused to sign a document of disability and was reluctant to address the subject of presidential succession. Wilson was essentially incapacitated and hemiplegic, yet he remained an active president and all messages were relayed directly through his wife, Edith. Patient-physician confidentiality superseded national security amid the backdrop of friendship and political power on the eve of a pivotal juncture in the history of American foreign policy. It was in part because of the absence of Woodrow Wilson's vocal and unwavering support that the United States did not join the League of Nations and distanced itself from the international stage. The League of Nations would later prove powerless without American support and was unable to thwart the rise and advance of Adolf Hitler. Only after World War II did the United States assume its global leadership role and realize Wilson's visionary, yet contentious, groundwork for a Pax Americana. The authors describe Woodrow Wilson's stroke, the historical implications of his health decline, and its impact on United States foreign policy. PMID:26126405

  5. Debtor States and the World Market: Explaining Mexican and Brazilian Foreign Economic Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayle, Dennis John

    The ways in which world market instabilities affect indebted developing countries and explanations of their differential policy responses are the central issues addressed in this paper. The development of Brazil and Mexico is examined as examples of middle-income developing nations whose economies have assumed dependent development. Dependent…

  6. The Potential of Applying Judeo-Christian Ethics to Tax Policy in Foreign Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamill, Susan Pace

    2008-01-01

    This article extends the author's previous domestic analysis of tax policy and education finance under the moral principles of Judeo-Christian ethics to the international arena, beginning with an examination of the English-speaking OECD countries, which are the most economically and culturally similar to the United States. Although the tax and…

  7. English for University Administrative Work: English Officialization Policy and Foreign Language Learning Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jeongyeon; Choi, Jinsook

    2014-01-01

    This study examines how the English officialization policy of higher education in an EFL context interplays with administrative workers' motivational orientations towards English learning. The data consisted of questionnaire responses of 117 administrative members with undergraduate degrees and qualitative interviews with 9 who answered the…

  8. Central America: Current Crisis and Future Prospects. Foreign Policy Association Headline Series, No. 271.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, Jorge I.; Lindenberg, Marc

    One of a series of booklets on world issues, this document summarizes some of the salient aspects of Central America with special attention given to Nicaragua and El Salvador. The booklet identifies the interests, policies, and choices of the major actors in the drama that engulfs the region and, increasingly, much of the world. Chapter one…

  9. What Should Be the Future Direction of the Foreign Policy of the United States?: National Debate Topic for High Schools, 1979-1980, Pursuant to Public Law 88-246.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Congressional Research Service.

    This book provides information on the 1979-80 national high school debate topic (United States foreign policy). The volume begins with a group of articles selected to provide an overview of foreign policy considerations and a general context for discussions of the three propositions within the designated topic. The book also contains sections with…

  10. Hierarchy and Community at Home and Abroad: Evidence of a Common Structure of Domestic and Foreign Policy Beliefs in American Elites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathbun, Brian C.

    2007-01-01

    Although there is increasing evidence of a relationship between domestic and foreign policy attitudes among American elites, we have less of an idea about why these sets of attitudes cohere. The answer lies in a better understanding of what we mean when we talk about "left" and "right" or "liberal" and "conservative." Drawing on the literature on…

  11. Initial Survey of Foreign Language Teaching Policies, Facilities and Methodology in the Caribbean. Linguistic Documentation for the Developing Countries: Cases, Problems, Solutions, No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Denis, Comp.

    A study sponsored by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization had the following objectives: (1) to describe and evaluate the policies, practices, facilities, and methodology of foreign language teaching in the Commonwealth Caribbean, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Suriname, the Netherlands Antilles, and Cuba; (2) to…

  12. Debt and Democracy in Latin America. U.S. Foreign Policy Conference (30th, Airlie House, Proceedings on Strategy for Peace, Warrenton, Virginia, October 19-21, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    An annual assembly of a panel of experts from the public and private sectors assessed specific foreign policy issues and recommended future direction. The oneset of the debt crisis in 1982 generated fears regarding the future of democracy in Latin America. The focus on the assembled experts was on the role of external pressures and the impact of…

  13. A Blended Learning Approach to Teaching Foreign Policy: Student Experiences of Learning through Face-to-Face and Online Discussion and Their Relationship to Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bliuc, Ana-Maria; Ellis, Robert A.; Goodyear, Peter; Piggott, Leanne

    2011-01-01

    This article presents research on students' experiences of learning through a blend of face-to-face and online discussion. The participants in our study were students enrolled in a foreign policy course at a major Australian university. Students' conceptions of learning through discussion, and their approaches to both face-to-face and online…

  14. Unanswered Questions in Colombia's Foreign Language Education Policy (Preguntas por responder en la política educativa de lenguas extranjeras en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilla Carvajal, Camilo Andrés; Tejada-Sánchez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Following the trend of much of the Western, non-English speaking world, Colombia has tirelessly strived for spreading English education in an effort to augment economic benefits. This paper aims at providing a critical account of foreign language education policy in Colombia, with special attention to English. It outlines the impact of its…

  15. Strategy for Peace 1984. The Stanley Foundation US Foreign Policy Conference Report (25th, Annapolis, Maryland, October 11-13, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    Proceedings are summarized of a conference in which 62 foreign policy professionals met to recommend strategies for peace in the areas of U.S.-Soviet competition in the Third World, space weapons and arms control, objectives of U.S. economic and security assistance, and the United States and UNESCO. Four sections focusing on each of these areas…

  16. Understanding how and why health is integrated into foreign policy - a case study of health is global, a UK Government Strategy 2008–2013

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, global health issues have become more prominent in foreign policies at the national level. The process to develop state level global health strategies is arguably a form of global health diplomacy (GHD). Despite an increase in the volume of secondary research and analysis in this area, little primary research, particularly that which draws directly on the perspectives of those involved in these processes, has been conducted. This study seeks to fill this knowledge gap through an empirical case study of Health is Global: A UK Government Strategy 2008–2013. It aims to build understanding about how and why health is integrated into foreign policy and derive lessons of potential relevance to other nations interested in developing whole-of-government global health strategies. Methods The major element of the study consisted of an in-depth investigation and analysis of the UK global health strategy. Document analysis and twenty interviews were conducted. Data was organized and described using an adapted version of Walt and Gilson’s policy analysis triangle. A general inductive approach was used to identify themes in the data, which were then analysed and interpreted using Fidler’s health and foreign policy conceptualizations and Kingdon’s multiples streams model of the policymaking process. Results The primary reason that the UK decided to focus more on global health is self-interest - to protect national and international security and economic interests. Investing in global health was also seen as a way to enhance the UK’s international reputation. A focus on global health to primarily benefit other nations and improve global health per se was a prevalent through weaker theme. A well organized, credible policy community played a critical role in the process and a policy entrepreneur with expertise in both international relations and health helped catalyze attention and action on global health when the time was right. Support

  17. 15 CFR 1180.6 - Production of additional copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production of additional copies. 1180.6 Section 1180.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade..., TECHNICAL AND ENGINEERING INFORMATION TO THE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE § 1180.6 Production...

  18. 22 CFR 65.4 - Copies of regulations to Department of State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Copies of regulations to Department of State. 65.4 Section 65.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES FOREIGN STUDENTS § 65.4 Copies of regulations to Department of State. In order to enable the Secretary of State...

  19. 22 CFR 65.4 - Copies of regulations to Department of State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Copies of regulations to Department of State. 65.4 Section 65.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES FOREIGN STUDENTS § 65.4 Copies of regulations to Department of State. In order to enable the Secretary of State...

  20. 22 CFR 65.4 - Copies of regulations to Department of State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Copies of regulations to Department of State. 65.4 Section 65.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES FOREIGN STUDENTS § 65.4 Copies of regulations to Department of State. In order to enable the Secretary of State...

  1. 22 CFR 65.4 - Copies of regulations to Department of State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Copies of regulations to Department of State. 65.4 Section 65.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES FOREIGN STUDENTS § 65.4 Copies of regulations to Department of State. In order to enable the Secretary of State...

  2. 22 CFR 65.4 - Copies of regulations to Department of State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Copies of regulations to Department of State. 65.4 Section 65.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES FOREIGN STUDENTS § 65.4 Copies of regulations to Department of State. In order to enable the Secretary of State...

  3. NASA printing, duplicating, and copying management handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This handbook provides information and procedures for the implementation of NASA policy and applicable laws and regulations relating to printing, duplicating, and copying. The topics addressed include a description of relevant laws and regulations, authorizations required, and responsible entities for NASA printing, duplicating, and copying. The policy of NASA is to ensure understanding and application of authority and responsibility on printing matters. Where necessary, the handbook clarifies the intent of basic laws and regulations applicable to NASA.

  4. Overview of International Science and Technology Policy: the federal organization. Joint hearing before the Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Committee on Science and Technology, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, May 20, 1986, No. 110

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Representatives of the State Department, Office of Science and Technology at the White House, National Science Foundation, American Association for the Advancement of Science, and Allied-Signal, Inc. testified on how international science and technology activities affect US foreign policy issues. At issue at the hearing was the development of a planning and coordination mechanism involving relevant agencies and an examination of policies using bilateral and multilateral science and technology activities to further foreign policy goals, particularly those of national security and trade. Five appendices with additional letters and responses submitted for the record follow the testimony of the five witnesses.

  5. Breaking and Entering: Copying and Copy Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westlake, Wayne; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes several commercially-available computer programs which allow users to make copies of "protected" software. Current costs, program features, and ordering information are provided for these "encryption" programs. Also describes a monthly journal (The HARDCORE Computist) which focuses on unlocking copy-protected software. (JN)

  6. Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue is devoted to discussions of early childhood policy issues. "Creating a Shared Vision: How Policy Affects Early Childhood Care and Development" (Judith L. Evans) defines policy, discusses the motivation for changing or creating national policy and the process for changing such policies, and provides a sample design for an early…

  7. Copy-left and Copy-right

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanderPlas, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Any discussion of open licensing almost invariably devolves into a debate between copy-left licenses and permissive licenses, both sides defending their views with a nearly religious fervor. Copy-left licenses, typified by the GPL family of licenses, require all derived products to maintain the open, GPL license. Permissive licenses, typified by the BSD family of licenses, do not impose such requirements. I'll briefly explore the common arguments put forth in favor of either approach, and discuss some concrete examples of where these approaches have helped or hindered the software packages that used them.

  8. Indochina Policy for the Next Administration. Report of the Strategy for Peace, US Foreign Policy Conference (29th, Warrenton, Virginia, October 13-15, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    Recommended guidelines for U.S. policy toward Cambodia, Vietnam, and Laos were developed by a bipartisan group of experts. General premises are stated first, followed by specific recommendations on how to assist in bringing about a settlement in Cambodia; how to pursue U.S. bilateral relations with Vietnam on refugees, the prisoner of war/missing…

  9. 26 CFR 46.4371-2 - Imposition of tax on policies issued by foreign insurers; scope of tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... indemnity, fidelity, or surety bond is made, continued, or renewed, if issued: (1) By a nonresident alien... section 4372(c). (b) Life insurance, sickness, and accident policies, and annuity contracts. Unless the... contract is made, continued, or renewed, if issued: (1) By a nonresident alien individual, a...

  10. (Case studies examining energy policies and strategies for water resources development): Foreign trip report, May 7--13, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, S.G.

    1989-05-24

    The traveler met with colleagues involved with Project 12.2 of the IHP of UNESCO to discuss and finalize case studies that are being prepared for a report entitled ''Case Studies Examining Energy Policies and Strategies for Water Resources Development.'' Draft case studies from the United States, Brazil, Norway, and Czechoslovakia were reviewed and discussed. The traveler was appointed editor of the final report. The traveler met with staff of the National Department of Water and Electrical Energy of the Ministry of Mines and Energy, the Secretary General of the Ministry of Mines and Energy, the Executive Secretary to the National Energy Commission of Brazil, and the newly created Brazilian Institute of the Environment. The traveler was briefed on the functions of these departments, and he briefed them on water resource activities conducted at ORNL. The traveler presented a seminar at Eletrobras (national electric utility) in Brazil on environmental research at ORNL.

  11. Strategic implications of the succession of Kim Jong IL for US foreign policy towards North Korea. Master`s thesis, 2 August 1994-2 June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    McElree, J.A.

    1995-06-02

    This study analyzes the strategic implications of the dynastic succession of Kim Jong IL for U.S. foreign policy towards North Korea. The proliferation of nuclear weapons by North Korea threatens vital U.S. interests in Northeast Asia and challenges U.S. regional and global leadership. In order to properly respond to the North Korean nuclear threat, it is essential to understand the man who will dictate North Korean actions--Kim Jong IL. The study examines Kim Jong Il`s background, training, experience, personality, leadership characteristics, and the challenges he will face. The analysis of Kim Jong IL indicates that he is a rational actor who has and will continue to act in a rational manner in pursuit of his desired ends. The framework for analysis is the Strategic Estimate Process. Alternative courses of action are developed using the four elements of national power. The study identifies the strategic implications of probable North Korean actions and recommends appropriate U.S. courses of action on the basis of feasibility, acceptability, and suitability in achieving U.S. objectives in support of U.S. interests.

  12. BRACEROS, MEXICO, AND FOREIGN TRADE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1966

    CRITICISM OF GOVERNMENTAL POLICY RESTRICTING USE OF FOREIGN CONTRACT WORKERS ON AMERICAN FARMS IN 1965 EXPRESSES THREE POSSIBILITIES -- (1) A SEVERE DISRUPTION OF DOMESTIC FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PRODUCTION, (2) AN INCREASE OF AMERICAN INVESTMENT IN FOREIGN, PARTICULARLY MEXICAN, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION, AND (3) A LOSS OF UNITED STATES EXPORT MARKET…

  13. Foreign Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Lee W.

    2006-01-01

    The admirable ideal of "total" immersion in a foreign culture privileges students who plan early on for foreign study, establish early language fluency and elect majors and activities that make it easier to leave campus. Other students often find that they lack the language skills to qualify for many foreign programs or are unable to reconcile…

  14. 22 CFR 501.1 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Policy. 501.1 Section 501.1 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS APPOINTMENT OF FOREIGN SERVICE OFFICERS § 501.1 Policy. It is the policy of the Broadcasting Board of Governors that Foreign Service Officers occupy positions in which there is a need...

  15. Copying could be costly.

    PubMed

    Allen, A

    1992-02-01

    Thanks to modern technology, photocopying is quick, easy, and inexpensive. Or is it? One of the largest awards ever made for copyright infringement was levied in a case involving the use of material copied from publications without permission. This article presents a short discussion about US and international copyright protection, fair use, and work for hire. Suggestions for additional information are offered. PMID:1735873

  16. National Foreign Language Planning: Practices and Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajavaara, Kari, Ed.; And Others

    A selection of essays on foreign language planning at the national level contains articles on the language planning process, language choice, teacher education, testing and assessment, and transnational planning. Essays include the following: "Foreign Language Teaching Policy: Some Planning Issues" (Theo J. M. van Els); "Foreign Language Planning…

  17. 10 CFR 205.307 - Form and style; number of copies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Form and style; number of copies 205.307 Section 205.307 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Electric Power System Permits and... Electric Energy to A Foreign Country § 205.307 Form and style; number of copies An original and...

  18. 69. Photographic copy of blueprint copy of original elevations drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    69. Photographic copy of blueprint copy of original elevations drawing (C. Howard Crane, Kenneth Franzheim, architects, Chicago: sheet $6, 1922). Blueprint copy located at William J. Bachman & Partners (Architects)), 5930 Hohman Avenue, Hammond, Indiana 46230, (219) 932-6006. - Indiana Hotel, 5116 Hohman Avenue, Hammond, Lake County, IN

  19. Copying Machine Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Manufacturer of the Model 2210 copying machine was looking for a plastic valve bushing material that could be produced by a low-cost injection molding process to replace the unsuitable valve bushing they were using. NERAC conducted a computer search of the NASA database and was able to supply Nashua Corporation with several technical reports in their area of interest. Information aided the company's development of a urethane valve bushing which solved the problem and created a dramatic reduction in unit cost.

  20. 37 CFR 1.55 - Claim for foreign priority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... application and within the time limit set forth in the PCT and the Regulations under the PCT. (2) The claim for priority and the certified copy of the foreign application specified in 35 U.S.C. 119(b) or...

  1. 22 CFR 707.21 - Requests for access to or copies of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requests for access to or copies of records. 707.21 Section 707.21 Foreign Relations OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS ACCESS TO AND SAFEGUARDING OF PERSONAL INFORMATION IN RECORDS OF THE OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION Requests for Access to...

  2. 32 CFR 2400.38 - Protection of foreign government information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of foreign government information... SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Foreign Government Information § 2400.38 Protection of foreign...

  3. 32 CFR 2400.38 - Protection of foreign government information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protection of foreign government information... SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Foreign Government Information § 2400.38 Protection of foreign...

  4. Foreign Language Planning in Saudi Arabia: Beyond English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Mark; Almansour, Maram

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents findings from an exploratory study of foreign language planning in Saudi Arabia. In terms of official policy, the sole foreign language taught in Saudi public schools is English. Therefore, researching foreign languages there is often limited to researching the area of English as a Foreign Language. However, evidence shows that…

  5. Rare Copy Number Variants

    PubMed Central

    Grozeva, Detelina; Kirov, George; Ivanov, Dobril; Jones, Ian R.; Jones, Lisa; Green, Elaine K.; St Clair, David M.; Young, Allan H.; Ferrier, Nicol; Farmer, Anne E.; McGuffin, Peter; Holmans, Peter A.; Owen, Michael J.; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Craddock, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Context Recent studies suggest that copy number variation in the human genome is extensive and may play an important role in susceptibility to disease, including neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. The possible involvement of copy number variants (CNVs) in bipolar disorder has received little attention to date. Objectives To determine whether large (>100 000 base pairs) and rare (found in <1% of the population) CNVs are associated with susceptibility to bipolar disorder and to compare with findings in schizophrenia. Design A genome-wide survey of large, rare CNVs in a case-control sample using a high-density microarray. Setting The Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. Participants There were 1697 cases of bipolar disorder and 2806 nonpsychiatric controls. All participants were white UK residents. Main Outcome Measures Overall load of CNVs and presence of rare CNVs. Results The burden of CNVs in bipolar disorder was not increased compared with controls and was significantly less than in schizophrenia cases. The CNVs previously implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia were not more common in cases with bipolar disorder. Conclusions Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder differ with respect to CNV burden in general and association with specific CNVs in particular. Our data are consistent with the possibility that possession of large, rare deletions may modify the phenotype in those at risk of psychosis: those possessing such events are more likely to be diagnosed as having schizophrenia, and those without them are more likely to be diagnosed as having bipolar disorder. PMID:20368508

  6. Multi-Ethnicity in the Malaysian Workplace: The Net Balance of 35 Years of Affirmative Policies as Observed by a Foreign Visitor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montesino, Max U.

    2007-01-01

    This paper looks at the net societal balance of post-independence affirmative action policies in Malaysia. Social imbalances prompted the country to implement affirmative policies to uplift the majority natives (Malays, Indigenous people of Sabah and Sarawak, etc.). These policies were reluctantly accepted by the immigrant communities (Chinese,…

  7. 12. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works construction drawing dated January 15, 1951. Drawn by W.A. Doe for the Twin Lakes Reservoir and Canal Co. (copy in possession of Bureau of Reclamation, location of original unknown) 'AS CONSTRUCTED' PLANS OF 1949-50, REHABILITATION OF TWIN LAKES RESERVOIR OUTLET WORKS, DETAILS OF DISCHARGE BASIN. - Twin Lakes Dam & Outlet Works, Beneath Twin Lakes Reservoir, T11S, R80W, S22, Twin Lakes, Lake County, CO

  8. 11. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photographic copy of copy of Twin Lakes Outlet Works construction drawing dated January 15, 1951. Drawn by W.A. Doe for the Twin Lakes Reservoir and Canal Co. (copy in possession of Bureau of Reclamation, location of original unknown) 'AS CONSTRUCTED' PLANS OF 1949-1950, REHABILITATION OF TWIN LAKES RESERVOIR OUTLET WORKS, DETAILS OF UPSTREAM WING WALLS. - Twin Lakes Dam & Outlet Works, Beneath Twin Lakes Reservoir, T11S, R80W, S22, Twin Lakes, Lake County, CO

  9. 76 FR 33700 - Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade; Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade; Renewal AGENCY: Foreign... Representative (USTR), has renewed the Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade (APAC). DATES: Effective... Secretary and the USTR concerning agricultural trade policy. The committee is intended to ensure...

  10. Students' Preferences on the Use of Mother Tongue in English as a Foreign Language Classrooms: Is It the Time to Re-Examine English-Only Policies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debreli, Emre; Oyman, Nadire

    2016-01-01

    In literature on bilingual teaching, different perspectives exist for and against the use of first language (L1) in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classrooms. There is a continuing matter of debate on whether L1 contributes to or precludes the learning of a second language (L2). Numerous studies have been conducted on this topic, but no clear…

  11. 10. Photographic copy of copy of original construction drawing, dated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photographic copy of copy of original construction drawing, dated 1899?. Original in possession of Twin Lakes Reservoir and Canal Company, Ordway, Colorado. PLAN OF DAM AND HEAD GATES FOR THE TWIN LAKES RESERVOIR. - Twin Lakes Dam & Outlet Works, Beneath Twin Lakes Reservoir, T11S, R80W, S22, Twin Lakes, Lake County, CO

  12. Presidential Initiatives and Foreign News Coverage: The Carter Human Rights Policy's Effect on U.S. Coverage of Central and South America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassara, Catherine

    A study was conducted to determine what, if any, effect President Jimmy Carter's human rights policy had on American newspaper coverage of Central and South America. The "New York Times,""Washington Post,""Christian Science Monitor," and "Los Angeles Times" during the years of 1975, 1977, 1978, and 1982 (when the policy had been replaced by the…

  13. Counting copy number and calories.

    PubMed

    White, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) at several genomic loci has been associated with different human traits and diseases, but in many cases the findings could not be replicated. A new study provides insights into the degree of variation present at the amylase locus and calls into question a previous association between amylase copy number and body mass index. PMID:26220133

  14. 75 FR 35684 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Ownership or Control by a Foreign Government...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ..., ``Policy Guidance for Foreign Ownership, Control, or Influence (FOCI).'' The DTM revises the description of...) 09-019, ``Policy Guidance for Foreign Ownership, Control, or Influence (FOCI),'' which requires... (DTM) 09-019, ``Policy Guidance for Foreign Ownership, Control, or Influence (FOCI),'' effective June...

  15. Guests or Immigrants? Contradiction and Change in the German Immigration Policy Debate since the Recruitment Stop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Philip L.; Miller, Mark J.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews conflicting West German immigration policies toward the growing number of foreign workers since 1973. Emphasizes the contradiction between policies that encourage foreigners to return home and those that encourage the integration of foreigners into German society. (FMW)

  16. Photographic copy of undated drawing. Printed copy located in plan ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of undated drawing. Printed copy located in plan files at the New Orleans Public Belt Railroad Administration Office at 5100 Jefferson Highway, Jefferson, Louisiana 70123. Draftsman Unknown. DRAWING OF ENTIRE BRIDGE PLAN AND PARTIAL NORTHEAST ELEVATION. PROPERTY OF NEW ORLEANS PUBLIC BELT RAILROAD. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  17. 22 CFR 161.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Policy. 161.2 Section 161.2 Foreign Relations... POLICY ACT (NEPA) General § 161.2 Policy. It is the policy of the Department of State to use all... anticipating and preventing a decline in the quality of the world environment....

  18. 22 CFR 161.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Policy. 161.2 Section 161.2 Foreign Relations... POLICY ACT (NEPA) General § 161.2 Policy. It is the policy of the Department of State to use all... anticipating and preventing a decline in the quality of the world environment....

  19. 32 CFR 2400.38 - Protection of foreign government information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY... information. Classified foreign government information shall be protected as is prescribed by this...

  20. 17 CFR 210.9-05 - Foreign activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign activities. 210.9-05... 1940, AND ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975 Bank Holding Companies § 210.9-05 Foreign activities. (a) General requirement. Separate disclosure concerning foreign activities shall be made for...

  1. Foreign Languages for Business in the Secondary School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Christine Uber

    A survey of the 20 most populous states concerning their secondary school provision of foreign languages for business is reported. State foreign language supervisors were interviewed for information on state policy or planning for the inclusion of foreign language for business or applied language studies, for information about specific programs or…

  2. Foreign Language K-12. Program Evaluation 1991-92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadden, Jerry M.

    The Des Moines (Iowa) Public Schools foreign language program for K-12 is described and evaluated. The evaluation report focuses on six areas, including: (1) school district mission and philosophy of foreign language instruction; (2) context (state policies and standards, foreign language program overview and enrollment, fiber-optic communication…

  3. Zero-Copy Objects System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Zero-Copy Objects System software enables application data to be encapsulated in layers of communication protocol without being copied. Indirect referencing enables application source data, either in memory or in a file, to be encapsulated in place within an unlimited number of protocol headers and/or trailers. Zero-copy objects (ZCOs) are abstract data access representations designed to minimize I/O (input/output) in the encapsulation of application source data within one or more layers of communication protocol structure. They are constructed within the heap space of a Simple Data Recorder (SDR) data store to which all participating layers of the stack must have access. Each ZCO contains general information enabling access to the core source data object (an item of application data), together with (a) a linked list of zero or more specific extents that reference portions of this source data object, and (b) linked lists of protocol header and trailer capsules. The concatenation of the headers (in ascending stack sequence), the source data object extents, and the trailers (in descending stack sequence) constitute the transmitted data object constructed from the ZCO. This scheme enables a source data object to be encapsulated in a succession of protocol layers without ever having to be copied from a buffer at one layer of the protocol stack to an encapsulating buffer at a lower layer of the stack. For large source data objects, the savings in copy time and reduction in memory consumption may be considerable.

  4. To Copy-Protect or Not to Copy-Protect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Jonathan

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the issues of software piracy, why people illegally copy software, protection afforded software developers by copyright laws, and current and future methods of disk-based protection built into software by developers and the problems these methods have created. (MBR)

  5. Accent on Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliams, Larry; And Others

    A guide on foreign languages is presented for counselors, administrators, teachers, and parents. An introductory section discusses reasons for foreign language study, college entrance or exit requirements, foreign language and SAT scores, careers that use foreign languages, myths about learning foreign languages, and information about French,…

  6. Crisis in China: Prospects for U.S. Policy. Report of the Strategy for Peace, U.S. Foreign Policy Conference (30th, Warrenton, Virginia, October 19-21, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Kathy, Comp.; And Others

    This report summarizes the roundtable discussion of 19 China experts at a conference on the development of U.S. policy convened four months after the democracy demonstrations that took place in China in spring, 1989. The group's discussion highlighted five major areas of uncertainty over China's course in the short-term to intermediate future: (1)…

  7. 31 CFR 501.739 - Record in proceedings before Administrative Law Judge; retention of documents; copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Record in proceedings before Administrative Law Judge; retention of documents; copies. 501.739 Section 501.739 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF...

  8. 31 CFR 501.739 - Record in proceedings before Administrative Law Judge; retention of documents; copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Record in proceedings before Administrative Law Judge; retention of documents; copies. 501.739 Section 501.739 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF...

  9. 31 CFR 501.739 - Record in proceedings before Administrative Law Judge; retention of documents; copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Record in proceedings before Administrative Law Judge; retention of documents; copies. 501.739 Section 501.739 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF...

  10. 31 CFR 501.739 - Record in proceedings before Administrative Law Judge; retention of documents; copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Record in proceedings before Administrative Law Judge; retention of documents; copies. 501.739 Section 501.739 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. 31 CFR 501.739 - Record in proceedings before Administrative Law Judge; retention of documents; copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Record in proceedings before Administrative Law Judge; retention of documents; copies. 501.739 Section 501.739 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. 19 CFR 133.22 - Restrictions on importation of articles bearing copying or simulating trademarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Restrictions on importation of articles bearing... Importations Bearing Recorded Marks or Trade § 133.22 Restrictions on importation of articles bearing copying...) Denial of entry. Any articles of foreign or domestic manufacture imported into the United States...

  13. 37 CFR 1.217 - Publication of a redacted copy of an application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... each such foreign-filed application that is in a language other than English, and a statement that the... Office correspondence previously received by applicant including any desired redactions, and a second... redactions, and a second copy of each submission previously filed by the applicant showing the...

  14. 15 CFR 2002.0 - Trade Policy Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Trade Policy Committee. 2002.0 Section 2002.0 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE OPERATION OF COMMITTEES § 2002.0 Trade Policy Committee. (a) The Trade Policy Committee was created by section 3...

  15. Copy number variation and mutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Brian; Weidner, Jacob; Wabick, Kevin

    2009-11-01

    Until very recently, the standard model of DNA included two genes for each trait. This dated model has given way to a model that includes copies of some genes well in excess of the canonical two. Copy number variations in the human genome play critical roles in causing or aggravating a number of syndromes and diseases while providing increased resistance to others. We explore the role of mutation, crossover, inversion, and reproduction in determining copy number variations in a numerical simulation of a population. The numerical model consists of a population of individuals, where each individual is represented by a single strand of DNA with the same number of genes. Each gene is initially assigned to one of two traits. Fitness of the individual is determined by the two most fit genes for trait one, and trait two genetic material is treated as a reservoir of junk DNA. After a sufficient number of generations, during which the genetic distribution is allowed to reach a steady-state, the mean numberof genes per trait and the copy number variation are recorded. Here, we focus on the role of mutation and compare simulation results to theory.

  16. Copying Services and Copyright Infringement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Store Journal (Sec 1), 1977

    1977-01-01

    The impact of the Copyright Revision Act of 1976 on copying services supplied by many college stores is assessed. It is suggested that even unsupervised photocopying of copyrighted books and periodicals may constitute vicarious infringement by the store, but that in an academic environment, photocopying may constitute defensible "fair use." (LBH)

  17. Foreign Language Education in Primary Schools in the People's Republic of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Minglin

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the national policies on foreign language in primary schools in the People's Republic of China (PRC). It begins with a brief introduction to the changes in foreign language education policy and the main motives for those changes in the context of socio-political circumstances. It then examines foreign language education in…

  18. 48 CFR 750.7102 - General policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT EXTRAORDINARY CONTRACTUAL ACTIONS Extraordinary Contractual Actions To Protect Foreign Policy Interests of the United States 750.7102 General policy. Extra-contractual claims arising from foreign... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General policy....

  19. 22 CFR 1507.2 - General policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true General policies. 1507.2 Section 1507.2 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION RULES SAFEGUARDING PERSONAL INFORMATION § 1507.2 General policies. It is the policy of the Foundation to safeguard the right of privacy of any individual as to whom...

  20. 22 CFR 308.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Policy. 308.2 Section 308.2 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 308.2 Policy. It is the policy of the Peace Corps to protect, preserve and defend the right of privacy of any individual as to whom the...

  1. 22 CFR 308.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Policy. 308.2 Section 308.2 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 308.2 Policy. It is the policy of the Peace Corps to protect, preserve and defend the right of privacy of any individual as to whom the...

  2. 22 CFR 308.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Policy. 308.2 Section 308.2 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 308.2 Policy. It is the policy of the Peace Corps to protect, preserve and defend the right of privacy of any individual as to whom the...

  3. 22 CFR 308.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Policy. 308.2 Section 308.2 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 308.2 Policy. It is the policy of the Peace Corps to protect, preserve and defend the right of privacy of any individual as to whom the...

  4. Gribov copies and anomalous scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Holdom, B.

    2008-12-15

    Nonperturbative and lattice methods indicate that Gribov copies modify the infrared behavior of gauge theories and cause a suppression of gluon propagation. We investigate whether this can be implemented in a modified perturbation theory. The minimal modification proceeds via a nonlocal generalization of the Fadeev-Popov ghost that automatically decouples from physical states. The expected scale invariance of the physics associated with Gribov copies leads to the emergence of a nontrivial infrared fixed point. For a range of a scaling exponent the gauge bosons exhibit unparticlelike behavior in the infrared. The confining regime of interest for QCD requires a larger scaling exponent, but then the severity of ghost dominance upsets naive power counting for the infrared scaling behavior of amplitudes.

  5. 14 CFR 187.7 - Copies; seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... H of 49 CFR part 7. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Copies; seal. 187.7 Section 187.7... REGULATIONS FEES § 187.7 Copies; seal. The fees for furnishing photostatic or similar copies of documents...

  6. 14 CFR 187.7 - Copies; seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... H of 49 CFR part 7. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Copies; seal. 187.7 Section 187.7... REGULATIONS FEES § 187.7 Copies; seal. The fees for furnishing photostatic or similar copies of documents...

  7. 14 CFR 187.7 - Copies; seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... H of 49 CFR part 7. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Copies; seal. 187.7 Section 187.7... REGULATIONS FEES § 187.7 Copies; seal. The fees for furnishing photostatic or similar copies of documents...

  8. 14 CFR 187.7 - Copies; seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... H of 49 CFR part 7. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Copies; seal. 187.7 Section 187.7... REGULATIONS FEES § 187.7 Copies; seal. The fees for furnishing photostatic or similar copies of documents...

  9. 14 CFR 187.7 - Copies; seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... H of 49 CFR part 7. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Copies; seal. 187.7 Section 187.7... REGULATIONS FEES § 187.7 Copies; seal. The fees for furnishing photostatic or similar copies of documents...

  10. 14 CFR § 1206.207 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Copies. § 1206.207 Section § 1206.207 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION AVAILABILITY OF AGENCY RECORDS TO MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC Records Available § 1206.207 Copies. The furnishing of a single copy of the...

  11. 36 CFR 703.20 - File copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false File copies. 703.20 Section... Is Not a Party § 703.20 File copies. The Office of the General Counsel will maintain the official file of copies of all demands served on the Library and deciding officials' responses....

  12. 48 CFR 2901.105-3 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copies. 2901.105-3 Section 2901.105-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Purpose, Authority, Issuance 2901.105-3 Copies. Copies of the DOLAR published in the Federal Register, CD-ROM, or Code...

  13. Patterns, Correlates, and Reduction of Homework Copying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palazzo, David J.; Lee, Young-Jin; Warnakulasooriya, Rasil; Pritchard, David E.

    2010-01-01

    Submissions to an online homework tutor were analyzed to determine whether they were copied. The fraction of copied submissions increased rapidly over the semester, as each weekly deadline approached and for problems later in each assignment. The majority of students, who copied less than 10% of their problems, worked steadily over the three days…

  14. 48 CFR 1501.105-3 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Copies. 1501.105-3 Section 1501.105-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL GENERAL Purpose, Authority, Issuance 1501.105-3 Copies. Copies of the EPAAR in Federal Register and CFR form...

  15. 48 CFR 1501.105-3 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Copies. 1501.105-3 Section 1501.105-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL GENERAL Purpose, Authority, Issuance 1501.105-3 Copies. Copies of the EPAAR in Federal Register and CFR form...

  16. 48 CFR 1501.105-3 - Copies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Copies. 1501.105-3 Section 1501.105-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL GENERAL Purpose, Authority, Issuance 1501.105-3 Copies. Copies of the EPAAR in Federal Register and CFR form...

  17. 22 CFR 706.21 - What types of OPIC records are publicly available, and how do I obtain access to or copies of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true What types of OPIC records are publicly available, and how do I obtain access to or copies of these records? 706.21 Section 706.21 Foreign Relations OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS FREEDOM OF INFORMATION Procedures for Obtaining Publicly Available Records §...

  18. Copying and Evolution of Neuronal Topology

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Chrisantha; Karishma, K. K.; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2008-01-01

    We propose a mechanism for copying of neuronal networks that is of considerable interest for neuroscience for it suggests a neuronal basis for causal inference, function copying, and natural selection within the human brain. To date, no model of neuronal topology copying exists. We present three increasingly sophisticated mechanisms to demonstrate how topographic map formation coupled with Spike-Time Dependent Plasticity (STDP) can copy neuronal topology motifs. Fidelity is improved by error correction and activity-reverberation limitation. The high-fidelity topology-copying operator is used to evolve neuronal topologies. Possible roles for neuronal natural selection are discussed. PMID:19020662

  19. 22 CFR 120.37 - Foreign ownership and foreign control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Foreign ownership and foreign control. 120.37 Section 120.37 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.37 Foreign ownership and foreign control. Foreign ownership means more than 50 percent...

  20. 22 CFR 120.37 - Foreign ownership and foreign control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Foreign ownership and foreign control. 120.37 Section 120.37 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.37 Foreign ownership and foreign control. Foreign ownership means more than 50 percent...

  1. 22 CFR 120.37 - Foreign ownership and foreign control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Foreign ownership and foreign control. 120.37 Section 120.37 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.37 Foreign ownership and foreign control. Foreign ownership means more than 50 percent...

  2. Patterns, correlates, and reduction of homework copying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazzo, David J.; Lee, Young-Jin; Warnakulasooriya, Rasil; Pritchard, David E.

    2010-06-01

    Submissions to an online homework tutor were analyzed to determine whether they were copied. The fraction of copied submissions increased rapidly over the semester, as each weekly deadline approached and for problems later in each assignment. The majority of students, who copied less than 10% of their problems, worked steadily over the three days prior to the deadline, whereas repetitive copiers (those who copied >30% of their submitted problems) exerted little effort early. Importantly, copying homework problems that require an analytic answer correlates with a 2(σ) decline over the semester in relative score for similar problems on exams but does not significantly correlate with the amount of conceptual learning as measured by pretesting and post-testing. An anonymous survey containing questions used in many previous studies of self-reported academic dishonesty showed ˜1/3 less copying than actually was detected. The observed patterns of copying, free response questions on the survey, and interview data suggest that time pressure on students who do not start their homework in a timely fashion is the proximate cause of copying. Several measures of initial ability in math or physics correlated with copying weakly or not at all. Changes in course format and instructional practices that previous self-reported academic dishonesty surveys and/or the observed copying patterns suggested would reduce copying have been accompanied by more than a factor of 4 reduction of copying from ˜11% of all electronic problems to less than 3%. As expected (since repetitive copiers have approximately three times the chance of failing), this was accompanied by a reduction in the overall course failure rate. Survey results indicate that students copy almost twice as much written homework as online homework and show that students nationally admit to more academic dishonesty than MIT students.

  3. 15 CFR 270.301 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 270.301 Section 270.301 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS Collection and Preservation...

  4. 15 CFR 2008.4 - Basic policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic policy. 2008.4 Section 2008.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12065; OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES...

  5. 15 CFR 2008.4 - Basic policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Basic policy. 2008.4 Section 2008.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12065; OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES...

  6. 15 CFR 2008.4 - Basic policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Basic policy. 2008.4 Section 2008.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12065; OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES...

  7. 15 CFR 2008.4 - Basic policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Basic policy. 2008.4 Section 2008.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12065; OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES...

  8. 15 CFR 2008.4 - Basic policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Basic policy. 2008.4 Section 2008.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12065; OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES...

  9. 48 CFR 947.7001 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION Foreign Travel 947.7001 Policy. Contractor foreign travel shall be conducted pursuant to the requirements contained in DOE Order 551.1C, or its successor, Official Foreign Travel, or any subsequent version of the order in effect at the time of award....

  10. The Foreign Workers and Foreign Workers' German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackshire-Belay, Carol

    Foreign Workers' German (FWG) refers to the acquired German language skills of workers from various countries who were recruited to West Germany between 1955 and 1973 to fill menial, undesirable jobs. Contact between these workers and native German speakers was limited because of the nature of the foreigners' work, the tendency toward residential…