Science.gov

Sample records for core concrete interaction

  1. Thermal-hydraulic studies on molten core-concrete interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, G.A.

    1986-10-01

    This report discusses studies carried out in connection with light water power reactor accidents. Recent assessments have indicated that the consequences of molten-core concrete interactions dominate the considerations of severe accidents. The two areas of interest that have been investigated are interlayer heat and mass transfer and liquid-liquid boiling. Interlayer heat and mass transfer refers to processes that occur within a core melt between the stratified, immiscible phases of core oxides and metals. Liquid-liquid boiling refers to processes that occur at the melt-concrete on melt-coolant interface. (JDH)

  2. Core-concrete interactions using molten urania with zirconium on a limestone concrete basemat

    SciTech Connect

    Copus, E.R.; Brockmann, J.E.; Simpson, R.B.; Lucero, D.A. ); Blose, R.E. )

    1992-09-01

    An inductively heated experiment SURC-1, using UO[sub 2]-ZrO[sub 2] material, was executed to measure and assess the thermal, gas, and aerosol source terms produced during core debris/concrete interactions. The SURC-1 experiment eroded a total of 27 cm of limestone concrete during 130 minutes of sustained interaction using 204.2 kg of molten prototypic UO[sub 2]-ZrO[sub 2] core debris material that included 18 kg of zr metal and 3.4 kg of fission product simulants. The melt pool temperature ranged from 2100 to 2400[degrees]C during the first 50 minutes of the test, followed by steady temperatures of 2000 to 2100[degrees]C during the middle portion of the test and temperatures of 1800 to 2000[degrees]C during the final 50 minutes of testing. The total erosion during the first 50 minutes was 16 cm with an additional 2 cm during the middle part of the test and 9 cm of ablation during the final 50 minutes. Aerosols were continuously released in concentrations ranging from 30 to 200 g/m[sup 3]. Comprehensive gas flow rates, gas compositions, and aerosol compositions were also measured during the SURC-1 test.

  3. Modeling of anisotropic ablation of the concrete during Molten Core Concrete Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Kyoung Min

    This work proposes a model to explain concrete anisotropic ablation by corium during a Molten Corium Concrete Interaction (MCCI). As a result of recent MCCI prototypic material experiments, CCI and VULCANO tests, one observes that concrete ablation behavior consistently depends on the concrete materials used in the experiments. Specifically, tests with Limestone-Common-Sand (LCS) concrete yielded isotropic concrete ablation; i.e., equal axial and radial concrete erosion. This is in comparison to anisotropic ablation in tests with Siliceous (SIL) concrete, where radial ablation was much larger than axial ablation. This was an unexpected result, because prior results of many MCCI simulant experiments indicated that nearly isotropic ablation was expected in prototypic material experiments regardless of concrete type. A new phenomenological model is proposed in this work based on a hypothesis that unifies the result of both previous simulant and prototypic material experiments; i.e., heat transfer area enhancement and delayed gas release caused by the presence of un-melted solid aggregate material that enters the molten pool. This model offers a logical and phenomenological explanation concerning anisotropic ablation as well as the capability to simulate anisotropic ablation. This model is implemented into the CORQUENCH code as part of this work. Comparisons of simulation results obtained with this new model to the CCI experiments for cases with siliceous concrete and anisotropic ablation show better agreement with the test data than the existing model.

  4. Characterization of core debris/concrete interactions for the Advanced Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, C.R.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1992-02-01

    This report provides the results of a recent study conducted to explore the molten core/concrete interaction (MCCI) issue for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS). The need for such a study arises from the potential threats to reactor system integrity posed by MCCI. These threats include direct attack of the concrete basemat of the containment; generation and release of large quantities of gas that can pressurize the containment; the combustion threat of these gases; and the potential generation, release, and transport of radioactive aerosols to the environment.

  5. Experimental results of core-concrete interactions using molten steel with zirconium

    SciTech Connect

    Copus, E.R.; Blose, R.E.; Brockmann, J.E.; Gomez, R.D.; Lucero, D.A. )

    1990-07-01

    Four inductively sustained experiments, QT-D, QT-E, SURC-3, and SURC-3A, were performed in order to investigate the additional effects of zirconium metal oxidation on core debris-concrete interactions using molten stainless steel as the core debris simulant. The QT-D experiment ablated 18 cm of concrete axially during 50 minutes of interaction on limestone-common sand concrete using a 10 kg charge of 304 stainless steel to which 2 kg of zirconium metal was added subsequent to the onset of erosion. The QT-E experiment ablated 10 cm of limestone-common sand concrete axially and 10 cm radially during 35 minutes of sustained interaction using 50 kg of stainless steel and 10 kg of zirconium. The SURC-3 experiment had a 45 kg charge of stainless steel to which 1.1 kg of zirconium was subsequently added. SURC-3 axially eroded 33 cm of limestone concrete during two hours of interaction. The fourth experiment, SURC-3A, eroded 25 cm of limestone concrete axially and 9 cm radially during 90 minutes of sustained interaction. It utilized 40 kg of stainless steel and 2.2 kg of added zirconium as the charge material. All four experiments showed in a large increase in erosion rate, gas production, and aerosol release following the addition of Zr metal to the melt. In the SURC-3 and SURC-3A tests the measured erosion rates increased from 14 cm/hr to 27 cm/hr, gas release increased from 50 slpm to 100 slpm, and aerosol release increased from .02 q/sec to .04 q/sec. The effluent gas was composed of 80% CO, 10% CO{sub 2}, and 2% H{sub 2} before Zr addition and 92% CO, 4% CO{sub 2}, 4% H{sub 2} during the Zr interactions which lasted 10--20 minutes. Addition measurements indicated that the melt pool temperature ranged from 1600{degree}C--1800{degree} and that the aerosols produced were comprised primarily of Te and Fe oxides. 21 refs., 120 figs., 51 tabs.

  6. OECD/MCCI 2-D Core Concrete Interaction (CCI) tests : final report February 28, 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Lomperski, S.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S.

    2011-05-23

    Although extensive research has been conducted over the last several years in the areas of Core-Concrete Interaction (CCI) and debris coolability, two important issues warrant further investigation. The first issue concerns the effectiveness of water in terminating a CCI by flooding the interacting masses from above, thereby quenching the molten core debris and rendering it permanently coolable. This safety issue was investigated in the EPRI-sponsored Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program. The approach was to conduct large scale, integral-type reactor materials experiments with core melt masses ranging up to two metric tons. These experiments provided unique, and for the most part repeatable, indications of heat transfer mechanism(s) that could provide long term debris cooling. However, the results did not demonstrate definitively that a melt would always be completely quenched. This was due to the fact that the crust anchored to the test section sidewalls in every test, which led to melt/crust separation, even at the largest test section lateral span of 1.20 m. This decoupling is not expected for a typical reactor cavity, which has a span of 5-6 m. Even though the crust may mechanically bond to the reactor cavity walls, the weight of the coolant and the crust itself is expected to periodically fracture the crust and restore contact with the melt. Although crust fracturing does not ensure that coolability will be achieved, it nonetheless provides a pathway for water to recontact the underlying melt, thereby allowing other debris cooling mechanisms to proceed. A related task of the current program, which is not addressed in this particular report, is to measure crust strength to check the hypothesis that a corium crust would not be strong enough to sustain melt/crust separation in a plant accident. The second important issue concerns long-term, two-dimensional concrete ablation by a prototypic core oxide melt. As discussed by Foit the existing

  7. Independent analysis of selected core-concrete interaction and fission product release experiments with CORCON-MOD2 and VANESA

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, G.A.; Sanborn, Y.

    1986-01-01

    The discrepancies between experimental findings and the Reactor Safety Study predictions, as well as the rapidly developing data base enabling phenomenological modeling of core-concrete interactions and ex-vessel fission product release, have prompted the development of several new computer models of core-concrete interactions and fission product release during severe accidents. Two such models are the CORCON-MOD2 model of core-concrete interactions and the VANESA model of ex-vessel aerosol and fission product release during core-concrete interactions. The final judge on the adequacy of the development of models of core debris-concrete interactions is, of course, comparison of the model predictions with the results of experiments. The research into ex-vessel core debris behavior differs from research into many aspects of reactor accidents in that there are many experimental results for comparison. Comparisons of code predictions with results of tests using realistic temperatures and conditions should provide an indication of the progress that has been made and, with appropriately chosen tests, an indication of work that needs to be done. 9 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. OECD 2-D Core Concrete Interaction (CCI) tests : CCI-2 test plan, Rev. 0 January 31, 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S.

    2011-05-23

    The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core-concrete interaction when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. As a follow-on program to MACE, The Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction Experiments (MCCI) project is conducting reactor material experiments and associated analysis to achieve the following objectives: (1) resolve the ex-vessel debris coolability issue through a program that focuses on providing both confirmatory evidence and test data for the coolability mechanisms identified in MACE integral effects tests, and (2) address remaining uncertainties related to long-term two-dimensional molten core-concrete interactions under both wet and dry cavity conditions. Achievement of these two program objectives will demonstrate the efficacy of severe accident management guidelines for existing plants, and provide the technical basis for better containment designs for future plants. In terms of satisfying these objectives, the Management Board (MB) approved the conduct of two long-term 2-D Core-Concrete Interaction (CCI) experiments designed to provide information in several areas, including: (i) lateral vs. axial power split during dry core-concrete interaction, (ii) integral debris coolability data following late phase flooding, and (iii) data regarding the nature and extent of the cooling transient following breach of the crust formed at the melt-water interface. The first of these two tests, CCI-1, was conducted on December 19, 2003. This test investigated the interaction of a fully oxidized 400 kg PWR core melt, initially containing 8 wt % calcined siliceous concrete, with a specially designed two

  9. CORCON-MOD3: An integrated computer model for analysis of molten core-concrete interactions. User`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.R.; Gardner, D.R.; Brockmann, J.E.; Griffith, R.O.

    1993-10-01

    The CORCON-Mod3 computer code was developed to mechanistically model the important core-concrete interaction phenomena, including those phenomena relevant to the assessment of containment failure and radionuclide release. The code can be applied to a wide range of severe accident scenarios and reactor plants. The code represents the current state of the art for simulating core debris interactions with concrete. This document comprises the user`s manual and gives a brief description of the models and the assumptions and limitations in the code. Also discussed are the input parameters and the code output. Two sample problems are also given.

  10. Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 Ex-Vessel Prediction: Core Concrete Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Robb, Kevin R; Farmer, Mitchell; Francis, Matthew W

    2015-01-01

    Lower head failure and corium concrete interaction were predicted to occur at Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 (1F1) by several different system-level code analyses, including MELCOR v2.1 and MAAP5. Although these codes capture a wide range of accident phenomena, they do not contain detailed models for ex-vessel core melt behavior. However, specialized codes exist for analysis of ex-vessel melt spreading (e.g., MELTSPREAD) and long-term debris coolability (e.g., CORQUENCH). On this basis, an analysis was carried out to further evaluate ex-vessel behavior for 1F1 using MELTSPREAD and CORQUENCH. Best-estimate melt pour conditions predicted by MELCOR v2.1 and MAAP5 were used as input. MELTSPREAD was then used to predict the spatially dependent melt conditions and extent of spreading during relocation from the vessel. The results of the MELTSPREAD analysis are reported in a companion paper. This information was used as input for the long-term debris coolability analysis with CORQUENCH.

  11. Characterization of core debris/concrete interactions for the Advanced Neutron Source. ANS Severe Accident Analysis Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, C.R.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1992-02-01

    This report provides the results of a recent study conducted to explore the molten core/concrete interaction (MCCI) issue for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS). The need for such a study arises from the potential threats to reactor system integrity posed by MCCI. These threats include direct attack of the concrete basemat of the containment; generation and release of large quantities of gas that can pressurize the containment; the combustion threat of these gases; and the potential generation, release, and transport of radioactive aerosols to the environment.

  12. Impact of Zr metal and coking reactions on the fission product aerosol release during MCCI (Molten Core Concrete Interactions)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.; Davis, R.E.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.

    1987-01-01

    During a core meltdown accident in a light water reactor, molten core materials (corium) could leave the reactor vessel and interact with concrete. In this paper, the impact of the zirconium content of the corium pool and the coking reaction on the release of fission products during Molten Core Concrete Interactions (MCCI) are quantified using CORCON/MOD2 and VANESA computer codes. Detailed calculations show that the total aerosol generation is proportional to the zirconium content of the corium pool. Among the twelve fission product groups treated by the VANESA code, CsI, CsO/sub 2/ and Nb/sub 2/O/sub 5/ are completely released over the course of the core/concrete interaction, while an insignificant quantity of Mo, Ru and ZrO/sub 2/ are predicted to be released. The release of BaO, SrO and CeO/sub 2/ increase with increased Zr content, while the releases of Te and La/sub 2/O/sub 3/ are relatively unaffected by the Zr content of the corium pool. The impact of the coking reaction on the radiological releases is estimated to be significant; while the impact of the coking reaction on the aerosol production is insignificant.

  13. Core-concrete interactions using molten UO sub 2 with zirconium on a basaltic basemat: The SURC-2 experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Copus, E.R.; Brockmann, J.E.; Simpson, R.B.; Lucero, D.A. ); Blose, R.E. )

    1992-08-01

    An inductively heated experiment, SURC-2, using prototypic U0{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} materials was executed as part of the Integral Core-Concrete Interactions Experiments Program. The purpose of this experimental program was to measure and assess the variety of source terms produced during core debris/concrete interactions. These source terms include thermal energy released to both the reactor basemat and the containment environment, as well as flammable gas, condensable vapor and toxic or radioactive aerosols generated during the course of a severe reactor accident. The SURC-2 experiment eroded a total of 35 cm of basaltic concrete during 160 minutes of sustained interaction using 203.9 kg of prototypic U0{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} core debris material that included 18 kg of Zr metal and 3.4 kg of fission product simulants. The meltpool temperature ranged from 2400--1900{degrees}C during the first 50 minutes of the test followed by steady temperatures of 1750--1800{degrees}C during the middle portion of the test and increased temperatures of 1800--1900{degrees}C during the final 50 minutes of testing. The total erosion during the first 50 minutes was 15 cm with an additional 7 cm during the middle part of the test and 13 cm of ablation during the final 50 minutes. Comprehensive gas flowrates, gas compositions, and aerosol release rates were also measured during the SURC-2 test. When combined with the SURC-1 results, SURC-2 forms a complete data base for prototypic U0{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} core debris interactions with concrete.

  14. OECD MCCI project long-term 2-D molten core concrete interaction test design report, Rev. 0. September 30, 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschliman, R. W.; Basu, S.

    2011-05-23

    The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program at Argonne National Laboratory addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core-concrete interaction when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. As a follow-on program to MACE, The Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction Experiments (MCCI) project is conducting reactor material experiments and associated analysis to achieve the following two technical objectives: (1) resolve the ex-vessel debris coolability issue through a program that focuses on providing both confirmatory evidence and test data for the coolability mechanisms identified in MACE integral effects tests, and (2) address remaining uncertainties related to long-term two-dimensional molten core-concrete interactions under both wet and dry cavity conditions. Achievement of these two objectives will demonstrate the efficacy of severe accident management guidelines for existing plants, and provide the technical basis for better containment designs for future plants. In terms of the first program objective, the Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength (SSWICS) test series has been initiated to provide fundamental information on the ability of water to ingress into cracks and fissures that form in the debris during quench, thereby augmenting the otherwise conduction-limited heat transfer process. A test plan for Melt Eruption Separate Effects Tests (MESET) has also been developed to provide information on the extent of crust growth and melt eruptions as a function of gas sparging rate under well-controlled experiment conditions. In terms of the second program objective, the project Management Board (MB) has approved startup activities required to carry out

  15. Core-concrete interactions with overlying water pools. The WETCOR-1 test

    SciTech Connect

    Blose, R.E.; Powers, D.A.; Copus, E.R.; Brockmann, J.E.; Simpson, R.B.; Lucero, D.A.

    1993-11-01

    The WETCOR-1 test of simultaneous interactions of a high-temperature melt with water and a limestone/common-sand concrete is described. The test used a 34.1-kg melt of 76.8 w/o Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 16.9 w/o CaO, and 4.0 w/o SiO{sub 2} heated by induction using tungsten susceptors. Once quasi-steady attack on concrete by the melt was established, an attempt was made to quench the melt at 1850 K with 295 K water flowing at 57 liters per minute. Net power into the melt at the time of water addition was 0.61 {plus_minus} 0.19 W/cm{sup 3}. The test configuration used in the WETCOR-1 test was designed to delay melt freezing to the walls of the test fixture. This was done to test hypotheses concerning the inherent stability of crust formation when high-temperature melts are exposed to water. No instability in crust formation was observed. The flux of heat through the crust to the water pool maintained over the melt in the test was found to be 0.52 {plus_minus} 0.13 MW/m{sup 2}. Solidified crusts were found to attenuate aerosol emissions during the melt concrete interactions by factors of 1.3 to 3.5. The combination of a solidified crust and a 30-cm deep subcooled water pool was found to attenuate aerosol emissions by factors of 3 to 15.

  16. A simplified model of aerosol scrubbing by a water pool overlying core debris interacting with concrete. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, D.A.; Sprung, J.L.

    1993-11-01

    A classic model of aerosol scrubbing from bubbles rising through water is applied to the decontamination of gases produced during core debris interactions with concrete. The model, originally developed by Fuchs, describes aerosol capture by diffusion, sedimentation, and inertial impaction. This original model for spherical bubbles is modified to account for ellipsoidal distortion of the bubbles. Eighteen uncertain variables are identified in the application of the model to the decontamination of aerosols produced during core debris interactions with concrete by a water pool of specified depth and subcooling. These uncertain variables include properties of the aerosols, the bubbles, the water and the ambient pressure. Results are analyzed using a nonparametric, order statistical analysis that allows quantitative differentiation of stochastic and phenomenological uncertainty. The sampled values of the decontamination factors are used to construct estimated probability density functions for the decontamination factor at confidence levels of 50%, 90% and 95%. The decontamination factors for pools 30, 50, 100, 200, 300, and 500 cm deep and subcooling levels of 0, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, and 70{degrees}C are correlated by simple polynomial regression. These polynomial equations can be used to estimate decontamination factors at prescribed confidence levels.

  17. Scoping assessments of ATF impact on late-stage accident progression including molten core-concrete interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, M. T.; Leibowitz, L.; Terrani, K. A.; Robb, K. R.

    2014-05-01

    Simple scoping models that can be used to evaluate ATF performance under severe accident conditions have been developed. The methodology provides a fundamental technical basis (a.k.a. metric) based on the thermodynamic boundary for evaluating performance relative to that of traditional Zr-based claddings. The initial focus in this study was on UO2 fuel with the advanced claddings 310 SS, D9, FeCrAl, and SiC. The evaluation considered only energy release with concurrent combustible gas production from fuel-cladding-coolant interactions and, separately, molten core-concrete interactions at high temperatures. Other important phenomenological effects that can influence the rate and extent of cladding decomposition (e.g., eutectic interactions, degradation of other core constituents) were not addressed. For the cladding types addressed, potential combustible gas production under both in-vessel and ex-vessel conditions was similar to that for Zr. However, exothermic energy release from cladding oxidation was substantially less for iron-based alloys (by at least a factor of 4), and modestly less (by ∼20%) for SiC. Data on SiC-clad UO2 fuel performance under severe accident conditions are sparse in the literature; thus, assumptions on the nature of the cladding decomposition process were made in order to perform this initial screening evaluation. Experimental data for this system under severe accident conditions is needed for a proper evaluation and comparison to iron-based claddings.

  18. OECD MCCI project 2-D Core Concrete Interaction (CCI) tests : CCI-3 test data report-thermalhydraulic results. Rev. 0 October 15, 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Lomperski, S.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S.

    2011-05-23

    The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core-concrete interaction when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. As a follow-on program to MACE, The Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction Experiments (MCCI) project is conducting reactor material experiments and associated analysis to achieve the following objectives: (1) resolve the ex-vessel debris coolability issue through a program that focuses on providing both confirmatory evidence and test data for the coolability mechanisms identified in MACE integral effects tests, and (2) address remaining uncertainties related to long-term two-dimensional molten core-concrete interactions under both wet and dry cavity conditions. Achievement of these two program objectives will demonstrate the efficacy of severe accident management guidelines for existing plants, and provide the technical basis for better containment designs for future plants. In terms of satisfying these objectives, the Management Board (MB) approved the conduct of a third long-term 2-D Core-Concrete Interaction (CCI) experiment designed to provide information in several areas, including: (i) lateral vs. axial power split during dry core-concrete interaction, (ii) integral debris coolability data following late phase flooding, and (iii) data regarding the nature and extent of the cooling transient following breach of the crust formed at the melt-water interface. This data report provides thermal hydraulic test results from the CCI-3 experiment, which was conducted on September 22, 2005. Test specifications for CCI-3 are provided in Table 1-1. This experiment investigated the interaction of a fully oxidized 375

  19. OECD MCCI 2-D Core Concrete Interaction (CCI) tests : CCI-2 test data report-thermalhydraulic results, Rev. 0 October 15, 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Lomperski, S.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S.

    2011-05-23

    The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core-concrete interaction when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. As a follow-on program to MACE, The Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction Experiments (MCCI) project is conducting reactor material experiments and associated analysis to achieve the following objectives: (1) resolve the ex-vessel debris coolability issue through a program that focuses on providing both confirmatory evidence and test data for the coolability mechanisms identified in MACE integral effects tests, and (2) address remaining uncertainties related to long-term two-dimensional molten core-concrete interactions under both wet and dry cavity conditions. Achievement of these two program objectives will demonstrate the efficacy of severe accident management guidelines for existing plants, and provide the technical basis for better containment designs for future plants. In terms of satisfying these objectives, the Management Board (MB) approved the conduct of two long-term 2-D Core-Concrete Interaction (CCI) experiments designed to provide information in several areas, including: (i) lateral vs. axial power split during dry core-concrete interaction, (ii) integral debris coolability data following late phase flooding, and (iii) data regarding the nature and extent of the cooling transient following breach of the crust formed at the melt-water interface. This data report provides thermal hydraulic test results from the CCI-2 experiment, which was conducted on August 24, 2004. Test specifications for CCI-2 are provided in Table 1-1. This experiment investigated the interaction of a fully oxidized 400 kg

  20. OECD MMCI 2-D Core Concrete Interaction (CCI) tests : CCCI-1 test data report-thermalhydraulic results. Rev 0 January 31, 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S.

    2011-05-23

    The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core-concrete interaction when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. As a follow-on program to MACE, The Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction Experiments (MCCI) project is conducting reactor material experiments and associated analysis to achieve the following objectives: (1) resolve the ex-vessel debris coolability issue through a program that focuses on providing both confirmatory evidence and test data for the coolability mechanisms identified in MACE integral effects tests, and (2) address remaining uncertainties related to long-term two-dimensional molten coreconcrete interactions under both wet and dry cavity conditions. Achievement of these two program objectives will demonstrate the efficacy of severe accident management guidelines for existing plants, and provide the technical basis for better containment designs for future plants. In terms of satisfying these objectives, the Management Board (MB) approved the conduct of two long-term 2-D Core-Concrete Interaction (CCI) experiments designed to provide information in several areas, including: (i) lateral vs. axial power split during dry core-concrete interaction, (ii) integral debris coolability data following late phase flooding, and (iii) data regarding the nature and extent of the cooling transient following breach of the crust formed at the melt-water interface. This data report provides thermal hydraulic test results from the CCI-1 experiment, which was conducted on December 19, 2003. Test specifications for CCI-1 are provided in Table 1-1. This experiment investigated the interaction of a fully oxidized 400 kg

  1. Impact of core-concrete interactions in the Mark I containment drywell on containment integrity and failure of the drywell liner

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, G.A.; Perkins, K.R.; Hodge, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    Previous containment analyses of the Mark I BWR have considered the ..gamma..-mode of containment failure as the dominant mode. The ..gamma..-mode is over-pressure failure of the drywell linear resulting in release of fission products and aerosols directly into the reactor building. The failure pressure for this event has been estimated at 132 psia. However, results from the SASA program analyses of the Mark I BWR have indicated that high temperatures in the drywell during ex-vessel core-concrete interactions may result in containment failure due to seal degradation prior to gross failure due to over-pressurization. It has become evident that a third mode of drywell failure must be considered under these specified accident conditions, in addition to the gross over-pressure failure and the leak-before-failure modes. This third mode of failure is local ablation of the steel drywell liner due to contact with the molten corium. In order to assess the drywell liner response to heat transfer from a pool of molten core debris during a core-concrete interaction, a calculational procedure consisting of both code calculations and hand calculations was developed. The general methodology was to calculate the melting attack on the steel liner by molten core debris that is simultaneously attacking the drywell concrete floor. 15 refs.

  2. Core-concrete molten pool dynamics and interfacial heat transfer. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    Theoretical models are derived for the heat transfer from molten oxide pools to an underlying concrete surface and from molten steel pools to a general concrete containment. To accomplish this, two separate effects models are first developed, one emphasizing the vigorous agitation of the molten pool by gases evolving from the concrete and the other considering the insulating effect of a slag layer produced by concrete melting. The resulting algebraic expressions, combined into a general core-concrete heat transfer representation, are shown to provide very good agreement with experiments involving molten steel pours into concrete crucibles.

  3. Chloride contamination of concrete by interaction with PVC combustion gases

    SciTech Connect

    Climent-Llorca, M.A.; Viqueira-Perez, E.; Vera-Almenar, G. de; Lopez-Atalaya, M.M.

    1998-02-01

    Chloride contamination of concrete by interaction with PVC combustion gases has been studied in a small-scale testing chamber, which allows simulating the conditions probably prevailing in PVC fires of different magnitude through variation of the quotient between mass of burnt PVC and exposed concrete surface (PVC/S). In all cases, a steep gradient of chloride concentration with depth is found after the fire: most chloride is detected in the outermost layer at depths below 5 mm. Surface chloride contents (within 5 mm) for prestressed and reinforced concretes, tested with a high (PVC/S) ratio, are as high as 2.5 and 5% by weight of cement, respectively. Chloride concentrations in concrete near the steels are below the corrosion thresholds after the fire, but they can rise by diffusion to values able to induce rebar corrosion, especially if concrete is exposed to a humid atmosphere.

  4. Application of Core Dynamics Modeling to Core-Mantle Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Weijia

    2003-01-01

    Observations have demonstrated that length of day (LOD) variation on decadal time scales results from exchange of axial angular momentum between the solid mantle and the core. There are in general four core-mantle interaction mechanisms that couple the core and the mantle. Of which, three have been suggested likely the dominant coupling mechanism for the decadal core-mantle angular momentum exchange, namely, gravitational core-mantle coupling arising from density anomalies in the mantle and in the core (including the inner core), the electromagnetic coupling arising from Lorentz force in the electrically conducting lower mantle (e.g. D-layer), and the topographic coupling arising from non-hydrostatic pressure acting on the core-mantle boundary (CMB) topography. In the past decades, most effort has been on estimating the coupling torques from surface geomagnetic observations (kinematic approach), which has provided insights on the core dynamical processes. In the meantime, it also creates questions and concerns on approximations in the studies that may invalidate the corresponding conclusions. The most serious problem is perhaps the approximations that are inconsistent with dynamical processes in the core, such as inconsistencies between the core surface flow beneath the CMB and the CMB topography, and that between the D-layer electric conductivity and the approximations on toroidal field at the CMB. These inconsistencies can only be addressed with numerical core dynamics modeling. In the past few years, we applied our MoSST (Modular, Scalable, Self-consistent and Three-dimensional) core dynamics model to study core-mantle interactions together with geodynamo simulation, aiming at assessing the effect of the dynamical inconsistencies in the kinematic studies on core-mantle coupling torques. We focus on topographic and electromagnetic core-mantle couplings and find that, for the topographic coupling, the consistency between the core flow and the CMB topography is

  5. Characterization of debris/concrete interactions for advanced research reactor and commercial BWR severe accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, C.R.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Greene, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    The core concrete interaction (CCI) is an important phase of any severe accident where the reactor vessel has failed and core debris is relocated onto the containment basemat. In recent calculations performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), CCI has been studied for severe accidents occurring in a commercial Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and in a high-power density Department of Energy (DOE) research reactor that is currently in the conceptual design stage. Because of differences in the debris decay heating level, core debris composition and inventory, and containment design, the characteristics of the resulting CCI and containment response are different for the two reactor types. Furthermore, proper selection of the basemat concrete type and the provision of an overlying water pool are found to be significant CCI mitigating factors for the research reactor and thus constitute important design considerations for any future reactor type. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Interactions between concrete and brine at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, S.J.; Nowak, E.J. ); Wakeley, L.D.; Poole, T.S. . Structures Lab.)

    1992-05-01

    A concrete liner emplaced in 1984 in a shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant has served as a natural laboratory for observing interactions among concrete, evaporite rocks, and brine. During a routine inspection of the liner in the spring of 1990, discoloration, deposition of secondary salts, wet areas with exposed aggregate grains, softening of paste, surficial spalling, and cracking were observed locally on the concrete surface of the liner. Some construction joints showed apparent leakage of brine from behind the liner, which was nominally 50 cm thick. Seepage brines were nearly saturated relative to CaCI{sub 2} and contained lesser amounts of MgCI{sub 2} and KCI, and minor NaCl. The liner surface was locally altered to a 1-2 cm friable hygroscopic layer containing little cement paste; concrete cores (7 or 10 cm diameter) through the liner at depths of 248, 254, 255, and 271 m showed similar degrees of alteration at the liner/rock interface. The most profound alteration of concrete was developed in a {approximately}7 cm zone subparallel to and straddling the construction joint cored at a depth of {approximately}254.5 m. This zone was extensively microfractured, transected aggregate grains, and contained brucite, gypsum, magnesium hydroxychloride hydrate, and locally calcium chloroaluminate instead of the usual phases of hydrated portland cement. Several mechanisms of chemical degradation have been proposed, the most likely being attack by magnesium ions.

  7. Interactions between concrete and brine at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, S.J.; Nowak, E.J.; Wakeley, L.D.; Poole, T.S.

    1991-12-31

    A concrete liner emplaced in 1984 in a shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant has served as a natural laboratory for observing interactions among concrete, evaporite rocks, and brine. During a routine inspection of the liner in the spring of 1990, discoloration, deposition of secondary salts, wet areas with exposed aggregate grains, softening of paste, surficial spalling, and cracking were observed locally on the concrete surface of the liner. Some construction joints showed apparent leakage of brine from behind the liner, which was nominally 50 cm thick. Seepage brines were nearly saturated relative to CaCl{sub 2} and contained lesser amounts of MgCl{sub 2} and KCl, and minor NaCl. The liner surface was locally altered to a 1--2 cm friable hygroscopic layer containing little cement paste; concrete cores (7 or 10 cm diameter) through the liner at depths of 248, 254, 255, and 271 m showed similar degrees of alteration at the liner/rock interface. The most profound alteration of concrete was developed in a {approximately}7 cm zone subparallel to and straddling the construction joint cored at a depth of {approximately}254.5 m. This zone was extensively microfractured, transected aggregate grains, and contained brucite, gypsum, magnesium hydroxychloride hydrate, and locally calcium chloroaluminate instead of the usual phases of hydrated portland cement. Several mechanisms of chemical degradation have been proposed, the most likely being attack by magnesium ions.

  8. Experimental and analytical studies of sodium interactions with various concretes. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Suo-Anttila, A.; Smaardyk, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Mechanistic models of sodium/concrete interactions are described. The SCAM model of interactions with basaltic concrete is being verified by experiments. Modelling of sodium interactions with limestone concrete is still at a preliminary stage but shows promise of being able to predict quantitatively the experimental data. Comparisons with experimental data are presented.

  9. A Scoping Analysis Of The Impact Of SiC Cladding On Late-Phase Accident Progression Involving Core–Concrete Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.

    2015-11-01

    The overall objective of the current work is to carry out a scoping analysis to determine the impact of ATF on late phase accident progression; in particular, the molten core-concrete interaction portion of the sequence that occurs after the core debris fails the reactor vessel and relocates into containment. This additional study augments previous work by including kinetic effects that govern chemical reaction rates during core-concrete interaction. The specific ATF considered as part of this study is SiC-clad UO2.

  10. Ice Core Dating Software for Interactive Dating of Ice Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurbatov, A. V.; Mayewski, P. A.; Abdul Jawad, B. S.

    2005-12-01

    Scientists involved in ice core dating are well familiar with the problem of identification and recording the depth of annual signals using stable isotopes, glaciochemistry, ECM (electrical conductivity), DEP (dielectric properties) and particle counter data. Traditionally all parameters used for ice core dating were plotted as a function of depth, printed and after years were marked on the paper, converted to depth vs. age time scale. To expedite this tedious and manual process we developed interactive computer software, Ice core Dating (ICD) program. ICD is written in Java programming language, and uses GPL and GPL site licensed graphic libraries. The same 3.5 Mb in size pre-compiled single jar file, that includes all libraries and application code, was successfully tested on WinOS, Mac OSX, Linux, and Solaris operating systems running Java VM version 1.4. We have followed the modular design philosophy in our source code so potential integration with other software modules, data bases and server side distributed computer environments can be easily implemented. We expect to continue development of new suites of tools for easy integration of ice core data with other available time proxies. ICD is thoroughly documented and comes with a technical reference and cookbook that explains the purpose of the software and its many features, and provides examples to help new users quickly become familiar with the operation and philosophy of the software. ICD is available as a free download from the Climate Change Institute web site ( under the terms of GNU GPL public license.

  11. Geodynamo Modeling of Core-Mantle Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Wei-Jia; Chao, Benjamin F.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Angular momentum exchange between the Earth's mantle and core influences the Earth's rotation on time scales of decades and longer, in particular in the length of day (LOD) which have been measured with progressively increasing accuracy for the last two centuries. There are four possible coupling mechanisms for transferring the axial angular momentum across the core-mantle boundary (CMB): viscous, magnetic, topography, and gravitational torques. Here we use our scalable, modularized, fully dynamic geodynamo model for the core to assess the importance of these torques. This numerical model, as an extension of the Kuang-Bloxham model that has successfully simulated the generation of the Earth's magnetic field, is used to obtain numerical results in various physical conditions in terms of specific parameterization consistent with the dynamical processes in the fluid outer core. The results show that depending on the electrical conductivity of the lower mantle and the amplitude of the boundary topography at CMB, both magnetic and topographic couplings can contribute significantly to the angular momentum exchange. This implies that the core-mantle interactions are far more complex than has been assumed and that there is unlikely a single dominant coupling mechanism for the observed decadal LOD variation.

  12. In situ interaction between different concretes and Opalinus Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenni, A.; Mäder, U.; Lerouge, C.; Gaboreau, S.; Schwyn, B.

    Interactions between cementitious materials and claystone are driven by chemical gradients in pore water and might lead to mineralogical modifications in both materials. In the context of a radioactive waste repository, this alteration might influence safety-relevant clay properties like swelling pressure, permeability, or specific retention. In this study, interfaces of Opalinus Clay, a potential host-rock in Switzerland, and three concrete formulations emplaced in the Cement-Clay Interaction (CI) Experiment at the Mont Terri Underground Laboratory (St. Ursanne, Switzerland) were analysed after 2.2 years of interaction. Sampling techniques with interface stabilisation followed by inclined intersection drilling were developed. Element distribution maps of the concrete-clay interfaces show complex zonations like sulphur enrichment, zones depleted in Ca but enriched in Mg, strong Mg enrichment adjacent to the interface, or carbonation. Consistently, the carbonated zone shows a reduced porosity. Properties of the complex zonation strongly depend on cement properties like water content and pH (ordinary Portland cement vs. low-pH cement). An increased Ca or Mg content in the first 100 μm next to the interface is observed in Opalinus Clay. The cation occupancy of clay exchanger phases next to the ordinary Portland cement interface is depleted in Mg, but enriched in Na, whereas porosity shows no changes at all. The current data suggests migration of CO2/HCO3-, SO42-, and Mg species from clay into cement. pH decrease in the cement next to the interface leads to instability of ettringite, and the sulphate liberated diffuses towards higher pH regions (away from the interface), where additional ettringite can form.

  13. Refocusing core intuitions: A concretizing role for analogy in conceptual change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, David E.

    1993-12-01

    This article outlines a theoretical framework for viewing students' conceptions and the effect of analogies on students' conceptions. There are several points involved in this perspective: (a) Components of students' conceptions can be considered to be at various levels - verbal-symbolic knowledge, conscious models, implicit models, and core intuitions. (b) Components at the deeper, less articulated levels (especially core intuitions) are particularly entrenched. (c) Conceptual change in cases involving core intuitions can be considered to be the adjustment of attributive clusters for a class of situations. (d) In order to change the attributive cluster for a target situation, the target must be enriched with new concrete entities or features, providing nuclei for the reattribution of agency. (e) Analogies can help with this reattribution or refocusing by helping the student enrich his or her representation of the target situation.

  14. Core networks for visual-concrete and abstract thought content: a brain electric microstate analysis.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Dietrich; Pascual-Marqui, Roberto D; Strik, Werner K; Koenig, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Commonality of activation of spontaneously forming and stimulus-induced mental representations is an often made but rarely tested assumption in neuroscience. In a conjunction analysis of two earlier studies, brain electric activity during visual-concrete and abstract thoughts was studied. The conditions were: in study 1, spontaneous stimulus-independent thinking (post-hoc, visual imagery or abstract thought were identified); in study 2, reading of single nouns ranking high or low on a visual imagery scale. In both studies, subjects' tasks were similar: when prompted, they had to recall the last thought (study 1) or the last word (study 2). In both studies, subjects had no instruction to classify or to visually imagine their thoughts, and accordingly were not aware of the studies' aim. Brain electric data were analyzed into functional topographic brain images (using LORETA) of the last microstate before the prompt (study 1) and of the word-type discriminating event-related microstate after word onset (study 2). Conjunction analysis across the two studies yielded commonality of activation of core networks for abstract thought content in left anterior superior regions, and for visual-concrete thought content in right temporal-posterior inferior regions. The results suggest that two different core networks are automatedly activated when abstract or visual-concrete information, respectively, enters working memory, without a subject task or instruction about the two classes of information, and regardless of internal or external origin, and of input modality. These core machineries of working memory thus are invariant to source or modality of input when treating the two types of information. PMID:19646538

  15. Laboratory-scale sodium-carbonate aggregate concrete interactions. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Westrich, H.R.; Stockman, H.W.; Suo-Anttila, A.

    1983-09-01

    A series of laboratory-scale experiments was made at 600/sup 0/C to identify the important heat-producing chemical reactions between sodium and carbonate aggregate concretes. Reactions between sodium and carbonate aggregate were found to be responsible for the bulk of heat production in sodium-concrete tests. Exothermic reactions were initiated at 580+-30/sup 0/C for limestone and dolostone aggregates as well as for hydrated limestone concrete, and at 540+-10/sup 0/C for dehydrated limestone concrete, but were ill-defined for dolostone concrete. Major reaction products included CaO, MgO, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, Na/sub 2/O, NaOH, and elemental carbon. Sodium hydroxide, which forms when water is released from cement phases, causes slow erosion of the concrete with little heat production. The time-temperature profiles of these experiments have been modeled with a simplified version of the SLAM computer code, which has allowed derivation of chemical reaction rate coefficients.

  16. Seismic deformation analysis of a rockfill dam with a bituminous concrete core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghahreman Nejad, Behrooz; Soden, Phillip; Taiebat, Hossein; Murphy, Steve

    2010-06-01

    This paper reports the results of seismic deformation analyses of Shur River Dam, which is an 84 m high water retaining rockfill embankment with a bituminous concrete core. The proposed Shur River Dam is located in a region of high seismicity in Kerman province, Iran. The purpose of the dam is to store raw and process water for use in the Sarcheshmeh Copper Production Complex. The maximum crest settlement of the dam under three earthquake loadings was evaluated using simplified procedures and numerical analysis. Plane strain, dynamic deformation analysis of the Shur Dam has been performed using the commercial software FLAC and its built-in Mohr-Coulomb elastic-plastic model. The main objective of these analyses has been to identify the earthquake induced movements that could lead to uncontrolled release of water. The predicted deformations are compared with the results of simplified analyses and the observed displacements in other embankment dams [1] during past earthquakes. The relative movement of the asphaltic core with respect to the rockfill material on either side of the core was also studied.

  17. Adhesive liquid core optical fibers for crack detection and repairs in polymer and concrete matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dry, Carolyn M.

    1995-04-01

    This work is an investigation into the feasibility of using liquid core optical fibers for the detection and self repair of cracking in cement or polymer materials generated by dynamic or static loading. These experiments rely on our current research sponsored by the National Science Foundation. It combines that work on the concept of internal adhesive delivery from hollow fibers for repair with nondestructive fiber optic analysis of the crack localization and volume within the same system. The need to monitor the internal state of civil structures and materials is great. Existing instrumentation techniques that mainly rely on magnetism, electricity, or stress gauges are limited if used for remote measurements in concrete or composites. They are sensitive to electrical magnetic noises and they degrade in the environment over time. Optical fibers are attractive because they are immune to electromagnetic interference and are sensitive over long distances. The combination of the ability to remotely measure crack occurrence in real time and determine the location and volume of crack damage in the matrix is unique in the field of optic sensors (or any sensors in general). The combination of this with crack repair, rebonding of any detached or broken fibers, and replenishment of liquid core chemicals, when necessary, make this a potentially powerful sensing and repair tool. Work on this research topic of the combination sponsored by the University of Illinois, looks very promising as a rapid innovative advance.

  18. Clogging evaluation of porous asphalt concrete cores in conjunction with medical x-ray computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yu-Min; Hsu, Chen-Yu; Lin, Jyh-Dong

    2014-03-01

    This study was to assess the porosity of Porous Asphalt Concrete (PAC) in conjunction with a medical X-ray computed tomography (CT) facility. The PAC was designed as the surface course to achieve the target porosity 18%. There were graded aggregates, soils blended with 50% of coarse sand, and crushed gravel wrapped with geotextile compacted and served as the base, subbase, and infiltration layers underneath the PAC. The test site constructed in 2004 is located in Northern of Taiwan in which the daily traffic has been light and limited. The porosity of the test track was investigated. The permeability coefficient of PAC was found severely degraded from 2.2×10-1 to 1.2×10-3 -cm/sec, after nine-year service, while the permeability below the surface course remained intact. Several field PAC cores were drilled and brought to evaluate the distribution of air voids by a medical X-ray CT nondestructively. The helical mode was set to administrate the X-ray CT scan and two cross-sectional virtual slices were exported in seconds for analyzing air voids distribution. It shows that the clogging of voids occurred merely 20mm below the surface and the porosity can reduce as much about 3%. It was also found that the roller compaction can decrease the porosity by 4%. The permeability reduction in this test site can attribute to the voids of PAC that were compacted by roller during the construction and filled by the dusts on the surface during the service.

  19. Detection of Chemical Interactions Between the Core and Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, R. J.

    2002-05-01

    Unambiguous detection of chemical interaction between Earth's outer core and lower mantle would be a major breakthrough in understanding mass transport within the mantle. Although most geophysicists and geochemists accept the possibilities of both slab penetration into the lower mantle, and upwelling of hot plumes from the lower mantle into the upper mantle, as yet, no unambiguous geochemical signal can be tied directly to the lower mantle or outer core. Demonstration of an outer core component in mantle-derived materials would prove that at least some matter traverses the distance between the core and mantle. Detection of chemical interaction between the core and mantle is potentially possible via the study of a rather limited suite of elements. There are at least two qualifying criteria for such elements: 1) contrast in concentration between core and mantle such that modest chemical interaction between the metallic core and silicate mantle would be detectible in the "contaminated" or "altered" silicate, 2) the relative abundances of two or more associated elements must record a uniquely core signature. Elements that may meet these requirements include the highly siderophile elements (Re, Au, Pt, Pd, Ir, Rh, Ru, Os) and some moderately siderophile elements (e.g. Au and W). Isotopic systems are of greatest interest in prosecuting this task because characteristic isotopic signals may be immune to subsequent processing in the mantle or crust. Pros and cons in application, and overviews of existing data will be presented for three isotopic systems. Inner core-outer core fractionation may have led to Pt/Os and Re/Os ratios in the outer core that can be generated only by liquid metal-solid metal interaction. Depending on the age of the inner core and the partitioning characteristics of Pt-Re-Os, an outer core signature may be recorded by the long-lived 190Pt-186Os and 187Re-187Os systems. 2 and 3) Core-mantle segregation likely fractionated Hf from W and Pd from Ag

  20. Effective Interactions from No Core Shell Model

    SciTech Connect

    Dikmen, E.; Lisetskiy, A. F.; Barrett, B. R.; Navratil, P.; Vary, J. P.

    2008-11-11

    We construct the many-body effective Hamiltonian for pf-shell by carrying out 2({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega}. NCSM calculations at the 2-body cluster level. We demonstrate how the effective Hamiltonian derived from realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials for the 2({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega} NCSM space should be modified to properly account for the many-body correlations produced by truncating to the major pf-shell. We obtain two-body effective interactions for the pf-shell by using direct projection and use them to reproduce the results of large scale NCSM for other light Ca isotopes.

  1. The Interaction of Concreteness and Phonological Similarity in Verbal Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Acheson, Daniel J.; Postle, Bradley R.; MacDonald, Maryellen C.

    2010-01-01

    Although phonological representations have been a primary focus of verbal working memory research, lexical-semantic manipulations also influence performance. In the present study, the authors investigated whether a classic phenomenon in verbal working memory, the phonological similarity effect (PSE), is modulated by a lexical-semantic variable, word concreteness. Phonological overlap and concreteness were factorially manipulated in each of four experiments across which presentation modality (Experiments 1 and 2: visual presentation; Experiments 3 and 4: auditory presentation) and concurrent articulation (present in Experiments 2 and 4) were manipulated. In addition to main effects of each variable, results show a Phonological Overlap × Concreteness interaction whereby the magnitude of the PSE is greater for concrete word lists relative to abstract word lists. This effect is driven by superior item memory for nonoverlapping, concrete lists and is robust to the modality of presentation and concurrent articulation. These results demonstrate that in verbal working memory tasks, there are multiple routes to the phonological form of a word and that maintenance and retrieval occur over more than just a phonological level. PMID:20053042

  2. Interaction of RNA polymerase II with acetylated nucleosomal core particles

    SciTech Connect

    Pineiro, M.; Gonzalez, P.J.; Hernandez, F.; Palacian, E. )

    1991-05-31

    Chemical acetylation of nucleosomal cores is accompanied by an increase in their efficiency as in vitro transcription templates. Low amounts of acetic anhydride cause preferential modification of the amino-terminal tails of core histones. Modification of these domains, which causes moderate structural effects, is apparently correlated with the observed stimulation of RNA synthesis. In contrast, extensive modification of the globular regions of core histones, which is accompanied by a large structural relaxation of the particle, causes little additional effect on transcription. Acetylation of the amino-terminal domains of histones might stimulate transcription by changing the interaction of the histone tails with components of the transcriptional machinery.

  3. Influence of Steel Reinforcement on In-Situ Stress Evaluation in Concrete Structures by the Core-Drilling Method

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, M. J.; Pessiki, S.

    2006-03-06

    The core-drilling method is an emerging technique for evaluating in-situ stress in a concrete structure. A small hole is drilled into the structure, and the deformations in the vicinity of the hole are measured and related via elasticity theory to the stress. The method is similar to the ASTM hole-drilling strain-gauge method excepting that displacements rather than strains are the measured quantities. The technique may be considered nondestructive since the ability of the structure to perform its function is unaffected, and the hole is easily repaired. Displacement measurements in the current work are performed using 3D digital image correlation and industrial photogrammetry. The current paper addresses perturbations in the method caused by steel reinforcement within the concrete. The reinforcement is significantly stiffer than the surrounding concrete, altering the expected displacement field. A numerical investigation performed indicates an under-prediction of stress by as much as 18 percent in a heavily reinforced structure, although the effect is significantly smaller for more common amounts of reinforcement.

  4. Outer Shock Interaction in Young Core-Collapse SNRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Joon

    2014-01-01

    Studying the environments in which core-collapse supernovae (SNe) explode and then subsequently evolve is essential to establish the nature of the mass loss and the explosion of the progenitor star. The spatial structure of the outer shock in young core-collapse SNRs provides an opportunity to study the nature of the medium into which the remnant has been expanding. We present our X-ray study of the outer shocks in young core-collapse SNRs in our Galaxy. For Cas A and G292.0+1.8, we find that both remnants have been likely interacting with dense red supergiant winds. For other remnants with bright thermal X-ray emission from the shell, we suggest that they are interacting with pre-existing circumstellar structure. We discuss the nature of the winds and the progenitor stars.

  5. Role of ligand-ligand vs. core-core interactions in gold nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Milowska, Karolina Z; Stolarczyk, Jacek K

    2016-05-14

    The controlled assembly of ligand-coated gold nanoclusters (NCs) into larger structures paves the way for new applications ranging from electronics to nanomedicine. Here, we demonstrate through rigorous density functional theory (DFT) calculations employing novel functionals accounting for van der Waals forces that the ligand-ligand interactions determine whether stable assemblies can be formed. The study of NCs with different core sizes, symmetry forms, ligand lengths, mutual crystal orientations, and in the presence of a solvent suggests that core-to-core van der Waals interactions play a lesser role in the assembly. The dominant interactions originate from combination of steric effects, augmented by ligand bundling on NC facets, and related to them changes in electronic properties induced by neighbouring NCs. We also show that, in contrast to standard colloidal theory approach, DFT correctly reproduces the surprising experimental trends in the strength of the inter-particle interaction observed when varying the length of the ligands. The results underpin the importance of understanding NC interactions in designing gold NCs for a specific function. PMID:27097887

  6. Earthquake Resilient Tall Reinforced Concrete Buildings at Near-Fault Sites Using Base Isolation and Rocking Core Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calugaru, Vladimir

    This dissertation pursues three main objectives: (1) to investigate the seismic response of tall reinforced concrete core wall buildings, designed following current building codes, subjected to pulse type near-fault ground motion, with special focus on the relation between the characteristics of the ground motion and the higher-modes of response; (2) to determine the characteristics of a base isolation system that results in nominally elastic response of the superstructure of a tall reinforced concrete core wall building at the maximum considered earthquake level of shaking; and (3) to demonstrate that the seismic performance, cost, and constructability of a base-isolated tall reinforced concrete core wall building can be significantly improved by incorporating a rocking core-wall in the design. First, this dissertation investigates the seismic response of tall cantilever wall buildings subjected to pulse type ground motion, with special focus on the relation between the characteristics of ground motion and the higher-modes of response. Buildings 10, 20, and 40 stories high were designed such that inelastic deformation was concentrated at a single flexural plastic hinge at their base. Using nonlinear response history analysis, the buildings were subjected to near-fault seismic ground motions as well as simple close-form pulses, which represented distinct pulses within the ground motions. Euler-Bernoulli beam models with lumped mass and lumped plasticity were used to model the buildings. Next, this dissertation investigates numerically the seismic response of six seismically base-isolated (BI) 20-story reinforced concrete buildings and compares their response to that of a fixed-base (FB) building with a similar structural system above ground. Located in Berkeley, California, 2 km from the Hayward fault, the buildings are designed with a core wall that provides most of the lateral force resistance above ground. For the BI buildings, the following are investigated

  7. Comparison of core sampling and visual inspection for assessment of concrete sewer pipe condition.

    PubMed

    Stanić, N; de Haan, C; Tirion, M; Langeveld, J G; Clemens, F H L R

    2013-01-01

    Sewer systems are costly to construct and even more costly to replace, requiring proper asset management. Sewer asset management relies to a large extent on available information. In sewer systems where pipe corrosion is the dominant failure mechanism, visual inspection by closed circuit television (CCTV) and core sampling are among the methods mostly applied to assess sewer pipe condition. This paper compares visual inspection and drill core analysis in order to enhance further understanding of the limitations and potentials of both methods. Both methods have been applied on a selected sewer reach in the city of The Hague, which was reportedly subject to pipe corrosion. Results show that both methods, visual inspection and core sampling, are associated with large uncertainties and that there is no obvious correlation between results of visual inspection and results of drill core analysis. PMID:23752377

  8. Weak-interaction processes in core-collapse supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Langanke, K.

    2015-02-24

    Weak interaction processes play an important role for the dynamics of a core-collapse supernova. Due to progress of nuclear modeling and constrained by data it has been possible to improve the rates of these processes for supernova conditions decisively. This manuscript describes the recent advances and the current status in deriving electron capture rates on nuclei and of inelastic neutrino-nucleus scattering for applications in supernova simulations and briefly discusses their impact on such studies.

  9. Iron-carbonate interaction at Earth's core-mantle boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorfman, S. M.; Badro, J.; Nabiei, F.; Prakapenka, V.; Gillet, P.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon storage and flux in the deep Earth are moderated by oxygen fugacity and interactions with iron-bearing phases. The amount of carbon stored in Earth's mantle versus the core depends on carbon-iron chemistry at the core-mantle boundary. Oxidized carbonates subducted from Earth's surface to the lowermost mantle may encounter reduced Fe0 metal from disproportionation of Fe2+ in lower mantle silicates or mixing with the core. To understand the fate of carbonates in the lowermost mantle, we have performed experiments on sandwiches of single-crystal (Ca0.6Mg0.4)CO3 dolomite and Fe foil in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell at lower mantle conditions of 49-110 GPa and 1800-2500 K. Syntheses were conducted with in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction to identify phase assemblages. After quench to ambient conditions, samples were sectioned with a focused Ga+ ion beam for composition analysis with transmission electron microscopy. At the centers of the heated spots, iron melted and reacted completely with the carbonate to form magnesiowüstite, iron carbide, diamond, magnesium-rich carbonate and calcium carbonate. In samples heated at 49 and 64 GPa, the two carbonates exhibit a eutectoid texture. In the sample heated at 110 GPa, the carbonates form rounded ~150-nm-diameter grains with a higher modal proportion of interspersed diamonds. The presence of reduced iron in the deep lower mantle and core-mantle boundary region will promote the formation of diamonds in carbonate-bearing subducted slabs. The complete reaction of metallic iron to oxides and carbides in the presence of mantle carbonate supports the formation of these phases at the Earth's core-mantle boundary and in ultra-low velocity zones.

  10. Resolving 20 Years of Inconsistent Interactions Between Lexical Familiarity and Orthography, Concreteness, and Polysemy

    PubMed Central

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann

    2015-01-01

    Numerous word recognition studies conducted over the past 2 decades are examined. These studies manipulated lexical familiarity by presenting words of high versus low printed frequency and most reported an interaction between printed frequency and one of several second variables, namely, orthographic regularity, semantic concreteness, or polysemy. However, the direction of these interactions was inconsistent from study to study. Six new experiments clarify these discordant results. The first two demonstrate that words of the same low printed frequency are not always equally familiar to subjects. Instead, subjects’ ratings of “experiential familiarity” suggest that many of the low-printed-frequency words used in prior studies varied along this dimension. Four lexical decision experiments reexamine the prior findings by orthogonally manipulating lexical familiarity, as assessed by experiential familiarity ratings, with bigram frequency, semantic concreteness, and number of meanings. The results suggest that of these variables, only experiential familiarity reliably affects word recognition latencies. This in turn suggests that previous inconsistent findings are due to confounding experiential familiarity with a second variable. PMID:6242753

  11. Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements. Part 3: Prestressed hollow-core slabs

    SciTech Connect

    Hoang, L.C.

    1997-12-31

    This paper deals with the shear strength of prestressed hollow-core slabs determined by the theory of plasticity. Two failure mechanisms are considered in order to derive the solutions. In the case of sliding failure in a diagonal crack, the shear strength is determined by means of the crack sliding model developed by Jin-Ping Zhang. The model takes into account the resistance against the formation of cracks due to prestressing as well as the variation of the prestressing force in the transfer zone. Due to the fact that the anchorage of the reinforcement takes place by bond, a rotation failure, which is indeed by a crack formed at the support with subsequent slip of the reinforcement, is also considered. This failure mode is likely to occur in cases with a high prestressing force combined with a short shear span. The theoretical calculations are compared with test results form the literature. A good agreement has been found.

  12. Baryon-Baryon Interactions ---Nijmegen Extended-Soft-Core Models---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijken, T. A.; Nagels, M. M.; Yamamoto, Y.

    We review the Nijmegen extended-soft-core (ESC) models for the baryon-baryon (BB) interactions of the SU(3) flavor-octet of baryons (N, Lambda, Sigma, and Xi). The interactions are basically studied from the meson-exchange point of view, in the spirit of the Yukawa-approach to the nuclear force problem [H. Yukawa, ``On the interaction of Elementary Particles I'', Proceedings of the Physico-Mathematical Society of Japan 17 (1935), 48], using generalized soft-core Yukawa-functions. These interactions are supplemented with (i) multiple-gluon-exchange, and (ii) structural effects due to the quark-core of the baryons. We present in some detail the most recent extended-soft-core model, henceforth referred to as ESC08, which is the most complete, sophisticated, and successful interaction-model. Furthermore, we discuss briefly its predecessor the ESC04-model [Th. A. Rijken and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. C 73 (2006), 044007; Th. A. Rijken and Y. Yamamoto, Ph ys. Rev. C 73 (2006), 044008; Th. A. Rijken and Y. Yamamoto, nucl-th/0608074]. For the soft-core one-boson-exchange (OBE) models we refer to the literature [Th. A. Rijken, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Few-Body Problems in Nuclear and Particle Physics, Quebec, 1974, ed. R. J. Slobodrian, B. Cuec and R. Ramavataram (Presses Universitè Laval, Quebec, 1975), p. 136; Th. A. Rijken, Ph. D. thesis, University of Nijmegen, 1975; M. M. Nagels, Th. A. Rijken and J. J. de Swart, Phys. Rev. D 17 (1978), 768; P. M. M. Maessen, Th. A. Rijken and J. J. de Swart, Phys. Rev. C 40 (1989), 2226; Th. A. Rijken, V. G. J. Stoks and Y. Yamamoto, Phys. Rev. C 59 (1999), 21; V. G. J. Stoks and Th. A. Rijken, Phys. Rev. C 59 (1999), 3009]. All ingredients of these latter models are also part of ESC08, and so a description of ESC08 comprises all models so far in principle. The extended-soft-core (ESC) interactions consist of local- and non-local-potentials due to (i) one-boson-exchanges (OBE), which are the members of nonets of

  13. Innovative hyperspectral imaging (HSI) based techniques applied to end-of-life concrete drill core characterization for optimal dismantling and materials recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Picone, Nicoletta; Serranti, Silvia

    2015-02-01

    The reduction of EOL concrete disposal in landfills, together with a lower exploitation of primary raw materials, generates a strong interest to develop, set-up and apply innovative technologies to maximize Construction and Demolition Waste (C&DW) conversion into useful secondary raw materials. Such a goal can be reached starting from a punctual in-situ efficient characterization of the objects to dismantle in order to develop demolition actions aimed to set up innovative mechanical-physical processes to recover the different materials and products to recycle. In this paper an innovative recycling-oriented characterization strategy based on HyperSpectral Imaging (HSI) is described in order to identify aggregates and mortar in drill core samples from end-of-life concrete. To reach this goal, concrete drill cores from a demolition site were systematically investigated by HSI in the short wave infrared field (1000-2500 nm). Results obtained by the adoption of the HSI approach showed as this technology can be successfully applied to analyze quality and characteristics of C&DW before dismantling and as final product to reutilise after demolition-milling-classification actions. The proposed technique and the related recognition logics, through the spectral signature detection of finite physical domains (i.e. concrete slice and/or particle) of different nature and composition, allows; i) to develop characterization procedures able to quantitatively assess end-of-life concrete compositional/textural characteristics and ii) to set up innovative sorting strategies to qualify the different materials constituting drill core samples.

  14. Antivirals interacting with hepatitis B virus core protein and core mutations may misdirect capsid assembly in a similar fashion.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Hans Jörg; Deres, Karl; Mildenberger, Maria; Schröder, Claus H

    2003-12-15

    Recently, heteroarylpyrimidines (HAP) have been identified as potent inhibitors of capsid maturation. Here we discuss the HAP mode of action comparing the aggregation phenotype of wild-type and mutant core proteins with the respective phenotype imposed by HAP or other agents interacting with core protein. Pertinent tests include core fusion protein-mediated transactivation in a two-hybrid system and capsid formation. The finding that transactivation appeared to be unaffected by HAP, or by mutations preventing assembly, is surprising and raises the question for the structure of the interacting hybrid core proteins: Are they monomers, dimers or even oligomers? A direct activity of core fusion monomers is not excluded but considered to be highly unlikely due to rapid homodimerisation. A role of core fusion dimers in transactivation would indicate distinct interactions with a differential sensitivity to HAP. Regarding significance of data gained in two-hybrid systems, caution is necessary, since the site of transactivation is the nucleus, whereas the real site of the core protein interactions during replication is the cytoplasm. Apparently, HAP leave the monomer-monomer interface of HBV core protein unaffected but prevent capsid maturation by interacting with a region known to be crucial for dimer multimerisation and formation of stable capsids. It is suggested to use antivirals as tools for the elucidation of early steps in genome replication and capsid assembly. A frame for this could be the hypothesis that the virus uses soluble core protein, namely intracellular maturation intermediates of HbeAg for a core targeted self-restriction of replication. PMID:14637185

  15. Lunar Power Dissipated by Tides and Core-Mantle Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.; Yoder, C. F.; Dickey, J. O.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of Lunar Laser Ranges gives information on lunar tidal dissipation and a molten core. For the ancient moon tidal heating of the interior and heating at the core-mantle boundary could have rivaled radiogenic heating.

  16. Resonant-spin-ordering of vortex cores in interacting mesomagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Shikha

    2013-03-01

    The magnetic system of interacting vortex-state elements have a dynamically reconfigurable ground state characterized by different relative polarities and chiralities of the individual disks; and have a corresponding dynamically controlled spectrum of collective excitation modes that determine the microwave absorption of the crystal. The development of effective methods for dynamic control of the ground state in this vortex-type magnonic crystal is of interest both from fundamental and technological viewpoints. Control of vortex chirality has been demonstrated previously using various techniques; however, control and manipulation of vortex polarities remain challenging. In this work, we present a robust and efficient way of selecting the ground state configuration of interacting magnetic elements using resonant-spin-ordering approach. This is achieved by driving the system from the linear regime of constant vortex gyrations to the non-linear regime of vortex-core reversals at a fixed excitation frequency of one of the coupled modes. Subsequently reducing the excitation field to the linear regime stabilizes the system to a polarity combination whose resonant frequency is decoupled from the initialization frequency. We have utilized the resonant approach to transition between the two polarity combinations (parallel or antiparallel) in a model system of connected dot-pairs which may form the building blocks of vortex-based magnonic crystals. Taking a step further, we have extended the technique by studying many-particle system for its potential as spin-torque oscillators or logic devices. Work at Argonne was supported by the U. S. DOE, Office of BES, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. This work was in part supported by grant DMR-1015175 from the U. S. National Science Foundation, by a Contract from the U.S. Army TARDEC and RDECOM.

  17. Intermediate-scale tests of sodium interactions with calcite and dolomite aggregate concretes. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Randich, E.; Acton, R.U.

    1983-09-01

    Two intermediate-scale tests were performed to compare the behavior of calcite and dolomite aggregate concretes when attacked by molten sodium. The tests were performed as part of an interlaboratory comparison between Sandia National Laboratories and Hanford Engineering Development Laboratories. Results of the tests at Sandia National Laboratories are reported here. The results show that both concretes exhibit similar exothermic reactions with molten sodium. The large difference in reaction vigor suggested by thermodynamic considerations of CO/sub 2/ release from calcite and dolomite was not realized. Penetration rates of 1.4 to 1.7 mm/min were observed for short periods of time with reaction zone temperatures in excess of 800/sup 0/C during the energetic attack. The penetration was not uniform over the entire sodium-concrete contact area. Rapid attack may be localized due to inhomogeneities in the concrete. The chemical reaction zone is less then one cm thick for the calcite concrete but is about seven cm thick for the dolomite concrete.

  18. High performance multi-core iron oxide nanoparticles for magnetic hyperthermia: microwave synthesis, and the role of core-to-core interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco-Andujar, C.; Ortega, D.; Southern, P.; PankhurstJoint Last Authors., Q. A.; Thanh, N. T. K.

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of magnetic hyperthermia as either a stand-alone or adjunct therapy for cancer is still far from being optimised due to the variable performance found in many iron oxide nanoparticle systems, including commercially available formulations. Herein, we present a reproducible and potentially scalable microwave-based method to make stable citric acid coated multi-core iron oxide nanoparticles, with exceptional magnetic heating parameters, viz. intrinsic loss parameters (ILPs) of up to 4.1 nH m2 kg-1, 35% better than the best commercial equivalents. We also probe the core-to-core magnetic interactions in the particles via remanence-derived Henkel and ΔM plots. These reveal a monotonic dependence of the ILP on the magnetic interaction field Hint, and show that the interactions are demagnetising in nature, and act to hinder the magnetic heating mechanism.The adoption of magnetic hyperthermia as either a stand-alone or adjunct therapy for cancer is still far from being optimised due to the variable performance found in many iron oxide nanoparticle systems, including commercially available formulations. Herein, we present a reproducible and potentially scalable microwave-based method to make stable citric acid coated multi-core iron oxide nanoparticles, with exceptional magnetic heating parameters, viz. intrinsic loss parameters (ILPs) of up to 4.1 nH m2 kg-1, 35% better than the best commercial equivalents. We also probe the core-to-core magnetic interactions in the particles via remanence-derived Henkel and ΔM plots. These reveal a monotonic dependence of the ILP on the magnetic interaction field Hint, and show that the interactions are demagnetising in nature, and act to hinder the magnetic heating mechanism. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Reproducibility studies and additional characterisation data including SQUID Magnetometry, TEM, ATR-FTIR, XRD and Mossbauer spectroscopy. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06239f

  19. How Concrete Is Concrete?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravemeijer, Koeno

    2011-01-01

    If we want to make something concrete in mathematics education, we are inclined introduce, what we call, "manipulatives", in the form of tactile objects or visual representations. If we want to make something concrete in a everyday-life conversation, we look for an example. In the former, we try to make a concrete model of our own,…

  20. Conceptual model analysis of interaction at a concrete-Boom Clay interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sanheng; Jacques, Diederik; Govaerts, Joan; Wang, Lian

    In many concepts for deep disposal of high-level radioactive waste, cementitious materials are used in the engineered barriers. For example, in Belgium the engineered barrier system is based on a considerable amount of cementitious materials as buffer and backfill in the so-called supercontainer embedded in the hosting geological formation. A potential hosting formation is Boom Clay. Insight in the interaction between the high-pH pore water of the cementitious materials and neutral-pH Boom Clay pore water is required. Two problems are quite common for modeling of such a system. The first one is the computational cost due to the long timescale model assessments envisaged for the deep disposal system. Also a very fine grid (in sub-millimeter), especially at interfaces has to be used in order to accurately predict the evolution of the system. The second one is whether to use equilibrium or kinetic reaction models. The objectives of this paper are twofold. First, we develop an efficient coupled reactive transport code for this diffusion-dominated system by making full use of multi-processors/cores computers. Second, we investigate how sensitive the system is to chemical reaction models especially when pore clogging due to mineral precipitation is considered within the cementitious system. To do this, we selected two portlandite dissolution models, i.e., equilibrium (fastest) and diffusion-controlled model with precipitation of a calcite layer around portlandite particles (diffusion-controlled dissolution). The results show that with shrinking core model portlandite dissolution and calcite precipitation are much slower than with the equilibrium model. Also diffusion-controlled dissolution smooths out dissolution fronts compared to the equilibrium model. However, only a slight difference with respect to the clogging time can be found even though we use a very small diffusion coefficient (10-20 m2/s) in the precipitated calcite layer.

  1. Interactions of aqueous Cu2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+ ions with crushed concrete fines.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Nichola J; Lee, William E; Slipper, Ian J

    2005-05-20

    The crushing of reclaimed concrete-based demolition waste to produce recycled aggregate gives rise to a large volume of cement-rich fine material for which market development would be beneficial. It was envisaged that this fine fraction may prove to be an effective sorbent for aqueous heavy metal species by virtue of its ion exchangeable phases and high pH. A batch sorption study confirmed that crushed concrete, in the particle size range 1-2 mm, successfully excluded Cu2+ (35 mg g(-1)), Zn2+ (33 mg g(-1)) and Pb2+ (37 mg g(-1)) from aqueous media. Subsequent distilled water leaching of the metal-laden concrete particles indicated that 1.9, 0.9 and 0.2% of the bound metals, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+, respectively, were readily soluble. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the removal of Cu2+ and Zn2+ arose from surface precipitation reactions, whereas, the principal mechanism of uptake of Pb2+ was found to be by diffusion into the cement matrix. The metal ion removal efficiency of crushed concrete fines is compared with those of other low cost sorbents and potential applications which may exploit this sorptive property are also discussed. PMID:15885423

  2. Interaction of sigma 70 with Escherichia coli RNA polymerase core enzyme studied by surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, A L; Hughes, A D; Tufail, U; Baumann, C G; Scott, D J; Hoggett, J G

    2000-09-22

    The interaction between the core form of bacterial RNA polymerases and sigma factors is essential for specific promoter recognition, and for coordinating the expression of different sets of genes in response to varying cellular needs. The interaction between Escherichia coli core RNA polymerase and sigma 70 has been investigated by surface plasmon resonance. The His-tagged form of sigma 70 factor was immobilised on a Ni2+-NTA chip for monitoring its interaction with core polymerase. The binding constant for the interaction was found to be 1.9x10(-7) M, and the dissociation rate constant for release of sigma from core, in the absence of DNA or transcription, was 4x10(-3) s(-1), corresponding to a half-life of about 200 s. PMID:11007979

  3. Density Anomalies in the Mantle and the Gravitational Core-Mantle Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Weijia; Liu, Lanbo

    2003-01-01

    Seismic studies suggest that the bulk of the mantle is heterogeneous, with density variations in depth as well as in horizontal directions (latitude and longitude). This density variation produces a three- dimensional gravity field throughout the Earth. On the other hand, the core density also varies in both time and space, due to convective core flow. Consequently, the fluid outer core and the solid mantle interact gravitationally due to the mass anomalies in both regions. This gravitational core-mantle interaction could play a significant role in exchange of angular momentum between the core and the mantle, and thus the change in Earth's rotation on time scales of decades and longer. Aiming at estimating the significance of the gravitational core-mantle interaction on Earth's rotation variation, we introduce in our MoSST core dynamics model a heterogeneous mantle, with a density distribution derived from seismic results. In this model, the core convection is driven by the buoyancy forces. And the density variation is determined dynamically with the convection. Numerical simulation is carried out with different parameter values, intending to extrapolate numerical results for geophysical implications.

  4. Mineralogical characterization of the Tournemire argillite after in situ interaction with concretes.

    PubMed

    Tinseau, E; Bartier, D; Hassouta, L; Devol-Brown, I; Stammose, D

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to investigate, through mineralogical characterization (SEM, XRD) and mass-balance calculations, the effects of contact time, concrete types and presence of free water on the Tournemire argillite under in situ conditions. Three sampling zones from Excavation Disturbed Zone (EDZ) areas have been chosen: (1) dry contacts, collected at the tunnel masonry/argillite interface (contact time - 125 years), (2) wet contacts, taken close to drained areas below the tunnel roadbed in contact with the canal draining the Cernon fault water (contact time - 15 and 7 years) and at the tunnel masonry/argillite interface over 70 m from the Cernon fault (contact time - 125 years). This study shows that: in the absence of water, no significant modification of argillite is observed after 125 years, except for pyrite dissolution and gypsum precipitation; in the presence of water, precipitation of gypsum, recrystallization of mixed-layer clays, neoformation of zeolites and K-feldspars overgrowths are observed. At the concrete/argillite interface near the Cernon fault, important dolomite neoformation and leaching of chlorite and kaolinite occur. These processes are enhanced with contact time, low flow rate and the nature of the concrete (compound cement Portland CEM II 32.5). Evidence for oxidation processes linked to the EDZ (pyrite oxidation, Fe-oxy-hydroxide and gypsum precipitation) is observed. PMID:16600584

  5. Influence of reaction kinetics and mesh refinement on the numerical modelling of concrete/clay interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, Nicolas C. M.; Tournassat, Christophe; Burnol, André; Giffaut, Eric; Gaucher, Eric C.

    2009-01-01

    SummaryLarge quantities of cements and concretes need to be incorporated in geological disposal facilities for long-lived radwaste. An alkaline plume diffusing from an aged concrete (pH ˜ 12.5) through argillite-type rocks has been modelled considering feedback of porosity value variations on transport properties using the reactive transport code TOUGHREACT. The mineralogical composition of the argillite is modified at the interface with the concrete. Diffusion of cementitious elements leads to rapid and strong porosity occlusion in the argillite. Numerical results show that both reaction rates and spatial refinement affect mineralogical transformation pathways. The variations in porosity and the extension of the zone affected by the alkaline perturbation are compared at different times. The major effects of mineral precipitation under kinetic constraints, rather than local equilibrium, are a delay in the porosity clogging and an increase in the extension of the alkaline perturbation in the clay formation. The same time-delay rise for the porosity occlusion also appears for the roughest spatial resolutions. A simulation as representative as possible of temporal and spatial scales of cementation processes must then be supported by more comparative data such as long term experimental investigations or natural analogues.

  6. Time-resolved SANS studies on block copolymer micelles with varying core-solvent interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooksey, Tyler; Singh, Avantika; Marquez, Maria; Robertson, Megan

    The self-assembly of block copolymer micelles occurs through a relaxation process dominated by the exchange of individual polymer chains. The objective of this work is to probe the single chain exchange of block copolymer micelles with varying core-solvent interactions, utilizing time-resolved neutron scattering (TR-SANS). The interactions between the core-forming polymer and the solvent has many implications for the micelle structure, including the aggregation number, micelle size, and interfacial tension. However, few studies have investigated the effect of the core polymer-solvent interactions on the dynamics of micelle formation. We will focus our study on poly(epsilon-caprolactone-block-ethylene oxide) block copolymers forming micelle structures in mixtures of water and tetrahydrofuran (THF). It was observed that changing the THF concentration, which varies the degree of repulsion between the core and solvent, greatly influences the single chain exchange rate in this system.

  7. Production of high strength concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Peterman, M.B.; Carrasquillo, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The criteria for selection of concrete materials and their proportions to producer uniform, economical, high strength concrete are presented in this book. The recommendations provided are based on a study of the interactions among components of plain concrete and mix proportions, and of their contribution to the compressive strength of high strength concrete. These recommendations will serve as guidelines to practicing engineers, in the selection of materials and their proportions for the production of high strength concrete. Increasing demands for improved efficiency and reduced construction costs have resulted in engineers beginning to design large structures using higher strength concrete at higher stress levels. There are definite advantages, both technical and economical, in using high strength concrete. For example, for a given cross section, prestresses concrete bridge girders can carry greater service loads across longer spans if made using high strength concrete. In addition, cost comparisons have shown that the savings obtained are significantly greater than the added cost of the higher quality concrete.

  8. Fluid-rock interactions between xanthan-chromium(III) gel systems and dolomite core material

    SciTech Connect

    McCool, C.S.; Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.

    1995-11-01

    Gelation of chromium(III)-xanthan systems in dolomite core material was investigated. Compositional changes in the gelant caused by interactions with the dolomite core material resulted in low permeability reductions for gelants prepared with chromium chloride, chromium acetate and a chromium diamine salt. The primary cause of incomplete gelation in the dolomite material was the increase in gelant pH that resulted in precipitation of chromium.

  9. Water-Rock Interaction Simulations of Iron Oxide Mobilization and Precipitation: Implications of Cross-diffusion Reactions for Terrestrial and Mars 'Blueberry' Hematite Concretions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, A. J.; Chan, M. A.; Parry, W. T.

    2005-12-01

    Modeling of how terrestrial concretions form can provide valuable insights into understanding water-rock interactions that led to the formation of hematite concretions at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Numerical simulations of iron oxide concretions in the Jurassic Navajo Sandstone of southern Utah provide physical and chemical input parameters for emulating conditions that may have prevailed on Mars. In the terrestrial example, iron oxide coatings on eolian sand grains are reduced and mobilized by methane or petroleum. Precipitation of goethite or hematite occurs as Fe interacts with oxygen. Conditions that produced Navajo Sandstone concretions can range from a regional scale that is strongly affected by advection of large pore volumes of water, to small sub-meter scale features that are dominantly controlled by diffusive processes. Hematite concretions are results of a small-scale cross-diffusional process, where Fe and oxygen are supplied from two opposite sides from the 'middle' zone of mixing where concretions precipitate. This is an ideal natural system where Liesegang banding and other self-organized patterns can evolve. A complicating variable here is the sedimentologic (both mineralogic and textural) heterogeneity that, in reality, may be the key factor controlling the nucleation and precipitation habits (including possible competitive growth) of hematite concretions. Sym.8 water-rock interaction simulator program was used for the Navajo Sandstone concretions. Sym.8 is a water-rock simulator that accounts for advective and diffusive mass-transfer, and equilibrium and kinetic reactions. The program uses a dynamic composite media texture model to address changing sediment composition and texture to be consistent with the reaction progress. Initial one-dimensional simulation results indicate precipitation heterogeneity in the range of sub-meters, e.g., possible banding and distribution of iron oxide nodules may be centimeters apart for published diffusivities and

  10. A Study on Interaction Between Aptitudes and Concrete vs. Symbolic Teaching Methods as Presented to Third-Grade Students in Multiplication and Division.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trask, Marvin Wellington

    The interaction between aptitudes and concrete vs. symbolic teaching methods was investigated. One class of randomly selected third graders was taught multiplication and division by a symbolic method while a second class was given a manipulative approach. Each student took the Stanford Achievement Test battery, the Otis-Lennon Mental Ability Test,…

  11. Laboratory Study of Crack Development and Crack Interaction in Concrete Blocks due to Swelling of Cracking Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frühwirt, Thomas; Plößer, Arne; Konietzky, Heinz

    2015-04-01

    The main focus of this work was to investigate temporary and spatial features of crack development in concrete blocks due to the action of a swelling agent. A commercial available cement-based mortar which shows heavily swelling behaviour when hydrating is used to provide inside pressure in boreholes in conrete blocks and hence serves as cracking agent. As no data for the swelling behaviour of the cracking agent were available the maximum axial swelling stress and axial free swelling strain were determined experimentally. In a first series of tests on concrete blocks the influence of an external mechanical, unidirectional stress on the development-time and orientation of cracks has been investigated for a range of loading levels. The stress state in the blocks prepared with a single borehole was determined by a superposition of internal stresses caused by swelling pressure and external mechanical loading. For a second series of tests prismatic blocks with two boreholes where prepared. This test setup allowed to realize different orientation of boreholes with respect to the uniaxial loading direction. Complementary tests were done using the cracking agent in both, only one or none of the boreholes. Different modes of crack interaction and influence of filled or unfilled boreholes have been observed. Features of crack development showed significant sensitivity to external loading. Starting even at very low load levels crack orientation was primarely determined by the direction of the external load. Temporal change in crack development due to the different load levels was insignificant and no consistent conclusion could be drawn. Crack interaction phenomena only were observed with two boreholes orientated primarely in direction of the external loading. Even in these cases crack orientation was mainly determined by the external stress field and only locally influenced by other cracks or the unfilled borehole. The work provides us with an extensive catalogue of

  12. Structural requirements for assembly and homotypic interactions of the hepatitis C virus core protein.

    PubMed

    Kim, Meehyein; Ha, Youngju; Park, Hae-Joon

    2006-12-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein is involved in the assembly of nucleocapsid particles, as well as regulation of cellular and viral gene expression. To investigate the biological properties of the viral core protein and viral RNA assembly, two recombinant core proteins, the mature core protein (named C179) and a C-terminal truncated protein (named C124), were expressed and purified. To confirm their ability to generate viral particles, the production of nucleocapsid-like particles was monitored using transmission electron microscopy (EM). The EM analysis revealed that exposure of these proteins to the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) of the viral RNA resulted in generation of spherical particles of 30-140nm in diameter. Interestingly, a cross-linking analysis revealed that C124 required an RNA component for homotypic interactions. In contrast, C179 successfully assembled in the absence of nucleic acids. Additionally, RNA-mediated conversion of the C124 structure into a more stable state was maintained even after RNase treatment. Therefore, our results indicate that the basic N-terminal domain of the viral core protein utilizes RNA components to induce conformational changes or efficient homotypic interactions, while the C-terminal domain may contain key peptide sequences for initiating spontaneous multimerization at the early stages of viral assembly. PMID:16949699

  13. Plasma-wall interaction data needs critical to a Burning Core Experiment (BCX)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-11-01

    The Division of Development and Technology has sponsored a four day US-Japan workshop ''Plasma-Wall Interaction Data Needs Critical to a Burning Core Experiment (BCX)'', held at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California on June 24 to 27, 1985. The workshop, which brought together fifty scientists and engineers from the United States, Japan, Germany, and Canada, considered the plasma-material interaction and high heat flux (PMI/HHF) issues for the next generation of magnetic fusion energy devices, the Burning Core Experiment (BCX). Materials options were ranked, and a strategy for future PMI/HHF research was formulated. The foundation for international collaboration and coordination of this research was also established. This volume contains the last three of the five technical sessions. The first of the three is on plasma materials interaction issues, the second is on research facilities and the third is from smaller working group meetings on graphite, beryllium, advanced materials and future collaborations.

  14. Interaction of structural core protein of Classical Swine Fever Virus with endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway protein OS9

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) Core protein is involved in virus RNA protection, transcription regulation and virus virulence. To discover additional Core protein functions a yeast two-hybrid system was used to identify host proteins that interact with Core. Among the identified host proteins, t...

  15. Core formation in dwarf haloes with self-interacting dark matter: no fine-tuning necessary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbert, Oliver D.; Bullock, James S.; Garrison-Kimmel, Shea; Rocha, Miguel; Oñorbe, Jose; Peter, Annika H. G.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the effect of self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) on the density profiles of Vmax ≃ 40km s-1 isolated dwarf dark matter haloes - the scale of relevance for the too big to fail problem (TBTF) - using very high resolution cosmological zoom simulations. Each halo has millions of particles within its virial radius. We find that SIDM models with cross-sections per unit mass spanning the range σ/m = 0.5-50 cm2 g-1 alleviate TBTF and produce constant-density cores of size 300-1000 pc, comparable to the half-light radii of M⋆ ˜ 105 - 7 M⊙ dwarfs. The largest, lowest density cores develop for cross-sections in the middle of this range, σ/m ˜ 5-10 cm2 g-1. Our largest SIDM cross-section run (σ/m = 50 cm2 g-1) develops a slightly denser core owing to mild core-collapse behaviour, but it remains less dense than the cold dark matter case and retains a constant-density core profile. Our work suggests that SIDM cross-sections as large or larger than 50 cm2 g-1 remain viable on velocity scales of dwarf galaxies (vrms ˜ 40 km s-1). The range of SIDM cross-sections that alleviate TBTF and the cusp/core problem spans at least two orders of magnitude and therefore need not be particularly fine-tuned.

  16. Effect on vehicle and track interaction of installation faults in the concrete bearing surface of a direct-fixation track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S. C.; Kim, E.

    2012-01-01

    Various installation faults can occur in fasteners in the construction of a direct-fixation track using the top-down method. In extreme cases, these faults may cause excessive interaction between the train and track, compromise the running safety of the train, and cause damage to the track components. Therefore, these faults need to be kept within the allowable level through an investigation of their effects on the interactions between the train and track. In this study, the vertical dynamic stiffness of fasteners in installation faults was measured based on a dynamic stiffness test by means of an experimental apparatus that was devised to feasibly reproduce installation faults with an arbitrary shape. This study proposes an effective analytical model for a train-track interaction system in which most elements, except the nonlinear wheel-rail contact and some components that behave bilinearly, exhibit linear behavior. To investigate the effect of the behavior of fasteners in installation faults in a direct-fixation track on the vehicle and track, vehicle-track interaction analyses were carried out, targeting key review parameters such as the wheel load reduction factor, vertical rail displacement, wheel load, and mean stress of the elastomer. From the results, it was noted that it is more important for the installation faults in the concrete bearing surface of a direct-fixation track to be limited for the sake of the long-term durability of the elastomer rather than for the running safety of the train or the structural safety of the track.

  17. An investigation of ab initio shell-model interactions derived by no-core shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, XiaoBao; Dong, GuoXiang; Li, QingFeng; Shen, CaiWan; Yu, ShaoYing

    2016-09-01

    The microscopic shell-model effective interactions are mainly based on the many-body perturbation theory (MBPT), the first work of which can be traced to Brown and Kuo's first attempt in 1966, derived from the Hamada-Johnston nucleon-nucleon potential. However, the convergence of the MBPT is still unclear. On the other hand, ab initio theories, such as Green's function Monte Carlo (GFMC), no-core shell model (NCSM), and coupled-cluster theory with single and double excitations (CCSD), have made many progress in recent years. However, due to the increasing demanding of computing resources, these ab initio applications are usually limited to nuclei with mass up to A = 16. Recently, people have realized the ab initio construction of valence-space effective interactions, which is obtained through a second-time renormalization, or to be more exactly, projecting the full-manybody Hamiltonian into core, one-body, and two-body cluster parts. In this paper, we present the investigation of such ab initio shell-model interactions, by the recent derived sd-shell effective interactions based on effective J-matrix Inverse Scattering Potential (JISP) and chiral effective-field theory (EFT) through NCSM. In this work, we have seen the similarity between the ab initio shellmodel interactions and the interactions obtained by MBPT or by empirical fitting. Without the inclusion of three-body (3-bd) force, the ab initio shell-model interactions still share similar defects with the microscopic interactions by MBPT, i.e., T = 1 channel is more attractive while T = 0 channel is more repulsive than empirical interactions. The progress to include more many-body correlations and 3-bd force is still badly needed, to see whether such efforts of ab initio shell-model interactions can reach similar precision as the interactions fitted to experimental data.

  18. Interactive Learning with Java Applets: Using Interactive, Web-Based Java Applets to Present Science in a Concrete, Meaningful Manner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corder, Greg

    2005-01-01

    Science teachers face challenges that affect the quality of instruction. Tight budgets, limited resources, school schedules, and other obstacles limit students' opportunities to experience science that is visual and interactive. Incorporating web-based Java applets into science instruction offers a practical solution to these challenges. The…

  19. Core-shell interaction and its impact on the optical absorption of pure and doped core-shell CdSe/ZnSe nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinqin; Cui, Yingqi; Yu, Shengping; Zeng, Qun; Yang, Mingli

    2016-04-01

    The structural, electronic, and optical properties of core-shell nanoclusters, (CdSe)x@(CdSe)y and their Zn-substituted complexes of x = 2-4 and y = 16-28, were studied with density functional theory calculations. The substitution was applied in the cores, the shells, and/or the whole clusters. All these clusters are characterized by their core-shell structures in which the core-shell interaction was found different from those in core or in shell, as reflected by their bondlengths, volumes, and binding energies. Moreover, the core and shell combine together to compose a new cluster with electronic and optical properties different from those of separated individuals, as reflected by their HOMO-LUMO gaps and optical absorptions. With the substitution of Cd by Zn, the structural, electronic, and optical properties of clusters change regularly. The binding energy increases with Zn content, attributed to the strong Zn-Se bonding. For the same core/shell, the structure with a CdSe shell/core has a narrower gap than that with a ZnSe shell/core. The optical absorption spectra also change accordingly with Zn substitution. The peaks blueshift with increasing Zn concentration, accompanying with shape variations in case large number of Cd atoms are substituted. Our calculations reveal the core-shell interaction and its influence on the electronic and optical properties of the core-shell clusters, suggesting a composition-structure-property relationship for the design of core-shell CdSe and ZnSe nanoclusters.

  20. Interaction of the core fragments of the LL-37 host defense peptide with actin

    PubMed Central

    Sol, Asaf; Wang, Guangshun; Blotnick, Edna; Golla, Radha; Muhlrad, Andras

    2015-01-01

    Host defense peptides are effector molecules of the innate immunity that possess antimicrobial and health-promoting properties. Due to their potential therapeutic activities, host defense peptides are being explored as alternatives for antibiotics. The human LL-37 and its shorter, cost-effective, bactericidal core peptide derivates have been suggested for their therapeutic potential. Bacteria evade host defense peptides by proteolytic inactivation. Actin released from necrotized cells and abundant in infected sites was shown to bind and protect LL-37 from microbial proteolytic degradation, and to enable the peptide’s antimicrobial action despite the presence of the proteases. Here, we characterized the interactions of the 10–13 residues long LL-37 core peptides with actin. We show that the LL-37 core peptides associate with actin with a lower affinity than that of LL-37. Their association with actin, which is very ionic strength sensitive, is mainly based on electrostatic interactions. Likewise, the antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli of the minimal antimicrobial peptide KR-12 but not FK-13 nor LL-37 is also very sensitive to salts. In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the FK-13 core peptide is protected by actin against the tested bacterial proteases in a similar manner to that of LL-37, supporting its potential for therapeutic use. PMID:26726303

  1. Core-Shell Microgels with Switchable Elasticity at Constant Interfacial Interaction.

    PubMed

    Seuss, Maximilian; Schmolke, Willi; Drechsler, Astrid; Fery, Andreas; Seiffert, Sebastian

    2016-06-29

    Hydrogels based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAAm) exhibit a thermo-reversible volume phase transition from swollen to deswollen states. This change of the hydrogel volume is accompanied by changes of the hydrogel elastic and Young's moduli and of the hydrogel interfacial interactions. To decouple these parameters from one another, we present a class of submillimeter sized hydrogel particles that consist of a thermosensitive pNIPAAm core wrapped by a nonthermosensitive polyacrylamide (pAAm) shell, each templated by droplet-based microfluidics. When the microgel core deswells upon increase of the temperature to above 34 °C, the shell is stretched and dragged to follow this deswelling into the microgel interior, resulting in an increase of the microgel surficial Young's modulus. However, as the surface interactions of the pAAm shell are independent of temperature at around 34 °C, they do not considerably change during the pNIPAAm-core volume phase transition. This feature makes these core-shell microgels a promising platform to be used as building blocks to assemble soft materials with rationally and independently tunable mechanics. PMID:27276500

  2. Star Formation and Feedback: A Molecular Outflow–Prestellar Core Interaction in L1689N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lis, D. C.; Wootten, H. A.; Gerin, M.; Pagani, L.; Roueff, E.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Vastel, C.; Walmsley, C. M.

    2016-08-01

    We present Herschel,11 ALMA Compact Array (ACA), and Caltech Submillimeter Observatory observations of the prestellar core in L1689N, which has been suggested to be interacting with a molecular outflow driven by the nearby solar-type protostar IRAS 16293-2422. This source is characterized by some of the highest deuteration levels observed in the interstellar medium. The change in the NH2D line velocity and width across the core provides clear evidence of an interaction with the outflow, traced by the high-velocity water emission. Quiescent, cold gas characterized by narrow line widths is seen in the NE part of the core, while broader, more disturbed line profiles are seen in the W/SW part. Strong N2D+ and ND3 emission is detected with ACA extending S/SW from the peak of the single-dish NH2D emission. The ACA data also reveal the presence a compact dust continuum source with a mean size of ˜1100 au, a central density of (1–2) × 107 cm‑3, and a mass of 0.2–0.4 M ⊙. The dust emission peak is displaced ˜5″ to the south with respect to the N2D+ and ND3 emission, as well as the single-dish dust continuum peak, suggesting that the northern, quiescent part of the core is characterized by spatially extended continuum emission, which is resolved out by the interferometer. We see no clear evidence of fragmentation in this quiescent part of the core, which could lead to a second generation of star formation, although a weak dust continuum source is detected in this region in the ACA data.

  3. Star Formation and Feedback: A Molecular Outflow–Prestellar Core Interaction in L1689N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lis, D. C.; Wootten, H. A.; Gerin, M.; Pagani, L.; Roueff, E.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Vastel, C.; Walmsley, C. M.

    2016-08-01

    We present Herschel,11 ALMA Compact Array (ACA), and Caltech Submillimeter Observatory observations of the prestellar core in L1689N, which has been suggested to be interacting with a molecular outflow driven by the nearby solar-type protostar IRAS 16293-2422. This source is characterized by some of the highest deuteration levels observed in the interstellar medium. The change in the NH2D line velocity and width across the core provides clear evidence of an interaction with the outflow, traced by the high-velocity water emission. Quiescent, cold gas characterized by narrow line widths is seen in the NE part of the core, while broader, more disturbed line profiles are seen in the W/SW part. Strong N2D+ and ND3 emission is detected with ACA extending S/SW from the peak of the single-dish NH2D emission. The ACA data also reveal the presence a compact dust continuum source with a mean size of ∼1100 au, a central density of (1–2) × 107 cm‑3, and a mass of 0.2–0.4 M ⊙. The dust emission peak is displaced ∼5″ to the south with respect to the N2D+ and ND3 emission, as well as the single-dish dust continuum peak, suggesting that the northern, quiescent part of the core is characterized by spatially extended continuum emission, which is resolved out by the interferometer. We see no clear evidence of fragmentation in this quiescent part of the core, which could lead to a second generation of star formation, although a weak dust continuum source is detected in this region in the ACA data.

  4. Identifying a Core RNA Polymerase Surface Critical for Interactions with a Sigma-Like Specificity Factor

    PubMed Central

    Cliften, Paul F.; Jang, Sei-Heon; Jaehning, Judith A.

    2000-01-01

    Cyclic interactions occurring between a core RNA polymerase (RNAP) and its initiation factors are critical for transcription initiation, but little is known about subunit interaction. In this work we have identified regions of the single-subunit yeast mitochondrial RNAP (Rpo41p) important for interaction with its sigma-like specificity factor (Mtf1p). Previously we found that the whole folded structure of both polypeptides as well as specific amino acids in at least three regions of Mtf1p are required for interaction. In this work we started with an interaction-defective point mutant in Mtf1p (V135A) and used a two-hybrid selection to isolate suppressing mutations in the core polymerase. We identified suppressors in three separate regions of the RNAP which, when modeled on the structure of the closely related phage T7 RNAP, appear to lie on one surface of the protein. Additional point mutations and biochemical assays were used to confirm the importance of each region for Rpo41p-Mtf1p interactions. Remarkably, two of the three suppressors are found in regions required by T7 RNAP for DNA sequence recognition and promoter melting. Although these essential regions of the phage RNAP are poorly conserved with the mitochondrial RNAPs, they are conserved among the mitochondrial enzymes. The organellar RNAPs appear to use this surface in an alternative way for interactions with their separate sigma-like specificity factor, which, like its bacterial counterpart, provides promoter recognition and DNA melting functions to the holoenzyme. PMID:10958696

  5. Physico-chemical interactions at the concrete-bitumen interface of nuclear waste repositories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertron, A.; Ranaivomanana, H.; Jacquemet, N.; Erable, B.; Sablayrolles, C.; Escadeillas, G.; Albrecht, A.

    2013-07-01

    This study investigates the fate of nitrate and organic acids at the bitumenconcrete-steel interface within a repository storage cell for long-lived, intermediatelevel, radioactive wastes. The interface was simulated by a multiphase system in which cementitious matrices (CEM V-paste specimens) were exposed to bitumen model leachates consisting of nitrates and acetic acid with and without oxalic acid, chemical compounds likely to be released by bitumen. Leaching experiments were conducted with daily renewal of the solutions in order to accelerate reactions. C-steel chips, simulating the presence of steel in the repository, were added in the systems for some experiments. The concentrations of anions (acetate, oxalate, nitrate, and nitrite) and cations (calcium, potassium, ammonium) and the pH were monitored over time. Mineralogical changes of the cementitious matrices were analysed by XRD. The results confirmed the stability of nitrates in the absence of steel, whereas, reduction of nitrates was observed in the presence of steel (production of NH4+). The action of acetic acid on the cementitious matrix was similar to that of ordinary leaching; no specific interaction was detected between acetate and cementitious cations. The reaction of oxalic acid with the cementitious phases led to the precipitation of calcium oxalate salts in the outer layer of the matrix. The concentration of oxalate was reduced by 65% inside the leaching medium.

  6. Evidence of strong projectile-target-core interaction in single ionization of neon by electron impact

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, S.; Zhang, P.; Xu, S.; Ma, X.; Zhang, S. F.; Zhu, X. L.; Feng, W. T.; Liu, H. P.

    2010-11-15

    The momentum distributions of recoil ions were measured in the single ionization of neon by electron impact at incident energies between 80 and 2300 eV. It was found that there are a noticeable number of recoil ions carrying large momenta, and the relative contributions of these ions becomes more pronounced with the further decrease of incident electron energy. These observed behaviors indicate that there is a strong projectile-target-core interaction in the single-ionization reaction. By comparing our results with those of electron-neon elastic scattering, we concluded that the elastic scattering of the projectile electron on the target core plays an important role at low and intermediate collision energies.

  7. Interaction between magnetic vortex cores in a pair of nonidentical nanodisks

    SciTech Connect

    Sinnecker, J. P.; Vigo-Cotrina, H.; Garcia, F.; Novais, E. R. P.; Guimarães, A. P.

    2014-05-28

    The coupling of two nonidentical magnetic nanodisks, i.e., with different vortex gyrotropic frequencies, is studied. From the analytical approach, the interactions between the nanodisks along x and y directions (the coupling integrals) were obtained as a function of distance. From the numerical solution of Thiele's equation, we derived the eigenfrequencies of the vortex cores as a function of distance. The motion of the two vortex cores and, consequently, the time dependence of the total magnetization M(t) were derived both using Thiele's equation and by micromagnetic simulation. From M(t), a recently developed method, the magnetic vortex echoes, analogous to the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spin echoes, was used to compute the distance dependence of the magnetic coupling strength. The results of the two approaches differ by approximately 10%; using one single term, a dependence with distance found is broadly in agreement with studies employing other techniques.

  8. The influence of inelastic neutrino interactions with light clusters on core-collapse supernova simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, Shun; Nagakura, Hiroki; Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke; Yamada, Shoichi

    2014-12-01

    We perform numerical experiments to investigate the influence of inelastic neutrino reactions with light clusters in hot nuclear matter on core-collapse supernova simulations. These interactions have been neglected in most hydrodynamical supernova simulations. The neutrino absorptions and inelastic interactions with deuterons, tritons, helions and alpha particles are taken into account in the hydrodynamical simulations in addition to the ordinary charged- current interactions with nucleons. Axial symmetry is assumed but no equatorial symmetry is imposed. The time evolutions of shock waves are calculated with a simple light-bulb approximation for the neutrino transport and a multi-nuclei equation of state. We show that the heating rates of deuterons reach as high as ~ 10% of those of nucleons around the bottom of the gain region. On the other hand, alpha particles heat the matter near the shock wave, which is important when the shock wave expands and density and temperature of matter become low. It is also found that the models with heating by light clusters have different evolutions from those without it in non-linear evolution phase. The matter in the gain region has various densities and temperatures and there appear regions that are locally rich in deuterons and alpha particles. These results indicate that the inelastic reactions of light clusters, especially deuterons, should be incorporated in the simulations of core-collapse supernovae.

  9. Interaction between core protein of classical swine fever virus with cellular IQGAP1 proetin appears essential for virulence in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we show that IQGAP1, a cellular protein that plays a pivotal role as a regulator of the cytoskeleton affecting cell adhesion, polarization and migration, interacts with Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV) Core protein. Sequence analyses identified a defined set of residues within CSFV Core prote...

  10. Do Core Interpersonal and Affective Traits of PCL-R Psychopathy Interact with Antisocial Behavior and Disinhibition to Predict Violence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennealy, Patrick J.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Walters, Glenn D.; Camp, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    The utility of psychopathy measures in predicting violence is largely explained by their assessment of social deviance (e.g., antisocial behavior; disinhibition). A key question is whether social deviance "interacts" with the core interpersonal-affective traits of psychopathy to predict violence. Do core psychopathic traits multiply the (already…

  11. Ms1, a novel sRNA interacting with the RNA polymerase core in mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hnilicová, Jarmila; Jirát Matějčková, Jitka; Šiková, Michaela; Pospíšil, Jiří; Halada, Petr; Pánek, Josef; Krásný, Libor

    2014-01-01

    Small RNAs (sRNAs) are molecules essential for a number of regulatory processes in the bacterial cell. Here we characterize Ms1, a sRNA that is highly expressed in Mycobacterium smegmatis during stationary phase of growth. By glycerol gradient ultracentrifugation, RNA binding assay, and RNA co-immunoprecipitation, we show that Ms1 interacts with the RNA polymerase (RNAP) core that is free of the primary sigma factor (σA) or any other σ factor. This contrasts with the situation in most other species where it is 6S RNA that interacts with RNAP and this interaction requires the presence of σA. The difference in the interaction of the two types of sRNAs (Ms1 or 6S RNA) with RNAP possibly reflects the difference in the composition of the transcriptional machinery between mycobacteria and other species. Unlike Escherichia coli, stationary phase M. smegmatis cells contain relatively few RNAP molecules in complex with σA. Thus, Ms1 represents a novel type of small RNAs interacting with RNAP. PMID:25217589

  12. Ab Initio No-Core Shell Model Calculations Using Realistic Two- and Three-Body Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Navratil, P; Ormand, W E; Forssen, C; Caurier, E

    2004-11-30

    There has been significant progress in the ab initio approaches to the structure of light nuclei. One such method is the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM). Starting from realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions this method can predict low-lying levels in p-shell nuclei. In this contribution, we present a brief overview of the NCSM with examples of recent applications. We highlight our study of the parity inversion in {sup 11}Be, for which calculations were performed in basis spaces up to 9{Dirac_h}{Omega} (dimensions reaching 7 x 10{sup 8}). We also present our latest results for the p-shell nuclei using the Tucson-Melbourne TM three-nucleon interaction with several proposed parameter sets.

  13. Emergence of rotational bands in ab initio no-core configuration interaction calculations of light nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caprio, Mark A.; Maris, Pieter; Vary, James P.

    2014-03-01

    The emergence of rotational bands has recently been observed in no-core configuration interaction (NCCI) calculations for p-shell nuclei, as evidenced by rotational patterns for excitation energies, electromagnetic moments, and electromagnetic transitions. Yrast and low-lying excited bands are found. The results demonstrate the possibility of well-developed rotational structure in NCCI calculations, using realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions, and within finite, computationally-accessible configuration spaces. This talk will focus on results for rotation in both the even-mass and odd-mass Be isotopes (7 <= A <= 12). Supported by US DOE (DE-FG02-95ER-40934, DESC0008485 SciDAC/NUCLEI, DE-FG02-87ER40371), US NSF (0904782), and Research Corporation for Science Advancement (Cottrell Scholar Award). Computational resources provided by NERSC (US DOE DE-AC02-05CH11231).

  14. Molecular interactions and metal binding in the theophylline-binding core of an RNA aptamer.

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, G R; Wick, C L; Shields, T P; Jenison, R D; Pardi, A

    2000-01-01

    An RNA aptamer containing a 15-nt binding site shows high affinity and specificity for the bronchodilator theophylline. A variety of base modifications or 2' deoxyribose substitutions in binding-site residues were tested for theophyllinebinding affinity and the results were compared with the previously determined three-dimensional structure of the RNA-theophylline complex. The RNA-theophylline complex contains a U6-A28-U23 base triple, and disruption of this A28-U23 Hoogsteen-pair by a 7-deaza, 2'-deoxy A28 mutant reduces theophylline binding >45-fold at 25 degrees C. U24 is part of a U-turn in the core of the RNA, and disruption of this U-turn motif by a 2'-deoxy substitution of U24 also reduces theophylline binding by >90-fold. Several mutations outside the "conserved core" of the RNA aptamer showed reduced binding affinity, and these effects could be rationalized by comparison with the three-dimensional structure of the complex. Divalent ions are absolutely required for high-affinity theophylline binding. High-affinity binding was observed with 5 mM Mg2+, Mn2+, or Co2+ ions, whereas little or no significant binding was observed for other divalent or lanthanide ions. A metal-binding site in the core of the complex was revealed by paramagnetic Mn2+-induced broadening of specific RNA resonances in the NMR spectra. When caffeine is added to the aptamer in tenfold excess, the NMR spectra show no evidence for binding in the conserved core and instead the drug stacks on the terminal helix. The lack of interaction between caffeine and the theophylline-binding site emphasizes the extreme molecular discrimination of this RNA aptamer. PMID:10836787

  15. Interaction of sigma factor sigmaN with Escherichia coli RNA polymerase core enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, D J; Ferguson, A L; Gallegos, M T; Pitt, M; Buck, M; Hoggett, J G

    2000-01-01

    The equilibrium binding and kinetics of assembly of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) sigma(N)-holoenzyme has been investigated using biosynthetically labelled 7-azatryptophyl- (7AW)sigma(N). The spectroscopic properties of such 7AW proteins allows their absorbance and fluorescence to be monitored selectively, even in the presence of high concentrations of other tryptophan-containing proteins. The 7AWsigma(N) retained its biological activity in stimulating transcription from sigma(N)-specific promoters, and in in vitro gel electrophoresis assays of binding to core RNAP from Escherichia coli. Furthermore, five Trp-->Ala single mutants of sigma(N) were shown to support growth under conditions of nitrogen limitation, and showed comparable efficiency in activating the sigma(N)-dependent nifH promoter in vivo, indicating that none of the tryptophan residues were essential for activity. The equilibrium binding of 7AWsigma(N) to core RNAP was examined by analytical ultracentrifugation. In sedimentation equilibrium experiments, absorbance data at 315 nm (which reports selectively on the distribution of free and bound 7AWsigma(N)) established that a 1:1 complex was formed, with a dissociation constant lower than 2 microM. The kinetics of the interaction between 7AWsigma(N) and core RNAP was investigated using stopped-flow spectrofluorimetry. A biphasic decrease in fluorescence intensity was observed when samples were excited at 280 nm, whereas only the slower of the two phases was observed at 315 nm. The kinetic data were analysed in terms of a mechanism in which a fast bimolecular association of sigma(N) with core RNAP is followed by a relatively slow isomerization step. The consequences of these findings on the competition between sigma(N) and the major sigma factor, sigma(70), in Escherichia coli are discussed. PMID:11085949

  16. Interaction of sigma factor sigmaN with Escherichia coli RNA polymerase core enzyme.

    PubMed

    Scott, D J; Ferguson, A L; Gallegos, M T; Pitt, M; Buck, M; Hoggett, J G

    2000-12-01

    The equilibrium binding and kinetics of assembly of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP) sigma(N)-holoenzyme has been investigated using biosynthetically labelled 7-azatryptophyl- (7AW)sigma(N). The spectroscopic properties of such 7AW proteins allows their absorbance and fluorescence to be monitored selectively, even in the presence of high concentrations of other tryptophan-containing proteins. The 7AWsigma(N) retained its biological activity in stimulating transcription from sigma(N)-specific promoters, and in in vitro gel electrophoresis assays of binding to core RNAP from Escherichia coli. Furthermore, five Trp-->Ala single mutants of sigma(N) were shown to support growth under conditions of nitrogen limitation, and showed comparable efficiency in activating the sigma(N)-dependent nifH promoter in vivo, indicating that none of the tryptophan residues were essential for activity. The equilibrium binding of 7AWsigma(N) to core RNAP was examined by analytical ultracentrifugation. In sedimentation equilibrium experiments, absorbance data at 315 nm (which reports selectively on the distribution of free and bound 7AWsigma(N)) established that a 1:1 complex was formed, with a dissociation constant lower than 2 microM. The kinetics of the interaction between 7AWsigma(N) and core RNAP was investigated using stopped-flow spectrofluorimetry. A biphasic decrease in fluorescence intensity was observed when samples were excited at 280 nm, whereas only the slower of the two phases was observed at 315 nm. The kinetic data were analysed in terms of a mechanism in which a fast bimolecular association of sigma(N) with core RNAP is followed by a relatively slow isomerization step. The consequences of these findings on the competition between sigma(N) and the major sigma factor, sigma(70), in Escherichia coli are discussed. PMID:11085949

  17. The glycosylation-dependent interaction of perlecan core protein with LDL: implications for atherosclerosis[S

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yu-Xin; Ashline, David; Liu, Li; Tassa, Carlos; Shaw, Stanley Y.; Ravid, Katya; Layne, Matthew D.; Reinhold, Vernon; Robbins, Phillips W.

    2015-01-01

    Perlecan is a major heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan in the arterial wall. Previous studies have linked it to atherosclerosis. Perlecan contains a core protein and three HS side chains. Its core protein has five domains (DI–DV) with disparate structures and DII is highly homologous to the ligand-binding portion of LDL receptor (LDLR). The functional significance of this domain has been unknown. Here, we show that perlecan DII interacts with LDL. Importantly, the interaction largely relies on O-linked glycans that are only present in the secreted DII. Among the five repeat units of DII, most of the glycosylation sites are from the second unit, which is highly divergent and rich in serine and threonine, but has no cysteine residues. Interestingly, most of the glycans are capped by the negatively charged sialic acids, which are critical for LDL binding. We further demonstrate an additive effect of HS and DII on LDL binding. Unlike LDLR, which directs LDL uptake through endocytosis, this study uncovers a novel feature of the perlecan LDLR-like DII in receptor-mediated lipoprotein retention, which depends on its glycosylation. Thus, perlecan glycosylation may play a role in the early LDL retention during the development of atherosclerosis. PMID:25528754

  18. Interactions between plutonism and detachments during metamorphic core complex formation, Serifos Island (Cyclades, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabillard, Aurélien; Arbaret, Laurent; Jolivet, Laurent; Le Breton, Nicole; Gumiaux, Charles; Augier, Romain; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2015-06-01

    In order to better understand the interactions between plutonic activity and strain localization during metamorphic core complex formation, the Miocene granodioritic pluton of Serifos (Cyclades, Greece) is studied. This pluton (11.6-9.5 Ma) intruded the Cycladic Blueschists during thinning of the Aegean domain along a system of low-angle normal faults belonging to the south dipping West Cycladic Detachment System (WCDS). Based on structural fieldwork, together with microstructural observations and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, we recognize a continuum of deformation from magmatic to brittle conditions within the magmatic body. This succession of deformation events is kinematically compatible with the development of the WCDS. The architecture of the pluton shows a marked asymmetry resulting from its interaction with the detachments. We propose a tectonic scenario for the emplacement of Serifos pluton and its subsequent cooling during the Aegean extension: (1) A first stage corresponds to the metamorphic core complex initiation and associated southwestward shearing along the Meghàlo Livadhi detachment. (2) In the second stage, the Serifos pluton has intruded the dome at shallow crustal level, piercing through the ductile/brittle Meghàlo Livadhi detachment. Southwest directed extensional deformation was contemporaneously transferred upward in the crust along the more localized Kàvos Kiklopas detachment. (3) The third stage was marked by synmagmatic extensional deformation and strain localization at the contact between the pluton and the host rocks resulting in nucleation of narrow shear zones, which (4) continued to develop after the pluton solidification.

  19. Effects of hydrophobic drug polyesteric core interactions on drug loading and release properties of poly(ethylene glycol) polyester poly(ethylene glycol) triblock core shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoee, Sepideh; Hassanzadeh, Salman; Goliaie, Bahram

    2007-05-01

    BAB amphiphilic triblock copolymers consisting of poly(ethylene glycol) (B) (PEG) as the hydrophilic segment and different polyesters (A) as the hydrophobic block were prepared by a polycondensation reaction as efficient model core-shell nanoparticles to assay the effect of interactions between the hydrophobic drug and the polyesteric core in terms of drug loading content and release profile. PEG-poly(hexylene adipate)-PEG (PEG-PHA-PEG) and PEG-poly(butylene adipate)-PEG (PEG-PBA-PEG) to PEG-poly(ethylene adipate)-PEG (PEG-PEA-PEG) core-shell type nanoparticles entrapping quercetin (an anticarcinogenic, allergy inhibitor and antibacterial agent), were prepared by a nanoprecipitation method and characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. It was found that the obtained nanoparticles showed a smooth surface and spherical shape with controllable sizes in the range of 64-74 nm, while drug loading varied from 7.24% to 19% depending on the copolymer composition and the preparation conditions. The in vitro release behaviour exhibited a sustained release and was affected by the polymer-drug interactions. UV studies revealed the presence of hydrogen bonding as the main existing interaction between quercetin and polyesters in the nanosphere cores.

  20. Thermal interaction of the core and the mantle and long-term behavior of the geomagnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of temperature changes at the earth's core-mantle boundary on the velocity field of the core are analyzed. It is assumed that the geomagnetic field is maintained by thermal convection in the outer core. A model for the thermal interaction of the core and the mantle is presented which is consistent with current views on the presence of heat sources in the core and the properties of the lower mantle. Significant long-term variations in the frequency of geomagnetic reversals may be the result of fluctuating temperatures at the core-mantle boundary, caused by intermittent convection in the lower mantle. The thermal structure of the lower mantle region D double prime, extending from 2700 to 2900 km in depth, constitutes an important test of this hypothesis and offers a means of deciding whether the geomagnetic dynamo is thermally driven.

  1. Effect of subdomain interactions on methyl group dynamics in the hydrophobic core of villin headpiece protein

    PubMed Central

    Vugmeyster, Liliya; Do, Tien; Ostrovsky, Dmitry; Fu, Riqianq

    2014-01-01

    Thermostable villin headpiece protein (HP67) consists of the N-terminal subdomain (residues 10–41) and the autonomously folding C-terminal subdomain (residues 42–76) which pack against each other to form a structure with a unified hydrophobic core. The X-ray structures of the isolated C-terminal subdomain (HP36) and its counterpart in HP67 are very similar for the hydrophobic core residues. However, fine rearrangements of the free energy landscape are expected to occur because of the interactions between the two subdomains. We detect and characterize these changes by comparing the µs-ms time scale dynamics of the methyl-bearing side chains in isolated HP36 and in HP67. Specifically, we probe three hydrophobic side chains at the interface of the two subdomains (L42, V50, and L75) as well as at two residues far from the interface (L61 and L69). Solid-state deuteron NMR techniques are combined with computational modeling for the detailed characterization of motional modes in terms of their kinetic and thermodynamic parameters. The effect of interdomain interactions on side chain dynamics is seen for all residues but L75. Thus, changes in dynamics because of subdomain interactions are not confined to the site of perturbation. One of the main results is a two-to threefold increase in the value of the activation energies for the rotameric mode of motions in HP67 compared with HP36. Detailed analysis of configurational entropies and heat capacities complement the kinetic view of the degree of the disorder in the folded state. PMID:24243806

  2. Results of detailed analyses performed on boring cores extracted from the concrete floors of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant reactor buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, Koji; Sasaki, S.; Kumai, M.; Sato, Isamu; Osaka, Masahiko; Fukushima, Mineo; Kawatsuma, Shinji; Goto, Tetsuo; Sakai, Hitoshi; Chigira, Takayuki; Murata, Hirotoshi

    2013-07-01

    Due to the massive earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011, and the following severe accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, concrete surfaces within the reactor buildings were exposed to radioactive liquid and vapor phase contaminants. In order to clarify the situation of this contamination in the reactor buildings of Units 1, 2 and 3, selected samples were transported to the Fuels Monitoring Facility in the Oarai Engineering Center of JAEA where they were subjected to analyses to determine the surface radionuclide concentrations and to characterize the radionuclide distributions in the samples. In particular, penetration of radiocesium in the surface coatings layer and sub-surface concrete was evaluated. The analysis results indicate that the situation of contamination in the building of Unit 2 was different from others, and the protective surface coatings on the concrete floors provided significant protection against radionuclide penetration. The localized penetration of contamination in the concrete floors was found to be confined within a millimeter of the surface of the coating layer of some millimeters. (authors)

  3. Marine concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.L.

    1990-01-01

    This book examines how the chemical and physical properties of the oceans affect the durability, fatigue, and corrosion of structures. Structure types addressed include oil platforms, arctic structures, and sea walls. Reviews qualities of plain, reinforced, prestressed, and floating concrete. Discusses the inspection, maintenance, and repair of concrete structures.

  4. Interactions between tetrathiafulvalene units in dimeric structures - the influence of cyclic cores.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huixin; Mazzanti, Virginia; Parker, Christian R; Broman, Søren Lindbæk; Wallberg, Jens Heide; Lušpai, Karol; Brincko, Adam; Kjaergaard, Henrik G; Kadziola, Anders; Rapta, Peter; Hammerich, Ole; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted

    2015-01-01

    A selection of cyclic and acyclic acetylenic scaffolds bearing two tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) units was prepared by different metal-catalyzed coupling reactions. The bridge separating the two TTF units was systematically changed from linearly conjugated ethyne, butadiyne and tetraethynylethene (trans-substituted) units to a cross-conjugated tetraethynylethene unit, placed in either acyclic or cyclic arrangements. The cyclic structures correspond to so-called radiaannulenes having both endo- and exocyclic double bonds. Interactions between two redox-active TTF units in these molecules were investigated by cyclic voltammetry, UV-vis-NIR and EPR absorption spectroscopical methods of the electrochemically generated oxidized species. The electron-accepting properties of the acetylenic cores were also investigated electrochemically. PMID:26124895

  5. Interaction of core self-evaluations and perceived organizational support on work-to-family enrichment.

    PubMed

    McNall, Laurel A; Masuda, Aline D; Shanock, Linda Rhoades; Nicklin, Jessica M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to offer an empirical test of J. H. Greenhaus and G. N. Powell's (2006) model of work-family enrichment by examining dispositional (i.e., core self-evaluations; CSEs) and situational (i.e., perceived organizational support; POS) factors associated with work-to-family enrichment (WFE) and whether these variables interact in predicting WFE. In a survey of 220 employed adults, our hierarchical regression analysis revealed that in highly supportive work environments, individuals reported high WFE regardless of CSE. However, when POS was low, individuals high in CSEs reported higher WFE than those low in CSEs, in support of conservation of resources theory (S. E. Hobfoll, 2002). Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:21449248

  6. Kaleidoscope of supersolid phases of interacting hard-core bosons on the dice lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Jian-Ping

    2015-05-01

    The stability of supersolid (SS) state in lattice boson model is highly dependent on lattice topology and particle-particle interaction. We investigate hard-core bosons on dice lattice where the bosons interact via nearest-neighbor (NN) repulsion either on whole lattice or on sublattices, by using large-scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations which are based on a continuous-time worm algorithm. In the case with NN repulsion on the whole lattice, we confirm the particle density modulation which arises from the asymmetry between sublattices — honeycomb and triangular sublattices — of dice lattice. We then place emphasis on the case with NN repulsion on the sublattices, and demonstrate spontaneously broken translational symmetries on different sublattices which lead to various crystalline orders. By evaluating the coexistence of crystalline order and superfluidity, we identify a variety of SS phases and establish a rich phase diagram. The microscopic pictures of these SS phases are figured out. Further, we demonstrate paradigmatic examples of first-order solid-to-SS and SS-to-SS quantum phase transitions.

  7. Carbonation and its effects in reinforced concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Broomfield, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Carbonation is the result of interaction of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) gas in the atmosphere with the alkaline hydroxides in the concrete. CO{sub 2} diffuses through the concrete and rate of movement of the carbonation front roughly follows Fick's law of diffusion. Carbonation depth can be measured by exposing fresh concrete and spraying it with phenolphthalein indicator solution. An example of the test on a reinforced concrete mullion is given.

  8. Regulation of ASPP2 Interaction with p53 Core Domain by an Intramolecular Autoinhibitory Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Rotem-Bamberger, Shahar; Katz, Chen; Friedler, Assaf

    2013-01-01

    ASPP2 is a key protein in regulating apoptosis both in p53-dependent and-independent pathways. The C-terminal part of ASPP2 contains four ankyrin repeats and an SH3 domain (Ank-SH3) that mediate the interactions of ASPP2 with apoptosis related proteins such as p53, Bcl-2 and the p65 subunit of NFκB. p53 core domain (p53CD) binds the n-src loop and the RT loop of ASPP2 SH3. ASPP2 contains a disordered proline rich domain (ASPP2 Pro) that forms an intramolecular autoinhibitory interaction with the Ank-SH3 domains. Here we show how this intramolecular interaction affects the intermolecular interactions of ASPP2 with p53, Bcl-2 and NFkB. We used biophysical methods to obtain better understanding of the relationship between ASPP2 and its partners for getting a comprehensive view on ASPP2 pathways. Fluorescence anisotropy competition experiments revealed that both ASPP2 Pro and p53CD competed for binding the n-src loop of the ASPP2 SH3, indicating regulation of p53CD binding to this loop by ASPP2 Pro. Peptides derived from the ASPP2-binding interface of Bcl-2 did not compete with p53CD or NFkB peptides for binding the ASPP2 n-src loop. However, p53CD displaced the NFκB peptide (residues 303–332) from its complex with ASPP2 Ank-SH3, indicating that NFκB 303–332 and p53CD bind a partly overlapping site in ASPP2 SH3, mostly in the RT loop. These results are in agreement with previous docking studies, which showed that ASPP2 Ank-SH3 binds Bcl-2 and NFκB mostly via distinct sites from p53. However they show some overlap between the binding sites of p53CD and NFkB in ASPP2 Ank-SH3. Our results provide experimental evidence that the intramolecular interaction in ASPP2 regulates its binding to p53CD and that ASPP2 Ank-SH3 binds Bcl-2 and NFκB via distinct sites. PMID:23472201

  9. Composition, nucleation, and growth of iron oxide concretions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, W. T.

    Iron oxide concretions are formed from post depositional, paleogroundwater chemical interaction with iron minerals in porous sedimentary rocks. The concretions record a history of iron mobilization and precipitation caused by changes in pH, oxidation conditions, and activity of bacteria. Transport limited growth rates may be used to estimate the duration of fluid flow events. The Jurassic Navajo Sandstone, an important hydrocarbon reservoir and aquifer on the Colorado Plateau, USA, is an ideal stratum to study concretions because it is widely distributed, well exposed and is the host for a variety of iron oxide concretions. Many of the concretions are nearly spherical and some consist of a rind of goethite that nearly completely fills the sandstone porosity and surrounds a central sandstone core. The interior and exterior host-rock sandstones are similar in detrital minerals, but kaolinite and interstratified illite-smectite are less abundant in the interior. Lepidocrocite is present as sand-grain rims in the exterior sandstone, but not present in the interior of the concretions. Widespread sandstone bleaching resulted from dissolution of early diagenetic hematite grain coatings by chemically reducing water that gained access to the sandstone through fault conduits. The iron was transported in solution and precipitated as iron oxide concretions by oxidation and increasing pH. Iron diffusion and advection growth time models place limits on minimum duration of the diagenetic, fluid flow events that formed the concretions. Concretion rinds 2 mm thick and 25 mm in radius would take place in 2000 years from transport by diffusion and advection and in 3600 years if transport was by diffusion only. Solid concretions 10 mm in radius would grow in 3800 years by diffusion or 2800 years with diffusion and advection. Goethite (α-FeO (OH)) and lepidocrocite (γ-FeO (OH)) nucleated on K-feldspar grains, on illite coatings on sand grains, and on pore-filling illite, but not on

  10. IRAS16293E revisited: a new understanding of a prestellar core in interaction with an outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagani, L.; Lefèvre, C.; Belloche, A.; Menten, K.; Parise, B.; Güsten, R.

    2016-05-01

    The study of prestellar cores starts with establishing their density and temperature structures. To explore the densest part, deu-terated species, N-bearing molecules, or dust are usually considered. Among prestellar cores, IRAS16293E is a rare case of a core being perturbed by the outflow of a nearby protostar (IRAS16293-2422 A/B). A part of the outflow hits the core and heats it, introducing a temperature gradient that makes the analysis difficult. It is only after having gathered observations from Spitzer, Herschel, SCUBA, MAMBO, and of various molecular lines from CSO, APEX, JCMT and IRAM that a clearer picture of this core has finally arisen.

  11. Emergence of rotational bands in ab initio no-core configuration interaction calculations of the Be isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maris, P.; Caprio, M. A.; Vary, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of rotational bands is observed in no-core configuration interaction (NCCI) calculations for the Be isotopes (7 ≤A ≤12 ), as evidenced by rotational patterns for excitation energies, electromagnetic moments, and electromagnetic transitions. Yrast and low-lying excited bands are found. The results indicate well-developed rotational structure in NCCI calculations, using the JISP16 realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction within finite, computationally accessible configuration spaces.

  12. EJC core component MLN51 interacts with eIF3 and activates translation.

    PubMed

    Chazal, Pierre-Etienne; Daguenet, Elisabeth; Wendling, Corinne; Ulryck, Nathalie; Tomasetto, Catherine; Sargueil, Bruno; Le Hir, Hervé

    2013-04-01

    The multiprotein exon junction complex (EJC), deposited by the splicing machinery, is an important constituent of messenger ribonucleoprotein particles because it participates to numerous steps of the mRNA lifecycle from splicing to surveillance via nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway. By an unknown mechanism, the EJC also stimulates translation efficiency of newly synthesized mRNAs. Here, we show that among the four EJC core components, the RNA-binding protein metastatic lymph node 51 (MLN51) is a translation enhancer. Overexpression of MLN51 preferentially increased the translation of intron-containing reporters via the EJC, whereas silencing MLN51 decreased translation. In addition, modulation of the MLN51 level in cell-free translational extracts confirmed its direct role in protein synthesis. Immunoprecipitations indicated that MLN51 associates with translation-initiating factors and ribosomal subunits, and in vitro binding assays revealed that MLN51, alone or as part of the EJC, interacts directly with the pivotal eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF3. Taken together, our data define MLN51 as a translation activator linking the EJC and the translation machinery. PMID:23530232

  13. EJC core component MLN51 interacts with eIF3 and activates translation

    PubMed Central

    Chazal, Pierre-Etienne; Daguenet, Elisabeth; Wendling, Corinne; Ulryck, Nathalie; Tomasetto, Catherine; Sargueil, Bruno; Le Hir, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    The multiprotein exon junction complex (EJC), deposited by the splicing machinery, is an important constituent of messenger ribonucleoprotein particles because it participates to numerous steps of the mRNA lifecycle from splicing to surveillance via nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway. By an unknown mechanism, the EJC also stimulates translation efficiency of newly synthesized mRNAs. Here, we show that among the four EJC core components, the RNA-binding protein metastatic lymph node 51 (MLN51) is a translation enhancer. Overexpression of MLN51 preferentially increased the translation of intron-containing reporters via the EJC, whereas silencing MLN51 decreased translation. In addition, modulation of the MLN51 level in cell-free translational extracts confirmed its direct role in protein synthesis. Immunoprecipitations indicated that MLN51 associates with translation-initiating factors and ribosomal subunits, and in vitro binding assays revealed that MLN51, alone or as part of the EJC, interacts directly with the pivotal eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF3. Taken together, our data define MLN51 as a translation activator linking the EJC and the translation machinery. PMID:23530232

  14. Ab initio no core configuration interaction calculations in the natural orbital basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinou, Chrysovalantis; Caprio, Mark A.; Vary, James P.; Maris, Pieter

    2015-10-01

    The natural orbital basis has been successfully used in the past in atomic and molecular structure calculations. The natural orbitals used in those calculations are calculated by diagonalizing the electron one-body density matrix. Here we develop natural orbitals for nuclear no-core configuration interaction (NCCI) calculations. A NCCI calculation using an initial single particle basis, such as the harmonic oscillator basis, must first be performed in order to obtain a one-body density matrix. The eigenvectors of the one-body density matrix are the natural orbitals, and the corresponding eigenvalues are the occupations of these natural orbitals in the nuclear wave function. According to these occupancies, the most important natural orbitals, in the sense of the most occupied, can then be selected and used in a NCCI calculation. We discuss ab initio nuclear NCCI calculations for light nuclei and assess their ability to provide faster convergence. Supported by the US DOE (under Grants DE-FG02-95ER-40934, DESC0008485 SciDAC/NUCLEI, and DE-FG02-87ER40371), and the US NSF (under Grant 0904782). Computational resources provided by NERSC (supported by US DOE Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231), and NDCRC.

  15. GENIE: a software package for gene-gene interaction analysis in genetic association studies using multiple GPU or CPU cores

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gene-gene interaction in genetic association studies is computationally intensive when a large number of SNPs are involved. Most of the latest Central Processing Units (CPUs) have multiple cores, whereas Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) also have hundreds of cores and have been recently used to implement faster scientific software. However, currently there are no genetic analysis software packages that allow users to fully utilize the computing power of these multi-core devices for genetic interaction analysis for binary traits. Findings Here we present a novel software package GENIE, which utilizes the power of multiple GPU or CPU processor cores to parallelize the interaction analysis. GENIE reads an entire genetic association study dataset into memory and partitions the dataset into fragments with non-overlapping sets of SNPs. For each fragment, GENIE analyzes: 1) the interaction of SNPs within it in parallel, and 2) the interaction between the SNPs of the current fragment and other fragments in parallel. We tested GENIE on a large-scale candidate gene study on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Using an NVIDIA Tesla C1060 graphics card, the GPU mode of GENIE achieves a speedup of 27 times over its single-core CPU mode run. Conclusions GENIE is open-source, economical, user-friendly, and scalable. Since the computing power and memory capacity of graphics cards are increasing rapidly while their cost is going down, we anticipate that GENIE will achieve greater speedups with faster GPU cards. Documentation, source code, and precompiled binaries can be downloaded from http://www.cceb.upenn.edu/~mli/software/GENIE/. PMID:21615923

  16. Interaction of Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein with Janus Kinase Is Required for Efficient Production of Infectious Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choongho

    2013-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is responsible for the development of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. HCV core protein plays not only a structural role in the virion morphogenesis by encapsidating a virus RNA genome but also a non-structural role in HCV-induced pathogenesis by blocking innate immunity. Especially, it has been shown to regulate JAK-STAT signaling pathway through its direct interaction with Janus kinase (JAK) via its proline-rich JAK-binding motif (79PGYPWP84). However, little is known about the physiological significance of this HCV core-JAK association in the context of the virus life cycle. In order to gain an insight, a mutant HCV genome (J6/JFH1-79A82A) was constructed to express the mutant core with a defective JAK-binding motif (79AGYAWP84) using an HCV genotype 2a infectious clone (J6/JFH1). When this mutant HCV genome was introduced into hepatocarcinoma cells, it was found to be severely impaired in its ability to produce infectious viruses in spite of its robust RNA genome replication. Taken together, all these results suggest an essential requirement of HCV core-JAK protein interaction for efficient production of infectious viruses and the potential of using core-JAK blockers as a new anti-HCV therapy. PMID:24009866

  17. Identification of three regions essential for interaction between a σ-like factor and core RNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Cliften, Paul F.; Park, Jae-Young; Davis, Brian P.; Jang, Sei-Heon; Jaehning, Judith A.

    1997-01-01

    The cyclic interactions that occur between the subunits of the yeast mitochondrial RNA polymerase can serve as a simple model for the more complex enzymes in prokaryotes and the eukaryotic nucleus. We have used two-hybrid and fusion protein constructs to analyze the requirements for interaction between the single subunit core polymerase (Rpo41p), and the σ-like promoter specificity factor (Mtf1p). We were unable to define any protein truncations that retained the ability to interact, indicating that multiple regions encompassing the entire length of the proteins are involved in interactions. We found that 9 of 15 nonfunctional (petite) point mutations in Mtf1p isolated in a plasmid shuffle strategy had lost the ability to interact. Some of the noninteracting mutations are temperature-sensitive petite (ts petite); this phenotype correlates with a precipitous drop in mitochondrial transcript abundance when cells are shifted to the nonpermissive temperature. One temperature-sensitive mutant demonstrated a striking pH dependence for core binding in vitro, consistent with the physical properties of the amino acid substitution. The noninteracting mutations fall into three widely spaced clusters of amino acids. Two of the clusters are in regions with amino acid sequence similarity to conserved regions 2 and 3 of σ factors and related proteins; these regions have been implicated in core binding by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic σ-like factors. By modeling the location of the mutations using the partial structure of Escherichia coli σ70, we find that two of the clusters are potentially juxtaposed in the three-dimensional structure. Our results demonstrate that interactions between σ-like specificity factors and core RNA polymerases require multiple regions from both components of the holoenzymes. PMID:9353258

  18. No-core configuration-interaction model for the isospin- and angular-momentum-projected states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satuła, W.; Båczyk, P.; Dobaczewski, J.; Konieczka, M.

    2016-08-01

    Background: Single-reference density functional theory is very successful in reproducing bulk nuclear properties like binding energies, radii, or quadrupole moments throughout the entire periodic table. Its extension to the multireference level allows for restoring symmetries and, in turn, for calculating transition rates. Purpose: We propose a new variant of the no-core-configuration-interaction (NCCI) model treating properly isospin and rotational symmetries. The model is applicable to any nucleus irrespective of its mass and neutron- and proton-number parity. It properly includes polarization effects caused by an interplay between the long- and short-range forces acting in the atomic nucleus. Methods: The method is based on solving the Hill-Wheeler-Griffin equation within a model space built of linearly dependent states having good angular momentum and properly treated isobaric spin. The states are generated by means of the isospin and angular-momentum projection applied to a set of low-lying (multi)particle-(multi)hole deformed Slater determinants calculated using the self-consistent Skyrme-Hartree-Fock approach. Results: The theory is applied to calculate energy spectra in N ≈Z nuclei that are relevant from the point of view of a study of superallowed Fermi β decays. In particular, a new set of the isospin-symmetry-breaking corrections to these decays is given. Conclusions: It is demonstrated that the NCCI model is capable of capturing main features of low-lying energy spectra in light and medium-mass nuclei using relatively small model space and without any local readjustment of its low-energy coupling constants. Its flexibility and a range of applicability makes it an interesting alternative to the conventional nuclear shell model.

  19. Inhibitory Control Interacts with Core Knowledge in Toddlers' Manual Search for an Occluded Object

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Sara T.; Gjersoe, Nathalia L.; Sibielska-Woch, Kasia; Leslie, Alan M.; Hood, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    Core knowledge theories advocate the primacy of fundamental principles that constrain cognitive development from early infancy. However, there is concern that core knowledge of object properties does not constrain older preschoolers' reasoning during manual search. Here we address in detail both failure and success on two well-established search…

  20. Setting the stage for circumstellar interaction in core-collapse supernovae. II. Wave-driven mass loss in supernova progenitors

    SciTech Connect

    Shiode, Joshua H.; Quataert, Eliot E-mail: eliot@berkeley.edu

    2014-01-01

    Supernovae (SNe) powered by interaction with circumstellar material provide evidence for intense stellar mass loss during the final years before core collapse. We have argued that during and after core neon burning, internal gravity waves excited by core convection can tap into the core fusion power and transport a super-Eddington energy flux out to the stellar envelope, potentially unbinding ∼1 solar mass of material. In this work, we explore the internal conditions of SN progenitors using the MESA one-dimensional stellar evolution code in search of those most susceptible to wave-driven mass loss. We focus on simple, order of magnitude considerations applicable to a wide range of progenitors. Wave-driven mass loss during core neon and oxygen fusion happens preferentially in either lower mass (∼20 solar mass zero-age main sequence) stars or massive, sub-solar metallicity stars. Roughly 20% of the SN progenitors we survey can excite 10{sup 46-48} erg of energy in waves that can potentially drive mass loss within a few months to a decade of core collapse. This energy can generate circumstellar environments with 10{sup –3}-1 solar masses reaching 100 AU before explosion. We predict a correlation between the energy associated with pre-SN mass ejection and the time to core collapse, with the most intense mass loss preferentially occurring closer to core collapse. During silicon burning, wave energy may inflate 10{sup –3}-1 solar masses of the envelope to 10-100 s of solar radii. This suggests that some nominally compact SN progenitors (Type Ibc progenitors) will have a significantly different SN shock breakout signature than traditionally assumed.

  1. Setting the Stage for Circumstellar Interaction in Core-Collapse Supernovae. II. Wave-driven Mass Loss in Supernova Progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiode, Joshua H.; Quataert, Eliot

    2014-01-01

    Supernovae (SNe) powered by interaction with circumstellar material provide evidence for intense stellar mass loss during the final years before core collapse. We have argued that during and after core neon burning, internal gravity waves excited by core convection can tap into the core fusion power and transport a super-Eddington energy flux out to the stellar envelope, potentially unbinding ~1 solar mass of material. In this work, we explore the internal conditions of SN progenitors using the MESA one-dimensional stellar evolution code in search of those most susceptible to wave-driven mass loss. We focus on simple, order of magnitude considerations applicable to a wide range of progenitors. Wave-driven mass loss during core neon and oxygen fusion happens preferentially in either lower mass (~20 solar mass zero-age main sequence) stars or massive, sub-solar metallicity stars. Roughly 20% of the SN progenitors we survey can excite 1046-48 erg of energy in waves that can potentially drive mass loss within a few months to a decade of core collapse. This energy can generate circumstellar environments with 10-3-1 solar masses reaching 100 AU before explosion. We predict a correlation between the energy associated with pre-SN mass ejection and the time to core collapse, with the most intense mass loss preferentially occurring closer to core collapse. During silicon burning, wave energy may inflate 10-3-1 solar masses of the envelope to 10-100 s of solar radii. This suggests that some nominally compact SN progenitors (Type Ibc progenitors) will have a significantly different SN shock breakout signature than traditionally assumed.

  2. Osmium-187 enrichment in some plumes: Evidence for core-mantle interaction?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.J.; Morgan, J.W.; Horan, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    Calculations with data for asteroidal cores indicate that Earth's outer core may have a rhenium/osmium ratio at least 20 percent greater than that of the chondritic upper mantle, potentially leading to an outer core with an osmium-187/osmium-188 ratio at least 8 percent greater than that of chondrites. Because of the much greater abundance of osmium in the outer core relative to the mantle, even a small addition of metal to a plume ascending from the D??? layer would transfer the enriched isotopic signature to the mixture. Sources of certain plume-derived systems seem to have osmium-187/osmium-188 ratios 5 to 20 percent greater than that for chondrites, consistent with the ascent of a plume from the core-mantle boundary.

  3. Extended-soft-core baryon-baryon model. II. Hyperon-nucleon interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijken, Th. A.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2006-04-01

    The YN results are presented from the extended soft-core (ESC) interactions. They consist of local and nonlocal potentials because of (i) one-boson exchanges (OBE), which are the members of nonets of pseudoscalar, vector, scalar, and axial mesons; (ii) diffractive exchanges; (iii) two-pseudoscalar exchange; and (iv) meson-pair exchange (MPE). Both the OBE and pair vertices are regulated by Gaussian form factors producing potentials with a soft behavior near the origin. The assignment of the cutoff masses for the baryon-baryon-meson (BBM) vertices is dependent on the SU(3) classification of the exchanged mesons for OBE and a similar scheme for MPE. The particular version of the ESC model, called ESC04 [T. A. Rijken, Phys. Rev. C 73, 044007 (2006)], describes nucleon-nucleon (NN) and hyperon-nucleon (YN) interactions in a unified way using broken SU(3) symmetry. Novel ingredients are the inclusion of (i) the axial-vector meson potentials and (ii) a zero in the scalar- and axial-vector meson form factors. These innovations made it possible for the first time to keep the parameters of the model close to the predictions of the 3P0 quark-antiquark creation model. This is also the case for the F/(F+D) ratios. Furthermore, the introduction of the zero helped to avoid the occurrence of unwanted bound states. Broken SU(3) symmetry serves to connect the NN and the YN channels, which leaves after fitting NN only a few free parameters for the determination of the YN interactions. In particular, the meson-baryon coupling constants are calculated via SU(3) using the coupling constants of the NN analysis as input. Here, as a novel feature, medium-strong flavor-symmetry breaking (FSB) of the coupling constants was allowed, using the 3P0 model with a Gell-Mann-Okubo hypercharge breaking for the BBM coupling. Very good fits for ESC model with and without FSB were obtained. The charge-symmetry breaking in the Λp and Λn channels, which is an SU(2) isospin breaking, is included in the

  4. Extended-soft-core baryon-baryon model. II. Hyperon-nucleon interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Rijken, Th.A.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2006-04-15

    The YN results are presented from the extended soft-core (ESC) interactions. They consist of local and nonlocal potentials because of (i) one-boson exchanges (OBE), which are the members of nonets of pseudoscalar, vector, scalar, and axial mesons; (ii) diffractive exchanges; (iii) two-pseudoscalar exchange; and (iv) meson-pair exchange (MPE). Both the OBE and pair vertices are regulated by Gaussian form factors producing potentials with a soft behavior near the origin. The assignment of the cutoff masses for the baryon-baryon-meson (BBM) vertices is dependent on the SU(3) classification of the exchanged mesons for OBE and a similar scheme for MPE. The particular version of the ESC model, called ESC04 [T. A. Rijken, Phys. Rev. C 73, 044007 (2006)], describes nucleon-nucleon (NN) and hyperon-nucleon (YN) interactions in a unified way using broken SU(3) symmetry. Novel ingredients are the inclusion of (i) the axial-vector meson potentials and (ii) a zero in the scalar- and axial-vector meson form factors. These innovations made it possible for the first time to keep the parameters of the model close to the predictions of the {sup 3}P{sub 0} quark-antiquark creation model. This is also the case for the F/(F+D) ratios. Furthermore, the introduction of the zero helped to avoid the occurrence of unwanted bound states. Broken SU(3) symmetry serves to connect the NN and the YN channels, which leaves after fitting NN only a few free parameters for the determination of the YN interactions. In particular, the meson-baryon coupling constants are calculated via SU(3) using the coupling constants of the NN analysis as input. Here, as a novel feature, medium-strong flavor-symmetry breaking (FSB) of the coupling constants was allowed, using the {sup 3}P{sub 0} model with a Gell-Mann-Okubo hypercharge breaking for the BBM coupling. Very good fits for ESC model with and without FSB were obtained. The charge-symmetry breaking in the {lambda}p and {lambda}n channels, which is an SU(2

  5. Use of RNA tertiary interaction modules for the crystallisation of the spliceosomal snRNP core domain.

    PubMed

    Leung, Adelaine K W; Kambach, Christian; Kondo, Yasushi; Kampmann, Martin; Jinek, Martin; Nagai, Kiyoshi

    2010-09-10

    RNA is known to perform diverse roles in the cell, often as ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles. While the crystal structure of these RNP particles could provide crucial insights into their functions, crystallographic work on RNP complexes is often hampered by difficulties in obtaining well-diffracting crystals. The small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) core domain, acting as an assembly nucleus for the maturation of snRNPs, plays a crucial role in the biogenesis of four of the spliceosomal snRNPs. We have succeeded in crystallising the human U4 snRNP core domain containing seven Sm proteins and a truncated U4 snRNA variant. The most critical factor in our success in the crystallisation was the introduction of various tertiary interaction modules into the RNA that could promote crystal packing without altering the core structure. Here, we describe various strategies employed in our crystallisation effort that could be applied to crystallisation of other RNP particles. PMID:20643141

  6. Solvent-surface interactions control the phase structure in laser-generated iron-gold core-shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wagener, Philipp; Jakobi, Jurij; Rehbock, Christoph; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran; Thede, Claas; Wiedwald, Ulf; Bartsch, Mathias; Kienle, Lorenz; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    This work highlights a strategy for the one-step synthesis of FeAu nanoparticles by the pulsed laser ablation of alloy targets in the presence of different solvents. This method allows particle generation without the use of additional chemicals; hence, solvent-metal interactions could be studied without cross effects from organic surface ligands. A detailed analysis of generated particles via transmission electron microscopy in combination with EDX elemental mapping could conclusively verify that the nature of the used solvent governs the internal phase structure of the formed nanoparticles. In the presence of acetone or methyl methacrylate, a gold shell covering a non-oxidized iron core was formed, whereas in aqueous media, an Au core with an Fe3O4 shell was generated. This core-shell morphology was the predominant species found in >90% of the examined nanoparticles. These findings indicate that fundamental chemical interactions between the nanoparticle surface and the solvent significantly contribute to phase segregation and elemental distribution in FeAu nanoparticles. A consecutive analysis of resulting Fe@Au core-shell nanoparticles revealed outstanding oxidation resistance and fair magnetic and optical properties. In particular, the combination of these features with high stability magnetism and plasmonics may create new opportunities for this hybrid material in imaging applications. PMID:27004738

  7. Solvent-surface interactions control the phase structure in laser-generated iron-gold core-shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagener, Philipp; Jakobi, Jurij; Rehbock, Christoph; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran; Thede, Claas; Wiedwald, Ulf; Bartsch, Mathias; Kienle, Lorenz; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2016-03-01

    This work highlights a strategy for the one-step synthesis of FeAu nanoparticles by the pulsed laser ablation of alloy targets in the presence of different solvents. This method allows particle generation without the use of additional chemicals; hence, solvent-metal interactions could be studied without cross effects from organic surface ligands. A detailed analysis of generated particles via transmission electron microscopy in combination with EDX elemental mapping could conclusively verify that the nature of the used solvent governs the internal phase structure of the formed nanoparticles. In the presence of acetone or methyl methacrylate, a gold shell covering a non-oxidized iron core was formed, whereas in aqueous media, an Au core with an Fe3O4 shell was generated. This core-shell morphology was the predominant species found in >90% of the examined nanoparticles. These findings indicate that fundamental chemical interactions between the nanoparticle surface and the solvent significantly contribute to phase segregation and elemental distribution in FeAu nanoparticles. A consecutive analysis of resulting Fe@Au core-shell nanoparticles revealed outstanding oxidation resistance and fair magnetic and optical properties. In particular, the combination of these features with high stability magnetism and plasmonics may create new opportunities for this hybrid material in imaging applications.

  8. Solvent-surface interactions control the phase structure in laser-generated iron-gold core-shell nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Wagener, Philipp; Jakobi, Jurij; Rehbock, Christoph; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran; Thede, Claas; Wiedwald, Ulf; Bartsch, Mathias; Kienle, Lorenz; Barcikowski, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    This work highlights a strategy for the one-step synthesis of FeAu nanoparticles by the pulsed laser ablation of alloy targets in the presence of different solvents. This method allows particle generation without the use of additional chemicals; hence, solvent-metal interactions could be studied without cross effects from organic surface ligands. A detailed analysis of generated particles via transmission electron microscopy in combination with EDX elemental mapping could conclusively verify that the nature of the used solvent governs the internal phase structure of the formed nanoparticles. In the presence of acetone or methyl methacrylate, a gold shell covering a non-oxidized iron core was formed, whereas in aqueous media, an Au core with an Fe3O4 shell was generated. This core-shell morphology was the predominant species found in >90% of the examined nanoparticles. These findings indicate that fundamental chemical interactions between the nanoparticle surface and the solvent significantly contribute to phase segregation and elemental distribution in FeAu nanoparticles. A consecutive analysis of resulting Fe@Au core-shell nanoparticles revealed outstanding oxidation resistance and fair magnetic and optical properties. In particular, the combination of these features with high stability magnetism and plasmonics may create new opportunities for this hybrid material in imaging applications. PMID:27004738

  9. Interactions between RNA polymerase and the core recognition element are a determinant of transcription start site selection.

    PubMed

    Vvedenskaya, Irina O; Vahedian-Movahed, Hanif; Zhang, Yuanchao; Taylor, Deanne M; Ebright, Richard H; Nickels, Bryce E

    2016-05-24

    During transcription initiation, RNA polymerase (RNAP) holoenzyme unwinds ∼13 bp of promoter DNA, forming an RNAP-promoter open complex (RPo) containing a single-stranded transcription bubble, and selects a template-strand nucleotide to serve as the transcription start site (TSS). In RPo, RNAP core enzyme makes sequence-specific protein-DNA interactions with the downstream part of the nontemplate strand of the transcription bubble ("core recognition element," CRE). Here, we investigated whether sequence-specific RNAP-CRE interactions affect TSS selection. To do this, we used two next-generation sequencing-based approaches to compare the TSS profile of WT RNAP to that of an RNAP derivative defective in sequence-specific RNAP-CRE interactions. First, using massively systematic transcript end readout, MASTER, we assessed effects of RNAP-CRE interactions on TSS selection in vitro and in vivo for a library of 4(7) (∼16,000) consensus promoters containing different TSS region sequences, and we observed that the TSS profile of the RNAP derivative defective in RNAP-CRE interactions differed from that of WT RNAP, in a manner that correlated with the presence of consensus CRE sequences in the TSS region. Second, using 5' merodiploid native-elongating-transcript sequencing, 5' mNET-seq, we assessed effects of RNAP-CRE interactions at natural promoters in Escherichia coli, and we identified 39 promoters at which RNAP-CRE interactions determine TSS selection. Our findings establish RNAP-CRE interactions are a functional determinant of TSS selection. We propose that RNAP-CRE interactions modulate the position of the downstream end of the transcription bubble in RPo, and thereby modulate TSS selection, which involves transcription bubble expansion or transcription bubble contraction (scrunching or antiscrunching). PMID:27162333

  10. Pseudorevertants of a Semliki Forest Virus Fusion-Blocking Mutation Reveal a Critical Interchain Interaction in the Core Trimer▿

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Catherine Y.; Besanceney, Christen; Song, Yifan; Kielian, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Semliki Forest virus (SFV) is an enveloped alphavirus that infects cells by a low-pH-triggered membrane fusion reaction mediated by the viral E1 protein. E1 inserts into target membranes and refolds to a hairpin-like homotrimer containing a central core trimer and an outer layer composed of domain III and the juxtamembrane stem region. The key residues involved in mediating E1 trimerization are not well understood. We recently showed that aspartate 188 in the interface of the core trimer plays a critical role. Substitution with lysine (D188K) blocks formation of the core trimer and E1 trimerization and strongly inhibits virus fusion and infection. Here, we have isolated and characterized revertants that rescued the fusion and growth defects of D188K. These revertants included pseudorevertants containing acidic or polar neutral residues at E1 position 188 and a second-site revertant containing an E1 K176T mutation. Computational analysis using multiconformation continuum electrostatics revealed an important interaction bridging D188 of one chain with K176 of the adjacent chain in the core trimer. E1 K176 is completely conserved among the alphaviruses, and mutations of K176 to threonine (K176T) or isoleucine (K176I) produced similar fusion phenotypes as D188 mutants. Together, our data support a model in which a ring of three salt bridges formed by D188 and K176 stabilize the core trimer, a key intermediate of the alphavirus fusion protein. PMID:20826687

  11. Study on some factors affecting the results in the use of MIP method in concrete research

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rakesh; Bhattacharjee, B

    2003-03-01

    Effects of rate of pressure application and forms and type of sample on porosity and pore size distribution of concrete estimated through mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) are presented in this experimental work. Two different forms of concrete sample, namely, crushed chunks of concrete and small core drilled out from the concrete beam specimens, were used for this study. The results exhibit that the rate of pressure application in mercury porosimetry has little effect on porosity and pore size distribution of concrete. It is also demonstrated that small cores drilled out from large concrete specimens are preferable as samples for performing porosimetry test on concrete.

  12. Interdependent nucleocytoplasmic trafficking and interactions of Dis3 with Rrp6, the core exosome and importin-alpha3.

    PubMed

    Graham, Amy C; Davis, Stephanie M; Andrulis, Erik D

    2009-05-01

    Subcellular compartmentalization of exoribonucleases (RNAses) is an important control mechanism in the temporal and spatial regulation of RNA processing and decay. Despite much progress towards understanding RNAse substrates and functions, we know little of how RNAses are transported and assembled into functional, subcellularly restricted complexes. To gain insight into this issue, we are studying the exosome-binding protein Dis3, a processive 3' to 5' exoribonuclease. Here, we examine the interactions and subcellular localization of the Drosophila melanogaster Dis3 (dDis3) protein. N-terminal domain mutants of dDis3 abolish associations with the 'core' exosome, yet only reduce binding to the 'nuclear' exosome-associated factor dRrp6. We show that nuclear localization of dDis3 requires a C-terminal classic nuclear localization signal (NLS). Consistent with this, dDis3 specifically co-precipitates the NLS-binding protein importin-alpha3. Surprisingly, dDis3 constructs that lack or mutate the C-terminal NLS retain importin-alpha3 binding, suggesting that the interaction is indirect. Finally, we find that endogenous dDis3 and dRrp6 exhibit coordinated nuclear enrichment or exclusion, suggesting that dDis3, Rrp6 and importin-alpha3 interact in a complex independent of the core. We propose that the movement and deposition of this complex is important for the subcellular compartmentalization and regulation of the exosome core. PMID:19220816

  13. Rubrene: The Interplay between Intramolecular and Intermolecular Interactions Determines the Planarization of Its Tetracene Core in the Solid State.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Christopher; Marshall, Michael S; Sherrill, C David; Risko, Chad; Brédas, Jean-Luc

    2015-07-15

    Rubrene is one of the most studied molecular semiconductors; its chemical structure consists of a tetracene backbone with four phenyl rings appended to the two central fused rings. Derivatization of these phenyl rings can lead to two very different solid-state molecular conformations and packings: One in which the tetracene core is planar and there exists substantive overlap among neighboring π-conjugated backbones; and another where the tetracene core is twisted and the overlap of neighboring π-conjugated backbones is completely disrupted. State-of-the-art electronic structure calculations show for all isolated rubrene derivatives that the twisted conformation is more favorable (by -1.7 to -4.1 kcal mol(-1)), which is a consequence of energetically unfavorable exchange-repulsion interactions among the phenyl side groups. Calculations based on available crystallographic structures reveal that planar conformations of the tetracene core in the solid state result from intermolecular interactions that can be tuned through well-chosen functionalization of the phenyl side groups and lead to improved intermolecular electronic couplings. Understanding the interplay of these intramolecular and intermolecular interactions provides insight into how to chemically modify rubrene and similar molecular semiconductors to improve the intrinsic materials electronic properties. PMID:26075966

  14. Interdependent nucleocytoplasmic trafficking and interactions of Dis3 with Rrp6, the core exosome, and importin-α3

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Amy C.; Davis, Stephanie M.; Andrulis, Erik D.

    2009-01-01

    Subcellular compartmentalization of exoribonucleases (RNases) is an important control mechanism in the temporal and spatial regulation of RNA processing and decay. Despite much progress towards understanding RNase substrates and functions, we know little of how RNases are transported and assembled into functional, subcellularly-restricted complexes. To gain insight into this issue, we are studying the exosome-binding protein Dis3, a processive 3' to 5' exoribonuclease. Here, we examine the interactions and subcellular localization of the Drosophila melanogaster Dis3 (dDis3) protein. N-terminal domain mutants of dDis3 abolish associations with the `core' exosome yet only reduce binding to the `nuclear' exosome-associated factor dRrp6. We show that nuclear localization of dDis3 requires a C-terminal classic nuclear localization signal (NLS). Consistent with this, dDis3 specifically co-precipitates the NLS-binding protein importin-α3. Surprisingly, dDis3 constructs that lack or mutate the C-terminal NLS retain importin-α3 binding, suggesting that the interaction is indirect. Finally, we find that endogenous dDis3 and dRrp6 exhibit coordinated nuclear enrichment or exclusion, suggesting that dDis3, Rrp6, and importin-α3 interact in a complex independent of the core. We propose that the movement and deposition of this complex is important for the subcellular compartmentalization and regulation of the exosome core. PMID:19220816

  15. Vibronic structure and ion core interactions in Rydberg states of diazomethane: an experimental and theoretical investigation.

    PubMed

    Fedorov, Igor; Koziol, Lucas; Li, Guosheng; Reisler, Hanna; Krylov, Anna I

    2007-12-27

    Vibronic transitions to the 21A2(3py <-- pi) Rydberg state of CH2N2, CD2N2, and CHDN2 were recorded by 2 + 1 REMPI spectroscopy, and kinetic energy distributions (eKE) of photoelectrons from ionization of selected vibronic levels were determined by velocity map imaging. Normal-mode frequencies were obtained for the 21A2(3py) Rydberg state and for the cation. Mixed levels of the 21A2(3py) and 21B1(3pz) of the three isotopologs were identified by photoelectron imaging and analyzed. The equilibrium geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies of the electronic states of neutral diazomethane were calculated by CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ, and B3LYP/6-311G(2df,p). The latter method was also used to calculate isotope shifts for the ground-state neutral and cation. Geometry and frequencies of the ground state of the cation were calculated by CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ, using the unrestricted (UHF) reference. The equilibrium structures, frequencies, and isotope shifts of the 21A2(3py) and 21B1(3pz) Rydberg states were calculated by EOM-EE-CCSD/6-311(3+,+)G(2df). In all cases where comparisons with experimental results were available, the agreement between theory and experiment was very good allowing a full analysis of trends in structure and vibrational frequencies in going from the neutral species to the excited Rydberg states, 21A2(3py) and 21B1(3pz), and the cation. Although the 21A2(3py) and 21B1(3pz) states have planar C2v symmetry like the ion, they exhibit differences in geometry due to the specific interactions of the electron in the 3py and 3pz orbitals with the nuclei charge distributions of the ion core. Moreover, trends in normal-mode frequencies in the ground states of the neutral and ion and the 21A2(3py) and 21B1(3pz) Rydberg states are consistent with removing an electron from the bonding piCN-orbital, which also has an antibonding character with respect to NN. To explain the observed trends, the vibrational modes are divided into two groups that involve displacements mainly

  16. Constraints on magma-wall rock thermal interaction during explosive eruptions from textural analysis of cored bombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sottili, G.; Taddeucci, J.; Palladino, D. M.

    2010-04-01

    Cored bombs, a kind of pyroclast consisting of a lithic core surrounded by a chilled shell of juvenile material, record the thermal interaction of magma with wall rocks. We performed textural analysis of cored bombs, solid-melt heat-transfer theoretical modelling, and high-temperature coating experiments to put temporal and intensity constraints on the thermal interaction of potassic magma feeder systems with carbonate wall rocks during explosive eruptions in the Quaternary, Colli Albani Volcanic District (Roman Province). It appears that the degree of thermal alteration of lithic cores records the duration of magma-core heat transfer, whereas the core/shell size ratio records the initial entrainment temperature of the lithic fragment. Both parameters appear to vary significantly with the eruptive style, magnitude and vent location. Specifically, small-scale (~ 0.1-1 km 3 DRE) hydromagmatic eruptions show magma-core heat-transfer durations of 0.1-10 s and entrainment temperatures in the range of 100-300 °C in the case of a monogenetic maar located in the Colli Albani peripheral area, while entrainment temperature is as high as to 800 °C for a polygenetic maar in a high-enthalpy geothermal system at the margins of the main Colli Albani magma chamber. A large-scale (~ 30 km 3 DRE) caldera-forming explosive event shows magma-core heat-transfer duration in the order of 10 2-10 3 s and temperature of 100-500 °C at the initial magma-wall rock contact. On these grounds, we derived the cooling rate of magmas as a function of the initial temperature, mass and size distribution of lithic clasts entrained. Magma cooling by lithic entrainment may have occurred on the same time-scale as that of eruptive pulses (seconds to hours), implying that lithic entrainment may effect changes in magma physico-chemical properties on a short time-scale and, consequently, affect eruptive conduit dynamics.

  17. Interaction of loading pattern and nuclear data uncertainties in reactor core calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.; Gallner, L.; Krzykacz-Hausmann, B.; Pautz, A.; Velkov, K.; Zwermann, W.

    2012-07-01

    Along with best-estimate calculations for design and safety analysis, understanding uncertainties is important to determine appropriate design margins. In this framework, nuclear data uncertainties and their propagation to full core calculations are a critical issue. To deal with this task, different error propagation techniques, deterministic and stochastic are currently developed to evaluate the uncertainties in the output quantities. Among these is the sampling based uncertainty and sensitivity software XSUSA which is able to quantify the influence of nuclear data covariance on reactor core calculations. In the present work, this software is used to investigate systematically the uncertainties in the power distributions of two PWR core loadings specified in the OECD UAM-Benchmark suite. With help of a statistical sensitivity analysis, the main contributors to the uncertainty are determined. Using this information a method is studied with which loading patterns of reactor cores can be optimized with regard to minimizing power distribution uncertainties. It is shown that this technique is able to halve the calculation uncertainties of a MOX/UOX core configuration. (authors)

  18. Estimation of Concrete's Porosity by Ultrasounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benouis, A.; Grini, A.

    Durability of concrete depends strongly on porosity; this conditions the intensity of the interactions of the concrete with the aggressive agents. The pores inside the concrete facilitate the process of damage, which is generally initiated on the surface. The most used measurement is undoubtedly the measurement of porosity accessible to water. The porosimetry by intrusion with mercury constitutes a tool for investigation of the mesoporosity. The relationship between concrete mixtures, porosity and ultrasonic velocity of concrete samples measured by ultrasonic NDT is investigated. This experimental study is interested in the relations between the ultrasonic velocity measured by transducers of 7.5 mm and 49.5 mm diameter and with 54 kHz frequency. Concrete specimens (160 mm diameter and 320 mm height) are fabricated with concrete of seven different mixtures (various W/C and S/S + G ratios), which gave porosities varying between 7% and 16%. Ultrasonic velocities in concrete were measured in longitudinal direction. Finally the results showed the influence of ratio W/C, where the porosity of the concretes of a ratio W/C _0,5 have correctly estimated by ultrasonic velocity. The integration of the concretes of a lower ratio, in this relation, caused a great dispersion. Porosity estimation of concretes with a ratio W/C lower than 0,5 became specific to each ratio.

  19. Size dependence of inter- and intra-cluster interactions in core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Maninder; McCloy, John S.; Jiang, Weilin; Yao, Qi; Qiang, You

    2012-06-15

    The room temperature magnetic properties of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoclusters (NCs) synthesized by a cluster deposition system have been investigated, and their dependence on mean cluster size has been discussed. In this study, the surface/boundary spins of clusters were not frozen and were thermally activated during the measurements. The inter-cluster interactions between clusters and intra-cluster interactions between the iron core (ferromagnetic) and iron oxide shell (ferrimagnetic) have been investigated by field dependent isothermal remanent magnetization and dc demagnetization measurements at room temperature. The Henkel plot and delta M plot support the existence of dipolar inter-cluster interactions which become stronger with the growth of cluster size. The derivative of the initial magnetization curve implies that smaller clusters require less field and time than the bigger ones to overcome various energy barriers before aligning along the field direction. Coercive field and magnetization are also correlated with the interaction parameters. To compare the room temperature magnetic results, one system was studied at low temperature, where exchange coupling at the interface between the oxide and metallic phases was observed through bias effect and anisotropy enhancement.

  20. IRBIT Interacts with the Catalytic Core of Phosphatidylinositol Phosphate Kinase Type Iα and IIα through Conserved Catalytic Aspartate Residues

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Hideaki; Hirose, Matsumi; Gainche, Laura; Kawaai, Katsuhiro; Bonneau, Benjamin; Ijuin, Takeshi; Itoh, Toshiki; Takenawa, Tadaomi; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases (PIPKs) are lipid kinases that generate phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2), a critical lipid signaling molecule that regulates diverse cellular functions, including the activities of membrane channels and transporters. IRBIT (IP3R-binding protein released with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate) is a multifunctional protein that regulates diverse target proteins. Here, we report that IRBIT forms signaling complexes with members of the PIPK family. IRBIT bound to all PIPK isoforms in heterologous expression systems and specifically interacted with PIPK type Iα (PIPKIα) and type IIα (PIPKIIα) in mouse cerebellum. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that two conserved catalytic aspartate residues of PIPKIα and PIPKIIα are involved in the interaction with IRBIT. Furthermore, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, Mg2+, and/or ATP interfered with the interaction, suggesting that IRBIT interacts with catalytic cores of PIPKs. Mutations of phosphorylation sites in the serine-rich region of IRBIT affected the selectivity of its interaction with PIPKIα and PIPKIIα. The structural flexibility of the serine-rich region, located in the intrinsically disordered protein region, is assumed to underlie the mechanism of this interaction. Furthermore, in vitro binding experiments and immunocytochemistry suggest that IRBIT and PIPKIα interact with the Na+/HCO3− cotransporter NBCe1-B. These results suggest that IRBIT forms signaling complexes with PIPKIα and NBCe1-B, whose activity is regulated by PI(4,5)P2. PMID:26509711

  1. Effect of attractive interactions on the water-like anomalies of a core-softened model potential.

    PubMed

    Pant, Shashank; Gera, Tarun; Choudhury, Niharendu

    2013-12-28

    It is now well established that water-like anomalies can be reproduced by a spherically symmetric potential with two length scales, popularly known as core-softened potential. In the present study we aim to investigate the effect of attractive interactions among the particles in a model fluid interacting with core-softened potential on the existence and location of various water-like anomalies in the temperature-pressure plane. We employ extensive molecular dynamic simulations to study anomalous nature of various order parameters and properties under isothermal compression. Order map analyses have also been done for all the potentials. We observe that all the systems with varying depth of attractive wells show structural, dynamic, and thermodynamic anomalies. As many of the previous studies involving model water and a class of core softened potentials have concluded that the structural anomaly region encloses the diffusion anomaly region, which in turn, encloses the density anomaly region, the same pattern has also been observed in the present study for the systems with less depth of attractive well. For the systems with deeper attractive well, we observe that the diffusion anomaly region shifts toward higher densities and is not always enclosed by the structural anomaly region. Also, density anomaly region is not completely enclosed by diffusion anomaly region in this case. PMID:24387380

  2. Effect of attractive interactions on the water-like anomalies of a core-softened model potential

    SciTech Connect

    Pant, Shashank; Gera, Tarun; Choudhury, Niharendu E-mail: niharc2002@yahoo.com

    2013-12-28

    It is now well established that water-like anomalies can be reproduced by a spherically symmetric potential with two length scales, popularly known as core-softened potential. In the present study we aim to investigate the effect of attractive interactions among the particles in a model fluid interacting with core-softened potential on the existence and location of various water-like anomalies in the temperature-pressure plane. We employ extensive molecular dynamic simulations to study anomalous nature of various order parameters and properties under isothermal compression. Order map analyses have also been done for all the potentials. We observe that all the systems with varying depth of attractive wells show structural, dynamic, and thermodynamic anomalies. As many of the previous studies involving model water and a class of core softened potentials have concluded that the structural anomaly region encloses the diffusion anomaly region, which in turn, encloses the density anomaly region, the same pattern has also been observed in the present study for the systems with less depth of attractive well. For the systems with deeper attractive well, we observe that the diffusion anomaly region shifts toward higher densities and is not always enclosed by the structural anomaly region. Also, density anomaly region is not completely enclosed by diffusion anomaly region in this case.

  3. A dimer of BPV-1 E2 containing a protease resistant core interacts with its DNA target.

    PubMed Central

    Dostatni, N; Thierry, F; Yaniv, M

    1988-01-01

    The E2 proteins encoded by papillomaviruses interact with the viral DNA to regulate its transcription. In the present study, we have constructed bacterial vectors expressing the full-length or N-terminal truncated BPV-1 E2 proteins under the control of an inducible promoter. By UV cross-linking experiments we show that a dimer of the intact or truncated E2 protein interacts with a single palindromic site ACCGNNNNCGGT. The DNA-binding domain of E2 can be reduced to a small protease resistant core. Methylation interference studies show that this C-terminal domain interacts with the major groove of the DNA by contacting two consecutive guanine residues in both halves of the palindrome. Although one binding site is sufficient for high affinity binding in vitro or in vivo, two E2 binding sites are required for transcriptional activation in eukaryotic cells. Images PMID:2850174

  4. Expansion dynamics in a one-dimensional hard-core boson model with three-body interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jie; Wu, Yin-Zhong; Xu, Xue-Fen

    2015-01-01

    Using the adaptive time-dependent density matrix renormalization group method, we numerically investigate the expansion dynamics of bosons in a one-dimensional hard-core boson model with three-body interactions. It is found that the bosons expand ballistically with weak interaction, which are obtained by local density and the radius Rn. It is shown that the expansion velocity V, obtained from Rn = Vt, is dependent on the number of bosons. As a prominent result, the expansion velocity decreases with the enhancement of three-body interaction. We further study the dynamics of the system, which quenches from the ground state with two-thirds filling, the results indicate the expansion is also ballistic in the gapless phase regime. It could help us detect the phase transition in the system. PMID:26435319

  5. A dimer of BPV-1 E2 containing a protease resistant core interacts with its DNA target.

    PubMed

    Dostatni, N; Thierry, F; Yaniv, M

    1988-12-01

    The E2 proteins encoded by papillomaviruses interact with the viral DNA to regulate its transcription. In the present study, we have constructed bacterial vectors expressing the full-length or N-terminal truncated BPV-1 E2 proteins under the control of an inducible promoter. By UV cross-linking experiments we show that a dimer of the intact or truncated E2 protein interacts with a single palindromic site ACCGNNNNCGGT. The DNA-binding domain of E2 can be reduced to a small protease resistant core. Methylation interference studies show that this C-terminal domain interacts with the major groove of the DNA by contacting two consecutive guanine residues in both halves of the palindrome. Although one binding site is sufficient for high affinity binding in vitro or in vivo, two E2 binding sites are required for transcriptional activation in eukaryotic cells. PMID:2850174

  6. An Investigation of Tendon Corrosion-Inhibitor Leakage into Concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, J.F.; Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.

    1999-07-05

    During inspections performed at US nuclear power plants several years ago, some of the prestressed concrete containment had experienced leakage of the tendon sheathing filler. A study was conducted to indicate the extent of the leakage into the concrete and its potential effects on concrete properties. Concrete core samples were obtained from the Trojan Nuclear Plant. Examination and testing of the core samples indicated that the appearance of tendon sheathing filler on the surface was due to leakage of the filler from the conduits and its subsequent migration to the concrete surface through cracks that were present. Migration of the tendon sheathing filler was confined to the cracks with no perceptible movement into the concrete. Results of compressive strength tests indicated that the concrete quality was consistent in the containment and that the strength had increased relative to the strength at 28 days age.

  7. Physical Interactions and Functional Coordination between the Core Subunits of Set1/Mll Complexes and the Reprogramming Factors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhenhua; Augustin, Jonathan; Hu, Jing; Jiang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Differentiated cells can be reprogrammed to the pluripotent state by overexpression of defined factors, and this process is profoundly influenced by epigenetic mechanisms including dynamic histone modifications. Changes in H3K4 methylation have been shown to be the predominant activating response in the early stage of cellular reprogramming. Mechanisms underlying such epigenetic priming, however, are not well understood. Here we show that the expression of the reprogramming factors (Yamanaka factors, Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and Myc), especially Myc, directly promotes the expression of certain core subunits of the Set1/Mll family of H3K4 methyltransferase complexes. A dynamic recruitment of the Set1/Mll complexes largely, though not sufficiently in its own, explains the dynamics of the H3K4 methylation during cellular reprogramming. We then demonstrate that the core subunits of the Set1/Mll complexes physically interact with mainly Sox2 and Myc among the Yamanaka factors. We further show that Sox2 directly binds the Ash2l subunit in the Set1/Mll complexes and this binding is mediated by the HMG domain of Sox2. Functionally, we show that the Set1/Mll complex core subunits are required for efficient cellular reprogramming. We also show that Dpy30, one of the core subunits in the complexes, is required for the efficient target binding of the reprogramming factors. Interestingly, such requirement is not necessarily dependent on locus-specific H3K4 methylation. Our work provides a better understanding of how the reprogramming factors physically interact and functionally coordinate with a key group of epigenetic modulators to mediate transitions of the chromatin state involved in cellular reprogramming. PMID:26691508

  8. Physical Interactions and Functional Coordination between the Core Subunits of Set1/Mll Complexes and the Reprogramming Factors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenhua; Augustin, Jonathan; Hu, Jing; Jiang, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Differentiated cells can be reprogrammed to the pluripotent state by overexpression of defined factors, and this process is profoundly influenced by epigenetic mechanisms including dynamic histone modifications. Changes in H3K4 methylation have been shown to be the predominant activating response in the early stage of cellular reprogramming. Mechanisms underlying such epigenetic priming, however, are not well understood. Here we show that the expression of the reprogramming factors (Yamanaka factors, Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and Myc), especially Myc, directly promotes the expression of certain core subunits of the Set1/Mll family of H3K4 methyltransferase complexes. A dynamic recruitment of the Set1/Mll complexes largely, though not sufficiently in its own, explains the dynamics of the H3K4 methylation during cellular reprogramming. We then demonstrate that the core subunits of the Set1/Mll complexes physically interact with mainly Sox2 and Myc among the Yamanaka factors. We further show that Sox2 directly binds the Ash2l subunit in the Set1/Mll complexes and this binding is mediated by the HMG domain of Sox2. Functionally, we show that the Set1/Mll complex core subunits are required for efficient cellular reprogramming. We also show that Dpy30, one of the core subunits in the complexes, is required for the efficient target binding of the reprogramming factors. Interestingly, such requirement is not necessarily dependent on locus-specific H3K4 methylation. Our work provides a better understanding of how the reprogramming factors physically interact and functionally coordinate with a key group of epigenetic modulators to mediate transitions of the chromatin state involved in cellular reprogramming. PMID:26691508

  9. Sensitivity of the geomagnetic axial dipole to thermal core-mantle interactions

    PubMed

    Bloxham

    2000-05-01

    Since the work of William Gilbert in 1600 (ref. 1), it has been widely believed that the Earth's magnetic field, when suitably time-averaged, is that of a magnetic dipole positioned at the Earth's centre and aligned with the rotational axis. This 'geocentric axial dipole' (GAD) hypothesis has been the central model for the study of the Earth's magnetic field--it underpins almost all interpretations of palaeomagnetic data, whether for studies of palaeomagnetic secular variation, for plate tectonic reconstructions, or for studies of palaeoclimate. Although the GAD hypothesis appears to provide a good description of the Earth's magnetic field over at least the past 100 Myr (ref. 2), it is difficult to test the hypothesis for earlier periods, and there is some evidence that a more complicated model is required for the period before 250 Myr ago. Kent and Smethurst suggested that this additional complexity might be because the inner core would have been smaller at that time. Here I use a numerical geodynamo model and find that reducing the size of the inner core does not significantly change the character of the magnetic field. I also consider an alternative process that could lead to the breakdown of the GAD hypothesis on this timescale, the evolution of heat-flux variations at the core-mantle boundary, induced by mantle convection. I find that a simple pattern of heat-flux variations at the core-mantle boundary, which is plausible for times before the Mesozoic era, results in a strong octupolar contribution to the field, consistent with previous findings. PMID:10811217

  10. Sensitivity of the geomagnetic axial dipole to thermal core-mantle interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloxham, Jeremy

    2000-05-01

    Since the work of William Gilbert in 1600 (ref. 1), it has been widely believed that the Earth's magnetic field, when suitably time-averaged, is that of a magnetic dipole positioned at the Earth's centre and aligned with the rotational axis. This `geocentric axial dipole' (GAD) hypothesis has been the central model for the study of the Earth's magnetic field-it underpins almost all interpretations of palaeomagnetic data, whether for studies of palaeomagnetic secular variation, for plate tectonic reconstructions, or for studies of palaeoclimate. Although the GAD hypothesis appears to provide a good description of the Earth's magnetic field over at least the past 100Myr (ref. 2), it is difficult to test the hypothesis for earlier periods, and there is some evidence that a more complicated model is required for the period before 250Myr ago. Kent and Smethurst suggested that this additional complexity might be because the inner core would have been smaller at that time. Here I use a numerical geodynamo model and find that reducing the size of the inner core does not significantly change the character of the magnetic field. I also consider an alternative process that could lead to the breakdown of the GAD hypothesis on this timescale, the evolution of heat-flux variations at the core-mantle boundary, induced by mantle convection. I find that a simple pattern of heat-flux variations at the core-mantle boundary, which is plausible for times before the Mesozoic era, results in a strong octupolar contribution to the field, consistent with previous findings.

  11. Well-defined oxide core-polymer shell nanoparticles: interfacial interactions, peculiar dynamics, and transitions in polymer nanolayers.

    PubMed

    Bershtein, V A; Gun'ko, V M; Egorova, L M; Guzenko, N V; Pakhlov, E M; Ryzhov, V A; Zarko, V I

    2010-07-01

    Interfacial interactions, chain dynamics, and glass and melting transitions were studied in well-defined core-shell nanoparticles with amorphous silica or crystalline alumina cores and noncrystallizable poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) or crystallizable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) shells. Varying particle composition caused regular changes in the shell thickness from 1 to 2 nm (monomolecular layer) up to 90 nm. Far- and mid-IR spectroscopy allowed us to register hydrogen bonding and, tentatively, Lewis/Brønsted (LB) interfacial interactions as well as changes in the dynamics and conformational state of the polymer chains as a function of the nanoshell thickness. Their most pronounced peculiarities were found for the monomolecular polymer layers. The LB interactions were stronger with the alumina substrate than silica. DSC analysis was performed, and the data obtained were in agreement with the spectroscopic data. Unlike the bulk polymer, the PVP monolayer was characterized with an extraordinarily large dynamic heterogeneity within the glass transition while broadening the transition range and varying the activation energy by an order of magnitude. The PEG monolayer adsorbed on silica was totally amorphous, whereas a highly crystalline one with the anomalously thin lamellae, down to 3 nm thick, was adsorbed on an alumina surface, presumably as a result of the quasi-heteroepitaxial crystallization process. PMID:20415443

  12. A transient analysis of decomposition and erosion of concrete exposed to a surface heat flux

    SciTech Connect

    Kilic, A.N. . Nuclear Engineering Dept.)

    1994-12-01

    A simple approximation for predicting the concrete erosion rate and depth is derived based on the heat balance integral method for conduction with the time-dependent boundary conditions. The problem is considered a four-region model including separate, moving heat sinks at the boundaries due to endothermic decomposition reactions. Polynomial temperature profiles are assumed, and the results are compared with previous experimental data and other analytical solutions. Since the technique provides an approximate temperature distribution on the average, it does not give the real temperature evaluation but provides a simple prediction of the erosion rates and the depth of defaulted concrete in terms of the parameters that are important during the physical phenomena. Because of its simplicity and reliability, the model might be useful for the larger molten core/concrete interaction codes and aerosol generation models.

  13. Low-amplitude magnetic vortex core reversal by non-linear interaction between azimuthal spin waves and the vortex gyromode

    SciTech Connect

    Sproll, Markus; Noske, Matthias; Kammerer, Matthias; Dieterle, Georg; Weigand, Markus; Stoll, Hermann; Schütz, Gisela; Bauer, Hans; Gangwar, Ajay; Woltersdorf, Georg; Back, Christian H.

    2014-01-06

    We show, by experiments and micromagnetic simulations in vortex structures, that an active “dual frequency” excitation of both the sub-GHz vortex gyromode and multi-GHz spin waves considerably changes the frequency response of spin wave mediated vortex core reversal. Besides additional minima in the switching threshold, a significant broadband reduction of the switching amplitudes is observed, which can be explained by non-linear interaction between the vortex gyromode and the spin waves. We conclude that the well known frequency spectra of azimuthal spin waves in vortex structures are altered substantially, when the vortex gyromode is actively excited simultaneously.

  14. Pleiohomeotic Interacts with the Core Transcription Elongation Factor Spt5 to Regulate Gene Expression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Barbara H.

    2013-01-01

    The early elongation checkpoint regulated by Positive Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb) is a critical control point for the expression of many genes. Spt5 interacts directly with RNA polymerase II and has an essential role in establishing this checkpoint, and also for further transcript elongation. Here we demonstrate that Drosophila Spt5 interacts both physically and genetically with the Polycomb Group (PcG) protein Pleiohomeotic (Pho), and the majority of Pho binding sites overlap with Spt5 binding sites across the genome in S2 cells. Our results indicate that Pho can interact with Spt5 to regulate transcription elongation in a gene specific manner. PMID:23894613

  15. Laser ablation of concrete.

    SciTech Connect

    Savina, M.

    1998-10-05

    Laser ablation is effective both as an analytical tool and as a means of removing surface coatings. The elemental composition of surfaces can be determined by either mass spectrometry or atomic emission spectroscopy of the atomized effluent. Paint can be removed from aircraft without damage to the underlying aluminum substrate, and environmentally damaged buildings and sculptures can be restored by ablating away deposited grime. A recent application of laser ablation is the removal of radioactive contaminants from the surface and near-surface regions of concrete. We present the results of ablation tests on concrete samples using a high power pulsed Nd:YAG laser with fiber optic beam delivery. The laser-surface interaction was studied on various model systems consisting of Type I Portland cement with varying amounts of either fine silica or sand in an effort to understand the effect of substrate composition on ablation rates and mechanisms. A sample of non-contaminated concrete from a nuclear power plant was also studied. In addition, cement and concrete samples were doped with non-radioactive isotopes of elements representative of cooling waterspills, such as cesium and strontium, and analyzed by laser-resorption mass spectrometry to determine the contamination pathways. These samples were also ablated at high power to determine the efficiency with which surface contaminants are removed and captured. The results show that the neat cement matrix melts and vaporizes when little or no sand or aggregate is present. Surface flows of liquid material are readily apparent on the ablated surface and the captured aerosol takes the form of glassy beads up to a few tens of microns in diameter. The presence of sand and aggregate particles causes the material to disaggregate on ablation, with intact particles on the millimeter size scale leaving the surface. Laser resorption mass spectrometric analysis showed that cesium and potassium have similar chemical environments in the

  16. Refractory concretes

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.

    1979-01-01

    Novel concrete compositions comprise particles of aggregate material embedded in a cement matrix, said cement matrix produced by contacting an oxide selected from the group of Y.sub.2 O.sub.3, La.sub.2 O.sub.3, Nd.sub.2 O.sub.3, Sm.sub.2 O.sub.3, Eu.sub.2 O.sub.3 and Gd.sub.2 O.sub.3 with an aqueous solution of a salt selected from the group of NH.sub.4 NO.sub.3, NH.sub.4 Cl, YCl.sub.3 and Mg(NO.sub.3).sub.2 to form a fluid mixture; and allowing the fluid mixture to harden.

  17. Penetration analysis of projectile with inclined concrete target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. B.; Kim, H. W.; Yoo, Y. H.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents numerical analysis result of projectile penetration with concrete target. We applied dynamic material properties of 4340 steels, aluminium and explosive for projectile body. Dynamic material properties were measured with static tensile testing machine and Hopkinson pressure bar tests. Moreover, we used three concrete damage models included in LS-DYNA 3D, such as SOIL_CONCRETE, CSCM (cap model with smooth interaction) and CONCRETE_DAMAGE (K&C concrete) models. Strain rate effect for concrete material is important to predict the fracture deformation and shape of concrete, and penetration depth for projectiles. CONCRETE_DAMAGE model with strain rate effect also applied to penetration analysis. Analysis result with CSCM model shows good agreement with penetration experimental data. The projectile trace and fracture shapes of concrete target were compared with experimental data.

  18. New Findings for Concreteness and Imagery Effects in Written Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadoski, Mark; Goetz, Ernest T.; Stricker, Andrew G.; Burdenski, Thomas K., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the effects of word concreteness and either imagery, verbal, or control strategy instructions on the composition of written definitions. Reveals significant effects of word concreteness on several quantity and quality variables, but no significant effect of strategy instructions or interaction between concreteness and strategy…

  19. Aliphatic peptides show similar self-assembly to amyloid core sequences, challenging the importance of aromatic interactions in amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmanan, Anupama; Cheong, Daniel W.; Accardo, Angelo; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Riekel, Christian; Hauser, Charlotte A. E.

    2013-01-01

    The self-assembly of abnormally folded proteins into amyloid fibrils is a hallmark of many debilitating diseases, from Alzheimer’s and Parkinson diseases to prion-related disorders and diabetes type II. However, the fundamental mechanism of amyloid aggregation remains poorly understood. Core sequences of four to seven amino acids within natural amyloid proteins that form toxic fibrils have been used to study amyloidogenesis. We recently reported a class of systematically designed ultrasmall peptides that self-assemble in water into cross-β–type fibers. Here we compare the self-assembly of these peptides with natural core sequences. These include core segments from Alzheimer’s amyloid-β, human amylin, and calcitonin. We analyzed the self-assembly process using circular dichroism, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, rheology, and molecular dynamics simulations. We found that the designed aliphatic peptides exhibited a similar self-assembly mechanism to several natural sequences, with formation of α-helical intermediates being a common feature. Interestingly, the self-assembly of a second core sequence from amyloid-β, containing the diphenylalanine motif, was distinctly different from all other examined sequences. The diphenylalanine-containing sequence formed β-sheet aggregates without going through the α-helical intermediate step, giving a unique fiber-diffraction pattern and simulation structure. Based on these results, we propose a simplified aliphatic model system to study amyloidosis. Our results provide vital insight into the nature of early intermediates formed and suggest that aromatic interactions are not as important in amyloid formation as previously postulated. This information is necessary for developing therapeutic drugs that inhibit and control amyloid formation. PMID:23267112

  20. Aliphatic peptides show similar self-assembly to amyloid core sequences, challenging the importance of aromatic interactions in amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, Anupama; Cheong, Daniel W; Accardo, Angelo; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Riekel, Christian; Hauser, Charlotte A E

    2013-01-01

    The self-assembly of abnormally folded proteins into amyloid fibrils is a hallmark of many debilitating diseases, from Alzheimer's and Parkinson diseases to prion-related disorders and diabetes type II. However, the fundamental mechanism of amyloid aggregation remains poorly understood. Core sequences of four to seven amino acids within natural amyloid proteins that form toxic fibrils have been used to study amyloidogenesis. We recently reported a class of systematically designed ultrasmall peptides that self-assemble in water into cross-β-type fibers. Here we compare the self-assembly of these peptides with natural core sequences. These include core segments from Alzheimer's amyloid-β, human amylin, and calcitonin. We analyzed the self-assembly process using circular dichroism, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, rheology, and molecular dynamics simulations. We found that the designed aliphatic peptides exhibited a similar self-assembly mechanism to several natural sequences, with formation of α-helical intermediates being a common feature. Interestingly, the self-assembly of a second core sequence from amyloid-β, containing the diphenylalanine motif, was distinctly different from all other examined sequences. The diphenylalanine-containing sequence formed β-sheet aggregates without going through the α-helical intermediate step, giving a unique fiber-diffraction pattern and simulation structure. Based on these results, we propose a simplified aliphatic model system to study amyloidosis. Our results provide vital insight into the nature of early intermediates formed and suggest that aromatic interactions are not as important in amyloid formation as previously postulated. This information is necessary for developing therapeutic drugs that inhibit and control amyloid formation. PMID:23267112

  1. Anticancer drug mithramycin interacts with core histones: An additional mode of action of the DNA groove binder

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Amrita; Sanyal, Sulagna; Kulkarni, Kirti K.; Jana, Kuladip; Roy, Siddhartha; Das, Chandrima; Dasgupta, Dipak

    2014-01-01

    Mithramycin (MTR) is a clinically approved DNA-binding antitumor antibiotic currently in Phase 2 clinical trials at National Institutes of Health for treatment of osteosarcoma. In view of the resurgence in the studies of this generic antibiotic as a human medicine, we have examined the binding properties of MTR with the integral component of chromatin – histone proteins – as a part of our broad objective to classify DNA-binding molecules in terms of their ability to bind chromosomal DNA alone (single binding mode) or both histones and chromosomal DNA (dual binding mode). The present report shows that besides DNA, MTR also binds to core histones present in chromatin and thus possesses the property of dual binding in the chromatin context. In contrast to the MTR–DNA interaction, association of MTR with histones does not require obligatory presence of bivalent metal ion like Mg2+. As a consequence of its ability to interact with core histones, MTR inhibits histone H3 acetylation at lysine 18, an important signature of active chromatin, in vitro and ex vivo. Reanalysis of microarray data of Ewing sarcoma cell lines shows that upon MTR treatment there is a significant down regulation of genes, possibly implicating a repression of H3K18Ac-enriched genes apart from DNA-binding transcription factors. Association of MTR with core histones and its ability to alter post-translational modification of histone H3 clearly indicates an additional mode of action of this anticancer drug that could be implicated in novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:25473595

  2. Self-Propelled Particles with Soft-Core Interactions: Patterns, Stability, and Collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Orsogna, M. R.; Chuang, Y. L.; Bertozzi, A. L.; Chayes, L. S.

    2006-03-01

    Understanding collective properties of driven particle systems is significant for naturally occurring aggregates and because the knowledge gained can be used as building blocks for the design of artificial ones. We model self-propelling biological or artificial individuals interacting through pairwise attractive and repulsive forces. For the first time, we are able to predict stability and morphology of organization starting from the shape of the two-body interaction. We present a coherent theory, based on fundamental statistical mechanics, for all possible phases of collective motion.

  3. Self-propelled particles with soft-core interactions: patterns, stability, and collapse.

    PubMed

    D' Orsogna, M R; Chuang, Y L; Bertozzi, A L; Chayes, L S

    2006-03-17

    Understanding collective properties of driven particle systems is significant for naturally occurring aggregates and because the knowledge gained can be used as building blocks for the design of artificial ones. We model self-propelling biological or artificial individuals interacting through pairwise attractive and repulsive forces. For the first time, we are able to predict stability and morphology of organization starting from the shape of the two-body interaction. We present a coherent theory, based on fundamental statistical mechanics, for all possible phases of collective motion. PMID:16605738

  4. Evidence of exchange bias effect originating from the interaction between antiferromagnetic core and spin glass shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. K.; Tang, S. L.; Xu, L. Q.; Yuan, J. J.; Yu, H. J.; Zhu, X. R.; Xie, Y. M.

    2014-07-01

    Spin glass behavior and exchange bias effect have been observed in antiferromagnetic SrMn3O6-x nanoribbons synthesized via a self-sacrificing template process. The magnetic field dependence of thermoremanent magnetization and isothermal remanent magnetization shows that the sample is good correspondence to spin glass and diluted antiferromagnetic system for the applied field H < 2 T and H > 2 T, respectively. By detailed analysis of training effect using Binek's model, we argue that the observed exchange bias effect in SrMn3O6-x nanoribbons arises entirely from an interface exchange coupling between the antiferromagnetic core and spin glass shell. The present study is useful for understanding the nature of shell layer and the origin of exchange bias effect in other antiferromagnetic nanosystems as well.

  5. Evidence of exchange bias effect originating from the interaction between antiferromagnetic core and spin glass shell

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. K. Yuan, J. J.; Yu, H. J.; Zhu, X. R.; Xie, Y. M.; Tang, S. L.; Xu, L. Q.

    2014-07-14

    Spin glass behavior and exchange bias effect have been observed in antiferromagnetic SrMn{sub 3}O{sub 6−x} nanoribbons synthesized via a self-sacrificing template process. The magnetic field dependence of thermoremanent magnetization and isothermal remanent magnetization shows that the sample is good correspondence to spin glass and diluted antiferromagnetic system for the applied field H < 2 T and H > 2 T, respectively. By detailed analysis of training effect using Binek's model, we argue that the observed exchange bias effect in SrMn{sub 3}O{sub 6−x} nanoribbons arises entirely from an interface exchange coupling between the antiferromagnetic core and spin glass shell. The present study is useful for understanding the nature of shell layer and the origin of exchange bias effect in other antiferromagnetic nanosystems as well.

  6. Concrete Materials and Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wilby, C.B.

    1991-12-31

    Concrete Materials and Structures provides one of the most comprehensive treatments on the topic of concrete engineering. The author covers a gamut of concrete subjects ranging from concrete mix design, basic reinforced concrete theory, prestressed concrete, shell roofs, and two-way slabs-including a through presentation of Hillerborg`s strip method. Prior to Wilby`s book, the scope of these topics would require at least four separate books to cover. With this new book he has succeeded, quite remarkably, in condensing a fairly complete knowledge of concrete engineering into one single easy-to-carry volume.

  7. Polymer concrete patching manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, J. J.; Bartholomew, J.

    1982-06-01

    The practicality of using polymer concrete to repair deteriorated portland cement concrete bridge decks and pavements was demonstrated. This manual outlines the procedures for using polymer concrete as a rapid patching material to repair deteriorated concrete. The process technology, materials, equipment, and safety provisions used in manufacturing and placing polymer concrete are discussed. Potential users are informed of the various steps necessary to insure successful field applications of the material.

  8. Metamorphosis of SN 2014C: Delayed Interaction between a Hydrogen Poor Core-collapse Supernova and a Nearby Circumstellar Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milisavljevic, D.; Margutti, R.; Kamble, A.; Patnaude, D. J.; Raymond, J. C.; Eldridge, J. J.; Fong, W.; Bietenholz, M.; Challis, P.; Chornock, R.; Drout, M. R.; Fransson, C.; Fesen, R. A.; Grindlay, J. E.; Kirshner, R. P.; Lunnan, R.; Mackey, J.; Miller, G. F.; Parrent, J. T.; Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Zauderer, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    We present optical observations of supernova SN 2014C, which underwent an unprecedented slow metamorphosis from H-poor type Ib to H-rich type IIn over the course of one year. The observed spectroscopic evolution is consistent with the supernova having exploded in a cavity before encountering a massive shell of the progenitor star's stripped hydrogen envelope. Possible origins for the circumstellar shell include a brief Wolf-Rayet fast wind phase that overtook a slower red supergiant wind, eruptive ejection, or confinement of circumstellar material by external influences of neighboring stars. An extended high velocity Hα absorption feature seen in near-maximum light spectra implies that the progenitor star was not completely stripped of hydrogen at the time of core collapse. Archival pre-explosion Subaru Telescope Suprime-Cam and Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images of the region obtained in 2009 show a coincident source that is most likely a compact massive star cluster in NGC 7331 that hosted the progenitor system. By comparing the emission properties of the source with stellar population models that incorporate interacting binary stars we estimate the age of the host cluster to be 30-300 Myr, and favor ages closer to 30 Myr in light of relatively strong Hα emission. SN 2014C is the best observed member of a class of core-collapse supernovae that fill the gap between events that interact strongly with dense, nearby environments immediately after explosion and those that never show signs of interaction. Better understanding of the frequency and nature of this intermediate population can contribute valuable information about the poorly understood final stages of stellar evolution.

  9. Experimental characterization of cement-bentonite interaction using core infiltration techniques and 4D computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolder, F.; Mäder, U.; Jenni, A.; Schwendener, N.

    Deep geological storage of radioactive waste foresees cementitious materials as reinforcement of tunnels and as backfill. Bentonite is proposed to enclose spent fuel drums, and as drift seals. The emplacement of cementitious material next to clay material generates an enormous chemical gradient in pore water composition that drives diffusive solute transport. Laboratory studies and reactive transport modeling predict significant mineral alteration at and near interfaces, mainly resulting in a decrease of porosity in bentonite. The goal of this project is to characterize and quantify the cement/bentonite skin effects spatially and temporally in laboratory experiments. A newly developed mobile X-ray transparent core infiltration device was used, which allows performing X-ray computed tomography (CT) periodically without interrupting a running experiment. A pre-saturated cylindrical MX-80 bentonite sample (1920 kg/m3 average wet density) is subjected to a confining pressure as a constant total pressure boundary condition. The infiltration of a hyperalkaline (pH 13.4), artificial OPC (ordinary Portland cement) pore water into the bentonite plug alters the mineral assemblage over time as an advancing reaction front. The related changes in X-ray attenuation values are related to changes in phase densities, porosity and local bulk density and are tracked over time periodically by non-destructive CT scans. Mineral precipitation is observed in the inflow filter. Mineral alteration in the first millimeters of the bentonite sample is clearly detected and the reaction front is presently progressing with an average linear velocity that is 8 times slower than that for anions. The reaction zone is characterized by a higher X-ray attenuation compared to the signal of the pre-existing mineralogy. Chemical analysis of the outflow fluid showed initially elevated anion and cation concentrations compared to the infiltration fluid due to anion exclusion effects related to compaction of

  10. Ex-Vessel Core Melt Modeling Comparison between MELTSPREAD-CORQUENCH and MELCOR 2.1

    SciTech Connect

    Robb, Kevin R.; Farmer, Mitchell; Francis, Matthew W.

    2014-03-01

    System-level code analyses by both United States and international researchers predict major core melting, bottom head failure, and corium-concrete interaction for Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 (1F1). Although system codes such as MELCOR and MAAP are capable of capturing a wide range of accident phenomena, they currently do not contain detailed models for evaluating some ex-vessel core melt behavior. However, specialized codes containing more detailed modeling are available for melt spreading such as MELTSPREAD as well as long-term molten corium-concrete interaction (MCCI) and debris coolability such as CORQUENCH. In a preceding study, Enhanced Ex-Vessel Analysis for Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1: Melt Spreading and Core-Concrete Interaction Analyses with MELTSPREAD and CORQUENCH, the MELTSPREAD-CORQUENCH codes predicted the 1F1 core melt readily cooled in contrast to predictions by MELCOR. The user community has taken notice and is in the process of updating their systems codes; specifically MAAP and MELCOR, to improve and reduce conservatism in their ex-vessel core melt models. This report investigates why the MELCOR v2.1 code, compared to the MELTSPREAD and CORQUENCH 3.03 codes, yield differing predictions of ex-vessel melt progression. To accomplish this, the differences in the treatment of the ex-vessel melt with respect to melt spreading and long-term coolability are examined. The differences in modeling approaches are summarized, and a comparison of example code predictions is provided.

  11. Distinct interacting core taxa in co-occurrence networks enable discrimination of polymicrobial oral diseases with similar symptoms.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Takahiko; Watanabe, Takayasu; Kachi, Hirokazu; Koyanagi, Tatsuro; Maruyama, Noriko; Murase, Kazunori; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Maruyama, Fumito; Izumi, Yuichi; Nakagawa, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Polymicrobial diseases, which can be life threatening, are caused by the presence and interactions of multiple microbes. Peri-implantitis and periodontitis are representative polymicrobial diseases that show similar clinical symptoms. To establish a means of differentiating between them, we compared microbial species and functional genes in situ by performing metatranscriptomic analyses of peri-implantitis and periodontitis samples obtained from the same subjects (n = 12 each). Although the two diseases differed in terms of 16S rRNA-based taxonomic profiles, they showed similarities with respect to functional genes and taxonomic and virulence factor mRNA profiles. The latter-defined as microbial virulence types-differed from those of healthy periodontal sites. We also showed that networks based on co-occurrence relationships of taxonomic mRNA abundance (co-occurrence networks) were dissimilar between the two diseases. Remarkably, these networks consisted mainly of taxa with a high relative mRNA-to-rRNA ratio, with some showing significant co-occurrence defined as interacting core taxa, highlighting differences between the two groups. Thus, peri-implantitis and periodontitis have shared as well as distinct microbiological characteristics. Our findings provide insight into microbial interactions in polymicrobial diseases with unknown etiologies. PMID:27499042

  12. Distinct interacting core taxa in co-occurrence networks enable discrimination of polymicrobial oral diseases with similar symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Shiba, Takahiko; Watanabe, Takayasu; Kachi, Hirokazu; Koyanagi, Tatsuro; Maruyama, Noriko; Murase, Kazunori; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Maruyama, Fumito; Izumi, Yuichi; Nakagawa, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Polymicrobial diseases, which can be life threatening, are caused by the presence and interactions of multiple microbes. Peri-implantitis and periodontitis are representative polymicrobial diseases that show similar clinical symptoms. To establish a means of differentiating between them, we compared microbial species and functional genes in situ by performing metatranscriptomic analyses of peri-implantitis and periodontitis samples obtained from the same subjects (n = 12 each). Although the two diseases differed in terms of 16S rRNA-based taxonomic profiles, they showed similarities with respect to functional genes and taxonomic and virulence factor mRNA profiles. The latter—defined as microbial virulence types—differed from those of healthy periodontal sites. We also showed that networks based on co-occurrence relationships of taxonomic mRNA abundance (co-occurrence networks) were dissimilar between the two diseases. Remarkably, these networks consisted mainly of taxa with a high relative mRNA-to-rRNA ratio, with some showing significant co-occurrence defined as interacting core taxa, highlighting differences between the two groups. Thus, peri-implantitis and periodontitis have shared as well as distinct microbiological characteristics. Our findings provide insight into microbial interactions in polymicrobial diseases with unknown etiologies. PMID:27499042

  13. From the pore scale to the core scale: How to model the spatial interactions in soils?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, Patricia; Pot, Valerie; Monga, Oivier; Chenu, Claire; Vieuble-Gonod, Laurent; Vogel, Laure; Nunan, Naoise; Otten, Wilfried; Baveye, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Recently, innovative modeling tools have been developed to describe the physico-chemical processes occurring in soil pores at scales directly relevant to microorganisms. Modelling efforts have attempted to understand how microbial processes such as decomposition or competition among species are affected by diffusion in 2-D or 3-D environments. Most of these models use a virtual representative pore network that can have the same features as soil pores with regular lattice grid. The most recent and innovative of these models use real images of soil structure from binarized 3D images. These models are able to simulate microbial degradation although microorganisms and organic matter are placed at different locations in the pore space. Then, the encounter of nutrients and microorganisms is achieved through the implementation of the diffusion process of the soluble substrates in the connected water-filled space. The high computational demand of this type of approach restricts its applicability to small-scale systems, typically in the order of micrometers or millimeters. The numerical techniques used to solve the equations include the lattice Boltzmann method, algorithmic methods and finite element methods. Most of these models have not yet been tested with experimental data because of the difficulties of investigating such small scales. On the other hand, many experimental results developed at the core scale have showed the importance of soil microbial habitat and especially how physical characteristics (pore sizes, connectivity) control the decomposition of organic substrates via their accessibility by microorganisms. The general question we have now to answer is whether information on the spatial heterogeneity of soils at the microscale can be used to predict the processes observed at the macroscale in soils

  14. On the interaction of alginate-based core-shell nanocarriers with keratinocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hoang Truc Phuong; Allard-Vannier, Emilie; Gaillard, Cédric; Eddaoudi, Imane; Miloudi, Lynda; Soucé, Martin; Chourpa, Igor; Munnier, Emilie

    2016-06-01

    Calcium alginate nanocarriers (CaANCs) were developed as a potential tool for delivery of hydrophobic active molecules such as pharmaceutical and cosmetic active ingredients. In this study, we focused on interactions between CaANCs and keratinocytes in culture and examined toxicity, internalization and drug release. Prior to cellular interactions, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy images showed that CaANCs appear as regular, spherical and dense particles, giving evidence of the surface gelation of CaANCs. Their size, around 200nm, was stable under tested conditions (temperature, culture media, presence of serum and presence of encapsulated dye), and their toxicity on keratinocytes was very low. Flow cytometry assays showed that CaANCs are internalized into keratinocytes by endocytosis with a predominant implication of the caveolae-mediated route. Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) demonstrated that after a 2h contact, the release of CaANC contents in the cytoplasm of keratinocytes was almost complete. The endocytosis of CaANCs by a lysosome-free pathway, and the rapid release of their contents inside keratinocytes, will allow vectorized molecules to fully exhibit their pharmacological or cosmetic activity. PMID:26962764

  15. Theoretical studies on the interactions of XIAP-BIR3 domain with bicyclic and tricyclic core monovalent Smac mimetics.

    PubMed

    Ling, Baoping; Dong, Lihua; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Zhiguo; Liu, Yongjun; Liu, Chengbu

    2010-11-01

    X-linked IAP can bind caspase-9 and inhibit its activity. Mitochondrial protein Smac/DIABLO can also interact with XIAP and relieve the inhibition on caspase-9 to induce apoptosis. A series of artificial Smac mimetics have been used to mimic the Smac N-terminal tetrapeptide AVPI to bind to XIAP-BIR3, but these structural diverse mimetics exhibited distinct binding affinities. To get an insight into the binding nature and optimize the structures, molecular docking and dynamics simulations were used to study the binding of XIAP-BIR3 with three groups of Smac mimetics. The docking results reveal that these Smac mimetics anchored on the surface groove of XIAP-BIR3 and superimposed well with AVPI. The modifications on the seven-membered ring of bicyclic core segment do not strengthen the binding affinity, while a benzyl introduced to the five-membered ring is favorable to the binding. Molecular dynamics simulations on three typical systems show that these complexes are very stable. Hydrogen bonds between the bicyclic core segment and Thr308 play critical roles in maintaining the stability of complex. The binding free energies calculated by MM_PBSA method are consistent with the experimental results. PMID:20980180

  16. The structure of the core NuRD repression complex provides insights into its interaction with chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Millard, Christopher J; Varma, Niranjan; Saleh, Almutasem; Morris, Kyle; Watson, Peter J; Bottrill, Andrew R; Fairall, Louise; Smith, Corinne J; Schwabe, John WR

    2016-01-01

    The NuRD complex is a multi-protein transcriptional corepressor that couples histone deacetylase and ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling activities. The complex regulates the higher-order structure of chromatin, and has important roles in the regulation of gene expression, DNA damage repair and cell differentiation. HDACs 1 and 2 are recruited by the MTA1 corepressor to form the catalytic core of the complex. The histone chaperone protein RBBP4, has previously been shown to bind to the carboxy-terminal tail of MTA1. We show that MTA1 recruits a second copy of RBBP4. The crystal structure reveals an extensive interface between MTA1 and RBBP4. An EM structure, supported by SAXS and crosslinking, reveals the architecture of the dimeric HDAC1:MTA1:RBBP4 assembly which forms the core of the NuRD complex. We find evidence that in this complex RBBP4 mediates interaction with histone H3 tails, but not histone H4, suggesting a mechanism for recruitment of the NuRD complex to chromatin. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13941.001 PMID:27098840

  17. Out-of-core Interactive Display of Large Meshes Using an Oriented Bounding Box-based Hardware Depth Query

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, H; Gregorski, B; Joy, K I

    2004-06-24

    In this paper we present an occlusion culling method that uses hardware-based depth queries on oriented bounding boxes to cull unseen geometric primitives efficiently. An out-of-core design enables this method to interactively display data sets that are too large to fit into main memory. During a preprocessing phase, a spatial subdivision (such as an octree or BSP tree) of a given data set is constructed where, for each node, an oriented bounding box containing mesh primitives is computed using principal component analysis (PCA). At runtime, the tree indicated by the spatial subdivision is traversed in front-to-back order, and only nodes that are determined to be visible, based on a hardware accelerated depth query, are rendered.

  18. The interaction of core-collapse supernova ejecta with a companion star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng-Wei; Tauris, T. M.; Röpke, F. K.; Moriya, T. J.; Kruckow, M.; Stancliffe, R. J.; Izzard, R. G.

    2015-12-01

    Context. The progenitors of many core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are expected to be in binary systems. After the SN explosion in a binary, the companion star may suffer from mass stripping and be shock heated as a result of the impact of the SN ejecta. If the binary system is disrupted by the SN explosion, the companion star is ejected as a runaway star, and in some cases as a hypervelocity star. Aims: By performing a series of three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamical simulations of the collision of SN ejecta with the companion star, we investigate how CCSN explosions affect their binary companion. Methods: We use the BEC stellar evolution code to construct the detailed companion structure at the moment of SN explosion. The impact of the SN blast wave on the companion star is followed by means of 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations using the Stellar GADGET code. Results: For main-sequence (MS) companion stars, we find that the amount of removed stellar mass, the resulting impact velocity, and the chemical contamination of the companion that results from the impact of the SN ejecta strongly increases with decreasing binary separation and increasing explosion energy. Their relationship can be approximately fitted by power laws, which is consistent with the results obtained from impact simulations of Type Ia SNe. However, we find that the impact velocity is sensitive to the momentum profile of the outer SN ejecta and, in fact, may decrease with increasing ejecta mass, depending on the modeling of the ejecta. Because most companion stars to Type Ib/c CCSNe are in their MS phase at the moment of the explosion, combined with the strongly decaying impact effects with increasing binary separation, we argue that the majority of these SNe lead to inefficient mass stripping and shock heating of the companion star following the impact of the ejecta. Conclusions: Our simulations show that the impact effects of Type Ib/c SN ejecta on the structure of MS companion

  19. Concrete-Water-Interaction and Ikaite (CaCO3.6H2O) Precipitation in a Man-Made River Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boch, R.; Dietzel, M.; Reichl, P.; Leis, A.; Pölt, P.; Baldermann, A.

    2014-12-01

    Centimetre-thick, beige-colored and soft crusts were observed shortly after construction of a man-made river bed, i.e. a small natural river was bypassed flowing through a new bed lined with concrete and blocks. Hydrochemical investigations during wintertime - when water temperatures dropped down close to freezing - showed surprisingly high pH values up to 13.0 and elevated Ca2+ concentrations up to 200 mg/l. Both, the artifical and natural (downstream) section of the river bed were affected by the anomalous hydrochemistry and formation of prominent secondary precipitates. In order to better understand the particular and rapid water-rock-interaction, a hydrochemical monitoring program was launched and several of the delicate precipitates were recovered in refrigerator boxes in their original solution. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory within a few hours after sampling and stored at 1 °C. XRD and FT-IR patterns clearly revealed the predominant occurrence of "ikaite" in the crusts next to minor amounts of other carbonates (calcite, aragonite, vaterite) and detrital minerals. Ikaite - calcium carbonate hexahydrate - is a worldwide rarely documented carbonate mineral. This mineral is metastable and needs particular and narrow conditions in order to precipitate from solutions, i.e. a very limited water-temperature range between 0 and 4 °C (with ambient-pressure and low-salinity), highly alkaline pH conditions, high supersaturation values, and in many cases carbonate precipitation inhibitors (e.g. phosphates). Outside these conditions it disintegrates into calcite and water within minutes to hours. The few places of ikaite formation include Ikka Fjord in Greenland, Arctic- and Antarctic sea-ice and some sites of water mixing at Mono Lake, California. Combining detailed field monitoring results, solid-phase analyses and regional meteorological data (rainfall, water discharge, temperature) with hydrogeochemical modeling allows constraining the mechanisms of

  20. Magma interaction processes in syn-extensional granitoids: The Tertiary Menderes Metamorphic Core Complex, western Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkül, Sibel Tatar; Erkül, Fuat

    2012-06-01

    Western Turkey, which forms the eastern part of the Aegean region, was subjected to continental extension that led to formation of metamorphic core complexes and associated syn-extensional granitoids. This study deals with petrogenesis of the syn-extensional Early Miocene Alaçamdağ (AG) and Middle Miocene Salihli (SG) granitoids and associated mafic microgranular enclaves (MME) in order to better understand the time-progressive evolution of the mantle sources beneath the extended continental crust in western Turkey. AG and SG granitoids consist of undeformed and ductility deformed granitoids together with abundant MMEs. They are calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline rocks that are metaluminous to slightly peraluminous. Mg# of AG host rocks is slightly lower than that of SG host rocks. AG host rocks have higher Na2O, Ba, Rb, Rb/La and lower Al2O3, CaO, MgO, TiO2, Zr/Y values than those of the SG host rocks. AG and SG host rocks differ from those of MMEs, with their lower Al2O3, CaO, MgO, Fe2O3, TiO2, Sr, V, Mg# and higher SiO2 values. MMEs are intermediate, corresponding to monzonite, monzodiorite (in AG) and diorite (in SG) compositions and are more mafic with respect to their host rocks. In the primitive mantle (PM) normalized trace element patterns, host rock and MME samples have similar trace element patterns. All of these rocks are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs, Cs, Rb, Ba, Th, K and Sr) and strongly depleted high field strength elements (HFSEs, Ta, Nb, P, Ti) compared to the primitive mantle. The isotope ratios of the syn-extensional AG and SG rocks display increasing radiogenic strontium and decreasing radiogenic neodymium. Isotopic values for the AG and SG host rocks and MME samples are 87Sr/86Sr (AG host) = 0.708835-0.710206 and ɛNd(t) (AG host) = (- 5.36 to - 7.36); 87Sr/86Sr (AG MME) = 0.709107-0.709801 and ɛNd(t) (AG MME) = - 5.36 to - 7.36; 87Sr/86Sr (AG MME)=0.709107-0.709801 and ɛNd(t) (AG MME)=-5.55 to -6.51; 87Sr/86Sr (SG

  1. Interactive Organization of the Circadian Core Regulators PER2, BMAL1, CLOCK and PML

    PubMed Central

    Miki, Takao; Zhao, Zhaoyang; Lee, Cheng Chi

    2016-01-01

    The BMAL1 and CLOCK heterodimer in the mammalian circadian transcriptional complex is thought to be repressed by PER2 and CRY1 via direct interactions. We recently reported that PER2 is largely cytosolic in Pml−/− cells and did not co-immunoprecipitate (co-IP) with BMAL1 or CLOCK. Here, using multi-color immunofluorescence (IF) staining and co-IP, we observed a nuclear distribution of BMAL1 and a predominately cytosolic distribution of CLOCK in Pml−/− MEF. In the presence of WT PML, PER2 co-localized with BMAL1 in the nucleus. In Pml−/− MEF transfected with mutant K487R PML, we observed that BMAL1 and PER2 co-localized with K487R PML in the cytosol. Furthermore, cytosolic CLOCK and PER2 displayed a significant non-overlapping IF staining pattern. In Bmal1−/− MEF, CLOCK was primarily cytosolic while PML and PER2 were nuclear. Together, our studies suggest that PML mediates the binding of PER2 to BMAL1 in the BMAL1/CLOCK heterodimer and is an important component in the organization of a functional clock complex in the nucleus. Our studies also support that BMAL1 is important for CLOCK nuclear localization. PMID:27383066

  2. Interactive Organization of the Circadian Core Regulators PER2, BMAL1, CLOCK and PML.

    PubMed

    Miki, Takao; Zhao, Zhaoyang; Lee, Cheng Chi

    2016-01-01

    The BMAL1 and CLOCK heterodimer in the mammalian circadian transcriptional complex is thought to be repressed by PER2 and CRY1 via direct interactions. We recently reported that PER2 is largely cytosolic in Pml(-/-) cells and did not co-immunoprecipitate (co-IP) with BMAL1 or CLOCK. Here, using multi-color immunofluorescence (IF) staining and co-IP, we observed a nuclear distribution of BMAL1 and a predominately cytosolic distribution of CLOCK in Pml(-/-) MEF. In the presence of WT PML, PER2 co-localized with BMAL1 in the nucleus. In Pml(-/-) MEF transfected with mutant K487R PML, we observed that BMAL1 and PER2 co-localized with K487R PML in the cytosol. Furthermore, cytosolic CLOCK and PER2 displayed a significant non-overlapping IF staining pattern. In Bmal1(-/-) MEF, CLOCK was primarily cytosolic while PML and PER2 were nuclear. Together, our studies suggest that PML mediates the binding of PER2 to BMAL1 in the BMAL1/CLOCK heterodimer and is an important component in the organization of a functional clock complex in the nucleus. Our studies also support that BMAL1 is important for CLOCK nuclear localization. PMID:27383066

  3. Effect of dominant three-body interaction to the hard-core boson Hubbard model on a two-dimensional square lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ying; Guo, Huaiming

    2012-09-01

    The effect of dominant three-body interaction to the hard-core boson Hubbard model is studied on a two-dimensional square lattice. In terms of the quantum Monte Carlo method, a ρ = 2/3 solid phase is shown explicitly with the coexistence of a charge-density wave and a bond-order wave appearing due to the presence of the dominant three-body interaction. For the strong three-body interaction, the ρ = 2/3 solid phase appears between superfluid phases and shrinks as the strength of the three-body interaction decreases, forming a lobe structure in the phase diagram. For weak three-body interactions, the superfluid phase exists for the whole range of hard-core densities except the full filled case, where the system is a Mott insulator. Our results may be realized in cold-atom experiments.

  4. A new equation of state with light nuclei and their weak interactions in core-collapse supernova simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Furusawa, Shun; Yamada, Shoichi; Nagakura, Hiroki; Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke; Suzuki, Hideyuki

    2014-05-02

    We perform numerical experiments to investigate the influence of inelastic neutrino reactions with light nuclei on the standing accretion shock instability. The time evolutions of shock waves are calculated with a simple light-bulb approximation for the neutrino transport and a multi-nuclei equation of state. The neutrino absorptions and inelastic interactions with deuterons, tritons, helions and alpha particles are taken into account in the hydrodynamical simulations in addition to the ordinary charged-current interactions with nucleons. Axial symmetry is assumed but no equatorial symmetry is imposed. We show that the heating rates of deuterons reach as high as ∼ 10% of those of nucleons around the bottom of the gain region. On the other hands, alpha particles heat the matter near the shock wave, which is important when the shock wave expands and density and temperature of matter become low. It is also found that the models with heating by light nuclei have different evolutions from those without it in non-linear evolution phase. The matter in the gain region has various densities and temperatures and there appear regions that are locally rich in deuterons and alpha particles. These results indicate that the inelastic reactions of light nuclei, especially deuterons, should be incorporated in the simulations of core-collapse supernovae.

  5. A new equation of state with light nuclei and their weak interactions in core-collapse supernova simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, Shun; Nagakura, Hiroki; Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke; Yamada, Shoichi; Suzuki, Hideyuki

    2014-05-01

    We perform numerical experiments to investigate the influence of inelastic neutrino reactions with light nuclei on the standing accretion shock instability. The time evolutions of shock waves are calculated with a simple light-bulb approximation for the neutrino transport and a multi-nuclei equation of state. The neutrino absorptions and inelastic interactions with deuterons, tritons, helions and alpha particles are taken into account in the hydrodynamical simulations in addition to the ordinary charged-current interactions with nucleons. Axial symmetry is assumed but no equatorial symmetry is imposed. We show that the heating rates of deuterons reach as high as ˜ 10% of those of nucleons around the bottom of the gain region. On the other hands, alpha particles heat the matter near the shock wave, which is important when the shock wave expands and density and temperature of matter become low. It is also found that the models with heating by light nuclei have different evolutions from those without it in non-linear evolution phase. The matter in the gain region has various densities and temperatures and there appear regions that are locally rich in deuterons and alpha particles. These results indicate that the inelastic reactions of light nuclei, especially deuterons, should be incorporated in the simulations of core-collapse supernovae.

  6. Lunar concrete for construction

    SciTech Connect

    Cullingford, H.S.; Keller, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    Feasibility of using concrete for lunar-base construction has been discussed recently without relevant data for the effects of vacuum on concrete. Our experimental studies performed earlier at Los Alamos have shown that concrete is stable in vacuum with no deterioration of its quality as measured by the compressive strength. Various considerations of using concrete successfully on the moon are provided in this paper along with specific conclusions from the existing data base. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Lunar concrete for construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullingford, Hatice S.; Keller, M. Dean

    1988-01-01

    Feasibility of using concrete for lunar-base construction has been discussed recently without relevant data for the effects of vacuum on concrete. Experimental studies performed earlier at Los Alamos have shown that concrete is stable in vacuum with no deterioration of its quality as measured by the compressive strength. Various considerations of using concrete successfully on the moon are provided in this paper along with specific conclusions from the existing data base.

  8. Lunar concrete for construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullingford, Hatice S.; Keller, M. Dean

    1992-01-01

    Feasibility of using concrete for lunar base construction was discussed recently without relevant data for the effects of vacuum on concrete. Our experimental studies performed earlier at Los Alamos have shown that concrete is stable in vacuum with no deterioration of its quality as measured by the compressive strength. Various considerations of using concrete successfully on the Moon are provided in this paper, along with specific conclusions from the existing database.

  9. Aptamers to Escherichia coli core RNA polymerase that sense its interaction with rifampicin, sigma-subunit and GreB.

    PubMed

    Kulbachinskiy, Andrey; Feklistov, Andrey; Krasheninnikov, Igor; Goldfarb, Alex; Nikiforov, Vadim

    2004-12-01

    Bacterial RNA polymerase (RNAP) is the central enzyme of gene expression that is responsible for the synthesis of all types of cellular RNAs. The process of transcription is accompanied by complex structural rearrangements of RNAP. Despite the recent progress in structural studies of RNAP, detailed mechanisms of conformational changes of RNAP that occur at different stages of transcription remain unknown. The goal of this work was to obtain novel ligands to RNAP which would target different epitopes of the enzyme and serve as specific probes to study the mechanism of transcription and conformational flexibility of RNAP. Using in vitro selection methods, we obtained 13 classes of ssDNA aptamers against Escherichia coli core RNAP. The minimal nucleic acid scaffold (an oligonucleotide construct imitating DNA and RNA in elongation complex), rifampicin and the sigma70-subunit inhibited binding of the aptamers to RNAP core but did not affect the dissociation rate of preformed RNAP-aptamer complexes. We argue that these ligands sterically block access of the aptamers to their binding sites within the main RNAP channel. In contrast, transcript cleavage factor GreB increased the rate of dissociation of preformed RNAP-aptamer complexes. This suggested that GreB that binds RNAP outside the main channel actively disrupts RNAP-aptamer complexes by inducing conformational changes in the channel. We propose that the aptamers obtained in this work will be useful for studying the interactions of RNAP with various ligands and regulatory factors and for investigating the conformational flexibility of the enzyme. PMID:15606780

  10. Development of ultrasonic methods for the nondestructive inspection of concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claytor, T. M.; Ellingson, W. A.

    1983-08-01

    Nondestructive inspection of Portland cement and refractory concrete is conducted to determine strength, thickness, presence of voids or foreign matter, presence of cracks, amount of degradation due to chemical attack, and other properties without the necessity of coring the structure (which is usually accomplished by destructively removing a sample). The state of the art of acoustic nondestructive testing methods for Portland cement and refractory concrete is reviewed. Most nondestructive work on concrete has concentrated on measuring acoustic velocity by through transmission methods. Development of a reliable pitch-catch or pulse-echo system would provide a method of measuring thickness with access from only one side of the concrete.

  11. Development of ultrasonic methods for the nondestructive inspection of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Claytor, T.N.; Ellingson, W.A.

    1983-08-01

    Nondestructive inspection of Portland cement and refractory concrete is conducted to determine strength, thickness, presence of voids or foreign matter, presence of cracks, amount of degradation due to chemical attack, and other properties without the necessity of coring the structure (which is usually accomplished by destructively removing a sample). This paper reviews the state of the art of acoustic nondestructive testing methods for Portland cement and refractory concrete. Most nondestructive work on concrete has concentrated on measuring acoustic velocity by through transmission methods. Development of a reliable pitch-catch or pulse-echo system would provide a method of measuring thickness with access from only one side of the concrete.

  12. Effects of the interactions of classical swine fever virus core protein with proteins of SUMOylation pathway on virulence in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The classical swine fever virus (CSFV) nucleocapsid or Core protein serves a protective function for the viral RNA, and acts as a transcriptional regulator. However studies involving the CSFV Core protein have been limited. To gain insight into other functions of the Core protein, particularly into ...

  13. An investigation of tendon sheathing filler migration into concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.

    1998-03-01

    During some of the inspections at nuclear power plants with prestressed concrete containments, it was observed that the containments has experienced leakage of the tendon sheathing filler (i.e., streaks). The objective of this activity was to provide an indication of the extent of tendon sheathing filler leakage into the concrete and its affects on concrete properties. Literature was reviewed and concrete core samples were obtained from the Trojan Nuclear Plant and tested. The literature primarily addressed effects of crude or lubricating oils that are known to cause concrete damage. However, these materials have significantly different characteristics relative to the materials used as tendon sheathing fillers. Examination and testing of the concrete cores indicated that the appearance of tendon sheathing filler on the concrete surface was due to leakage from the conduits and its subsequent migration through cracks that were present. Migration of the tendon sheathing filler was confined to the cracks and there was no perceptible movement into the concrete. Results of compressive strength testing indicated that the concrete quality was consistent in the containment and that the strength had increased over 40% in 25.4 years relative to the average compressive strength at 28-days age.

  14. Porosity, pore size distribution and in situ strength of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rakesh; Bhattacharjee, B

    2003-01-01

    In this study, in situ strength of concrete was determined through compression test of cores drilled out from laboratory cast beams. The apparent porosity and pore size distribution of the same concrete were determined through mercury intrusion porosimetry, performed on small-drilled cores. The normal-strength concrete mixes used in the experimental investigation were designed to exhibit a wide variation in their strengths. To ensure further variation in porosity, pore size distribution and strength, two modes of compaction, two varieties of coarse aggregates, different levels of age, curing period and exposure condition of concrete were also introduced in experimental scheme. With the data so generated, an appraisal of the most frequently referred relationships involving strength, porosity and pore size of cement-based materials was carried out. Finally, a new empirical model relating the in situ strength of concrete with porosity, pore size characteristics, cement content, aggregate type, exposure conditions, etc., is presented.

  15. Emotional Intolerance and Core Features of Anorexia Nervosa: A Dynamic Interaction during Inpatient Treatment? Results from a Longitudinal Diary Study

    PubMed Central

    Stroe-Kunold, Esther; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Stadnitski, Tatjana; Wesche, Daniela; Herzog, Wolfgang; Schwab, Michael; Wild, Beate

    2016-01-01

    Objective The role of emotion dysregulation with regard to the psychopathology of anorexia nervosa (AN) is increasingly discussed. It is both assumed that AN symptoms have an impact on difficulties in tolerating aversive emotions and that—conversely—emotion dysregulation influences AN. To date, such conclusions are drawn on the basis of cross-sectional data not allowing for inferences on the temporal dynamics. The current study investigates the longitudinal interaction between emotional intolerance and core AN symptoms over the course of inpatient treatment by comparing patients with high (BMI<15 kg/m2) vs. low symptom severity (HSS vs. LSS). Method The study adopted a longitudinal, process-oriented design with N = 16 analysed electronic diaries. Throughout the course of their inpatient treatment, the patients answered questions daily about emotional intolerance and their AN-specific cognitions and behaviours. The temporal dynamics between emotional intolerance and these variables were analysed using a multivariate time series approach. Results The time series of the processes under investigation adequately reflected the individual treatment courses. The majority of significant linear time trends was found for HSS patients. Most importantly, analysis revealed significant temporal interactions between emotional intolerance and AN symptoms in almost 70% of HSS patients. Thereby, up to 37% of variance in eating restraint and up to 23% in weight concern could be attributed to changes in emotional intolerance. Conclusions The findings support the notion that intolerable unpleasant emotions in severely affected AN patients influence their psychopathology. Additionally, time series analysis outlined the inter-individual heterogeneity of psychosomatic treatment courses of AN patients. PMID:27191959

  16. Effect of polar intermolecular interactions on the elastic constants of bent-core nematics and the origin of the twist-bend phase.

    PubMed

    Osipov, M A; Pajak, G

    2016-04-01

    A molecular theory of both elastic constants and the flexoelectric coefficients of bent-core nematic liquid crystals has been developed taking into account dipole-dipole interactions as well as polar interactions determined by the bent molecular shape. It has been shown that if polar interactions are neglected, the elastic constants are increasing monotonically with the decreasing temperature. On the other hand, dipolar interactions between bent-core molecules may result in a dramatic increase of the bend flexocoefficient. As a result, the flexoelectric contribution to the bend elastic constant increases significantly, and the bend elastic constant appears to be very small throughout the nematic range and may vanish at a certain temperature. This temperature may then be identified as a temperature of the elastic instability of the bent-core nematic phase which induces a transition into the modulated phases with bend deformations like recently reported twist-bend phase. The temperature variation of the elastic constants is qualitatively similar to the typical experimental data for bent-core nematics. PMID:27118535

  17. Interactions of core-shell quantum dots with metal resistant bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans: consequences for Cu and Pb removal.

    PubMed

    Slaveykova, Vera I; Pinheiro, José Paulo; Floriani, Magali; Garcia, Miguel

    2013-10-15

    In the present study we address the interactions of carboxyl-CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs), as a model of water dispersible engineered nanoparticles, and metal resistant bacteria Cupriavidus metallidurans, largely used in metal decontamination. The results demonstrate that QDs with average hydrodynamic size of 12.9 nm adhere to C. metallidurans. The percentage of bacterial cells displaying QD-fluorescence increased proportionally with contact time and QD concentration in bacterial medium demonstrating the association of QDs with the metal resistant bacteria. No evidence of QD internalization into bacterial cytoplasm was found by transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, however QD clusters of sizes between 20 and 50 nm were observed on the bacterial surface and in the bacterial periplasmic compartment; observations consistent with the losses of membrane integrity induced by QDs. The presence of 20 nM QDs induced about 2-fold increase in Cu and Pb uptake fluxes by C. metallidurans exposed to 500 nM Pb or Cu, respectively. Overall, the results of this work suggest that when present in mixture with Cu and Pb, low levels of QDs originating from possible incidental release or QD disposal could increase metal accumulation in metal resistant bacterium. PMID:23912077

  18. ZFHX4 interacts with the NuRD core member CHD4 and regulates the glioblastoma tumor initiating cell state

    PubMed Central

    Chudnovsky, Yakov; Kim, Dohoon; Zheng, Siyuan; Whyte, Warren A.; Bansal, Mukesh; Bray, Mark-Anthony; Gopal, Shuba; Theisen, Matthew A.; Bilodeau, Steve; Thiru, Prathapan; Muffat, Julien; Yilmaz, Omer H.; Mitalipova, Maya; Woolard, Kevin; Lee, Jeongwu; Nishimura, Riko; Sakata, Nobuo; Fine, Howard A.; Carpenter, Anne E.; Silver, Serena J.; Verhaak, Roel G. W.; Califano, Andrea; Young, Richard A.; Ligon, Keith L.; Mellinghoff, Ingo K.; Root, David E.; Sabatini, David M.; Hahn, William C.; Chheda, Milan G.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Glioblastomas (GBM) harbor subpopulations of therapy-resistant tumor initiating cells (TICs) that are self-renewing and multipotent. To understand the regulation of the TIC state, we performed an image-based screen for genes regulating GBM TIC maintenance and identified ZFHX4, a 397-kDa transcription factor. ZFHX4 is required to maintain TIC-associated and normal human neural precursor cell phenotypes in vitro, suggesting that ZFHX4 regulates differentiation, and its suppression increases glioma-free survival in intracranial xenografts. ZFHX4 interacts with CHD4, a core member of the NuRD (nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase) complex. ZFHX4 and CHD4 bind to overlapping sets of genomic loci and control similar gene expression programs. Using expression data derived from GBM patients, we found that ZFHX4 significantly affects CHD4-mediated gene expression perturbations, which defines ZFHX4 as a master regulator of CHD4. These observations define ZFHX4 as a regulatory factor that links the chromatin remodeling NuRD complex and the GBM TIC state. PMID:24440720

  19. Extended-soft-core baryon-baryon model. I. Nucleon-nucleon scattering with the ESC04 interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Rijken, Th.A.

    2006-04-15

    The NN results are presented from the extended-soft-core (ESC) interactions. They consist of local and nonlocal potentials due to (i) one-boson-exchanges (OBE), which are the members of nonets of pseudoscalar, vector, scalar, and axial mesons (ii) diffractive exchanges (iii) two-pseudoscalar exchanges (PS-PS), and (iv) meson-pair exchanges (MPE). We describe a fit to the pp and np data for 0{<=}T{sub lab}{<=}350 MeV, having a typical {chi}{sup 2}/N{sub data}=1.155. Here, we used {approx}20 quasi-free physical parameters, which are coupling constants and cutoff masses. A remarkable feature of the couplings is that we were able to require them to follow rather closely the pattern predicted by the {sup 3}P{sub 0} quark-pair-creation (QPC) model. As a result the 11 OBE couplings are rather constrained, i.e., quasi free. Also, the deuteron binding energy and the several NN scattering lengths are fitted.

  20. Data assimilative modeling investigation of Gulf Stream Warm Core Ring interaction with continental shelf and slope circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ke; He, Ruoying; Powell, Brian S.; Gawarkiewicz, Glen G.; Moore, Andrew M.; Arango, Hernan G.

    2014-09-01

    A data assimilative ocean circulation model is used to hindcast the interaction between a large Gulf Stream Warm Core Ring (WCR) with the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) shelf and slope circulation. Using the recently developed Incremental Strong constraint 4D Variational (I4D-Var) data assimilation algorithm, the model assimilates mapped satellite sea surface height (SSH), sea surface temperature (SST), in situ temperature, and salinity profiles measured by expendable bathythermograph, Argo floats, shipboard CTD casts, and glider transects. Model validations against independent hydrographic data show 60% and 57% error reductions in temperature and salinity, respectively. The WCR significantly changed MAB continental slope and shelf circulation. The mean cross-shelf transport induced by the WCR is estimated to be 0.28 Sv offshore, balancing the mean along-shelf transport by the shelfbreak jet. Large heat/salt fluxes with peak values of 8900 W m-2/4 × 10-4 kg m-2 s-1 are found when the WCR was impinging upon the shelfbreak. Vorticity analysis reveals the nonlinear advection term, as well as the residual of joint effect of baroclinicity and bottom relief (JEBAR) and advection of potential vorticity (APV) play important roles in controlling the variability of the eddy vorticity.

  1. Surface treated polypropylene (PP) fibres for reinforced concrete

    SciTech Connect

    López-Buendía, Angel M.; Romero-Sánchez, María Dolores; Climent, Verónica

    2013-12-15

    Surface treatments on a polypropylene (PP) fibre have contributed to the improvement of fibre/concrete adhesion in fibre-reinforced concrete. The treatments to the PP fibre were characterized by contact angle measurements, ATR-IR and XPS to analyse chemical alterations. The surface topography and fibre/concrete interaction were analysed by several microscopic techniques, namely optical petrographic, and scanning electron microscopy. Treatment modified the surface chemistry and topography of the fibre by introducing sodium moieties and created additional fibre surface roughness. Modifications in the fibre surface led to an increase in the adhesion properties between the treated fibres and concrete and an improvement in the mechanical properties of the fibre-reinforced concrete composite as compared to the concrete containing untreated PP fibres. Compatibility with the concrete and increased roughness and mineral surface was also improved by nucleated portlandite and ettringite mineral association anchored on the alkaline PP fibre surface, which is induced during treatment.

  2. Lunar concrete: Prospects and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khitab, Anwar; Anwar, Waqas; Mehmood, Imran; Kazmi, Syed Minhaj Saleem; Munir, Muhammad Junaid

    2016-02-01

    The possibility of using concrete as a construction material at the Moon surface is considered. Dissimilarities between the Earth and the Moon and their possible effects on concrete are also emphasized. Availability of constituent materials for concrete at lunar surface is addressed. An emphasis is given to two types of materials, namely, hydraulic concrete and sulfur concrete. Hydraulic concrete necessitates the use of water and sulfur concrete makes use of molten sulfur in lieu of cement and water.

  3. Nondestructive evaluation of thick concrete structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Dwight A.

    2015-03-01

    Concrete has been used in the construction of nuclear power plants (NPPs) due to three primary properties: its low cost, structural strength, and ability to shield radiation. Examples of concrete structures important to the safety of Light Water Reactor (LWR) plants include the containment building, spent fuel pool, and cooling towers. Use in these structures has made concrete's long-term performance crucial for the safe operation of commercial NPPs. Extending LWR operating period to 60 years and beyond will likely increase susceptibility and severity of known forms of degradation. New mechanisms of materials degradation are also possible. This creates the need to be able to nondestructively evaluate the current subsurface concrete condition of aging concrete material in NPP structures. The size and complexity of NPP containment structures and heterogeneity of Portland cement concrete make characterization of the degradation extent a difficult task. Specially designed and fabricated test specimens can provide realistic flaws that are similar to actual flaws in terms of how they interact with a particular nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technique. Artificial test blocks allow the isolation of certain testing problems as well as the variation of certain parameters. Representative large heavily reinforced concrete specimens would allow for comparative testing to evaluate the state-of-the-art NDE in this area and to identify additional developments necessary to address the challenges potentially found in NPPs.

  4. The role of magnetic interactions in exchange bias properties of MnFe2O4@γ-Fe2O3 core/shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, F. G.; Aquino, R.; Tourinho, F. A.; Stepanov, V. I.; Raikher, Yu L.; Perzynski, R.; Depeyrot, J.

    2013-07-01

    Low-temperature magnetic properties of assemblies of 3.3 nm sized nanoparticles (NPs) based on a MnFe2O4 core protected by a maghemite shell are investigated. These NPs are obtained by a chemical core/shell method developed for the synthesis of the electrostatically stabilized ferrofluid colloidal dispersions that we probe here. They are model systems where the interparticle interaction is tuned by the NP volume fractions, ranging here between 0.4% and 13.9%. It has been shown that these NPs consist of a well-ordered ferrimagnetic core surrounded by a disordered spin glass-like surface layer and that they display uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. We compare the magnetic hysteresis loops of non-textured frozen dispersions (with magnetic anisotropy axis of NPs distributed at random) with those of a powder based on the same NPs. After cooling under field the hysteresis loops shift along the H axis, expressing the coupling between the spin-ordered cores and the disordered surface layers. The negative H-shift provides an evaluation for the exchange bias (EB) field. The EB field is optimum for a cooling field of the order of the anisotropy field. A comparison between frozen dispersions and disordered powder allows us to distinguish the influence of intra- and interparticle interactions on the EB. Interparticle collective effects dominate in the powder while an intraparticle EB, eventually hindered by dipolar interactions at large volume fraction, is observed in frozen dispersions.

  5. Applications for concrete offshore

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The report collects and summarizes the various proposals for development offshore which have in common the use of concrete as the main structural material, and where possible, indicates their relative feasibility. A study encompassing such diverse schemes as offshore windmills, concrete LNG carriers, hydrocarbon production platforms and floating airports cannot be completely exhaustive on each subject, so references to sources of further information have been given wherever possible. Details of individual projects and proposals are included for Power plants, Hydrocarbon production platforms, Concrete ships, Storage systems and industrial plants, Subsea systems, Offshore islands, Coastal works and Other concrete structures.

  6. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Bovaird, Chase C.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2011-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. The information present in the report provides data that (1) measures the effect of concrete wasteform properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and (2) quantifies the rate of carbonation of concrete materials in a simulated vadose zone repository.

  7. Properties of salt-saturated concrete and grout after six years in situ at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeley, L.D.; Harrington, P.T.; Weiss, C.A. Jr.

    1993-06-01

    Samples of concrete and grout were recovered from short boreholes in the repository floor at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant more than six years after the concrete and grout were placed. Plugs from the Plug Test Matrix of the Plugging and Sealing Program of Sandia National Laboratories were overcored to include a shell of host rock. The cores were analyzed at the Waterways Experiment Station to assess their condition after six years of service, having potentially been exposed to those aspects of their service environment (salt, brine, fracturing, anhydrite, etc.) that could cause deterioration. Measured values of compressive strength and pulse velocity of both the grout and the concrete equaled or exceeded values from tests performed on laboratory-tested samples of the same mixtures at ages of one month to one year after casting. The phase assemblages had changed very little. Materials performed as intended and showed virtually no chemical or physical evidence of deterioration. The lowest values for strength and pulse velocity were measured for samples taken from the Disturbed Rock Zone, indicating the influence of cracking in this zone on the properties of enclosed seal materials. There was evidence of movement of brine in the system. Crystalline phases containing magnesium, potassium, sulfate, and other ions had been deposited on free surfaces in fractures and pilot holes. There was a reaction rim in the anhydrite immediately surrounding each recovered borehole plug, suggesting interaction between grout or concrete and host rock. However, the chemical changes apparent in this reaction rim were not reflected in the chemical composition of the adjacent concrete or grout. The grout and concrete studied here showed no signs of the deterioration found to have occurred in some parts of the concrete liner of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant waste handling shaft.

  8. Identification and targeting of an interaction between a tyrosine motif within hepatitis C virus core protein and AP2M1 essential for viral assembly.

    PubMed

    Neveu, Gregory; Barouch-Bentov, Rina; Ziv-Av, Amotz; Gerber, Doron; Jacob, Yves; Einav, Shirit

    2012-01-01

    Novel therapies are urgently needed against hepatitis C virus infection (HCV), a major global health problem. The current model of infectious virus production suggests that HCV virions are assembled on or near the surface of lipid droplets, acquire their envelope at the ER, and egress through the secretory pathway. The mechanisms of HCV assembly and particularly the role of viral-host protein-protein interactions in mediating this process are, however, poorly understood. We identified a conserved heretofore unrecognized YXXΦ motif (Φ is a bulky hydrophobic residue) within the core protein. This motif is homologous to sorting signals within host cargo proteins known to mediate binding of AP2M1, the μ subunit of clathrin adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2), and intracellular trafficking. Using microfluidics affinity analysis, protein-fragment complementation assays, and co-immunoprecipitations in infected cells, we show that this motif mediates core binding to AP2M1. YXXΦ mutations, silencing AP2M1 expression or overexpressing a dominant negative AP2M1 mutant had no effect on HCV RNA replication, however, they dramatically inhibited intra- and extracellular infectivity, consistent with a defect in viral assembly. Quantitative confocal immunofluorescence analysis revealed that core's YXXΦ motif mediates recruitment of AP2M1 to lipid droplets and that the observed defect in HCV assembly following disruption of core-AP2M1 binding correlates with accumulation of core on lipid droplets, reduced core colocalization with E2 and reduced core localization to trans-Golgi network (TGN), the presumed site of viral particles maturation. Furthermore, AAK1 and GAK, serine/threonine kinases known to stimulate binding of AP2M1 to host cargo proteins, regulate core-AP2M1 binding and are essential for HCV assembly. Last, approved anti-cancer drugs that inhibit AAK1 or GAK not only disrupt core-AP2M1 binding, but also significantly inhibit HCV assembly and infectious virus production

  9. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF A HIGH-DENSITY CORE IN TAURUS: DYNAMICAL GAS INTERACTION AT THE POSSIBLE SITE OF A MULTIPLE STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Tokuda, Kazuki; Onishi, Toshikazu; Saigo, Kazuya; Kawamura, Akiko; Fukui, Yasuo; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Tachihara, Kengo; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Machida, Masahiro N.; Tomida, Kengo

    2014-07-01

    Starless dense cores eventually collapse dynamically, forming protostars inside them, and the physical properties of the cores determine the nature of the forming protostars. We report ALMA observations of dust continuum emission and molecular rotational lines toward MC27 or L1521F, which is considered to be very close to the first protostellar core phase. We found a few starless high-density cores, one of which has a very high density of ∼10{sup 7} cm{sup –3}, within a region of several hundred AU around a very low-luminosity protostar detected by Spitzer. A very compact bipolar outflow with a dynamical timescale of a few hundred years was found toward the protostar. The molecular line observation shows several cores with an arc-like structure, possibly due to the dynamical gas interaction. These complex structures revealed in the present observations suggest that the initial condition of star formation is highly dynamical in nature, which is considered to be a key factor in understanding fundamental issues of star formation such as the formation of multiple stars and the origin of the initial mass function of stars.

  10. DFT study of Fe-Ni core-shell nanoparticles: Stability, catalytic activity, and interaction with carbon atom for single-walled carbon nanotube growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhimin; Wang, Qiang; Shan, Xiaoye; Li, Wei-qi; Chen, Guang-hui; Zhu, Hongjun

    2015-02-01

    Metal catalysts play an important role in the nucleation and growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). It is essential for probing the nucleation and growth mechanism of SWCNTs to fundamentally understand the properties of the metal catalysts and their interaction with carbon species. In this study, we systematically studied the stability of 13- and 55-atom Fe and Fe-Ni core-shell particles as well as these particles interaction with the carbon atoms using the density functional theory calculations. Icosahedral 13- and 55-atom Fe-Ni core-shell bimetallic particles have higher stability than the corresponding monometallic Fe and Ni particles. Opposite charge transfer (or distribution) in these particles leads to the Fe surface-shell displays a positive charge, while the Ni surface-shell exhibits a negative charge. The opposite charge transfer would induce different chemical activities. Compared with the monometallic Fe and Ni particles, the core-shell bimetallic particles have weaker interaction with C atoms. More importantly, C atoms only prefer staying on the surface of the bimetallic particles. In contrast, C atoms prefer locating into the subsurface of the monometallic particles, which is more likely to form stable metal carbides. The difference of the mono- and bimetallic particles on this issue may result in different nucleation and growth mechanism of SWCNTs. Our findings provide useful insights for the design of bimetallic catalysts and a better understanding nucleation and growth mechanism of SWCNTs.

  11. DFT study of Fe-Ni core-shell nanoparticles: Stability, catalytic activity, and interaction with carbon atom for single-walled carbon nanotube growth

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhimin; Wang, Qiang Shan, Xiaoye; Zhu, Hongjun; Li, Wei-qi; Chen, Guang-hui

    2015-02-21

    Metal catalysts play an important role in the nucleation and growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). It is essential for probing the nucleation and growth mechanism of SWCNTs to fundamentally understand the properties of the metal catalysts and their interaction with carbon species. In this study, we systematically studied the stability of 13- and 55-atom Fe and Fe-Ni core-shell particles as well as these particles interaction with the carbon atoms using the density functional theory calculations. Icosahedral 13- and 55-atom Fe-Ni core-shell bimetallic particles have higher stability than the corresponding monometallic Fe and Ni particles. Opposite charge transfer (or distribution) in these particles leads to the Fe surface-shell displays a positive charge, while the Ni surface-shell exhibits a negative charge. The opposite charge transfer would induce different chemical activities. Compared with the monometallic Fe and Ni particles, the core-shell bimetallic particles have weaker interaction with C atoms. More importantly, C atoms only prefer staying on the surface of the bimetallic particles. In contrast, C atoms prefer locating into the subsurface of the monometallic particles, which is more likely to form stable metal carbides. The difference of the mono- and bimetallic particles on this issue may result in different nucleation and growth mechanism of SWCNTs. Our findings provide useful insights for the design of bimetallic catalysts and a better understanding nucleation and growth mechanism of SWCNTs.

  12. Prestressed concrete for the storage of liquefied gases

    SciTech Connect

    Bruggeling, A.S.G.

    1981-01-01

    Both concrete and prestressing-steel materials retain their strengths at cryogenic temperatures, making them ideal for LNG storage tanks and similar structures. Prestressed concrete lends itself to a wide variety of configurations, from containment dikes to integrated tank systems in which the steel, insulation, and concrete must interact efficiently. Of major importance in building prestressed-concrete storage tanks are the design loads and load factors to be adopted, especially the so-called special loads that depend on the nature and quantity of the product to be stored, the type of installation involved, the siting of the storage facilities, and the tank construction (flexible or rigid).

  13. Durability of high performance concrete in magnesium brine

    SciTech Connect

    Tumidajski, P.J.; Chan, G.W.

    1996-04-01

    The durability of six concretes exposed to magnesium brine was monitored for 24 months. These concretes incorporated ground granulated blast furnace slag, silica fume, and fly ash. The Young`s moduli, chloride penetrations, and median pore diameters were measured. There was a cyclic nature to these properties due to the complicated interaction of hydration with magnesium, chloride and sulfate attack. Mineral admixtures, in combination with a long initial cure, provided the most durable concrete. Concrete with 65% slag had the best overall durability to the brines tested.

  14. Methods for ultimate load analysis of concrete containments

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, R.S.; Rashid, Y.R.; Yuan, K.A.; Lu, Y.M.

    1985-06-01

    The objective of the research project described in this interim report is to develop a qualified methodology for the ultimate load analysis of concrete containment structures. The EPRI-sponsored nonlinear finite element code ABAQUS-EPGEN, which has recently been modified to incorporate a constitutive model for plain concrete and modeling capabilities for reinforced and prestressed concrete containments, is utilized as the structural analysis tool in this development. The ABAQUS-EPGEN concrete modeling and analysis capabilities are first evaluated by comparing measured data with code predictions for full-scale reinforced concrete slab specimens tested under uniaxial and biaxial tension. These specimen tests simulate the behavior of the cylindrical wall of a typical concrete containment structure under internal pressure. The calculated and measured strain comparisons are used to improve the constitutive model and to qualify the code for concrete containment analysis. The second part of this effort deals with the ultimate load analysis of reinforced and prestressed containments to determine bounds on the global overpressure capacities of typical concrete containment structures. The third part of this effort further examines such local effects through a substructural analysis of the liner-concrete interaction at major concrete cracks.

  15. Laser ablation studies of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Savina, M.; Xu, Z.; Wang, Y.; Reed, C.; Pellin, M.

    1999-10-20

    Laser ablation was studied as a means of removing radioactive contaminants from the surface and near-surface regions of concrete. The authors present the results of ablation tests on cement and concrete samples using a 1.6 kW pulsed Nd:YAG laser with fiber optic beam delivery. The laser-surface interaction was studied using cement and high density concrete as targets. Ablation efficiency and material removal rates were determined as functions of irradiance and pulse overlap. Doped samples were also ablated to determine the efficiency with which surface contaminants were removed and captured in the effluent. The results show that the cement phase of the material melts and vaporizes, but the aggregate portion (sand and rock) fragments. The effluent consists of both micron-size aerosol particles and chunks of fragmented aggregate material. Laser-induced optical emission spectroscopy was used to analyze the surface during ablation. Analysis of the effluent showed that contaminants such as cesium and strontium were strongly segregated into different regions of the particle size distribution of the aerosol.

  16. Seismic retrofitting of reinforced concrete frame structures using GFRP-tube-confined-concrete composite braces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddasi B., Nasim S.; Zhang, Yunfeng; Hu, Xiaobin

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a new type of structural bracing intended for seismic retrofitting use in framed structures. This special composite brace, termed glass-fiber-reinforced-polymer (GFRP)-tube-confined-concrete composite brace, is comprised of concrete confined by a GFRP tube and an inner steel core for energy dissipation. Together with a contribution from the GFRP-tube confined concrete, the composite brace shows a substantially increased stiffness to control story drift, which is often a preferred feature in seismic retrofitting. An analysis model is established and implemented in a general finite element analysis program — OpenSees, for simulating the load-displacement behavior of the composite brace. Using this model, a parametric study of the hysteretic behavior (energy dissipation, stiffness, ductility and strength) of the composite brace was conducted under static cyclic loading and it was found that the area ratio of steel core to concrete has the greatest influence among all the parameters considered. To demonstrate the application of the composite brace in seismic retrofitting, a three-story nonductile reinforced concrete (RC) frame structure was retrofitted with the composite braces. Pushover analysis and nonlinear time-history analyses of the retrofitted RC frame structure was performed by employing a suite of 20 strong ground motion earthquake records. The analysis results show that the composite braces can effectively reduce the peak seismic responses of the RC frame structure without significantly increasing the base shear demand.

  17. Concrete sample point: 304 Concretion Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rollison, M.D.

    1995-03-10

    This report contains information concerning the analysis of concretes for volatile organic compounds. Included are the raw data for these analysis and the quality control data, the standards data, and all of the accompanying chains-of-custody records and requests for special analysis.

  18. Retrieval of concrete words involves more contextual information than abstract words: multiple components for the concreteness effect.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xin; Zhao, Di; Zhang, Qin; Guo, Chun-yan

    2012-03-01

    The current study used the directed forgetting paradigm in implicit and explicit memory to investigate the concreteness effect. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to explore the neural basis of this phenomenon. The behavioral results showed a clear concreteness effect in both implicit and explicit memory tests; participants responded significantly faster to concrete words than to abstract words. The ERP results revealed a concreteness effect (N400) in both the encoding and retrieval phases. In addition, behavioral and ERP results showed an interaction between word concreteness and memory instruction (to-be-forgotten vs. to-be-remembered) in the late epoch of the explicit retrieval phase, revealing a significant concreteness effect only under the to-be-remembered instruction condition. This concreteness effect was realized as an increased P600-like component in response to concrete words relative to abstract words, likely reflecting retrieval of contextual details. The time course of the concreteness effect suggests advantages of concrete words over abstract words due to greater contextual information. PMID:22041121

  19. Numerical analysis on seismic behavior of reinforced concrete beam to concrete filled steel tubular column connections with ring-beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yi.; Xu, Li. Hua.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents numerical study of the seismic behavior of reinforced concrete beam to concrete filled steel tube column connections with ring-beam. The material stress-strain relations, element type and boundary condition are selected, which are consistent with actual situation. Then the seismic behavior of this type of joint are researched by ABAQUS, and finite element analyses are conducted under cyclic loading. Its parameters are discussed including thickness of steel tubular column wall, sectional dimension of the ring-beam and strength of the core concrete. The results show that the ultimate capacity of the connections is improved with sectional dimension of the ring-beam increased. In the meanwhile, the influence on skeleton curve of the joints is slight of which included thickness of steel tubular column wall and strength of the core concrete.

  20. Performance of Waterless Concrete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toutanji, Houssam; Evans, Steve; Grugel, Richard N.

    2010-01-01

    The development of permanent lunar bases is constrained by performance of construction materials and availability of in-situ resources. Concrete seems a suitable construction material for the lunar environment, but water, one of its major components, is an extremely scarce resource on the Moon. This study explores an alternative to hydraulic concrete by replacing the binding mix of concrete (cement and water) with sulfur. Sulfur is a volatile element on the lunar surface that can be extracted from lunar soils by heating. Sulfur concrete mixes were prepared to investigate the effect of extreme environmental conditions on the properties of sulfur concrete. A hypervelocity impact test was conducted, having as its target a 5-cm cubic sample of sulfur concrete. This item consisted of JSC-1 lunar regolith simulant (65%) and sulfur (35%). The sample was placed in the MSFC Impact Test Facility s Micro Light Gas Gun target chamber, and was struck by a 1-mm diameter (1.4e-03 g) aluminum projectile at 5.85 km/s. In addition, HZTERN code, provided by NASA was used to study the effectiveness of sulfur concrete when subjected to space radiation.

  1. Antifouling marine concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Vind, H P; Mathews, C W

    1980-07-01

    Various toxic agents were evaluated as the their capability to prevent or inhibit the attachment of marine fouling organisms to concrete. Creosote and bis-(tri-n-butyltin) oxide (TBTO) were impregnated into porous aggregate which was used in making concrete. Cuprous oxide, triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH), and 2-2-bis-(p-methoxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (methoxychlor) were used as dry additives. Two proprietary formulations were applied as coatings on untreated concrete. Test specimens were exposed at Port Hueneme, CA, and Key Biscayne, FL. The efficacy of toxicants was determined by periodically weighing the adhering fouling organisms. Concrete prepared with an aggregate impregnated with a TBTO/creosote mixture has demonstrated the best antifouling performance of those specimens exposed for more than one year. The two proprietary coatings and the concrete containing methoxychlor, TPTH, and cuprous oxide as dry additives have exhibited good antifouling properties, but they have been exposed for a shorter time. The strength of concrete containing the toxicants was acceptable, and the toxicants did not increase the corrosion rate of reinforcing rods. Organotin compounds were essentially unchanged in concrete specimens exposed 6 1/2 years in seawater.

  2. Antifouling marine concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Vind, H P; Mathews, C W

    1980-07-01

    Various toxic agents were evaluated as to their capability to prevent or inhibit the attachment of marine fouling organisms to concrete for OTEC plants. Creosote and bis-(tri-n-butyltin) oxide (TBTO) were impregnated into porous aggregate which was used in making concrete. Cuprous oxide, triphenyltin hydroxide (TPTH), and 2-2-bis-(p-methoxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (methoxychlor) were used as dry additives. Two proprietary formulations were applied as coatings on untreated concrete. Test specimens were exposed at Port Hueneme, CA, and Key Biscayne, FL. The efficacy of toxicants was determined by periodically weighing the adhering fouling organisms. Concrete prepared with an aggregate impregnated with a TBTO/creosote mixture has demonstrated the best antifouling performance of those specimens exposed for more than one year. The two proprietary coatings and the concrete containing methoxychlor, TPTH, and cuprous oxide as dry additives have exhibited good antifouling properties, but they have been exposed for a shorter time. The strength of concrete containing the toxicants was acceptable, and the toxicants did not increase the corrosion rate of reinforcing rods. Organotin compounds were essentially unchanged in concrete specimens exposed 6-1/2 years in seawater.

  3. Effect of insulating concrete forms in concrete compresive strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Jerez, Silvio R.

    The subject presented in this thesis is the effect of Insulating Concrete Forms (ICF's) on concrete compressive strength. This work seeks to identify if concrete cured in ICF's has an effect in compressive strength due to the thermal insulation provided by the forms. Modern construction is moving to energy efficient buildings and ICF's is becoming more popular in new developments. The thesis used a concrete mixture and a mortar mixture to investigate the effects of ICF's on concrete compressive strength. After the experimentations were performed, it was concluded that the ICF's do affect concrete strength. It was found that the forms increase concrete strength without the need for additional curing water. An increase of 50% in strength at 56 days was obtained. It was concluded that the longer concrete cures inside ICF's, the higher strength it reaches, and that ICF's effect on concrete strength is proportional to volume of concrete.

  4. Differential Effects of Accumbens Core vs. Shell Lesions in a Rat Concurrent Conditioned Place Preference Paradigm for Cocaine vs. Social Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Michael; Rawas, Rana El; Klement, Sabine; Kummer, Kai; Mayr, Michael J.; Eggart, Vincent; Salti, Ahmad; Bardo, Michael T.; Saria, Alois; Zernig, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    Background A main challenge in the therapy of drug dependent individuals is to help them reactivate interest in non-drug-associated activities. Among these activities, social interaction is doubly important because treatment adherence itself depends on it. We previously developed a rat experimental model based on the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in which only four 15-min episodes of social interaction with a gender- and weight-matched male conspecific (i) reversed CPP from cocaine to social interaction despite continuing cocaine training and (ii) prevented the reinstatement of cocaine CPP. In the present study, we investigated if the two subregions of the nucleus accumbens (Acb), i.e., the core (AcbC) and the shell (AcbSh), would differentially affect CPP for cocaine vs social interaction. Methodology/Principal Findings Animals were concurrently trained for CPP pairing cocaine with one compartment and social interaction with the other (i.e., mutually exclusive stimulus presentation during training). Excitotoxic lesioning of the AcbC or the BLA shifted CPP toward social interaction, whereas AcbSh inactivation shifted CPP toward cocaine. Conclusions Overall, our findings suggest that inactivation of the AcbC or the BLA is sufficient to shift CPP away from a drug of abuse toward social interaction. Lesioning the AcbSh produced the opposite effect. PMID:22046347

  5. Electrokenitic Corrosion Treatment of Concrete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardenas, Henry E (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method and apparatus for strengthening cementitious concrete by placing a nanoparticle carrier liquid in contact with a first surface of a concrete section and inducing a current across the concrete section at sufficient magnitude and for sufficient time that nanoparticles in the nanoparticle carrier liquid migrate through a significant depth of the concrete section.

  6. An advanced coarse-grained nucleosome core particle model for computer simulations of nucleosome-nucleosome interactions under varying ionic conditions.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yanping; Korolev, Nikolay; Lyubartsev, Alexander P; Nordenskiöld, Lars

    2013-01-01

    In the eukaryotic cell nucleus, DNA exists as chromatin, a compact but dynamic complex with histone proteins. The first level of DNA organization is the linear array of nucleosome core particles (NCPs). The NCP is a well-defined complex of 147 bp DNA with an octamer of histones. Interactions between NCPs are of paramount importance for higher levels of chromatin compaction. The polyelectrolyte nature of the NCP implies that nucleosome-nucleosome interactions must exhibit a great influence from both the ionic environment as well as the positively charged and highly flexible N-terminal histone tails, protruding out from the NCP. The large size of the system precludes a modelling analysis of chromatin at an all-atom level and calls for coarse-grained approximations. Here, a model of the NCP that include the globular histone core and the flexible histone tails described by one particle per each amino acid and taking into account their net charge is proposed. DNA wrapped around the histone core was approximated at the level of two base pairs represented by one bead (bases and sugar) plus four beads of charged phosphate groups. Computer simulations, using a Langevin thermostat, in a dielectric continuum with explicit monovalent (K(+)), divalent (Mg(2+)) or trivalent (Co(NH(3))(6) (3+)) cations were performed for systems with one or ten NCPs. Increase of the counterion charge results in a switch from repulsive NCP-NCP interaction in the presence of K(+), to partial aggregation with Mg(2+) and to strong mutual attraction of all 10 NCPs in the presence of CoHex(3+). The new model reproduced experimental results and the structure of the NCP-NCP contacts is in agreement with available data. Cation screening, ion-ion correlations and tail bridging contribute to the NCP-NCP attraction and the new NCP model accounts for these interactions. PMID:23418426

  7. ALMA Observations of a High-density Core in Taurus: Dynamical Gas Interaction at the Possible Site of a Multiple Star Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuda, Kazuki; Onishi, Toshikazu; Saigo, Kazuya; Kawamura, Akiko; Fukui, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Machida, Masahiro N.; Tomida, Kengo; Tachihara, Kengo

    2015-08-01

    It is crucially important to observe dense cores in order to investigate the initial condition of star formation since protostars are formed via dynamical collapse of dense cores, inhering the physical properties from their natal dense cores. Here we present the results of ALMA Cycle 0 and Cycle 1 observations of dust continuum emission and molecular rotational lines toward a dense core, MC27 (aka L1521F), which is considered to be very close to the first protostellar core phase.The Cycle 0 observations revealed complex structures at the center. We found a few starless high-density cores, one of which (MMS2) has a very high density of ~107 cm-3, around the very low-luminousity protostar detected by Spitzer. A very compact bipolar outflow with a dynamical timescale of a few hundred years was found toward the protostar. The HCO+ (3-2) observation shows several cores associated with an arc-like structure whose length is ~2000 AU, possibly due to the dynamical gas interaction. These complex structures suggest that the initial condition of star formation is highly dynamical in nature, which is considered to be a key factor in understanding fundamental issues of star formation such as origins of the stellar multiplicity and the initial mass function. These initial Cycle 0 results were published by Tokuda et al. (2014). Matsumoto et al. (2015) investigated the arc-like structures by performing numerical simulations.Detailed column density distribution with the size from ~100 to ~10000 AU scale are revealed by combining the 12m array data with the 7m array data of the ALMA Compact Array as well as with the single dish MAMBO data. Our preliminary analysis shows that the averaged radial column density distribution of the inner part (r < 2000 AU) is N(H2)~r-0.4, clearly flatter than that of the outer part, ~r-1.3. We detected the above-mentioned complex structure inside the inner flatter region, which may reflect the dynamical status of the dense core. The Cycle 1

  8. Strengthening lightweight concrete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auskern, A.

    1972-01-01

    Polymer absorption by lightweight concretes to improve bonding between cement and aggregate and to increase strength of cement is discussed. Compressive strength of treated cement is compared with strength of untreated product. Process for producing polymers is described.

  9. Concrete decontamination scoping tests

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    This report details the research efforts and scoping tests performed at the Idaho Chemical Process Plant using scabbling, chemical, and electro-osmotic decontamination techniques on radiologically contaminated concrete.

  10. Permeability of Clay Concretes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, F.; Ekolu, S. O.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the effect of clay addition on water permeability and air permeability of concretes. Clay concrete mixes consisted of 0 to 40% clay content incorporated as cement replacement. Flow methods using triaxial cells and air permeameters were used for measuring the injected water and air flows under pressure. It was found that the higher the clay content in the mixture, the greater the permeability. At higher water-cement ratios (w/c), the paste matrix is less dense and easily allows water to ingress into concrete. But at high clay contents of 30 to 40% clay, the variation in permeability was significantly diminished among different concrete mixtures. It was confirmed that air permeability results were higher than the corresponding water permeability values when all permeability coefficients were converted to intrinsic permeability values.

  11. Concrete production floating platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Letourneur, O.; Falcimaigne, J.

    1981-01-01

    The floating production platforms operating in the North Sea are adapted from drilling semisubmersibles which allow only a limited payload capacity. Experience of concrete production platforms constructed for the North Sea has led Sea Tank Co. to propose a floating platform which offers large payload and oil storage capacities similar to those of existing fixed platforms. Sea Tank Co. and Institut Francais du Petrole joined forces in early 1976 to study the feasibility of a concrete floating production platform incorporating the structure and the production riser together. The results of this 3-yr program show that the concrete floating structure is economically attractive for permanent utilization on a production site. Furthermore, concrete has definite advantages over other materials, in its long term behavior.

  12. Magnetic field assisted self-assembly of ferrite-ferroelectric core-shell nanofibers and studies on magneto-electric interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sreenivasulu, G.; Zhang, Ru; Sharma, K.; Janes, C.; Mukundan, A.; Srinivasan, G.; Popov, Maksym

    2014-02-03

    Core-shell nanofibers of nickel ferrite and lead zirconate titanate have been synthesized by electrospinning, assembled into superstructure in uniform or non-uniform magnetic fields, and have been characterized in terms of ferroic order parameters and strain mediated magneto-electric (ME) coupling. The core-shell structure was confirmed by electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy. Studies on magnetic field induced polarization P in assembled samples showed a decrease or increase in P, depending on the nature of fibers and strengthening of ME coupling with change in remnant-P as high as 32%. Strong ME interactions were evident from H-induced variation in permittivity at 20–22 GHz.

  13. Diagnosing delayed ettringite formation in concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Michael Folliard, Kevin Drimalas, Thano Ramlochan, Terry

    2008-06-15

    There has been a number of cases involving deteriorated concrete structures in North America where there has been considerable controversy surrounding the respective contributions of alkali-silica reaction (ASR) and delayed ettringite formation (DEF) to the observed damage. The problem arises because the macroscopic symptoms of distress are not unequivocal and microscopical examinations of field samples often reveal evidence of both processes making it difficult to separate the individual contributions. This paper presents the results of an investigation of a number of concrete columns carrying a raised expressway in North America; prior studies had implicated both DEF and ASR as possible causes of deterioration. Although the columns were not deliberately heat-cured, it is estimated that the peak internal temperature would have exceeded 70 deg. C and perhaps even 80 deg. C, in some cases. The forensic investigation included scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and expansion testing of cores extracted from the structure. Small-diameter cores stored in limewater expanded significantly (0.3 to 1.3%) and on the basis of supplementary tests on laboratory-produced concrete specimens it was concluded that expansion under such conditions is caused by DEF as the conditions of the test will not sustain ASR. In at least one column, DEF was diagnosed as the sole contributory cause of damage with no evidence of any contribution from ASR or any other deterioration process. In other cases, both ASR and DEF were observed to have contributed to the apparent damage. Of the columns examined, only concrete containing fly ash appeared to be undamaged. The results of this study confirm that, under certain conditions, the process of DEF (acting in isolation of other processes) can result in significant deterioration of cast-in-place reinforced concrete structures.

  14. Shear Resistance between Concrete-Concrete Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovačovic, Marek

    2013-12-01

    The application of precast beams and cast-in-situ structural members cast at different times has been typical of bridges and buildings for many years. A load-bearing frame consists of a set of prestressed precast beams supported by columns and diaphragms joined with an additionally cast slab deck. This article is focused on the theoretical and experimental analyses of the shear resistance at an interface. The first part of the paper deals with the state-of-art knowledge of the composite behaviour of concrete-concrete structures and a comparison of the numerical methods introduced in the relevant standards. In the experimental part, a set of specimens with different interface treatments was tested until failure in order to predict the composite behaviour of coupled beams. The experimental part was compared to the numerical analysis performed by means of FEM basis nonlinear software.

  15. Performance of "Waterless Concrete"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toutanji, H. A.; Grugel, R. N.

    2009-01-01

    Waterless concrete consists of molten elementary sulfur and aggregate. The aggregates in a lunar environment will be lunar rocks and soil. Sulfur is present on the Moon in Troilite soil (FeS) and, by oxidation of the soil, iron and sulfur can be produced. Sulfur concrete specimens were cycled between liquid nitrogen (approx.]91 C) and room temperature (^21 C) to simulate exposure to a lunar environment. Cycled and control specimens were subsequently tested in compression at room temperatures (^21 C) and ^-101 C. Test results showed that due to temperature cycling, the compressive strength of cycled specimens was 20% of those non-cycled. This reduction in strength can be attributed to the large differences in thermal coefficients of expansion of the materials constituting the concrete which promoted cracking. Similar sulfur concrete mixtures were strengthened with short and long glass fibres. The lunar regolith simulant was melted in a 25 cc Pt- Rh crucible in a Sybron Thermoline high temperature MoSi2 furnace at melting temperatures of 1450 to 1600 C for times of 30 min to i hour. Glass fibres and small rods were pulled from the melt. The glass fibres were used to reinforce sulfur concrete plated to improve the flexural strength of the sulfur concrete. Beams strengthened with glass fibres showed to exhibit an increase in the flexural strength by as much as 45%.

  16. Unliganded HIV-1 gp120 core structures assume the CD4-bound conformation with regulation by quaternary interactions and variable loops

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Young Do; Finzi, Andrés; Wu, Xueling; Dogo-Isonagie, Cajetan; Lee, Lawrence K.; Moore, Lucas R.; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Stuckey, Jonathan; Yang, Yongping; Zhou, Tongqing; Zhu, Jiang; Vicic, David A.; Debnath, Asim K.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Bewley, Carole A.; Mascola, John R.; Sodroski, Joseph G.; Kwong, Peter D.

    2013-03-04

    The HIV-1 envelope (Env) spike (gp120{sub 3}/gp41{sub 3}) undergoes considerable structural rearrangements to mediate virus entry into cells and to evade the host immune response. Engagement of CD4, the primary human receptor, fixes a particular conformation and primes Env for entry. The CD4-bound state, however, is prone to spontaneous inactivation and susceptible to antibody neutralization. How does unliganded HIV-1 maintain CD4-binding capacity and regulate transitions to the CD4-bound state? To define this mechanistically, we determined crystal structures of unliganded core gp120 from HIV-1 clades B, C, and E. Notably, all of these unliganded HIV-1 structures resembled the CD4-bound state. Conformational fixation with ligand selection and thermodynamic analysis of full-length and core gp120 interactions revealed that the tendency of HIV-1 gp120 to adopt the CD4-bound conformation was restrained by the V1/V2- and V3-variable loops. In parallel, we determined the structure of core gp120 in complex with the small molecule, NBD-556, which specifically recognizes the CD4-bound conformation of gp120. Neutralization by NBD-556 indicated that Env spikes on primary isolates rarely assume the CD4-bound conformation spontaneously, although they could do so when quaternary restraints were loosened. Together, the results suggest that the CD4-bound conformation represents a 'ground state' for the gp120 core, with variable loop and quaternary interactions restraining unliganded gp120 from 'snapping' into this conformation. A mechanism of control involving deformations in unliganded structure from a functionally critical state (e.g., the CD4-bound state) provides advantages in terms of HIV-1 Env structural diversity and resistance to antibodies and inhibitors, while maintaining elements essential for entry.

  17. Use of cactus in mortars and concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, S.; Eklund, L.; Villarreal, R.R.

    1998-01-01

    Natural polymers have been used in ancient times to improve the durability of lime-based mortars and concretes. The natural polymers used were locally available. In this work, cactus extract from Mexico has been tested in a Portland cement mortar. It is seen that cactus extract increases the plasticity of the mortar and improves water absorption and freeze-salt resistance. Calcium hydroxide produced by Portland cement hydration interacts with the components of cactus extract, polysaccharides or proteins, and forms complexes. It affects the crystallization process. Painting of the concrete with this extract has also shown improved water resistance.

  18. Radiogenic isotopic constraints from the Project Hotspot Kimama core: implications for Hotspot-controlled lithosphere interactions beneath the Snake River Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, K. E.; Hanan, B. B.; Shervais, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Project Hotspot, the Snake River Scientific Drilling Project, seeks to understand the evolution of Snake River Plain -Yellowstone Plateau volcanism through time. Radiogenic isotope chemistry, paleomagnetic stratigraphy, and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology from the Kimama core temporally constrain the mass proportions and flux of magma source components in Snake River Plain-Yellowstone Plateau (SRP-YP) basaltic volcanism. We present new radiogenic isotope data for the Kimama core of the central Snake River Plain that support the regional model of plume-continental lithosphere interaction and westward source variation over the past ~ 12 Ma. The 1912 m Kimama core provides a nearly continuous depositional record of basaltic lava flows on the central Snake River Plain from the late Miocene through Pleistocene. Most of the basalt flows are Snake River olivine tholeiites with MgO 6-10%, Fe2O3 < 16%, and K2O <0.9%. Compositionally evolved basalts similar to those erupted at Craters of the Moon (high K2O, Fe2O3, and Zr) were identified at various depths throughout the core. We analyzed 15 basalt samples from a range of geochemical compositions and depths within the Kimama core for Nd, Sr, Hf, and Pb. Radiogenic Pb isotope values for Kimama basalts ranged from 206Pb/204Pb ~18.0--18.5, 207Pb/204Pb ~15.6--15.7, and 208Pb/204Pb ~38.5--39.0. Radiogenic Hf isotopes range from 0.282683--0.282745. Evolved basalts span the same range of 177Hf/176Hf, 207Pb/204Pb, and 208Pb/204Pb as the more primitive basalt compositions (high MgO, Cr, and Ni). Ar/Ar and paleomagnetic dating establish a relatively linear basalt accumulation rate of 305 m/m.y. and a projected bottom hole age of 6.2 Ma.

  19. Mobility of chelated radionuclides in engineered concrete barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Dicke, C.A.; Smith, R.W.

    1993-12-31

    Concrete is a major component in many low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The use of concrete is widespread because of its physical and structural properties and because it provides geochemical control on metal and radionuclide releases. Organic compounds are often disposed with radionuclides in LLW disposal facilities. Interactions between radionuclides and chelating agents must be evaluated to estimate mobility of radionuclides in concrete vaults. This paper quantifies the effects of two common organic components [citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)] on radionuclide mobility in concrete barriers by using equilibrium geochemical calculations. Equilibrium speciation calculations indicate that some radionuclides are chelated in groundwater (pH 7) but are destabilized in the highly alkaline (pH 13) concrete pore fluids. Radionuclides complexed by by EDTA and citrate are replaced by calcium in the concrete pore fluids. In addition, the citrate nuclide complex reacts to form uncomplexed citrate in concrete pore fluids. The chemical performance of concrete LLW disposal facilities should not be compromised by small amounts of chelating agents disposed with some radionuclides. However, EDTA may form significant nickel and cobalt complexes above the pH important in the long-term service life of concrete barriers.

  20. A Green Function Approach to the Effects of Core-state Overlap on Interatomic Interactions at Extreme Densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Stocks, G. Malcolm

    Under extreme conditions of temperature and pressure, interatomic separations in condensed matter can approach a small fraction of those under normal laboratory conditions. For example, during high-energy (~ 100 keV) radiation damage cascades, interatomic separations can be as small as 0.5Å. Under such conditions, core states between neighboring atoms could overlap and must be included as band states. Here we use Green's function method in the framework of multiple scattering theory, also known as Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) electronic structure methods, to seamlessly integrate these core overlap effects within an all-electron ab initio approach. To accomplish these we use multiple integration contours in the complex plane that incorporate states normally treated as bound atomic levels. We show results for Ni and NiFe alloys in extreme densities (a /a0 ~ 0 . 3) to illustrate the convergence of the method with respect to which core states are banded as well as the angular moment cut-off required to establish absolute convergence of the total energies. Results are compared with those of plane-wave methods for different choices of the underlying pseudo potential to establish the range of validity of the various approaches.

  1. The human core exosome interacts with differentially localized processive RNases: hDIS3 and hDIS3L.

    PubMed

    Tomecki, Rafal; Kristiansen, Maiken S; Lykke-Andersen, Søren; Chlebowski, Aleksander; Larsen, Katja M; Szczesny, Roman J; Drazkowska, Karolina; Pastula, Agnieszka; Andersen, Jens S; Stepien, Piotr P; Dziembowski, Andrzej; Jensen, Torben Heick

    2010-07-21

    The eukaryotic RNA exosome is a ribonucleolytic complex involved in RNA processing and turnover. It consists of a nine-subunit catalytically inert core that serves a structural function and participates in substrate recognition. Best defined in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, enzymatic activity comes from the associated subunits Dis3p (Rrp44p) and Rrp6p. The former is a nuclear and cytoplasmic RNase II/R-like enzyme, which possesses both processive exo- and endonuclease activities, whereas the latter is a distributive RNase D-like nuclear exonuclease. Although the exosome core is highly conserved, identity and arrangements of its catalytic subunits in different vertebrates remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate the association of two different Dis3p homologs--hDIS3 and hDIS3L--with the human exosome core. Interestingly, these factors display markedly different intracellular localizations: hDIS3 is mainly nuclear, whereas hDIS3L is strictly cytoplasmic. This compartmental distribution reflects the substrate preferences of the complex in vivo. Both hDIS3 and hDIS3L are active exonucleases; however, only hDIS3 has retained endonucleolytic activity. Our data suggest that three different ribonucleases can serve as catalytic subunits for the exosome in human cells. PMID:20531386

  2. The agricultural history of human-nitrogen interactions as recorded in ice core δ15N-NO3-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felix, J. David; Elliott, Emily M.

    2013-04-01

    The advent and industrialization of the Haber Bosch process in the early twentieth century ushered in a new era of reactive nitrogen distributions on Earth. Since the appearance of the first commercial scale Haber Bosch fertilizer plants, fertilizer application rates have greatly increased in the U.S. While the contributions of fertilizer runoff to eutrophication and anoxic dead zones in coastal regions have been well-documented, the potential influences of increased fertilizer applications on air quality and precipitation chemistry are poorly constrained. Here we combine a 255-year record of precipitation nitrate isotopes preserved in a Greenland ice core, historical reconstructions of fertilizer application rates, and field characterization of the isotopic composition of nitrogen oxides produced biogenically in soils, to provide new constraints on the contributions of biogenic emissions to North American NOx inventories. Our results indicate that increases in twentieth century commercial fertilizer use led to large increases in soil NO, a byproduct released during nitrification and denitrification reactions. These large shifts in soil NO production are evidenced by sharp declines in ice core δ15N-NO3- values. Further, these results suggest that biogenic NOx emissions are underestimated by two to four fold in the U.S. NOx emission inventories used to construct global reactive nitrogen budgets. These results demonstrate that nitrate isotopes in ice cores, coupled with newly constrained δ15N-NOx values for NOx emission sources, provide a novel means for estimating contemporary and historic contributions from individual NOx emission sources to deposition.

  3. Porosity estimation of concrete by ultrasonic NDE

    PubMed

    Hernandez; Izquierdo; Ibanez; Anaya; Ullate

    2000-03-01

    The increasing number of concrete structures with symptoms of premature deterioration due to environmental action demands procedures to estimate the durability of this type of component. Concrete durability is related to porosity, which determines the intensity of interactions of the material with aggressive agents. The pores and capillaries inside the structure facilitate the destructive processes that generally begin in the surface. In this work, an ultrasonic NDE technique to estimate the porosity of concrete is developed. The method is based on the analysis of the mechanical behaviour of mortar probes built with calibrated sand, in which the concentration of water-cement mixture has been varied. In this sense, data of sound velocity are correlated with data of porosity, which have been previously measured by destructive measurements. PMID:10829720

  4. Evaluation of irradiation effects on concrete structure

    SciTech Connect

    Kontani, O.; Ishizawa, A.; Maruyama, I.; Takizawa, M.; Sato, O.

    2012-07-01

    In assessing the soundness of irradiated concrete of nuclear power plants operated for more than 30 years, reference levels are employed: 1x10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} for fast neutrons and 2x10{sup 10} rad (2x10{sup 5} kGy) for gamma rays. Concrete structures are regarded as sound when the estimated irradiance levels after 60 years of operation are less than the reference levels. The reference levels were obtained from a paper by Hilsdorf. It was found, however, that the test conditions in which data were obtained by the researchers referred in that paper are very different from the irradiation and heat conditions usually found in a Light Water Reactor (LWR), and therefore aren't appropriate for assessing the soundness of irradiated concrete of an LWR. This paper investigates the interactions between radiation and concrete and presents the results of gamma ray irradiation tests on cement paste samples in order to provide a better understanding of the irradiation effects on concrete. (authors)

  5. Inspection of prestressed concrete pressure pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atherton, D. L.; Morton, K. J.; Mergelas, B. J.; Kong, X.

    2000-05-01

    A new electromagnetic technique for inspecting prestressed concrete pressure pipe (CPP) for broken prestressing wires is described. CPP is used for water supply lines, power station cooling loops and waste water force lines. The smaller lined cylinder pipes have diameters 400-1200 mm. They have a thin steel cylinder with an inner centrifugally cast concrete core 25-50 mm thick. After curing, high strength prestressing wire is spirally wound, under high tension, onto the steel cylinder. A protective mortar coating is then impacted. Embedded-cylinder pipes have diameters 1.2-7 m. Their construction is similar but they have an additional 80-130 mm layers of concrete cast outside the steel cylinder before the prestressing wire is wound on. The pitch and gage of the wire is chosen to ensure that the concrete is always under compression. The new inspection technique uses a combination of remote field eddy current and transformer coupling effects to detect broken prestressing wires. The tools can access large pipes through small diameter man holes. They can detect single or multiple breaks in the prestressing wire at any point on the circumference and are drawn through a pipe at walking speed. The principles of operation and inspection results are described.

  6. Interaction between lamellar twinning and catalyst dynamics in spontaneous core-shell InGaP nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, D. S.; Tizei, L. H. G.; Li, A.; Vasconcelos, T. L.; Senna, C. A.; Archanjo, B. S.; Ugarte, D.; Cotta, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    Semiconductor nanowires oriented along the [211] direction usually present twins parallel to their axis. For group IV nanowires this kind of twin allows the formation of a catalyst-nanowire interface composed of two equivalent {111} facets. For III-V nanowires, however, the twin will generate two facets with different polarities. In order to keep the <211> orientation stable, a balance in growth rates for these different facets must be reached. We report here the observation of stable, micron-long <211>-oriented InGaP nanowires with a spontaneous core-shell structure. We show that stacking fault formation in the crystal region corresponding to the {111}A facet termination provides a stable NW/NP interface for growth along the <211> direction. During sample cool down, however, the catalyst migrates to a lateral {111}B facet, allowing the growth of branches perpendicular to the initial orientation. In addition to that, we show that the core-shell structure is non-concentric, most likely due to the asymmetry between the facets formed in the NW sidewall; this effect generates stress along the nanowire, which can be relieved through bending.Semiconductor nanowires oriented along the [211] direction usually present twins parallel to their axis. For group IV nanowires this kind of twin allows the formation of a catalyst-nanowire interface composed of two equivalent {111} facets. For III-V nanowires, however, the twin will generate two facets with different polarities. In order to keep the <211> orientation stable, a balance in growth rates for these different facets must be reached. We report here the observation of stable, micron-long <211>-oriented InGaP nanowires with a spontaneous core-shell structure. We show that stacking fault formation in the crystal region corresponding to the {111}A facet termination provides a stable NW/NP interface for growth along the <211> direction. During sample cool down, however, the catalyst migrates to a lateral {111}B facet, allowing

  7. Defect induced ferromagnetic interaction in nanostructured nickel oxide with core-shell magnetic structure: the role of Ni(2+) and O(2-) vacancies.

    PubMed

    Madhu, G; Maniammal, K; Biju, V

    2016-04-28

    Nanostructured nickel oxide samples with crystallite sizes in the range 32-45 nm are synthesized through a facile chemical route using nickel chloride and ethanol amine as the starting materials. The analysis of the antioxidant activity and DC conductivity of the NiO samples confirmed the presence of both Ni(2+) and O(2-) vacancies. The temperature dependent magnetization studies of the samples are done using a Vibrating Sample Magnetometer in the range 20-300 K. The core-shell magnetic structure of the NiO nanoparticles with an antiferromagnetic core and a spin-glass shell is revealed from the zero field cooled and field cooled magnetization studies of the samples. The dependence of uncompensated moments on total spins contradicts Neel's models and is found to vary directly with O(2-) vacancy concentration. The ferromagnetic response of NiO samples due to the interaction between the antiferromagnetic core and the ferromagnetic shell is evident from the magnetic hysteresis studies in the temperature range 20-300 K. The ferromagnetic response is traced to the concentration of O(2-) vacancies, which act as donor impurities and mediate the alignment of magnetic moments associated with Ni(2+) vacancies. The decrease of ferromagnetic contribution upon annealing is explained by the decrease in the concentration of O(2-) vacancies which caused a reduction in the number of magnetic polarons and hence the effective magnetization. PMID:27074902

  8. Insight on the Interaction of Methanol-Selective Oxidation Intermediates with Au- or/and Pd-Containing Monometallic and Bimetallic Core@Shell Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Czelej, Kamil; Cwieka, Karol; Colmenares, Juan Carlos; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J

    2016-08-01

    Using density functional theory (DFT), the interaction of crucial molecules involved in the selective partial oxidation of methanol to methyl formate (MF) with monometallic Au and Pd and bimetallic Au/Pd and Pd/Au core@shell catalysts is systematically investigated. The core@shell structures modeled in this study consist of Au(111) and Pd(111) cores covered by a monolayer of Pd and Au, respectively. Our results indicate that the adsorption strength of the molecules examined as a function of catalytic surface decreases in the order of Au/Pd(111) > Pd(111) > Au(111) > Pd/Au(111) and correlates well with the d-band center model. The preadsorption of oxygen is found to have a positive impact on the selective partial oxidation reaction because of the stabilization of CH3OH and HCHO on the catalyst surface and the simultaneous intensification of MF desorption. On the basis of a dynamical matrix approach combined with statistical thermodynamics, we propose a simple route for evaluating the Gibbs free energy of adsorption as a function of temperature. This method allows us to anticipate the relative temperature stability of molecules involved in the selective partial oxidation of methanol to MF in terms of catalytic surface. PMID:27373791

  9. Cationic Ionic Liquids Organic Ligands Based Metal-Organic Frameworks for Fabrication of Core-Shell Microspheres for Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qian; Ma, Junqian; Ma, Siqi; Wang, Shengyu; Li, Lijun; Zhu, Xianghui; Qiao, Xiaoqiang

    2016-08-24

    In this study, new metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) nanocrystals modified SiO2 core-shell microspheres were designed with cationic ionic liquids (ILs) 1,3-bis(4-carboxybutyl)imidazolium bromide (ILI) as organic ligands. By further adjustment the growth cycles, the new ILI-01@SiO2 core-shell stationary phase was facilely fabricated. The developed stationary phase was respectively characterized via element analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Because the introduction of cationic imidazolium-based ILs ILI for fabrication of the MOFs nanocrystals shell, the new stationary phase exhibits the retention mechanism of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC). Many polar samples, such as amides, vitamins, nucleic acid bases, and nucleosides, were utilized to investigate the performance of the prepared ILI-01@SiO2 column. Compared to the conventional aminosilica column, the new ILI-01@SiO2 column displays high separation selectivity in a shorter separation time. Furthermore, the new ILI-01@SiO2 column was also used for detection of illegal melamine addition in the baby formula. All the above results demonstrate the new ILI-01@SiO2 core-shell stationary phase is of good potentials for high-selectivity separation the polar samples. PMID:27483161

  10. Site- and geometry-specific CH...O interaction in small acetaldehyde clusters studied with core-electron excitation spectroscopy in the carbon K-edge region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabayashi, K.; Tsutsumi, Y.; Chohda, M.; Takahashi, O.; Tamenori, Y.; Higuchi, I.; Suzuki, I. H.; Nagaoka, S.; Gejo, T.; Honma, K.

    2011-04-01

    Site-dependent C1s-core excitation spectra of small acetaldehyde (AAL) clusters have been studied under the cluster regime of beam conditions. The excitation spectra of the clusters were generated by monitoring the partial-ion-yields of cluster-origin fragments. Comparison of the cluster bands with the monomer bands revealed that the band intensities of C1s core-to-Rydberg transitions come to be strongly excitation-site dependent upon cluster formation showing significant reduction of C1sHCO→Ryd bands relative to the monomer bands. Computer modeling of X-ray absorption spectra using a density functional theory calculation demonstrated that the intensity reduction is the outcome of the site- and geometry-specific CH...O interaction where hydrogen-bonding association between the aldehyde (HCO) sites of different AAL molecules takes place exclusively within the clusters. As the representatives of small AAL clusters (n>=3), two types of molecular complexes (a planar cyclic trimer and a tetramer with a stack of two dimers) were derived to rationalize the site-dependence of the experimental C1s excitation spectra. Spectral simulation of the above complexes could reproduce the experimental site-dependence of the core-to-Rydberg band-features upon clusterization, indicative of significant contribution of these clusters under the present beam-stagnation condition.

  11. A direct interaction between the RAG2 C terminus and the core histones is required for efficient V(D)J recombination.

    PubMed

    West, Kelly L; Singha, Netai C; De Ioannes, Pablo; Lacomis, Lynne; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Cortes, Patricia

    2005-08-01

    V(D)J recombination is a tightly controlled process of somatic recombination whose regulation is mediated in part by chromatin structure. Here, we report that RAG2 binds directly to the core histone proteins. The interaction with histones is observed in developing lymphocytes and within the RAG1/RAG2 recombinase complex in a manner that is dependent on the RAG2 C terminus. Amino acids within the plant homeo domain (PHD)-like domain as well as a conserved acidic stretch of the RAG2 C terminus that is considered to be a linker region are important for this interaction. Point mutations that disrupt the RAG2-histone association inhibit the efficiency of the V(D)J recombination reaction at the endogenous immunoglobulin locus, with the most dramatic effect in the V to DJ(H) rearrangement. PMID:16111638

  12. Retrofitting the AutoBayes Program Synthesis System with Concrete Syntax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Visser, Eelco

    2004-01-01

    AutoBayes is a fully automatic, schema-based program synthesis system for statistical data analysis applications. Its core component is a schema library. i.e., a collection of generic code templates with associated applicability constraints which are instantiated in a problem-specific way during synthesis. Currently, AutoBayes is implemented in Prolog; the schemas thus use abstract syntax (i.e., Prolog terms) to formulate the templates. However, the conceptual distance between this abstract representation and the concrete syntax of the generated programs makes the schemas hard to create and maintain. In this paper we describe how AutoBayes is retrofitted with concrete syntax. We show how it is integrated into Prolog and describe how the seamless interaction of concrete syntax fragments with AutoBayes's remaining legacy meta-programming kernel based on abstract syntax is achieved. We apply the approach to gradually mitigate individual schemas without forcing a disruptive migration of the entire system to a different First experiences show that a smooth migration can be achieved. Moreover, it can result in a considerable reduction of the code size and improved readability of the code. In particular, abstracting out fresh-variable generation and second-order term construction allows the formulation of larger continuous fragments.

  13. Volcanic controls on ash iron solubility: thermodynamic modeling of gas-ash interaction in the hot core of volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshyaripour, G.; Hort, M.; Langmann, B.

    2012-04-01

    Recently it has been shown that volcanic ash can act as a fertilizer for phytoplankton bloom by injecting bio-available iron into the surface ocean. However, it is also well known that iron in volcanic ash at least at its generation point (i.e. magma) is mostly in insoluble form, i.e. not bio-available. Although different volcanic and atmospheric processes are assumed to contribute to the transformation of insoluble iron into soluble salts, the causes of iron mobilization in volcanic ash are poorly constrained. Here we explore the volcanic control on the mobilization of iron in volcanic ash in the hot core of volcanic plumes (T>600° C) based on thermodynamic equilibrium considerations. A conceptual box model is considered for the hot core in which 1000° C magmatic gas, ash and 25° C ambient air are mixed. The initial composition of volcanic gas and ash are parameterized based on three types of tectonic settings (convergent plate, divergent plate, and hot spot) and basaltic to rhyolitic magmas. The effect of the initial oxidation state is also considered by changing the oxygen fugacity. First, magmatic oxides (i.e. SiO2, FeO, MgO etc) are titrated into the magmatic gas at constant temperature and fugacity in order to generate the initial iron carrying minerals. Since the alteration of ash composition is mainly diffusion controlled, we assume that inside the hot core of the volcanic plume the Fe speciation is only affected at or near to the ash surface. Results show that the main initial iron carrying minerals are usually ilmenite and fayalite with some addition of pyhrrotite at reduced conditions in divergent plate and hot spot settings. Then the 1000° C magmatic gas-ash mixture is mixed with the 25° C air (N2 79%, O2 21%) until a temperature of 600° C is reached. Results demonstrate that the hot core functions as an oxidizing reactor for the ash surface transforming the whole Fe2+ minerals to Fe3+ species while being cooled to 600° C. However, in reduced

  14. 26. Evening view of concrete mixing plant, concrete placement tower, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Evening view of concrete mixing plant, concrete placement tower, cableway tower, power line and derrick. Photographer unknown, 1927. Source: MWD. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. Double core-hole emissivity of transient aluminum plasmas produced in the interaction with ultra-intense x-ray laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Cheng; Zeng, Jiaolong; Yuan, Jianmin

    2015-11-01

    Emissivity of single core-hole (SCH) and double core-hole (DCH) states of aluminum plasmas produced in the interaction with ultra-intense x-ray laser pulse interaction are investigated systematically by solving the time-dependent rate equation implemented in the detailed level accounting approximation. We first demonstrated the plasma density effects on level populations and charge state distribution. Compared with recent experiments, it is shown that the plasma density effects play important roles in the evolution dynamics. Then we systematically investigated the emissivity of the transient aluminum plasmas produced by the x-ray laser pulses with a few photon energies above the threshold photon energy to create DCH states. For the laser photon energy where there are resonant absorptions (RA), 1s-np transitions with both full 1s and SCH 1s states play important roles in time evolution of the population and DCH emission spectroscopy. The significant RA effects are illustrated in detail for x-ray pulses, which creates the 1s-2p resonant absorption from the SCH states of Al VII. With the increase of the photon energy, the emissions from lower charge states become larger.

  16. Localized cathodic protection of simulated prestressed concrete pilings in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Chaix, O.; Hartt, W.H.; Kessler, R.; Powers, R.

    1995-05-01

    Corrosion-induced deterioration of prestressed concrete pilings in seawater has been established as the predominant failure mode. A technology involving localized impressed-current cathodic protection (CP) of the splash-zone region in association with conductive rubber anodes was developed to mitigate this deterioration. A series of experiments involving cathodic polarization of simulated prestressed concrete piling specimens partially immersed in seawater was performed. Variables included the concrete mix design, specimen cross section, anode dimensions, and water level. An interactive aspect of CP-operating parameters in association with water level was identified as important if excessively negative potentials and possible tendon embrittlement were to be avoided. The data were evaluated with regard to the interdependence between depolarization magnitude, potential, and concrete relative humidity. Results were reviewed within the context of CP utility for prestressed concrete bridge piling.

  17. The hepatitis C virus core protein inhibits adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL)-mediated lipid mobilization and enhances the ATGL interaction with comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58) and lipid droplets.

    PubMed

    Camus, Gregory; Schweiger, Martina; Herker, Eva; Harris, Charles; Kondratowicz, Andrew S; Tsou, Chia-Lin; Farese, Robert V; Herath, Kithsiri; Previs, Stephen F; Roddy, Thomas P; Pinto, Shirly; Zechner, Rudolf; Ott, Melanie

    2014-12-26

    Liver steatosis is a common health problem associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and an important risk factor for the development of liver fibrosis and cancer. Steatosis is caused by triglycerides (TG) accumulating in lipid droplets (LDs), cellular organelles composed of neutral lipids surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids. The HCV nucleocapsid core localizes to the surface of LDs and induces steatosis in cultured cells and mouse livers by decreasing intracellular TG degradation (lipolysis). Here we report that core at the surface of LDs interferes with the activity of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the key lipolytic enzyme in the first step of TG breakdown. Expressing core in livers or mouse embryonic fibroblasts of ATGL(-/-) mice no longer decreases TG degradation as observed in LDs from wild-type mice, supporting the model that core reduces lipolysis by engaging ATGL. Core must localize at LDs to inhibit lipolysis, as ex vivo TG hydrolysis is impaired in purified LDs coated with core but not when free core is added to LDs. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed that core does not directly interact with the ATGL complex but, unexpectedly, increased the interaction between ATGL and its activator CGI-58 as well as the recruitment of both proteins to LDs. These data link the anti-lipolytic activity of the HCV core protein with altered ATGL binding to CGI-58 and the enhanced association of both proteins with LDs. PMID:25381252

  18. The Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein Inhibits Adipose Triglyceride Lipase (ATGL)-mediated Lipid Mobilization and Enhances the ATGL Interaction with Comparative Gene Identification 58 (CGI-58) and Lipid Droplets*

    PubMed Central

    Camus, Gregory; Schweiger, Martina; Herker, Eva; Harris, Charles; Kondratowicz, Andrew S.; Tsou, Chia-Lin; Farese, Robert V.; Herath, Kithsiri; Previs, Stephen F.; Roddy, Thomas P.; Pinto, Shirly; Zechner, Rudolf; Ott, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Liver steatosis is a common health problem associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and an important risk factor for the development of liver fibrosis and cancer. Steatosis is caused by triglycerides (TG) accumulating in lipid droplets (LDs), cellular organelles composed of neutral lipids surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids. The HCV nucleocapsid core localizes to the surface of LDs and induces steatosis in cultured cells and mouse livers by decreasing intracellular TG degradation (lipolysis). Here we report that core at the surface of LDs interferes with the activity of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the key lipolytic enzyme in the first step of TG breakdown. Expressing core in livers or mouse embryonic fibroblasts of ATGL−/− mice no longer decreases TG degradation as observed in LDs from wild-type mice, supporting the model that core reduces lipolysis by engaging ATGL. Core must localize at LDs to inhibit lipolysis, as ex vivo TG hydrolysis is impaired in purified LDs coated with core but not when free core is added to LDs. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed that core does not directly interact with the ATGL complex but, unexpectedly, increased the interaction between ATGL and its activator CGI-58 as well as the recruitment of both proteins to LDs. These data link the anti-lipolytic activity of the HCV core protein with altered ATGL binding to CGI-58 and the enhanced association of both proteins with LDs. PMID:25381252

  19. High-temperature water-rock interactions and hydrothermal environments in the chondrite-like core of Enceladus.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Yasuhito; Shibuya, Takazo; Postberg, Frank; Hsu, Hsiang-Wen; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Masaki, Yuka; Kuwatani, Tatsu; Mori, Megumi; Hong, Peng K; Yoshizaki, Motoko; Tachibana, Shogo; Sirono, Sin-iti

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that Saturn's moon Enceladus possesses a subsurface ocean. The recent discovery of silica nanoparticles derived from Enceladus shows the presence of ongoing hydrothermal reactions in the interior. Here, we report results from detailed laboratory experiments to constrain the reaction conditions. To sustain the formation of silica nanoparticles, the composition of Enceladus' core needs to be similar to that of carbonaceous chondrites. We show that the presence of hydrothermal reactions would be consistent with NH3- and CO2-rich plume compositions. We suggest that high reaction temperatures (>50 °C) are required to form silica nanoparticles whether Enceladus' ocean is chemically open or closed to the icy crust. Such high temperatures imply either that Enceladus formed shortly after the formation of the solar system or that the current activity was triggered by a recent heating event. Under the required conditions, hydrogen production would proceed efficiently, which could provide chemical energy for chemoautotrophic life. PMID:26506464

  20. High-temperature water–rock interactions and hydrothermal environments in the chondrite-like core of Enceladus

    PubMed Central

    Sekine, Yasuhito; Shibuya, Takazo; Postberg, Frank; Hsu, Hsiang-Wen; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Masaki, Yuka; Kuwatani, Tatsu; Mori, Megumi; Hong, Peng K.; Yoshizaki, Motoko; Tachibana, Shogo; Sirono, Sin-iti

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that Saturn's moon Enceladus possesses a subsurface ocean. The recent discovery of silica nanoparticles derived from Enceladus shows the presence of ongoing hydrothermal reactions in the interior. Here, we report results from detailed laboratory experiments to constrain the reaction conditions. To sustain the formation of silica nanoparticles, the composition of Enceladus' core needs to be similar to that of carbonaceous chondrites. We show that the presence of hydrothermal reactions would be consistent with NH3- and CO2-rich plume compositions. We suggest that high reaction temperatures (>50 °C) are required to form silica nanoparticles whether Enceladus' ocean is chemically open or closed to the icy crust. Such high temperatures imply either that Enceladus formed shortly after the formation of the solar system or that the current activity was triggered by a recent heating event. Under the required conditions, hydrogen production would proceed efficiently, which could provide chemical energy for chemoautotrophic life. PMID:26506464

  1. Interactive Writing in the Disciplines: A Common Core Approach to Disciplinary Writing in Middle and High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Rachael; Dostal, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    In this article we argue that interactive writing (IW), an approach to writing instruction, is uniquely supportive of secondary content-area teachers working to integrate meaningful writing instruction without sacrificing time or attention to content. Drawing on research and our experiences with IW in middle school settings, we explain the roots…

  2. Electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Lomasney, H.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has assigned a priority to the advancement of technology for decontaminating concrete surfaces which have become contaminated with radionuclides, heavy metals, and toxic organics. This agency is responsible for decontamination and decommissioning of thousands of buildings. Electrokinetic extraction is one of the several innovative technologies which emerged in response to this initiative. This technique utilizes an electropotential gradient and the subsequent electrical transport mechanism to cause the controlled movement of ionics species, whereby the contaminants exit the recesses deep within the concrete. This report discusses the technology and use at the Oak Ridge k-25 plant.

  3. Reinforced concrete offshore platform

    SciTech Connect

    Martyshenko, J.P.; Martyshenko, S.J.; Kotelnikov, J.S.; Kutukhtin, E.G.; Petrosian, M.S.; Ilyasova, N.I.; Volkov, J.S.; Vardanian, A.M.

    1987-10-20

    A reinforced concrete offshore platform is described comprising a honeycomb foundation (A), a supporting structure (B) and an above-surface section (C) carrying appropriate equipment. The honeycomb foundation (A) and the supporting structure (B) are made of prefabricated reinforced concrete elements which are polyhedral hollow prisms arranged with gaps between the external sides thereof and joined by a system of prestressed vertical diaphragm walls and horizontal diaphragm walls formed by pre-tensioning reinforcing bars placed in the gaps between the faces of the prisms and casting in-situ the gaps later on.

  4. Advance Organizers: Concret Versus Abstract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkill, Alice J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Two experiments examined the relative effects of concrete and abstract advance organizers on students' memory for subsequent prose. Results of the experiments are discussed in terms of the memorability, familiarity, and visualizability of concrete and abstract verbal materials. (JD)

  5. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Jansik, Danielle P.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2012-09-24

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of LLW and MLLW, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  6. New attempts to identify core-mantle interactions in plume-derived materials using ultra-high precision tungsten isotope measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touboul, M.; Puchtel, I. S.; Walker, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    Some mantle plume derived materials show coupled 187,186Os enrichments relative to upper-mantle materials that have been interpreted by some to reflect core-mantle interaction (Brandon et al., 1999, 2003, Puchtel et al., 2005). In addition to osmium, tungsten is another element whose isotopic composition can potentially be used to trace core-mantle interactions. Tungsten has one radiogenic isotope, 182W, a decay product of 182Hf, with a half-life of ~9 Myr. Like Os, W is siderophile, under reducing conditions, and, hence, is preferentially incorporated into Earth’s core, whereas Hf is lithophile and is retained in the mantle. Fractionation of Hf from W during core formation is predicted to have led to large differences in 182W/184W between the core and mantle. The use of W isotopes as tracers of core-mantle interaction has been hampered by limitations in the ability to measure W isotopic ratios at the level of ± 10 ppm or better. Within analytical uncertainty, MC-ICP-MS measurements of terrestrial rocks investigated so far show no resolvable 182W anomalies (Scherstén et al., 2004). Over the past year, we have developed a new ultra-high precision 182W/184W measurement protocol using a Triton thermal ionization mass spectrometer, allowing us to resolve 182W anomalies at a ± 6 ppm level (2σ, n=40). All W isotope measurements are performed in a negative ionization mode (WO3-) using a dynamic acquisition scheme. This precision improvement allows us to more rigorously interrogate the W isotopic compositions of materials with potentially deep mantle origins. A major problem in this application of W isotopes is the acquisition of mantle-derived materials that have not been contaminated with crustal W. Here we present W abundances, measured using isotope dilution, and corresponding ultra-high precision W isotopic composition measurements of Archean komatiites from the Kostomuksha greenstone belt (Baltic Shield), for which coupled 186Os-187Os enrichment has been

  7. SUSTAINABLE CONCRETE FOR WIND TURBINE FOUNDATIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    BERNDT,M.L.

    2004-06-01

    The use of wind power to generate electricity continues to grow, especially given commitments by various countries throughout the world to ensure that a significant percentage of energy comes from renewable sources. In order to meet such objectives, increasingly larger turbines with higher capacity are being developed. The engineering aspects of larger turbine development tend to focus on design and materials for blades and towers. However, foundations are also a critical component of large wind turbines and represent a significant cost of wind energy projects. Ongoing wind research at BNL is examining two areas: (a) structural response analysis of wind turbine-tower-foundation systems and (b) materials engineering of foundations. This work is investigating the dynamic interactions in wind turbine systems, which in turn assists the wind industry in achieving improved reliability and more cost efficient foundation designs. The results reported herein cover initial studies of concrete mix designs for large wind turbine foundations and how these may be tailored to reduce cost and incorporate sustainability and life cycle concepts. The approach taken was to investigate material substitutions so that the environmental, energy and CO{sub 2}-impact of concrete could be reduced. The use of high volumes of ''waste'' materials in concrete was examined. These materials included fly ash, blast furnace slag and recycled concrete aggregate. In addition, the use of steel fiber reinforcement as a means to improve mechanical properties and potentially reduce the amount of bar reinforcement in concrete foundations was studied. Four basic mixes were considered. These were: (1) conventional mix with no material substitutions, (2) 50% replacement of cement with fly ash, (3) 50% replacement of cement with blast furnace slag and (4) 25% replacement of cement with fly ash and 25% replacement with blast furnace slag. Variations on these mixes included the addition of 1% by volume steel

  8. Fluid-rock interactions in seismic faults: Implications from the structures and mineralogical and geochemical compositions of drilling cores from the rupture of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Qingbao; Yang, Xiaosong; Ma, Shengli; Chen, Jianye; Chen, Jinyu

    2016-01-01

    We describe the structural features and mineralogical and geochemical compositions of the fault rocks recovered from boreholes at the Golden River site on the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault, which activated and slipped along a 240 km-long main surface rupture zone during the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The fault, which accommodated co-seismic slip, cuts granitic rocks from the Pengguan complex, in which this earthquake most likely nucleated. Fault rocks, including cohesive cataclasite, unconsolidated breccia and three fault gouges with distinct colors, were identified from the drilling cores. On-going uplift and erosion in the area means that the fault rocks, formed at different depth, were exhumed to the shallow surface during the uplift history of the Longmenshan fault zone. A clear change from fracturing and comminution in the cataclasites and breccia to more pervasive shear/formation of fine grained materials in the gouges has been observed. The gouges are distinct and have accommodated significant displacement in multiple increments of shear. Furthermore, fault rocks recovered from the boreholes display numerous features indicative of fluid infiltration and fluid-rock interaction. Toward the fault core, clay minerals have replaced feldspars. The element enrichment/depletion patterns of the fault rocks show general fluid infiltration trends, such as 1) mobile elements are generally depleted in the fault rocks, 2) the microstructural, mineralogical and geochemical results of the fault rocks consistently indicate that pervasive fluid infiltration and fluid-rock interactions altered feldspars and mafic minerals to clay minerals. The fluid was Mg2 +- and Fe2 +-rich, facilitating formation of chlorite. Isocon analyses further reveal that a large rock volume has been lost, which is attributed to the removal of mobile elements associated with fluid infiltration and perhaps enhanced by pressure solution. These results reflect the accumulated effects of cataclasis and fluid

  9. Estimating crack growth in temperature damaged concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recalde, Juan Jose

    2009-12-01

    Evaluation of the structural condition of deteriorated concrete infrastructure and evaluation of new sustainable cementitious materials require an understanding of how the material will respond to applied loads and environmental exposures. A fundamental understanding of how microstructural changes in these materials relate to changes in mechanical properties and changes in fluid penetrability is needed. The ability to provide rapid, inexpensive assessment of material characteristics and relevant engineering properties is valuable for decision making and asset management purposes. In this investigation, the effects of changes in dynamic elastic properties with water content and fluid penetrability properties before and after a 300°C exposure were investigated based on estimates of the crack density parameter from dry and saturated cracked media. The experimental and analytical techniques described in this dissertation allow calculation of a value for the crack density parameter using nondestructive determination of wet and dry dynamic shear modulus of relatively thin disks. The techniques were used to compare a conventional concrete mixture to several mixtures with enhanced sustainability characteristics. The three enhanced sustainable materials investigated were a very high fly ash mixture, a magnesium phosphate cement based mortar, and a magnesium phosphate cement based concrete, and were compared to a conventional concrete mixture. The analysis provided both quantitative assessment of changes with high temperature damage and autogenous healing, and estimates of changes in mean crack trace lengths. The results showed that water interaction, deterioration due to damage, and autogenous healing recovery were different for the magnesium phosphate cement based mixtures than the portland cement based concrete mixtures. A strong correlation was found between log-transformed Air Permeability Index, dynamic shear modulus, and crack density parameter. The findings imply

  10. Interaction-driven fractional quantum Hall state of hard-core bosons on kagome lattice at one-third filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W.; Gong, S. S.; Sheng, D. N.

    2016-07-01

    There has been a growing interest in realizing topologically nontrivial states of matter in band insulators, where a quantum Hall effect can appear as an intrinsic property of the band structure. While ongoing progress is under way with a number of directions, the possibility of realizing novel interaction-generated topological phases, without the requirement of a nontrivial invariant encoded in single-particle wave function or band structure, can significantly extend the class of topological materials and is thus of great importance. Here, we show an interaction-driven topological phase emerging in an extended Bose-Hubbard model on a kagome lattice, where the noninteracting band structure is topological trivial with zero Berry curvature in the Brillouin zone. By means of an unbiased state-of-the-art density-matrix renormalization group technique, we identify that the ground state in a broad parameter region is equivalent to a bosonic fractional quantum Hall Laughlin state, based on the characterization of universal properties including ground-state degeneracy, edge excitations, and anyonic quasiparticle statistics. Our work paves a way to finding an interaction-induced topological phase at the phase boundary of conventionally ordered solid phases.

  11. Magnetic field directed assembly of superstructures of ferrite-ferroelectric core-shell nanoparticles and studies on magneto-electric interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, G. Sreenivasulu, G.; Benoit, Crystal; Petrov, V. M.; Chavez, F.

    2015-05-07

    Composites of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric are of interest for studies on mechanical strain mediated magneto-electric (ME) interactions and for useful technologies. Here, we report on magnetic-field-assisted-assembly of barium titanate (BTO)-nickel ferrite (NFO) core-shell particles into linear chains and 2D/3D arrays and measurements of ME effects in such assemblies. First, we synthesized the core-shell nano-particles with 50–600 nm BTO and 10–200 nm NFO by chemical self-assembly by coating the ferroic particles with complementary coupling groups and allowing them to self-assemble in the presence of a catalyst via the “click” reaction. The core-shell structure was confirmed with electron microscopy and scanning probe microscopy. We obtained superstructure of the core-shell particles by subjecting them to a magnetic field gradient that exerts an attractive force on the particles and align them toward the regions of high field strengths. At low particle concentration, linear chains were formed and they evolved into 2D and 3D arrays at high particle concentrations. Magnetoelectric characterization on unassembled films and assembled arrays has been performed through measurements of low-frequency ME voltage coefficient (MEVC) by subjecting the sample to a bias magnetic field and an ac magnetic field. The MEVC is higher for field-assembled samples than for unassembled films and is found to be sensitive to field orientation with a higher MEVC for magnetic fields parallel to the array direction than for magnetic fields perpendicular to the array. A maximum MEVC of 20 mV/cm Oe, one of the highest reported for any bulk nanocomposite, is measured across the array thickness. A model is provided for ME coupling in the superstructures of BTO-NFO particulate composites. First, we estimated the MEVC for a free-standing BTO-NFO core-shell particle and then extended the model to include an array of linear chains of the particles. The theoretical estimates are in

  12. High temperature polymer concrete

    DOEpatents

    Fontana, J.J.; Reams, W.

    1984-05-29

    This invention is concerned with a polymer concrete composition, which is a two-component composition useful with many bases including metal. Component A, the aggregate composition, is broadly composed of silica, silica flour, portland cement, and acrylamide, whereas Component B, which is primarily vinyl and acrylyl reactive monomers, is a liquid system.

  13. Heidrun concrete TLP: Update

    SciTech Connect

    Munkejord, T.

    1995-10-01

    This paper gives a summary of the Heidrun substructure including tethers and foundations. The focus will although be on the concrete substructure. The Heidrun Field is located in 345 m water depth in the northern part of the Haltenbanken area, approximately 100N miles from the west coast of mid-Norway. The field is developed by means of a concrete Tension Leg Platform (TLP) by Conoco Norway Inc. The TLP will be moored by 16 steel tethers, arranged in groups of four per corner, which secure the substructure (hull) to the concrete foundations. A general view of the TLP is shown. The Heidrun TLP will be the northern most located platform in the North Sea when installed at Haltenbanken in 1995. Norwegian Contractors a.s (NC) is undertaking the Engineering, Procurement, Construction and Installation (EPCI) contract for the Heidrun TLP substructure. This comprises the complete delivery of the hull with two module support beams (MSB), including all mechanical outfitting. Furthermore, NC will perform all marine operations related to the substructure. For the concrete foundations NC has performed the detailed engineering work and has been responsible for the two to field and installation of the foundations.

  14. Electroosmotic decontamination of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, W.D.; Bush, S.A.; Marsh, G.C.; Henson, H.M.; Box, W.D.; Morgan, I.L.

    1993-03-01

    A method is described for the electroosmotic decontamination of concrete surfaces, in which an electrical field is used to induce migration of ionic contaminants from porous concrete into an electrolyte solution that may be disposed of as a low-level liquid radioactive waste (LLRW); alternately, the contaminants from the solution can be sorbed onto anion exchange media in order to prevent contaminant buildup in the solution and to minimize the amount of LLRW generated. We have confirmed the removal of uranium (and infer the removal of {sup 99}Tc) from previously contaminated concrete surfaces. In a typical experimental configuration, a stainless steel mesh is placed in an electrolyte solution contained within a diked cell to serve as the negative electrode (cathode) and contaminant collection medium, respectively, and an existing metal penetration (e.g., piping, conduit, or rebar reinforcement within the concrete surface) serves as the positive electrode (anode) to complete the cell. Typically we have achieved 70 to >90% reductions in surface activity by applying <400 V and <1 A for 1--3 h (energy consumption of 0.4--12 kWh/ft{sup 2}).

  15. Core-core and core-valence correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Taylor, Peter R.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of (1s) core correlation on properties and energy separations was analyzed using full configuration-interaction (FCI) calculations. The Be 1 S - 1 P, the C 3 P - 5 S and CH+ 1 Sigma + or - 1 Pi separations, and CH+ spectroscopic constants, dipole moment and 1 Sigma + - 1 Pi transition dipole moment were studied. The results of the FCI calculations are compared to those obtained using approximate methods. In addition, the generation of atomic natural orbital (ANO) basis sets, as a method for contracting a primitive basis set for both valence and core correlation, is discussed. When both core-core and core-valence correlation are included in the calculation, no suitable truncated CI approach consistently reproduces the FCI, and contraction of the basis set is very difficult. If the (nearly constant) core-core correlation is eliminated, and only the core-valence correlation is included, CASSCF/MRCI approached reproduce the FCI results and basis set contraction is significantly easier.

  16. Multiple Interactions across the Surface of the gp120 Core Structure Determine the Global Neutralization Resistance Phenotype of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Bouma, Peter; Leavitt, Maria; Zhang, Peng Fei; Sidorov, Igor A.; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.; Quinnan, Gerald V.

    2003-01-01

    Resistance to neutralization is an important characteristic of primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) that relates to the potential for successful vaccination to prevent infection and use of immunotherapeutics for treatment of established infection. In order to further elucidate mechanisms responsible for neutralization resistance, we studied the molecular mechanisms that determine the resistance of the primary virus isolate of the strain HIV-1 MN to neutralization by soluble CD4 (sCD4). As is the case for the global neutralization resistance phenotype, sCD4 resistance depended upon sequences in the amino-terminal heptad repeat region of gp41 (HR1), as well as on multiple functional interactions within the envelope complex. The functional interactions that determined the resistance included interactions between the variable loop 1 and 2 (V1/V2) region and sequences in or near the CD4 binding site (CD4bs) and with the V3 loop. Additionally, the V3 loop region was found to interact functionally with sequences in the outer domain of gp120, distant from the CD4bs and coreceptor-binding site, as well as with a residue thought to be located centrally in the coreceptor-binding site. These and previous results provide the basis for a model by which functional signals that determine the neutralization resistance, high-infectivity phenotype depend upon interactions occurring across the surface of the gp120 core structure and involving variable loop structures and gp41. This model should be useful in efforts to define epitopes that may be important for primary virus neutralization. PMID:12829845

  17. Core brain networks interactions and cognitive control in internet gaming disorder individuals in late adolescence/early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kai; Qin, Wei; Yu, Dahua; Bi, Yanzhi; Xing, Lihong; Jin, Chenwang; Tian, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Regardless of whether it is conceptualized as a behavioral addiction or an impulse-control disorder, internet gaming disorder (IGD) has been speculated to be associated with impaired cognitive control. Efficient cognitive behavior involves the coordinated activity of large-scale brain networks, however, whether the interactions among these networks during resting state modulated cognitive control behavior in IGD adolescents remain unclear. Twenty-eight IGD adolescents and twenty-five age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls participated in our study. Stroop color-word task was conducted to evaluate the cognitive control deficits in IGD adolescents. Functional connectivity and Granger Causal Analysis were employed to investigate the functional and effective connections within and between the salience, central executive, and default mode networks. Meanwhile, diffusion tensor imaging was used to assess the structural integrity of abnormal network connections. The abnormal functional connectivity within central executive networks and effective connectivity within salience network in IGD adolescents were detected. Moreover, the inefficient interactions between these two brain networks were observed. In addition, we identified reduced fractional anisotropy in salience network, right central executive network tracts, and between-network (the anterior cingulate cortex-right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex tracts) pathways in IGD individuals. Notably, we observed a significant correlation between the effective and structural connection from salience network to central executive network and the number of errors during incongruent condition in Stroop task in both IGD and control subjects. Our results suggested that impaired cognitive control in IGD adolescents is likely to be mediated through the abnormal interactions and structural connection between intrinsic large-scale brain networks. PMID:25573247

  18. Quantum Monte Carlo study of hard-core bosons in a pyrochlore lattice with six-site ring-exchange interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tieman, Catherine; Rousseau, Valery

    Highly frustrated quantum systems on lattices can exhibit a wide variety of phases. In addition to the usual Mott insulating and superfluid phases, these systems can also produce some so-called ``exotic phases'', such as super-solid and valence-bond-solid phases. An example of particularly frustrated lattice is the pyrochlore structure, which is formed by corner-sharing tetrahedrons. Many real materials adopt this structure, for instance the crystal Cd2 Re2O7 , which exhibits superconducting properties. However, the complex structure of these materials combined with the complexity of the dominant interactions that describe them makes their analytical study difficult. Also, approximate methods, such as mean-field theory, fail to give a correct description of these systems. In this work, we report on the first exact quantum Monte Carlo study of a model of hard-core bosons in a pyrochlore lattice with six-site ring-exchange interactions, using the Stochastic Green Function (SGF) algorithm. We analyze the superfluid density and the structure factor as functions of the filling and ring-exchange interaction strength, and we map out the ground state phase diagram.

  19. Determination Strength of Concrete in-Situ by Seismic Ultrasonic Method in Detecting Risky Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyanik, O.; Öziçer, S.; Sabbağ, N.

    2014-12-01

    Strength of concrete is important in the analysis of structures. Strength of concrete can be determined as destructive or non destructive. In order to determine to strength of concrete as destructive, core is taken from concrete parts of the structure and uniaxial compressive strength test is applied in the laboratory. In contrast, strength of concrete can be determined as non destructive in situ by seismic ultrasonic technique. In this study, seismic ultrasonic P wave velocity measurements. Schmidt hammer test in situ and core sampling along with uniaxial compressive test are carried out in order to determine the strength of concrete in existing structures in Bornova district of İzmir. Seismic ultrasonic P wave velocity measurements in situ were also applied on the core. The concrete strength values obtained from techniques applied in study were compared and error values are determined. By seismic ultrasonic P wave velocity measurements with error value %5 strength of concrete is determined quickly without any destruction on structures studied.

  20. Rapid determination of cocamidopropyl betaine impurities in cosmetic products by core-shell hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Perry G; Zhou, Wanlong

    2016-08-26

    Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) is a common surfactant widely used in personal care products. Dimethylaminopropylamine (DMAPA) and lauramidopropyldimethylamine (LAPDMA) are two chemicals present as impurities in CAPB and have been reported as skin sensitizers. A rapid and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method, using a core shell hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) column, has been developed to quantify DMAPA and LAPDMA in cosmetic products. Corresponding stable isotopically labeled analogues of the above native compounds were used as internal standards to compensate for matrix effect and for loss of recovery. Each sample was first screened to determine whether the sample needed to be diluted to minimize matrix effects as well as to fit the calibration range. The concept of matrix effect factor (MEF) was introduced to quantitatively evaluate each sample with a unique matrix using the internal standards. Recoveries at three spiking levels of low, medium, and high concentrations ranged from 98.4 to 112% with RSDs less than 5%. This method has been validated and is the first UHPLC-MS/MS method, which uses core shell HILIC column and stable isotopically labeled internal standards to simultaneously determine these two CAPB impurities in cosmetic products. PMID:27473511

  1. The Quality Evaluation of Concrete Structures with the Ultrasonic Low-Frequency Tomograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smokotin, A.; Bogatyreva, M.; Protasova, I.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the research findings obtained as a result of the ultrasonic nondestructive testing of flaw detection in one-sided access confined concrete. The ultrasonic nondestructive testing is applied to detect the size and location of internal defects in confined concrete that allows the accurate taking cores and their mechanical testing. Tomographic images of the scanned internal structure are given herein as well as the results of compressive strength testing of cores taken from defective portions of the concrete one-sided access construction.

  2. Evolution of the liquid-vapor coexistence of the hard-core Yukawa fluid as a function of the interaction range.

    PubMed

    El Mendoub, E B; Wax, J-F; Jakse, N

    2010-04-28

    The present work is devoted to the study of the liquid-vapor coexistence curve of hard-core Yukawa fluids for range parameter lambda, going from 0.5 to 7 by means of an integral equation approach. Both binodal and spinodal lines are computed and compared to available simulation data, and the integral equation used appears to be accurate. We also compare two methods for determining the coordinates of the critical point. The first one, using the rectilinear diameter law, appears to be less accurate than the second one based on the heat capacity at constant volume. It is found that the critical temperature decreases as the range of the interactions increases and that the liquid-vapor coexistence disappears for lambda greater than 6. PMID:20441284

  3. Light absorption and plasmon - exciton interaction in three-layer nanorods with a gold core and outer shell composed of molecular J- and H-aggregates of dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, B. I.; Tyshkunova, E. S.; Kondorskiy, A. D.; Lebedev, V. S.

    2015-12-01

    Optical properties of hybrid rod-like nanoparticles, consisting of a gold core, an intermediate passive organic layer (spacer) and outer layer of ordered molecular cyanine dye aggregates, are experimentally and theoretically investigated. It is shown that these dyes can form not only ordered J-aggregates but also H-aggregates (differing by the packing angle of dye molecules in an aggregate and having other spectral characteristics) in the outer shell of the hybrid nanostructure. Absorption spectra of synthesised three-layer nanorods are recorded, and their sizes are determined. The optical properties of the composite nanostructures under study are found to differ significantly, depending on the type of the molecular aggregate formed in the outer shell. The experimental data are quantitatively explained based on computer simulation using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, and characteristic features of the plasmon - exciton interaction in the systems under study are revealed.

  4. Supercontinuum generation in the vacuum ultraviolet through dispersive-wave and soliton-plasma interaction in a noble-gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermolov, A.; Mak, K. F.; Frosz, M. H.; Travers, J. C.; Russell, P. St. J.

    2015-09-01

    We report on the generation of a three-octave-wide supercontinuum extending from the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) to the near infrared, spanning at least 113-1000 nm (i.e., 11 -1.2 eV ), in He-filled hollow-core kagome-style photonic crystal fiber. Numerical simulations confirm that the main mechanism is an interaction between dispersive-wave emission and plasma-induced blue-shifted soliton recompression around the fiber zero dispersion frequency. The VUV part of the supercontinuum, the modeling of which proves to be coherent and possesses a simple phase structure, has sufficient bandwidth to support single-cycle pulses of 500 asec duration. We also demonstrate, in the same system, the generation of narrower-band VUV pulses through dispersive-wave emission, tunable from 120 to 200 nm with efficiencies exceeding 1 % and VUV pulse energies in excess of 50 nJ.

  5. Core Formation And Gravothermal Collapse Of Self-interacting Dark Matter Halos: Monte Carlo N-body simulation versus Conducting Fluid Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koda, Jun; Shapiro, P. R.

    2007-12-01

    Self-interacting dark matter (SIDM) has been proposed to solve the cuspy core problem of dark matter halos in standard CDM. There are two ways to investigate the effect of the 2-body, non-gravitational, elastic collisions of SIDM, Monte-Carlo N-body simulation and a conducting fluid model. The former is a gravitational N-body simulation with a Monte Carlo algorithm for the SIDM scattering that changes the direction of N-body particles randomly according to a given scattering cross section. The latter is a system of fluid conservation equations with a thermal conduction that describes the collisional effect, which was originally invented to describe the gravothermal collapse of globular clusters. Our previous work found a significant disagreement as regards the strength of collisionality required to solve cuspy core problem. However the two methods have not been properly tested against each other. Here, we make direct comparisons between Monte Carlo N-body simulations and analytic and numerical solutions of the conducting fluid (gaseous) model, for various isolated self-interacting dark matter halos. The N-body simulations reproduce the analytical self-similar solution of gravothermal collapse in the fluid model when one free parameter, the coefficient of heat conduction C, is chosen to be 0.75. The gravothermal collapse results of the simulations agrees well with our 1D numerical hydro solutions of the fluid model within 20% for other initial conditions, including Plummer model, Hernquist profile and NFW profile. In conclusion the conducting fluid model is in reasonably good agreement with the Monte Carlo simulations for isolated halos. We will pursue the origin of the reported disagreement between two methods in a cosmological environment by comparing new N-body simulations with fully cosmological initial conditions.

  6. Application of microorganisms in concrete: a promising sustainable strategy to improve concrete durability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianyun; Ersan, Yusuf Cagatay; Boon, Nico; De Belie, Nele

    2016-04-01

    The beneficial effect of microbially induced carbonate precipitation on building materials has been gradually disclosed in the last decade. After the first applications of on historical stones, promising results were obtained with the respect of improved durability. An extensive study then followed on the application of this environmentally friendly and compatible material on a currently widely used construction material, concrete. This review is focused on the discussion of the impact of the two main applications, bacterial surface treatment and bacteria based crack repair, on concrete durability. Special attention was paid to the choice of suitable bacteria and the metabolic pathway aiming at their functionality in concrete environment. Interactions between bacterial cells and cementitious matrix were also elaborated. Furthermore, recommendations to improve the effectiveness of bacterial treatment are provided. Limitations of current studies, updated applications and future application perspectives are shortly outlined. PMID:26896159

  7. Studying the outflow-core interaction with ALMA Cycle 1 observations of the HH 46/47 molecular outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yichen; Arce, Hector G.; Mardones, Diego; Dunham, Michael; Garay, Guido; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Corder, Stuartt; Offner, Stella; Cabrit, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA Cycle 1 observations of the HH 46/47 molecular outflow which is driven by a low-mass Class 0/I protostar. Previous ALMA Cycle 0 12CO observation showed outflow cavities produced by the entrainment of ambient gas by the protostellar jet and wide-angle wind. Here we present analysis of observation of 12CO, 13CO, C18O and other species using combined 12m array and ACA observations. The improved angular resolution and sensitivity allow us to detect details of the outflow structure. Specially, we see that the outflow cavity wall is composed of two or more layers of outflowing gas, which separately connect to different shocked regions along the outflow axis inside the cavity, suggesting the outflow cavity wall is composed of multiple shells entrained by a series of jet bow-shock events. The new 13CO and C18O data also allow us to trace relatively denser and slower outflow material than that traced by the 12CO. These species are only detected within about 1 to 2 km/s from the cloud velocity, tracing the outflow to lower velocities than what is possible using only the 12CO emission. Interestingly, the cavity wall of the red lobe appears at very low outflow velocities (as low as ~0.2 km/s). In addition, 13CO and C18O allow us to correct for the CO optical depth, allowing us to obtain more accurate estimates of the outflow mass, momentum and kinetic energy. Applying the optical depth correction significantly increases the previous mass estimate by a factor of 14. The outflow kinetic energy distribution shows that even though the red lobe is mainly entrained by jet bow-shocks, most of the outflow energy is being deposited into the cloud at the base of the outflow cavity rather than around the heads of the bow shocks. The estimated total mass, momentum, and energy of the outflow indicate that the outflow has the ability to disperse the parent core. We found possible evidence for a slowly moving rotating outflow in CS. Our 13CO and C18O observations also trace a

  8. Composition, Alteration, and Texture of Fault-Related Rocks from Safod Core and Surface Outcrop Analogs: Evidence for Deformation Processes and Fluid-Rock Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradbury, Kelly K.; Davis, Colter R.; Shervais, John W.; Janecke, Susanne U.; Evans, James P.

    2015-05-01

    We examine the fine-scale variations in mineralogical composition, geochemical alteration, and texture of the fault-related rocks from the Phase 3 whole-rock core sampled between 3,187.4 and 3,301.4 m measured depth within the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) borehole near Parkfield, California. This work provides insight into the physical and chemical properties, structural architecture, and fluid-rock interactions associated with the actively deforming traces of the San Andreas Fault zone at depth. Exhumed outcrops within the SAF system comprised of serpentinite-bearing protolith are examined for comparison at San Simeon, Goat Rock State Park, and Nelson Creek, California. In the Phase 3 SAFOD drillcore samples, the fault-related rocks consist of multiple juxtaposed lenses of sheared, foliated siltstone and shale with block-in-matrix fabric, black cataclasite to ultracataclasite, and sheared serpentinite-bearing, finely foliated fault gouge. Meters-wide zones of sheared rock and fault gouge correlate to the sites of active borehole casing deformation and are characterized by scaly clay fabric with multiple discrete slip surfaces or anastomosing shear zones that surround conglobulated or rounded clasts of compacted clay and/or serpentinite. The fine gouge matrix is composed of Mg-rich clays and serpentine minerals (saponite ± palygorskite, and lizardite ± chrysotile). Whole-rock geochemistry data show increases in Fe-, Mg-, Ni-, and Cr-oxides and hydroxides, Fe-sulfides, and C-rich material, with a total organic content of >1 % locally in the fault-related rocks. The faults sampled in the field are composed of meters-thick zones of cohesive to non-cohesive, serpentinite-bearing foliated clay gouge and black fine-grained fault rock derived from sheared Franciscan Formation or serpentinized Coast Range Ophiolite. X-ray diffraction of outcrop samples shows that the foliated clay gouge is composed primarily of saponite and serpentinite, with localized

  9. Activities in support of continuing the service of nuclear power plant concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, Dan J

    2012-01-01

    In general, nuclear power plant concrete structure s performance has been very good; however, aging of concrete structures occurs with the passage of time that can potentially result in degradation if is effects are not controlled. Safety-related nuclear power plant concrete structures are described. In-service inspection and testing requirements in the U.S. are summarized. The interaction of the license renewal process and concrete structures is noted. A summary of operating experience related to aging of nuclear power plant concrete structures is provided. Several candidate areas are identified where additional research would be beneficial for aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures. Finally, an update on recent activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory related to aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures is provided.

  10. The CR3 motif of Rrp44p is important for interaction with the core exosome and exosome function.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Daneen; Reis, Filipa Pereira; Johnson, Sean J; Arraiano, Cecília Maria; van Hoof, Ambro

    2012-10-01

    The 10-subunit RNA exosome is involved in a large number of diverse RNA processing and degradation events in eukaryotes. These reactions are carried out by the single catalytic subunit, Rrp44p/Dis3p, which is composed of three parts that are conserved throughout eukaryotes. The exosome is named for the 3' to 5' exoribonuclease activity provided by a large C-terminal region of the Rrp44p subunit that resembles other exoribonucleases. Rrp44p also contains an endoribonuclease domain. Finally, the very N-terminus of Rrp44p contains three Cys residues (CR3 motif) that are conserved in many eukaryotes but have no known function. These three conserved Cys residues cluster with a previously unrecognized conserved His residue in what resembles a metal-ion-binding site. Genetic and biochemical data show that this CR3 motif affects both endo- and exonuclease activity in vivo and both the nuclear and cytoplasmic exosome, as well as the ability of Rrp44p to associate with the other exosome subunits. These data provide the first direct evidence that the exosome-Rrp44p interaction is functionally important and also provides a molecular explanation for the functional defects when the conserved Cys residues are mutated. PMID:22833611

  11. Micro-patterns of Au@SiO 2 core-shell nanoparticles formed by electrostatic interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Youli; Chen, Miao; Liang, Shan; Yang, Wu; Zhao, Jing

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, silica-coated Au nanoparticles (Au@SiO 2) were prepared by the technique of vortex mixing. Subsequently, these monodisperse Au@SiO 2 nanoparticles were functionalized by the silane reagents 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS) and 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane (MPTS) respectively. Then, these NH 2-terminated and SO 32--terminated Au@SiO 2 nanoparticles were respectively assembled onto the substrates, which have been patterned with different self-assembly monolayers (SAMs), to form close-packed two-dimensional Au@SiO 2 nanoparticle arrays by electrostatic interactions. The morphologies and the optical properties of Au@SiO 2 nanoparticles with different silica-shell thicknesses were characterized by TEM and UV-vis. The compositions and zeta potentials of the functionalized Au@SiO 2 nanoparticles were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The morphologies of the patterns formed on different templates were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  12. Penetration of concrete targets

    SciTech Connect

    Forrestal, M.J.; Cargile, J.D.; Tzou, R.D.Y.

    1993-08-01

    We developed penetration equations for ogive-nosed projectiles that penetrated concrete targets after normal impact. Our penetration equations predict axial force on the projectile nose, rigid-body motion, and final penetration depth. For target constitutive models, we conducted triaxial material experiments to confining pressures of 600 MPa and curve-fit these data with a linear pressure-volumetric strain relation and with a linear Mohr-Coulomb, shear strength-pressure relation. To verify our penetration equations, we conducted eleven penetration experiments with 0.90 kg, 26.9-mm-diameter, ogive-nosed projectiles into 1.37-m-diameter concrete targets with unconfined compressive strengths between 32-40 MPa. Predictions from our penetration equation are compared with final penetration depth measurements for striking velocities between 280--800 m/s.

  13. Micro Environmental Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanez, M.; Oudjit, M. N.; Zenati, A.; Arroudj, K.; Bali, A.

    Reactive powder concretes (RPC) are characterized by a particle diameter not exceeding 600 μm and having very high compressive and tensile strengths. This paper describes a new generation of micro concrete, which has an initial as well as a final high physicomechanical performance. To achieve this, 15% by weight of the Portland cement have been substituted by materials rich in Silica (Slag and Dune Sand). The results obtained from the tests carried out on the RPC show that compressive and tensile strengths increase when incorporating the addition, thus improving the compactness of mixtures through filler and pozzolanic effects. With a reduction in the aggregate phase in the RPC and the abundance of the dune sand (southern of Algeria) and slag (industrial by-product of the blast furnace), the use of the RPC will allow Algeria to fulfil economical as well as ecological requirements.

  14. Concrete lunar base investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. D.; Senseney, Jonathan A.; Arp, Larry Dean; Lindbergh, Charles

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents results of structural analyses and a preliminary design of a precast, prestressed concrete lunar based subjected to one atmosphere internal pressure. The proposed infrastructure measures 120 ft in diameter and 72 ft in height, providing 33,000 sq ft of work area for scientific and industrial operations. Three loading conditions were considered in the design: (1) during construction; (2) under pressurization; and (3) during an air-leak scenario. A floating foundation, capable of rigid body rotation and translation as the lunar soil beneath it yields, was developed to support the infrastructure and to ensure the air-tightness of the system. Results reveal that it is feasible to use precast, prestressed concrete for construction of large lunar bases on the moon.

  15. Concrete lunar base investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. D.; Senseny, Jonathan A.; Arp, Larry D.; Lindbergh, Charles

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents results of structural analyses and a preliminary design of a precast, prestressed concrete lunar base subjected to 1-atm internal pressure. The proposed infrastructure measures 120 ft in diameter and 72 ft in height, providing 33,000 sq ft of work area for scientific and industrial operations. Three loading conditions were considered in the design (1) during construction, (2) under pressurization, and (3) during an air-leak scenario. A floating foundation, capable of rigid body rotation and translation as the lunar soil beneath it yields, was developed to support the infrastructure and to ensure the airtightness of the system. Results reveal that it is feasible to use precast, prestressed concrete for construction of large lunar bases on the Moon.

  16. Composite Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Spang & Company's new configuration of converter transformer cores is a composite of gapped and ungapped cores assembled together in concentric relationship. The net effect of the composite design is to combine the protection from saturation offered by the gapped core with the lower magnetizing requirement of the ungapped core. The uncut core functions under normal operating conditions and the cut core takes over during abnormal operation to prevent power surges and their potentially destructive effect on transistors. Principal customers are aerospace and defense manufacturers. Cores also have applicability in commercial products where precise power regulation is required, as in the power supplies for large mainframe computers.

  17. Experimental and theoretical study of delayed ettringite damage in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, Elsaid Osman

    2000-12-01

    An experimental study is conducted to investigate the effect of a range of parameters on concrete expansion and premature deterioration associated with delayed ettringite formation (DEF). These parameters were identified from a comprehensive literature review; they include concrete curing conditions and cement chemistry. Specifically, the study investigated the effect of potassium and magnesium contents as well as the effect of water and steam curing conditions on concrete damage associated with DEF. An accelerated test method for DEF was evaluated and modifications are suggested. Concrete specimens were prepared with varying amounts of potassium and magnesium and subjected to different curing conditions. To accelerate any potential expansion, a beat cycle was employed. The change in length of the specimens was monitored for the duration of the study. Specimens were analyzed using the scanning electron microscope, x-ray dispersive analysis, and x-ray diffraction to determine the mechanism responsible for deterioration. Computed tomography x-ray was also employed as a non-destructive method for examining the internal crack patterns associated with expansion. The expansion data is fitted using the Kohnogorov-Avrami-Johenson-Mehl (KAJM) equation. This theory makes it possible to identify individual expansion processes and to identify the contribution of different expansion mechanisms. All concretes showed expansion following the beat cycle. Subjecting concrete to the heat cycle has a primary role in accelerating expansion. The age at which concrete is subjected to the beat cycle as well as the sample dimensions have a profound effect on the resulting expansion. The use of the concrete prisms as suggested in the modified test method offers a better alternative to cores suggested by Duggan. Increasing the potassium content has a deleterious effect on concrete expansion and premature deterioration and is also associated with dramatic reduction in compressive strength

  18. Structural analysis of sigma E interactions with core RNA polymerase and its cognate P-hsp20 promoter of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aayatti Mallick; Pal, Purab; Mandal, Sukhendu

    2016-04-01

    Alternate sigma factor plays an important role for the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in adverse environmental condition. Stress-induced sigma factors are major cause for expression of genes involved in pathogenesis, dormancy and various unusual environmental conditions. In the present work, an attempt has been made to characterize one of such M. tuberculosis (Mtb) sigma factor, SigE. The structures of Mtb-SigE and Mtb-β have been predicted using comparative modelling techniques and validated. Effort has also been implied to understand the nature of interaction of SigE with the core RNA polymerase subunits which have well identified the amino acid residues in the binding interface and prompted the fact that Mtb-β' and Mtb-β interact with domain 2 and domain 4 of Mtb-SigE, respectively. Furthermore, intermolecular docking study predicted the interface between the Mtb-SigE and its putative promoter P-hsp20. The report confers the probable amino acid residues and the nitrogenous bases involved in the recognition of P-hsp20 by the sigma factor to initiate the transcription process. PMID:26006066

  19. Mn2+-Doped CdSe/CdS Core/Multishell Colloidal Quantum Wells Enabling Tunable Carrier-Dopant Exchange Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delikanli, Savas; Scrace, Thomas; Murphy, Joseph; Barman, Biblop; Tsai, Yutsung; Zhang, Peiyao; Hernandez-Martinez, Pedro Ludwig; Christodoulides, Joseph; Cartwright, Alexander N.; Petrou, Athos; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    We report the manifestations of carrier-dopant exchange interactions in colloidal Mn2+-doped CdSe/CdS core/multishell quantum wells. In our solution-processed quantum well heterostructures, Mn2+ was incorporated by growing a Cd0.985Mn0:015S monolayer shell on undoped CdSe nanoplatelets using the colloidal atomic layer deposition technique. The carrier-magnetic ion exchange interaction effects are tunable through wave function engineering. This is realized by controlling the spatial overlap between the carrier wave functions with the manganese ions through adjusting the location, composition, and number of the CdSe, Cd1-xMnxS, and CdS layers. Our colloidal quantum wells, which exhibit magneto-optical properties analogous to those of epitaxially grown quantum wells, offer new opportunities for solution-processed spin-based semiconductor devices. H.V.D. acknowledges support from EU-FP7 Nanophotonics4Energy NoE, TUBITAK, NRF-CRP-6-2010-02 and A*STAR of Singapore. Work at the University at Buffalo was supported by NSF DMR 1305770.

  20. Constitutive Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Frp Confined Concrete Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smitha, Gopinath; Ramachandramurthy, Avadhanam; Nagesh, Ranganatha Iyer; Shahulhameed, Eduvammal Kunhimoideen

    2014-09-01

    Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are generally used for the seismic retrofit of concrete members to enhance their strength and ductility. In the present work, the confining effect of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) composite layers has been investigated by numerical simulation. The numerical simulation has been carried out using nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) to predict the response behaviour of CFRP-wrapped concrete cylinders. The nonlinear behaviour of concrete in compression and the linear elastic behaviour of CFRP has been modeled using an appropriate constitutive relationship. A cohesive model has been developed for modeling the interface between the concrete and CFRP. The interaction and damage failure criteria between the concrete to the cohesive element and the cohesive element to the CFRP has also been accounted for in the modeling. The response behaviour of the wrapped concrete specimen has been compared with the proposed interface model and with a perfectly bonded condition. The results obtained from the present study showed good agreement with the experimental load-displacement response and the failure pattern in the literature. Further, a sensitivity analysis has been carried out to study the effect of the number of layers of CFRP on the concrete specimens. It has been observed that wrapping with two layers was found to be the optimum, beyond which the response becomes flexible but with a higher load-carrying capacity

  1. Chlorine signal attenuation in concrete.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, A A; Maslehuddin, M; ur-Rehman, Khateeb; Al-Amoudi, O S B

    2015-11-01

    The intensity of prompt gamma-ray was measured at various depths from chlorine-contaminated silica fume (SF) concrete slab concrete specimens using portable neutron generator-based prompt gamma-ray setup. The intensity of 6.11MeV chloride gamma-rays was measured from the chloride contaminated slab at distance of 15.25, 20.25, 25.25, 30.25 and 35.25cm from neutron target in a SF cement concrete slab specimens. Due to attenuation of thermal neutron flux and emitted gamma-ray intensity in SF cement concrete at various depths, the measured intensity of chlorine gamma-rays decreases non-linearly with increasing depth in concrete. A good agreement was noted between the experimental results and the results of Monte Carlo simulation. This study has provided useful experimental data for evaluating the chloride contamination in the SF concrete utilizing gamma-ray attenuation method. PMID:26218450

  2. Modeling of fracture of protective concrete structures under impact loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radchenko, P. A.; Batuev, S. P.; Radchenko, A. V.; Plevkov, V. S.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents results of numerical simulation of interaction between a Boeing 747-400 aircraft and the protective shell of a nuclear power plant. The shell is presented as a complex multilayered cellular structure consisting of layers of concrete and fiber concrete bonded with steel trusses. Numerical simulation was performed three-dimensionally using the original algorithm and software taking into account algorithms for building grids of complex geometric objects and parallel computations. Dynamics of the stress-strain state and fracture of the structure were studied. Destruction is described using a two-stage model that allows taking into account anisotropy of elastic and strength properties of concrete and fiber concrete. It is shown that wave processes initiate destruction of the cellular shell structure; cells start to destruct in an unloading wave originating after the compression wave arrival at free cell surfaces.

  3. Modeling of fracture of protective concrete structures under impact loads

    SciTech Connect

    Radchenko, P. A. Batuev, S. P.; Radchenko, A. V.; Plevkov, V. S.

    2015-10-27

    This paper presents results of numerical simulation of interaction between a Boeing 747-400 aircraft and the protective shell of a nuclear power plant. The shell is presented as a complex multilayered cellular structure consisting of layers of concrete and fiber concrete bonded with steel trusses. Numerical simulation was performed three-dimensionally using the original algorithm and software taking into account algorithms for building grids of complex geometric objects and parallel computations. Dynamics of the stress-strain state and fracture of the structure were studied. Destruction is described using a two-stage model that allows taking into account anisotropy of elastic and strength properties of concrete and fiber concrete. It is shown that wave processes initiate destruction of the cellular shell structure; cells start to destruct in an unloading wave originating after the compression wave arrival at free cell surfaces.

  4. Prolong the life of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Ilaria, J.E.

    1995-07-01

    The most widely used construction materials are concrete and related cement-based products, such as common building block. The excellent reputation of concrete as a durable material of construction has been questioned i modern times. The expanded use of Portland cement concrete, the increase in corrosive environments, and lack of understanding of the composition of concrete all indicate a need for methods to increase life expectancy. Chemical and mechanical factors can shorten service life. Understanding these properties will lead to the proper application of protective coatings.

  5. Microwave NDE for Reinforced Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunachalam, Kavitha; Melapudi, Vikram R.; Rothwell, Edward J.; Udpa, Lalita; Udpa, Satish S.

    2006-03-01

    Nondestructive assessment of the integrity of civil structures is of paramount importance for ensuring safety. In concrete imaging, radiography, ground penetrating radar and infrared thermography are some of the widely used techniques for health monitoring. Other emerging technologies that are gaining impetus for detecting and locating flaws in steel reinforcement bar include radioactive computed tomography, microwave holography, microwave and acoustic tomography. Of all the emerging techniques, microwave NDT is a promising imaging modality largely due to their ability to penetrate thick concrete structures, contrast between steel rebar and concrete and their non-radioactive nature. This paper investigates the feasibility of a far field microwave NDE technique for reinforced concrete structures.

  6. Panel zone behavior of moment connections between rectangular concrete-filled steel tubes and wide flange beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koester, Bradley Donald

    2000-10-01

    During the 1990s, guidelines for the detailing of composite joints for seismic safety have been proposed and adopted. Such guidelines were based on the testing of composite joint subassemblies under cyclic loads. The role of the confined concrete core in composite joints has been documented and quantified for systems using steel shapes encased in concrete, as well as for other mixtures of reinforced concrete and structural steel. The need to understand the role of the concrete core in moment connections utilizing concrete-fined tube (CFT) columns still exists. In this research program, the split-tee through-bolted moment connection between wide-flange steel beams and concrete-filled tubes was studied. The aim of the study was to understand the role of the confined concrete core in transferring forces through the joint. Fifteen half-scale panel-zone specimens were designed and tested to model the shear behavior of the split-tee connection. Following an analysis of the results of the panel-zone tests, six fun-scale moment connections were designed and tested. Variables studied were: concrete compressive strength, the b/t ratio (slenderness) of the steel tube walls, and the split-tee contact area against the steel tube. Following an analysis of the test data, design criteria for the concrete contribution to the joint strength are presented, and recommendations are made for the inclusion of CFT systems in the design recommendations for composite joints. Suggestions are made for further research.

  7. Rabphilin and Noc2 are recruited to dense-core vesicles through specific interaction with Rab27A in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Mitsunori; Kanno, Eiko; Yamamoto, Akitsugu

    2004-03-26

    Rabphilin and Noc2 were originally described as Rab3A effector proteins involved in the regulation of secretory vesicle exocytosis, however, recently both proteins have been shown to bind Rab27A in vitro in preference to Rab3A (Fukuda, M. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 15373-15380), suggesting that Rab3A is not their major ligand in vivo. In the present study we showed by means of deletion and mutation analyses that rabphilin and Noc2 are recruited to dense-core vesicles through specific interaction with Rab27A, not with Rab3A, in PC12 cells. Rab3A binding-defective mutants of rabphilin(E50A) and Noc2(E51A) were still localized in the distal portion of the neurites (where dense-core vesicles had accumulated) in nerve growth factor-differentiated PC12 cells, the same as the wild-type proteins, whereas Rab27A binding-defective mutants of rabphilin(E50A/I54A) and Noc2(E51A/I55A) were present throughout the cytosol. We further showed that expression of the wild-type or the E50A mutant of rabphilin-RBD, but not the E50A/I54A mutant of rabphilin-RBD, significantly inhibited high KCl-dependent neuropeptide Y secretion by PC12 cells. We also found that rabphilin and its binding partner, Rab27 have been highly conserved during evolution (from nematoda to humans) and that Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila rabphilin (ce/dm-rabphilin) specifically interact with ce/dm-Rab27, but not with ce/dm-Rab3 or ce/dm-Rab8, suggesting that rabphilin functions as a Rab27 effector across phylogeny. Based on these findings, we propose that the N-terminal Rab binding domain of rabphilin and Noc2 be referred to as "RBD27 (Rab binding domain for Rab27)", the same as the synaptotagmin-like protein homology domain (SHD) of Slac2-a/melanophilin. PMID:14722103

  8. Numerical simulation of deformation and fracture of space protective shell structures from concrete and fiber concrete under pulse loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radchenko, P. A.; Batuev, S. P.; Radchenko, A. V.; Plevkov, V. S.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents results of numerical simulation of interaction between aircraft Boeing 747-400 and protective shell of nuclear power plant. The shell is presented as complex multilayered cellular structure comprising layers of concrete and fiber concrete bonded with steel trusses. Numerical simulation was held three-dimensionally using the author's algorithm and software taking into account algorithms for building grids of complex geometric objects and parallel computations. The dynamics of stress-strain state and fracture of structure were studied. Destruction is described using two-stage model that allows taking into account anisotropy of elastic and strength properties of concrete and fiber concrete. It is shown that wave processes initiate destruction of shell cellular structure—cells start to destruct in unloading wave, originating after output of compression wave to the free surfaces of cells.

  9. Concrete Mixing Methods and Concrete Mixers: State of the Art.

    PubMed

    Ferraris, C F

    2001-01-01

    As for all materials, the performance of concrete is determined by its microstructure. Its microstructure is determined by its composition, its curing conditions, and also by the mixing method and mixer conditions used to process the concrete. This paper gives an overview of the various types of mixing methods and concrete mixers commercially available used by the concrete industry. There are two main types of mixers used: batch mixers and continuous mixers. Batch mixers are the most common. To determine the mixing method best suited for a specific application, factors to be considered include: location of the construction site (distance from the batching plant), the amount of concrete needed, the construction schedule (volume of concrete needed per hour), and the cost. Ultimately, the quality of the concrete produced determines its performance after placement. An important measure of the quality is the homogeneity of the material after mixing. This paper will review mixing methods in regards to the quality of the concrete produced. Some procedures used to determine the effectiveness of the mixing will be examined. PMID:27500029

  10. Concrete Mixing Methods and Concrete Mixers: State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Ferraris, Chiara F.

    2001-01-01

    As for all materials, the performance of concrete is determined by its microstructure. Its microstructure is determined by its composition, its curing conditions, and also by the mixing method and mixer conditions used to process the concrete. This paper gives an overview of the various types of mixing methods and concrete mixers commercially available used by the concrete industry. There are two main types of mixers used: batch mixers and continuous mixers. Batch mixers are the most common. To determine the mixing method best suited for a specific application, factors to be considered include: location of the construction site (distance from the batching plant), the amount of concrete needed, the construction schedule (volume of concrete needed per hour), and the cost. Ultimately, the quality of the concrete produced determines its performance after placement. An important measure of the quality is the homogeneity of the material after mixing. This paper will review mixing methods in regards to the quality of the concrete produced. Some procedures used to determine the effectiveness of the mixing will be examined.

  11. Characterization and radionuclide retention properties of heat-treated concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienzler, B.; Borkel, C.; Finck, N.; Heck, S.; Hilpp, S.; Schlieker, M.; Metz, V.; Plaschke, M.; Soballa, E.; Cron, T.; Miassoedov, A.

    This study was performed to obtain insight into the characteristics of contaminated cementitious materials which may result from a light water reactor core melt down accident. Such material arose in a huge amount from the Fukushima disaster. We analyzed the elemental and mineralogical composition of similar, heat-treated material and investigated its radionuclide retention properties. We present the radionuclide retention properties of concrete samples which originally were part of an experiment using a thick-walled concrete recipient that had been heated by simulating a reactor melt down. Batch sorption experiments have been performed with the elements Cs(I), Co(II), and Eu(III) in seawater under aerobic conditions. Sorption coefficients were measured: Rs(Eu) ∼5800 ml g-1 and Rs(Co) ∼110 ml g-1. A tentative value for Cs was determined, adulterated by the relatively high release of Cs from the concrete itself.

  12. Characterization of basin concrete in support of structural integrity demonstration for extended storage

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, A.

    2014-09-30

    Concrete core samples from C basin were characterized through material testing and analysis to verify the design inputs for structural analysis of the L Basin and to evaluate the type and extent of changes in the material condition of the concrete under extended service for fuel storage. To avoid the impact on operations, core samples were not collected from L area, but rather, several concrete core samples were taken from the C Basin prior to its closure. C basin was selected due to its similar environmental exposure and service history compared to L Basin. The microstructure and chemical composition of the concrete exposed to the water was profiled from the water surface into the wall to evaluate the impact and extent of exposure. No significant leaching of concrete components was observed. Ingress of carbonation or deleterious species was determined to be insignificant. No evidence of alkali-silica reactions (ASR) was observed. Ettringite was observed to form throughout the structure (in air voids or pores); however, the sulfur content was measured to be consistent with the initial concrete that was used to construct the facility. Similar ettringite trends were observed in the interior segments of the core samples. The compressive strength of the concrete at the mid-wall of the basin was measured, and similar microstructural analysis was conducted on these materials post compression testing. The microstructure was determined to be similar to near-surface segments of the core samples. The average strength was 4148 psi, which is well-above the design strength of 2500 psi. The analyses showed that phase alterations and minor cracking in a microstructure did not affect the design specification for the concrete.

  13. BUILDING MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION USING A CONCRETE FLOOR AND WALL CONTAMINATION PROFILING TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Aggarwal, Dr. S.,; Charters, G.; Thacker, Dr. D.

    2003-02-27

    Certain radioisotopes can penetrate concrete and contaminate the concrete well below the surface. The challenge is to determine the extent and magnitude of the contamination problem in real-time. The concrete profiling technology, TRUPROSM in conjunction with portable radiometric instrumentation produces a profile of radiological or chemical contamination through the material being studied. The data quality, quantity, and representativeness may be used to produce an activity profile from the hot spot surface into the material being sampled. This activity profile may then be expanded to ultimately characterize the facility and expedite waste segregation and facility closure at a reduced cost and risk. Performing a volumetric concrete or metal characterization safer and faster (without lab intervention) is the objective of this characterization technology. This way of determining contamination can save considerable time and money. Currently, concrete core bores are shipped to certified laboratories where the concrete residue is run through a battery of tests to determine the contaminants. The existing core boring operation volatilizes or washes out some of the contaminants (like tritium) and oftentimes cross-contaminates the area around the core bore site. The volatilization of the contaminants can lead to airborne problems in the immediate vicinity of the core bore. Cross-contamination can increase the contamination area and thereby increase the amount of waste generated. The goal is to avoid those field activities that could cause this type of release.

  14. Synthesis, crystal structure and interaction of L-valine Schiff base divanadium(V) complex containing a V2O3 core with DNA and BSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Qiong; Li, Lianzhi; Dong, Jianfang; Liu, Hongyan; Xu, Tao; Li, Jinghong

    2013-04-01

    A divanadium(V) complex, [V2O3(o-van-val)2] (o-van-val = Schiff base derived from o-vanillin and L-valine), has been synthesized and structurally characterized. The crystal structure shows that both of the vanadium centers in the complex have a distorted octahedral coordination environment composed of tridentate Schiff base ligand. A V2O3 core in molecular structure adopts intermediate between cis and trans configuration with the O1dbnd V1⋯V1Adbnd O1A torsion angle 115.22 (28)° and the V1⋯V1A distance 3.455 Å. The binding properties of the complex with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) have been investigated by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence, CD spectra and viscosity measurement. The results indicate that the complex binds to CT-DNA in non-classical intercalative mode. Meanwhile, the interaction of the complex with bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been studied by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence and CD spectra. Results indicated that the complex can markedly quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA via a static quenching process, and cause its conformational change. The calculated apparent binding constant Kb was 1.05 × 106 M-1 and the binding site number n was 1.18.

  15. Solar Interacting Protons Versus Interplanetary Protons in the Core Plus Halo Model of Diffusive Shock Acceleration and Stochastic Re-acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocharov, L.; Laitinen, T.; Vainio, R.; Afanasiev, A.; Mursula, K.; Ryan, J. M.

    2015-06-01

    With the first observations of solar γ-rays from the decay of pions, the relationship of protons producing ground level enhancements (GLEs) on the Earth to those of similar energies producing the γ-rays on the Sun has been debated. These two populations may be either independent and simply coincident in large flares, or they may be, in fact, the same population stemming from a single accelerating agent and jointly distributed at the Sun and also in space. Assuming the latter, we model a scenario in which particles are accelerated near the Sun in a shock wave with a fraction transported back to the solar surface to radiate, while the remainder is detected at Earth in the form of a GLE. Interplanetary ions versus ions interacting at the Sun are studied for a spherical shock wave propagating in a radial magnetic field through a highly turbulent radial ray (the acceleration core) and surrounding weakly turbulent sector in which the accelerated particles can propagate toward or away from the Sun. The model presented here accounts for both the first-order Fermi acceleration at the shock front and the second-order, stochastic re-acceleration by the turbulence enhanced behind the shock. We find that the re-acceleration is important in generating the γ-radiation and we also find that up to 10% of the particle population can find its way to the Sun as compared to particles escaping to the interplanetary space.

  16. Labeling of the pathogenic bacterium Staphylococcus aureus with gold or ferric oxide-core nanoparticles highlights new capabilities for investigation of host-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Depke, Maren; Surmann, Kristin; Hildebrandt, Petra; Jehmlich, Nico; Michalik, Stephan; Stanca, Sarmiza E; Fritzsche, Wolfgang; Völker, Uwe; Schmidt, Frank

    2014-02-01

    Throughout the world, infections caused by bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In order to gain some understanding of the complicated physiological link between host and pathogen, modern techniques such as confocal microscopy and sophisticated OMICs technologies are suitable. However, labeling of pathogens such as S. aureus with green fluorescent protein, for example, or the generation of a reliable antibody, which are prerequisites for the application of reproducible isolation techniques, does not always succeed. Here, we present a universal approach for monitoring pathogen traffic after internalization into host cells by fluorescence microscopy and for isolation of bacteria from host-pathogen interaction assays using gold or ferric oxide-core, poly(vinyl alcohol) coated, and fluorescence-labeled nanoparticles (NP). The incubation of S. aureus HG001 with those NP had only minor effects on the bacterial growth in vitro. Quantitative proteome analysis after 24 h of NP incubation revealed that presence of NP provoked only marginal changes in the proteome pattern. The method presented enabled us to investigate the behavior of S. aureus HG001 during infection of S9 human epithelial cells by means of fluorescence microscopy and proteomics using magnetic separation or cell sorting. PMID:24347542

  17. Protein import channel of the outer mitochondrial membrane: a highly stable Tom40-Tom22 core structure differentially interacts with preproteins, small tom proteins, and import receptors.

    PubMed

    Meisinger, C; Ryan, M T; Hill, K; Model, K; Lim, J H; Sickmann, A; Müller, H; Meyer, H E; Wagner, R; Pfanner, N

    2001-04-01

    The preprotein translocase of the yeast mitochondrial outer membrane (TOM) consists of the initial import receptors Tom70 and Tom20 and a approximately 400-kDa (400 K) general import pore (GIP) complex that includes the central receptor Tom22, the channel Tom40, and the three small Tom proteins Tom7, Tom6, and Tom5. We report that the GIP complex is a highly stable complex with an unusual resistance to urea and alkaline pH. Under mild conditions for mitochondrial lysis, the receptor Tom20, but not Tom70, is quantitatively associated with the GIP complex, forming a 500K to 600K TOM complex. A preprotein, stably arrested in the GIP complex, is released by urea but not high salt, indicating that ionic interactions are not essential for keeping the preprotein in the GIP complex. Under more stringent detergent conditions, however, Tom20 and all three small Tom proteins are released, while the preprotein remains in the GIP complex. Moreover, purified outer membrane vesicles devoid of translocase components of the intermembrane space and inner membrane efficiently accumulate the preprotein in the GIP complex. Together, Tom40 and Tom22 thus represent the functional core unit that stably holds accumulated preproteins. The GIP complex isolated from outer membranes exhibits characteristic TOM channel activity with two coupled conductance states, each corresponding to the activity of purified Tom40, suggesting that the complex contains two simultaneously active and coupled channel pores. PMID:11259583

  18. Electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Lomasney, H.

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy has assigned a priority to the advancement of technology for decontaminating concrete surfaces which have become contaminated with radionuclides, heavy metals, and toxic organics. This agency is responsible for decontamination and decommissioning of thousands of buildings. Electrokinetic extraction is one of the several innovative technologies which emerged in response to this initiative. This technique utilizes an electropotential gradient and the subsequent electrical transport mechanism to cause the controlled movement of ionics species, whereby the contaminants exit the recesses deep within the concrete. The primary objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach as a means to achieve ``release levels`` which could be consistent with unrestricted use of a decontaminated building. The secondary objectives were: To establish process parameters; to quantify the economics; to ascertain the ALARA considerations; and to evaluate wasteform and waste volume. The work carried out to this point has achieved promising results to the extent that ISOTRON{reg_sign} has been authorized to expand the planned activity to include the fabrication of a prototype version of a commercial device.

  19. LASER ABLATION STUDIES OF CONCRETE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laser ablation was studied as a means of removing radioactive contaminants from the surface and near-surface regions of concrete. We present the results of ablation tests on cement and concrete samples using a 1.6 kW pulsed Nd:YAG laser with fiber optic beam delivery. The laser-s...

  20. Concrete Masonry Designs: Educational Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzberg, Randi, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This special journal issue addresses concrete masonry in educational facilities construction. The issue's feature articles are: (1) "It Takes a Village To Construct a Massachusetts Middle School," describing a middle school constructed almost entirely of concrete masonry and modeled after a typical small New England village; (2) "Lessons Learned,"…

  1. The Concrete and Pavement Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The modern world is characterized by the extensive use of concrete and asphalt pavement. Periodically, these materials are replaced and the old materials disposed of. In this challenge, students will be asked to develop ways to reuse the old materials. It is important for students to understand how concrete and asphalt are made and applied, as…

  2. Molded Concrete Center Mine Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, E. V.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed semiautomatic system forms concrete-foam wall along middle of coal-mine passage. Wall helps support roof and divides passage into two conduits needed for ventilation of coal face. Mobile mold and concrete-foam generator form sections of wall in place.

  3. Technology Solutions Case Study: Insulating Concrete Forms

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-10-01

    This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory project investigated insulating concrete forms—rigid foam, hollow walls that are filled with concrete for highly insulated, hurricane-resistant construction.

  4. Keratin 1 Plays a Critical Role in Golgi Localization of Core 2 N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase M via Interaction with Its Cytoplasmic Tail*

    PubMed Central

    Petrosyan, Armen; Ali, Mohamed F.; Cheng, Pi-Wan

    2015-01-01

    Core 2 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 2/M (C2GnT-M) synthesizes all three β6GlcNAc branch structures found in secreted mucins. Loss of C2GnT-M leads to development of colitis and colon cancer. Recently we have shown that C2GnT-M targets the Golgi at the Giantin site and is recycled by binding to non-muscle myosin IIA, a motor protein, via the cytoplasmic tail (CT). But how this enzyme is retained in the Golgi is not known. Proteomics analysis identifies keratin type II cytoskeletal 1 (KRT1) as a protein pulled down with anti-c-Myc antibody or C2GnT-M CT from the lysate of Panc1 cells expressing bC2GnT-M tagged with c-Myc. Yeast two-hybrid analysis shows that the rod domain of KRT1 interacts directly with the WKR6 motif in the C2GnT-M CT. Knockdown of KRT1 does not affect Golgi morphology but increases the interaction of C2GnT-M with non-muscle myosin IIA and its transportation to the endoplasmic reticulum, ubiquitination, and degradation. During Golgi recovery after brefeldin A treatment, C2GnT-M forms a complex with Giantin before KRT1, demonstrating CT-mediated sequential events of Golgi targeting and retention of C2GnT-M. In HeLa cells transiently expressing C2GnT-M-GFP, knockdown of KRT1 does not affect Golgi morphology but leaves C2GnT-M outside of the Golgi, resulting in the formation of sialyl-T antigen. Interaction of C2GnT-M and KRT1 was also detected in the goblet cells of human colon epithelial tissue and primary culture of colonic epithelial cells. The results indicate that glycosylation and thus the function of glycoconjugates can be regulated by a protein that helps retain a glycosyltransferase in the Golgi. PMID:25605727

  5. Nuclear Power Plant Concrete Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Prabir; Labbe, Pierre; Naus, Dan

    2013-01-01

    A nuclear power plant (NPP) involves complex engineering structures that are significant items of the structures, systems and components (SSC) important to the safe and reliable operation of the NPP. Concrete is the commonly used civil engineering construction material in the nuclear industry because of a number of advantageous properties. The NPP concrete structures underwent a great degree of evolution, since the commissioning of first NPP in early 1960. The increasing concern with time related to safety of the public and environment, and degradation of concrete structures due to ageing related phenomena are the driving forces for such evolution. The concrete technology underwent rapid development with the advent of chemical admixtures of plasticizer/super plasticizer category as well as viscosity modifiers and mineral admixtures like fly ash and silica fume. Application of high performance concrete (HPC) developed with chemical and mineral admixtures has been witnessed in the construction of NPP structures. Along with the beneficial effect, the use of admixtures in concrete has posed a number of challenges as well in design and construction. This along with the prospect of continuing operation beyond design life, especially after 60 years, the impact of extreme natural events ( as in the case of Fukushima NPP accident) and human induced events (e.g. commercial aircraft crash like the event of September 11th 2001) has led to further development in the area of NPP concrete structures. The present paper aims at providing an account of evolution of NPP concrete structures in last two decades by summarizing the development in the areas of concrete technology, design methodology and construction techniques, maintenance and ageing management of concrete structures.

  6. The Puzzle of Septarian Concretions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, C. M.; Dale, A.; Mozley, P.; Smalley, P. C.; Muggeridge, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Carbonate concretions in clastic rocks and their septarian fracture fills act as 'time capsules', capturing the signatures of chemical and biological processes during diagenesis. However, many aspects of the formation of concretions and septarian fractures remain poorly understood, for although concretions occur in clastic rocks throughout the geological record, they are rarely documented in recent shallow-burial environments. Consequently, the depth and temperature at which concretion-forming processes occur are often poorly constrained. Carbonate clumped isotopes have recently been applied successfully to concretions and fracture fills that begin to unravel the conditions for the formation of concretions and septarian fractures. Here, we present carbonate clumped isotope results of fracture fills from eight different concretions from various locations, including multiple phases of fill in 4 concretions. Our results suggest that they precipitated over a range of temperatures (22°C - 85°C) from d18Oporewater values between -12‰ to 3‰ and within different d13Ccarbonate zones. The majority of fills precipitated at lower (<50°C) temperatures, although the fluids were not always meteoric. For 3 concretions containing fractures with multiple phases, the d18Oporewater becomes progressively heavier with each later phase and increasing temperature. The one exception to this is in the Barton Clay Formation (UK) where the fractures must have been continuously filled during exhumation as the latest cement phase is the coolest with a d18Oporewater more 18O-depleted than the earliest phase. Therefore, concretion growth must usually initiate early on (<~1 km burial), and subsequent fracturing is also usually early. However, the fracture infilling can occur over a range of depths and can record the diagenetic history of a formation. We gratefully acknowledge a BP and EPSRC Case Studentship for funding this project, and the Natural History Museum London for providing

  7. Boson core compressibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorramzadeh, Y.; Lin, Fei; Scarola, V. W.

    2012-04-01

    Strongly interacting atoms trapped in optical lattices can be used to explore phase diagrams of Hubbard models. Spatial inhomogeneity due to trapping typically obscures distinguishing observables. We propose that measures using boson double occupancy avoid trapping effects to reveal two key correlation functions. We define a boson core compressibility and core superfluid stiffness in terms of double occupancy. We use quantum Monte Carlo on the Bose-Hubbard model to empirically show that these quantities intrinsically eliminate edge effects to reveal correlations near the trap center. The boson core compressibility offers a generally applicable tool that can be used to experimentally map out phase transitions between compressible and incompressible states.

  8. Multiscale Constitutive Modeling of Asphalt Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Benjamin Shane

    found that the maximum aggregate size of the FAM is mixture dependent, but consistent with a gradation parameter from the Baily Method of mixture design. Mechanistic modeling of these different length scales reveals that although many consider asphalt concrete to be a LVE material, it is in fact only quasi-LVE because it shows some tendencies that are inconsistent with LVE theory. Asphalt FAM and asphalt mastic show similar nonlinear tendencies although the exact magnitude of the effect differs. These tendencies can be ignored for damage modeling in the mixture and FAM scales as long as the effects are consistently ignored, but it is found that they must be accounted for in mastic and binder damage modeling. The viscoelastic continuum damage (VECD) model is used for damage modeling in this research. To aid in characterization and application of the VECD model for cyclic testing, a simplified version (S-VECD) is rigorously derived and verified. Through the modeling efforts at each scale, various factors affecting the fundamental and engineering properties at each scale are observed and documented. A microstructure association model that accounts for particle interaction through physico-chemical processes and the effects of aggregate structuralization is developed to links the moduli at each scale. This model is shown to be capable of upscaling the mixture modulus from either the experimentally determined mastic modulus or FAM modulus. Finally, an initial attempt at upscaling the damage and nonlinearity phenomenon is shown.

  9. Effect of Concrete Waste Form Properties on Radionuclide Migration

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Skinner, De'Chauna J.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2009-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation) the mechanism of contaminant release, the significance of contaminant release pathways, how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility, the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility, the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. Numerous sets of tests were initiated in fiscal years (FY) 2006-2009 to evaluate (1) diffusion of iodine (I) and technetium (Tc) from concrete into uncontaminated soil after 1 and 2 years, (2) I and rhenium (Re) diffusion from contaminated soil into fractured concrete, (3) I and Re (set 1) and Tc (set 2) diffusion from fractured concrete into uncontaminated soil, (4) evaluate the moisture distribution profile within the sediment half-cell, (5) the reactivity and speciation of uranium (VI) (U(VI)) compounds in concrete porewaters, (6) the rate of dissolution of concrete monoliths, and (7) the diffusion of simulated tank waste into concrete.

  10. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2010-09-30

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how waste form performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of waste form aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of waste form aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the waste forms come in contact with groundwater. The information presented in the report provides data that 1) quantify radionuclide retention within concrete waste form materials similar to those used to encapsulate waste in the Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds (LLBG); 2) measure the effect of concrete waste form properties likely to influence radionuclide migration; and 3) quantify the stability of uranium-bearing solid phases of limited solubility in concrete.

  11. Mutation in the LPS outer core biosynthesis gene, galU, affects LPS interaction with the RTX toxins ApxI and ApxII and cytolytic activity of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1.

    PubMed

    Ramjeet, Mahendrasingh; Cox, Andrew D; Hancock, Mark A; Mourez, Michael; Labrie, Josée; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Jacques, Mario

    2008-10-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and Apx toxins are major virulence factors of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, a pathogen of the respiratory tract of pigs. Here, we evaluated the effect of LPS core truncation in haemolytic and cytotoxic activities of this microorganism. We previously generated a highly attenuated galU mutant of A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 that has an LPS molecule lacking the GalNAc-Gal II-Gal I outer core residues. Our results demonstrate that this mutant exhibits wild-type haemolytic activity but is significantly less cytotoxic to porcine alveolar macrophages. However, no differences were found in gene expression and secretion of the haemolytic and cytotoxic toxins ApxI and ApxII, both secreted by A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 1. This suggests that the outer core truncation mediated by the galU mutation affects the toxins in their cytotoxic activities. Using both ELISA and surface plasmon resonance binding assays, we demonstrate a novel interaction between LPS and the ApxI and ApxII toxins via the core oligosaccharide. Our results indicate that the GalNAc-Gal II-Gal I trisaccharide of the outer core is fundamental to mediating LPS/Apx interactions. The present study suggests that a lack of binding between LPS and ApxI/II affects the cytotoxicity and virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae. PMID:18713318

  12. Methods for ultimate load analysis of concrete containments: Second phase: Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Dameron, R.A.; Dunham, R.S.; Rashid, Y.R.

    1987-03-01

    This summary report gives an overview of research on the influence of special effects on the ultimate load behavior of concrete containment structures. The special effects analyses that were performed include containment response under combined pressure and temperature, shear dislocation at a major concrete crack, wall discontinuity at the wall-basemat juncture, flawed liner, and thermal buckling. The EPRI-sponsored finite element code, ABAQUS-EPGEN, is utilized as the structural analysis tool in this research. The code was modified to incorporate a constitutive model for plain concrete and models for concrete/liner and concrete/rebar interaction. The report provides a general assessment of local effects mechanisms in concrete containment response to overpressurization.

  13. New sacrificial material for ex-vessel core catcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komlev, Andrei A.; Almjashev, Vyacheslav I.; Bechta, Sevostian V.; Khabensky, Vladimir B.; Granovsky, Vladimir S.; Gusarov, Victor V.

    2015-12-01

    A new functional (sacrificial) material has been developed in the Fe2O3-SrO-Al2O3-CaO system based on strontium hexaferrite ceramic in concrete matrix. The method of producing SM has been advanced technologically; this technological effectiveness allows the SM to be used in ex-vessel core catchers with corium spreading as well as in crucible-type core catchers. Critical properties regarding the efficiency of SM in ex-vessel core catchers, such as porosity, pycnometric density, apparent density, solidus and liquidus temperatures, and water content have been measured. Suitable fractions of SrFe12O19 and high alumina cement (HAC) were found in the SM based on thermodynamic analysis of the SM/corium interaction. The use of sacrificial steel as an additional heat adsorption component in the core catcher allowed us to increase the mass fraction range of SrFe12O19 in the SM from 0.3-0.5 to 0.3-0.85. The activation temperature of the SM/corium interaction has been shown to correspond to the liquidus temperature of the local composition at the SM/corium interface. The calculated value of this temperature was 1716 °C. Analysis of phase transformations in the SrO-Fe2O3 system revealed advantages of the SrFe12O19-based sacrificial material compared with the Fe2O3-contained material owing to the time proximity of SrFe12O19 decomposition and corium interaction activation.

  14. Sorptivity of fly ash concretes

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalan, M.K.

    1996-08-01

    A factorial experiment was designed to measure the sorptivity of cement and fly ash concretes in order to compare the durability of fly ash concrete against the cement concrete. Sorptivity measurements based on the capillary movement of water was made on three grades of cement concrete and six grades of fly ash mixes. The effect of curing was also studied by treating the samples in two curving conditions. A functional relationship of sorptivity against the strength, curing condition and fly ash content has been presented. The results were useful to analyze the factors influencing the durability of cement and fly ash concretes and to explain why some of the previously reported findings were contradictory. Curing conditions have been found to be the most important factor that affected the durability properties of fly ash concrete. When proper curing was provided, a mix with 40% fly ash was found to reduce the sorptivity by 37%. Under inadequate curing the sorptivity was found to increase by 60%. The influence of curing on cement concrete was found to be of much less importance.

  15. Stiffening of short small-size circular composite steel–concrete columns with shear connectors

    PubMed Central

    Younes, Sherif M.; Ramadan, Hazem M.; Mourad, Sherif A.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to investigate the effect of shear connectors’ distribution and method of load application on load–displacement relationship and behavior of thin-walled short concrete-filled steel tube (CFT) columns when subjected to axial load. The study focused on the compressive strength of the CFT columns and the efficiency of the shear stud in distribution of the load between the concrete core and steel tube. The study showed that the use of shear connectors enhanced slightly the axial capacity of CFT columns. It is also shown that shear connectors have a great effect on load distribution between the concrete and steel tubes. PMID:27222757

  16. Stiffening of short small-size circular composite steel-concrete columns with shear connectors.

    PubMed

    Younes, Sherif M; Ramadan, Hazem M; Mourad, Sherif A

    2016-05-01

    An experimental program was conducted to investigate the effect of shear connectors' distribution and method of load application on load-displacement relationship and behavior of thin-walled short concrete-filled steel tube (CFT) columns when subjected to axial load. The study focused on the compressive strength of the CFT columns and the efficiency of the shear stud in distribution of the load between the concrete core and steel tube. The study showed that the use of shear connectors enhanced slightly the axial capacity of CFT columns. It is also shown that shear connectors have a great effect on load distribution between the concrete and steel tubes. PMID:27222757

  17. Beneficial Role of the Industrial Wastes to Combat Adiabatic Temperature Rise in Massive Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, M.; Goyal, A.; Anwar, A. M.; Hattori, K.; Ogata, H.; Guo, S.

    An evaluation was made on the mutual beneficial role of fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag in combating adiabatic temperature rise. The experimental program was designed in two stages; the main experiment consisted of two massive concrete specimens with dimensions (50x50x50) cm. In first stage of experiment, an adiabatic rise in temperature of specimens was measured. In second stage, the mechanical properties of massive concrete specimens were measured at the ages of 8, 14, 28, 56 and 91 days. At the age of 91 days, surface core and central cores were extracted from the surface and the central part of massive concrete specimens to determine compressive strength and dynamic modulus of elasticity. In the massive concrete specimen without any additive, the peak temperature noted was 64.5°C at 7th h after casting. While in mineral substituted concrete the maximum adiabatic temperature was 49.6°C at 19th h after casting. Lower rate of temperature rise in mineral substituted concrete has resulted in higher value of ultrasonic pulse velocity and ultimate compressive strength of concrete.

  18. Low-temperature carbonate concretions in the Martian meteorite ALH84001: evidence from stable isotopes and mineralogy.

    PubMed

    Valley, J W; Eiler, J M; Graham, C M; Gibson, E K; Romanek, C S; Stolper, E M

    1997-03-14

    The martian meteorite ALH84001 contains small, disk-shaped concretions of carbonate with concentric chemical and mineralogical zonation. Oxygen isotope compositions of these concretions, measured by ion microprobe, range from delta18O = +9.5 to +20.5 per thousand. Most of the core of one concretion is homogeneous (16.7 +/- 1.2 per thousand) and over 5 per thousand higher in delta18O than a second concretion. Orthopyroxene that hosts the secondary carbonates is isotopically homogeneous (delta18O = 4.6 +/- 1.2 per thousand). Secondary SiO2 has delta18O = 20.4 per thousand. Carbon isotope ratios measured from the core of one concretion average delta13C = 46 +/- 8 per thousand, consistent with formation on Mars. The isotopic variations and mineral compositions offer no evidence for high temperature (>650 degrees C) carbonate precipitation and suggest non-equilibrium processes at low temperatures (< approximately 300 degrees C). PMID:9054355

  19. The partitioning of uranium and neptunium onto hydrothermally altered concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, P.; Allen, P.G.; Sylwester, E.R.; Viani, B.E.

    1999-10-14

    Cementitious materials that are used to construct the ground support for high-level repositories have a high probability of interacting with radionuclide-bearing fluids derived from failed waste packages. Cementitious materials provide a highly alkaline environment; pore fluids in concrete can have pH {gt} 10 for thousands to hundreds of thousands of years. Studies have shown that fresh concrete and cement phases strongly retard or immobilize certain actinides. Consequently, cementitious materials may serve as a barrier to the release of the radionuclides to the far field. However, the effect of thermal alteration of these materials, which may occur in high-level repositories, on their interaction with radionuclides has not been addressed. In contrast to retardation, colloidal silica-enriched particles that are abundant in the pore fluids of cementitious materials may facilitate radionuclide migration through the near-field into the adjacent geological environment. Due to the uncertainties of these two opposite effects, it is important to investigate the interaction of actinides with cementitious materials under varying conditions. It is expected that cementitious materials in high-level waste repositories will be subjected to and altered by hot dry and/or humid conditions forhundreds to thousands of years by the time they interact with radionuclide-bearing fluids. After alteration, the chemical and mineralogical properties of these materials will be significantly different from that of the as-placed or fresh concrete. To assess the effect that this alteration would have on radionuclide interactions, samples of hardened concrete (untreated concrete) were hydrothermally heated at 200 C for 8 months (treated concrete). The concrete used in the experiments consisted of portland cement with an aggregate of dolomitic limestone. X-ray diffraction analysis has shown that portlandite and amorphous calcium silicate hydrate gels were converted to the crystalline calcium

  20. Elucidation of the Interaction Loci of the Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex E2·E3BP Core with Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase 1 and Kinase 2 by H/D Exchange Mass Spectrometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) comprises three principal catalytic components for its mission: E1, E2, and E3. The core of the complex is a strong subcomplex between E2 and an E3-binding protein (E3BP). The PDC is subject to regulation at E1 by serine phosphorylation by four kinases (PDK1–4), an inactivation reversed by the action of two phosphatases (PDP1 and -2). We report H/D exchange mass spectrometric (HDX-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies in the first attempt to define the interaction loci between PDK1 and PDK2 with the intact E2·E3BP core and their C-terminally truncated proteins. While the three lipoyl domains (L1 and L2 on E2 and L3 on E3BP) lend themselves to NMR studies and determination of interaction maps with PDK1 and PDK2 at the individual residue level, HDX-MS allowed studies of interaction loci on both partners in the complexes, PDKs, and other regions of the E2·E3BP core, as well, at the peptide level. HDX-MS suggested that the intact E2·E3BP core enhances the binding specificity of L2 for PDK2 over PDK1, while NMR studies detected lipoyl domain residues unique to interaction with PDK1 and PDK2. The E2·E3BP core induced more changes on PDKs than any C-terminally truncated protein, with clear evidence of greater plasticity of PDK1 than of PDK2. The effect of L1L2S paralleled HDX-MS results obtained with the intact E2·E3BP core; hence, L1L2S is an excellent candidate with which to define interaction loci with these two PDKs. Surprisingly, L3S′ induced moderate interaction with both PDKs according to both methods. PMID:25436986

  1. The Transfer of Scientific Principles Using Concrete and Idealized Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstone, Robert L.; Son, Ji Y.

    2005-01-01

    Participants in 2 experiments interacted with computer simulations designed to foster understanding of scientific principles governing complex adaptive systems. The quality of participants' transportable understanding was measured by the amount of transfer between 2 simulations governed by the same principle. The perceptual concreteness of the…

  2. DUBLIN CORE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Dublin Core is a metadata element set intended to facilitate discovery of electronic resources. It was originally conceived for author-generated descriptions of Web resources, and the Dublin Core has attracted broad ranging international and interdisciplinary support. The cha...

  3. Testing of concrete by laser ablation

    DOEpatents

    Flesher, Dann J.; Becker, David L.; Beem, William L.; Berry, Tommy C.; Cannon, N. Scott

    1997-01-01

    A method of testing concrete in a structure in situ, by: directing a succession of pulses of laser radiation at a point on the structure so that each pulse effects removal of a quantity of concrete and transfers energy to the concrete; detecting a characteristic of energy which has been transferred to the concrete; determining, separately from the detecting step, the total quantity of concrete removed by the succession of pulses; and calculating a property of the concrete on the basis of the detected energy characteristic and the determined total quantity of concrete removed.

  4. Testing of concrete by laser ablation

    DOEpatents

    Flesher, D.J.; Becker, D.L.; Beem, W.L.; Berry, T.C.; Cannon, N.S.

    1997-01-07

    A method is disclosed for testing concrete in a structure in situ, by: directing a succession of pulses of laser radiation at a point on the structure so that each pulse effects removal of a quantity of concrete and transfers energy to the concrete; detecting a characteristic of energy which has been transferred to the concrete; determining, separately from the detecting step, the total quantity of concrete removed by the succession of pulses; and calculating a property of the concrete on the basis of the detected energy characteristic and the determined total quantity of concrete removed. 1 fig.

  5. Concrete density estimation by rebound hammer method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Mohamad Pauzi bin; Jefri, Muhamad Hafizie Bin; Abdullah, Mahadzir Bin; Masenwat, Noor Azreen bin; Sani, Suhairy bin; Mohd, Shukri; Isa, Nasharuddin bin; Mahmud, Mohamad Haniza bin

    2016-01-01

    Concrete is the most common and cheap material for radiation shielding. Compressive strength is the main parameter checked for determining concrete quality. However, for shielding purposes density is the parameter that needs to be considered. X- and -gamma radiations are effectively absorbed by a material with high atomic number and high density such as concrete. The high strength normally implies to higher density in concrete but this is not always true. This paper explains and discusses the correlation between rebound hammer testing and density for concrete containing hematite aggregates. A comparison is also made with normal concrete i.e. concrete containing crushed granite.

  6. Migrating corrosion inhibitor protection of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Bjegovic, D.; Miksic, B.

    1999-11-01

    Migrating corrosion inhibitors (MCI) were developed to protect steel rebar from corrosion in concrete. They were designed to be incorporated as an admixture during concrete batching or used for surface impregnation of existing concrete structures. Two investigations are summarized. One studied the effectiveness of MCIs as a corrosion inhibitor for steel rebar when used as an admixture in fresh concrete mix. The other is a long-term study of MCI concrete impregnation that chronicles corrosion rates of rebar in concrete specimens. Based on data from each study, it was concluded that migrating corrosion inhibitors are compatible with concrete and effectively delay the onset of corrosion.

  7. Electrically conductive polymer concrete overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, J. J.; Webster, R. P.

    1984-08-01

    The use of cathodic protection to prevent the corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete structures has been well established. Application of a durable, skid-resistant electrically conductive polymer concrete overlay would advance the use of cathodic protection for the highway industry. Laboratory studies indicate that electrically conductive polymer concrete overlays using conductive fillers, such as calcined coke breeze, in conjunction with polyester or vinyl ester resins have resistivities of 1 to 10 ohm-cm. Both multiple-layer and premixed mortar-type overlays were made. Shear bond strengths of the conductive overlays to concrete substrates vary from 600 to 1300 psi, with the premixed overlays having bond strengths 50 to 100% higher than the multiple-layer overlays.

  8. Effects of fertilizer and pesticides on concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Broder, M.F.; Nguyen, D.T.; Harner, A.L.

    1994-12-31

    Concrete is the most common material of construction for secondary containment of fertilizers and pesticides because of its relative low cost and structural properties. Concrete, however, is porous to some products it is designed to contain and is subject to corrosion. In this paper, concrete deterioration mechanisms and corrosion resistant concrete formulation are discussed, as well as exposure tests of various concrete mixes to some common liquid fertilizers and herbicides.

  9. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOEpatents

    Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

    1988-05-26

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical and overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt% calcined coke breeze, 40 wt% vinyl ester resin with 3.5 wt% modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag. 4 tabs.

  10. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOEpatents

    Fontana, J.J.; Elling, D.; Reams, W.

    1990-03-13

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  11. Electrically conductive polymer concrete coatings

    DOEpatents

    Fontana, Jack J.; Elling, David; Reams, Walter

    1990-01-01

    A sprayable electrically conductive polymer concrete coating for vertical d overhead applications is described. The coating is permeable yet has low electrical resistivity (<10 ohm-cm), good bond strength to concrete substrates, and good weatherability. A preferred formulation contains about 60 wt % calcined coke breeze, 40 wt % vinyl ester with 3.5 wt % modified bentonite clay. Such formulations apply evenly and provide enough rigidity for vertical or overhead structures so there is no drip or sag.

  12. Resin systems for producing polymer concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1988-09-01

    When plastics are combined with mixtures of inorganic materials, high-strength, durable, fast-setting composites are produced. These materials are used in structural engineering and other applications, and as a result of the many commercial successes that have been achieved, considerable research and development work is in progress throughout the world. One family of polymer-based composites receiving considerable attention is called polymer concrete. Work in this area is directed toward developing new high-strength durable materials by combining cement and concrete technology with that of polymer chemistry. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the types of resins that can be used to form polymer concretes. Resin selection is normally based upon the desired properties for the composite and cost. However, the physical and chemical properties of the resins before and during curing are also important, particularly for field-applied materials. Currently, for normal temperature (0/degree/ to 30/degree/C) applications, epoxy resins, vinyl monomers such as polyester-styrene, methylmethacrylate, furfuryl alcohol, furan derivatives, urethane, and styrene, are being used. Styrene-trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) mixtures and styrene-acrylamide-TMPTMA mixtures yield composites with excellent hydrothermal stability at temperatures up to 150/degree/ and 250/degree/C, respectively, and organosiloxane resins have been successfully tested at 300/degree/C. Of equal importance is the selection of the composition of the inorganic phase of the composite, since chemical interactions between the two phases can significantly enhance the final properties. Further work to elucidate the mechanisms of these interactions is needed. 6 refs.

  13. Effects of Concreteness-Abstractness and Anxiety on Intellectual and Motor Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Alma Grabow; Harvey, O. J.

    1973-01-01

    The interaction of the two variables, concreteness-abstractness and anxiety, while in the anticipated direction in all instances, significantly affected individual performance only on the vocabulary measure in this study. (Author)

  14. Concrete waterproofing in nuclear industry.

    PubMed

    Scherbyna, Alexander N; Urusov, Sergei V

    2005-01-01

    One of the main points of aggregate safety during the transportation and storage of radioactive materials is to supply waterproofing for all constructions having direct contact with radiating substances and providing strength, seismic shielding etc. This is the problem with all waterside structures in nuclear industry and concrete installations in the treatment and storage of radioactive materials. In this connection, the problem of developing efficient techniques both for the repair of operating constructions and the waterproofing of new objects of the specified assignment is genuine. Various techniques of concrete waterproofing are widely applied in the world today. However, in conditions of radiation many of these techniques can bring not a profit but irreparable damage of durability and reliability of a concrete construction; for instance, when waterproofing materials contain organic constituents, polymers etc. Application of new technology or materials in basic construction elements requires in-depth analysis and thorough testing. The price of an error might be very large. A comparative analysis shows that one of the most promising types of waterproofing materials for radiation loaded concrete constructions is "integral capillary systems" (ICS). The tests on radiation, thermal and strength stability of ICS and ICS-treated concrete samples were initiated and fulfilled in RFNC-VNIITF. The main result is--ICS applying is increasing of waterproofing and strength properties of concrete in conditions of readiation The paper is devoted to describing the research strategy, the tests and their results and also to planning of new tests. PMID:16604701

  15. Protective coatings for concrete

    SciTech Connect

    NAGY, KATHRYN L.; CYGAN, RANDALL T.; BRINKER, C. JEFFREY; SELLINGER, ALAN

    2000-05-01

    The new two-layer protective coating developed for monuments constructed of limestone or marble was applied to highway cement and to tobermorite, a component of cement, and tested in batch dissolution tests. The goal was to determine the suitability of the protective coating in retarding the weathering rate of concrete construction. The two-layer coating consists of an inner layer of aminoethylaminopropylsilane (AEAPS) applied as a 25% solution in methanol and an outer layer of A2** sol-gel. In previous work, this product when applied to calcite powders, had resulted in a lowering of the rate of dissolution by a factor of ten and was shown through molecular modeling to bind strongly to the calcite surface, but not too strongly so as to accelerate dissolution. Batch dissolution tests at 22 C of coated and uncoated tobermorite (1.1 nm phase) and powdered cement from Gibson Blvd. in Albuquerque indicated that the coating exhibits some protective behavior, at least on short time scales. However, the data suggest that the outer layer of sol-gel dissolves in the high-pH environment of the closed system of cement plus water. Calculated binding configuration and energy of AEAPS to the tobermorite surface suggests that AEAPS is well-suited as the inner layer binder for protecting tobermorite.

  16. Becoming Reactive by Concretization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prieditis, Armand; Janakiraman, Bhaskar

    1992-01-01

    One way to build a reactive system is to construct an action table indexed by the current situation or stimulus. The action table describes what course of action to pursue for each situation or stimulus. This paper describes an incremental approach to constructing the action table through achieving goals with a hierarchical search system. These hierarchies are generated with transformations called concretizations, which add constraints to a problem and which can reduce the search space. The basic idea is that an action for a state is looked up in the action table and executed whenever the action table has an entry for that state; otherwise, a path is found to the nearest (cost-wise in a graph with costweighted arcs) state that has a mappring from a state in the next highest hierarchy. For each state along the solution path, the successor state in the path is cached in the action table entry for that state. Without caching, the hierarchical search system can logarithmically reduce search. When the table is complete the system no longer searches: it simply reacts by proceeding to the state listed in the table for each state. Since the cached information is specific only to the nearest state in the next highest hierarchy and not the goal, inter-goal transfer of reactivity is possible. To illustrate our approach, we show how an implemented hierarchical search system can completely reactive.

  17. High-temperature compatibility between liquid metal as PWR fuel gap filler and stainless steel and high-density concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong; Jumpee, Chayanit; Jitpukdee, Manit

    2014-08-01

    In conventional nuclear fuel rods for light-water reactors, a helium-filled as-fabricated gap between the fuel and the cladding inner surface accommodates fuel swelling and cladding creep down. Because helium exhibits a very low thermal conductivity, it results in a large temperature rise in the gap. Liquid metal (LM; 1/3 weight portion each of lead, tin, and bismuth) has been proposed to be a gap filler because of its high thermal conductivity (∼100 times that of He), low melting point (∼100 °C), and lack of chemical reactivity with UO2 and water. With the presence of LM, the temperature drop across the gap is virtually eliminated and the fuel is operated at a lower temperature at the same power output, resulting in safer fuel, delayed fission gas release and prevention of massive secondary hydriding. During normal reactor operation, should an LM-bonded fuel rod failure occurs resulting in a discharge of liquid metal into the bottom of the reactor pressure vessel, it should not corrode stainless steel. An experiment was conducted to confirm that at 315 °C, LM in contact with 304 stainless steel in the PWR water chemistry environment for up to 30 days resulted in no observable corrosion. Moreover, during a hypothetical core-melt accident assuming that the liquid metal with elevated temperature between 1000 and 1600 °C is spread on a high-density concrete basement of the power plant, a small-scale experiment was performed to demonstrate that the LM-concrete interaction at 1000 °C for as long as 12 h resulted in no penetration. At 1200 °C for 5 h, the LM penetrated a distance of ∼1.3 cm, but the penetration appeared to stop. At 1400 °C the penetration rate was ∼0.7 cm/h. At 1600 °C, the penetration rate was ∼17 cm/h. No corrosion based on chemical reactions with high-density concrete occurred, and, hence, the only physical interaction between high-temperature LM and high-density concrete was from tiny cracks generated from thermal stress. Moreover

  18. Concrete Durability in Harsh Environmental Conditions Exposed to Freeze Thaw Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamze, Youssef

    Under line Pathology of Materials; one of the environmental causes of damage effects on concrete is freeze thaw cycles, which deteriorate the concrete exposed to water in cold weather. An example of old concrete is a dam project that was built in Canada, in the early 1909-1913. This project was reconstructed in 1932, 1934 and 1972, and required renovation due to the ice abrasion with the freeze/thaw cycles. Before completing any renovation, it is required to analyze the structural stability and the concrete failures of this dam. An investigation was conducted to determine the quality of the concrete in the Piers and in the Bridge Deck Slab. It was also required to determine the basic materials' properties that constitute this project. This will improve the analysis of its stability [10]. Core samples were examined and used as test samples, for the Alkali-Silica reactivity test samples, as well as the compressive strength test, the Chloride Ion test, and the freeze thaw testing which was performed on two sets of 12 concrete core samples that were taken from different locations in the project. These locations are the representations of the age of the concrete. Thus, the age difference between the samples' two sets is four decades. Testing was performed on prisms cut from cores. ASTM C-666 procedure (A) was applied using an automatic test system [6]. It was suggested that a plan for renovation of this project should be performed after the analysis is undertaken to assess the conditions estimating the remaining life of the concrete in this project [15].

  19. Improving rubber concrete by waste organic sulfur compounds.

    PubMed

    Chou, Liang-Hisng; Lin, Chun-Nan; Lu, Chun-Ku; Lee, Cheng-Haw; Lee, Maw-Tien

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the use of crumb tyres as additives to concrete was investigated. For some time, researchers have been studying the physical properties of concrete to determine why the inclusion of rubber particles causes the concrete to degrade. Several methods have been developed to improve the bonding between rubber particles and cement hydration products (C-S-H) with the hope of creating a product with an improvement in mechanical strength. In this study, the crumb tyres were treated with waste organic sulfur compounds from a petroleum refining factory in order to modify their surface properties. Organic sulfur compounds with amphiphilic properties can enhance the hydrophilic properties of the rubber and increase the intermolecular interaction forces between rubber and C-S-H. In the present study, a colloid probe of C-S-H was prepared to measure these intermolecular interaction forces by utilizing an atomic force microscope. Experimental results showed that rubber particles treated with waste organic sulfur compounds became more hydrophilic. In addition, the intermolecular interaction forces increased with the adsorption of waste organic sulfur compounds on the surface of the rubber particles. The compressive, tensile and flexural strengths of concrete samples that included rubber particles treated with organic sulfur compound also increased significantly. PMID:19710121

  20. Refined modeling of reinforced concrete columns of seismic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaba, S. A.; Mahin, S. A.

    1984-04-01

    The fiber representation of a section is extended to make possible the analysis of reinforced concrete or steel members independently or as part of two dimensional frames. Slice locations are specified along the length of the element. Each slice is further discretized into steel and/or concrete fibers. By monitoring the various fibers and slices, it is possible to obtain the local response at critical sections including moment curvature and shear histories. Bond slip and shear effects are not considered so the multislice fiber element is suitably for modeling beams and columns in a steel or reinforced concrete especially when the effects of axial loads on strength and stiffness are significant. The element can account for axial load bending moment interaction and the pinching of hysteresis loops due to compressive loads acting on the element. The functioning of the element is tested separately and as part of a general dynamic two dimensional frame analysis program.

  1. The effects of sulfate ion on concrete and reinforced concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, A.B.; Yazici, B.; Erbil, M.

    1997-08-01

    The effects of the sulfate ions and the pH on the strength of concrete and reinforcement steel have been investigated. Concrete and reinforced concrete samples prepared by using mixing water having different sulfate ion concentrations (standard, 400 ppm and 3,500 ppm) were cured in a water bath containing the same ion concentrations of mixing water or distilled water at two different pH values (8 and 5). The samples were exposed to the environments for 90 days. The compressive strength of concrete, pH values of bath, galvanic current changes and potentials (vs. Ag/AgCl) of reinforcing steel were measured. It was observed that the compressive strength of the concrete decreases as the SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2} ion concentration increases. The galvanic currents were high for the first 28 days and then these currents decreased steadily. It was found that the potentials have been rising up to the passive potential of the reinforcing steel where the SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2} concentration is low.

  2. Sodium Exposure Tests on Limestone Concrete Used as Sacrificial Protection Layer in FBR

    SciTech Connect

    Parida, F.C.; Das, S.K.; Sharma, A.K.; Rao, P.M.; Ramesh, S.S.; Somayajulu, P.A.; Malarvizhi, B.; Kasinathan, N.

    2006-07-01

    Hot sodium coming in contact with structural concrete in case of sodium leak in FBR system cause damage as a result of thermo-chemical attack by burning sodium. In addition, release of free and bound water from concrete leads to generation of hydrogen gas, which is explosive in nature. Hence limestone concrete, as sacrificial layer on the structural concrete in FBR, needs to be qualified. Four concrete blocks of dimension 600 mm x 600 mm x 300 mm with 300 mm x 300 mm x 150 mm cavity were cast and subjected to controlled sodium exposure tests. They have composition of ordinary portland cement, water, fine and coarse aggregate of limestone in the ratio of 1: 0.58: 2.547: 3.817. These blocks were subjected to preliminary inspection by ultrasonic pulse velocity technique and rebound hammer tests. Each block was exposed for 30 minutes to about 12 kg of liquid sodium ({approx} 120 mm liquid column) at 550 deg. C in open air, after which sodium was sucked back from the cavity of the concrete block into a sodium tank. On-line temperature monitoring was carried out at strategic locations of sodium pool and concrete block. After removing sodium from the cavity and cleaning the surfaces, rebound hammer testing was carried out on each concrete block at the same locations where data were taken earlier at pre-exposed stage. The statistical analysis of rebound hammer data revealed that one of the concrete block alone has undergone damage to the extent of 16%. The loss of mass occurred for all the four blocks varied from 0.6 to 2.4% due to release of water during the test duration. Chemical analysis of sodium in concrete samples collected from cavity floor of each block helped in generation of depth profiles of sodium monoxide concentration for each block. From this it is concluded that a bulk penetration of sodium up to 30 mm depth has taken place. However it was also observed that at few local spots, sodium penetrated into concrete up to 50 mm. Cylindrical core samples of 50 mm

  3. 24. A CORE WORKER DISPLAYS THE CORE BOX AND CORES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. A CORE WORKER DISPLAYS THE CORE BOX AND CORES FOR A BRASS GATE VALVE BODY MADE ON A CORE BOX, CA. 1950. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  4. An Automated Image Processing System for Concrete Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgart, C.W.; Cave, S.P.; Linder, K.E.

    1998-11-23

    AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) was asked to perform a proof-of-concept study for the Missouri Highway and Transportation Department (MHTD), Research Division, in June 1997. The goal of this proof-of-concept study was to ascertain if automated scanning and imaging techniques might be applied effectively to the problem of concrete evaluation. In the current evaluation process, a concrete sample core is manually scanned under a microscope. Voids (or air spaces) within the concrete are then detected visually by a human operator by incrementing the sample under the cross-hairs of a microscope and by counting the number of "pixels" which fall within a void. Automation of the scanning and image analysis processes is desired to improve the speed of the scanning process, to improve evaluation consistency, and to reduce operator fatigue. An initial, proof-of-concept image analysis approach was successfully developed and demonstrated using acquired black and white imagery of concrete samples. In this paper, the automated scanning and image capture system currently under development will be described and the image processing approach developed for the proof-of-concept study will be demonstrated. A development update and plans for future enhancements are also presented.

  5. Investigation of rectangular concrete columns reinforced or prestressed with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) bars or tendons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choo, Ching Chiaw

    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have been increasingly used in concrete construction. This research focused on the behavior of concrete columns reinforced with FRP bars, or prestressed with FRP tendons. The methodology was based the ultimate strength approach where stress and strain compatibility conditions and material constitutive laws were applied. Axial strength-moment (P-M) interaction relations of reinforced or prestressed concrete columns with FRP, a linearly-elastic material, were examined. The analytical results identified the possibility of premature compression and/or brittle-tension failure occurring in FRP reinforced and prestressed concrete columns where sudden and explosive type failures were expected. These failures were related to the rupture of FRP rebars or tendons in compression and/or in tension prior to concrete reaching its ultimate strain and strength. The study also concluded that brittle-tension failure was more likely to occur due to the low ultimate tensile strain of FRP bars or tendons as compared to steel. In addition, the failures were more prevalent when long term effects such as creep and shrinkage of concrete, and creep rupture of FRP were considered. Barring FRP failure, concrete columns reinforced with FRP, in some instances, gained significant moment resistance. As expected the strength interaction of slender steel or FRP reinforced concrete columns were dependent more on column length rather than material differences between steel and FRP. Current ACI minimum reinforcement ratio for steel (rhomin) reinforced concrete columns may not be adequate for use in FRP reinforced concrete columns. Design aids were developed in this study to determine the minimum reinforcement ratio (rhof,min) required for rectangular reinforced concrete columns by averting brittle-tension failure to a failure controlled by concrete crushing which in nature was a less catastrophic and more gradual type failure. The proposed method using rhof

  6. Thick Concrete Specimen Construction, Testing, and Preliminary Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Dwight A.; Hoegh, Kyle; Khazanovich, Lev

    2015-03-01

    initial results are also presented along with a discussion of the preliminary findings. Comparative NDE of various defects in reinforced concrete specimens is a key component in identifying the most promising techniques and directing the research and development efforts needed to characterize concrete degradation in commercial NPPs. This requires access to the specimens for data collection using state-of-the-art technology. The construction of the specimen detailed in this report allows for an evaluation of how different NDE techniques may interact with the size and complexities of NPP concrete structures. These factors were taken into account when determining specimen size and features to ensure a realistic design. The lateral dimensions of the specimen were also chosen to mitigate unrealistic boundary effects that would not affect the results of field NPP concrete testing. Preliminary results show that, while the current methods are able to identify some of the deeper defects, improvements in data processing or hardware are necessary to be able to achieve the precision and reliability achieved in evaluating thinner and less heavily reinforced concrete structures.

  7. Relating damage evolution of concrete cooled to cryogenic temperatures to permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogbara, Reginald B.; Iyengar, Srinath R.; Grasley, Zachary C.; Rahman, Syeda; Masad, Eyad A.; Zollinger, Dan G.

    2014-11-01

    Typically, 9% Ni steel is used for primary containment of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Utilization of concrete in place of 9% Ni steel for primary containment would lead to significant cost savings. Hence, this study investigates changes in the microstructure of concrete due to cryogenic freezing that would affect its relevant engineering properties for containment. The study also evaluates the effect of aggregate type on the damage potential of concrete subjected to cryogenic freezing. The aim is to investigate design methodologies to produce damage-resistant cryogenic concrete. The study employed four concrete mixture designs involving river sand as fine aggregate, and coarse aggregates with different coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values. Specifically, the coarse aggregates were limestone, sandstone, trap rock and lightweight aggregate. Concrete cubes were cured under water for at least 28 days and thereafter frozen from ambient (20 °C) to cryogenic temperature (-165 °C). Acoustic emission (AE) sensors were placed on the concrete cubes during freezing. X-ray computed tomography (XRCT) was employed to study the microstructure of concrete cores, before and after cryogenic freezing. The impact of the microstructural evolution thus obtained from AE and XRCT on relevant engineering properties was determined via water and chloride permeability tests. Microcrack propagation determined from AE correlated with changes in permeability. There were no observable cracks in majority of the concrete mixtures after freezing. This implies that microcracks detected via AE and increased permeability was very well distributed and smaller than the XRCT's resolution. Damage (microcracking) resistance of the concrete with different aggregates was in the order limestone ⩾ trap rock ≫ lightweight aggregate ⩾ sandstone.

  8. Coniston Dam: The rehabiliation of a 50-year-old concrete dam affected by alkali aggregate reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Read, P.H.; Thomas, M.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses the rehabilitation of the Coniston main dam in Ontario, with particular emphasis on the alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) related aspects of the investigation and the influence of these on the design approach adopted, including measures taken to allow for possible future expansion of the original gravity section concrete. The rehabilitation program was primarily undertaken to increase the stability of the gravity sections and log chute which did not meet current dam safety criteria. However, all parts of the structure were found to be affected by AAR and the downstream face of the gravity sections were severely deteriorated due to the combined effects of AAR and freeze-thaw cycles. Field and laboratory investigations were undertaken to determine the extent of deterioration of the dam structures and to assess the potential for continued deterioration. Based on the findings from these studies, a rehabilitation and upgrade strategy was developed which included removal of badly deteriorated concrete, placement of reinforced concrete liners (upstream and downstream), addition of mass concrete buttresses along the length of the gravity sections, replacement of the deck and epoxy injection of the cracked sluiceway piers. Particular attention was paid to the design of the new concrete mixes (to limit the supply of alkalis to the existing concrete) and to the relief of stress between the original concrete core and new concrete liners. The new gravity section liner was debonded from the core concrete to reduce the transfer of stress due to continued expansion of the core; furthermore, the reinforcement of the liner was designed to resist tensile stresses induced by future expansion. Consideration was also given to minimizing the ingress of water to the dam core in order to reduce the degree of saturation and likelihood of further AAR and freeze-thaw action.

  9. Nanogranular origin of concrete creep

    PubMed Central

    Vandamme, Matthieu; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2009-01-01

    Concrete, the solid that forms at room temperature from mixing Portland cement with water, sand, and aggregates, suffers from time-dependent deformation under load. This creep occurs at a rate that deteriorates the durability and truncates the lifespan of concrete structures. However, despite decades of research, the origin of concrete creep remains unknown. Here, we measure the in situ creep behavior of calcium–silicate–hydrates (C–S–H), the nano-meter sized particles that form the fundamental building block of Portland cement concrete. We show that C–S–H exhibits a logarithmic creep that depends only on the packing of 3 structurally distinct but compositionally similar C–S–H forms: low density, high density, ultra-high density. We demonstrate that the creep rate (≈1/t) is likely due to the rearrangement of nanoscale particles around limit packing densities following the free-volume dynamics theory of granular physics. These findings could lead to a new basis for nanoengineering concrete materials and structures with minimal creep rates monitored by packing density distributions of nanoscale particles, and predicted by nanoscale creep measurements in some minute time, which are as exact as macroscopic creep tests carried out over years. PMID:19541652

  10. Nanogranular origin of concrete creep.

    PubMed

    Vandamme, Matthieu; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2009-06-30

    Concrete, the solid that forms at room temperature from mixing Portland cement with water, sand, and aggregates, suffers from time-dependent deformation under load. This creep occurs at a rate that deteriorates the durability and truncates the lifespan of concrete structures. However, despite decades of research, the origin of concrete creep remains unknown. Here, we measure the in situ creep behavior of calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H), the nano-meter sized particles that form the fundamental building block of Portland cement concrete. We show that C-S-H exhibits a logarithmic creep that depends only on the packing of 3 structurally distinct but compositionally similar C-S-H forms: low density, high density, ultra-high density. We demonstrate that the creep rate ( approximately 1/t) is likely due to the rearrangement of nanoscale particles around limit packing densities following the free-volume dynamics theory of granular physics. These findings could lead to a new basis for nanoengineering concrete materials and structures with minimal creep rates monitored by packing density distributions of nanoscale particles, and predicted by nanoscale creep measurements in some minute time, which are as exact as macroscopic creep tests carried out over years. PMID:19541652

  11. 27. DIVERSION STRUCTURE WITH CONCRETE SIDEWALLS AND CONCRETE CHANNEL BEYOND, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. DIVERSION STRUCTURE WITH CONCRETE SIDEWALLS AND CONCRETE CHANNEL BEYOND, A SHORT DISTANCE WEST OF D STREET ABOUT ONE-QUARTER MILE SOUTH OF 9TH AVENUE (SECTION 26). - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. Self-immunity microcapsules for corrosion protection of steel bar in reinforced concrete

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanshuai; Fang, Guohao; Ding, Weijian; Han, Ningxu; Xing, Feng; Dong, Biqin

    2015-01-01

    A novel microcapsule-based self-immunity system for reinforced concrete is proposed. Its feasibility for hindering the corrosion of steel rebar by means of lifting the threshold value of [Cl−]/[OH−] is discussed. Precisely controlled release behavior enables corrosion protection in the case of depassivation. The release process is characterized over a designated range of pH values, and its release characteristics of the microcapsules, triggered by decreasing pH value, are captured by observing that the core crystals are released when exposed to a signal (stimulus). The aim of corrosion protection of steel bar is achieved through the constantly-stabilized passive film, and its stability is promoted using continuous calcium hydroxide released from the microcapsule, restoring alkaline conditions. The test results exhibited that the release process of the microcapsules is a function of time. Moreover, the release rate of core materials could interact with environmental pH value, in which the release rate is found to increase remarkably with decreasing pH value, but is inhibited by high pH levels. PMID:26673425

  13. Self-immunity microcapsules for corrosion protection of steel bar in reinforced concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanshuai; Fang, Guohao; Ding, Weijian; Han, Ningxu; Xing, Feng; Dong, Biqin

    2015-12-01

    A novel microcapsule-based self-immunity system for reinforced concrete is proposed. Its feasibility for hindering the corrosion of steel rebar by means of lifting the threshold value of [Cl-]/[OH-] is discussed. Precisely controlled release behavior enables corrosion protection in the case of depassivation. The release process is characterized over a designated range of pH values, and its release characteristics of the microcapsules, triggered by decreasing pH value, are captured by observing that the core crystals are released when exposed to a signal (stimulus). The aim of corrosion protection of steel bar is achieved through the constantly-stabilized passive film, and its stability is promoted using continuous calcium hydroxide released from the microcapsule, restoring alkaline conditions. The test results exhibited that the release process of the microcapsules is a function of time. Moreover, the release rate of core materials could interact with environmental pH value, in which the release rate is found to increase remarkably with decreasing pH value, but is inhibited by high pH levels.

  14. Evolution of fluid-rock interaction in the Reykjanes geothermal system, Iceland: Evidence from Iceland Deep Drilling Project core RN-17B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, Andrew P. G.; Zierenberg, Robert A.; Schiffman, Peter; Marks, Naomi; Friðleifsson, Guðmundur Ómar

    2015-09-01

    We describe the lithology and present spatially resolved geochemical analyses of samples from the hydrothermally altered Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) drill core RN-17B. The 9.3 m long RN-17B core was collected from the seawater-dominated Reykjanes geothermal system, located on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland. The nature of fluids and the location of the Reykjanes geothermal system make it a useful analog for seafloor hydrothermal processes, although there are important differences. The recovery of drill core from the Reykjanes geothermal system, as opposed to drill cuttings, has provided the opportunity to investigate evolving geothermal conditions by utilizing in-situ geochemical techniques in the context of observed paragenetic and spatial relationships of alteration minerals. The RN-17B core was returned from a vertical depth of ~ 2560 m and an in-situ temperature of ~ 345 °C. The primary lithologies are basaltic in composition and include hyaloclastite breccia, fine-grained volcanic sandstone, lithic breccia, and crystalline basalt. Primary igneous phases have been entirely pseudomorphed by calcic plagioclase + magnesium hornblende + chlorite + titanite + albitized plagioclase + vein epidote and sulfides. Despite the extensive hydrothermal metasomatism, original textures including hyaloclastite glass shards, lithic clasts, chilled margins, and shell-fragment molds are superbly preserved. Multi-collector LA-ICP-MS strontium isotope ratio (87Sr/86Sr) measurements of vein epidote from the core are consistent with seawater as the dominant recharge fluid. Epidote-hosted fluid inclusion homogenization temperature and freezing point depression measurements suggest that the RN-17B core records cooling through the two-phase boundary for seawater over time to current in-situ measured temperatures. Electron microprobe analyses of hydrothermal hornblende and hydrothermal plagioclase confirm that while alteration is of amphibolite-grade, it is in disequilibrium

  15. Core strengthening.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Elizabeth A

    2007-01-01

    Several recent studies have evaluated interventional techniques designed to reduce the risk of serious knee injuries, particularly noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries in female athletes. Maintenance of rotational control of the limb underneath the pelvis, especially in response to cutting and jumping activities, is a common goal in many training programs. Rotational control of the limb underneath the pelvis is mediated by a complex set of factors including the strength of the trunk muscles and the relationship between the core muscles. It is important to examine the interrelationship between lower extremity function and core stability. PMID:17472321

  16. Determination of test methods for the prediction of the behavior of mass concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, Christopher C.

    Hydration at early ages results from chemical and physical processes that take place between Portland cement and water, and is an exothermic process. The resultant heat evolution and temperature rise for massive concrete placements can be so great that the temperature differentials between the internal concrete core and outer concrete stratum can cause cracking due to thermal gradients. Accurate prediction of temperature distribution and stresses in mass concrete is needed to determine if a given concrete mixture design may have problems in the field, so that adjustments to the design can be made prior to its use. This research examines calorimetric, strength, and physical testing methods in an effort to predict the thermal and physical behavior of mass concrete. Four groups of concrete mixture types containing different cementitious materials are examined. One group contains Portland cement, while the other three groups incorporate large replacements of supplementary cementitious materials: granulated blast furnace slag, fly ash, and a ternary blend (combining Portland cement, fly ash, and slag).

  17. The Inhibitory Core of the Myostatin Prodomain: Its Interaction with Both Type I and II Membrane Receptors, and Potential to Treat Muscle Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Ohsawa, Yutaka; Takayama, Kentaro; Nishimatsu, Shin-ichiro; Okada, Tadashi; Fujino, Masahiro; Fukai, Yuta; Murakami, Tatsufumi; Hagiwara, Hiroki; Itoh, Fumiko; Tsuchida, Kunihiro; Hayashi, Yoshio; Sunada, Yoshihide

    2015-01-01

    Myostatin, a muscle-specific transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass. The N-terminal prodomain of myostatin noncovalently binds to and suppresses the C-terminal mature domain (ligand) as an inactive circulating complex. However, which region of the myostatin prodomain is required to inhibit the biological activity of myostatin has remained unknown. We identified a 29-amino acid region that inhibited myostatin-induced transcriptional activity by 79% compared with the full-length prodomain. This inhibitory core resides near the N-terminus of the prodomain and includes an α-helix that is evolutionarily conserved among other TGF-β family members, but suppresses activation of myostatin and growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) that share identical membrane receptors. Interestingly, the inhibitory core co-localized and co-immunoprecipitated with not only the ligand, but also its type I and type II membrane receptors. Deletion of the inhibitory core in the full-length prodomain removed all capacity for suppression of myostatin. A synthetic peptide corresponding to the inhibitory core (p29) ameliorates impaired myoblast differentiation induced by myostatin and GDF11, but not activin or TGF-β1. Moreover, intramuscular injection of p29 alleviated muscle atrophy and decreased the absolute force in caveolin 3-deficient limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1C model mice. The injection suppressed activation of myostatin signaling and restored the decreased numbers of muscle precursor cells caused by caveolin 3 deficiency. Our findings indicate a novel concept for this newly identified inhibitory core of the prodomain of myostatin: that it not only suppresses the ligand, but also prevents two distinct membrane receptors from binding to the ligand. This study provides a strong rationale for the use of p29 in the amelioration of skeletal muscle atrophy in various clinical settings. PMID:26226340

  18. The Inhibitory Core of the Myostatin Prodomain: Its Interaction with Both Type I and II Membrane Receptors, and Potential to Treat Muscle Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Ohsawa, Yutaka; Takayama, Kentaro; Nishimatsu, Shin-ichiro; Okada, Tadashi; Fujino, Masahiro; Fukai, Yuta; Murakami, Tatsufumi; Hagiwara, Hiroki; Itoh, Fumiko; Tsuchida, Kunihiro; Hayashi, Yoshio; Sunada, Yoshihide

    2015-01-01

    Myostatin, a muscle-specific transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass. The N-terminal prodomain of myostatin noncovalently binds to and suppresses the C-terminal mature domain (ligand) as an inactive circulating complex. However, which region of the myostatin prodomain is required to inhibit the biological activity of myostatin has remained unknown. We identified a 29-amino acid region that inhibited myostatin-induced transcriptional activity by 79% compared with the full-length prodomain. This inhibitory core resides near the N-terminus of the prodomain and includes an α-helix that is evolutionarily conserved among other TGF-β family members, but suppresses activation of myostatin and growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) that share identical membrane receptors. Interestingly, the inhibitory core co-localized and co-immunoprecipitated with not only the ligand, but also its type I and type II membrane receptors. Deletion of the inhibitory core in the full-length prodomain removed all capacity for suppression of myostatin. A synthetic peptide corresponding to the inhibitory core (p29) ameliorates impaired myoblast differentiation induced by myostatin and GDF11, but not activin or TGF-β1. Moreover, intramuscular injection of p29 alleviated muscle atrophy and decreased the absolute force in caveolin 3-deficient limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1C model mice. The injection suppressed activation of myostatin signaling and restored the decreased numbers of muscle precursor cells caused by caveolin 3 deficiency. Our findings indicate a novel concept for this newly identified inhibitory core of the prodomain of myostatin: that it not only suppresses the ligand, but also prevents two distinct membrane receptors from binding to the ligand. This study provides a strong rationale for the use of p29 in the amelioration of skeletal muscle atrophy in various clinical settings. PMID:26226340

  19. RECENT BIOGENIC PHOSPHORITE: CONCRETIONS IN MOLLUSK KIDNEYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phosphorite concretions have been detected in the kidneys of two widespread species of mollusks. Mercenaria mercenaria and Argopecten irradians, which have relatively high population densities. These concretions are the first documentation of the direct biogenic formation of phos...

  20. Radionuclide Retention in Concrete Wasteforms - FY13

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Michelle MV; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Lapierre, Robert; Dage, Denomy C.; Parker, Kent E.; Cordova, Elsa A.

    2013-10-15

    Assessing long-term performance of Category 3 waste cement grouts for radionuclide encasement requires knowledge of the radionuclide-cement interactions and mechanisms of retention (i.e., sorption or precipitation); the mechanism of contaminant release; the significance of contaminant release pathways; how wasteform performance is affected by the full range of environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the process of wasteform aging under conditions that are representative of processes occurring in response to changing environmental conditions within the disposal facility; the effect of wasteform aging on chemical, physical, and radiological properties; and the associated impact on contaminant release. This knowledge will enable accurate prediction of radionuclide fate when the wasteforms come in contact with groundwater. Data collected throughout the course of this work will be used to quantify the efficacy of concrete wasteforms, similar to those used in the disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste, for the immobilization of key radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium, and iodine). Data collected will also be used to quantify the physical and chemical properties of the concrete affecting radionuclide retention.

  1. Tensile Bond Strength of Latex-Modified Bonded Concrete Overlays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Cameron; Ramseyer, Chris

    2010-10-01

    The tensile bond strength of bonded concrete overlays was tested using the in-situ pull-off method described in ASTM C 1583 with the goal of determining whether adding latex to the mix design increases bond strength. One slab of ductile concrete (f'c > 12,000 psi) was cast with one half tined, i.e. roughened, and one half steel-troweled, i.e. smooth. The slab surface was sectioned off and overlay mixtures containing different latex contents cast in each section. Partial cores were drilled perpendicular to the surface through the overlay into the substrate. A tensile loading device applied a direct tensile load to each specimen and the load was increased until failure occurred. The tensile bond strength was then calculated for comparison between the specimens.

  2. Bond-slip detection of concrete-encased composite structure using electro-mechanical impedance technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yabin; Li, Dongsheng; Parvasi, Seyed Mohammad; Kong, Qingzhao; Lim, Ing; Song, Gangbing

    2016-09-01

    Concrete-encased composite structure is a type of structure that takes the advantages of both steel and concrete materials, showing improved strength, ductility, and fire resistance compared to traditional reinforced concrete structures. The interface between concrete and steel profiles governs the interaction between these two materials under loading, however, debonding damage between these two materials may lead to severe degradation of the load transferring capacity which will affect the structural performance significantly. In this paper, the electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) technique using piezoceramic transducers was experimentally investigated to detect the bond-slip occurrence of the concrete-encased composite structure. The root-mean-square deviation is used to quantify the variations of the impedance signatures due to the presence of the bond-slip damage. In order to verify the validity of the proposed method, finite element model analysis was performed to simulate the behavior of concrete-steel debonding based on a 3D finite element concrete-steel bond model. The computed impedance signatures from the numerical results are compared with the results obtained from the experimental study, and both the numerical and experimental studies verify the proposed EMI method to detect bond slip of a concrete-encased composite structure.

  3. Dynamic mechanical behavior and the constitutive model of concrete subjected to impact loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Jianguo; Liu, Haifeng; Shang, Lin

    2008-11-01

    Based on the theory of consecutive damage mechanics, micro-mechanics, statistics and the visco-plastic constitutive equation of Perzyna, a coupled model of damage and plasticity is developed to describe the complex behavior of concrete subjected to impact loadings. In this model, some suppositions about deformation of the material and evolution of the damage are made. First, concrete is macroscopically assumed to be homogeneous and consecutive, while it is microscopically filled with large amounts of micro-crack and micro-void defects. Second, the damage evolution of the micro-cracks is caused by the nucleation, growth and coalescence of the micro-cracks due to the interior tensile stress in concrete, which leads to a degradation in the strength and stiffness of concrete. Third, compaction of concrete is physically a collapse of the material micro-void. It produces irreversible plastic strains in the material and, at the same time, an increase in the bulk modulus. Fourth, there is no interaction between the micro-crack and the micro-void. Last, when the damage reaches a critical value, the concrete may fail totally. The model parameters for concrete are determined by plate impact experiments. The model predictions fit the experimental results well. So the model can be used to simulate the dynamic mechanical behavior of concrete under impact loadings.

  4. Fracture Mechanics Modelling of an In Situ Concrete Spalling Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siren, Topias; Uotinen, Lauri; Rinne, Mikael; Shen, Baotang

    2015-07-01

    During the operation of nuclear waste disposal facilities, some sprayed concrete reinforced underground spaces will be in use for approximately 100 years. During this time of use, the local stress regime will be altered by the radioactive decay heat. The change in the stress state will impose high demands on sprayed concrete, as it may suffer stress damage or lose its adhesion to the rock surface. It is also unclear what kind of support pressure the sprayed concrete layer will apply to the rock. To investigate this, an in situ experiment is planned in the ONKALO underground rock characterization facility at Olkiluoto, Finland. A vertical experimental hole will be concreted, and the surrounding rock mass will be instrumented with heat sources, in order to simulate an increase in the surrounding stress field. The experiment is instrumented with an acoustic emission system for the observation of rock failure and temperature, as well as strain gauges to observe the thermo-mechanical interactive behaviour of the concrete and rock at several levels, in both rock and concrete. A thermo-mechanical fracture mechanics study is necessary for the prediction of the damage before the experiment, in order to plan the experiment and instrumentation, and for generating a proper prediction/outcome study due to the special nature of the in situ experiment. The prediction of acoustic emission patterns is made by Fracod 2D and the model later compared to the actual observed acoustic emissions. The fracture mechanics model will be compared to a COMSOL Multiphysics 3D model to study the geometrical effects along the hole axis.

  5. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Concrete flooring. 91.26 Section 91.26... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.26 Concrete flooring. (a) Pens aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000...

  6. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Concrete flooring. 91.26 Section 91.26... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.26 Concrete flooring. (a) Pens aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000...

  7. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Concrete flooring. 91.26 Section 91.26... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.26 Concrete flooring. (a) Pens aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000...

  8. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Concrete flooring. 91.26 Section 91.26... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.26 Concrete flooring. (a) Pens aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000...

  9. 9 CFR 91.26 - Concrete flooring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Concrete flooring. 91.26 Section 91.26... LIVESTOCK FOR EXPORTATION Inspection of Vessels and Accommodations § 91.26 Concrete flooring. (a) Pens aboard an ocean vessel shall have a 3 inch concrete pavement, proportioned and mixed to give 2000...

  10. RADON GENERATION AND TRANSPORT IN AGED CONCRETE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a characterization of radon generation and transport in Florida concretes sampled from 12- to 45-year-old residential slabs. It also compares measurements from old concrete samples to previous measurements on newly poured Florida residential concretes....

  11. Molecular Survey of Concrete Biofilm Microbial Communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although several studies have shown that bacteria can deteriorate concrete structures, there is very little information on the composition of concrete microbial communities. To this end, we studied different microbial communities associated with concrete biofilms using 16S rRNA g...

  12. FIELD STUDIES OF IMPREGNATED CONCRETE PIPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The follow-on study (initiated in June 1980) continued to monitor performance of 1,400 ft of impregnated concrete pipe installed in several Texas cities. The performance of concrete pipe has been compared with that of sulfur-impregnated concrete pipe; hydrofluoric acid (HF)-treat...

  13. Evaluation of ilmenite serpentine concrete and ordinary concrete as nuclear reactor shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abulfaraj, Waleed H.; Kamal, Salah M.

    1994-07-01

    The present study involves adapting a formal decision methodology to the selection of alternative nuclear reactor concretes shielding. Multiattribute utility theory is selected to accommodate decision makers' preferences. Multiattribute utility theory (MAU) is here employed to evaluate two appropriate nuclear reactor shielding concretes in terms of effectiveness to determine the optimal choice in order to meet the radiation protection regulations. These concretes are Ordinary concrete (O.C.) and Ilmenite Serpentile concrete (I.S.C.). These are normal weight concrete and heavy heat resistive concrete, respectively. The effectiveness objective of the nuclear reactor shielding is defined and structured into definite attributes and subattributes to evaluate the best alternative. Factors affecting the decision are dose received by reactor's workers, the material properties as well as cost of concrete shield. A computer program is employed to assist in performing utility analysis. Based upon data, the result shows the superiority of Ordinary concrete over Ilmenite Serpentine concrete.

  14. Fault core and damage zone fracture attributes vary along strike owing to interaction of fracture growth, quartz accumulation, and differing sandstone composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubach, S. E.; Eichhubl, P.; Hargrove, P.; Ellis, M. A.; Hooker, J. N.

    2014-11-01

    Small, meter-to decimeter-displacement oblique-slip faults cut latest Precambrian lithic arkose to feldspathic litharenite and Cambrian quartz arenite sandstones in NW Scotland. Despite common slip and thermal histories during faulting, the two sandstone units have different fault-core and damage-zone attributes, including fracture length and aperture distributions, and location of quartz deposits. Fault cores are narrow (less than 1 m), low-porosity cataclasite in lithic arkose/feldspathic litharenites. Damage zone-parallel opening-mode fractures are long (meters or more) with narrow ranges of lengths and apertures, are mostly isolated, have sparse quartz cement, and are open. In contrast, quartz arenites, despite abundant quartz cement, have fault cores that contain porous breccia and dense, striated slip zones. Damage-zone fractures have lengths ranging from meters to centimeters or less, but with distributions skewed to short fractures, and have power-law aperture distributions. Owing to extensive quartz cement, they tend to be sealed. These attributes reflect inhibited authigenic quartz accumulation on feldspar and lithic grains, which are unfavorable precipitation substrates, and favored accumulation on detrital quartz. In quartz breccia, macropores >0.04 mm wide persist where surrounded by slow-growing euhedral quartz. Differences in quartz occurrence and size distributions are compatible with the hypothesis that cement deposits modify the probability of fracture reactivation. Existing fractures readily reactivate in focused growth where quartz accumulation is low and porosity high. Only some existing, partly cemented fractures reactivate and some deformation is manifest in new fracture formation in partitioned growth where quartz accumulation is high. Consequences include along-strike differences in permeability and locus of fluid flow between cores and damage zones and fault strength.

  15. Concrete Finisher Program. Apprenticeship Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    This document presents information about the apprenticeship training program of Alberta, Canada, in general and the concrete finishing program in particular. The first part of the document discusses the following items: Alberta's apprenticeship and industry training system; the apprenticeship and industry training committee structure; local…

  16. Early Reading and Concrete Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polk, Cindy L. Howes; Goldstein, David

    1980-01-01

    Indicated that early readers are more likely to be advanced in cognitive development than are nonearly-reading peers. After one year of formal reading instruction, early readers maintained their advantage in reading achievement. Measures of concrete operations were found to predict reading achievement for early and nonearly readers. (Author/DB)

  17. Concrete platforms for Southeast Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, G.C.; Reusswig, G.H.

    1995-10-01

    The use of concrete offshore structures for hydrocarbon resource developments in SE Asia has, to-date, had little precedent but their potential across the region seems unlimited. The interest is continuing to grow because the structures can be built using local materials and local labor in the countries where the platforms are to be used. For many applications, they are cost competitive with steel structures. The concrete substructure requires little or no maintenance throughout the life of the structure, thus reducing operating costs. The concrete structures can be self-installing without the use of crane barges or heavy-lift vessels. They are re-floatable and can be used again in other locations. They also can be designed to include oil or condensate storage within the structure, thus eliminating the need for additional floating storage in areas where offshore pipelines do not exist. The paper describes a few concrete structure concepts that are applicable for Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam and Australia and considerations for their use.

  18. Quick-setting concrete and a method for making quick-setting concrete

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, Arun S.; Singh, Dileep; Pullockaran, Jose D.; Knox, Lerry

    1997-01-01

    A method for producing quick setting concrete is provided comprising hydrng a concrete dry mixture with carbonate solution to create a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a quick setting concrete having a predetermined proportion of CaCO.sub.3 of between 5 and 23 weight percent of the entire concrete mixture, and whereby the concrete has a compression strength of approximately 4,000 pounds per square inch (psi) within 24 hours after pouring.

  19. Assessment of the accuracy of shape-consistent relativistic effective core potentials using multireference spin-orbit configuration interaction singles and doubles calculations of the ground and low-lying excited states of U(4+) and U(5+).

    PubMed

    Beck, Eric V; Brozell, Scott R; Blaudeau, Jean-Philippe; Burggraf, Larry W; Pitzer, Russell M

    2009-11-12

    Multireference spin-orbit configuration interaction calculations were used to determine the accuracy of 60-, 68-, and 78-electron shape-consistent relativistic effective core potentials (RECPs) for uranium V and VI ground and low-lying excited states. Both 5f(n) and (5f6d)(n), (n = 1, 2) reference spaces were investigated using correlation-consistent double-zeta quality basis sets. Accuracy was assessed against gas-phase experimental spectra. The 68-electron RECP calculations yielded low relative and rms errors and predicted the empirical ordering of states most consistently. PMID:19888778

  20. Water Rock interactions in the basement beneath Long Valley Caldera: an oxygen isotope study of the Long Valley Exploratory Well drill cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Biswajit

    2002-08-01

    The Long Valley Exploratory Well, at the center of the Resurgent Dome of Long Valley caldera, penetrated pre-caldera basement rocks at a depth of 2101.72-2313.0 m, beneath the caldera-forming Bishop Tuff and post-caldera Early Rhyolite. The basement rocks contain prominent quartzites, with ubiquitous milky white quartz veins (with minor calcite and pyrite) and fractures of varied orientation and geometry. The other members of the basement sequence are very fine-grained quartz-rich graphitic pelites with calcite veins, spotted hornfels, and shallow intrusive rocks. Previous studies established the presence of a post-caldera, paleohydrothermal system (500-100 ka) to a depth of 2000 m that affected the Bishop Tuff and a recent (40 ka to present) hydrothermal system at shallow depth (<1 km). The deeper extent of these hydrothermal activities is established in this paper by a detailed oxygen isotope analysis of the drill core samples. 238 analyses of δ 18O in 50 quartz veins within the 163.57 m depth interval of basement rocks reveal extreme heterogeneity in δ 18O values (˜8-19.5‰). Majorities of the 84 bulk analyses of quartzites show variation of δ 18O within a narrow range of 14-16‰. However, certain samples of these quartzites near the contacts with veins and fractures exhibit sharp drops in δ 18O. The interbedded pelitic rocks and spotted hornfels have whole-rock δ 18O ranging from 2.2 to 11.8‰. Clear, euhedral vuggy quartz that partially fills earlier open fractures in both the quartzites and quartz veins, has distinctive δ 18O, ranging between -3.2 and +8.4‰. Low values of δ 18O are also found in the hydrothermal minerals and whole rocks adjacent to the thin veins, clearly indicating infiltration of meteoric water. Three distinct observed patterns of fractionation in δ 18O between veins and host quartzites are analyzed with the principles of mass balance, equilibrium oxygen isotope fractionation in closed system, and kinetically controlled oxygen

  1. Microbiologically induced deterioration of concrete - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shiping; Jiang, Zhenglong; Liu, Hao; Zhou, Dongsheng; Sanchez-Silva, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically induced deterioration (MID) causes corrosion of concrete by producing acids (including organic and inorganic acids) that degrade concrete components and thus compromise the integrity of sewer pipelines and other structures, creating significant problems worldwide. Understanding of the fundamental corrosion process and the causal agents will help us develop an appropriate strategy to minimize the costs in repairs. This review presents how microorganisms induce the deterioration of concrete, including the organisms involved and their colonization and succession on concrete, the microbial deterioration mechanism, the approaches of studying MID and safeguards against concrete biodeterioration. In addition, the uninvestigated research area of MID is also proposed. PMID:24688488

  2. Diffusion of Radionuclides in Concrete and Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Parker, Kent E.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Clayton, Libby N.; Wood, Marcus I.

    2012-04-25

    One of the methods being considered for safely disposing of Category 3 low-level radioactive wastes is to encase the waste in concrete. Such concrete encasement would contain and isolate the waste packages from the hydrologic environment and would act as an intrusion barrier. Any failure of concrete encasement may result in water intrusion and consequent mobilization of radionuclides from the waste packages. The mobilized radionuclides may escape from the encased concrete by mass flow and/or diffusion and move into the surrounding subsurface environment. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the performance of the concrete encasement structure and the ability of the surrounding soil to retard radionuclide migration. The objective of our study was to measure the diffusivity of Re, Tc and I in concrete containment and the surrounding vadose zone soil. Effects of carbonation, presence of metallic iron, and fracturing of concrete and the varying moisture contents in soil on the diffusivities of Tc and I were evaluated.

  3. Performance of concrete under different curing conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, K.; Gjorv, O.E.

    1996-03-01

    The effect of curing conditions on strength and permeability of concrete was studied. Test results showed that after 3 and 7 days moist curing only the concretes with w/c ratios equal to or less than 0.4 were accepted, while after 28 days of moist curing however, even the concrete with w/c of 0.6 could be accepted. Silica fume has a significant effect on the resistance to water penetration. For the concretes both with and without silica fume and with w/c + s of 0.5, the 28-day compressive strengths of 3 and 7 days moist curing were higher than those of 28 days moist curing, and the silica fume concrete seemed to be less sensitive to early drying. The curing temperatures did not affect the water penetration of concrete, but affected the chloride penetration and compressive strength of concrete significantly.

  4. Characterization and genesis interpretation of charcoal-bearing concretions from the early Eocene Ione Formation, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bair, D.; Aburto, F.

    2013-12-01

    Charcoal core concretions have been discovered in the kaolinitic soil horizons of the Ione formation (early Eocene epoch ~52Ma BP). It is thought that the Ione Formation in the Ione Basin was deposited in delta and estuarine waters that were subsequently exhumed and exposed to a warmer, humid, tropical-like environment during the early Eocene. The formation of concretions is indicative of seasonal dryness, and the charcoal cores are evidence of wildfires and of the existence of a forest ecosystem. The mineral outer shells of the concretions have been characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Electron Microprobe and Laser Ablation Quadruple Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Micro-computed tomography (MCT) scans indicate that these concretions have at least three distinct shells and a inner core with fragments of charcoal without apparent internal organization. The outer shell is mainly composed of a layered mix of kaolinite, quartz, goethite, hematite and birnessite. Some pyrite and jarosite have also been found, which could indicate that goethite may be post-depositional and a product of the bacteria-mediated oxidation of pyrite. The central shell has a similar composition, but with a higher content of iron oxyhydroxides and jarosite. The inner cores of the concretions are mainly composed of a mixture of kaolinite and quartz which correspond to the layer in which the concretions were found. The concretion cores contain loose charcoal fragments in a unsolidified kaolinite matrix. The charcoal fragments have been characterized by Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), C/N isotope analysis, and Synchrotron radiation FTIR (SR-FTIR). Analysis of the ATR-FTIR spectra showed significant absorbance peaks at wavenumbers that coincided with the chemical functionality of other wood biochars. Charcoal from different concretions display (n =12) extremely similar spectra which suggest that they were originated from similar species and

  5. Semantic Neighborhood Effects for Abstract versus Concrete Words

    PubMed Central

    Danguecan, Ashley N.; Buchanan, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that semantic effects may be task-specific, and thus, that semantic representations are flexible and dynamic. Such findings are critical to the development of a comprehensive theory of semantic processing in visual word recognition, which should arguably account for how semantic effects may vary by task. It has been suggested that semantic effects are more directly examined using tasks that explicitly require meaning processing relative to those for which meaning processing is not necessary (e.g., lexical decision task). The purpose of the present study was to chart the processing of concrete versus abstract words in the context of a global co-occurrence variable, semantic neighborhood density (SND), by comparing word recognition response times (RTs) across four tasks varying in explicit semantic demands: standard lexical decision task (with non-pronounceable non-words), go/no-go lexical decision task (with pronounceable non-words), progressive demasking task, and sentence relatedness task. The same experimental stimulus set was used across experiments and consisted of 44 concrete and 44 abstract words, with half of these being low SND, and half being high SND. In this way, concreteness and SND were manipulated in a factorial design using a number of visual word recognition tasks. A consistent RT pattern emerged across tasks, in which SND effects were found for abstract (but not necessarily concrete) words. Ultimately, these findings highlight the importance of studying interactive effects in word recognition, and suggest that linguistic associative information is particularly important for abstract words. PMID:27458422

  6. Semantic Neighborhood Effects for Abstract versus Concrete Words.

    PubMed

    Danguecan, Ashley N; Buchanan, Lori

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that semantic effects may be task-specific, and thus, that semantic representations are flexible and dynamic. Such findings are critical to the development of a comprehensive theory of semantic processing in visual word recognition, which should arguably account for how semantic effects may vary by task. It has been suggested that semantic effects are more directly examined using tasks that explicitly require meaning processing relative to those for which meaning processing is not necessary (e.g., lexical decision task). The purpose of the present study was to chart the processing of concrete versus abstract words in the context of a global co-occurrence variable, semantic neighborhood density (SND), by comparing word recognition response times (RTs) across four tasks varying in explicit semantic demands: standard lexical decision task (with non-pronounceable non-words), go/no-go lexical decision task (with pronounceable non-words), progressive demasking task, and sentence relatedness task. The same experimental stimulus set was used across experiments and consisted of 44 concrete and 44 abstract words, with half of these being low SND, and half being high SND. In this way, concreteness and SND were manipulated in a factorial design using a number of visual word recognition tasks. A consistent RT pattern emerged across tasks, in which SND effects were found for abstract (but not necessarily concrete) words. Ultimately, these findings highlight the importance of studying interactive effects in word recognition, and suggest that linguistic associative information is particularly important for abstract words. PMID:27458422

  7. Neurocognitive mechanisms underlying value-based decision-making: from core values to economic value

    PubMed Central

    Brosch, Tobias; Sander, David

    2013-01-01

    Value plays a central role in practically every aspect of human life that requires a decision: whether we choose between different consumer goods, whether we decide which person we marry or which political candidate gets our vote, we choose the option that has more value to us. Over the last decade, neuroeconomic research has mapped the neural substrates of economic value, revealing that activation in brain regions such as ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), ventral striatum or posterior cingulate cortex reflects how much an individual values an option and which of several options he/she will choose. However, while great progress has been made exploring the mechanisms underlying concrete decisions, neuroeconomic research has been less concerned with the questions of why people value what they value, and why different people value different things. Social psychologists and sociologists have long been interested in core values, motivational constructs that are intrinsically linked to the self-schema and are used to guide actions and decisions across different situations and different time points. Core value may thus be an important determinant of individual differences in economic value computation and decision-making. Based on a review of recent neuroimaging studies investigating the neural representation of core values and their interactions with neural systems representing economic value, we outline a common framework that integrates the core value concept and neuroeconomic research on value-based decision-making. PMID:23898252

  8. Sensitivity analysis of free vibration characteristics of an in situ railway concrete sleeper to variations of rail pad parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaewunruen, Sakdirat; Remennikov, Alex M.

    2006-11-01

    The vibration of in situ concrete sleepers in a railway track structure is a major factor causing cracking of prestressed concrete sleepers and excessive railway track maintenance cost. Not only does the ballast interact with the sleepers, but the rail pads also take part in affecting their free vibration characteristics. This paper presents a sensitivity analysis of free vibration behaviors of an in situ railway concrete sleeper (standard gauge sleeper), incorporating sleeper/ballast interaction, subjected to the variations of rail pad properties. Through finite element analysis, Timoshenko-beam and spring elements were used in the in situ railway concrete sleeper modeling. This model highlights the influence of rail pad parameters on the free vibration characteristics of in situ sleepers. In addition, information on the first five flexural vibration modes indicates the dynamic performance of railway track when using different types of rail pads, as it plays a vital role in the cracking deterioration of concrete sleepers.

  9. Core-mantle Mill Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yikun

    2003-05-01

    Based on radiation mechanics, the history of Earth can be interpreted by core-mantle mill theory. The theory confesses the inner core as a ferromagnet. The ferromagnetism of inner core is supported by observed anisotropic property of inner core in transmitting seismic waves. Rotation of Earth originates from the magnetic interaction between Earth and Jovian planets. Since the torque caused by the magnetic interaction between Earth and Jovian planets only acts on the iron core of Earth, the core behaves as a rotating engine, tending to change both the rate and axis of Earth's rotation, while the mantle is the resistant to any alternation of rotation. The interplay between the two leads to formations of fluid outer core, basalt magmas, oceanic crust, and differential rotation between the inner core and mantle. Rock materials at the core-mantle boundary are ground into basalt magma due to the differential rotation between the inner core and mantle. Mid-ocean ridge systems are interpreted as the huge dike systems rooted in some principal magma chambers in the core-mantle boundary layer. The anisotropy of background radiation in the polar directions determines the patterns of mid-ocean ridge systems on the Earth's surface and the global tectonic movement of the Earth's crust. The theory also explains the causes of geomagnetic reversals, mass extinctions and global climate changes. The history of Earth is featured by three stages: without oceanic crust (before 2.7Ga), creation of oceanic crust (2.7-2.25Ga) and growth of continents (after 2.25Ga).

  10. Solid-state interactions at the core-coat interface: physicochemical characterization of enteric-coated omeprazole pellets without a protective sub-coat.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vishnu Dutt; Akocak, Suleyman; Ilies, Marc A; Fassihi, Reza

    2015-08-01

    Conventionally, scanning electron or transmission microscopy, Raman and near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, terahertz, florescence, and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging have been used to characterize functional coating structure. This study highlights the use of fluorescence microscopy to investigate the physicochemical stability and coating integrity of the commercially available enteric-coated omeprazole pellets containing a basic excipient and prepared by extrusion and spheronization or drug layering on the nonpareil seed, immediately followed by enteric coating (i.e., absence of protective sub-coat). The nature of coating interface and the likely development of an in situ interfacial layer after the application of enteric coating solution was examined using HPLC, NMR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and fluorescent imaging methods. Likewise for the characterization of the solid pellet structure via fluorescence microscopy, a new approach based on fracturing technique (to avoid surface contamination) rather than microtome sectioning was used and validated. Analytical data showed that the pellets containing omeprazole remained chemically stable (>99.5% recovered). Control of the microenvironmental pH by the addition of alkalinizing excipient within a core formulation or as part of drug layering on top of nonpareil seed appears to efficiently neutralize the acidic effect of enteric coating dispersion. Fluorescence images further illustrate the absence of any discernable in situ layer formation at the coat-core interface. PMID:25595125

  11. Cyclic performance of concrete-filled steel batten built-up columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razzaghi, M. S.; Khalkhaliha, M.; Aziminejad, A.

    2016-03-01

    Steel built-up batten columns are common types of columns in Iran and some other parts of the world. They are economic and have acceptable performance due to gravity loads. Although several researches have been conducted on the behavior of the batten columns under axial loads, there are few available articles about their seismic performance. Experience of the past earthquakes, particularly the 2003 Bam earthquake in Iran, revealed that these structural members are seismically vulnerable. Thus, investigation on seismic performance of steel batten columns due to seismic loads and providing a method for retrofitting them are important task in seismic-prone areas. This study aims to investigate the behavior of concrete-filled batten columns due to combined axial and lateral loads. To this end, nonlinear static analyses were performed using ANSYS software. Herein, the behaviors of the steel batten columns with and without concrete core were compared. The results of this study showed that concrete-filled steel batten columns, particularly those filled with high-strength concrete, may cause significant increases in energy absorption and capacity of the columns. Furthermore, concrete core may improve post-buckling behavior of steel batten columns.

  12. A non-active-site SET domain surface crucial for the interaction of MLL1 and the RbBP5/Ash2L heterodimer within MLL family core complexes.

    PubMed

    Shinsky, Stephen A; Hu, Michael; Vought, Valarie E; Ng, Sarah B; Bamshad, Michael J; Shendure, Jay; Cosgrove, Michael S

    2014-06-12

    The mixed lineage leukemia-1 (MLL1) enzyme is a histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) monomethyltransferase and has served as a paradigm for understanding the mechanism of action of the human SET1 family of enzymes that include MLL1-MLL4 and SETd1a,b. Dimethylation of H3K4 requires a sub-complex including WRAD (WDR5, RbBP5, Ash2L, and DPY-30), which binds to each SET1 family member forming a minimal core complex that is required for multiple lysine methylation. We recently demonstrated that WRAD is a novel histone methyltransferase that preferentially catalyzes H3K4 dimethylation in a manner that is dependent on an unknown non-active-site surface from the MLL1 SET domain. Recent genome sequencing studies have identified a number of human disease-associated missense mutations that localize to the SET domains of several MLL family members. In this investigation, we mapped many of these mutations onto the three-dimensional structure of the SET domain and noticed that a subset of MLL2 (KMT2D, ALR, MLL4)-associated Kabuki syndrome missense mutations map to a common solvent-exposed surface that is not expected to alter enzymatic activity. We introduced these mutations into the MLL1 SET domain and observed that all are defective for H3K4 dimethylation by the MLL1 core complex, which is associated with a loss of the ability of MLL1 to interact with WRAD or with the RbBP5/Ash2L heterodimer. Our results suggest that amino acids from this surface, which we term the Kabuki interaction surface or KIS, are required for formation of a second active site within SET1 family core complexes. PMID:24680668

  13. A non-active site SET domain surface crucial for the interaction of MLL1 and the RbBP5-ASH2L heterodimer within MLL family core complexes

    PubMed Central

    Shinsky, Stephen A.; Hu, Michael; Vought, Valarie E.; Ng, Sarah B.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Shendure, Jay; Cosgrove, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    The Mixed Lineage Leukemia-1 (MLL1) enzyme is a histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) monomethyltransferase and has served as a paradigm for understanding the mechanism of action of the human SET1 family of enzymes that include MLL1–4, and SET1d1a,b. Dimethylation of H3K4 requires a sub-complex including WDR5, RbBP5, Ash2L, and DPY-30 (WRAD), which binds to each SET1 family member forming a minimal core complex that is required for multiple lysine methylation. We recently demonstrated that WRAD is a novel histone methyltransferase that preferentially catalyzes H3K4 dimethylation in a manner that is dependent on an unknown non-active site surface from the MLL1 SET domain. Recent genome sequencing studies have identified a number of human disease-associated missense mutations that localize to the SET domains of several MLL family members. In this investigation, we mapped many of these mutations onto the three-dimensional structure of the SET domain and noticed that a subset of MLL2 (KMT2D, ALR, MLL4)-associated Kabuki syndrome (KS) missense mutations map to a common solvent-exposed surface that is not expected to alter enzymatic activity. We introduced these mutations into the MLL1 SET domain and observed that all are defective for H3K4 dimethylation by the MLL1 core complex, which is associated with a loss of the ability of MLL1 to interact with WRAD or with the RbBP5-Ash2L heterodimer. Our results suggest that amino acids from this surface, which we term the Kabuki interaction surface or (KIS), are required for formation of a second active site within SET1 family core complexes. PMID:24680668

  14. Fracture properties of lightweight concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, T.P.; Shieh, M.M.

    1996-02-01

    This study presents the experimental results of fracture properties of concrete incorporating two kinds of domestic lightweight aggregate (LWA) manufactured through either a cold-bonding or a sintering process. The cold-bonded aggregates were mainly made of pulverized fly-ash through a cold-pelletization process at ambient temperature, while the sintered aggregates were made of clay and shale expanded by heat at a temperature near 1,200 C. Experimental results show that the 28-day compressive strengths of {phi} 100 x 200 mm cylindrical concrete specimen made of those LWAs range from 30.1 (sintered) to 33.9 MPa (cold-bonded). By means of size effect law, it is found that the fracture energies, G{sub f}, were 34.42 N/m (sintered) and 37.2 N/m (cold-bonded), respectively.

  15. Late-time mid-IR emission from Type Ia and stripped-envelope core-collapse supernovae - possible sign of circumstellar interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalai, Tamas; Vinko, Jozsef; Pooley, David A.; Silverman, Jeffrey Michael; Wheeler, J. Craig

    2016-01-01

    The signs of circumstellar interaction in the late phase (>1 yr) of supernovae (SNe) can be studied in various wavelength regimes from X-ray to radio. These observations offer a chance to reveal information about the type and mass-loss history of the progenitor, the presence of a companion star, and the environment of the SN. While this phenomenon is well-known and well-studied concerning SN IIn, similar processes have not been observed to take place in other types of SNe.We suggest that numeruous objects belong to other types of SNe (SNe Ia, Ib/c or IIb) may also show detectable sign of circumstellar interaction. In these types of SNe, the source of late-time mid-infrared (mid-IR) excess may be some kind of interaction between the SN ejecta and the circumstellar matter (CSM) that originated from the pre-explosion mass-loss of the progenitor and/or its companion star. The observed mid-IR emission from these SNe, especially combined with data from other wavelength regimes, may be a convincing sign of CSM interaction.Here we present some unpublished results based on the archive measurements of the Spitzer Space Telescope. Our study includes the analysis of late-time mid-IR emission from such well-known CSM-interacting SNe like SN Ia-CSM PTF11kx, SN Ibn 2001em, and SN IIb 1993J, as well as from some other interesting Type Ia and stripped-envelope SNe, where CSM interaction may also take place.

  16. Repair monitoring of cracked concrete floor using the impulse response method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoidis, Nikolaos; Tatsis, Efthymios; Vlachopoulos, Christos; Gotzamanis, Anastasios; Stærke Clausen, Jesper; Aggelis, Dimitrios; Matikas, Theodore E.

    2014-04-01

    The objective of the present study was the repair monitoring of an extensively cracked concrete floor using the Impulse - Response method. The study included the evaluation of the condition of the concrete floor that suffered from extensive cracking on its surface, through systematic tests. The purpose of the study was to investigate the causes that led to extensive cracking on the floor surface in order to plan the repair strategy. The investigation included a thorough visual inspection and recording of cracks, estimation of the crack depth using ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements, investigation for voids between the concrete floor and the underlying aggregate layer using the Impulse - Response method, concrete floor thickness estimation using the Impact - Echo method and concrete quality estimation using cores cutting. The repair method that was chosen was based on grout injections in order to fill the voids located between the concrete and the underlying aggregate layer. The area, where the injections took place, was inspected using the Impulse - Response method before and after the injections for monitoring purposes and a secondary grid was designed after considering the results. The area was inspected for a third time, after injecting in the secondary grid, in order to confirm the successful filling of the voids.

  17. Diffuse ultrasound monitoring of stress and damage development on a 15-ton concrete beam.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuxiang; Planès, Thomas; Larose, Eric; Obermann, Anne; Rospars, Claude; Moreau, Gautier

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the use of an ultrasonic imaging technique (Locadiff) for the Non-Destructive Testing & Evaluation of a concrete structure. By combining coda wave interferometry and a sensitivity kernel for diffuse waves, Locadiff can monitor the elastic and structural properties of a heterogeneous material with a high sensitivity, and can map changes of these properties over time when a perturbation occurs in the bulk of the material. The applicability of the technique to life-size concrete structures is demonstrated through the monitoring of a 15-ton reinforced concrete beam subject to a four-point bending test causing cracking. The experimental results show that Locadiff achieved to (1) detect and locate the cracking zones in the core of the concrete beam at an early stage by mapping the changes in the concrete's micro-structure; (2) monitor the internal stress level in both temporal and spatial domains by mapping the variation in velocity caused by the acousto-elastic effect. The mechanical behavior of the concrete structure is also studied using conventional techniques such as acoustic emission, vibrating wire extensometers, and digital image correlation. The performances of the Locadiff technique in the detection of early stage cracking are assessed and discussed. PMID:27106315

  18. Understanding and Implementing the Common Core Vocabulary Standards in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Doris Luft; Santoro, Lana; Ware, Sharon; Cuéllar, Delis; Oldham, Ashley; Cuticelli, Maritherese; Coyne, Michael D.; Loftus-Rattan, Susan; McCoach, Betsy

    2015-01-01

    Teachers may feel uncertain about how to ensure that all students, including students with identified disabilities, those at risk for learning disabilities, and English learners, achieve the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in vocabulary. At the same time, they are also searching for practical, concrete ideas for incorporating the CCSS in the…

  19. Quality evaluation of aged concrete by ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavossi, H. M.; Tittmann, Bernhard R.; Cohen-Tenoudji, Frederic

    1999-02-01

    The velocity, attenuation and scattering of ultrasonic waves measured in concrete, mortar and cement structures can be used to evaluate their quality with weathering and aging. In this investigation the hardening of concrete mixture with time is monitored by ultrasonic waves under different conditions of temperature and water to cement ratio. The measured ultrasonic parameters can then be utilized to determine the final quality of the completely cured concrete structure from initial measurement. The quality of a concrete structure is determined by its resistance to compression and its rigidity, which should be within the acceptable values required by the design specifications. The internal and external flaws that could lower its strength can also be detected by ultrasonic technique. Aging process of concrete by weathering can be simulated in the laboratory by subjecting the concrete to extremes of cold and hot cycles in the range of temperatures normally encountered in summer and winter. In this research ultrasonic sensors in low frequency range of 40 to 100 kHz are used to monitor the quality of concrete. Ultrasonic pulses transmitted through the concrete sample are recorded for analysis in time and frequency domains. ULtrasonic waves penetration in concrete of the order of few feet has been achieved in laboratory. Data analyses on ultrasonic signal velocity, spectral content, phase and attenuation, can be utilized to evaluate, in situ, the quality and mechanical strength of concrete.

  20. Kupffer Cells Support Hepatitis B Virus-Mediated CD8+ T Cell Exhaustion via Hepatitis B Core Antigen-TLR2 Interactions in Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Sun, Rui; Xu, Long; Yin, Wenwei; Chen, Yongyan; Zheng, Xiaodong; Lian, Zhexiong; Wei, Haiming; Tian, Zhigang

    2015-10-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) persistence is a fundamental process in chronic HBV infection and a key factor in all related liver diseases; however, the mechanisms have yet to be elucidated. We studied the role of TLR2 in HBV persistence using a well-established HBV-carrier mouse model generated by hydrodynamically injecting a phospho-adeno-associated virus/HBV1.2 plasmid into mice. We found that a genetic deficiency in TLR2 improves HBV elimination, whereas activating TLR2 led to more stable HBV persistence, suggesting that TLR2 activation is critical in HBV persistence. Furthermore, we noted that TLR2 activation could inhibit CD8(+) T cell function, causing the exhaustion phenotype in HBV-carrier mice, because TLR2 deficiency might rescue CD8(+) T cell function in a cellular adoptive experiment. TLR2 expression on Kupffer cells (KCs) was upregulated in HBV-carrier mice, which accounts for HBV persistence, because the difference in anti-HBV immunity between HBV-carrier wild-type and Tlr2(-/-) mice did not exist after KC depletion. In addition, similar to TLR2 deficiency, after KC depletion, CD8(+) T cells were more efficiently activated in HBV-carrier mice, leading to rapid HBV elimination. KCs produced more IL-10 upon TLR2 activation in response to direct hepatitis B core Ag stimulation, and the elevated IL-10 inhibited CD8(+) T cell function in HBV-carrier mice, because IL-10 deficiency or anti-IL-10R treatment resulted in CD8(+) T cells with stronger antiviral function. In conclusion, KCs support liver tolerance by inducing anti-HBV CD8(+) T cell exhaustion via IL-10 production after TLR2 activation by hepatitis B core Ag stimulation. PMID:26304988

  1. Real-Time Spectroscopic Monitoring of the Synthesis of Core and Core/Shell Upconversion Nanocrystals and Finite-Difference Time Domain Modeling of the Interaction Between Light and Spherical Microwell Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suter, John

    Nanocrystalline beta-NaYF4:17% Yb3+, 3% Er 3+ has significant potential for applications in a wide variety of fields including solar technologies, security printing, and biological imaging and sensing. In order to increase the potential of these nanocrystals for these applications, we have developed a method for the real-time, in situ, spectroscopic monitoring of nanocrystal growth and shell-addition. In situ real-time monitoring of upconversion emission is applied to study the reaction mechanism for the synthesis of beta-NaYF 4:17% Yb3+, 3% Er3++ nanoparticles in oleic acid and octadecene via the heat-up method. Transmission electron microscopy is used to correlate the spectroscopic signature of the reaction mixture with its composition. The power of real-time spectroscopic monitoring to precisely time the duration of the various stages of the reaction, and to accurately identify the transitions between those stages, including the completion of the reaction, is demonstrated. Real-time spectroscopic monitoring is used to study the effect of increasing the oleic acid concentration on the duration of these stages as well as the size and shape of resulting nanocrystals. The use of real-time spectroscopic monitoring to study shell-addition, specifically, the addition of an un-doped NaYF4 shell, is also discussed. Patterned gold surfaces are known to enhance the upconversion efficiency of lanthanide based upconversion materials, such as nanocrystalline beta-NaYF 4:17% Yb3+, 3% Er3+. Here, spherical microwell arrays are shown to provide up to a 40x enhancement of upconversion emission from beta-NaYF4:17% Yb3+, 3% Er 3+ nanocrystals. Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) is a method to solve, numerically, the Maxwell equations across a 3D simulation grid and has been used to simulate the interaction of light with a variety of materials, including metal surfaces and particles. FDTD simulations is used to investigate the nature of the enhancement from the patterned gold

  2. Computational aspects of crack growth in sandwich plates from reinforced concrete and foam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papakaliatakis, G.; Panoskaltsis, V. P.; Liontas, A.

    2012-12-01

    In this work we study the initiation and propagation of cracks in sandwich plates made from reinforced concrete in the boundaries and from a foam polymeric material in the core. A nonlinear finite element approach is followed. Concrete is modeled as an elastoplastic material with its tensile behavior and damage taken into account. Foam is modeled as a crushable, isotropic compressible material. We analyze slabs with a pre-existing macro crack at the position of the maximum bending moment and we study the macrocrack propagation, as well as the condition under which we have crack arrest.

  3. Geomagnetism of earth's core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. R.

    1983-01-01

    Instrumentation, analytical methods, and research goals for understanding the behavior and source of geophysical magnetism are reviewed. Magsat, launched in 1979, collected global magnetometer data and identified the main terrestrial magnetic fields. The data has been treated by representing the curl-free field in terms of a scalar potential which is decomposed into a truncated series of spherical harmonics. Solutions to the Laplace equation then extend the field upward or downward from the measurement level through intervening spaces with no source. Further research is necessary on the interaction between harmonics of various spatial scales. Attempts are also being made to analytically model the main field and its secular variation at the core-mantle boundary. Work is also being done on characterizing the core structure, composition, thermodynamics, energetics, and formation, as well as designing a new Magsat or a tethered satellite to be flown on the Shuttle.

  4. Poisson's ratio of high-performance concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Persson, B.

    1999-10-01

    This article outlines an experimental and numerical study on Poisson's ratio of high-performance concrete subjected to air or sealed curing. Eight qualities of concrete (about 100 cylinders and 900 cubes) were studied, both young and in the mature state. The concretes contained between 5 and 10% silica fume, and two concretes in addition contained air-entrainment. Parallel studies of strength and internal relative humidity were carried out. The results indicate that Poisson's ratio of high-performance concrete is slightly smaller than that of normal-strength concrete. Analyses of the influence of maturity, type of aggregate, and moisture on Poisson's ratio are also presented. The project was carried out from 1991 to 1998.

  5. Sulfate attack on concrete with mineral admixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Irassar, E.F.; Di Maio, A.; Batic, O.R.

    1996-01-01

    The sulfate resistance of concretes containing fly ash, natural pozzolan and slag is investigated in a field test in which concrete specimens were half-buried in sulfate soil for five years. Mineral admixtures were used as a partial replacement for ordinary portland cement (C{sub 3}A = 8.5%), and the progress of sulfate attack was evaluated by several methods (visual rating, loss in mass, dynamic modulus, strength, X-ray analysis). Results of this study show that mineral admixtures improved the sulfate resistance when the concrete is buried in the soil. However, concretes with high content of mineral admixtures exhibit a greater surface scaling over soil level due to the sulfate salt crystallization. In this zone, capillary suction of concrete is the main mechanism of water and salt transportation. Concrete with 20% fly ash provides an integral solution for half-buried structures.

  6. Square concrete culvert and concrete retaining wall, 1/2 mile east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Square concrete culvert and concrete retaining wall, 1/2 mile east of Indigo Tunnel, milepost 128. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  7. Relevance of a mesoscopic modeling for the coupling between creep and damage in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliba, J.; Grondin, F.; Matallah, M.; Loukili, A.; Boussa, H.

    2013-08-01

    In its service-life concrete is loaded and delayed strains appear due to creep phenomenon. Some theories suggest that micro-cracks nucleate and grow when concrete is submitted to a high sustained loading, thereby contributing to the weakening of concrete. Thus, it is important to understand the interaction between the viscoelastic deformation and damage in order to design reliable civil engineering structures. Several creep-damage theoretical models have been proposed in the literature. However, most of these models are based on empirical relations applied at the macroscopic scale. Coupling between creep and damage is mostly realized by adding some parameters to take into account the microstructure effects. In the authors' opinion, the microstructure effects can be modeled by taking into account the effective interactions between the concrete matrix and the inclusions. In this paper, a viscoelastic model is combined with an isotropic damage model. The material volume is modeled by a Digital Concrete Model which takes into account the "real" aggregate size distribution of concrete. The results show that stresses are induced by strain incompatibilities between the matrix and aggregates at mesoscale under creep and lead to cracking.

  8. An experiment on the use of disposable plastics as a reinforcement in concrete beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chowdhury, Mostafiz R.

    1992-01-01

    Illustrated here is the concept of reinforced concrete structures by the use of computer simulation and an inexpensive hands-on design experiment. The students in our construction management program use disposable plastic as a reinforcement to demonstrate their understanding of reinforced concrete and prestressed concrete beams. The plastics used for such an experiment vary from plastic bottles to steel reinforced auto tires. This experiment will show the extent to which plastic reinforcement increases the strength of a concrete beam. The procedure of using such throw-away plastics in an experiment to explain the interaction between the reinforcement material and concrete, and a comparison of the test results for using different types of waste plastics are discussed. A computer analysis to simulate the structural response is used to compare the test results and to understand the analytical background of reinforced concrete design. This interaction of using computers to analyze structures and to relate the output results with real experimentation is found to be a very useful method for teaching a math-based analytical subject to our non-engineering students.

  9. Phase 2 microwave concrete decontamination results

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.L.; Foster, D. Jr.; Wilson, C.T.; Schaich, C.R.

    1995-04-01

    The authors report on the results of the second phase of a four-phase program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop a system to decontaminate concrete using microwave energy. The microwave energy is directed at the concrete surface through the use of an optimized wave guide antenna, or applicator, and this energy rapidly heats the free water present in the interstitial spaces of the concrete matrix. The resulting steam pressure causes the surface to burst in much the same way popcorn pops in a home microwave oven. Each steam explosion removes several square centimeters of concrete surface that are collected by a highly integrated wave guide and vacuum system. The authors call this process the microwave concrete decontamination, or MCD, process. In the first phase of the program the principle of microwaves concrete removal concrete surfaces was demonstrated. In these experiments, concrete slabs were placed on a translator and moved beneath a stationary microwave system. The second phase demonstrated the ability to mobilize the technology to remove the surfaces from concrete floors. Area and volume concrete removal rates of 10.4 cm{sup 2}/s and 4.9 cm{sup 3}/S, respectively, at 18 GHz were demonstrated. These rates are more than double those obtained in Phase 1 of the program. Deeper contamination can be removed by using a longer residence time under the applicator to create multiple explosions in the same area or by taking multiple passes over previously removed areas. Both techniques have been successfully demonstrated. Small test sections of painted and oil-soaked concrete have also been removed in a single pass. Concrete with embedded metal anchors on the surface has also been removed, although with some increased variability of removal depth. Microwave leakage should not pose any operational hazard to personnel, since the observed leakage was much less than the regulatory standard.

  10. The Practical Turn in Teacher Education: Designing a Preparation Sequence for Core Practice Frames

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Fred; Westbroek, Hanna; Doyle, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Amid calls for more practice-based teacher education, this article presents a concrete illustration of a practice-based bridging strategy for preparing high school biology teachers to enact open-inquiry labs. Open-inquiry labs were considered a core practice frame that served as a context for identifying core practices and for giving coherence to…

  11. Long-term deflections of reinforced concrete elements: accuracy analysis of predictions by different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribniak, Viktor; Bacinskas, Darius; Kacianauskas, Rimantas; Kaklauskas, Gintaris; Torres, Lluis

    2013-08-01

    Long-term deflection response of reinforced concrete flexural members is influenced by the interaction of complex physical phenomena, such as concrete creep, shrinkage and cracking, which makes their prediction difficult. A number of approaches are proposed by design codes with different degrees of simplification and accuracy. This paper statistically investigates accuracy of long-term deflection predictions made by some of the most widely used design codes ( Eurocode 2, ACI 318, ACI 435, and the new Russian code SP 52-101) and a numerical technique proposed by the authors. The accuracy is analyzed using test data of 322 reinforced concrete members from 27 test programs reported in the literature. The predictions of each technique are discussed, and a comparative analysis is made showing the influence of different parameters, such as sustained loading duration, compressive strength of concrete, loading intensity and reinforcement ratio, on the prediction accuracy.

  12. Adding Concrete Syntax to a Prolog-Based Program Synthesis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Bernd; Visser, Eelco

    2003-01-01

    Program generation and transformation systems manipulate large, pa- rameterized object language fragments. Support for user-definable concrete syntax makes this easier but is typically restricted to certain object and meta languages. We show how Prolog can be retrofitted with concrete syntax and describe how a seamless interaction of concrete syntax fragments with an existing legacy meta-programming system based on abstract syntax is achieved. We apply the approach to gradually migrate the schemas of the AUTOBAYES program synthesis system to concrete syntax. Fit experiences show that this can result in a considerable reduction of the code size and an improved readability of the code. In particular, abstracting out fresh-variable generation and second-order term construction allows the formulation of larger continuous fragments and improves the locality in the schemas.

  13. Differential Interaction of Tomosyn with Syntaxin and SNAP25 Depends on Domains in the WD40 β-Propeller Core and Determines Its Inhibitory Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Bielopolski, Noa; Lam, Alice D.; Bar-On, Dana; Sauer, Markus; Stuenkel, Edward L.; Ashery, Uri

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal exocytosis depends on efficient formation of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complexes and is regulated by tomosyn, a SNARE-binding protein. To gain new information about tomosyn's activity, we characterized its mobility and organization on the plasma membrane (PM) in relation to other SNARE proteins and inhibition of exocytosis. By using direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM), we found tomosyn to be organized in small clusters adjacent to syntaxin clusters. In addition, we show that tomosyn is present in both syntaxin-tomosyn complexes and syntaxin-SNAP25-tomosyn complexes. Tomosyn mutants that lack residues 537–578 or 897–917 from its β-propeller core diffused faster on the PM and exhibited reduced binding to SNAP25, suggesting that these mutants shift the equilibrium between tomosyn-syntaxin-SNAP25 complexes on the PM to tomosyn-syntaxin complexes. As these deletion mutants impose less inhibition on exocytosis, we suggest that tomosyn inhibition is mediated via tomosyn-syntaxin-SNAP25 complexes and not tomosyn-syntaxin complexes. These findings characterize, for the first time, tomosyn's dynamics at the PM and its relation to its inhibition of exocytosis. PMID:24782308

  14. Enzyme-Dependent [4 + 2] Cycloaddition Depends on Lid-like Interaction of the N-Terminal Sequence with the Catalytic Core in PyrI4.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qingfei; Guo, Yujiao; Yang, Linlin; Zhao, Zhixiong; Wu, Zhuhua; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Jianping; Cheng, Xiaofang; Wu, Jiequn; Yang, Huaiyu; Jiang, Hualiang; Pan, Lifeng; Liu, Wen

    2016-03-17

    The Diels-Alder [4 + 2] cycloaddition reaction is one of the most powerful and elegant organic synthesis methods for forming 6-membered molecules and has been known for nearly a century. However, whether and how enzymes catalyze this type of reaction is still not completely clear. Here we focus on PyrI4, an enzyme found in the biosynthetic pathway of pyrroindomycins where it catalyzes the formation of a spiro-conjugate via an enzyme-dependent exo-selective [4 + 2] cycloaddition reaction. We report the crystal structures of PyrI4 alone and in complex with its product. Comparative analysis of these structures, combined with biochemical analysis, lead us to propose a unique trapping mechanism whereby the lid-like action of the N-terminal tail imposes conformational constraints on the β barrel catalytic core, which enhances the proximity and polarization effects of reactive groups (1,3-diene and alkene) to drive cyclization in a regio- and stereo-specific manner. This work represents an important step toward the wider application of enzyme-catalyzed [4 + 2] cyclization for synthetic purposes. PMID:26877021

  15. Characterization of concrete from Roman theatre and amphitheater in Emerita Augusta (Mérida, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mota-Lopez, Maria Isabel; Fort, Rafael; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Pizzo, Antonio; Maderuelo-Sanz, Ruben; Meneses-Rodríguez, Juan Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The restoration of historical buildings is very important for the history and culture of the cities and their population. It requires an advanced knowledge of the building materials used for the construction of these structures. Previously to any intervention in historical buildings, it is necessary a historic-scientific study of the original material. Historic mortars or concretes can reveal us different composition and the dependence on the geographical location and the time period of its construction. Historical concretes are complex systems that contain aerial or hydraulic binders or a blend of them, with aggregates, not always crystalline, and others elements that interact with the binder. The use of different techniques for microstructural characterization of materials, like optical microscopy, X-ray diffractometry or petrophysical analysis, allows the determination of the composition and some properties of these concretes. However, each technique has its own limits and, in many cases, several characterization techniques must be used to obtain coherent and reliable results. The present study focuses on the compositional characterization of Roman concrete from Roman buildings for public spectacles of Emerita Augusta, Mérida, Spain. An advanced knowledge of the Roman concrete composition is required to get a reliable restoration and preservation of these ancient monuments. Various samples of concrete were extracted from different zones from this archaeological site. The concrete was studied through mineralogical analysis (petrographic microscope and XRD) and petrophysical properties determination (bulk and real density, open porosity, mercury porosimetry intrusion, compressive strength and Ultrasound propagation velocity). The results obtained allow us to know the original composition of the concrete and the provenance of the aggregates used in it. Acknowledgements: Community of Madrid for financing Geomateriales2 program (P2013/MIT2914), to the funding

  16. Discriminating taxonomic categories and domains in mental simulations of concepts of varying concreteness.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Andrew J; Murphy, Brian; Poesio, Massimo

    2014-03-01

    Most studies of conceptual knowledge in the brain focus on a narrow range of concrete conceptual categories, rely on the researchers' intuitions about which object belongs to these categories, and assume a broadly taxonomic organization of knowledge. In this fMRI study, we focus on concepts with a variety of concreteness levels; we use a state of the art lexical resource (WordNet 3.1) as the source for a relatively large number of category distinctions and compare a taxonomic style of organization with a domain-based model (an example domain is Law). Participants mentally simulated situations associated with concepts when cued by text stimuli. Using multivariate pattern analysis, we find evidence that all Taxonomic categories and Domains can be distinguished from fMRI data and also observe a clear concreteness effect: Tools and Locations can be reliably predicted for unseen participants, but less concrete categories (e.g., Attributes, Communications, Events, Social Roles) can only be reliably discriminated within participants. A second concreteness effect relates to the interaction of Domain and Taxonomic category membership: Domain (e.g., relation to Law vs. Music) can be better predicted for less concrete categories. We repeated the analysis within anatomical regions, observing discrimination between all/most categories in the left mid occipital and left mid temporal gyri, and more specialized discrimination for concrete categories Tool and Location in the left precentral and fusiform gyri, respectively. Highly concrete/abstract Taxonomic categories and Domain were segregated in frontal regions. We conclude that both Taxonomic and Domain class distinctions are relevant for interpreting neural structuring of concrete and abstract concepts. PMID:24168217

  17. Beyond packing of hard spheres: The effects of core softness, non-additivity, intermediate-range repulsion, and many-body interactions on the glass-forming ability of bulk metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Kai; Fan, Meng; Liu, Yanhui; Schroers, Jan; Shattuck, Mark D.; O’Hern, Corey S.

    2015-11-14

    When a liquid is cooled well below its melting temperature at a rate that exceeds the critical cooling rate R{sub c}, the crystalline state is bypassed and a metastable, amorphous glassy state forms instead. R{sub c} (or the corresponding critical casting thickness d{sub c}) characterizes the glass-forming ability (GFA) of each material. While silica is an excellent glass-former with small R{sub c} < 10{sup −2} K/s, pure metals and most alloys are typically poor glass-formers with large R{sub c} > 10{sup 10} K/s. Only in the past thirty years have bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) been identified with R{sub c} approaching that for silica. Recent simulations have shown that simple, hard-sphere models are able to identify the atomic size ratio and number fraction regime where BMGs exist with critical cooling rates more than 13 orders of magnitude smaller than those for pure metals. However, there are a number of other features of interatomic potentials beyond hard-core interactions. How do these other features affect the glass-forming ability of BMGs? In this manuscript, we perform molecular dynamics simulations to determine how variations in the softness and non-additivity of the repulsive core and form of the interatomic pair potential at intermediate distances affect the GFA of binary alloys. These variations in the interatomic pair potential allow us to introduce geometric frustration and change the crystal phases that compete with glass formation. We also investigate the effect of tuning the strength of the many-body interactions from zero to the full embedded atom model on the GFA for pure metals. We then employ the full embedded atom model for binary BMGs and show that hard-core interactions play the dominant role in setting the GFA of alloys, while other features of the interatomic potential only change the GFA by one to two orders of magnitude. Despite their perturbative effect, understanding the detailed form of the intermetallic potential is important for

  18. Beyond packing of hard spheres: The effects of core softness, non-additivity, intermediate-range repulsion, and many-body interactions on the glass-forming ability of bulk metallic glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Fan, Meng; Liu, Yanhui; Schroers, Jan; Shattuck, Mark D.; O'Hern, Corey S.

    2015-11-01

    When a liquid is cooled well below its melting temperature at a rate that exceeds the critical cooling rate Rc, the crystalline state is bypassed and a metastable, amorphous glassy state forms instead. Rc (or the corresponding critical casting thickness dc) characterizes the glass-forming ability (GFA) of each material. While silica is an excellent glass-former with small Rc < 10-2 K/s, pure metals and most alloys are typically poor glass-formers with large Rc > 1010 K/s. Only in the past thirty years have bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) been identified with Rc approaching that for silica. Recent simulations have shown that simple, hard-sphere models are able to identify the atomic size ratio and number fraction regime where BMGs exist with critical cooling rates more than 13 orders of magnitude smaller than those for pure metals. However, there are a number of other features of interatomic potentials beyond hard-core interactions. How do these other features affect the glass-forming ability of BMGs? In this manuscript, we perform molecular dynamics simulations to determine how variations in the softness and non-additivity of the repulsive core and form of the interatomic pair potential at intermediate distances affect the GFA of binary alloys. These variations in the interatomic pair potential allow us to introduce geometric frustration and change the crystal phases that compete with glass formation. We also investigate the effect of tuning the strength of the many-body interactions from zero to the full embedded atom model on the GFA for pure metals. We then employ the full embedded atom model for binary BMGs and show that hard-core interactions play the dominant role in setting the GFA of alloys, while other features of the interatomic potential only change the GFA by one to two orders of magnitude. Despite their perturbative effect, understanding the detailed form of the intermetallic potential is important for designing BMGs with cm or greater casting thickness.

  19. Beyond packing of hard spheres: The effects of core softness, non-additivity, intermediate-range repulsion, and many-body interactions on the glass-forming ability of bulk metallic glasses.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Fan, Meng; Liu, Yanhui; Schroers, Jan; Shattuck, Mark D; O'Hern, Corey S

    2015-11-14

    When a liquid is cooled well below its melting temperature at a rate that exceeds the critical cooling rate Rc, the crystalline state is bypassed and a metastable, amorphous glassy state forms instead. Rc (or the corresponding critical casting thickness dc) characterizes the glass-forming ability (GFA) of each material. While silica is an excellent glass-former with small Rc < 10(-2) K/s, pure metals and most alloys are typically poor glass-formers with large Rc > 10(10) K/s. Only in the past thirty years have bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) been identified with Rc approaching that for silica. Recent simulations have shown that simple, hard-sphere models are able to identify the atomic size ratio and number fraction regime where BMGs exist with critical cooling rates more than 13 orders of magnitude smaller than those for pure metals. However, there are a number of other features of interatomic potentials beyond hard-core interactions. How do these other features affect the glass-forming ability of BMGs? In this manuscript, we perform molecular dynamics simulations to determine how variations in the softness and non-additivity of the repulsive core and form of the interatomic pair potential at intermediate distances affect the GFA of binary alloys. These variations in the interatomic pair potential allow us to introduce geometric frustration and change the crystal phases that compete with glass formation. We also investigate the effect of tuning the strength of the many-body interactions from zero to the full embedded atom model on the GFA for pure metals. We then employ the full embedded atom model for binary BMGs and show that hard-core interactions play the dominant role in setting the GFA of alloys, while other features of the interatomic potential only change the GFA by one to two orders of magnitude. Despite their perturbative effect, understanding the detailed form of the intermetallic potential is important for designing BMGs with cm or greater casting

  20. Design and fabrication of polymer concrete pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, J.E.; Abdelgawad, A.T.

    1982-10-08

    Polymer concrete is a composite material which has strength and durability characteristics greatly superior to those of portland cement concrete and better durability in hot brine than steel. polymer concrete has been successfully tested in brine and steam at temperatures up to 260 C. Exposures were as long as 960 days. Glass filament wound polymer concrete pipe was developed with excellent strength, low weight, and a cost comparable to or less than schedule 40 steel. Connections can be made with slip joints for low pressure applications and flanged joints for high pressure applications.

  1. Economic analysis of recycling contaminated concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen, A.; Ayers, K.W.; Boren, J.K.; Parker, F.L.

    1997-02-01

    Decontamination and Decommissioning activities in the DOE complex generate large volumes of radioactively contaminated and uncontaminated concrete. Currently, this concrete is usually decontaminated, the contaminated waste is disposed of in a LLW facility and the decontaminated concrete is placed in C&D landfills. A number of alternatives to this practice are available including recycling of the concrete. Cost estimates for six alternatives were developed using a spreadsheet model. The results of this analysis show that recycling alternatives are at least as economical as current practice.

  2. Pentek concrete scabbling system: Baseline report; Summary

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-31

    The Pentek concrete scabbling system consists of the MOOSE{reg_sign} scabbler, the SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-I and SQUIRREL{reg_sign}-III scabblers, and VAC-PAC. The scabblers are designed to scarify concrete floors and slabs using cross section, tungsten carbide tipped bits. The bits are designed to remove concrete in 3/8 inch increments. The bits are either 9-tooth or demolition type. The scabblers are used with a vacuum system designed to collect and filter the concrete dust and contamination that is removed from the surface. The safety and health evaluation during the human factors assessment focused on two main areas: noise and dust.

  3. Proceedings of the concrete decontamination workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Halter, J.M.; Sullivan, R.G.; Currier, A.J.

    1980-05-28

    Fourteen papers were presented. These papers describe concrete surface removal methods and equipment, as well as experiences in decontaminating and removing both power and experimental nuclear reactors.

  4. Experimental needs of high temperature concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Chern, J.C.; Marchertas, A.H.

    1985-01-01

    The needs of experimental data on concrete structures under high temperature, ranging up to about 370/sup 0/C for operating reactor conditions and to about 900/sup 0/C and beyond for hypothetical accident conditions, are described. This information is required to supplement analytical methods which are being implemented into the finite element code TEMP-STRESS to treat reinforced concrete structures. Recommended research ranges from material properties of reinforced/prestressed concrete, direct testing of analytical models used in the computer codes, to investigations of certain aspects of concrete behavior, the phenomenology of which is not well understood. 10 refs.

  5. A comparative study for the concrete compressive strength estimation using neural network and neuro-fuzzy modelling approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilgehan, Mahmut

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and artificial neural network (ANN) model have been successfully used for the evaluation of relationships between concrete compressive strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) values using the experimental data obtained from many cores taken from different reinforced concrete structures having different ages and unknown ratios of concrete mixtures. A comparative study is made using the neural nets and neuro-fuzzy (NF) techniques. Statistic measures were used to evaluate the performance of the models. Comparing of the results, it is found that the proposed ANFIS architecture with Gaussian membership function is found to perform better than the multilayer feed-forward ANN learning by backpropagation algorithm. The final results show that especially the ANFIS modelling may constitute an efficient tool for prediction of the concrete compressive strength. Architectures of the ANFIS and neural network established in the current study perform sufficiently in the estimation of concrete compressive strength, and particularly ANFIS model estimates closely follow the desired values. Both ANFIS and ANN techniques can be used in conditions where too many structures are to be examined in a restricted time. The presented approaches enable to practically find concrete strengths in the existing reinforced concrete structures, whose records of concrete mixture ratios are not available or present. Thus, researchers can easily evaluate the compressive strength of concrete specimens using UPV and density values. These methods also contribute to a remarkable reduction in the computational time without any significant loss of accuracy. A comparison of the results clearly shows that particularly the NF approach can be used effectively to predict the compressive strength of concrete using UPV and density values. In addition, these model architectures can be used as a nondestructive procedure for health monitoring of

  6. High temperature polymer concrete compositions

    DOEpatents

    Fontana, Jack J.; Reams, Walter

    1985-01-01

    This invention is concerned with a polymer concrete composition, which is a two-component composition useful with many bases including metal. Component A, the aggregate composition, is broadly composed of silica, silica flour, portland cement, and acrylamide, whereas Component B, which is primarily vinyl and acrylyl reactive monomers, is a liquid system. A preferred formulation emphasizing the major necessary components is as follows: ______________________________________ Component A: Silica sand 60-77 wt. % Silica flour 5-10 wt. % Portland cement 15-25 wt. % Acrylamide 1-5 wt. % Component B: Styrene 50-60 wt. % Trimethylolpropane 35-40 wt. % trimethacrylate ______________________________________ and necessary initiators, accelerators, and surfactants.

  7. Application of concrete in marine structures

    SciTech Connect

    Rashid, A.; Nygaard, C.

    1997-07-01

    The use of concrete in marine environment has gained tremendous popularity in the past decade and is continued to be a very popular material for marine industry in the world today. It has a very diversified use from large offshore platforms and floating structures in the North Sea, Canada and South America to offshore loading terminals and junction platforms in shallow waters in the marshes of southern Louisiana in the Gulf of Mexico. Also, precast concrete sections are extensively used all over the world in the construction of marine structures. Because of their large variety of shapes and sizes, they can be tailored to fit multiple applications in marine environment. The added quality control in the fabrication yard and the ease of installation by lifting makes them a very attractive option. The use of precast concrete sections is gaining a lot of popularity in South America. A lot of fabrication yards are manufacturing these sections locally. There are hundreds of offshore concrete platforms utilizing these sections in Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. The paper discusses the use of concrete for offshore structures including floaters. It describes some general concepts and advantages to be gained by the use of concrete (precast and cast-in-place) in marine environment. It also discusses some general design considerations required for the use of different types of precast concrete sections that can be utilized for oil and gas platforms and loading terminals. Lastly the paper describes some typical examples of concrete platforms built out of concrete piles, precast concrete girders and beam sections and concrete decking.

  8. 36. VAL, DETAIL OF TYPICAL INTERIOR OF CONCRETE 'A' FRAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. VAL, DETAIL OF TYPICAL INTERIOR OF CONCRETE 'A' FRAME STRUCTURE SHOWING PAINTED CONCRETE WALLS, CONCRETE STAIRS AND INTERIOR WOOD DOOR. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. Application of Nonlinear Elastic Resonance Spectroscopy For Damage Detection In Concrete: An Interesting Story

    SciTech Connect

    Byers, Loren W.; Ten Cate, James A.; Johnson, Paul A.

    2012-06-28

    Nonlinear resonance ultrasound spectroscopy experiments conducted on concrete cores, one chemically and mechanically damaged by alkali-silica reactivity, and one undamaged, show that this material displays highly nonlinear wave behavior, similar to many other damaged materials. They find that the damaged sample responds more nonlinearly, manifested by a larger resonant peak and modulus shift as a function of strain amplitude. The nonlinear response indicates that there is a hysteretic influence in the stress-strain equation of state. Further, as in some other materials, slow dynamics are present. The nonlinear response they observe in concrete is an extremely sensitive indicator of damage. Ultimately, nonlinear wave methods applied to concrete may be used to guide mixing, curing, or other production techniques, in order to develop materials with particular desired qualities such as enhanced strength or chemical resistance, and to be used for damage inspection.

  10. Investigation and Rehabilitation to Extend Service Life of DSS-13 Antenna Concrete Foundation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riewe, A. A., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation to establish the cause and, devise a repair technique to maintain the serviceability of the DSS-13 26 meter antenna is described. Core samples are obtained from the concrete and various laboratory tests conducted. In-place nondestructive type tests are also performed. The tests established that the concrete is deteriorating because of alkali aggregate reactivity. This is a phenomenon wherein certain siliceous constituents present in some aggregates react with alkalies in the portland cement to produce a silica gel which, in turn, imbibes water, swells, and cracks the concrete. The scheme consists of a supplemental steel frame friction pile anchored grade beam encircling the existing foundation. This system provides adequate bracing against base shear and overturning due to seismic loading. Larger cracks are sealed using a pressure injected two-component epoxy.

  11. Quick-setting concrete and a method for making quick-setting concrete

    DOEpatents

    Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.; Pullockaran, J.D.; Knox, L.

    1997-04-29

    A method for producing quick setting concrete is provided comprising mixing a concrete dry mixture with carbonate solution to create a slurry, and allowing the slurry to cure. The invention also provides for a quick setting concrete having a predetermined proportion of CaCO{sub 3} of between 5 and 23 weight percent of the entire concrete mixture, and whereby the concrete has a compression strength of approximately 4,000 pounds per square inch (psi) within 24 hours after pouring. 2 figs.

  12. Testing of plain and fibrous concrete single cavity prestressed concrete reactor vessel models

    SciTech Connect

    Oland, C.B.

    1985-01-01

    Two single-cavity prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV) models were fabricated and tested to failure to demonstrate the structural response and ultimate pressure capacity of models cast from high-strength concretes. Concretes with design compressive strengths in excess of 70 MPa (10,000 psi) were developed for this investigation. One model was cast from plain concrete and failed in shear at the head region. The second model was cast from fiber reinforced concrete and failed by rupturing the circumferential prestressing at the sidewall of the structure. The tests also demonstrated the capabilities of the liner system to maintain a leak-tight pressure boundary. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Monitoring of transverse displacement of reinforced concrete beams under flexural loading with embedded arrays of optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Tinoco, Juan E.; Gomez-Rosas, Enrique R.; Guzmán-Olguín, Héctor; Khotiaintsev, Sergei; Zuñiga-Bravo, Miguel A.

    2015-04-01

    We present results of an ongoing study of structural health monitoring of concrete elements by means of arrays of telecommunications-grade optical fibers embedded in such elements. In this work, we show a possibility of using this technique for monitoring the transverse displacement of the reinforced concrete beams under flexural loading. We embedded a number of multimode silica-core/polymer-clad/polymer-coated optical fibers in a mold with preinstalled reinforcing steel bars and fresh concrete mix. Then the concrete was compacted and cured. Some optical fibers were broken during the fabrication process. The fiber survival rate varied with concrete grade, compacting technique and optical fiber type. The fibers that survived the fabrication process were employed for the monitoring. They were connected to the optical transmitter and receiver that formed a part of a larger measurement system. The system continuously measured the optical transmission of all optical fibers while the reinforced concrete beams were subjected to incremental transverse loading. We observed a quasi-linear decrease in optical transmission in all optical fibers of the array vs. the applied load and respective flexural displacement. Although the underlying phenomena that lead to such a variation in optical transmission are not clear yet, the observed behavior might be of interest for assessing the transverse displacement of the reinforced concrete beams under flexural loading.

  14. Lessons to be learned from rehabilitation of concrete structures in bleach plants in pulp and paper mills

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, R.

    1995-12-01

    The deterioration of concrete structures due to chloride induced reinforcing steel corrosion such as in elevated concrete floor slabs, columns, and beams in bleach plants is a constant and growing problem within the pulp and paper industry. In general, the condition analysis methods used for assessing the extent of bleach plant concrete degradation include physical testing of drilled concrete core samples, chloride ion concentration testing, half-cell potential measurements, and physical sounding of concrete surfaces, i.e. chain drag for topside surfaces and hammer sounding of soffit surfaces. While this paper does not promote any vastly different evaluative methods, it does share learnings relative to interpreting the data provided by these typical test methods. It further offers some recommendations on how to improve the use of these typical evaluation techniques and offers some other test methods which should be considered as valuable additions for such evaluations. One of the most common methods which has been used in the past for large scale bleach plant concrete restoration has been the application of site dry mixed shotcrete for rebuilding the soffits of floor slabs and the faces of columns and beams. More often than not, bulk mixed dry shotcrete repairs have not been cost-effective because they prematurely failed due to excessive hydration related shrinkage cracking, lack of sufficient adhesion to the parent concrete substrate or other problems related to poor durability or construction practice.

  15. Core-collapse Supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Hix, William Raphael; Lentz, E. J.; Baird, Mark L; Chertkow, Merek A; Lee, Ching-Tsai; Blondin, J. M.; Bruenn, S. W.; Messer, Bronson; Mezzacappa, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Marking the inevitable death of a massive star, and the birth of a neutron star or black hole, core-collapse supernovae bring together physics at a wide range in spatial scales, from kilometer-sized hydrodynamic motions (growing to gigameter scale) down to femtometer scale nuclear reactions. Carrying 10$^{51}$ ergs of kinetic energy and a rich-mix of newly synthesized atomic nuclei, core-collapse supernovae are the preeminent foundries of the nuclear species which make up ourselves and our solar system. We will discuss our emerging understanding of the convectively unstable, neutrino-driven explosion mechanism, based on increasingly realistic neutrino-radiation hydrodynamic simulations that include progressively better nuclear and particle physics. Recent multi-dimensional models with spectral neutrino transport from several research groups, which slowly develop successful explosions for a range of progenitors, have motivated changes in our understanding of the neutrino reheating mechanism. In a similar fashion, improvements in nuclear physics, most notably explorations of weak interactions on nuclei and the nuclear equation of state, continue to refine our understanding of how supernovae explode. Recent progress on both the macroscopic and microscopic effects that affect core-collapse supernovae are discussed.

  16. Investigation of modified asphalt concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimich, Vita

    2016-01-01

    Currently the problem of improving the asphalt quality is very urgent. It is used primarily as topcoats exposed to the greatest relative to the other layers of the road, dynamic load - impact and shear. The number of cars on the road, the speed of their movement, as well as the traffic intensity increase day by day. We have to upgrade motor roads, which entails a huge cost. World experience shows that the issue is urgent not only in Russia, but also in many countries in Europe, USA and Asia. Thus, the subject of research is the resistance of asphalt concrete to water and its influence on the strength of the material at different temperatures, and resistance of pavement to deformation. It is appropriate to search for new modifiers for asphaltic binder and mineral additives for asphalt mix to form in complex the skeleton of the future asphalt concrete, resistant to atmospheric condensation, soil characteristics of the road construction area, as well as the growing road transport load. The important task of the work is searching special modifying additives for bitumen binder and asphalt mixture as a whole, which will improve the quality of highways, increasing the period between repairs. The methods described in the normative-technical documentation were used for the research. The conducted research allowed reducing the frequency of road maintenance for 7 years, increasing it from 17 to 25 years.

  17. Concrete and abstract Voronoi diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, R. )

    1989-01-01

    The Voronoi diagram of a set of sites is a partition of the plane into regions, one to each site, such that the region of each site contains all points of the plane that are closer to this site than to the other ones. Such partitions are of great importance to computer science and many other fields. The challenge is to compute Voronoi diagrams quickly. The problem is that their structure depends on the notion of distance and the sort of site. In this book the author proposes a unifying approach by introducing abstract Voronoi diagrams. These are based on the concept of bisecting curves which are required to have some simple properties that are actually possessed by most bisectors of concrete Voronoi diagrams. Abstract Voronoi diagrams can be computed efficiently and there exists a worst-case efficient algorithm of divide-and-conquer type that applies to all abstract Voronoi diagrams satisfying a certain constraint. The author shows that this constraint is fulfilled by the concrete diagrams based no large classes of metrics in the plane.

  18. Construction Cluster Volume IV: [Concrete Work].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Justice, Harrisburg. Bureau of Correction.

    The document is the fourth of a series, to be integrated with a G.E.D. program, containing instructional materials for the construction cluster. The volume focuses on concrete work and consists of 20 instructional units which require a month of study. The units include: (1) uses of concrete and occupational information; (2) soils, drainage, and…

  19. PULSED LASER ABLATION OF CEMENT AND CONCRETE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laser ablation was investigated as a means of removing radioactive contaminants from the surface and near-surface regions of concrete from nuclear facilities. We present the results of ablation tests on cement and concrete samples using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser with fiber optic beam...

  20. SUSTAINABLE CONCRETE FILTRATION SYSTEM FOR DEVELOPING COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project will demonstrate that a non-traditional yet omnipresent material such as concrete can serve as an effective medium to remove harmful single celled organisms from water. Further, concrete can be fabricated and maintained with minimal environmental impact.

  1. Assessing the Concreteness of Relational Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rein, Jonathan R.; Markman, Arthur B.

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that people's ability to transfer abstract relational knowledge across situations can be heavily influenced by the concrete objects that fill relational roles. This article provides evidence that the concreteness of the relations themselves also affects performance. In 3 experiments, participants viewed simple relational…

  2. "Concreteness Fading" Promotes Transfer of Mathematical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Nicole M.; Fyfe, Emily R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that educators should avoid concrete instantiations when the goal is to promote transfer. However, concrete instantiations may benefit transfer in the long run, particularly if they are "faded" into more abstract instantiations. Undergraduates were randomly assigned to learn a mathematical concept in one of three…

  3. Properties and uses of concrete, appendix B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corley, Gene

    1992-01-01

    Concretes that can now be formed have properties which may make them valuable for lunar or space construction. These properties include high compressive strength, good flexural strength (when reinforced), and favorable responses to temperature extremes (even increased strength at low temperatures). These and other properties of concrete are discussed.

  4. RADON GENERATION AND TRANSPORT THROUGH CONCRETE FOUNDATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an examination of radon generation and transport through Florida residential concretes for their contribution to indoor radon concentrations. Radium concentrations in the 11 concretes tested were all <2.5 pCi/g and radon emanation coefficients were all...

  5. Strong metal-support interaction in novel core-shell Au-CeO2 nanostructures induced by different pretreatment atmospheres and its influence on CO oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhihua; Fu, Huifen; Tian, Ziwei; Han, Dongmei; Gu, Fubo

    2016-03-21

    Yolk-shell Au/CeO2 (Y-Au/CeO2) and encapsulated Au/CeO2 (E-Au/CeO2) nanocatalysts were prepared by using silica templates. A strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) in the Au/CeO2 nanostructures induced by different pretreatment atmospheres and its influence on CO oxidation were studied. E-Au/CeO2 pretreated in O2 had the best performance, followed by Y-Au/CeO2 pretreated in O2, Y-Au/CeO2 pretreated in H2, and E-Au/CeO2 pretreated in H2. The reasons for the different activities were discussed. There were two kinds of strong metal-support interactions (SMSI) between Au and CeO2 termed as R-SMSI (pretreated in reductive atmosphere) and O-SMSI (pretreated in oxidation atmosphere). Because of the smaller size of the Au and the larger contact area, both the R-SMSI and O-SMSI of E-Au/CeO2 were larger than those of Y-Au/CeO2. The O-SMSI was accompanied by the formation of cationic Au species that were beneficial to the enhancing of activity. As expected, the activity of E-Au/CeO2 pretreated in O2 with a Au size less than 5 nm was higher than that of Y-Au/CeO2 pretreated in O2 with 25 nm Au. However, it is surprisingly found that the activity of Y-Au/CeO2 pretreated in H2 with 25 nm Au was higher than that of E-Au/CeO2 pretreated in H2 with a Au size less than 5 nm. R-SMSI resulted in the formation of a AuCe alloy that had a negative effect on the activity. Compared with E-Au/CeO2 pretreated in H2, Y-Au/CeO2 pretreated in H2 exhibited a smaller relative content of the AuCe alloy, leading to a better activity of Y-Au/CeO2 pretreated in H2. PMID:26579875

  6. Recent biogenic phosphorite: Concretions in mollusk kidneys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, L.J.; Blake, N.J.; Woo, C.C.; Yevich, P.

    1978-01-01

    Phosphorite concretions have been detected in the kidneys of two widespread species ofmollusks, Mercenaria mercenaria and Argopecten irradians, which have relatively high population densities. These concretions are thefirst documentation of the direct biogenic formation of phosphorite grains. The concretions are principally amorphous calcium phosphate, which upon being heated yields an x-ray diffraction pattern which is essentially that of chlorapatite. These concretions appear to be a normal formation of the excretory process of mollusks under reproductive, environmental, or pollutant-induced stress. Biogenic production of phosphorite concretions over long periods of time and diagenetic change from amorphous to crystalline structure, coupled with secondary enrichment, may account for the formation of some marine phosphorite desposits which are not easily explained by the chemical precipitation- replacement hypothesis. Copyright ?? 1978 AAAS.

  7. Autoclave foam concrete: Structure and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestnikov, Alexei; Semenov, Semen; Strokova, Valeria; Nelubova, Viktoria

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the technology and properties of autoclaved foam concrete taking into account practical experience and laboratory studies. The results of study of raw materials and analysis of structure and properties of foam-concrete before and after autoclave treatment are basic in this work. Experimental studies of structure and properties of foam concrete are carried out according to up-to-date methods and equipment on the base of the shared knowledge centers. Results of experimental studies give a deep understanding of properties of raw materials, possible changes and new formations in inner layers of porous material providing the improvement of constructional and operational properties of autoclaved foam concrete. Principal directions of technology enhancement as well as developing of production of autoclave foam concretes under cold-weather conditions in Russia climate are justified.

  8. Aerated concrete with mineral dispersed reinforcing additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdov, G. I.; Ilina, L. V.; Mukhina, I. N.; Rakov, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    To guarantee the production of aerated concrete with the lowest average density while ensuring the required strength it is necessary to use a silica component with a surface area of 250-300 m2 / kg. The article presents experimental data on grinding the silica component together with clinker to the optimum dispersion. This allows increasing the strength of non-autoclaved aerated concrete up to 33%. Furthermore, the addition to aerated concrete the mixture of dispersed reinforcing agents (wollastonite, diopside) and electrolytes with multiply charged cations and anions (1% Fe2 (SO4)3; Al2 (SO4)3) provides the growth of aerated concrete strength at 30 - 75%. As a cohesive the clinker, crushed together with silica and mineral supplements should be used. This increases the strength of aerated concrete at 65% in comparing with Portland cement.

  9. USINT. Heat and Mass Transfer In Concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Eyberger, L.R.

    1989-12-01

    USINT was developed to model the thermal response of concrete to very high heating rates such as might occur from sodium spills on concrete surfaces in a breeder reactor. The major phenomena treated are conductive energy transport; chemical decomposition of concrete; and two-phase, three-component heat and mass transfer of the decomposition products: steam, liquid water, and carbon dioxide. The USINT model provides for porosity to increase as water and carbon-dioxide are formed from the concrete. The concrete is treated generally as divided into two basic regions, wet and dry. In the wet region, steam, carbon-dioxide, and liquid water may co-exist, but in the dry region, there is no liquid water. There is also the possibility of a third region in which there is only liquid water and no gases.

  10. USINT. Heat and Mass Transfer in Concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, J.V.; Knight, R.L.

    1989-12-01

    USINT was developed to model the thermal response of concrete to very high heating rates such as might occur from sodium spills on concrete surfaces in a breeder reactor. The major phenomena treated are conductive energy transport; chemical decomposition of concrete; and two-phase, three-component heat and mass transfer of the decomposition products: steam, liquid water, and carbon dioxide. The USINT model provides for porosity to increase as water and carbon-dioxide are formed from the concrete. The concrete is treated generally as divided into two basic regions, wet and dry. In the wet region, steam, carbon-dioxide, and liquid water may co-exist, but in the dry region, there is no liquid water. There is also the possibility of a third region in which there is only liquid water and no gases.

  11. Electrical Resistance Tomography imaging of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Karhunen, Kimmo; Seppaenen, Aku; Lehikoinen, Anssi; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.; Kaipio, Jari P.

    2010-01-15

    We apply Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) for three dimensional imaging of concrete. In ERT, alternating currents are injected into the target using an array of electrodes attached to the target surface, and the resulting voltages are measured using the same electrodes. These boundary measurements are used for reconstructing the internal (3D) conductivity distribution of the target. In reinforced concrete, the metallic phases (reinforcing bars and fibers), cracks and air voids, moisture gradients, and the chloride distribution in the matrix carry contrast with respect to conductivity. While electrical measurements have been widely used to characterize the properties of concrete, only preliminary results of applying ERT to concrete imaging have been published so far. The aim of this paper is to carry out a feasibility evaluation with specifically cast samples. The results indicate that ERT may be a feasible modality for non-destructive evaluation of concrete.

  12. Requirements for construction of offshore concrete platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Gudmestad, O.T.; Pollard, N.

    1994-12-31

    For development of offshore fields, the operator must select production concepts. As several options like subsea templates, floating production and storage concepts, semisubmersibles and steel platforms etc. are available, this paper will review the specifics of one of the possible concepts, the concrete platform. The application of offshore concrete platforms is gaining renewed interest world wide. Several operators are presently carrying out comparisons between offshore concrete structures and jacket support structures. This evaluation includes considerations related to constructability incorporating studies of potential construction sites, and infrastructures as well as availability of materials. This paper summarizes requirements for carrying out an offshore concrete platform construction project and will be useful to those interested in concrete projects.

  13. Semi lightweight concretes produced by volcanic slags

    SciTech Connect

    Topcu, I.B.

    1997-01-01

    The properties of the semi-lightweight concretes produced by using volcanic slags as coarse aggregate were investigated. The volcanic slags were brought from the quarry crushed and then classified according to their aggregate sizes of 0--8, 0--16, 0--31.5, 4--8, and 8--16 mm. The concrete series of five different volcanic slag sizes were produced by addition of a specific cement paste in volume fractions of 0.15, 0.30, 0.45 and 0.60. The cubic, cylindrical and prismatic specimens were made from each of the concrete series. The physical and mechanical properties of the concrete series were determined by conducting unit weight, slump, ultrasound velocity, Schmidt hardness, cylindrical and cubic compressive, bending and splitting tensile strength tests. The results indicated that the volcanic slags can be safely used in the production of semi lightweight concrete.

  14. STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE OF DEGRADED REINFORCED CONCRETE MEMBERS.

    SciTech Connect

    Braverman, J.I.; Miller, C.A.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Naus, D.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Bezler, P.; Chang, T.Y.

    2001-03-22

    This paper describes the results of a study to evaluate, in probabilistic terms, the effects of age-related degradation on the structural performance of reinforced concrete members at nuclear power plants. The paper focuses on degradation of reinforced concrete flexural members and shear walls due to the loss of steel reinforcing area and loss of concrete area (cracking/spalling). Loss of steel area is typically caused by corrosion while cracking and spalling can be caused by corrosion of reinforcing steel, freeze-thaw, or aggressive chemical attack. Structural performance in the presence of uncertainties is depicted by a fragility (or conditional probability of failure). The effects of degradation on the fragility of reinforced concrete members are calculated to assess the potential significance of various levels of degradation. The fragility modeling procedures applied to degraded concrete members can be used to assess the effects of degradation on plant risk and can lead to the development of probability-based degradation acceptance limits.

  15. Strong metal-support interaction in novel core-shell Au-CeO2 nanostructures induced by different pretreatment atmospheres and its influence on CO oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhihua; Fu, Huifen; Tian, Ziwei; Han, Dongmei; Gu, Fubo

    2016-03-01

    Yolk-shell Au/CeO2 (Y-Au/CeO2) and encapsulated Au/CeO2 (E-Au/CeO2) nanocatalysts were prepared by using silica templates. A strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) in the Au/CeO2 nanostructures induced by different pretreatment atmospheres and its influence on CO oxidation were studied. E-Au/CeO2 pretreated in O2 had the best performance, followed by Y-Au/CeO2 pretreated in O2, Y-Au/CeO2 pretreated in H2, and E-Au/CeO2 pretreated in H2. The reasons for the different activities were discussed. There were two kinds of strong metal-support interactions (SMSI) between Au and CeO2 termed as R-SMSI (pretreated in reductive atmosphere) and O-SMSI (pretreated in oxidation atmosphere). Because of the smaller size of the Au and the larger contact area, both the R-SMSI and O-SMSI of E-Au/CeO2 were larger than those of Y-Au/CeO2. The O-SMSI was accompanied by the formation of cationic Au species that were beneficial to the enhancing of activity. As expected, the activity of E-Au/CeO2 pretreated in O2 with a Au size less than 5 nm was higher than that of Y-Au/CeO2 pretreated in O2 with 25 nm Au. However, it is surprisingly found that the activity of Y-Au/CeO2 pretreated in H2 with 25 nm Au was higher than that of E-Au/CeO2 pretreated in H2 with a Au size less than 5 nm. R-SMSI resulted in the formation of a AuCe alloy that had a negative effect on the activity. Compared with E-Au/CeO2 pretreated in H2, Y-Au/CeO2 pretreated in H2 exhibited a smaller relative content of the AuCe alloy, leading to a better activity of Y-Au/CeO2 pretreated in H2.Yolk-shell Au/CeO2 (Y-Au/CeO2) and encapsulated Au/CeO2 (E-Au/CeO2) nanocatalysts were prepared by using silica templates. A strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) in the Au/CeO2 nanostructures induced by different pretreatment atmospheres and its influence on CO oxidation were studied. E-Au/CeO2 pretreated in O2 had the best performance, followed by Y-Au/CeO2 pretreated in O2, Y-Au/CeO2 pretreated in H2, and E-Au/CeO2 pretreated in H2

  16. Violent interaction between the active galactic nucleus and the hot gas in the core of the galaxy cluster Sérsic 159-03

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, N.; Sun, M.; Bagchi, J.; Allen, S. W.; Taylor, G. B.; Sirothia, S. K.; Simionescu, A.; Million, E. T.; Jacob, J.; Donahue, M.

    2011-08-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the energetic interaction between the central active galactic nucleus (AGN), the intracluster medium (ICM) and the optical emission-line nebula in the galaxy cluster Sérsic 159-03. We use X-ray data from Chandra, high-resolution X-ray spectra and ultraviolet (UV) images from XMM-Newton, Hα images from the Southern Astrophysics Research Telescope, Hubble Space Telescope optical imaging, and Very Large Array and Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope radio data. The cluster centre displays signs of powerful AGN feedback, which has cleared the central regions (r < 7.5 kpc) of a dense, X-ray-emitting ICM. X-ray spectral maps reveal a high-pressure ring surrounding the central AGN at a radius of r˜ 15 kpc, indicating an AGN-driven weak shock. The cluster harbours a bright, 44 kpc long Hα+[N II] filament extending from the centre of the cD galaxy to the north. Along the filament, we see low-entropy, high-metallicity, cooling X-ray gas. The gas in the filament has most likely been uplifted by 'radio mode' AGN activity and subsequently stripped from the galaxy due to its relative southward motion. Because this X-ray gas has been removed from the direct influence of the AGN jets, part of it cools and forms stars as indicated by the observed dust lanes, molecular and ionized emission-line nebulae and the excess UV emission.

  17. Biophysical insights into the membrane interaction of the core amyloid-forming Aβ40 fragment K16-K28 and its role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bera, Swapna; Korshavn, Kyle J; Kar, Rajiv K; Lim, Mi Hee; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Bhunia, Anirban

    2016-06-22

    The aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) on neuronal membranes is implicated in both neuronal toxicity and the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Unfortunately, the heterogeneous environment that results from peptide aggregation in the presence of lipids makes the details of these pathways difficult to interrogate. In this study, we report an investigation of the membrane interaction of an Aβ fragment (K16LVFFAEDVGSNK28, KK13), which maintains the amyloidogenic nature of the full-length peptide and is implicated in membrane-mediated folding, through a combination of NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. Despite KK13's ability to form amyloids in solution, the monomer remains unstructured in the presence of lipid bilayers, unlike its full-length parent peptide. Additionally, NMR and molecular dynamics simulation results support that the presence of GM1 ganglioside, a lipid which strongly promotes binding between Aβ and lipid bilayers, promotes KK13 binding to but not folding on the membrane. Finally, we show that the peptide partitions between the membrane and aqueous solution based on the hydrophobicity of the N-terminal residues, regardless of lipid composition. These results support previous discoveries suggesting the importance of GM1 ganglioside in exacerbating membrane-driven aggregation while identifying the potential importance of C-terminal residues in membrane binding and folding, which has previously been unclear. PMID:27282693

  18. Evaluation of alternative concrete cutting techniques for massive concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, K.; Boing, L.

    1994-12-31

    Various methods for removing massive concrete structures during decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), such as the map tube facility and waste storage vaults located in the 317 Area of Argonne National Laboratory, have been evaluated by NES, Inc./integrated Environmental Services. Five of the most feasible cutting technologies are described in terms of their ability to perform the required tasks; their performance characteristics; radiological, safety, and environmental impacts; and cost and schedule considerations. These cutting techniques are consequential in the D&D process for reducing the amount of radioactive waste requiring disposal and decreasing worker exposure to contamination. Table I lists the cutting technologies that were analyzed and the key parameters of each. This synopsis permits a rapid comparison of the techniques. For each cutting technique, the cutting speed is based on compilation of vendor information. Costs are given for the individual cutting system.

  19. Radiation Damage In Reactor Cavity Concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Kevin G; Le Pape, Yann; Naus, Dan J; Remec, Igor; Busby, Jeremy T; Rosseel, Thomas M; Wall, Dr. James Joseph

    2015-01-01

    License renewal up to 60 years and the possibility of subsequent license renewal to 80 years has established a renewed focus on long-term aging of nuclear generating stations materials, and recently, on concrete. Large irreplaceable sections of most nuclear generating stations include concrete. The Expanded Materials Degradation Analysis (EMDA), jointly performed by the Department of Energy, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Industry, identified the urgent need to develop a consistent knowledge base on irradiation effects in concrete. Much of the historical mechanical performance data of irradiated concrete does not accurately reflect typical radiation conditions in NPPs or conditions out to 60 or 80 years of radiation exposure. To address these potential gaps in the knowledge base, The Electric Power Research Institute and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working to disposition radiation damage as a degradation mechanism. This paper outlines the research program within this pathway including: (i) defining the upper bound of the neutron and gamma dose levels expected in the biological shield concrete for extended operation (80 years of operation and beyond), (ii) determining the effects of neutron and gamma irradiation as well as extended time at temperature on concrete, (iii) evaluating opportunities to irradiate prototypical concrete under accelerated neutron and gamma dose levels to establish a conservative bound and share data obtained from different flux, temperature, and fluence levels, (iv) evaluating opportunities to harvest and test irradiated concrete from international NPPs, (v) developing cooperative test programs to improve confidence in the results from the various concretes and research reactors, (vi) furthering the understanding of the effects of radiation on concrete (see companion paper) and (vii) establishing an international collaborative research and information exchange effort to leverage capabilities and knowledge.

  20. Close range radar remote sensing of concrete degradation in a textile factory floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo, H.; Cuéllar, V.; Hernández, M. C.

    2001-07-01

    This paper describes a GPR study carried out with the aim of evaluating deterioration of concrete floors in a textile factory. In the past, production process waste was spilt onto the floor of the factory. A slow but continuous action from this waste on the concrete caused a significant variation in its porosity that can be detected by studying changes in the GPR reflected pulse. A simple synthetic model was developed in order to obtain information about how the response of the GPR antenna pulse is affected by changes in the porosity of concrete. It should also be taken into account the different conditions of the factory floor at the time of testing, as it had been isolated from the action of waste for many years. The heterogeneous conditions of the floor and the simplicity of the model used did not allow for an accurate estimate of the porosity; however, it was possible to map degraded areas of the floor in relationship to changes in the reflected signal. Core samples taken showed that some areas had concrete porosity of 15% and up to 25%, which is closer to that of sand than to concrete.

  1. In-situ radar remote sensing applied to the detection of degradation in a concrete floor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo, Henrique; Hernandez, M. C.; Cuellar, Vicente

    2000-04-01

    This paper describes a GPR study carried out with the aim of evaluating deterioration of concrete floors in textile factories. During some years, spillages from the production process were split onto the floor of the factory. The slow but continue action of these spillages in the concrete caused an important variation in its porosity, which could be detected by studying changes in GPR reflected pulse. A simple synthetic model was developed in order to obtain information about how the response of GPR antenna pulse is depending on changes in the porosity of concrete. We also take into account the different conditions of the factory floor at the moment (since many years ago it's been isolated from the action of the spillage). The heterogeneous conditions of the floor and the simplicity of the model used did not allow for an accurate estimation of porosity, but it was possible to map degraded areas on the floor related to changes in the reflected signal. Core drills made later confirmed in some of them a concrete porosity of up to 25%, closer to that of sand than to concrete.

  2. Quantitative estimation of carbonation and chloride penetration in reinforced concrete by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eto, Shuzo; Matsuo, Toyofumi; Matsumura, Takuro; Fujii, Takashi; Tanaka, Masayoshi Y.

    2014-11-01

    The penetration profile of chlorine in a reinforced concrete (RC) specimen was determined by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The concrete core was prepared from RC beams with cracking damage induced by bending load and salt water spraying. LIBS was performed using a specimen that was obtained by splitting the concrete core, and the line scan of laser pulses gave the two-dimensional emission intensity profiles of 100 × 80 mm2 within one hour. The two-dimensional profile of the emission intensity suggests that the presence of the crack had less effect on the emission intensity when the measurement interval was larger than the crack width. The chlorine emission spectrum was measured without using the buffer gas, which is usually used for chlorine measurement, by collinear double-pulse LIBS. The apparent diffusion coefficient, which is one of the most important parameters for chloride penetration in concrete, was estimated using the depth profile of chlorine emission intensity and Fick's law. The carbonation depth was estimated on the basis of the relationship between carbon and calcium emission intensities. When the carbon emission intensity was statistically higher than the calcium emission intensity at the measurement point, we determined that the point was carbonated. The estimation results were consistent with the spraying test results using phenolphthalein solution. These results suggest that the quantitative estimation by LIBS of carbonation depth and chloride penetration can be performed simultaneously.

  3. Automatic semantic encoding in verbal short-term memory: evidence from the concreteness effect.

    PubMed

    Campoy, Guillermo; Castellà, Judit; Provencio, Violeta; Hitch, Graham J; Baddeley, Alan D

    2015-01-01

    The concreteness effect in verbal short-term memory (STM) tasks is assumed to be a consequence of semantic encoding in STM, with immediate recall of concrete words benefiting from richer semantic representations. We used the concreteness effect to test the hypothesis that semantic encoding in standard verbal STM tasks is a consequence of controlled, attention-demanding mechanisms of strategic semantic retrieval and encoding. Experiment 1 analysed the effect of presentation rate, with slow presentations being assumed to benefit strategic, time-dependent semantic encoding. Experiments 2 and 3 provided a more direct test of the strategic hypothesis by introducing three different concurrent attention-demanding tasks. Although Experiment 1 showed a larger concreteness effect with slow presentations, the following two experiments yielded strong evidence against the strategic hypothesis. Limiting available attention resources by concurrent tasks reduced global memory performance, but the concreteness effect was equivalent to that found in control conditions. We conclude that semantic effects in STM result from automatic semantic encoding and provide tentative explanations for the interaction between the concreteness effect and the presentation rate. PMID:25231876

  4. Evaluation of a stack: A concrete chimney with brick liner

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, J.R.; Amin, J.A.; Porthouse, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    A 200 ft. tall stack, consisting of a concrete chimney with an independent acid proof brick liner built in the 1950`s, serving the Separations facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS), was evaluated for the performance category 3 (PC3) level of Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) effects. The inelastic energy absorption capacity of the concrete chimney was considered in the evaluation of the earthquake resistance, in particular, to compute the F{sub {mu}} factor. The calculated value of F{sub {mu}} exceeded 3.0, while the seismic demand for the PC3 level, using an F{sub {mu}} value of 1.5, was found to be less than the capacity of the concrete chimney. The capacity formulation of ACI 307 was modified to incorporate the effect of an after design opening on the tension side. There are considerable uncertainties in determining the earthquake resistance of the independent brick liner. The critical liner section, located at the bottom of the breeching opening, does not meet the current recommendations. A discussion is provided for the possible acceptable values for the ``Moment Reduction Factor``, R{sub w} or F{sub {mu}} for the liner. Comments are provided on the comparison of stack demands using response spectra (RS) versus time history (TH) analysis, with and without soil structure interaction (SSI) effects.

  5. Preliminary engineering design of sodium-cooled CANDLE core

    SciTech Connect

    Takaki, Naoyuki; Namekawa, Azuma; Yoda, Tomoyuki; Mizutani, Akihiko; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2012-06-06

    The CANDLE burning process is characterized by the autonomous shifting of burning region with constant reactivity and constant spacial power distribution. Evaluations of such critical burning process by using widely used neutron diffusion and burning codes under some realistic engineering constraints are valuable to confirm the technical feasibility of the CANDLE concept and to put the idea into concrete core design. In the first part of this paper, it is discussed that whether the sustainable and stable CANDLE burning process can be reproduced even by using conventional core analysis tools such as SLAROM and CITATION-FBR. As a result, it is certainly possible to demonstrate it if the proper core configuration and initial fuel composition required as CANDLE core are applied to the analysis. In the latter part, an example of a concrete image of sodium cooled, metal fuel, 2000MWt rating CANDLE core has been presented by assuming an emerging inevitable technology of recladding. The core satisfies engineering design criteria including cladding temperature, pressure drop, linear heat rate, and cumulative damage fraction (CDF) of cladding, fast neutron fluence and sodium void reactivity which are defined in the Japanese FBR design project. It can be concluded that it is feasible to design CANDLE core by using conventional codes while satisfying some realistic engineering design constraints assuming that recladding at certain time interval is technically feasible.

  6. Preliminary engineering design of sodium-cooled CANDLE core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaki, Naoyuki; Namekawa, Azuma; Yoda, Tomoyuki; Mizutani, Akihiko; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    The CANDLE burning process is characterized by the autonomous shifting of burning region with constant reactivity and constant spacial power distribution. Evaluations of such critical burning process by using widely used neutron diffusion and burning codes under some realistic engineering constraints are valuable to confirm the technical feasibility of the CANDLE concept and to put the idea into concrete core design. In the first part of this paper, it is discussed that whether the sustainable and stable CANDLE burning process can be reproduced even by using conventional core analysis tools such as SLAROM and CITATION-FBR. As a result, it is certainly possible to demonstrate it if the proper core configuration and initial fuel composition required as CANDLE core are applied to the analysis. In the latter part, an example of a concrete image of sodium cooled, metal fuel, 2000MWt rating CANDLE core has been presented by assuming an emerging inevitable technology of recladding. The core satisfies engineering design criteria including cladding temperature, pressure drop, linear heat rate, and cumulative damage fraction (CDF) of cladding, fast neutron fluence and sodium void reactivity which are defined in the Japanese FBR design project. It can be concluded that it is feasible to design CADLE core by using conventional codes while satisfying some realistic engineering design constraints assuming that recladding at certain time interval is technically feasible.

  7. Dual-core antiresonant hollow core fibers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuesong; Fan, Zhongwei; Shi, Zhaohui; Ma, Yunfeng; Yu, Jin; Zhang, Jing

    2016-07-25

    In this work, dual-core antiresonant hollow core fibers (AR-HCFs) are numerically demonstrated, based on our knowledge, for the first time. Two fiber structures are proposed. One is a composite of two single-core nested nodeless AR-HCFs, exhibiting low confinement loss and a circular mode profile in each core. The other has a relatively simple structure, with a whole elliptical outer jacket, presenting a uniform and wide transmission band. The modal couplings of the dual-core AR-HCFs rely on a unique mechanism that transfers power through the air. The core separation and the gap between the two cores influence the modal coupling strength. With proper designs, both of the dual-core fibers can have low phase birefringence and short modal coupling lengths of several centimeters. PMID:27464191

  8. Special concrete shield selection using the analytic hierarchy process

    SciTech Connect

    Abulfaraj, W.H. . Nuclear Engineering Dept.)

    1994-08-01

    Special types of concrete radiation shields that depend on locally available materials and have improved properties for both neutron and gamma-ray attenuation were developed by using plastic materials and heavy ores. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is implemented to evaluate these types for selecting the best biological radiation shield for nuclear reactors. Factors affecting the selection decision are degree of protection against neutrons, degree of protection against gamma rays, suitability of the concrete as building material, and economic considerations. The seven concrete alternatives are barite-polyethylene concrete, barite-polyvinyl chloride (PVC) concrete, barite-portland cement concrete, pyrite-polyethylene concrete, pyrite-PVC concrete, pyrite-portland cement concrete, and ordinary concrete. The AHP analysis shows the superiority of pyrite-polyethylene concrete over the others.

  9. Concrete containment structural element tests. Volume 1. Half-thickness element tests - description and results. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Julien, J.T.; Schultz, D.M.; Weinmann, T.L.

    1984-11-01

    Understanding the structural behavior of nuclear reactor containment buildings under extreme internal pressures can lead to more realistic estimates of risk from severe core accidents. This study provides test data on the behavior, under biaxial tensile loads, of large-scale segments of a containment building with reinforced and prestressed concrete designs.

  10. Fatigue of concrete beams and slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roesler, Jeffrey Raphael

    Traditionally, simply supported concrete beam (SSB) fatigue results have been used to characterize the fatigue resistance of fully supported concrete slabs (FSS). SSB concrete fatigue tests have been assumed to be equivalent to the fatigue resistance of concrete slabs in the field. The effect specimen size, boundary conditions, and loading configurations have on the fatigue of concrete beams and slabs have not been considered in the design of concrete pavements against fatigue. A laboratory study was undertaken to determine if the fatigue behavior of FSS and SSB were similar. A fully supported beam (FSB) was also tested under repeated loading, since it represented an intermediate specimen size and testing configuration between SSB and FSS. The best way to present fatigue results for all specimens was a stress ratio (S) to number of cycles to failure (N) curve (S-N curve). SSB fatigue behavior was similar to results obtained from the literature. FSB had similar fatigue behavior to SSB. The fatigue curve derived from repeated loading of FSS was 30 percent higher than the SSB fatigue curve. This suggested for a given number of cycles to failure, FSS could take a 30 percent higher bending stress as compared to SSB and FSB. The concrete modulus of rupture from a FSS test configuration was 30 percent greater than the concrete modulus of rupture from a SSB test setup. If the concrete modulus of rupture from a FSS test configuration was used in the slab's stress ratio, the slab's fatigue curve was the same as the SSB and FSB. This meant concrete behaved the same under fatigue loading, irrespective of specimen size and test configuration, as long as the correct concrete modulus of rupture was used in the stress ratio. Strain gages, attached to all specimens tested, indicated cracking in concrete occurred in a narrow band. Regions of high plastic strain were found in the plane of cracking, while adjacent areas experienced decreases in strain levels with cracking. Strain

  11. Repair of the DSS-14 Pedestal Concrete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclure, D.

    1985-01-01

    About three years after the Goldstone Deep Space Station antenna was dedicated, grout under the hydrostatic bearing runner was found to be interacting with the runner, causing rust to form between the runner and the sole plates upon which it rests. The rust formed unevenly and the runner could not be kept flat so in 1969 the grout was removed and replaced with a Portland cement and sand dry pack grout that was less likely to produce rust. In the years that followed, oil leaking from the runner assembly caused progressive deterioration of the drypack grout. In 1982 over one thousand hours of spacecraft tracking time were lost due to this deterioration. A plan was developed to rehabilitate the bearing. The plan called for raising the rotating structure free from the concrete pedestal and placing it on three pairs of external support columns. With the weight of the structure transferred to the columns, the pads and runner could be removed and the repair started. The very successful repair included the replacement of a significant portion of the antenna pedestal.

  12. Examination of Behavior of Fresh Concrete Under Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yücel, K. T.

    2012-05-01

    Transporting fresh concrete constitutes a significant part of the production process. Transferring ready-mixed concrete on-site is done using concrete pumps. Recent developments in concrete technology, and in mineral and chemical additives, have resulted in new developments in pumping techniques and the use of different concrete mixtures and equipment. These developments required further knowledge of the behavior of fresh concrete under pressure. Two criteria were determined for the pumpability of concrete: the power required to move the concrete or of the repulsive force; and the cohesion of the fresh concrete. It would be insufficient to relate pumpability to these two criteria; the values of segregation pressure, diffusion ability, water retention capacity, and side friction of the mixture are significant parameters in ensuring that concrete is pumped freely along the pipe. To solve the pumpability problem, friction stresses should be determined as a function of the linear pressure gradient, the pressure leading to segregation of the fresh concrete should be determined, and tests for the bleeding of concrete under pressure should be examined. The scope of the research is the examination of the behavior of fresh concrete under pressure. To determine the segregation pressures, a test apparatus was designed for the bleeding of concrete under pressure. The main purpose of the study is to determine whether the concrete can be pumped easily and whether it will lose its cohesion during the pumping, based on tests of concrete workability and bleeding of concrete under pressure.

  13. Immobilization of iodine in concrete

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Walter E.; Thompson, Clarence T.

    1977-04-12

    A method for immobilizing fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel comprises combining material comprising water, Portland cement and about 3-20 wt. % iodine as Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 to provide a fluid mixture and allowing the fluid mixture to harden, said Ba(IO.sub.3).sub.2 comprising said radioactive iodine. An article for solid waste disposal comprises concrete prepared by this method. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention was made in the course of, or under a contract with the Energy Research and Development Administration. It relates in general to reactor waste solidification and more specifically to the immobilization of fission product radioactive iodine recovered from irradiated nuclear fuel for underground storage.

  14. Lunar cement and lunar concrete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. D.

    1991-01-01

    Results of a study to investigate methods of producing cements from lunar materials are presented. A chemical process and a differential volatilization process to enrich lime content in selected lunar materials were identified. One new cement made from lime and anorthite developed compressive strengths of 39 Mpa (5500 psi) for 1 inch paste cubes. The second, a hypothetical composition based on differential volatilization of basalt, formed a mineral glass which was activated with an alkaline additive. The 1 inch paste cubes, cured at 100C and 100 percent humidity, developed compressive strengths in excess of 49 Mpa (7100 psi). Also discussed are tests made with Apollo 16 lunar soil and an ongoing investigation of a proposed dry mix/steam injection procedure for casting concrete on the Moon.

  15. SA-based concrete seismic stress monitoring: a case study for normal strength concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, S.; Zhang, H. B.; Ou, J. P.

    2016-09-01

    The stress history of concrete structures that have survived an earthquake can serve as a critical index to evaluate the health of the structure. There are currently few reliable monitoring methods to assess concrete stress after a seismic event. Piezoelectric-based smart aggregate (SA) provides an innovative experimental approach to monitor stress on concrete. The principle of SA-based concrete seismic stress monitoring is based on the assumption that concrete stress can be reliably predicted by the average output voltages of limited SAs with an acceptable margin of error. In this study, the meso-scale randomness of concrete was evaluated throughout the overall stress range of concrete and the influence of different load paths was considered. Four cylindrical specimens of normal strength concrete were embedded with a total of 24 SAs. The SA output sensitivity curve in the paths of loading–unloading with different amplitudes and monotonic loading up to failure was obtained. Monitoring errors were analyzed during pre- and post-peak stages from the experimental results. This research suggests that SA-based concrete seismic stress monitoring for normal strength concrete is reliable.

  16. Evaluation of ASTM test method D 4867, effect of moisture on asphalt concrete paving mixtures. Final report, May 1995--May 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, K.D.

    1998-09-01

    The moisture sensitivities of 21 dense-graded asphalt pavements were predicted in 1987 using American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Test Method D 4867, Effect of Moisture on Asphalt Concrete Paving Mixtures. Tests were performed on cores taken from the pavements. The air-void levels of the cores varied from pavement to pavement. In 1995 and 1996, cores were again taken from the pavements to ascertain whether the test method correctly predicted performance. Pavement distress surveys were also performed.

  17. Microstructure of high-strength foam concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Just, A.; Middendorf, B.

    2009-07-15

    Foam concretes are divided into two groups: on the one hand the physically foamed concrete is mixed in fast rotating pug mill mixers by using foaming agents. This concrete cures under atmospheric conditions. On the other hand the autoclaved aerated concrete is chemically foamed by adding aluminium powder. Afterwards it is cured in a saturated steam atmosphere. New alternatives for the application of foam concretes arise from the combination of chemical foaming and air curing in manufacturing processes. These foam concretes are new and innovative building materials with interesting properties: low mass density and high strength. Responsible for these properties are the macro-, meso- and microporosity. Macropores are created by adding aluminium powder in different volumes and with different particle size distributions. However, the microstructure of the cement matrix is affected by meso- and micropores. In addition, the matrix of the hardened cement paste can be optimized by the specific use of chemical additives for concrete. The influence of aluminium powder and chemical additives on the properties of the microstructure of the hardened cement matrices were investigated by using petrographic microscopy as well as scanning electron microscopy.

  18. The Apparent Thermal Conductivity of Pozzolana Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessenouci, M. Z.; Triki, N. E. Bibi; Khelladi, S.; Draoui, B.; Abene, A.

    The recent development of some lightweight construction materials, such as light concrete, can play an important role as an insulator, while maintaining sufficient levels of mechanical performance. The quality of insulation to provide depends on the climate, the exposure of the walls and also the materials used in the construction. The choice of a material to be used as an insulator, obviously, depends on its availability and its cost. This is a study of natural pozzolanas as basic components in building materials. It is intended to highlight their thermal advantage. It is economically advantageous to use pozzolana in substitution for a portion of the clinker as hydraulically active additions, as well as in compositions of lightweight concretes in the form of pozzolanic aggregate mixtures, which provide mechanical strengths that comply with current standards. A theoretical study is conducted on the apparent thermal conductivity of building materials, namely concrete containing pozzolana. Thermal modeling, apparent to that commonly used for porous materials, has been applied to pozzolana concrete. Experimental results on measurements of the apparent thermal conductivity of pozzolana concrete are reported in this study, using an approach that considers that concrete is composed of two solid ingredients, a binding matrix (hydrated cement paste) and all aggregates. A second comparative theoretical approach is used for the case where concrete consists of a solid phase and a fluid phase (air).

  19. Monitoring durability of new concrete bridge decks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aktan, Haluk M.; Yaman, Ismail O.; Staton, John F.

    2001-08-01

    The ND durability monitoring procedure, which measures the soundness of field concrete, is based on the fundamental relationship between ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and permeability of an elastic medium. An experimental study documented adequate sensitivity between UPV and concrete permeability. The durability monitoring procedure is based on a parameter developed as part of this study and called paste quality loss (PQL) which is computed from the probability density function parameters of ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements taken from standard and field concrete. For PQL computation, measurements taken on standard concrete specimens, which are made from field concrete mixture, are compared to field measurements. The verification tests on 1000 mm x 1500 mm x 230 mm lab-deck specimens indicated that the PQL parameter computed from the UPV measurements as early as the 28th day is a good predictor of soundness. The UPV measurements made at increasing age of concrete very clearly document the rapid loss of soundness of improperly cured concrete decks. Deck replacement projects on three NHS bridges were used in the implementation of durability monitoring by PQL (paste quality loss) evaluation. The respective 56-day PQL's were calculated as 15%, 31% and 9% indicating a significant variability in the three bridges.

  20. Self-cleaning geopolymer concrete - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norsaffirah Zailan, Siti; Mahmed, Norsuria; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Sandu, Andrei Victor

    2016-06-01

    Concrete is the most widely used construction materials for building technology. However, cement production releases high amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere that leads to increasing the global warming. Thus, an alternative, environmental friendly construction material such as geopolymer concrete has been developed. Geopolymer concrete applies greener alternative binder, which is an innovative construction material that replaces the Portland cement. This technology introduced nano-particles such as nanoclay into the cement paste in order to improve their mechanical properties. The concrete materials also have been developed to be functioned as self-cleaning construction materials. The self-cleaning properties of the concrete are induced by introducing the photocatalytic materials such as titania (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO). Self-cleaning concrete that contains those photocatalysts will be energized by ultraviolet (UV) radiation and accelerates the decomposition of organic particulates. Thus, the cleanliness of the building surfaces can be maintained and the air surrounding air pollution can be reduced. This paper briefly reviews about self-cleaning concrete.