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Sample records for coregistered three-dimensional ultrasound

  1. Coregistered three-dimensional ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system for ovarian tissue characterization

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Andres; Guo, Puyun; Gamelin, John; Yan, Shikui; Sanders, Mary M.; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2009-01-01

    Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality of all gynecologic cancers, with a five-year survival rate of only 30% or less. Current imaging techniques are limited in sensitivity and specificity in detecting early stage ovarian cancer prior to its widespread metastasis. New imaging techniques that can provide functional and molecular contrasts are needed to reduce the high mortality of this disease. One such promising technique is photoacoustic imaging. We develop a 1280-element coregistered 3-D ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system based on a 1.75-D acoustic array. Volumetric images over a scan range of 80 deg in azimuth and 20 deg in elevation can be achieved in minutes. The system has been used to image normal porcine ovarian tissue. This is an important step toward better understanding of ovarian cancer optical properties obtained with photoacoustic techniques. To the best of our knowledge, such data are not available in the literature. We present characterization measurements of the system and compare coregistered ultrasound and photoacoustic images of ovarian tissue to histological images. The results show excellent coregistration of ultrasound and photoacoustic images. Strong optical absorption from vasculature, especially highly vascularized corpora lutea and low absorption from follicles, is demonstrated. PMID:19895116

  2. Three-dimensional obstetric ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Tache, Veronique; Tarsa, Maryam; Romine, Lorene; Pretorius, Dolores H

    2008-04-01

    Three-dimensional ultrasound has gained a significant popularity in obstetrical practice in recent years. The advantage of this modality in some cases is in question, however. This article provides a basic review of volume acquisition, mechanical positioning, and display modalities. Multiple uses of this technique in obstetrical care including first trimester applications and its utility in clarification of fetal anatomy such as brain, face, heart, and skeleton is discussed. PMID:18450140

  3. Opto-acoustic breast imaging with co-registered ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalev, Jason; Clingman, Bryan; Herzog, Don; Miller, Tom; Stavros, A. Thomas; Oraevsky, Alexander; Kist, Kenneth; Dornbluth, N. Carol; Otto, Pamela

    2014-03-01

    We present results from a recent study involving the ImagioTM breast imaging system, which produces fused real-time two-dimensional color-coded opto-acoustic (OA) images that are co-registered and temporally inter- leaved with real-time gray scale ultrasound using a specialized duplex handheld probe. The use of dual optical wavelengths provides functional blood map images of breast tissue and tumors displayed with high contrast based on total hemoglobin and oxygen saturation of the blood. This provides functional diagnostic information pertaining to tumor metabolism. OA also shows morphologic information about tumor neo-vascularity that is complementary to the morphological information obtained with conventional gray scale ultrasound. This fusion technology conveniently enables real-time analysis of the functional opto-acoustic features of lesions detected by readers familiar with anatomical gray scale ultrasound. We demonstrate co-registered opto-acoustic and ultrasonic images of malignant and benign tumors from a recent clinical study that provide new insight into the function of tumors in-vivo. Results from the Feasibility Study show preliminary evidence that the technology may have the capability to improve characterization of benign and malignant breast masses over conventional diagnostic breast ultrasound alone and to improve overall accuracy of breast mass diagnosis. In particular, OA improved speci city over that of conventional diagnostic ultrasound, which could potentially reduce the number of negative biopsies performed without missing cancers.

  4. In vivo three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging based on a clinical matrix array ultrasound probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Erpelding, Todd N.; Jankovic, Ladislav; Guo, Zijian; Robert, Jean-Luc; David, Guillaume; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-06-01

    We present an integrated photoacoustic and ultrasonic three-dimensional (3-D) volumetric imaging system based on a two-dimensional (2-D) matrix array ultrasound probe. A wavelength-tunable dye laser pumped by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser serves as the light source and a modified commercial ultrasound imaging system (iU22, Philips Healthcare) with a 2-D array transducer (X7-2, Philips Healthcare) detects both the pulse-echo ultrasound and photoacoustic signals. A multichannel data acquisition system acquires the RF channel data. The imaging system enables rendering of co-registered 3-D ultrasound and photoacoustic images without mechanical scanning. The resolution along the azimuth, elevation, and axial direction are measured to be 0.69, 0.90 and 0.84 mm for photoacoustic imaging. In vivo 3-D photoacoustic mapping of the sentinel lymph node was demonstrated in a rat model using methylene blue dye. These results highlight the clinical potential of 3-D PA imaging for identification of sentinel lymph nodes for cancer staging in humans.

  5. In vivo three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging based on a clinical matrix array ultrasound probe.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Erpelding, Todd N; Jankovic, Ladislav; Guo, Zijian; Robert, Jean-Luc; David, Guillaume; Wang, Lihong V

    2012-06-01

    We present an integrated photoacoustic and ultrasonic three-dimensional (3-D) volumetric imaging system based on a two-dimensional (2-D) matrix array ultrasound probe. A wavelength-tunable dye laser pumped by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser serves as the light source and a modified commercial ultrasound imaging system (iU22, Philips Healthcare) with a 2-D array transducer (X7-2, Philips Healthcare) detects both the pulse-echo ultrasound and photoacoustic signals. A multichannel data acquisition system acquires the RF channel data. The imaging system enables rendering of co-registered 3-D ultrasound and photoacoustic images without mechanical scanning. The resolution along the azimuth, elevation, and axial direction are measured to be 0.69, 0.90 and 0.84 mm for photoacoustic imaging. In vivo 3-D photoacoustic mapping of the sentinel lymph node was demonstrated in a rat model using methylene blue dye. These results highlight the clinical potential of 3-D PA imaging for identification of sentinel lymph nodes for cancer staging in humans. PMID:22734738

  6. Three-dimensional laser optoacoustic and laser ultrasound imaging system for biomedical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermilov, Sergey A.; Su, Richard; Conjusteau, Andre; Oruganti, Tanmayi; Wang, Kun; Anis, Fatima; Anastasio, Mark A.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we introduce an improved prototype of the imaging system that combines three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography (3D-OAT) and laser ultrasound tomography slicer (2D-LUT) to obtain coregistered maps of tissue optical absorption and speed of sound (SOS). The imaging scan is performed by a 360 degree rotation of a phantom/mouse with respect to a static arc-shaped array of ultrasonic transducers. A Q-switched laser system is used to establish optoacoustic illumination pattern appropriate for deep tissue imaging with a tunable (730-840 nm) output wavelengths operated at 10 Hz pulse repetition rate. For the LUT slicer scans, the array is pivoted by 90 degrees with respect to the central transducers providing accurate registration of optoacoustic and SOS maps, the latter being reconstructed using waveform inversion with source encoding (WISE) technique. The coregistered OAT-LUT modality is validated by imaging a phantom and a live mouse. SOS maps acquired in the imaging system can be employed by an iterative optoacoustic reconstruction algorithm capable of compensating for acoustic wavefield aberrations. The most promising applications of the imaging system include 3D angiography, cancer research, and longitudinal studies of biological distributions of optoacoustic contrast agents (carbon nanotubes, metal plasmonic nanoparticles, fluorophores, etc.).

  7. Three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging with a clinical two-dimensional matrix ultrasound transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erpelding, Todd N.; Wang, Yu; Jankovic, Ladislav; Guo, Zijian; Robert, Jean-Luc; David, Guillaume; Kim, Chulhong; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-03-01

    Photoacoustic tomography provides both structural and functional imaging in vivo based on optical absorption contrast. A novel imaging system that incorporates a two-dimensional matrix ultrasound probe for combined photoacoustic and ultrasonic three-dimensional (3D) volumetric imaging is presented. The system consists of a tunable dye laser pumped by a Nd:YAG laser, a commercial ultrasound imaging system (Philips iU22) with a two-dimensional matrix transducer (Philips X7-2, 2500 elements, 2-7 MHz), and a multichannel data acquisition system which allows us to acquire RF channel data. Compared with alternative 3D techniques, this system is attractive because it can generate co-registered 3D photoacoustic and ultrasound images without mechanical scanning. Moreover, the lateral resolution along the azimuth and elevational directions are measured to be 0.77 +/- 0.06 mm and 0.96 +/- 0.06 mm, respectively, based on reconstructed photoacoustic images of phantoms containing individual human hairs. Finally, in vivo 3D photoacoustic sentinel lymph node mapping using methylene blue dye in a rat model is demonstrated.

  8. Three-Dimensional Optoacoustic and Laser-Induced Ultrasound Tomography System for Preclinical Research in Mice: Design and Phantom Validation.

    PubMed

    Ermilov, S A; Su, R; Conjusteau, A; Anis, F; Nadvoretskiy, V; Anastasio, M A; Oraevsky, A A

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we introduce a novel three-dimensional imaging system for in vivo high-resolution anatomical and functional whole-body visualization of small animal models developed for preclinical and other type of biomedical research. The system (LOUIS-3DM) combines a multiwavelength optoacoustic tomography (OAT) and laser-induced ultrasound tomography (LUT) to obtain coregistered maps of tissue optical absorption and speed of sound, displayed within the skin outline of the studied animal. The most promising applications of the LOUIS-3DM include 3D angiography, cancer research, and longitudinal studies of biological distributions of optoacoustic contrast agents. PMID:26088582

  9. Three-dimensional ultrasound palmprint recognition using curvature methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iula, Antonio; Nardiello, Donatella

    2016-05-01

    Palmprint recognition systems that use three-dimensional (3-D) information of the palm surface are the most recently explored techniques to overcome some two-dimensional palmprint difficulties. These techniques are based on light structural imaging. In this work, a 3-D ultrasound palmprint recognition system is proposed and evaluated. Volumetric images of a region of the human hand are obtained by moving an ultrasound linear array along its elevation direction and one by one acquiring a number of B-mode images, which are then grouped in a 3-D matrix. The acquisition time was contained in about 5 s. Much information that can be exploited for 3-D palmprint recognition is extracted from the ultrasound volumetric images, including palm curvature and other under-skin information as the depth of the various traits. The recognition procedure developed in this work is based on the analysis of the principal curvatures of palm surface, i.e., mean curvature image, Gaussian curvature image, and surface type. The proposed method is evaluated by performing verification and identification experiments. Preliminary results have shown that the proposed system exhibits an acceptable recognition rate. Further possible improvements of the proposed technique are finally highlighted and discussed.

  10. MRI Compatible Ultrasound Transducers for Simultaneous Acquisition of Coregistered Ultrasound to MRI Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speicher, Daniel; Bartscherer, T.; Becker, F. J.; Jenne, J. W.; Mrosk, K.; Degel, C.; Günther, M.; Tretbar, S.

    Magnetic resonance imaging has become an important part of radiological diagnostics as it shows high resolution volumes of human tissue without any radiation exposure. Beside the high costs for MR imaging the greatest disadvantage of this technology is that it is not real-time capable which leads to possible motion artifacts. Whereas Ultrasound is the most common diagnostic tool in radiology as it is real-time capable and cost effective. Therefore a combination of both modalities is obvious, not only to reduce motion artifacts in MR imaging but to save costs by reducing time in the MR scanner through coregistering ultrasound and MR images for deformation analysis. This work presents the manufacturing and measurement results of MR compatible ultrasound transducers for motion compensation and deformation analyses for clinical interventions under MRI conditions, based on ultrasound volumes acquired by a full MR compatible 180° rotating 8 MHz phased array.

  11. Freehand three-dimensional ultrasound: implementation and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherebrin, S.; Fenster, Aaron; Rankin, Richard N.; Spence, David

    1996-04-01

    Three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) offers a valuable approach to many diagnostic imaging problems and provides a relatively low cost alternative to 3D imaging modalities such as MRI and CT. To obtain a 3DUS image, a clinical ultrasound scanner is used to produce a sequence of adjacent 'slices' of the region of interest, which are recorded and used to reconstruct a volume. The required location of each slice may be found either by a priori knowledge of the scan path (mechanized scanning) or by tracking the path of the transducer at scan time (freehand scanning). For some imaging applications the scan path is irregular, making mechanized scanning difficult or impossible. Some examples are: imaging vascular disease in the carotid arteries, joint imaging and obstetrics. We have developed a freehand 3DUS system that is capable of such imaging tasks. We used phantoms containing a wire and a 50% stenosed cylinder phantom to test our system for vascular applications. We found the mean error in locating any image plane to be less than 0.1 mm ((sigma) equals 0.05 mm), with minimal geometric distortion. The degree of stenosis of the phantom was measured from a reconstructed volume to be 52.6% ((sigma) equals 2%). We have started a clinical stenosis study and a pilot joint imaging study. Our clinical results indicate that measurement of stenosis in patients should be possible.

  12. Automated quality assessment in three-dimensional breast ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Schwaab, Julia; Diez, Yago; Oliver, Arnau; Martí, Robert; van Zelst, Jan; Gubern-Mérida, Albert; Mourri, Ahmed Bensouda; Gregori, Johannes; Günther, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    Automated three-dimensional breast ultrasound (ABUS) is a valuable adjunct to x-ray mammography for breast cancer screening of women with dense breasts. High image quality is essential for proper diagnostics and computer-aided detection. We propose an automated image quality assessment system for ABUS images that detects artifacts at the time of acquisition. Therefore, we study three aspects that can corrupt ABUS images: the nipple position relative to the rest of the breast, the shadow caused by the nipple, and the shape of the breast contour on the image. Image processing and machine learning algorithms are combined to detect these artifacts based on 368 clinical ABUS images that have been rated manually by two experienced clinicians. At a specificity of 0.99, 55% of the images that were rated as low quality are detected by the proposed algorithms. The areas under the ROC curves of the single classifiers are 0.99 for the nipple position, 0.84 for the nipple shadow, and 0.89 for the breast contour shape. The proposed algorithms work fast and reliably, which makes them adequate for online evaluation of image quality during acquisition. The presented concept may be extended to further image modalities and quality aspects. PMID:27158633

  13. Three-dimensional flow vectors from rf ultrasound signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuthill, Theresa A.; Rubin, Jonathan M.; Fowlkes, J. B.

    2002-04-01

    A new ultrasound technique for determining three-dimensional velocity vectors has been devised using radio frequency (RF) data from commercially available scanners. Applied to blood flow, this technique could prove useful for evaluating hemodynamics and detecting stenoses. Three orthogonal velocity vectors are computed from the RF signals of two steered beams from a single array. The in-plane velocities are determined using standard Doppler analysis, while the out-of-plane component is derived from the total velocity as computed from temporal decorrelation and the in-plane components. The technique was tested using contrast agent pumped through a flow tube. A GE Vingmed SystemV scanner with a 10 MHz linear array provided scans at beam steering angles of +/- 20 degree(s). Both Doppler velocities and temporal complex decorrelation were computed for each digitized voxel. Additional studies were done on a blood mimicking fluid and in vivo with a canine femoral artery. Vector plots were constructed to show flow for various transducer angles. Angle estimates were within 20 degree(s), and the mean error for the velocity amplitude was less than 15%. The in vivo results provided velocity estimates consistent with the literature. The proposed method, unlike current Doppler velocity measurement techniques, provides quantitative velocity information independent of transducer orientation.

  14. A method for three-dimensional prostate imaging using transrectal ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Richard, W D; Grimmell, C K; Bedigian, K; Frank, K J

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a method for forming three-dimensional images of the prostate using transrectal ultrasound. This method extracts three-dimensional images of the prostate from sets of two-dimensional ultrasound images obtained via a special-purpose transrectal ultrasound probe. Each two-dimensional image is segmented and the results used to form a three-dimensional image of the prostate. A method for segmenting two-dimensional images of the prostate based on the Laplacian-of-Gaussian edge operator is described. The three-dimensional imaging method described provides a new, noninvasive method for monitoring gland pathology during radiation therapy. PMID:8518996

  15. Three-dimensional ultrasound system for guided breast brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    De Jean, Paul; Beaulieu, Luc; Fenster, Aaron

    2009-11-15

    Breast-conserving surgery combined with subsequent radiation therapy is a standard procedure in breast cancer treatment. The disadvantage of whole-breast beam irradiation is that it requires 20-25 treatment days, which is inconvenient for patients with limited mobility or who reside far from the treatment center. However, interstitial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy is an irradiation method requiring only 5 treatment days and that delivers a lower radiation dose to the surrounding healthy tissue. It involves delivering radiation through {sup 192}Ir seeds placed inside the catheters, which are inserted into the breast. The catheters are attached to a HDR afterloader, which controls the seed placement within the catheters and irradiation times to deliver the proper radiation dose. One disadvantage of using HDR brachytherapy is that it requires performing at least one CT scan during treatment planning. The procedure at our institution involves the use of two CT scans. Performing CT scans requires moving the patient from the brachytherapy suite with catheters inserted in their breasts. One alternative is using three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) to image the patient. In this study, the authors developed a 3DUS translation scanning system for use in breast brachytherapy. The new system was validated using CT, the current clinical standard, to image catheters in a breast phantom. Once the CT and 3DUS images were registered, the catheter trajectories were then compared. The results showed that the average angular separation between catheter trajectories was 2.4 deg., the average maximum trajectory separation was 1.0 mm, and the average mean trajectory separation was found to be 0.7 mm. In this article, the authors present the 3DUS translation scanning system's capabilities as well as its potential to be used as the primary treatment planning imaging modality in breast brachytherapy.

  16. Three-dimensional assessment of scoliosis based on ultrasound data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junhua; Li, Hongjian; Yu, Bo

    2015-12-01

    In this study, an approach was proposed to assess the 3D scoliotic deformity based on ultrasound data. The 3D spine model was reconstructed by using a freehand 3D ultrasound imaging system. The geometric torsion was then calculated from the reconstructed spine model. A thoracic spine phantom set at a given pose was used in the experiment. The geometric torsion of the spine phantom calculated from the freehand ultrasound imaging system was 0.041 mm-1 which was close to that calculated from the biplanar radiographs (0.025 mm-1). Therefore, ultrasound is a promising technique for the 3D assessment of scoliosis.

  17. Ultrafast ultrasound and photoacoustic co-registered imaging system based on FPGA parallel processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alqasemi, Umar; Li, Hai; Yuan, Guangqian; Aguirre, Andres; Zhu, Quing

    2012-02-01

    Co-registered Ultrasound and Photoacoustic images provide complimentary structure and functional information for cancer diagnosis and assessment of therapy response. In SPIE Photonics West 2011, we reported a system that acquires from 64 channels and displays up to 1 frame per second (fps) ultrasound pulse-echo images, 5 fps photoacoustic images, and 0.5 fps co-registered images. In this year, we report an upgraded system which acquires from 128 channels and displays up to 15 fps co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic images limited by our laser pulse repetition rate. The system architecture is novel and it provides real-time co-registration of images, the ability of acquiring the channel RF data for both modalities, and the flexibility of adjusting every parameter involved in the imaging process for both modalities. The digital signal processor board is upgraded to an FPGA-based PCIe board that collects the data from the acquisition modules and transfers them to the PC memory at 2.5GT/s rate through an x8 DDR PCIe bus running at 100MHz clock frequency. The modules FPGA code is also upgraded to form a beam line in 90 microseconds and to communicate through ultrafast differential tracks with the PCIe board. Furthermore, the printed circuit board (PCB) design of the system was adjusted to provide a maximum of 80dB signal-to-noise ratio at 60dB gain, which is comparable to some commercial ultrasound machines. The real-time system allows capturing co-registered US/PAT images free of motion artifacts and also provides ultrafast dynamic information when a contrast agent is used. The system is built for clinical use to assist the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. However, the hardware is still under testing and evaluation stage, experimental and clinical results will be reported later.

  18. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging of the prostate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenster, Aaron; Downey, Donal B.

    1999-05-01

    Ultrasonography, a widely used imaging modality for the diagnosis and staging of many diseases, is an important cost- effective technique, however, technical improvements are necessary to realize its full potential. Two-dimensional viewing of 3D anatomy, using conventional ultrasonography, limits our ability to quantify and visualize most diseases, causing, in part, the reported variability in diagnosis and ultrasound guided therapy and surgery. This occurs because conventional ultrasound images are 2D, yet the anatomy is 3D; hence the diagnostician must integrate multiple images in his mind. This practice is inefficient, and may lead to operator variability and incorrect diagnoses. In addition, the 2D ultrasound image represents a single thin plane at some arbitrary angle in the body. It is difficult to localize and reproduce the image plane subsequently, making conventional ultrasonography unsatisfactory for follow-up studies and for monitoring therapy. Our efforts have focused on overcoming these deficiencies by developing 3D ultrasound imaging techniques that can acquire B-mode, color Doppler and power Doppler images. An inexpensive desktop computer is used to reconstruct the information in 3D, and then is also used for interactive viewing of the 3D images. We have used 3D ultrasound images for the diagnosis of prostate cancer, carotid disease, breast cancer and liver disease and for applications in obstetrics and gynecology. In addition, we have also used 3D ultrasonography for image-guided minimally invasive therapeutic applications of the prostate such as cryotherapy and brachytherapy.

  19. Simultaneous three-dimensional laser-ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurzinger, Gerhild; Nuster, Robert; Schmitner, Nicole; Gratt, Sibylle; Paltauf, Günther

    2013-06-01

    A purely optical setup for simultaneous photoacoustic (PA) and laser-ultrasound (US) tomography is presented. It is shown that combined imaging can be achieved by using the same laser pulse for photoacoustic generation and for launching a broadband ultrasound pulse from an optically absorbing target. Detection of the laser-generated plane waves that have been scattered at the imaging object and of the photoacoustic signals emitted from the sample is done interferometrically. This way data for PA and US imaging are acquired within one single measurement. Distinction between the signals is possible due to their different times of flight. After data separation, image reconstruction is done using standard back-projection algorithms. The resolution of the setup was estimated and images of a zebra fish are shown, demonstrating the complementary information of the two imaging modalities.

  20. Design of miniaturized illumination for transvaginal co-registered photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Hassan S.; Wang, Tianheng; Kumavor, Patrick D.; Li, Hai; Zhu, Quing

    2014-01-01

    A novel lens-array based illumination design for a compact co-registered photoacoustic/ultrasound transvaginal probe has been demonstrated. The lens array consists of four cylindrical lenses that couple the laser beams into four 1-mm-core multi-mode optical fibers with optical coupling efficiency of ~87%. The feasibility of our lens array was investigated by simulating the lenses and laser beam profiles using Zemax. The laser fluence on the tissue surface was experimentally measured and was below the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) safety limit. Spatial distribution of hemoglobin oxygen saturation (sO2) of a mouse tumor was obtained in vivo using photoacoustic measurements at multiple wavelengths. Furthermore, benign and malignant ovaries were imaged ex vivo and evaluated histologically. The co-registered images clearly showed different patterns of blood vasculature. These results highlight the clinical potential of our system for noninvasive photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging of ovarian tissue and cancer detection and diagnosis. PMID:25401021

  1. Measurement and Visualization of Three-Dimensional Vertebra Shape by Freehand Ultrasound Scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohyama, Kazuhiro; Yasumuro, Yoshihiro; Imura, Masataka; Manabe, Yoshitsugu; Oshiro, Osamu; Moroi, Keishichiro; Chihara, Kunihiro

    2005-06-01

    Paracentesis is a common operation for pain clinics and spinal anesthetics administration and requires empirical training and flexible skills to cope with the various cases of individual patients. We propose a method of measuring and visualizing three-dimensional vertebra shapes for assisting anesthesiologists, by an ultrasound imaging technique that is prevalent in many hospitals and has no harmful risks to the human body. The proposed system enables anesthesiologists to investigate vertebra shapes by freehand probing. Three-dimensional reconstruction and graphical rendering can be performed by monitoring the motion of the ultrasound probe and registering the scanned echography into the identical three-dimensional space. Considering the echography imaging features, volume rendering of hard tissue surfaces is achieved and interactive measurement is possible. This paper describes the practicability of the proposed method based on experimental measurement of both phantom and real lumbar vertebre and sacra.

  2. Evaluation of optical flow algorithms for tracking endocardial surfaces on three-dimensional ultrasound data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Qi; Angelini, Elsa D.; Herz, Susan L.; Ingrassia, Christopher M.; Gerard, Olivier; Costa, Kevin D.; Holmes, Jeffrey W.; Laine, Andrew F.

    2005-04-01

    With relatively high frame rates and the ability to acquire volume data sets with a stationary transducer, 3D ultrasound systems, based on matrix phased array transducers, provide valuable three-dimensional information, from which quantitative measures of cardiac function can be extracted. Such analyses require segmentation and visual tracking of the left ventricular endocardial border. Due to the large size of the volumetric data sets, manual tracing of the endocardial border is tedious and impractical for clinical applications. Therefore the development of automatic methods for tracking three-dimensional endocardial motion is essential. In this study, we evaluate a four-dimensional optical flow motion tracking algorithm to determine its capability to follow the endocardial border in three dimensional ultrasound data through time. The four-dimensional optical flow method was implemented using three-dimensional correlation. We tested the algorithm on an experimental open-chest dog data set and a clinical data set acquired with a Philips' iE33 three-dimensional ultrasound machine. Initialized with left ventricular endocardial data points obtained from manual tracing at end-diastole, the algorithm automatically tracked these points frame by frame through the whole cardiac cycle. A finite element surface was fitted through the data points obtained by both optical flow tracking and manual tracing by an experienced observer for quantitative comparison of the results. Parameterization of the finite element surfaces was performed and maps displaying relative differences between the manual and semi-automatic methods were compared. The results showed good consistency between manual tracing and optical flow estimation on 73% of the entire surface with fewer than 10% difference. In addition, the optical flow motion tracking algorithm greatly reduced processing time (about 94% reduction compared to human involvement per cardiac cycle) for analyzing cardiac function in three-dimensional

  3. Three-Dimensional Simulation of Ultrasound-Induced Microalgal Cell Disruption.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Yuan, W; Hale, Andy

    2016-03-01

    The three-dimensional distribution (x, y, and z) of ultrasound-induced microalgal cell disruption in a sonochemical reactor was predicted by solving the Helmholtz equation using a three-dimensional acoustic module in the COMSOL Multiphysics software. The simulated local ultrasound pressure at any given location (x, y, and z) was found to correlate with cell disruption of a freshwater alga, Scenedesmus dimorphus, represented by the change of algal cell particle/debris concentration, chlorophyll-a fluorescence density (CAFD), and Nile red stained lipid fluorescence density (LFD), which was also validated by the model reaction of potassium iodide oxidation (the Weissler reaction). Furthermore, the effect of ultrasound power intensity and processing duration on algal cell disruption was examined to address the limitation of the model. PMID:26660670

  4. Computational hemodynamics of abdominal aortic aneurysms: Three-dimensional ultrasound versus computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Owen, Benjamin; Lowe, Christopher; Ashton, Neil; Mandal, Parthasarathi; Rogers, Steven; Wein, Wolfgang; McCollum, Charles; Revell, Alistair

    2016-03-01

    The current criterion for surgical intervention in abdominal aortic aneurysms, based upon a maximal aortic diameter, is considered conservative due to the high mortality rate in case of rupture. The research community is actively investigating the use of computational mechanics tools combined with patient-specific imaging to help identify more accurate criteria. Widespread uptake of a successful metric will however be limited by the need for computed tomography, which is at present the primary image extraction method on account of the location and complex shape of the aneurysms. The use of three-dimensional ultrasound as the scanning method is more attractive on account of increased availability, reduced cost and reduced risk to patients. The suitability of three-dimensional ultrasound is assessed for this purpose in the present work; computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed on geometries obtained from the same patient using both ultrasound and computed tomography. The influence of different smoothing algorithms is investigated in the geometry preparation stage and Taubin's low-pass filter was found to best preserve geometry features. Laminar, Newtonian, steady-state simulation analysis identified haemodynamic characteristics to be qualitatively similar in terms of wall shear stress, velocity and vorticity. The study demonstrates the potential for three-dimensional ultrasound to be integrated into a more accessible patient-specific modelling tool able to identify the need for surgical intervention of abdominal aortic aneurysms. PMID:26893226

  5. Potential Role of Coregistered Photoacoustic and Ultrasound Imaging in Ovarian Cancer Detection and Characterization1

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Andres; Ardeshirpour, Yasaman; Sanders, Mary M; Brewer, Molly; Zhu, Quing

    2011-01-01

    Currently, there is no adequate technology to detect early stage ovarian cancers. Most of the cancers in the ovary are detected when the cancer has already metastasized to other parts of the body. As a result, ovarian cancer has the highest mortality of all gynecologic cancers with a 5-year survival rate of 30% or less. Thus, there is an urgent need to improve the current diagnostic techniques. Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is an emerging modality with a great potential to assist ultrasound for detecting ovarian cancer noninvasively. In this article, we report the first study of coregistered ultrasound and PAI of 33 ex vivo human ovaries. An assessment of the photoacoustic images has revealed light absorption distribution in the ovary, which is directly related to the vasculature distribution and amount. Quantification of the light absorption levels in the ovary has indicated that, in the postmenopausal group, malignant ovaries showed significantly higher light absorption than normal ones (P = .0237). For these two groups, we have obtained a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 83%. This result suggests that PAI is a promising modality for improving ultrasound diagnosis of ovarian cancer. PMID:21286375

  6. Controlling collagen fiber microstructure in three-dimensional hydrogels using ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Garvin, Kelley A.; VanderBurgh, Jacob; Hocking, Denise C.; Dalecki, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Type I collagen is the primary fibrillar component of the extracellular matrix, and functional properties of collagen arise from variations in fiber structure. This study investigated the ability of ultrasound to control collagen microstructure during hydrogel fabrication. Under appropriate conditions, ultrasound exposure of type I collagen during polymerization altered fiber microstructure. Scanning electron microscopy and second-harmonic generation microscopy revealed decreased collagen fiber diameters in response to ultrasound compared to sham-exposed samples. Results of mechanistic investigations were consistent with a thermal mechanism for the effects of ultrasound on collagen fiber structure. To control collagen microstructure site-specifically, a high frequency, 8.3-MHz, ultrasound beam was directed within the center of a large collagen sample producing dense networks of short, thin collagen fibrils within the central core of the gel and longer, thicker fibers outside the beam area. Fibroblasts seeded onto these gels migrated rapidly into small, circularly arranged aggregates only within the beam area, and clustered fibroblasts remodeled the central, ultrasound-exposed collagen fibrils into dense sheets. These investigations demonstrate the capability of ultrasound to spatially pattern various collagen microstructures within an engineered tissue noninvasively, thus enhancing the level of complexity of extracellular matrix microenvironments and cellular functions achievable within three-dimensional engineered tissues. PMID:23927189

  7. Development of a platform for co-registered ultrasound and MR contrast imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrana, Chaitanya; Bevan, Peter; Hudson, John; Pang, Ian; Burns, Peter; Plewes, Donald; Chopra, Rajiv

    2011-02-01

    Imaging of the microvasculature is often performed using contrast agents in combination with either ultrasound (US) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Contrast agents are used to enhance medical imaging by highlighting microvascular properties and function. Dynamic signal changes arising from the passage of contrast agents through the microvasculature can be used to characterize different pathologies; however, comparisons across modalities are difficult due to differences in the interactions of contrast agents with the microvasculature. Better knowledge of the relationship of contrast enhancement patterns with both modalities could enable better characterization of tissue microvasculature. We developed a co-registration platform for multi-modal US and MR imaging using clinical imaging systems in order to study the relationship between US and MR contrast enhancement. A preliminary validation study was performed in phantoms to determine the registration accuracy of the platform. In phantoms, the in-plane registration accuracy was measured to be 0.2 ± 0.2 and 0.3 ± 0.2 mm, in the lateral and axial directions, respectively. The out-of-plane registration accuracy was estimated to be 0.5 mm ±0.1. Co-registered US and MR imaging was performed in a rabbit model to evaluate contrast kinetics in different tissue types after bolus injections of US and MR contrast agents. The arrival time of the contrast agent in the plane of imaging was relatively similar for both modalities. We studied three different tissue types: muscle, large vessels and fat. In US, the temporal kinetics of signal enhancement were not strongly dependent on tissue type. In MR, however, due to the different amounts of agent extravasation in each tissue type, tissue-specific contrast kinetics were observed. This study demonstrates the feasibility of performing in vivo co-registered contrast US and MR imaging to study the relationships of the enhancement patterns with each modality.

  8. A New Scheme for Curved Needle Segmentation in Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Images

    PubMed Central

    Aboofazeli, Mohammad; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Mousavi, Parvin; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound image guided needle insertion is the method of choice for a wide variety of medical diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. When flexible needles are inserted in soft tissue, these needles generally follow a curved path. Segmenting the trajectory of the needles in ultrasound images will facilitate guiding them within the tissue. In this paper, a novel algorithm for curved needle segmentation in three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound images is presented. The algorithm is based on the projection of a filtered 3D image onto a two-dimensional (2D) image. Detection of the needle in the resulting 2D image determines a surface on which the needle is located. The needle is then segmented on the surface. The proposed technique is able to detect needles without any previous assumption about the needle shape, or any a priori knowledge about the needle insertion axis line. PMID:20563242

  9. Experimental observation of ultrasound fast and slow waves through three-dimensional printed trabecular bone phantoms.

    PubMed

    Mézière, F; Juskova, P; Woittequand, J; Muller, M; Bossy, E; Boistel, Renaud; Malaquin, L; Derode, A

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, ultrasound measurements of 1:1 scale three-dimensional (3D) printed trabecular bone phantoms are reported. The micro-structure of a trabecular horse bone sample was obtained via synchrotron x-ray microtomography, converted to a 3D binary data set, and successfully 3D-printed at scale 1:1. Ultrasound through-transmission experiments were also performed through a highly anisotropic version of this structure, obtained by elongating the digitized structure prior to 3D printing. As in real anisotropic trabecular bone, both the fast and slow waves were observed. This illustrates the potential of stereolithography and the relevance of such bone phantoms for the study of ultrasound propagation in bone. PMID:26936578

  10. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging of vessel wall for evaluating atherosclerosis risk and disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Viren R.; Wang, Bo; Sonka, Milan; Lauer, Ronald M.

    2002-04-01

    This research aims at developing a three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound system for carotid and brachial artery scanning for evaluating vessel wall characteristics. In the long term, we seek to test hypothesis that the artery wall measurements of carotid intima-media-thickness and brachial flow mediated dilatation using 3D ultrasound data provide better repeatability than those derived from conventional 2D ultrasound scans. The approach is to implement a free-hand data acquisition scheme using conventional 2D medical ultrasound scanner, develop data processing algorithms for appropriately registering and displaying the volumetric ultrasound vessel scans, and develop techniques for measuring vessel wall characteristics. The system uses electromagnetic sensor mounted on the transducer to acquire position and orientation of each image slice as the transducer is moved freely to scan the area of interest. These non-parallel images are registered into a 3D dataset for reconstruction, segmentation, and measurements of the vessel wall structure. A simple calibration object is developed using a small stainless-steel sphere in a fixed position to perform coordinate transformations and pixel registration. A commercial 3D ultrasound tissue-mimicking phantom is used for assessment of freehand 3D data acquisition, calibration, registration, and visualization schemes. Early results of experimental carotid artery scans of volunteers are presented.

  11. Sonocubic fine: new three-dimensional ultrasound software to the screening of congenital heart diseases.

    PubMed

    Araujo Júnior, Edward; Rocha, Luciane Alves da; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado

    2014-01-01

    Congenital heart disease is the most common fetal congenital malformations; however, the prenatal rate detection still is low. The two-dimensional echocardiography is the "gold standard" exam to screening and diagnosis of congenital heart disease during the prenatal; however, this exam is operator-depending and it is realized only in high risk pregnancies. Spatio-temporal image correlation is a three-dimensional ultrasound software that analyses the fetal heart and your connections in the multiplanar and rendering modes; however, spatio-temporal image correlation too is operator-depending and time-consuming. We presenting a new three-dimensional software named Sonocubic fine to the screening of congenital heart disease. This software applies intelligent navigation technology to spatio-temporal image correlation volume datasets to automatically generate nine fetal echocardiography standard views. Thus, this new software tends to be less operator-depending and time-consuming. PMID:25372918

  12. Three Dimensional Sheaf of Ultrasound Planes Reconstruction (SOUPR) of Ablated Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Ingle, Atul; Varghese, Tomy

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for three dimensional reconstruction of tumor ablations using ultrasound shear wave imaging with electrode vibration elastography. Radiofrequency ultrasound data frames are acquired over imaging planes that form a subset of a sheaf of planes sharing a common axis of intersection. Shear wave velocity is estimated separately on each imaging plane using a piecewise linear function fitting technique with a fast optimization routine. An interpolation algorithm then computes velocity maps on a fine grid over a set of C-planes that are perpendicular to the axis of the sheaf. A full three dimensional rendering of the ablation can then be created from this stack of C-planes; hence the name “Sheaf Of Ultrasound Planes Reconstruction” or SOUPR. The algorithm is evaluated through numerical simulations and also using data acquired from a tissue mimicking phantom. Reconstruction quality is gauged using contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio measurements and changes in quality from using increasing number of planes in the sheaf are quantified. The highest contrast of 5 dB is seen between the stiffest and softest regions of the phantom. Under certain idealizing assumptions on the true shape of the ablation, good reconstruction quality while maintaining fast processing rate can be obtained with as few as 6 imaging planes suggesting that the method is suited for parsimonious data acquisitions with very few sparsely chosen imaging planes. PMID:24808405

  13. Three dimensional full-wave nonlinear acoustic simulations: Applications to ultrasound imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Pinton, Gianmarco

    2015-10-28

    Characterization of acoustic waves that propagate nonlinearly in an inhomogeneous medium has significant applications to diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound. The generation of an ultrasound image of human tissue is based on the complex physics of acoustic wave propagation: diffraction, reflection, scattering, frequency dependent attenuation, and nonlinearity. The nonlinearity of wave propagation is used to the advantage of diagnostic scanners that use the harmonic components of the ultrasonic signal to improve the resolution and penetration of clinical scanners. One approach to simulating ultrasound images is to make approximations that can reduce the physics to systems that have a low computational cost. Here a maximalist approach is taken and the full three dimensional wave physics is simulated with finite differences. This paper demonstrates how finite difference simulations for the nonlinear acoustic wave equation can be used to generate physically realistic two and three dimensional ultrasound images anywhere in the body. A specific intercostal liver imaging scenario for two cases: with the ribs in place, and with the ribs removed. This configuration provides an imaging scenario that cannot be performed in vivo but that can test the influence of the ribs on image quality. Several imaging properties are studied, in particular the beamplots, the spatial coherence at the transducer surface, the distributed phase aberration, and the lesion detectability for imaging at the fundamental and harmonic frequencies. The results indicate, counterintuitively, that at the fundamental frequency the beamplot improves due to the apodization effect of the ribs but at the same time there is more degradation from reverberation clutter. At the harmonic frequency there is significantly less improvement in the beamplot and also significantly less degradation from reverberation. It is shown that even though simulating the full propagation physics is computationally challenging it

  14. Three dimensional full-wave nonlinear acoustic simulations: Applications to ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinton, Gianmarco

    2015-10-01

    Characterization of acoustic waves that propagate nonlinearly in an inhomogeneous medium has significant applications to diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound. The generation of an ultrasound image of human tissue is based on the complex physics of acoustic wave propagation: diffraction, reflection, scattering, frequency dependent attenuation, and nonlinearity. The nonlinearity of wave propagation is used to the advantage of diagnostic scanners that use the harmonic components of the ultrasonic signal to improve the resolution and penetration of clinical scanners. One approach to simulating ultrasound images is to make approximations that can reduce the physics to systems that have a low computational cost. Here a maximalist approach is taken and the full three dimensional wave physics is simulated with finite differences. This paper demonstrates how finite difference simulations for the nonlinear acoustic wave equation can be used to generate physically realistic two and three dimensional ultrasound images anywhere in the body. A specific intercostal liver imaging scenario for two cases: with the ribs in place, and with the ribs removed. This configuration provides an imaging scenario that cannot be performed in vivo but that can test the influence of the ribs on image quality. Several imaging properties are studied, in particular the beamplots, the spatial coherence at the transducer surface, the distributed phase aberration, and the lesion detectability for imaging at the fundamental and harmonic frequencies. The results indicate, counterintuitively, that at the fundamental frequency the beamplot improves due to the apodization effect of the ribs but at the same time there is more degradation from reverberation clutter. At the harmonic frequency there is significantly less improvement in the beamplot and also significantly less degradation from reverberation. It is shown that even though simulating the full propagation physics is computationally challenging it

  15. Recognition algorithm for assisting ovarian cancer diagnosis from coregistered ultrasound and photoacoustic images: ex vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Kumavor, Patrick; Aguirre, Andres; Zhu, Quing

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Unique features and the underlining hypotheses of how these features may relate to the tumor physiology in coregistered ultrasound and photoacoustic images of ex vivo ovarian tissue are introduced. The images were first compressed with wavelet transform. The mean Radon transform of photoacoustic images was then computed and fitted with a Gaussian function to find the centroid of a suspicious area for shift-invariant recognition process. Twenty-four features were extracted from a training set by several methods, including Fourier transform, image statistics, and different composite filters. The features were chosen from more than 400 training images obtained from 33 ex vivo ovaries of 24 patients, and used to train three classifiers, including generalized linear model, neural network, and support vector machine (SVM). The SVM achieved the best training performance and was able to exclusively separate cancerous from non-cancerous cases with 100% sensitivity and specificity. At the end, the classifiers were used to test 95 new images obtained from 37 ovaries of 20 additional patients. The SVM classifier achieved 76.92% sensitivity and 95.12% specificity. Furthermore, if we assume that recognizing one image as a cancer is sufficient to consider an ovary as malignant, the SVM classifier achieves 100% sensitivity and 87.88% specificity. PMID:23208214

  16. Recognizing ovarian cancer from co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alqasemi, Umar; Kumavor, Patrick; Aguirre, Andres; Zhu, Quing

    2013-03-01

    Unique features in co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic images of ex vivo ovarian tissue are introduced, along with the hypotheses of how these features may relate to the physiology of tumors. The images are compressed with wavelet transform, after which the mean Radon transform of the photoacoustic image is computed and fitted with a Gaussian function to find the centroid of the suspicious area for shift-invariant recognition process. In the next step, 24 features are extracted from a training set of images by several methods; including features from the Fourier domain, image statistics, and the outputs of different composite filters constructed from the joint frequency response of different cancerous images. The features were chosen from more than 400 training images obtained from 33 ex vivo ovaries of 24 patients, and used to train a support vector machine (SVM) structure. The SVM classifier was able to exclusively separate the cancerous from the non-cancerous cases with 100% sensitivity and specificity. At the end, the classifier was used to test 95 new images, obtained from 37 ovaries of 20 additional patients. The SVM classifier achieved 76.92% sensitivity and 95.12% specificity. Furthermore, if we assume that recognizing one image as a cancerous case is sufficient to consider the ovary as malignant, then the SVM classifier achieves 100% sensitivity and 87.88% specificity.

  17. Classification algorithm of ovarian tissue based on co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hai; Kumavor, Patrick D.; Alqasemi, Umar; Zhu, Quing

    2014-03-01

    Human ovarian tissue features extracted from photoacoustic spectra data, beam envelopes and co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic images are used to characterize cancerous vs. normal processes using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The centers of suspicious tumor areas are estimated from the Gaussian fitting of the mean Radon transforms of the photoacoustic image along 0 and 90 degrees. Normalized power spectra are calculated using the Fourier transform of the photoacoustic beamformed data across these suspicious areas, where the spectral slope and 0-MHz intercepts are extracted. Image statistics, envelope histogram fitting and maximum output of 6 composite filters of cancerous or normal patterns along with other previously used features are calculated to compose a total of 17 features. These features are extracted from 169 datasets of 19 ex vivo ovaries. Half of the cancerous and normal datasets are randomly chosen to train a SVM classifier with polynomial kernel and the remainder is used for testing. With 50 times data resampling, the SVM classifier, for the training group, gives 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. For the testing group, it gives 89.68+/- 6.37% sensitivity and 93.16+/- 3.70% specificity. These results are superior to those obtained earlier by our group using features extracted from photoacoustic raw data or image statistics only.

  18. Recognition algorithm for assisting ovarian cancer diagnosis from coregistered ultrasound and photoacoustic images: ex vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alqasemi, Umar; Kumavor, Patrick; Aguirre, Andres; Zhu, Quing

    2012-12-01

    Unique features and the underlining hypotheses of how these features may relate to the tumor physiology in coregistered ultrasound and photoacoustic images of ex vivo ovarian tissue are introduced. The images were first compressed with wavelet transform. The mean Radon transform of photoacoustic images was then computed and fitted with a Gaussian function to find the centroid of a suspicious area for shift-invariant recognition process. Twenty-four features were extracted from a training set by several methods, including Fourier transform, image statistics, and different composite filters. The features were chosen from more than 400 training images obtained from 33 ex vivo ovaries of 24 patients, and used to train three classifiers, including generalized linear model, neural network, and support vector machine (SVM). The SVM achieved the best training performance and was able to exclusively separate cancerous from non-cancerous cases with 100% sensitivity and specificity. At the end, the classifiers were used to test 95 new images obtained from 37 ovaries of 20 additional patients. The SVM classifier achieved 76.92% sensitivity and 95.12% specificity. Furthermore, if we assume that recognizing one image as a cancer is sufficient to consider an ovary as malignant, the SVM classifier achieves 100% sensitivity and 87.88% specificity.

  19. Coregistered photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging and classification of ovarian cancer: ex vivo and in vivo studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, Hassan S.; Li, Hai; Merkulov, Alex; Kumavor, Patrick D.; Vavadi, Hamed; Sanders, Melinda; Kueck, Angela; Brewer, Molly A.; Zhu, Quing

    2016-04-01

    Most ovarian cancers are diagnosed at advanced stages due to the lack of efficacious screening techniques. Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) has a potential to image tumor angiogenesis and detect early neovascular changes of the ovary. We have developed a coregistered PAT and ultrasound (US) prototype system for real-time assessment of ovarian masses. Features extracted from PAT and US angular beams, envelopes, and images were input to a logistic classifier and a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to diagnose ovaries as benign or malignant. A total of 25 excised ovaries of 15 patients were studied and the logistic and SVM classifiers achieved sensitivities of 70.4 and 87.7%, and specificities of 95.6 and 97.9%, respectively. Furthermore, the ovaries of two patients were noninvasively imaged using the PAT/US system before surgical excision. By using five significant features and the logistic classifier, 12 out of 14 images (86% sensitivity) from a malignant ovarian mass and all 17 images (100% specificity) from a benign mass were accurately classified; the SVM correctly classified 10 out of 14 malignant images (71% sensitivity) and all 17 benign images (100% specificity). These initial results demonstrate the clinical potential of the PAT/US technique for ovarian cancer diagnosis.

  20. Calibration of three-dimensional ultrasound images for image-guided radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Bouchet, L G; Meeks, S L; Goodchild, G; Bova, F J; Buatti, J M; Friedman, W A

    2001-02-01

    A new technique of patient positioning for radiotherapy/radiosurgery of extracranial tumours using three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound images has been developed. The ultrasound probe position is tracked within the treatment room via infrared light emitting diodes (IRLEDs) attached to the probe. In order to retrieve the corresponding room position of the ultrasound image, we developed an initial ultrasound probe calibration technique for both 2D and 3D ultrasound systems. This technique is based on knowledge of points in both room and image coordinates. We first tested the performance of three algorithms in retrieving geometrical transformations using synthetic data with different noise levels. Closed form solution algorithms (singular value decomposition and Horn's quaternion algorithms) were shown to outperform the Hooke and Jeeves iterative algorithm in both speed and accuracy. Furthermore, these simulations show that for a random noise level of 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 mm, the number of points required for a transformation accuracy better than 1 mm is 25, 100, 200 and 500 points respectively. Finally, we verified the tracking accuracy of this system using a specially designed ultrasound phantom. Since ultrasound images have a high noise level, we designed an ultrasound phantom that provides a large number of points for the calibration. This tissue equivalent phantom is made of nylon wires, and its room position is optically tracked using IRLEDs. By obtaining multiple images through the nylon wires, the calibration technique uses an average of 300 points for 3D ultrasound volumes and 200 for 2D ultrasound images, and its stability is very good for both rotation (standard deviation: 0.4 degrees) and translation (standard deviation: 0.3 mm) transformations. After this initial calibration procedure, the position of any voxel in the ultrasound image volume can be determined in world space, thereby allowing real-time image guidance of therapeutic procedures. Finally, the

  1. Three-dimensional ultrasound appearance of pelvic floor in nulliparous women and pelvic organ prolapse women.

    PubMed

    Ying, Tao; Li, Qin; Xu, Lian; Liu, Feifei; Hu, Bing

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the morphology and structure of pelvic floor in 50 nulliparous and 50 pelvic organ prolapse (POP) women using translabial three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound. The levator hiatus in POP women was significantly different from that in nullipara women. In POP women, the size of pelvic floor increased, with a circular shape, and the axis of levator hiatus departed from the normal position in 36 (72%) cases. The puborectalis was avulsed in 18 (36%) cases and the pelvic organs arranged abnormally in 23 (46%) cases. In summary, 3D ultrasound is an effective tool to detect the pelvic floor in POP women who presented with abnormalities in the morphology and structure of pelvic floor. PMID:23155363

  2. Three-dimensional Ultrasound Appearance of Pelvic Floor in Nulliparous Women and Pelvic Organ Prolapse Women

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Tao; Li, Qin; Xu, Lian; Liu, Feifei; Hu, Bing

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the morphology and structure of pelvic floor in 50 nulliparous and 50 pelvic organ prolapse (POP) women using translabial three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound. The levator hiatus in POP women was significantly different from that in nullipara women. In POP women, the size of pelvic floor increased, with a circular shape, and the axis of levator hiatus departed from the normal position in 36 (72%) cases. The puborectalis was avulsed in 18 (36%) cases and the pelvic organs arranged abnormally in 23 (46%) cases. In summary, 3D ultrasound is an effective tool to detect the pelvic floor in POP women who presented with abnormalities in the morphology and structure of pelvic floor. PMID:23155363

  3. Estimating Cell Concentration in Three-Dimensional Engineered Tissues using High Frequency Quantitative Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Mercado, Karla P.; Helguera, Marίa; Hocking, Denise C.; Dalecki, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Histology and biochemical assays are standard techniques for estimating cell concentration in engineered tissues. However, these techniques are destructive and cannot be used for longitudinal monitoring of engineered tissues during fabrication processes. The goal of this study was to develop high-frequency quantitative ultrasound techniques to nondestructively estimate cell concentration in three-dimensional (3-D) engineered tissue constructs. High-frequency ultrasound backscatter measurements were obtained from cell-embedded, 3-D agarose hydrogels. Two broadband single-element transducers (center frequencies of 30 and 38 MHz) were employed over the frequency range of 13 to 47 MHz. Agarose gels with cell concentrations ranging from 1×104 to 1×106 cells mL−1 were investigated. The integrated backscatter coefficient (IBC), a quantitative ultrasound spectral parameter, was calculated and used to estimate cell concentration. Accuracy and precision of this technique were analyzed by calculating the percent error and coefficient of variation of cell concentration estimates. The IBC increased linearly with increasing cell concentration. Axial and lateral dimensions of regions of interest that resulted in errors of less than 20% were determined. Images of cell concentration estimates were employed to visualize quantitatively regional differences in cell concentrations. This ultrasound technique provides the capability to rapidly quantify cell concentration within 3-D tissue constructs noninvasively and nondestructively. PMID:24627179

  4. Noninvasive Quantitative Imaging of Collagen Microstructure in Three-Dimensional Hydrogels Using High-Frequency Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Mercado, Karla P.; Helguera, María; Hocking, Denise C.

    2015-01-01

    Collagen I is widely used as a natural component of biomaterials for both tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. The physical and biological properties of fibrillar collagens are strongly tied to variations in collagen fiber microstructure. The goal of this study was to develop the use of high-frequency quantitative ultrasound to assess collagen microstructure within three-dimensional (3D) hydrogels noninvasively and nondestructively. The integrated backscatter coefficient (IBC) was employed as a quantitative ultrasound parameter to detect, image, and quantify spatial variations in collagen fiber density and diameter. Collagen fiber microstructure was varied by fabricating hydrogels with different collagen concentrations or polymerization temperatures. IBC values were computed from measurements of the backscattered radio-frequency ultrasound signals collected using a single-element transducer (38-MHz center frequency, 13–47 MHz bandwidth). The IBC increased linearly with increasing collagen concentration and decreasing polymerization temperature. Parametric 3D images of the IBC were generated to visualize and quantify regional variations in collagen microstructure throughout the volume of hydrogels fabricated in standard tissue culture plates. IBC parametric images of corresponding cell-embedded collagen gels showed cell accumulation within regions having elevated collagen IBC values. The capability of this ultrasound technique to noninvasively detect and quantify spatial differences in collagen microstructure offers a valuable tool to monitor the structural properties of collagen scaffolds during fabrication, to detect functional differences in collagen microstructure, and to guide fundamental research on the interactions of cells and collagen matrices. PMID:25517512

  5. Three dimensional microbubble dynamics near a wall subject to high intensity ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q. X.; Manmi, K.

    2014-03-01

    Dynamics of cavitation microbubbles due to high intensity ultrasound are associated with important applications in biomedical ultrasound, ultrasonic cleaning, and sonochemistry. Previous numerical studies on this phenomenon were for an axisymmetric configuration. In this paper, a computational model is developed to simulate the three dimensional dynamics of acoustic bubbles by using the boundary integral method. A bubble collapses much more violently subjected to high intensity ultrasound than when under normal constant ambient pressure. A few techniques are thus implemented to address the associated numerical challenge. In particular, a high quality mesh of the bubble surface is maintained by implementing a new hybrid approach of the Lagrangian method and elastic mesh technique. It avoids the numerical instabilities which occur at a sharp jet surface as well as generates a fine mesh needed at the jet surface. The model is validated against the Rayleigh-Plesset equation and an axisymmetric model. We then explore microbubble dynamics near a wall subjected to high intensity ultrasound propagating parallel to the wall, where the Bjerknes forces due to the ultrasound and the wall are perpendicular to each other. The bubble system absorbs the energy from the ultrasound and transforms the uniform momentum of the ultrasound parallel to the wall to the highly concentrated momentum of a high-speed liquid jet pointing to the wall. The liquid jet forms towards the end of the collapse phase with a significantly higher speed than without the presence of ultrasound. The jet direction depends mainly on the dimensionless standoff distance γ = s/Rmax of the bubble from the wall, where s is the distance between the wall and the bubble centre at inception and Rmax is the maximum bubble radius. The jet is approximately directed to the wall when γ is 1.5 or smaller and rotates to the direction of the ultrasound as γ increases. When γ is about 10 or larger, the wall effect is

  6. Image analysis of placental issues using three-dimensional ultrasound and color power doppler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Cheng, Qiong; Liu, J. G.

    2007-12-01

    With the development of birthing-process medical science, and insurance requirement of prepotency, the ultrasound technique is widely used in the application of obstetrics realm, especially on the monitoring of embryo's growth. In the recent decade, the introduction of high resolution three-dimensional ultrasonic and color power Doppler scanner provides a much more direct, sensitive, forerunner method for the monitoring of embryo and gravida's prediction. A novel method that depends on examining images of vasculature of placenta to determine the growth of embryo is introduced in this paper. First, get a set of placenta vascularity images of the pregnant woman, taken by Color Doppler Ultrasonic Scanner, then mark some points in these images, where we get a section image, thus we can observe the internal blood vessel distribution at those points. This method provides an efficient tool for doctors.

  7. SIMULATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL NONLINEAR FIELDS OF ULTRASOUND THERAPEUTIC ARRAYS

    PubMed Central

    Yuldashev, P. V.; Khokhlova, V. A.

    2011-01-01

    A novel numerical model was developed to simulate three-dimensional nonlinear fields generated by high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) arrays. The model is based on the solution to the Westervelt equation; the developed algorithm makes it possible to model nonlinear pressure fields of periodic waves in the presence of shock fronts localized near the focus. The role of nonlinear effects in a focused beam of a two-dimensional array was investigated in a numerical experiment in water. The array consisting of 256 elements and intensity range on the array elements of up to 10 W/cm2 was considered. The results of simulations have shown that for characteristic intensity outputs of modern HIFU arrays, nonlinear effects play an important role and shock fronts develop in the pressure waveforms at the focus. PMID:21804751

  8. Three-dimensional segmentation of luminal and adventitial borders in serial intravascular ultrasound images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shekhar, R.; Cothren, R. M.; Vince, D. G.; Chandra, S.; Thomas, J. D.; Cornhill, J. F.

    1999-01-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) provides exact anatomy of arteries, allowing accurate quantitative analysis. Automated segmentation of IVUS images is a prerequisite for routine quantitative analyses. We present a new three-dimensional (3D) segmentation technique, called active surface segmentation, which detects luminal and adventitial borders in IVUS pullback examinations of coronary arteries. The technique was validated against expert tracings by computing correlation coefficients (range 0.83-0.97) and William's index values (range 0.37-0.66). The technique was statistically accurate, robust to image artifacts, and capable of segmenting a large number of images rapidly. Active surface segmentation enabled geometrically accurate 3D reconstruction and visualization of coronary arteries and volumetric measurements.

  9. Prenatal diagnosis of sirenomelia by two-dimensional and three-dimensional skeletal imaging ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Chen, Xin-lin; Yang, Xiao-hong; Ma, Hui-jing

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate the contribution of two-dimensional ultrasound (2D-US) and three-dimensional skeletal imaging ultrasound (3D-SUIS) in the prenatal diagnosis of sirenomelia. Between September 2010 and April 2014, a prospective study was conducted in a single referral center using 3D-SUIS performed after 2D-US in 10 cases of sirenomelia. Diagnostic accuracy and detailed findings were compared with postnatal three-dimensional helical computed tomography (3D-HCT), radiological findings and autopsy. Pregnancy was terminated in all 10 sirenomelia cases, including 9 singletons and 1 conjoined twin pregnancy, for a total of 5 males and 5 females. These cases of sirenomelia were determined by autopsy and/or chromosomal examination. Initial 2D-US showed that there were 10 cases of oligohydramnios, bilateral renal agenesis, bladder agenesis, single umbilical artery, fusion of the lower limbs and spinal abnormalities; 8 cases of dipus or monopus; 2 cases of apus; and 8 cases of cardiac abnormalities. Subsequent 3D-SUIS showed that there were 9 cases of scoliosis, 10 cases of sacrococcygeal vertebra dysplasia, 3 cases of hemivertebra, 1 case of vertebral fusion, 3 cases of spina bifida, and 5 cases of rib abnormalities. 3D-SUIS identified significantly more skeletal abnormalities than did 2D-US, and its accuracy was 79.5% (70/88) compared with 3D-HCT and radiography. 3D-SUIS seems to be a useful complementary method to 2D-US and may improve the accuracy of identifying prenatal skeletal abnormalities related to sirenomelia. PMID:26670448

  10. Three-dimensional ultrasound-based texture analysis of the effect of atorvastatin on carotid atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Joseph; Krasinski, Adam; Spence, David; Parraga, Grace; Fenster, Aaron

    2010-03-01

    Carotid atherosclerosis is the major cause of ischemic stroke, a leading cause of death and disability. This is driving the development of image analysis methods to quantitatively evaluate local arterial effects of potential treatments of carotid disease. Here we investigate the use of novel texture analysis tools to detect potential changes in the carotid arteries after statin therapy. Three-dimensional (3D) carotid ultrasound images were acquired from the left and right carotid arteries of 35 subjects (16 treated with 80 mg atorvastatin and 19 treated with placebo) at baseline and after 3 months of treatment. Two-hundred and seventy texture features were extracted from 3D ultrasound carotid artery images. These images previously had their vessel walls (VW) manually segmented. Highly ranked individual texture features were selected and compared to the VW volume (VWV) change using 3 measures: distance between classes, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and accuracy of the classifiers. Six classifiers were used. Using texture feature (L7R7) increases the average accuracy and area under the ROC curve to 74.4% and 0.72 respectively compared to 57.2% and 0.61 using VWV change. Thus, the results demonstrate that texture features are more sensitive in detecting drug effects on the carotid vessel wall than VWV change.

  11. Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Measurement of Blood Volume Flow in the Umbilical Cord

    PubMed Central

    Pinter, Stephen Z.; Rubin, Jonathan M.; Kripfgans, Oliver D.; Treadwell, Marjorie C.; Romero, Vivian C.; Richards, Michael S.; Zhang, Man; Hall, Anne L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Three-dimensional (3D) umbilical cord blood volume flow measurement with the intention of providing a straightforward, consistent, and accurate method that overcomes the limitations associated with traditional pulsed-wave Doppler flow measurement and provides a means by which to recognize and manage at-risk pregnancies. Methods The first study involved 3D ultrasound volume flow measurements in seven healthy ewes whose pregnancies ranged from 18 to 19 weeks’ gestation (7 singletons). Sonographic umbilical arterial and venous flow measurements from each fetus were compared to the corresponding average measured arterial/venous flow to assess feasibility of measurement in a static vessel. A second complementary study involved 3D ultrasound volume flow measurements in seven healthy women whose pregnancies ranged from 17.9 to 36.3 weeks’ gestation (6 singletons, 1 twin). Umbilical venous flow measurements were compared to similar flow measurements reported in the literature. Pregnancy outcomes were abstracted from the medical records of the recruited patients. Results In the fetal sheep model, arterial/venous flow comparisons yielded errors of 10% or less for eight out of the nine measurements. In the clinical study, venous flow measurements showed agreement with the literature over a range of gestational ages. Two of the seven patients in the clinical study demonstrated lower flow than anticipated for gestational age; one was subsequently diagnosed with intrauterine growth restriction and the other with preeclampsia. Conclusions Accurate measurements of umbilical blood volume flow can be performed with relative ease in both the sheep model and in humans using the proposed 3D ultrasound flow measurement technique. Results encourage further development of the method as a means for diagnosis and identification of at-risk pregnancies. PMID:23197545

  12. Three dimensional transrectal ultrasound imaging of the prostate: initial experience with an emerging technology.

    PubMed

    Chin, Joseph L.; Downey, Donal B.; Elliot, Tracy L.; Tong, Shidong; McLean, Carolyn A.; Fortier, Marielle; Fenster, Aaron

    1999-04-01

    PURPOSE: A three-dimensional ultrasound system (3-D US) was evaluated for its clinical utility in transrectal prostate imaging, in comparison with the current standard 2-dimensional transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) imaging system. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The computer program developed in our laboratory was coupled with a commercially available ultrasound transducer. Geometric validation and volumetric assessment was performed with "stretched-string" wire models and solution-containing balloons respectively. Anatomic correlation of 3-D TRUS images was performed with cadaveric prostates. Intraprostatic lesion localization by 3D-TRUS was assessed clinically by 2 observers in 11 patients prior to radical prostatectomy and the data compared with those yielded by 2-D TRUS. RESULTS: Geometric assessment by 3D TRUS in comparison with the "between strings in the phantom" model (true dimensions) had an error of up to 1.2%. Volume measurement by 3-D TRUS had an error, compared to the true volume, of 0.9%. The correlation coefficient (r) was 0.99985 for the end-firing probe and 0.978 for side firing. The 3-D images provided accurate representation of the true anatomy in the sagittal, transverse and most uniquely, the coronal plane. Two observers achieved better diagnostic accuracies with intraprostatic abnormalities using 3-D instead of standard 2-D TRUS. The negative predictive value and the specificity were improved. CONCLUSION: 3-D TRUS appears to provided accurate representation of the true anatomy with geometric and volumetric validation. Areas of potential clinical application of 3-D TRUS include treatment monitoring with volume measurements and various intervention and therapeutic procedures for both benign and malignant prostatic disorders. PMID:11178595

  13. A phantom for visualization of three-dimensional drug release by ultrasound-induced mild hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chun-Yen; Kruse, Dustin; Seo, Jai Woong; Kheirolomoom, Azadeh; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Ultrasound-induced mild hyperthermia has advantages for noninvasive, localized and controlled drug delivery. In this study, a tissue-mimicking agarose-based phantom with a thermally sensitive indicator was developed for studying the spatial drug delivery profile using ultrasound-induced mild hyperthermia. Methods: Agarose powder, regular evaporated milk, Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS), n-propanol, and silicon carbide powder were homogeneously mixed with low temperature sensitive liposomes (LTSLs) loaded with a self-quenched near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye. A dual-mode linear array ultrasound transducer was used for insonation at 1.54 MHz with a total acoustic power and acoustic pressure of 2.0 W and 1.5 MPa, respectively. After insonation, the dye release pattern in the phantom was quantified based on optical images, and the three-dimensional release profile was reconstructed and analyzed. A finite-difference time-domain-based algorithm was developed to simulate both the temperature distribution and spatial dye diffusion as a function of time. Finally, the simulated dye diffusion patterns were compared to experimental measurements. Results: Self-quenching of the fluorescent dye in DPBS was substantial at a concentration of 6.25 × 10−2 mM or greater. The transition temperature of LTSLs in the phantom was 35 °C, and the release reached 90% at 37 °C. The simulated temperature for hyperthermia correlated with the thermocouple measurements with a mean error between 0.03 ± 0.01 and 0.06 ± 0.02 °C. The R2 value between the experimental and simulated spatial extent of the dye diffusion, defined by the half-peak level in the elevation, lateral and depth directions, was 0.99 (slope = 1.08), 0.95 (slope = 0.99), and 0.80 (slope = 1.04), respectively, indicating the experimental and simulated dye release profiles were similar. Conclusions: The combination of LTSLs encapsulating a fluorescent dye and an optically transparent phantom is

  14. Clinical assessment of three-dimensional ultrasound prostate localization for external beam radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, Nigel P.; Jaradat, Hazim A.; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2006-12-15

    Three-dimensional ultrasound localization has been performed for external beam prostate treatments at our institution since September 2001. This article presents data from the daily shifts for 221 patients and 5005 fractions, and the results of tests performed to assess the system's performance under clinical conditions. Three tests are presented: (1) To measure the accuracy of the shifts, eight patients treated on a helical tomotherapy machine were localized daily using both ultrasound (US) and a megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) scan. Comparison of the shifts showed that US localization improved alignment for six of the eight patients when compared to alignment using skin marks alone. The mean US-MVCT vector for these six patients was 3.1{+-}1.3 mm, compared to 5.1{+-}2.1 mm between the MVCT and the skin marks. The other two patients were identified as poor candidates for US prior to their first treatment fraction. (2) To assess the extent of intrafraction motion, US localization was repeated after treatment for six patients and a total of 29 fractions. The mean intrafraction prostate shift was 1.9{+-}1.0 mm, and the shift was within the 3 mm localization uncertainty [Tome et al., Med. Phys. 29, 1781-1788 (2002); in New Technologies in Radiotion Oncology, edited by W. Schlegel, T. Bortfelde, and A. Grosu (Springer, Berlin, 2005)] of the system for 25 of 29 fractions. (3) To assess the interuser variation in shifts, four experienced operators independently localized five patients for five consecutive fractions. The standard deviation of the users' shifts was found to be approximately the same as the system's localization uncertainty. For shifts larger than the system localization uncertainty, the standard deviation of the users' shifts was nearly always much smaller than the mean shift. Taken together with the results of the US-MVCT comparison, this indicates that the shifts improved patient localization despite differences between users.

  15. Comparison of Cervical Parameters by Three-Dimensional Ultrasound according to Parity and Previous Delivery Mode

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Yun Sung; Jang, Dong Gyu; Kim, Narinay; Kim, Sa Jin; Lee, Guisera

    2011-01-01

    Background: We would like to find out that whether the patient's parity, previous delivery mode and previous labor could influence cervical parameters. Cervical length, volume and width were measured using two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) transvaginal ultrasound on normal pregnant women. Method: This study was conducted between January 2009 and December 2010 in singleton pregnant women who were admitted for routine antenatal care at hospitals in affiliation with the Catholic University, Seoul, Korea. The study group was classified by parity (nullipara and multipara) and previous delivery mode (cesarean section group and vaginal delivery group). The previous cesarean section group was divided by elective group who did not undergo labor and labor group who underwent labor. Cervical parameters such as cervical length, volume and width were measured using 2D and 3D ultrasound examinations in the first and second trimesters and the results were analyzed between those groups mentioned above. Results: One hundred and twenty-one pregnant women in their 1st trimester and 233 pregnant women in their 2nd trimester (a total of 354) were enrolled in this study. Cervical parameters were not statistically significant from parity, nor previous delivery mode and previous labor in 1st trimester. Cervical volumes were not statistically significant from nullipara and elective cesarean section groups (35.96±9.81 vs. 34.73±9.75 cm3), but the nullipara groups were significantly lowered in the vaginal group (35.96±9.81 vs. 43.10±11.87 cm3) in 2nd trimester. For the nullipara group, cervical widths were not statistically significant in the elective cesarean section group but these were significantly lower than labor and previous vaginal group in the 2nd trimester. Conclusion: The cervical volume and width have an influence on parity, previous delivery mode and labor in the 2nd trimester. PMID:22135614

  16. Comparison of two dimensional and live three dimensional ultrasounds for the diagnosis of septated uterus

    PubMed Central

    Niknejadi, Maryam; Akhbari, Farnaz; Niknejad, Fatemeh; Khalili, Gholamreza; Shiva, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Traditionally, septate uterus was diagnosed with invasive method like hysterosalpingography and hysteroscopy. Nowadays transvaginal ultrasonography was reported to be a sensitive tool for detection of septate uterus too. Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the application of two dimensional ultrasound (2-DUS) and real time three dimensional ultrasound (3-DUS) in differentiating various type of septated uterus. Hysteroscopy confirmation was assigned as the gold standard. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was performed among 215 infertile women with suspected septate uterus from October 2008 to July 2012. An inclusion criterion was septated uterus based on HSG or experiencing abortion, preterm labor, or recurrent IVF failure. Fusion anomalies were excluded from the study (unicornuate, bicornuate and didelphys anomalies). The results of 3D and 2D sonographies were compared, while they were confirmed by hysteroscopy result in detection of septated uterus. Kappa index for agreement between 2DUS and hysteroscopy, as well as 3-DUS and hysteroscopy in detection of septate uterus was carried out. By receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, cut off points for predicting the kind of anomalies were proposed. Results: The women were evaluated by 2-DUS (n=89) and (II) 3-DUS (n=126). All women underwent hysteroscopy, following 2-DUS and 3-DUS at the same or subsequent cycle. The results of kappa (K) index were 0.575 and 0.291 for 3-DUS and hysteroscopy, as well as 2-DUS and hysteroscopy, respectively. Also, the cutoff points were 27% for arcuate and subseptate, and 35% for differentiating septate and subseptate. Conclusion: Real time 3-DUS has better ability for visualization both uterine cavity and the fundal uterine, so it has higher agreement in detection of septate uterus than 2-DUS. PMID:25408704

  17. Design of optimal light delivery system for co-registered transvaginal ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging of ovarian tissue

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Hassan S.; Kumavor, Patrick D.; Li, Hai; Alqasemi, Umar; Wang, Tianheng; Xu, Chen; Zhu, Quing

    2015-01-01

    A hand-held transvaginal probe suitable for co-registered photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging of ovarian tissue was designed and evaluated. The imaging probe consists of an ultrasound transducer and four 1-mm-core multi-mode optical fibers both housed in a custom-made sheath. The probe was optimized for the highest light delivery output and best beam uniformity on tissue surface, by simulating the light fluence and power output for different design parameters. The laser fluence profiles were experimentally measured through chicken breast tissue and calibrated intralipid solution at various imaging depths. Polyethylene tubing filled with rat blood mimicking a blood vessel was successfully imaged up to ∼30 mm depth through porcine vaginal tissue at 750 nm. This imaging depth was achieved with a laser fluence on the tissue surface of 20 mJ/cm2, which is below the maximum permissible exposure (MPE) of 25 mJ/cm2 recommended by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Furthermore, the probe imaging capability was verified with ex vivo imaging of benign and malignant human ovaries. The co-registered images clearly showed different vasculature distributions on the surface of the benign cyst and the malignant ovary. These results suggest that our imaging system has the clinical potential for in vivo imaging and characterization of ovarian tissues. PMID:26640774

  18. The development and evaluation of a three-dimensional ultrasound-guided breast biopsy apparatus.

    PubMed

    Surry, K J M; Smith, W L; Campbell, L J; Mills, G R; Downey, D B; Fenster, A

    2002-09-01

    We have designed a prototype three-dimensional ultrasound guidance (3D USB) apparatus to improve the breast biopsy procedure. Features from stereotactic mammography and free-hand US-guided biopsy have been combined with 3D US imaging. This breast biopsy apparatus accurately guides a needle into position for the sampling of target tissue. We have evaluated this apparatus in three stages. First, by testing the placement accuracy of a needle in a tissue mimicking phantom. Second, with tissue mimicking phantoms that had embedded lesions for biopsy. Finally, by comparison to free-hand US-guided biopsy, using chicken breast phantoms. The first two stages of evaluation quantified the mechanical biases in the 3D USB apparatus. Compensating for these, a 96% success rate in targeting 3.2 mm "lesions" in chicken breast phantoms was achieved when using the 3D USB apparatus. The expert radiologists performing biopsies with free-hand US guidance achieved a 94.5% success rate. This has proven an equivalence between our apparatus, operated by non-experts, and free-hand biopsy performed by expert radiologists, for 3.2 mm lesions in vitro, with a 95% confidence. PMID:12270234

  19. Three-dimensional endoanal ultrasound for diagnosis of perianal fistulas: Reliable and objective technique

    PubMed Central

    Garcés-Albir, Marina; García-Botello, Stephanie Anne; Espi, Alejandro; Pla-Martí, Vicente; Martin-Arevalo, Jose; Moro-Valdezate, David; Ortega, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate accuracy of three-dimensional endoanal ultrasound (3D-EAUS) as compared to 2D-EAUS and physical examination (PE) in diagnosis of perianal fistulas and correlate with intraoperative findings. METHODS: A prospective observational consecutive study was performed with patients included over a two years period. All patients were studied and operated on by the Colorectal Unit surgeons. The inclusion criteria were patients over 18, diagnosed with a criptoglandular perianal fistula. The PE, 2D-EAUS and 3D-EAUS was performed preoperatively by the same colorectal surgeon at the outpatient clinic prior to surgery and the fistula anatomy was defined and they were classified in intersphincteric, high or low transsphincteric, suprasphincteric and extrasphincteric. Special attention was paid to the presence of a secondary tract, the location of the internal opening (IO) and the site of external opening. The results of these different examinations were compared to the intraoperative findings. Data regarding location of the IO, primary tract, secondary tract, and the presence of abscesses or cavities was analysed. RESULTS: Seventy patients with a mean age of 47 years (range 21-77), 51 male were included. Low transsphincteric fistulas were the most frequent type found (33, 47.1%) followed by high transsphincteric (24, 34.3%) and intersphincteric fistulas (13, 18.6%). There are no significant differences between the number of IO diagnosed by the different techniques employed and surgery (P > 0.05) and, there is a good concordance between intraoperative findings and the 2D-EAUS (k = 0.67) and 3D-EAUS (k = 0.75) for the diagnosis of the primary tract. The ROC curves for the diagnosis of transsphincteric fistulas show that both ultrasound techniques are adequate for the diagnosis of low transsphincteric fistulas, 3D-EAUS is superior for the diagnosis of high transsphincteric fistulas and PE is weak for the diagnosis of both types. CONCLUSION: 3D-EAUS shows a higher

  20. Three-dimensional geometrical changes of the human tibialis anterior muscle and its central aponeurosis measured with three-dimensional ultrasound during isometric contractions

    PubMed Central

    Cresswell, Andrew G.; Lichtwark, Glen A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Muscles not only shorten during contraction to perform mechanical work, but they also bulge radially because of the isovolumetric constraint on muscle fibres. Muscle bulging may have important implications for muscle performance, however quantifying three-dimensional (3D) muscle shape changes in human muscle is problematic because of difficulties with sustaining contractions for the duration of an in vivo scan. Although two-dimensional ultrasound imaging is useful for measuring local muscle deformations, assumptions must be made about global muscle shape changes, which could lead to errors in fully understanding the mechanical behaviour of muscle and its surrounding connective tissues, such as aponeurosis. Therefore, the aims of this investigation were (a) to determine the intra-session reliability of a novel 3D ultrasound (3DUS) imaging method for measuring in vivo human muscle and aponeurosis deformations and (b) to examine how contraction intensity influences in vivo human muscle and aponeurosis strains during isometric contractions. Methods. Participants (n = 12) were seated in a reclined position with their left knee extended and ankle at 90° and performed isometric dorsiflexion contractions up to 50% of maximal voluntary contraction. 3DUS scans of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle belly were performed during the contractions and at rest to assess muscle volume, muscle length, muscle cross-sectional area, muscle thickness and width, fascicle length and pennation angle, and central aponeurosis width and length. The 3DUS scan involved synchronous B-mode ultrasound imaging and 3D motion capture of the position and orientation of the ultrasound transducer, while successive cross-sectional slices were captured by sweeping the transducer along the muscle. Results. 3DUS was shown to be highly reliable across measures of muscle volume, muscle length, fascicle length and central aponeurosis length (ICC ≥ 0.98, CV < 1%). The TA remained isovolumetric

  1. Three-dimensional geometrical changes of the human tibialis anterior muscle and its central aponeurosis measured with three-dimensional ultrasound during isometric contractions.

    PubMed

    Raiteri, Brent J; Cresswell, Andrew G; Lichtwark, Glen A

    2016-01-01

    Background. Muscles not only shorten during contraction to perform mechanical work, but they also bulge radially because of the isovolumetric constraint on muscle fibres. Muscle bulging may have important implications for muscle performance, however quantifying three-dimensional (3D) muscle shape changes in human muscle is problematic because of difficulties with sustaining contractions for the duration of an in vivo scan. Although two-dimensional ultrasound imaging is useful for measuring local muscle deformations, assumptions must be made about global muscle shape changes, which could lead to errors in fully understanding the mechanical behaviour of muscle and its surrounding connective tissues, such as aponeurosis. Therefore, the aims of this investigation were (a) to determine the intra-session reliability of a novel 3D ultrasound (3DUS) imaging method for measuring in vivo human muscle and aponeurosis deformations and (b) to examine how contraction intensity influences in vivo human muscle and aponeurosis strains during isometric contractions. Methods. Participants (n = 12) were seated in a reclined position with their left knee extended and ankle at 90° and performed isometric dorsiflexion contractions up to 50% of maximal voluntary contraction. 3DUS scans of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle belly were performed during the contractions and at rest to assess muscle volume, muscle length, muscle cross-sectional area, muscle thickness and width, fascicle length and pennation angle, and central aponeurosis width and length. The 3DUS scan involved synchronous B-mode ultrasound imaging and 3D motion capture of the position and orientation of the ultrasound transducer, while successive cross-sectional slices were captured by sweeping the transducer along the muscle. Results. 3DUS was shown to be highly reliable across measures of muscle volume, muscle length, fascicle length and central aponeurosis length (ICC ≥ 0.98, CV < 1%). The TA remained isovolumetric

  2. Three-dimensional Ultrasound Molecular Imaging of Angiogenesis in Colon Cancer using a Clinical Matrix Array Ultrasound Transducer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huaijun; Kaneko, Osamu F.; Tian, Lu; Hristov, Dimitre; Willmann, Jürgen K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We sought to assess the feasibility and reproducibility of three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound molecular imaging (USMI) of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) expression in tumor angiogenesis using a clinical matrix array transducer and a clinical grade VEGFR2-targeted contrast agent in a murine model of human colon cancer. Materials and Methods Animal studies were approved by the Institutional Administrative Panel on Laboratory Animal Care. Mice with human colon cancer xenografts (n=33) were imaged with a clinical ultrasound system and transducer (Philips iU22; X6-1) following intravenous injection of either clinical grade VEGFR2-targeted microbubbles (MBVEGFR2) or non-targeted control microbubbles (MBControl). Nineteen mice were scanned twice to assess imaging reproducibility. Fourteen mice were scanned both before and 24h after treatment with either bevacizumab (n=7) or saline only (n=7). 3D USMI datasets were retrospectively reconstructed into multiple consecutive 1-mm thick USMI data sets to simulate 2D imaging. Vascular VEGFR2 expression was assessed ex vivo using immunofluorescence. Results 3D USMI was highly reproducible using both MBVEGFR2 and MBControl (ICC=0.83). VEGFR2-targeted USMI signal significantly (P=0.02) decreased by 57% following anti-angiogenic treatment compared to the control group, which correlated well with ex vivo VEGFR2 expression on immunofluorescence (rho=0.93, P=0.003). If only central 1-mm tumor planes were analyzed to assess anti-angiogenic treatment response, the USMI signal change was significantly (P=0.006) overestimated by an average of 27% (range, 2–73%) compared to 3D USMI. Conclusions 3D USMI is feasible and highly reproducible and allows accurate assessment and monitoring of VEGFR2 expression in tumor angiogenesis in a murine model of human colon cancer. PMID:25575176

  3. Manual planimetric measurement of carotid plaque volume using three-dimensional ultrasound imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Landry, Anthony; Ainsworth, Craig; Blake, Chris; Spence, J. David; Fenster, Aaron

    2007-04-15

    We investigated the utility of three manual planimetric methods to quantify carotid plaque volume. A single observer measured 15 individual plaques from 15 three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound (3D US) images of patients ten times each using three different planimetric approaches. Individual plaque volumes were measured (range: 32.6-597.1 mm{sup 3}) using a standard planimetric approach (M1) whereby a plaque end was identified and sequential contours were measured. The same plaques were measured using a second approach (M2), whereby plaque ends were first identified and the 3D US image of the plaque was then subdivided into equal intervals. A third method (M3) was used to measure total plaque burden (range: 165.1-1080.0 mm{sup 3}) in a region ({+-}1.5 cm) relative to the carotid bifurcation. M1 systematically underestimated individual plaque volume compared to M2 (V{sub 2}=V{sub 1}+14.0 mm{sup 3}, r=0.99, p=0.006) due to a difference in the mean plaque length measured. Coefficients of variance (CV) for M1 and M2 decrease with increasing plaque volume, with M2 results less than M1. Root mean square difference between experimental and theoretical CV for M2 was 3.2%. The standard deviation in the identification of the transverse location of the carotid bifurcation was 0.56 mm. CVs for plaque burden measured using M3 ranged from 1.2% to 7.6% and were less than CVs determined for individual plaque volumes of the same volume. The utility of M3 was demonstrated by measuring carotid plaque burden and volume change over a period of 3 months in three patients. In conclusion, M2 was determined to be a more superior measurement technique than M1 to measure individual plaque volume. Furthermore, we demonstrated the utility of M3 to quantify regional plaque burden and to quantify change in plaque volume.

  4. Co-registered Frequency-Domain Photoacoustic Radar and Ultrasound System for Subsurface Imaging in Turbid Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dovlo, Edem; Lashkari, Bahman; Mandelis, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Frequency-domain photoacoustic radar (FD-PAR) imaging of absorbers in turbid media and their comparison and/or validation as well as co-registration with their corresponding ultrasound (US) images are demonstrated in this paper. Also presented are the FD-PAR tomography and the effects of reducing the number of scan lines (or angles) on image quality, resolution, and contrast. The FD-PAR modality uses intensity-modulated (coded) continuous wave laser sources driven by frequency-swept (chirp) waveforms. The spatial cross-correlation function between the PA response and the reference signal used for laser source modulation produces the reconstructed image. Live animal testing is demonstrated, and images of comparable signal-to-noise ratio, contrast, and spatial resolution were obtained. Various image improvement techniques to further reduce absorber spread and artifacts in the images such as normalization, filtering, and amplification were also investigated. The co-registered image produced from the combined US and PA images provides more information than both images independently. The significance of this work lies in the fact that achieving PA imaging functionality on a commercial ultrasound instrument could accelerate its clinical acceptance and use. This work is aimed at functional PA imaging of small animals in vivo.

  5. Photoacoustic radar phase-filtered spatial resolution and co-registered ultrasound image enhancement for tumor detection

    PubMed Central

    Dovlo, Edem; Lashkari, Bahman; Mandelis, Andreas; Shi, Wei; Liu, Fei-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Co-registered ultrasound (US) and frequency-domain photoacoustic radar (FD-PAR) imaging is reported for the first time in this paper. The merits of ultrasound and cross-correlation (radar) frequency-domain photoacoustic imaging are leveraged for accurate tumor detection. Commercial US imagers possess sophisticated, optimized software for rapid image acquisition that could dramatically speed-up PA imaging. The PAR image generated from the amplitude of the cross-correlation between detected and input signals was filtered by the standard deviation (SD) of the phase of the correlation signal, resulting in strong improvement of image spatial resolution, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast. Application of phase-mediated image improvement is illustrated by imaging a cancer cell-injected mouse. A 14–15 dB SNR gain was recorded for the phase-filtered image compared to the amplitude and phase independently, while ~340 μm spatial resolution was seen for the phase PAR image compared to ~840 μm for the amplitude image. PMID:25798321

  6. Real-time optoacoustic imaging of breast cancer using an interleaved two laser imaging system coregistered with ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermilov, Sergey A.; Fronheiser, Matthew P.; Nadvoretsky, Vyacheslav; Brecht, Hans-Peter; Su, Richard; Conjusteau, André; Mehta, Ketan; Otto, Pamela; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2010-02-01

    We present results from a clinical case study on imaging breast cancer using a real-time interleaved two laser optoacoustic imaging system co-registered with ultrasound. The present version of Laser Optoacoustic Ultrasonic Imaging System (LOUIS) utilizes a commercial linear ultrasonic transducer array, which has been modified to include two parallel rectangular optical bundles, to operate in both ultrasonic (US) and optoacoustic (OA) modes. In OA mode, the images from two optical wavelengths (755 nm and 1064 nm) that provide opposite contrasts for optical absorption of oxygenated vs deoxygenated blood can be displayed simultaneously at a maximum rate of 20 Hz. The real-time aspect of the system permits probe manipulations that can assist in the detection of the lesion. The results show the ability of LOUIS to co-register regions of high absorption seen in OA images with US images collected at the same location with the dual modality probe. The dual wavelength results demonstrate that LOUIS can potentially provide breast cancer diagnostics based on different intensities of OA images of the lesion obtained at 755 nm and 1064 nm. We also present new data processing based on deconvolution of the LOUIS impulse response that helps recover original optoacoustic pressure profiles. Finally, we demonstrate the image analysis tool that provides automatic detection of the tumor boundary and quantitative metrics of the optoacoustic image quality. Using a blood vessel phantom submerged in a tissue-like milky background solution we show that the image contrast is minimally affected by the phantom distance from the LOUIS probe until about 60-65 mm. We suggest using the image contrast for quantitative assessment of an OA image of a breast lesion, as a part of the breast cancer diagnostics procedure.

  7. Coregistered photoacoustic and ultrasound tomography of healthy and inflamed human interphalangeal joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Es, Peter; Vlieg, Redmar C.; Biswas, Samir K.; Hondebrink, Erwin; van Hespen, Johan C. G.; Moens, Hein B. J.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang

    2015-07-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) or optoacoustic (OA) imaging combines the high (blood) contrast to light with the high-resolution of ultrasound. The method can visualize vascularization deep inside tissue. Of late there is interest in PA imaging of synovial joints which are expected to be associated with increased vascularization in the event of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We here describe our approach in investigating the application of the PA technique in arthritis. We are developing a CT-geometry version PA finger imager, intended for early clinical assessment of the method. The imager uses two curved array ultrasound detectors each with 64 elements with central frequencies 1.5 and 7.5 MHz respectively, stacked above each other. Both cover approximately 180 degrees of the circle. Illumination is provided with a multiple of optical fiber bundles coupled to a laser-OPO system. Ultrasound imaging is also possible with the system, since the curved arrays are each provided with 12 or 8 ultrasound pulsers. We have investigated systematically imaging of finger vasculature in healthy volunteers using an earlier laboratory prototype. In this paper we present finger imaging results of a patient diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis.

  8. Three-Dimensional Ultrasound-Based Navigation Combined with Preoperative CT During Abdominal Interventions: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kaspersen, J.H. Sjolie, E.; Wesche, J.; Asland, J.; Lundbom, J.; Odegard, A.; Lindseth, F.; Nagelhus Hernes, T.A.

    2003-08-15

    Purpose: Three-dimensional (3D)intraoperative ultrasound may be easier to interpret when used in combination with less noisy preoperative image data such as CT. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of preoperative image data in a 3D ultrasound-based navigation system specially designed for minimally invasive abdominal surgery. A prototype system has been tested in patients with aortic aneurysms undergoing clinical assessment before and after abdominal aortic stent-graft implantation. Methods: All patients were first imaged by spiral CT followed by 3D ultrasound scanning. The CT volume was registered to the patient using fiducial markers. This enabled us to compare corresponding slices from 3D ultrasound and CT volumes. The accuracy of the patient registration was evaluated both using the external fiducial markers (artificial landmarks glued on the patient's skin) and using intraoperative 3D ultrasound as a measure of the true positioning of anatomic landmarks inside the body. Results: The mean registration accuracy on the surface was found to be 7.1 mm, but increased to 13.0 mm for specific landmarks inside the body. CT and ultrasound gave supplementary information of surrounding structures and position of the patient's anatomy. Fine-tuning the initial patient registration of the CT data with a multimodal CT to intraoperative 3D ultrasound registration (e.g., mutual information), as well as ensuring no movements between this registration and image guidance, may improve the registration accuracy. Conclusion: Preoperative CT in combination with 3D ultrasound might be helpful for guiding minimal invasive abdominal interventions.

  9. Real-time co-registered ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging system based on FPGA and DSP architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alqasemi, Umar; Li, Hai; Aguirre, Andres; Zhu, Quing

    2011-03-01

    Co-registering ultrasound (US) and photoacoustic (PA) imaging is a logical extension to conventional ultrasound because both modalities provide complementary information of tumor morphology, tumor vasculature and hypoxia for cancer detection and characterization. In addition, both modalities are capable of providing real-time images for clinical applications. In this paper, a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and Digital Signal Processor (DSP) module-based real-time US/PA imaging system is presented. The system provides real-time US/PA data acquisition and image display for up to 5 fps* using the currently implemented DSP board. It can be upgraded to 15 fps, which is the maximum pulse repetition rate of the used laser, by implementing an advanced DSP module. Additionally, the photoacoustic RF data for each frame is saved for further off-line processing. The system frontend consists of eight 16-channel modules made of commercial and customized circuits. Each 16-channel module consists of two commercial 8-channel receiving circuitry boards and one FPGA board from Analog Devices. Each receiving board contains an IC† that combines. 8-channel low-noise amplifiers, variable-gain amplifiers, anti-aliasing filters, and ADC's‡ in a single chip with sampling frequency of 40MHz. The FPGA board captures the LVDSξ Double Data Rate (DDR) digital output of the receiving board and performs data conditioning and subbeamforming. A customized 16-channel transmission circuitry is connected to the two receiving boards for US pulseecho (PE) mode data acquisition. A DSP module uses External Memory Interface (EMIF) to interface with the eight 16-channel modules through a customized adaptor board. The DSP transfers either sub-beamformed data (US pulse-echo mode or PAI imaging mode) or raw data from FPGA boards to its DDR-2 memory through the EMIF link, then it performs additional processing, after that, it transfer the data to the PC** for further image processing. The PC code

  10. Elasticity-based three dimensional ultrasound real-time volume rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boctor, Emad M.; Matinfar, Mohammad; Ahmad, Omar; Rivaz, Hassan; Choti, Michael; Taylor, Russell H.

    2009-02-01

    Volumetric ultrasound imaging has not gained wide recognition, despite the availability of real-time 3D ultrasound scanners and the anticipated potential of 3D ultrasound imaging in diagnostic and interventional radiology. Their use, however, has been hindered by the lack of real-time visualization methods that are capable of producing high quality 3D rendering of the target/surface of interest. Volume rendering is a known visualization method, which can display clear surfaces out of the acquired volumetric data, and has an increasing number of applications utilizing CT and MRI data. The key element of any volume rendering pipeline is the ability to classify the target/surface of interest by setting an appropriate opacity function. Practical and successful real-time 3D ultrasound volume rendering can be achieved in Obstetrics and Angio applications where setting these opacity functions can be done rapidly, and reliably. Unfortunately, 3D ultrasound volume rendering of soft tissues is a challenging task due to the presence of significant amount of noise and speckle. Recently, several research groups have shown the feasibility of producing 3D elasticity volume from two consecutive 3D ultrasound scans. This report describes a novel volume rendering pipeline utilizing elasticity information. The basic idea is to compute B-mode voxel opacity from the rapidly calculated strain values, which can also be mixed with conventional gradient based opacity function. We have implemented the volume renderer using GPU unit, which gives an update rate of 40 volume/sec.

  11. Three-dimensional ultrasound of the fetus: how does it help?

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Luis F

    2016-02-01

    Three-dimensional ultrasonography (3-D US) was introduced to the field of fetal imaging in the early 1990s. Since then several publications have described potential applications for the diagnosis of congenital malformations as well as organ volumetry. This article reviews basic principles of 3-D US as well as its clinical applicability to prenatal diagnosis of abnormalities involving the face, spine and skeletal system, as well as potential applications of 3-D US for fetal cardiovascular and neuroimaging. Limitations related to motion artifacts, acoustic shadowing and barriers to clinical implementation of 3-D US in clinical practice are addressed. PMID:26829949

  12. Developing High-Frequency Quantitative Ultrasound Techniques to Characterize Three-Dimensional Engineered Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercado, Karla Patricia E.

    Tissue engineering holds great promise for the repair or replacement of native tissues and organs. Further advancements in the fabrication of functional engineered tissues are partly dependent on developing new and improved technologies to monitor the properties of engineered tissues volumetrically, quantitatively, noninvasively, and nondestructively over time. Currently, engineered tissues are evaluated during fabrication using histology, biochemical assays, and direct mechanical tests. However, these techniques destroy tissue samples and, therefore, lack the capability for real-time, longitudinal monitoring. The research reported in this thesis developed nondestructive, noninvasive approaches to characterize the structural, biological, and mechanical properties of 3-D engineered tissues using high-frequency quantitative ultrasound and elastography technologies. A quantitative ultrasound technique, using a system-independent parameter known as the integrated backscatter coefficient (IBC), was employed to visualize and quantify structural properties of engineered tissues. Specifically, the IBC was demonstrated to estimate cell concentration and quantitatively detect differences in the microstructure of 3-D collagen hydrogels. Additionally, the feasibility of an ultrasound elastography technique called Single Tracking Location Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (STL-ARFI) imaging was demonstrated for estimating the shear moduli of 3-D engineered tissues. High-frequency ultrasound techniques can be easily integrated into sterile environments necessary for tissue engineering. Furthermore, these high-frequency quantitative ultrasound techniques can enable noninvasive, volumetric characterization of the structural, biological, and mechanical properties of engineered tissues during fabrication and post-implantation.

  13. Clinical benefits of combined diagnostic three-dimensional digital breast tomosynthesis and ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varjonen, Mari; Pamilo, Martti; Raulisto, Leena

    2005-04-01

    Our goal is to evaluate diagnostic digital breast tomosynthesis and ultrasound imaging clinical value in detecting and diagnosing early stage breast cancers. Determine if fusion imaging would decrease the number of biopsies and reduce further patient workup otherwise required to establish a definitive diagnosis. This paper presents the clinical results based on the study conducted at Helsinki University Central Hospital. Presentation demonstrates clinical dual modality images and results. Tomosynthesis of amorphous selenium based full field digital mammography system will be also presented. Forty asymptomatic women enrolled in the study based on prior identification of suspicious findings on screening mammograms where the possibility of breast cancer could not be excluded. Abnormal screening mammogram findings included tumor-like densities, parenchymal asymmetries and architectural distortions. Eight women were operated and 32 were not referred for surgery. Those cases, which were operated, three lesions represented ductal carcinoma in situ, two ductal carcinomas, one atypical ductal hyperplasia, one fibroadenoma and one radial scar. The 32 not operated cases revealed to be benign or superimposition of normal parenchymal breast tissue. The cases were returned to biennial screening. Ultrasound did not show clearly any lesions, but using tomosynthesis and ultrasound together we were able to analyze and locate the lesions exactly. Special tomosynthesis improves overall lesion detection and analysis. The value of tomosynthesis and ultrasound fusion imaging will be to provide additional clinical information in order to improve decision making accuracy to either confirm or exclude a suspected abnormality and in particular detect small breast cancers.

  14. Three-Dimensional Quantitative Optical Measurement of Asymmetrically Focused Ultrasound Pressure Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, Yuta; Harigane, Soichiro; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-ichiro

    2012-07-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is used for the treatment of tumors such as prostate cancer. In the development of this technique, an accurate and fast measurement of the HIFU pressure field is important. A hydrophone is generally used for the measurement, but it might disturb the pressure field and scanning it in the field takes a long time. On the other hand, optical ultrasonic field mapping has the advantages of speed and its nature of not by interfering with the acoustic field. In this study, we reconstructed an asymmetric ultrasound field by optical measurement using a computed tomography (CT) algorithm. The asymmetric field was generated by a focused transducer with four elements. Also, the absolute measurement of ultrasonic pressure was checked by measuring the center of the field of the charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. The results showed overall agreement with those of hydrophone measurement.

  15. High-Frequency Focused Water-Coupled Ultrasound Used for Three-Dimensional Surface Depression Profiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Whalen, Mike F.; Hendricks, J. Lynne; Bodis, James R.

    2001-01-01

    To interface with other solids, many surfaces are engineered via methods such as plating, coating, and machining to produce a functional surface ensuring successful end products. In addition, subsurface properties such as hardness, residual stress, deformation, chemical composition, and microstructure are often linked to surface characteristics. Surface topography, therefore, contains the signatures of the surface and possibly links to volumetric properties, and as a result serves as a vital link between surface design, manufacturing, and performance. Hence, surface topography can be used to diagnose, monitor, and control fabrication methods. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, the measurement of surface topography is important in developing high-temperature structural materials and for profiling the surface changes of materials during microgravity combustion experiments. A prior study demonstrated that focused air-coupled ultrasound at 1 MHz could profile surfaces with a 25-m depth resolution and a 400-m lateral resolution over a 1.4-mm depth range. In this work, we address the question of whether higher frequency focused water-coupled ultrasound can improve on these specifications. To this end, we employed 10- and 25-MHz focused ultrasonic transducers in the water-coupled mode. The surface profile results seen in this investigation for 25-MHz water-coupled ultrasound, in comparison to those for 1-MHz air-coupled ultrasound, represent an 8 times improvement in depth resolution (3 vs. 25 m seen in practice), an improvement of at least 2 times in lateral resolution (180 vs. 400 m calculated and observed in practice), and an improvement in vertical depth range of 4 times (calculated).

  16. Three-dimensional Ultrasound Appearance of Pelvic Floor in Nulliparous Women and Postpartum Women One Week after Their First Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feifei; Xu, Lian; Ying, Tao; Tao, Junjia; Hu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the morphology and structure of pelvic floor in 50 nulliparous and 95 postpartum women (47 vaginal delivery, 48 Cesarean section) using translabial three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound. All the primiparae underwent ultrasound examination within one week after their first delivery. Volume datasets were acquired and analyzed to determine the alterations of levator hiatus after childbirth. Significant differences were observed in the levator hiatus of postpartum women compared with that of nullipara women. In postpartum women, the levator hiatus, with their dimensions increased, expanded into a circular shape. Puborectalis was avulsed in eight cases (accounting for 8.42% of all) and pelvic organ prolapse was found in 12 cases (accounting for 12.63%). The hiatal dimensions were larger and the incidence of pubrectalis muscle avulsion (17.02% vs. 0%) and pelvic organ prolapse (21.28% vs. 4.17%) was significantly higher in Vaginal delivery group than Cesarean section group. In summary, 3D ultrasound is an effective tool to detect the pelvic floor of postpartum women who present with morphological abnormalities, and such abnormalities are more likely to show in vaginal delivery women compared to Cesarean section. PMID:24522119

  17. Three-dimensional ultrasound appearance of pelvic floor in nulliparous women and postpartum women one week after their first delivery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feifei; Xu, Lian; Ying, Tao; Tao, Junjia; Hu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the morphology and structure of pelvic floor in 50 nulliparous and 95 postpartum women (47 vaginal delivery, 48 Cesarean section) using translabial three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound. All the primiparae underwent ultrasound examination within one week after their first delivery. Volume datasets were acquired and analyzed to determine the alterations of levator hiatus after childbirth. Significant differences were observed in the levator hiatus of postpartum women compared with that of nullipara women. In postpartum women, the levator hiatus, with their dimensions increased, expanded into a circular shape. Puborectalis was avulsed in eight cases (accounting for 8.42% of all) and pelvic organ prolapse was found in 12 cases (accounting for 12.63%). The hiatal dimensions were larger and the incidence of pubrectalis muscle avulsion (17.02% vs. 0%) and pelvic organ prolapse (21.28% vs. 4.17%) was significantly higher in Vaginal delivery group than Cesarean section group. In summary, 3D ultrasound is an effective tool to detect the pelvic floor of postpartum women who present with morphological abnormalities, and such abnormalities are more likely to show in vaginal delivery women compared to Cesarean section. PMID:24522119

  18. Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holboke, Monica J.; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Li, Xingde; Shah, Natasha; Fishkin, Joshua B.; Kidney, D.; Butler, J.; Chance, Britton; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2000-04-01

    We describe an approach that combines clinical ultrasound and photon migration techniques to enhance the sensitivity and information content of diffuse optical tomography. Measurements were performed on a postmenopausal woman with a single 1.8 X 0.9 cm malignant ductal carcinoma in situ approximately 7.4 mm beneath the skin surface (UCI IRB protocol 95-563). The ultrasound-derived information about tumor geometry enabled us to segment the breast tissue into tumor and background regions. Optical data was obtained with a multifrequency, multiwavelength hand-held frequency-domain photon migration backscattering probe. The optical properties of the tumor and background were then computed using the ultrasound-derived geometrical constraints. An iterative perturbative approach, using parallel processing, provided quantitative information about scattering and absorption simultaneously with the ability to incorporate and resolve complex boundary conditions and geometries. A three to four fold increase in the tumor absorption coefficient and nearly 50% reduction in scattering coefficient relative to background was observed ((lambda) equals 674, 782, 803, and 849 nm). Calculations of the mean physiological parameters reveal fourfold greater tumor total hemoglobin concentration [Hbtot] than normal breast (67 (mu) M vs 16 (mu) M) and tumor hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SOx) values of 63% (vs 73% and 68% in the region surrounding the tumor and the opposite normal tissue, respectively). Comparison of semi-infinite to heterogeneous models shows superior tumor/background contrast for the latter in both absorption and scattering. Sensitivity studies assessing the impact of tumor size and refractive index assumptions, as well as scan direction, demonstrate modest effects on recovered properties.

  19. Image analysis of placental issues using three-dimensional ultrasound and color power Doppler based on Support Vector Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Xu, Diyun; Liu, Jianguo

    2009-10-01

    With the development of medical science, three-dimensional ultrasound and color power Doppler tomography shooting placenta is widely used. To determine whether the fetus's development is abnormal or not is mainly through the analysis of the capillary's distribution of the obtained images which are shot by the Doppler scanner. In this classification process, we will adopt Support Vector Machine classifier. SVM achieves substantial improvements over the statistical learning methods and behaves robustly over a variety of different learning tasks. Furthermore, it is fully automatic, eliminating the need for manual parameter tuning and can solve the small sample problem wonderfully well. So SVM classifier is valid and reliable in the identification of placentas and is more accurate with the lower error rate.

  20. Visualization of Microvessels in Skin by Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saijo, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Hozumi, N.; Tanaka, A.; Sakai, S.

    A non-invasive imaging technique capable of visualizing microvessels through epidermis to subdermis has been strongly desired. A PVDF ultrasonic transducer with the central frequency of 100 MHz and the focal length of 3.2 mm was mechanically scanned over the objects by two linear servo motors controlled by a personal computer. A microvessel model was made of a tungsten wire with a diameter of 100-microns and placed in the water tank. The microvessel model was clearly visualized by 3D ultrasound microscope. In cases of skin imaging, conventional echo gel was used as the coupling medium between transducer and skin surface. In vivo 3D skin morphology was also clearly visualized. In dermis, a microvessel may be shown as small, round, lucent echo areas continuously observed in the serial sections. 3D structure of hair-follicle was also visualized from the skin surface to the bud of hair-follicle in dermis. The 3D ultrasound microscope noninvasively provides important information on the distribution of microvessels in skin.

  1. Left ventricle myocardial border detection in three-dimensional intracardiac ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Weidong; Kanani, Prapti; Allan, John; Kerber, Richard; McKay, Charles R.; Sonka, Milan

    1997-05-01

    We have previously reported an automated approach to detection of endocardial and epicardial borders in individual intracardiac ultrasound (ICUS) images. Here, we report the method's extension to 3D ICUS image data sets. Our method is based on fully automated detection of epicardial and endocardial borders inside a single interactively identified region of interest. BOrder detection is based on an optimal graph-searching approach that utilizes a priori knowledge about left ventricular (LV) anatomy and ultrasound imaging physics. Eight cadaveric pig hearts were used for validation. Two ICUS sequences were obtained from each heart, with a 10 MHz CVIS 10F catheter positioned in the LV across (1) the aortic valve and (2) the mitral valve. Performance of the 3D automated border detection method was assessed by comparing the observer- defined and computer-determined quantitative indices of LV volume and by border positioning errors. The 3D reconstruction of the lV was performed from the sequences of the detected epicardial and endocardial borders using shape- based interpolation and surface rendering.

  2. Monitoring Prostate Tumor Growth in an Orthotopic Mouse Model Using Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Imaging Technique12

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Jie; Cozzi, Paul; Hung, Tzong-Tyng; Hao, Jingli; Graham, Peter; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is the most commonly diagnosed and the second leading cause of death from cancer in males in USA. Prostate orthotopic mouse model has been widely used to study human CaP in preclinical settings. Measurement of changes in tumor size obtained from noninvasive diagnostic images is a standard method for monitoring responses to anticancer modalities. This article reports for the first time the usage of a three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound system equipped with photoacoustic (PA) imaging in monitoring longitudinal prostate tumor growth in a PC-3 orthotopic NODSCID mouse model (n = 8). Two-dimensional and 3D modes of ultrasound show great ability in accurately depicting the size and shape of prostate tumors. PA function on two-dimensional and 3D images showed average oxygen saturation and average hemoglobin concentration of the tumor. Results showed a good fit in representative exponential tumor growth curves (n = 3; r2 = 0.948, 0.955, and 0.953, respectively) and a good correlation of tumor volume measurements performed in vivo with autopsy (n = 8, r = 0.95, P < .001). The application of 3D ultrasound imaging proved to be a useful imaging modality in monitoring tumor growth in an orthotopic mouse model, with advantages such as high contrast, uncomplicated protocols, economical equipment, and nonharmfulness to animals. PA mode also enabled display of blood oxygenation surrounding the tumor and tumor vasculature and angiogenesis, making 3D ultrasound imaging an ideal tool for preclinical cancer research. PMID:26947880

  3. Needle path planning and steering in a three-dimensional non-static environment using two-dimensional ultrasound images

    PubMed Central

    Vrooijink, Gustaaf J.; Abayazid, Momen; Patil, Sachin; Alterovitz, Ron; Misra, Sarthak

    2015-01-01

    Needle insertion is commonly performed in minimally invasive medical procedures such as biopsy and radiation cancer treatment. During such procedures, accurate needle tip placement is critical for correct diagnosis or successful treatment. Accurate placement of the needle tip inside tissue is challenging, especially when the target moves and anatomical obstacles must be avoided. We develop a needle steering system capable of autonomously and accurately guiding a steerable needle using two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound images. The needle is steered to a moving target while avoiding moving obstacles in a three-dimensional (3D) non-static environment. Using a 2D ultrasound imaging device, our system accurately tracks the needle tip motion in 3D space in order to estimate the tip pose. The needle tip pose is used by a rapidly exploring random tree-based motion planner to compute a feasible needle path to the target. The motion planner is sufficiently fast such that replanning can be performed repeatedly in a closed-loop manner. This enables the system to correct for perturbations in needle motion, and movement in obstacle and target locations. Our needle steering experiments in a soft-tissue phantom achieves maximum targeting errors of 0.86 ± 0.35 mm (without obstacles) and 2.16 ± 0.88 mm (with a moving obstacle). PMID:26279600

  4. Automatic needle segmentation in three-dimensional ultrasound images using two orthogonal two-dimensional image projections.

    PubMed

    Ding, Mingyue; Cardinal, H Neale; Fenster, Aaron

    2003-02-01

    In this paper, we describe an algorithm to segment a needle from a three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound image by using two orthogonal two-dimensional (2D) image projections. Not only is the needle more conspicuous in a projected (volume-rendered) image, but its direction in 3D lies in the plane defined by the projection direction and the needle direction in the projected 2D image. Hence, using two such projections, the 3D vector describing the needle direction lies along the intersection of the two corresponding planes. Thus, the task of 3D needle segmentation is reduced to two 2D needle segmentations. For improved accuracy and robustness, we use orthogonal projection directions (both orthogonal to a given a priori estimate of the needle direction), and use volume cropping and Gaussian transfer functions to remove complex background from the 2D projection images. To evaluate our algorithm, we tested it with 3D ultrasound images of agar and turkey breast phantoms. Using a 500 MHz personal computer equipped with a commercial volume-rendering card, we found that our 3D needle segmentation algorithm performed in near real time (about 10 fps) with a root-mean-square accuracy in needle length and endpoint coordinates of better than 0.8 mm, and about 0.5 mm on average, for needles lengths in the 3D image from 4.0 mm to 36.7 mm. PMID:12607840

  5. Feasibility Testing: Three-dimensional Tumor Mapping in Different Orientations of Automated Breast Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chung-Ming; Chan, Si-Wa; Yang, Ya-Wen; Chang, Yeun-Chung; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Jou, Yi-Sheng; Chang, Ruey-Feng

    2016-05-01

    A tumor-mapping algorithm was proposed to identify the same regions in different passes of automated breast ultrasound (ABUS). A total of 53 abnormal passes with 41 biopsy-proven tumors and 13 normal passes were collected. After computer-aided tumor detection, a mapping pair was composed of a detected region in one pass and another region in another pass. Location criteria, including the radial position as on a clock, the relative distance and the distance to the nipple, were used to extract mapping pairs with close regions. Quantitative intensity, morphology, texture and location features were then combined in a classifier for further classification. The performance of the classifier achieved a mapping rate of 80.39% (41/51), with an error rate of 5.97% (4/67). The trade-offs between the mapping and error rates were evaluated, and Az = 0.9094 was obtained. The proposed tumor-mapping algorithm was capable of automatically providing location correspondence information that would be helpful in reviews of ABUS examinations. PMID:26825468

  6. Three Dimensional Motion Compensation for Real-Time MRI Guided Focused Ultrasound Treatment of Abdominal Organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, M.; De Senneville, B. D.; Roujol, S.; Hey, S.; Maclair, G.; Köhler, M. O.; Quesson, B.; Moonen, C. T. W.

    2010-03-01

    MR-guided high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has evolved into a promising non-invasive technique for the ablation of pathological tissue in abdominal organs. However, since the high perfusion rates of these organs lead to effective cooling, sustained sonications of 30-90 s are required to achieve a sufficiently high temperature elevation to induce necrosis. This is complicated by the constant displacement of the target due to the respiratory cycle. This study proposes sub-second 3D HIFU-beam steering under MR-guidance for the near real-time compensation of respiratory motion as a possible solution. The target position is observed in 3D space by coupling rapid 2D MR-imaging with prospective slice tracking (PST) based on pencil-beam navigator echoes. Continuous real-time image processing provides temperature maps, thermal dose estimates and the target position at a frequency of 10 Hz and an update latency of less than 120 ms. The suggested method is evaluated with phantom experiments and its feasibility is verified in-vivo with an ablation experiment on a porcine kidney where it allows to achieve a thermal energy deposition which is comparable to static control experiments.

  7. Three-dimensional ultrasound-guided robotic needle placement: an experimental evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Boctor, Emad M.; Choti, Michael A.; Burdette, Everette C.; Webster III, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical use of image-guided needle placement robots has lagged behind laboratory-demonstrated robotic capability. Bridging this gap requires reliable and easy-to-use robotic systems. Methods Our system for image-guided needle placement requires only simple, low-cost components and minimal, entirely off-line calibration. It rapidly aligns needles to planned entry paths using 3D ultrasound (US) reconstructed from freehand 2D scans. We compare system accuracy against clinical standard manual needle placement. Results The US-guided robotic system is significantly more accurate than single manual insertions. When several manual withdrawals and reinsertions are allowed, accuracy becomes equivalent. In ex vivo experiments, robotic repeatability was 1.56 mm, compared to 3.19 and 4.63 mm for two sets of manual insertions. In an in vivo experiment with heartbeat and respiratory effects, robotic system accuracy was 5.5 mm. Conclusions A 3D US-guided robot can eliminate error bias and reduce invasiveness (the number of insertions required) compared to manual needle insertion. Remaining future challenges include target motion compensation. PMID:18433079

  8. Three-Dimensional Transcranial Ultrasound Imaging of Microbubble Clouds Using a Sparse Hemispherical Array

    PubMed Central

    O'Reilly, Meaghan A.; Jones, Ryan M.; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in bubble-mediated focused ultrasound (FUS) interventions in the brain. However, current technology lacks the ability to spatially monitor the interaction of the microbubbles with the applied acoustic field, something which is critical for safe clinical translation of these treatments. Passive acoustic mapping could offer a means for spatially monitoring microbubble emissions that relate to bubble activity and associated bioeffects. In this study a hemispherical receiver array was integrated within an existing transcranial therapy array to create a device capable of both delivering therapy and monitoring the process via passive imaging of bubble clouds. A 128-element receiver array was constructed and characterized for varying bubble concentrations and source spacings. Initial in vivo feasibility testing was performed. The system was found to be capable of monitoring bubble emissions down to single bubble events through an ex vivo human skull. The lateral resolution of the system was found to be between 1.25-2 mm and the axial resolution between 2-3.5 mm, comparable to the resolution of MRI-based temperature monitoring during thermal FUS treatments in the brain. The results of initial in vivo experiments show that bubble activity can be mapped starting at pressure levels below the threshold for Blood-Brain barrier disruption. This study presents a feasible solution for imaging bubble activity during cavitation-mediated FUS treatments in the brain. PMID:24658252

  9. [Biometry and assessment of the levator hiatus by three-dimensional pelvic floor ultrasound].

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, R

    2013-01-01

    Images of the levator hiatus in 40 nulliparous, 40 asymptomatic parous women and 40 women with pelvic organ prolapse were obtained by transperineal/translabial three-dimentional ultrasonography of the pelvic floor. Volumes were taken at rest and during squeezing. Recontructed images of the levator hiatus at the plane of minimal dimentions were obtained by off-line processing of the stored volumes. The transverse, the longitudinal diameter and the area of the levator hiatus were measured at rest and during squeezing in the three groups. Qualitative assessment of the shape and the symmetry of the levator hiatus at rest was made, too. The average hiatal dimentions (transverse, longitudinal diameter and hiatal area) measured at rest in the three groups were: 35.8 mm, 43.1 mm and 11.84 cm2 in the nulliparous; 43.6 mm, 47.1 mm and 15.1 cm2 in the asymptomatic parous women and 50.5 mm, 57.2 mm and 25.8 cm2 in women with pelvic organ prolapse. Nulliparous women achieved the greatest reduction of hiatal area during squeezing (by 21% average). In asymptomatic parous women the hiatal area reduction averaged 12% while in women with pelvic organ prolapse the average reduction was by 4% only. Levator injury was detected in 7.5% of the asymptomatic parous women and in 22.5% of the women with pelvic organ prolapse. Left-sided injuries predominated. Three-dimentional ultrasound provides easy and high-quality imaging of the pubovisceral miscles for the objective assessment of the levator hiatus in static and dynamic conditions. PMID:23807973

  10. Three-dimensional transvaginal tomographic ultrasound imaging for cervical cancer staging.

    PubMed

    Han, Xue-Song; Ning, Chun-Ping; Sun, Li-Tao; Li, Xiao-Ying; Peng, Yan-Qing; Dang, Mei-Zheng

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using 3-D transvaginal tomographic ultrasound imaging (TUI) to stage patients with cervical carcinoma. Eighty women with cervical cancer who underwent transvaginal TUI examinations were enrolled. In all patients, cancer was confirmed pre-operatively by pathologic examination. Staging on the basis of clinical features, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging was performed according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system. Clinical, TUI and magnetic resonance imaging staging was compared with that based on histology. Depth of invasion into the stroma was measured by TUI in 52 cases and compared with pathologic results. An interclass correlation coefficient was used to analyze reproducibility. In total, all 80 patients underwent surgical treatment. The accuracy of pre-operative staging, compared with histologic findings, was 92.50% for TUI, 82.50% for magnetic resonance imaging and 78.75% for clinical examination. The mean depth of lesions as measured with TUI was 12.5 ± 6.2 mm (range: 3.5-40.0 mm), and that measured on histology was 10.5 ± 8.0 mm (range: 3.0-40.0 mm). The interclass correlation coefficient of the two methods was 0.933 (95% confidence interval: 0.887-0.961). Pre-operative TUI is promising as a method for pre-operative staging of cervical carcinomas. TUI can also reliably assess lesion depth. PMID:26070421

  11. Quantitative Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Analysis of Tongue Protrusion, Grooving and Symmetry: Data from 12 Normal Speakers and a Partial Glossectomee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressmann, Tim; Thind, Parveen; Uy, Catherine; Bollig, Carmen; Gilbert, Ralph W.; Irish, Jonathan C.

    2005-01-01

    The functional determinants for a good speech outcome after a partial tongue resection and reconstruction are not well established. The purpose of the present study was to assess the protrusion, grooving and symmetry of the tongue during sustained speech sound production using three-dimensional ultrasound. The participants were twelve normal…

  12. Incorporating texture features in a computer-aided breast lesion diagnosis system for automated three-dimensional breast ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haixia; Tan, Tao; van Zelst, Jan; Mann, Ritse; Karssemeijer, Nico; Platel, Bram

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We investigated the benefits of incorporating texture features into an existing computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for classifying benign and malignant lesions in automated three-dimensional breast ultrasound images. The existing system takes into account 11 different features, describing different lesion properties; however, it does not include texture features. In this work, we expand the system by including texture features based on local binary patterns, gray level co-occurrence matrices, and Gabor filters computed from each lesion to be diagnosed. To deal with the resulting large number of features, we proposed a combination of feature-oriented classifiers combining each group of texture features into a single likelihood, resulting in three additional features used for the final classification. The classification was performed using support vector machine classifiers, and the evaluation was done with 10-fold cross validation on a dataset containing 424 lesions (239 benign and 185 malignant lesions). We compared the classification performance of the CAD system with and without texture features. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve increased from 0.90 to 0.91 after adding texture features (p<0.001). PMID:26158036

  13. Incorporating texture features in a computer-aided breast lesion diagnosis system for automated three-dimensional breast ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haixia; Tan, Tao; van Zelst, Jan; Mann, Ritse; Karssemeijer, Nico; Platel, Bram

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the benefits of incorporating texture features into an existing computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system for classifying benign and malignant lesions in automated three-dimensional breast ultrasound images. The existing system takes into account 11 different features, describing different lesion properties; however, it does not include texture features. In this work, we expand the system by including texture features based on local binary patterns, gray level co-occurrence matrices, and Gabor filters computed from each lesion to be diagnosed. To deal with the resulting large number of features, we proposed a combination of feature-oriented classifiers combining each group of texture features into a single likelihood, resulting in three additional features used for the final classification. The classification was performed using support vector machine classifiers, and the evaluation was done with 10-fold cross validation on a dataset containing 424 lesions (239 benign and 185 malignant lesions). We compared the classification performance of the CAD system with and without texture features. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve increased from 0.90 to 0.91 after adding texture features ([Formula: see text]). PMID:26158036

  14. A three dimensional model of an ultrasound contrast agent gas bubble and its mechanical effects on microvessels

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinkhah, N.; Hynynen, K.

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents inside a microvessel, when driven by ultrasound, oscillate and induce mechanical stresses on the vessel wall. These mechanical stresses can produce beneficial therapeutic effects but also induce vessel rupture if the stresses are too high. Therefore, it is important to use sufficiently low pressure amplitudes to avoid rupturing the vessels while still inducing the desired therapeutic effects. In this work, we developed a comprehensive three dimensional model of a confined microbubble inside a vessel while considering the bubble shell properties, blood viscosity, vessel wall curvature and the mechanical properties of the vessel wall. Two bubble models with the assumption of a spherical symmetric bubble and a simple asymmetrical bubble were simulated. This work was validated with previous experimental results and enabled us to evaluate the microbubbles’ behaviour and the resulting mechanical stresses induced on the vessel walls. In this study the fluid shear and circumferential stresses were evaluated as indicators of the mechanical stresses. The effects of acoustical parameters, vessel viscoelasticity and rigidity, vessel/bubble size and off-center bubbles on bubble behaviour and stresses on the vessel were investigated. The fluid shear and circumferential stresses acting on the vessel varied with time and location. As the frequency changed, the microbubble oscillated with the highest amplitude at its resonance frequency which was different from the resonance frequency of an unbound bubble. The bubble resonance frequency increased as the rigidity of a flexible vessel increased. The fluid shear and circumferential stresses peaked at frequencies above the bubble’s resonance frequency. The more rigid the vessels were, the more damped the bubble oscillations. The synergistic effect of acoustic frequency and vessel elasticity had also been investigated, since the circumferential stress showed either an increasing trend or a decreasing one

  15. Three-dimensional sonoembryology.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Bernard; Hafner, Tomislav; Kurjak, Asim; Kupesić, Sanja; Bekavac, Ivanka; Bozek, Tomislav

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound plays an important role in obstetrics, predominantly for assessing fetal anatomy. Presenting volume data in a standard anatomic orientation valuably assists both ultrasonographers and pregnant patients to recognize the anatomy more readily. Three-dimensional ultrasound is advantageous in studying normal embryonic and/or fetal development, as well as providing information for families at risk for specific congenital anomalies by confirming normality. This method offers advantages in assessing the embryo in the first trimester due to its ability to obtain multiplanar images through endovaginal volume acquisition. Rotation allows the systematic review of anatomic structures and early detection of fetal anomalies. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging in vivo compliments pathologic and histologic evaluation of the developing embryo, giving rise to a new term: 3D sonoembryology. Rapid technological development will allow real-time 3D ultrasound to provide improved and expanded patient care on the one side, and increased knowledge of developmental anatomy on the other. PMID:11933658

  16. Spatial-temporal three-dimensional ultrasound plane-by-plane active cavitation mapping for high-intensity focused ultrasound in free field and pulsatile flow.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ting; Hu, Hong; Bai, Chen; Guo, Shifang; Yang, Miao; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2016-07-01

    Cavitation plays important roles in almost all high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applications. However, current two-dimensional (2D) cavitation mapping could only provide cavitation activity in one plane. This study proposed a three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound plane-by-plane active cavitation mapping (3D-UPACM) for HIFU in free field and pulsatile flow. The acquisition of channel-domain raw radio-frequency (RF) data in 3D space was performed by sequential plane-by-plane 2D ultrafast active cavitation mapping. Between two adjacent unit locations, there was a waiting time to make cavitation nuclei distribution of the liquid back to the original state. The 3D cavitation map equivalent to the one detected at one time and over the entire volume could be reconstructed by Marching Cube algorithm. Minimum variance (MV) adaptive beamforming was combined with coherence factor (CF) weighting (MVCF) or compressive sensing (CS) method (MVCS) to process the raw RF data for improved beamforming or more rapid data processing. The feasibility of 3D-UPACM was demonstrated in tap-water and a phantom vessel with pulsatile flow. The time interval between temporal evolutions of cavitation bubble cloud could be several microseconds. MVCF beamformer had a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at 14.17dB higher, lateral and axial resolution at 2.88times and 1.88times, respectively, which were compared with those of B-mode active cavitation mapping. MVCS beamformer had only 14.94% time penalty of that of MVCF beamformer. This 3D-UPACM technique employs the linear array of a current ultrasound diagnosis system rather than a 2D array transducer to decrease the cost of the instrument. Moreover, although the application is limited by the requirement for a gassy fluid medium or a constant supply of new cavitation nuclei that allows replenishment of nuclei between HIFU exposures, this technique may exhibit a useful tool in 3D cavitation mapping for HIFU with high speed, precision and resolution

  17. Pulsed low-intensity ultrasound increases proliferation and extracelluar matrix production by human dermal fibroblasts in three-dimensional culture

    PubMed Central

    Bohari, Siti PM; Grover, Liam M; Hukins, David WL

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of pulsed low-intensity ultrasound on cell proliferation, collagen production and glycosaminoglycan deposition by human dermal fibroblasts encapsulated in alginate. Hoechst 33258 assay for cell number, hydroxyproline assay for collagen content, dimethylmethylene blue assay for glycosaminoglycan content and scanning electron microscopy were performed on the encapsulated cells treated with pulsed low-intensity ultrasound and a control group that remained untreated. Pulsed low-intensity ultrasound showed a significant effect on cell proliferation and collagen deposition but no consistent pattern for glycosaminoglycan content. Alcian blue staining showed that glycosaminoglycans were deposited around the cells in both treated and control groups. These results suggest that pulsed low-intensity ultrasound alone shows a positive effect on cell proliferation and collagen deposition even without growth factor supplements. PMID:26668710

  18. Three-dimensional, extended field-of-view ultrasound method for estimating large strain mechanical properties of the cervix during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    House, Michael; Feltovich, Helen; Hall, Timothy J; Stack, Trevor; Patel, Atur; Socrate, Simona

    2012-01-01

    Cervical shortening and cervical insufficiency contribute to a significant number of preterm births. However, the deformation mechanisms that control how the cervix changes its shape from long and closed to short and dilated are not clear. Investigation of the biomechanical problem is limited by (1) lack of thorough characterization of the three-dimensional anatomical changes associated with cervical deformation and (2) difficulty measuring cervical tissue properties in vivo. The objective of the present study was to explore the feasibility of using three-dimensional ultrasound and fundal pressure to obtain anatomically-accurate numerical models of large-strain cervical deformation during pregnancy and enable noninvasive assessment of cervical-tissue compliance. Healthy subjects (n = 6) and one subject with acute cervical insufficiency in the midtrimester were studied. Extended field-of-view ultrasound images were obtained of the entire uterus and cervix. These images aided construction of anatomically accurate numerical models. Cervical loading was achieved with fundal pressure, which was quantified with a vaginal pressure catheter. In one subject, the anatomical response to fundal pressure was matched by a model-based simulation of the deformation response, thereby deriving the corresponding cervical mechanical properties and showing the feasibility of noninvasive assessment of compliance. The results of this pilot study demonstrate the feasibility of a biomechanical modeling framework for estimating cervical mechanical properties in vivo. An improved understanding of cervical biomechanical function will clarify the pathophysiology of cervical shortening. PMID:22655487

  19. A three-dimensional, extended field of view ultrasound method for estimating large strain mechanical properties of the cervix during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    House, Michael; Feltovich, Helen; Hall, Timothy J; Stack, Trevor; Patel, Atur; Socrate, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Cervical shortening and cervical insufficiency contribute to a significant number of preterm births. However, the deformation mechanisms that control how the cervix changes its shape from long and closed to short and dilated are not clear. Investigation of the biomechanical problem is limited by 1) lack of thorough characterization of the three-dimensional anatomical changes associated with cervical deformation and 2) difficulty measuring cervical tissue properties in vivo. The objective of the present study was to explore the feasibility of using three-dimensional ultrasound and fundal pressure to obtain anatomically accurate numerical models of large-strain cervical deformation during pregnancy and enable non-invasive assessment of cervical tissue compliance. Healthy subjects (n=6) and one subject with acute cervical insufficiency in the midtrimester were studied. Extended field of view ultrasound images were obtained of the entire uterus and cervix. These images aided construction of anatomically accurate numerical models. Cervical loading was achieved with fundal pressure, which was quantified with a vaginal pressure catheter. In one subject, the anatomical response to fundal pressure was matched by a model-based simulation of the deformation response, thereby deriving the corresponding cervical mechanical properties and showing the feasibility of non-invasive assessment of compliance. The results of this pilot study demonstrate the feasibility of a biomechanical modeling framework for estimating cervical mechanical properties in vivo. An improved understanding of cervical biomechanical function will clarify the pathophysiology of cervical shortening. PMID:22655487

  20. Quantifying the Effects of Radiation on Tumour Vasculature with High-Frequency Three-Dimensional Power Doppler Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hupple, Clinton

    Recent evidence suggests that radiation may have a significant effect on tumour vasculature in addition to damaging tumour cell DNA. It is well established that endothelial cells are among the first cells to respond after administration of ionizing radiation in both normal and tumour tissues. It has also been suggested that microvascular dysfunction may regulate tumour response to radiotherapy at high doses. However, due to limitations in imaging the microcirculation this response is not well characterized. Advances in high-frequency ultrasound and computation methods now make it possible to acquire and analyze 3-D ultrasound data of tumour blood flow in tumour microcirculation. This thesis outlines the work done to test the hypothesis that single dose 8 Gy radiotherapy produces changes in tumour blood vessels which can be quantified using high-frequency power Doppler ultrasound. In addition, the issue of reproducibility of power Doppler measurements and the relationship between histopathology and power Doppler measurements have been examined.

  1. Image reconstruction and system optimization for three-dimensional speed of sound tomography using laser-induced ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anis, Fatima; Su, Richard; Nadvoretsky, Vyacheslav V.; Conjusteau, André; Ermilov, Sergey A.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2013-03-01

    We developed the first prototype of dual-modality imager combining optoacoustic tomography (OAT) and laser ultrasound tomography (UST) using computer models followed by experimental validation. The system designed for preclinical biomedical research can concurrently yield images depicting both the absorbed optical energy density and acoustic properties (speed of sound) of an object. In our design of the UST imager, we seek to replace conventional electrical generation of ultrasound waves by laser-induced ultrasound (LU). While earlier studies yielded encouraging results [Manohar, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett, 131911, 2007], they were limited to two-dimensional (2D) geometries. In this work, we conduct computer-simulation studies to investigate different designs for the 3D LU UST imager. The number and location of the laser ultrasound emitters, which are constrained to reside on the cylindrical surface opposite to the arc of detectors, are optimized. In addition to the system parameters, an iterative image reconstruction algorithm was optimized. We demonstrate that high quality volumetric maps of the speed of sound can be reconstructed when only 32 emitters and 128 receiving transducers are employed to record time-of-flight data at 360 tomographic view angles. The implications of the proposed system for small animal and breast-cancer imaging are discussed.

  2. Three-dimensional finite element modeling of guided ultrasound wave propagation in intact and healing long bones.

    PubMed

    Protopappas, Vasilios C; Kourtis, Iraklis C; Kourtis, Lampros C; Malizos, Konstantinos N; Massalas, Christos V; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2007-06-01

    The use of guided waves has recently drawn significant interest in the ultrasonic characterization of bone aiming at supplementing the information provided by traditional velocity measurements. This work presents a three-dimensional finite element study of guided wave propagation in intact and healing bones. A model of the fracture callus was constructed and the healing course was simulated as a three-stage process. The dispersion of guided modes generated by a broadband 1-MHz excitation was represented in the time-frequency domain. Wave propagation in the intact bone model was first investigated and comparisons were then made with a simplified geometry using analytical dispersion curves of the tube modes. Then, the effect of callus consolidation on the propagation characteristics was examined. It was shown that the dispersion of guided waves was significantly influenced by the irregularity and anisotropy of the bone. Also, guided waves were sensitive to material and geometrical changes that take place during healing. Conversely, when the first-arriving signal at the receiver corresponded to a nondispersive lateral wave, its propagation velocity was almost unaffected by the elastic symmetry and geometry of the bone and also could not characterize the callus tissue throughout its thickness. In conclusion, guided waves can enhance the capabilities of ultrasonic evaluation. PMID:17552737

  3. Prenatal Diagnosis of Lissencephaly Type 2 using Three-dimensional Ultrasound and Fetal MRI: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Tonni, Gabriele; Pattacini, Pierpaolo; Bonasoni, Maria Paola; Araujo Júnior, Edward

    2016-04-01

    Lissencephaly is a genetic heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the classical triad: brain malformations, eye anomalies, and congenital muscular dystrophy. Prenatal diagnosis is feasible by demonstrating abnormal development of sulci and gyri. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may enhance detection of developmental cortical disorders as well as ocular anomalies. We describe a case of early diagnosis of lissencephaly type 2 detected at the time of routine second trimester scan by three-dimensional ultrasound and fetal MRI. Gross pathology confirmed the accuracy of the prenatal diagnosis while histology showed the typical feature of cobblestone cortex. As the disease is associated with poor perinatal prognosis, early and accurate prenatal diagnosis is important for genetic counseling and antenatal care. PMID:27088705

  4. Thermoacoustic range verification using a clinical ultrasound array provides perfectly co-registered overlay of the Bragg peak onto an ultrasound image.

    PubMed

    Patch, S K; Kireeff Covo, M; Jackson, A; Qadadha, Y M; Campbell, K S; Albright, R A; Bloemhard, P; Donoghue, A P; Siero, C R; Gimpel, T L; Small, S M; Ninemire, B F; Johnson, M B; Phair, L

    2016-08-01

    The potential of particle therapy due to focused dose deposition in the Bragg peak has not yet been fully realized due to inaccuracies in range verification. The purpose of this work was to correlate the Bragg peak location with target structure, by overlaying the location of the Bragg peak onto a standard ultrasound image. Pulsed delivery of 50 MeV protons was accomplished by a fast chopper installed between the ion source and the cyclotron inflector. The chopper limited the train of bunches so that 2 Gy were delivered in [Formula: see text]. The ion pulse generated thermoacoustic pulses that were detected by a cardiac ultrasound array, which also produced a grayscale ultrasound image. A filtered backprojection algorithm focused the received signal to the Bragg peak location with perfect co-registration to the ultrasound images. Data was collected in a room temperature water bath and gelatin phantom with a cavity designed to mimic the intestine, in which gas pockets can displace the Bragg peak. Phantom experiments performed with the cavity both empty and filled with olive oil confirmed that displacement of the Bragg peak due to anatomical change could be detected. Thermoacoustic range measurements in the waterbath agreed with Monte Carlo simulation within 1.2 mm. In the phantom, thermoacoustic range estimates and first-order range estimates from CT images agreed to within 1.5 mm. PMID:27385261

  5. Thermoacoustic range verification using a clinical ultrasound array provides perfectly co-registered overlay of the Bragg peak onto an ultrasound image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patch, S. K.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Jackson, A.; Qadadha, Y. M.; Campbell, K. S.; Albright, R. A.; Bloemhard, P.; Donoghue, A. P.; Siero, C. R.; Gimpel, T. L.; Small, S. M.; Ninemire, B. F.; Johnson, M. B.; Phair, L.

    2016-08-01

    The potential of particle therapy due to focused dose deposition in the Bragg peak has not yet been fully realized due to inaccuracies in range verification. The purpose of this work was to correlate the Bragg peak location with target structure, by overlaying the location of the Bragg peak onto a standard ultrasound image. Pulsed delivery of 50 MeV protons was accomplished by a fast chopper installed between the ion source and the cyclotron inflector. The chopper limited the train of bunches so that 2 Gy were delivered in 2 μ \\text{s} . The ion pulse generated thermoacoustic pulses that were detected by a cardiac ultrasound array, which also produced a grayscale ultrasound image. A filtered backprojection algorithm focused the received signal to the Bragg peak location with perfect co-registration to the ultrasound images. Data was collected in a room temperature water bath and gelatin phantom with a cavity designed to mimic the intestine, in which gas pockets can displace the Bragg peak. Phantom experiments performed with the cavity both empty and filled with olive oil confirmed that displacement of the Bragg peak due to anatomical change could be detected. Thermoacoustic range measurements in the waterbath agreed with Monte Carlo simulation within 1.2 mm. In the phantom, thermoacoustic range estimates and first-order range estimates from CT images agreed to within 1.5 mm.

  6. A Robotic Ultrasound Scanner for Automatic Vessel Tracking and Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of B-Mode Images.

    PubMed

    Merouche, Samir; Allard, Louise; Montagnon, Emmanuel; Soulez, Gilles; Bigras, Pascal; Cloutier, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Locating and evaluating the length and severity of a stenosis is very important for planning adequate treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Conventional ultrasound (US) examination cannot provide maps of entire lower limb arteries in 3-D. We propose a prototype 3D-US robotic system with B-mode images, which is nonionizing, noninvasive, and is able to track and reconstruct a continuous segment of the lower limb arterial tree between the groin and the knee. From an initialized cross-sectional view of the vessel, automatic tracking was conducted followed by 3D-US reconstructions evaluated using Hausdorff distance, cross-sectional area, and stenosis severity in comparison with 3-D reconstructions with computed tomography angiography (CTA). A mean Hausdorff distance of 0.97 ± 0.46 mm was found in vitro for 3D-US compared with 3D-CTA vessel representations. To evaluate the stenosis severity in vitro, 3D-US reconstructions gave errors of 3%-6% when compared with designed dimensions of the phantom, which are comparable to 3D-CTA reconstructions, with 4%-13% errors. The in vivo system's feasibility to reconstruct a normal femoral artery segment of a volunteer was also investigated. These results encourage further ergonomic developments to increase the robot's capacity to represent lower limb vessels in the clinical context. PMID:26571522

  7. Three dimensional level set based semiautomatic segmentation of atherosclerotic carotid artery wall volume using 3D ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Md. Murad; AlMuhanna, Khalid; Zhao, Limin; Lal, Brajesh K.; Sikdar, Siddhartha

    2014-03-01

    3D segmentation of carotid plaque from ultrasound (US) images is challenging due to image artifacts and poor boundary definition. Semiautomatic segmentation algorithms for calculating vessel wall volume (VWV) have been proposed for the common carotid artery (CCA) but they have not been applied on plaques in the internal carotid artery (ICA). In this work, we describe a 3D segmentation algorithm that is robust to shadowing and missing boundaries. Our algorithm uses distance regularized level set method with edge and region based energy to segment the adventitial wall boundary (AWB) and lumen-intima boundary (LIB) of plaques in the CCA, ICA and external carotid artery (ECA). The algorithm is initialized by manually placing points on the boundary of a subset of transverse slices with an interslice distance of 4mm. We propose a novel user defined stopping surface based energy to prevent leaking of evolving surface across poorly defined boundaries. Validation was performed against manual segmentation using 3D US volumes acquired from five asymptomatic patients with carotid stenosis using a linear 4D probe. A pseudo gold-standard boundary was formed from manual segmentation by three observers. The Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), Hausdor distance (HD) and modified HD (MHD) were used to compare the algorithm results against the pseudo gold-standard on 1205 cross sectional slices of 5 3D US image sets. The algorithm showed good agreement with the pseudo gold standard boundary with mean DSC of 93.3% (AWB) and 89.82% (LIB); mean MHD of 0.34 mm (AWB) and 0.24 mm (LIB); mean HD of 1.27 mm (AWB) and 0.72 mm (LIB). The proposed 3D semiautomatic segmentation is the first step towards full characterization of 3D plaque progression and longitudinal monitoring.

  8. To assess the reparative ability of differentiated mesenchymal stem cells in a rat critical size bone repair defect model using high frequency co-registered photoacoustic/ultrasound imaging and micro computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafar, Haroon; Gaynard, Sean; O'Flatharta, Cathal; Doroshenkova, Tatiana; Devine, Declan; Sharif, Faisal; Barry, Frank; Hayes, Jessica; Murphy, Mary; Leahy, Martin J.

    2016-03-01

    Stem cell based treatments hold great potential and promise to address many unmet clinical needs. The importance of non-invasive imaging techniques to monitor transplanted stem cells qualitatively and quantitatively is crucial. The objective of this study was to create a critical size bone defect in the rat femur and then assess the ability of the differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to repair the defect using high frequency co-registered photoacoustic(PA)/ultrasound(US) imaging and micro computed tomography (μCT) over an 8 week period. Combined PA and US imaging was performed using 256 elements, 21 MHz frequency linear-array transducer combined with multichannel collecting system. In vivo 3D PA and US images of the defect bone in the rat femur were acquired after 4 and 8 weeks of the surgery. 3D co-registered structural such as microvasculature and the functional images such as total concentration of haemoglobin (HbT) and the haemoglobin oxygen saturation (sO2) were obtained using PA and US imaging. Bone formation was assessed after 4 and 8 weeks of the surgery by μCT. High frequency linear-array based coregistered PA/US imaging has been found promising in terms of non-invasiveness, sensitivity, adaptability, high spatial and temporal resolution at sufficient depths for the assessment of the reparative ability of MSCs in a rat critical size bone repair defect model.

  9. Relationship between Plasma D-Dimer Concentration and Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Placental Volume in Women at Risk for Placental Vascular Diseases: A Monocentric Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Fanget, Cécile; Chauleur, Céline; Stadler, Amandine; Presles, Emilie; Varlet, Marie-Noëlle; Gris, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to correlate placental volumes deduced from three-dimensional ultrasound and virtual organ computer-aided analysis (VOCAL) software with systemic concentrations of D-dimer and soluble endothelial protein C receptor (sEPCR). Methods This was a monocentric experimental prospective study conducted from October 2008 to July 2009. Forty consecutive patients at risk of placental vascular pathology (PVP) recurrence or occurrence were included. Placental volumes were systematically measured three times (11–14, 16–18 and 20–22 weeks of gestation (WG)) by two independent sonographers. D-dimers and sEPCR plasma concentrations were measured using ELISA kits (Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay). Results Eleven patients had a PVP. The plasma D-dimer level was positively correlated with placental volume (r = 0.45, p < 0.001). A smaller placental volume and placental quotient was evidenced in women who developed a PVP at the three gestational ages, and the difference was more pronounced during the third exam (20 WG). No obvious correlation could be demonstrated between the development of a PVP and the levels of D-dimer and sEPCR. There was no significant difference in the values of placental volumes measured by the two sonographers. Conclusion The placenta growth could be a major determinant of the elevation of D-dimer during pregnancy. Consideration of placental volume could allow for modulation of the D-dimer concentrations for restoring their clinical interest. PMID:27294274

  10. Manual landmark identification and tracking during the medial rotation test of the shoulder: an accuracy study using three-dimensional ultrasound and motion analysis measures.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, D; Morrissey, M C; Driver, W; King, J B; Woledge, R C

    2008-12-01

    Palpation of movement is a common clinical tool for assessment of movement in patients with musculoskeletal symptoms. The purpose of this study was to measure the accuracy of palpation of shoulder girdle translation during the medial rotation test (MRT) of the shoulder. The translation of the gleno-humeral and scapulo-thoracic joints was measured using both three-dimensional ultrasound and palpation in order to determine the accuracy of translation tracking during the MRT of the shoulder. Two movements of 11 normal subjects (mean age 24 (SD=4), range 19-47 years) were measured. The agreement between measures was good for scapulo-thoracic translation (r=0.83). Gleno-humeral translation was systematically under estimated (p=0.03) although moderate correlation was found (r=0.65). These results indicate that translation of the measured joints can be tracked by palpation and further tests of the efficacy of palpation tracking during musculoskeletal assessment may be warranted. PMID:18359266

  11. Tissue ablation after 120W greenlight laser vaporization and bipolar plasma vaporization of the prostate: a comparison using transrectal three-dimensional ultrasound volumetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kranzbühler, Benedikt; Gross, Oliver; Fankhauser, Christian D.; Hefermehl, Lukas J.; Poyet, Cédric; Largo, Remo; Müntener, Michael; Seifert, Hans-Helge; Zimmermann, Matthias; Sulser, Tullio; Müller, Alexander; Hermanns, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Introduction and objectives: Greenlight laser vaporization (LV) of the prostate is characterized by simultaneous vaporization and coagulation of prostatic tissue resulting in tissue ablation together with excellent hemostasis during the procedure. It has been reported that bipolar plasma vaporization (BPV) of the prostate might be an alternative for LV. So far, it has not been shown that BPV is as effective as LV in terms of tissue ablation or hemostasis. We performed transrectal three-dimensional ultrasound investigations to compare the efficiency of tissue ablation between LV and BPV. Methods: Between 11.2009 and 5.2011, 50 patients underwent pure BPV in our institution. These patients were matched with regard to the pre-operative prostate volume to 50 LV patients from our existing 3D-volumetry-database. Transrectal 3D ultrasound and planimetric volumetry of the prostate were performed pre-operatively, after catheter removal, 6 weeks and 6 months. Results: Median pre-operative prostate volume was not significantly different between the two groups (45.3ml vs. 45.4ml; p=1.0). After catheter removal, median absolute volume reduction (BPV 12.4ml, LV 6.55ml) as well as relative volume reduction (27.8% vs. 16.4%) were significantly higher in the BPV group (p<0.001). After six weeks (42.9% vs. 33.3%) and six months (47.2% vs. 39.7%), relative volume reduction remained significantly higher in the BPV group (p<0.001). Absolute volume reduction was non-significantly higher in the BPV group after six weeks (18.4ml, 13.8ml; p=0.051) and six months (20.8ml, 18ml; p=0.3). Clinical outcome parameters improved significantly in both groups without relevant differences between the groups. Conclusions: Both vaporization techniques result in efficient tissue ablation with initial prostatic swelling. BPV seems to be superior due to a higher relative volume reduction. This difference had no clinical impact after a follow-up of 6M.

  12. Atherosclerotic coronary lesions with inadequate compensatory enlargement have smaller plaque and vessel volumes: observations with three dimensional intravascular ultrasound in vivo

    PubMed Central

    von Birgelen, C; Mintz, G; de Vrey, E A; Kimura, T; Popma, J; Airiian, S; Leon, M; Nobuyoshi, M; Serruys, P; de Feyter, P J

    1998-01-01

    Objective—To compare vessel, lumen, and plaque volumes in atherosclerotic coronary lesions with inadequate compensatory enlargement versus lesions with adequate compensatory enlargement.
Design—35 angiographically significant coronary lesions were examined by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) during motorised transducer pullback. Segments 20 mm in length were analysed using a validated automated three dimensional analysis system. IVUS was used to classify lesions as having inadequate (group I) or adequate (group II) compensatory enlargement.
Results—There was no significant difference in quantitative angiographic measurements and the IVUS minimum lumen cross sectional area between groups I (n = 15) and II (n = 20). In group I, the vessel cross sectional area was 13.3 (3.0) mm2 at the lesion site and 14.4 (3.6) mm2 at the distal reference (p < 0.01), whereas in group II it was 17.5 (5.6) mm2 at the lesion site and 14.0 (6.0) mm2 at the distal reference (p < 0.001). Vessel and plaque cross sectional areas were significantly smaller in group I than in group II (13.3 (3.0) v 17.5 (5.6) mm2, p < 0.01; and 10.9 (2.8) v 15.2 (4.9) mm2, p < 0.005). Similarly, vessel and plaque volume were smaller in group I (291.0 (61.0) v 353.7 (110.0) mm3, and 177.5 (48.4) v 228.0 (92.8) mm3, p < 0.05 for both). Lumen areas and volumes were similar.
Conclusions—In lesions with inadequate compensatory enlargement, both vessel and plaque volume appear to be smaller than in lesions with adequate compensatory enlargement.

 Keywords: intravascular ultrasound;  ultrasonics;  remodelling;  coronary artery disease PMID:9538305

  13. Accuracy of Ultrasound-Based (BAT) Prostate-Repositioning: A Three-Dimensional On-Line Fiducial-Based Assessment With Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Boda-Heggemann, Judit Koehler, Frederick Marc; Kuepper, Beate; Wolff, Dirk; Wertz, Hansjoerg; Mai, Sabine; Hesser, Juergen; Lohr, Frank; Wenz, Frederik

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of ultrasound-based repositioning (BAT) before prostate radiation with fiducial-based three-dimensional matching with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Patients and Methods: Fifty-four positionings in 8 patients with {sup 125}I seeds/intraprostatic calcifications as fiducials were evaluated. Patients were initially positioned according to skin marks and after this according to bony structures based on CBCT. Prostate position correction was then performed with BAT. Residual error after repositioning based on skin marks, bony anatomy, and BAT was estimated by a second CBCT based on user-independent automatic fiducial registration. Results: Overall mean value (MV {+-} SD) residual error after BAT based on fiducial registration by CBCT was 0.7 {+-} 1.7 mm in x (group systematic error [M] = 0.5 mm; SD of systematic error [{sigma}] = 0.8 mm; SD of random error [{sigma}] = 1.4 mm), 0.9 {+-} 3.3 mm in y (M = 0.5 mm, {sigma} = 2.2 mm, {sigma} = 2.8 mm), and -1.7 {+-} 3.4 mm in z (M = -1.7 mm, {sigma} = 2.3 mm, {sigma} = 3.0 mm) directions, whereas residual error relative to positioning based on skin marks was 2.1 {+-} 4.6 mm in x (M = 2.6 mm, {sigma} = 3.3 mm, {sigma} = 3.9 mm), -4.8 {+-} 8.5 mm in y (M = -4.4 mm, {sigma} = 3.7 mm, {sigma} = 6.7 mm), and -5.2 {+-} 3.6 mm in z (M = -4.8 mm, {sigma} = 1.7 mm, {sigma} = 3.5mm) directions and relative to positioning based on bony anatomy was 0 {+-} 1.8 mm in x (M = 0.2 mm, {sigma} = 0.9 mm, {sigma} = 1.1 mm), -3.5 {+-} 6.8 mm in y (M = -3.0 mm, {sigma} = 1.8 mm, {sigma} = 3.7 mm), and -1.9 {+-} 5.2 mm in z (M = -2.0 mm, {sigma} = 1.3 mm, {sigma} = 4.0 mm) directions. Conclusions: BAT improved the daily repositioning accuracy over skin marks or even bony anatomy. The results obtained with BAT are within the precision of extracranial stereotactic procedures and represent values that can be achieved with several users with different education levels. If sonographic visibility is insufficient

  14. A CT-ultrasound-coregistered augmented reality enhanced image-guided surgery system and its preliminary study on brain-shift estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C. H.; Hsieh, C. H.; Lee, J. D.; Huang, W. C.; Lee, S. T.; Wu, C. T.; Sun, Y. N.; Wu, Y. T.

    2012-08-01

    With the combined view on the physical space and the medical imaging data, augmented reality (AR) visualization can provide perceptive advantages during image-guided surgery (IGS). However, the imaging data are usually captured before surgery and might be different from the up-to-date one due to natural shift of soft tissues. This study presents an AR-enhanced IGS system which is capable to correct the movement of soft tissues from the pre-operative CT images by using intra-operative ultrasound images. First, with reconstructing 2-D free-hand ultrasound images to 3-D volume data, the system applies a Mutual-Information based registration algorithm to estimate the deformation between pre-operative and intra-operative ultrasound images. The estimated deformation transform describes the movement of soft tissues and is then applied to the pre-operative CT images which provide high-resolution anatomical information. As a result, the system thus displays the fusion of the corrected CT images or the real-time 2-D ultrasound images with the patient in the physical space through a head mounted display device, providing an immersive augmented-reality environment. For the performance validation of the proposed system, a brain phantom was utilized to simulate brain-shift scenario. Experimental results reveal that when the shift of an artificial tumor is from 5mm ~ 12mm, the correction rates can be improved from 32% ~ 45% to 87% ~ 95% by using the proposed system.

  15. Dynamic Three-Dimensional Echocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsusaka, Katsuhiko; Doi, Motonori; Oshiro, Osamu; Chihara, Kunihiro

    2000-08-01

    Conventional three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging equipment for diagnosis requires much time to reconstruct 3D images or fix the view point for observing the 3D image. Thus, it is inconvenient for cardiac diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a new dynamic 3D echocardiography system. The system produces 3D images in real-time and permits changes in view point. This system consists of ultrasound diagnostic equipment, a digitizer and a computer. B-mode images are projected to a virtual 3D space by referring to the position of the probe of the ultrasound diagnosis equipment. The position is obtained by the digitizer to which the ultrasound probe is attached. The 3D cardiac image is constructed from B-mode images obtained simultaneously in the cardiac cycle. To obtain the same moment of heartbeat in the cardiac cycle, this system uses the electrocardiography derived from the diagnosis equipment. The 3D images, which show various scenes of the stage of heartbeat action, are displayed sequentially. The doctor can observe 3D images cut in any plane by pushing a button of the digitizer and zooming with the keyboard. We evaluated our prototype system by observation of a mitral valve in motion.

  16. Three-dimensional photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopic imaging of two rabbit esophagi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Joon-Mo; Favazza, Christopher P.; Yao, Junjie; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. K.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-03-01

    The addition of photoacoustic endoscopy to conventional endoscopic ultrasound offers imaging capabilities that may improve diagnosis and clinical care of gastrointestinal tract diseases. In this study, using a 3.8-mm diameter dual-mode photoacoustic and ultrasonic endoscopic probe, we investigated photoacoustic and ultrasonic image features of rabbit esophagi. Specifically, we performed ex vivo imaging of intact rabbit esophagi and correlated the acquired images with histology. Without motion artifact-based limitations, we were able to utilize the full resolving power of the endoscopic device and acquire the first three-dimensional vasculature map of the esophagus and mediastinum, along with coregistered tissue density information. Here, we present the experimental results and discuss potential clinical applications of the technique.

  17. Dynamic three-dimensional echocardiographic imaging of congenital heart defects in infants and children by computer-controlled tomographic parallel slicing using a single integrated ultrasound instrument.

    PubMed

    Fulton, D R; Marx, G R; Pandian, N G; Romero, B A; Mumm, B; Krauss, M; Wollschläger, H; Ludomirsky, A; Cao, Q L

    1994-03-01

    Three-dimensional cardiac reconstruction generated from transesophageal interrogation can be performed using an integrated unit that captures, processes, and postprocesses tomographic parallel slices of the heart. This probe was used for infants and young children in the transthoracic position to evaluate the feasibility of producing three-dimensional cardiac images with capability for real-time dynamic display. Twenty-two infants and children (range 1 day-3.5 years) underwent image acquisition using a 16 mm 5 MHz 64 element probe placed over the precordium. Two infants were also imaged from the subcostal position. Data was obtained and stored over a single cardiac cycle after acceptable cardiac and respiratory gating intervals were met. The transducer was advanced in 0.5-1 mm increments over the cardiac structures using identical acquisition criteria. The images were reconstructed from the stored digital cubic format and could be oriented in any desired plane. In 9 of the 22 infants the images obtained were of optimal quality. The images obtained displayed normal cardiac structures emphasizing depth relationships as well as visualization of planes not generally demonstrated by two-dimensional imaging. Several lesions were also depicted in a unique fashion using this technique. Though the method employed was limited by movement artifact and reconstruction time, the quality of the three-dimensional display was excellent and enhanced by real-time demonstration. The transthoracic approach was successful in capturing sufficient data to create three-dimensional images, which may have further application in more accurate diagnosis of complex cardiac abnormalities and generation of planes of view which could duplicate surgical visualization of a lesion. Further assessment of the technique in infants with congenital heart disease is warranted. PMID:10146717

  18. [Cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy: diagnosis with 2D, three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound and 3D power doppler of a case and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Pavlova, E; Gunev, D; Diavolov, V; Slavchev, B

    2013-01-01

    Cesarean scar pregnancy is rare type of ectopic pregnancy. It is associated with severe complication if it is not diagnosed early in pregnancy. We present a case of difficult first-trimester diagnosis of Cesarean scar pregnancy. In this paper we discuss the incidence of this condition, the antenatal diagnosis, the prognosis and management and the importance of 2D and 3D ultrasound technique as a diagnostic tool. PMID:24501880

  19. Three-dimensional metamaterials

    DOEpatents

    Burckel, David Bruce

    2012-06-12

    A fabrication method is capable of creating canonical metamaterial structures arrayed in a three-dimensional geometry. The method uses a membrane suspended over a cavity with predefined pattern as a directional evaporation mask. Metallic and/or dielectric material can be evaporated at high vacuum through the patterned membrane to deposit resonator structures on the interior walls of the cavity, thereby providing a unit cell of micron-scale dimension. The method can produce volumetric metamaterial structures comprising layers of such unit cells of resonator structures.

  20. New Technology-Large-Area Three- Dimensional Surface Profiling Using Only Focused Air-Coupled Ultrasound-Given 1999 R&D 100 Award

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Kautz, Harold E.; Abel, Phillip B.; Whalen, Mike F.; Hendricks, J. Lynne; Bodis, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Surface topography, which significantly affects the performance of many industrial components, is normally measured with diamond-tip profilometry over small areas or with optical scattering methods over larger areas. To develop air-coupled surface profilometry, the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field initiated a Space Act Agreement with Sonix, Inc., through two Glenn programs, the Advanced High Temperature Engine Materials Program (HITEMP) and COMMTECH. The work resulted in quantitative surface topography profiles obtained using only high-frequency, focused ultrasonic pulses in air. The method is nondestructive, noninvasive, and noncontact, and it does not require light-reflective surfaces. Air surface profiling may be desirable when diamond-tip or laserbased methods are impractical, such as over large areas, when a significant depth range is required, or for curved surfaces. When the configuration is optimized, the method is reasonably rapid and all the quantitative analysis facilities are online, including two- and three-dimensional visualization, extreme value filtering (for faulty data), and leveling.

  1. Three-dimensional transcranial ultrasound imaging with bilateral phase aberration correction of multiple isoplanatic patches: A pilot human study with microbubble contrast enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Brooks D.; Nicoletto, Heather A.; Bennett, Ellen R.; Laskowitz, Daniel T.; Smith, Stephen W.

    2013-01-01

    With stroke currently the second-leading cause of death globally, and 87% of all strokes classified as ischemic, the development of a fast, accessible, cost-effective approach for imaging occlusive stroke could have a significant impact on healthcare outcomes and costs. While clinical examination and standard CT alone do not provide adequate information for understanding the complex temporal events that occur during an ischemic stroke, ultrasound imaging is well-suited to the task of examining blood flow dynamics in real-time and may allow for localization of a clot. A prototype bilateral 3D ultrasound imaging system utilizing two matrix array probes on either side of the head allows for correction of skull-induced aberration throughout two entire phased array imaging volumes. We investigated the feasibility of applying this custom correction technique in 5 healthy volunteers with Definity® microbubble contrast enhancement. Subjects were scanned simultaneously via both temporal acoustic windows in 3D color flow mode. The number of color flow voxels above a common threshold increased due to aberration correction in 5/5 subjects, with a mean increase of 33.9%. The percentage of large arteries visualized in 3D color Doppler imaging increased from 46% without aberration correction to 60% with aberration correction. PMID:24239360

  2. Ablative efficiency of lithium triborate laser vaporization and conventional transurethral resection of the prostate: a comparison using transrectal three-dimensional ultrasound volumetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Oliver; Sulser, Tullio; Hefermehl, Lukas J.; Strebel, Daniel D.; Largo, Remo; Mortezavi, Ashkan; Poyet, Cédric; Eberli, Daniel; Zimmermann, Matthias; Müller, Alexander; Michel, Maurice S.; Müntener, Michael; Seifert, Hans-Helge; Hermanns, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Introduction and objectives: It is unknown if tissue ablation following 120W lithium triborate (LBO) laser vaporization (LV) of the prostate is comparable to that following transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Therefore, transrectal 3D-ultrasound volumetry of the prostate was performed to compare the efficiency of tissue ablation between LBO-LV and TURP. Methods: Between 03/2008 and 03/2010 110 patients underwent routine LBO-LV (n=61) or TURP (n=49). Transrectal 3D-ultrasound with planimetric volumetry of the prostate was performed pre-operatively, after catheter removal, 6 weeks and 6 months. Results: Median prostate volume was 52.5ml in the LV group and 46.9ml in the TURP group. After catheter removal, median absolute volume reduction (LV: 7.05ml, TURP: 15.8ml) and relative volume reduction (15.9% vs. 34.2%) were significantly lower in the LV group (p<0.001). After 6 weeks/ 6 months, the relative volume reduction but not the absolute remained significantly lower in the LV group. Conclusions: LBO-LV is an efficient procedure evidenced by an absolute tissue ablation not significantly different to that after TURP. However, TURP seems to be superior due to a higher relative tissue ablation. The differences in tissue ablation had no impact on the early clinical outcome. Delayed volume reduction indicates that prostatic swelling occurs early after LV and then decreases subsequently.

  3. Three Dimensional Dirac Semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaheer, Saad

    2014-03-01

    Dirac points on the Fermi surface of two dimensional graphene are responsible for its unique electronic behavior. One can ask whether any three dimensional materials support similar pseudorelativistic physics in their bulk electronic spectra. This possibility has been investigated theoretically and is now supported by two successful experimental demonstrations reported during the last year. In this talk, I will summarize the various ways in which Dirac semimetals can be realized in three dimensions with primary focus on a specific theory developed on the basis of representations of crystal spacegroups. A three dimensional Dirac (Weyl) semimetal can appear in the presence (absence) of inversion symmetry by tuning parameters to the phase boundary separating a bulk insulating and a topological insulating phase. More generally, we find that specific rules governing crystal symmetry representations of electrons with spin lead to robust Dirac points at high symmetry points in the Brillouin zone. Combining these rules with microscopic considerations identifies six candidate Dirac semimetals. Another method towards engineering Dirac semimetals involves combining crystal symmetry and band inversion. Several candidate materials have been proposed utilizing this mechanism and one of the candidates has been successfully demonstrated as a Dirac semimetal in two independent experiments. Work carried out in collaboration with: Julia A. Steinberg, Steve M. Young, J.C.Y. Teo, C.L. Kane, E.J. Mele and Andrew M. Rappe.

  4. Three dimensional interactive display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) interactive display and method of forming the same, includes a transparent capaciflector (TC) camera formed on a transparent shield layer on the screen surface. A first dielectric layer is formed on the shield layer. A first wire layer is formed on the first dielectric layer. A second dielectric layer is formed on the first wire layer. A second wire layer is formed on the second dielectric layer. Wires on the first wire layer and second wire layer are grouped into groups of parallel wires with a turnaround at one end of each group and a sensor pad at the opposite end. An operational amplifier is connected to each of the sensor pads and the shield pad biases the pads and receives a signal from connected sensor pads in response to intrusion of a probe. The signal is proportional to probe location with respect to the monitor screen.

  5. Three-Dimensional Assessment of Automated Breast Volume Scanner Compared with Handheld Ultrasound in Pre-Operative Breast Invasive Ductal Carcinomas: A Pilot Study of 51 Cases.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chaoli; Wei, Shuping; Xie, Yingdong; Guan, Xiaoxiang; Yang, Bin

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the work described here was to compare the accuracy of conventional handheld ultrasound (HHUS) with that of an automated breast volume scanner (ABVS) in 3-D assessment of pre-operative invasive ductal carcinomas. HHUS and ABVS were used in 51 patients to obtain the largest tumor diameter, tumor volume and tumor surface area. The volumetric measurement was also obtained from ABVS data with medical software. With tumor size and volume on pathology as the gold standard, Bland-Altman analysis was used to compare variability. Correlation coefficients and receiver operating characteristic curves were established for all measurements for T2 classification. The correlation coefficients of all ABVS measurements were stronger than those of HHUS measurements, with the ABVS volumetric measurement significantly different with a higher accuracy of 88.24% (45/51) and predicting T-classification with higher area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (0.936). Therefore, 3-D measurements provide stronger correlations with pathology in tumor size measurement. However, more clinical trials are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:27339762

  6. Backward-mode multiwavelength photoacoustic scanner using a planar Fabry-Perot polymer film ultrasound sensor for high-resolution three-dimensional imaging of biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Edward; Laufer, Jan; Beard, Paul

    2008-02-01

    A multiwavelength backward-mode planar photoacoustic scanner for 3D imaging of soft tissues to depths of several millimeters with a spatial resolution in the tens to hundreds of micrometers range is described. The system comprises a tunable optical parametric oscillator laser system that provides nanosecond laser pulses between 600 and 1200 nm for generating the photoacoustic signals and an optical ultrasound mapping system based upon a Fabry-Perot polymer film sensor for detecting them. The system enables photoacoustic signals to be mapped in 2D over a 50 mm diameter aperture in steps of 10 μm with an optically defined element size of 64 μm. Two sensors were used, one with a 22 μm thick polymer film spacer and the other with a 38 μm thick spacer providing -3 dB acoustic bandwidths of 39 and 22 MHz, respectively. The measured noise equivalent pressure of the 38 μm sensor was 0.21 kPa over a 20 MHz measurement bandwidth. The instrument line-spread function (LSF) was measured as a function of position and the minimum lateral and vertical LSFs found to be 38 and 15 μm, respectively. To demonstrate the ability of the system to provide high-resolution 3D images, a range of absorbing objects were imaged. Among these was a blood vessel phantom that comprised a network of blood filled tubes of diameters ranging from 62 to 300 μm immersed in an optically scattering liquid. In addition, to demonstrate the applicability of the system to spectroscopic imaging, a phantom comprising tubes filled with dyes of different spectral characteristics was imaged at a range of wavelengths. It is considered that this type of instrument may provide a practicable alternative to piezoelectric-based photoacoustic systems for high-resolution structural and functional imaging of the skin microvasculature and other superficial structures.

  7. Three dimensional Dirac semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaheer, Saad

    We extend the physics of graphene to three dimensional systems by showing that Dirac points can exist on the Fermi surface of realistic materials in three dimensions. Many of the exotic electronic properties of graphene can be ascribed to the pseudorelativistic behavior of its charge carriers due to two dimensional Dirac points on the Fermi surface. We show that certain nonsymmorphic spacegroups exhibit Dirac points among the irreducible representations of the appropriate little group at high symmetry points on the surface of the Brillouin zone. We provide a list of all Brillouin zone momenta in the 230 spacegroups that can host Dirac points. We describe microscopic considerations necessary to design materials in one of the candidate spacegroups such that the Dirac point appears at the Fermi energy without any additional non-Dirac-like Fermi pockets. We use density functional theory based methods to propose six new Dirac semimetals: BiO 2 and SbO2 in the beta-cristobalite lattice (spacegroup 227), and BiCaSiO4, BiMgSiO4, BiAlInO 4, and BiZnSiO4 in the distorted spinels lattice (spacegroup 74). Additionally we derive effective Dirac Hamiltonians given group representative operators as well as tight binding models incorporating spin-orbit coupling. Finally we study the Fermi surface of zincblende (spacegroup 216) HgTe which is effectively point-like at Gamma in the Brillouin zone and exhibits accidental degeneracies along a threefold rotation axis. Whereas compressive strain gaps the band structure into a topological insulator, tensile strain shifts the accidental degeneracies away from Gamma and enlarges the Fermi surface. States on the Fermi surface exhibit nontrivial spin texture marked by winding of spins around the threefold rotation axis and by spin vortices indicating a change in the winding number. This is confirmed by microscopic calculations performed in tensile strained HgTe and Hg0.5Zn 0.5 Te as well as k.p theory. We conclude with a summary of recent

  8. Three-dimensional marginal separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duck, Peter W.

    1988-01-01

    The three dimensional marginal separation of a boundary layer along a line of symmetry is considered. The key equation governing the displacement function is derived, and found to be a nonlinear integral equation in two space variables. This is solved iteratively using a pseudo-spectral approach, based partly in double Fourier space, and partly in physical space. Qualitatively, the results are similar to previously reported two dimensional results (which are also computed to test the accuracy of the numerical scheme); however quantitatively the three dimensional results are much different.

  9. Three-dimensional silicon micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimi, S.; Song, J.; Dang, Z. Y.; Liang, H. D.; Breese, M. B. H.

    2012-11-01

    A process for fabricating arbitrary-shaped, two- and three-dimensional silicon and porous silicon components has been developed, based on high-energy ion irradiation, such as 250 keV to 1 MeV protons and helium. Irradiation alters the hole current flow during subsequent electrochemical anodization, allowing the anodization rate to be slowed or stopped for low/high fluences. For moderate fluences the anodization rate is selectively stopped only at depths corresponding to the high defect density at the end of ion range, allowing true three-dimensional silicon machining. The use of this process in fields including optics, photonics, holography and nanoscale depth machining is reviewed.

  10. Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Charych, D.; Reichart, A.

    2000-06-27

    A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.

  11. Creating Three-Dimensional Scenes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumpe, Norm

    2005-01-01

    Persistence of Vision Raytracer (POV-Ray), a free computer program for creating photo-realistic, three-dimensional scenes and a link for Mathematica users interested in generating POV-Ray files from within Mathematica, is discussed. POV-Ray has great potential in secondary mathematics classrooms and helps in strengthening students' visualization…

  12. Three-dimensional stellarator codes

    PubMed Central

    Garabedian, P. R.

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional computer codes have been used to develop quasisymmetric stellarators with modular coils that are promising candidates for a magnetic fusion reactor. The mathematics of plasma confinement raises serious questions about the numerical calculations. Convergence studies have been performed to assess the best configurations. Comparisons with recent data from large stellarator experiments serve to validate the theory. PMID:12140367

  13. Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah; Reichart, Anke

    2000-01-01

    A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.

  14. Three-Dimensional Lissajous Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Mura, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Described is a mechanically driven device for generating three-dimensional harmonic space figures with different frequencies and phase angles on the X, Y, and Z axes. Discussed are apparatus, viewing stereo pairs, equations of motion, and using space figures in classroom. (YP)

  15. Three-dimensional fault drawing

    SciTech Connect

    Dongan, L. )

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the author presents a structure interpretation based on three-dimensional fault drawing. It is required that fault closure must be based on geological theory, spacial plotting principle and restrictions in seismic exploration. Geological structure can be well ascertained by analysing the shapes and interrelation of the faults which have been drawn through reasonable fault point closure and fault point correlation. According to this method, the interrelation of fault points is determined by first closing corresponding fault points in intersecting sections, then reasonably correlating the relevant fault points. Fault point correlation is not achieved in base map, so its correctness can be improved greatly. Three-dimensional fault closure is achieved by iteratively revising. The closure grid should be densified gradually. The distribution of major fault system is determined prior to secondary faults. Fault interpretation by workstation also follows this procedure.

  16. Three-dimensional coronary angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suurmond, Rolf; Wink, Onno; Chen, James; Carroll, John

    2005-04-01

    Three-Dimensional Coronary Angiography (3D-CA) is a novel tool that allows clinicians to view and analyze coronary arteries in three-dimensional format. This will help to find accurate length estimates and to find the optimal viewing angles of a lesion based on the three-dimensional vessel orientation. Various advanced algorithms are incorporated in this 3D processing utility including 3D-RA calibration, ECG phase selection, 2D vessel extraction, and 3D vessel modeling into a utility with optimized workflow and ease-of-use features, which is fully integrated in the environment of the x-ray catheterization lab. After the 3D processing, the 3D vessels can be viewed and manipulated interactively inside the operating room. The TrueView map provides a quick overview of gantry angles with optimal visualization of a single or bifurcation lesion. Vessel length measurements can be performed without risk of underestimating a vessel segment due to foreshortening. Vessel cross sectional diameters can also be measured. Unlike traditional, projection-based quantitative coronary analysis, the additional process of catheter calibration is not needed for diameter measurements. Validation studies show a high reproducibility of the measurements, with little user dependency.

  17. Three-dimensional Camera Phone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2004-12-01

    An inexpensive technique for realizing a three-dimensional (3D) camera phone display is presented. Light from the liquid-crystal screen of a camera phone is linearly polarized, and its direction of polarization is easily manipulated by a cellophane sheet used as a half-waveplate. The novel 3D camera phone display is made possible solely by optical components without resorting to computation, so that the 3D image is displayed in real time. Quality of the original image is not sacrificed in the process of converting it into a 3D image.

  18. Three-dimensional visual stimulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Tsunehiro; Fukui, Yukio; Hashimoto, Keizo; Hiruma, Nobuyuki

    1995-02-01

    We describe a newly developed three-dimensional visual stimulator (TVS) that can change independently the directions, distances, sizes, luminance, and varieties of two sets of targets for both eyes. It consists of liquid crystal projectors (LCP's) that generate the flexible images of targets, Badal otometers that change target distances without changing the visual angles, and relay-lens systems that change target directions. A special control program is developed for real-time control of six motors and two LCP's in the TVS together with a three-dimensional optometer III that simultaneously measures eye movement, accommodation, pupil diameter, and head movement. distance, 0 to -20 D; direction, 16 horizontally and 15 vertically; size, 0-2 deg visual angle; and luminance, 10-2-10 2 cd/m2. The target images are refreshed at 60 Hz and speeds with which the target makes a smooth change (ramp stimuli) are size, 10 deg/s. A simple application demonstrates the performance.

  19. Ultrasound guided spine needle insertion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Elvis C. S.; Mousavi, Parvin; Gill, Sean; Fichtinger, Gabor; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2010-02-01

    An ultrasound (US) guided, CT augmented, spine needle insertion navigational system is introduced. The system consists of an electromagnetic (EM) sensor, an US machine, and a preoperative CT volume of the patient anatomy. Three-dimensional (3D) US volume is reconstructed intraoperatively from a set of two-dimensional (2D) freehand US slices, and is coregistered with the preoperative CT. This allows the preoperative CT volume to be used in the intraoperative clinical coordinate. The spatial relationship between the patient anatomy, surgical tools, and the US transducer are tracked using the EM sensor, and are displayed with respect to the CT volume. The pose of the US transducer is used to interpolate the CT volume, providing the physician with a 2D "x-ray vision" to guide the needle insertion. Many of the system software components are GPU-accelerated, allowing real-time performance of the guidance system in a clinical setting.

  20. Three-dimensional coil inductor

    DOEpatents

    Bernhardt, Anthony F.; Malba, Vincent

    2002-01-01

    A three-dimensional coil inductor is disclosed. The inductor includes a substrate; a set of lower electrically conductive traces positioned on the substrate; a core placed over the lower traces; a set of side electrically conductive traces laid on the core and the lower traces; and a set of upper electrically conductive traces attached to the side traces so as to form the inductor. Fabrication of the inductor includes the steps of forming a set of lower traces on a substrate; positioning a core over the lower traces; forming a set of side traces on the core; connecting the side traces to the lower traces; forming a set of upper traces on the core; and connecting the upper traces to the side traces so as to form a coil structure.

  1. Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shilei; Zhang, Jingyan; Baker, Alexander A.; Wang, Shouguo; Yu, Guanghua; Hesjedal, Thorsten

    2014-08-01

    Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme. It is inspired by the idea of second quantisation, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered `quantised' Hall voltage, each representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This new memory system further allows for both flexible scaling of the system and fast communication among cells. The magnetic abacus provides a promising approach for future nonvolatile 3D magnetic random access memory.

  2. Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shilei; Zhang, Jingyan; Baker, Alexander; Wang, Shouguo; Yu, Guanghua; Hesjedal, Thorsten

    2015-03-01

    Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the individual data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme which envisages a classical abacus with the beads operated by electron spins. It is inspired by the idea of second quantization, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered `quantized' Hall voltage, representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This concept of `second quantization of memory' realizes the 3D memory architecture with superior reading and operation efficiency, thus is a promising approach for future nonvolatile magnetic random access memory.

  3. Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory.

    PubMed

    Zhang, ShiLei; Zhang, JingYan; Baker, Alexander A; Wang, ShouGuo; Yu, GuangHua; Hesjedal, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme. It is inspired by the idea of second quantisation, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered 'quantised' Hall voltage, each representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This new memory system further allows for both flexible scaling of the system and fast communication among cells. The magnetic abacus provides a promising approach for future nonvolatile 3D magnetic random access memory. PMID:25146338

  4. Three-dimensional display technologies

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The physical world around us is three-dimensional (3D), yet traditional display devices can show only two-dimensional (2D) flat images that lack depth (i.e., the third dimension) information. This fundamental restriction greatly limits our ability to perceive and to understand the complexity of real-world objects. Nearly 50% of the capability of the human brain is devoted to processing visual information [Human Anatomy & Physiology (Pearson, 2012)]. Flat images and 2D displays do not harness the brain’s power effectively. With rapid advances in the electronics, optics, laser, and photonics fields, true 3D display technologies are making their way into the marketplace. 3D movies, 3D TV, 3D mobile devices, and 3D games have increasingly demanded true 3D display with no eyeglasses (autostereoscopic). Therefore, it would be very beneficial to readers of this journal to have a systematic review of state-of-the-art 3D display technologies. PMID:25530827

  5. Three-dimensional laser microvision.

    PubMed

    Shimotahira, H; Iizuka, K; Chu, S C; Wah, C; Costen, F; Yoshikuni, Y

    2001-04-10

    A three-dimensional (3-D) optical imaging system offering high resolution in all three dimensions, requiring minimum manipulation and capable of real-time operation, is presented. The system derives its capabilities from use of the superstructure grating laser source in the implementation of a laser step frequency radar for depth information acquisition. A synthetic aperture radar technique was also used to further enhance its lateral resolution as well as extend the depth of focus. High-speed operation was made possible by a dual computer system consisting of a host and a remote microcomputer supported by a dual-channel Small Computer System Interface parallel data transfer system. The system is capable of operating near real time. The 3-D display of a tunneling diode, a microwave integrated circuit, and a see-through image taken by the system operating near real time are included. The depth resolution is 40 mum; lateral resolution with a synthetic aperture approach is a fraction of a micrometer and that without it is approximately 10 mum. PMID:18357177

  6. Three-Dimensional Schlieren Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, Bruce; Cochrane, Andrea

    2004-11-01

    Schlieren systems visualise disturbances that change the index of refraction of a fluid, for example due to temperature or salinity disturbances. `Synthetic schlieren' refers to a recent advance in which these disturbances are visualised with a digital camera and image-processing technology rather than the classical use of parabolic mirrors and a knife-edge. In a typical setup, light from an image of horizontal lines or dots passes almost horizontally through the test section of a fluid to a CCD camera. Refractive index disturbances distort the image and digital comparison of successive images reveals the plan-form structure and time evolution of the disturbances. If the disturbance is effectively two-dimensional, meaning that it is uniform across the line-of-sight of the camera, then its magnitude as well as its structure can measured through simple inversion of an algebraic equation. If the structure is axisymmetric with rotation-axis perpendicular to the line of sight, the magnitude of the disturbance can be measured through inversion of a non-singular square matrix. Here we report upon the extension of this work toward measuring the magnitude of a fully three-dimensional disturbance. This is done by analysing images from two perspectives through the test section and using inversion tomography techniques to reconstruct the disturbance field. The results are tested against theoretical predictions and experimental measurements.

  7. True three-dimensional camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornreich, Philipp; Farell, Bart

    2013-01-01

    An imager that can measure the distance from each pixel to the point on the object that is in focus at the pixel is described. This is accomplished by short photo-conducting lightguides at each pixel. In the eye the rods and cones are the fiber-like lightguides. The device uses ambient light that is only coherent in spherical shell-shaped light packets of thickness of one coherence length. Modern semiconductor technology permits the construction of lightguides shorter than a coherence length of ambient light. Each of the frequency components of the broad band light arriving at a pixel has a phase proportional to the distance from an object point to its image pixel. Light frequency components in the packet arriving at a pixel through a convex lens add constructively only if the light comes from the object point in focus at this pixel. The light in packets from all other object points cancels. Thus the pixel receives light from one object point only. The lightguide has contacts along its length. The lightguide charge carriers are generated by the light patterns. These light patterns, and thus the photocurrent, shift in response to the phase of the input signal. Thus, the photocurrent is a function of the distance from the pixel to its object point. Applications include autonomous vehicle navigation and robotic vision. Another application is a crude teleportation system consisting of a camera and a three-dimensional printer at a remote location.

  8. Three-dimensional boundary layers approaching separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. C., III

    1976-01-01

    The theory of semi-similar solutions of the laminar boundary layer equations is applied to several flows in which the boundary layer approaches a three-dimensional separation line. The solutions obtained are used to deduce the nature of three-dimensional separation. It is shown that in these cases separation is of the "ordinary" type. A solution is also presented for a case in which a vortex is embedded within the three-dimensional boundary layer.

  9. Three-dimensional imaging through scattering media using three-dimensionally coded pattern projection.

    PubMed

    Ando, Takamasa; Horisaki, Ryoichi; Tanida, Jun

    2015-08-20

    We propose a method for visualizing three-dimensional objects in scattering media. Our method is based on active illumination using three-dimensionally coded patterns and a numerical algorithm employing a sparsity constraint. We experimentally demonstrated the proposed imaging method for test charts located three-dimensionally at different depths in the space behind a translucent sheet. PMID:26368767

  10. Three Dimensional Illustrating--Three-Dimensional Vision and Deception of Sensibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szállassy, Noémi; Gánóczy, Anita; Kriska, György

    2009-01-01

    The wide-spread digital photography and computer use gave the opportunity for everyone to make three-dimensional pictures and to make them public. The new opportunities with three-dimensional techniques give chance for the birth of new artistic photographs. We present in detail the biological roots of three-dimensional visualization, the phenomena…

  11. Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Ultrasound is a useful procedure for monitoring the baby's development in the uterus. Ultrasound uses inaudible sound waves to ... no known risks for ultrasound at present, it is highly recommended that pregnant women consult their physician ...

  12. Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Ultrasound is a type of imaging. It uses high-frequency sound waves to look at organs and ... liver, and other organs. During pregnancy, doctors use ultrasound to view the fetus. Unlike x-rays, ultrasound ...

  13. Three dimensional optic tissue culture and process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Francis, Karen M. (Inventor); Cardwell, Delmar R. (Inventor); Oconnor, Kim (Inventor); Fitzgerald, Wendy S. (Inventor); Aten, Laurie A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A process for artificially producing three-dimensional optic tissue has been developed. The optic cells are cultured in a bioreactor at low shear conditions. The tissue forms normal, functional tissue organization and extracellular matrix.

  14. Three Dimensional Optic Tissue Culture and Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OConnor, Kim C. (Inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Aten, Laurie A. (Inventor); Francis, Karen M. (Inventor); Caldwell, Delmar R. (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (Inventor); Fitzgerald, Wendy S. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A process for artificially producing three-dimensional optic tissue has been developed. The optic cells are cultured in a bioireactor at low shear conditions. The tissue forms as normal, functional tissue grows with tissue organization and extracellular matrix formation.

  15. Three-dimensional stellarator equilibria by iteration

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, A.H.

    1983-02-01

    The iterative method of evaluating plasma equilibria is especially simple in a magnetic coordinate representation. This method is particularly useful for clarifying the subtle constraints of three-dimensional equilibria and studying magnetic surface breakup at high plasma beta.

  16. THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODEL FOR HYPERTHERMIA CALCULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Realistic three-dimensional models that predict temperature distributions with a high degree of spatial resolution in bodies exposed to electromagnetic (EM) fields are required in the application of hyperthermia for cancer treatment. To ascertain the thermophysiologic response of...

  17. Device fabrication: Three-dimensional printed electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Jennifer A.; Ahn, Bok Y.

    2015-02-01

    Can three-dimensional printing enable the mass customization of electronic devices? A study that exploits this method to create light-emitting diodes based on 'quantum dots' provides a step towards this goal.

  18. Three Dimensional Shear Wave Elastographic Reconstruction of Ablations*

    PubMed Central

    Ingle, Atul; Varghese, Tomy

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for three dimensional (3D) reconstruction of tumor ablations using ultrasound electrode vibration elastography. Shear wave velocity, which is used as a surrogate for tissue stiffness, is estimated by perturbing the ablation needle and tracking frame-to-frame displacements using radiofrequency ultrasound echo data. This process is repeated over many imaging planes that share a common axis of intersection collinear with needle. A 3D volume is reconstructed by solving an optimization problem which smoothly approximates shear wave velocities on a stack of transverse planes. The mean shear wave velocity estimates obtained in the phantom experiments are within 20% of those measured using a commercial shear wave imaging system. PMID:25570587

  19. Three-Dimensional Icosahedral Phase Field Quasicrystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, P.; Archer, A. J.; Knobloch, E.; Rucklidge, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the formation and stability of icosahedral quasicrystalline structures using a dynamic phase field crystal model. Nonlinear interactions between density waves at two length scales stabilize three-dimensional quasicrystals. We determine the phase diagram and parameter values required for the quasicrystal to be the global minimum free energy state. We demonstrate that traits that promote the formation of two-dimensional quasicrystals are extant in three dimensions, and highlight the characteristics required for three-dimensional soft matter quasicrystal formation.

  20. Three-dimensional features on oscillating microbubbles streaming flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Massimiliano; Marin, Alvaro G.; Wang, Cheng; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Kähler, Christian J.

    2013-11-01

    Ultrasound-driven oscillating micro-bubbles have been used as active actuators in microfluidic devices to perform manifold tasks such as mixing, sorting and manipulation of microparticles. A common configuration consists in side-bubbles, created by trapping air pockets in blind channels perpendicular to the main channel direction. This configuration results in bubbles with a semi-cylindrical shape that creates a streaming flow generally considered quasi two-dimensional. However, recent experiments performed with three-dimensional velocimetry methods have shown how microparticles can present significant three-dimensional trajectories, especially in regions close to the bubble interface. Several reasons will be discussed such as boundary effects of the bottom/top wall, deformation of the bubble interface leading to more complex vibrational modes, or bubble-particle interactions. In the present investigation, precise measurements of particle trajectories close to the bubble interface will be performed by means of 3D Astigmatic Particle Tracking Velocimetry. The results will allow us to characterize quantitatively the three-dimensional features of the streaming flow and to estimate its implications in practical applications as particle trapping, sorting or mixing.

  1. Three dimensional responsive structure of tough hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xuxu; Ma, Chunxin; Li, Chi; Xie, Yuhan; Huang, Xiaoqiang; Jin, Yongbin; Zhu, Ziqi; Liu, Junjie; Li, Tiefeng

    2015-04-01

    Three dimensional responsive structures have high value for the application of responsive hydrogels in various fields such as micro fluid control, tissue engineering and micro robot. Whereas various hydrogels with stimuli-responsive behaviors have been developed, designing and fabricating of the three dimensional responsive structures remain challenging. We develop a temperature responsive double network hydrogel with novel fabrication methods to assemble the complex three dimensional responsive structures. The shape changing behavior of the structures can be significantly increased by building blocks with various responsiveness. Mechanical instability is built into the structure with the proper design and enhance the performance of the structure. Finite element simulation are conducted to guide the design and investigate the responsive behavior of the hydrogel structures

  2. Vision in our three-dimensional world

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Many aspects of our perceptual experience are dominated by the fact that our two eyes point forward. Whilst the location of our eyes leaves the environment behind our head inaccessible to vision, co-ordinated use of our two eyes gives us direct access to the three-dimensional structure of the scene in front of us, through the mechanism of stereoscopic vision. Scientific understanding of the different brain regions involved in stereoscopic vision and three-dimensional spatial cognition is changing rapidly, with consequent influences on fields as diverse as clinical practice in ophthalmology and the technology of virtual reality devices. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Vision in our three-dimensional world’. PMID:27269595

  3. Vision in our three-dimensional world.

    PubMed

    Parker, Andrew J

    2016-06-19

    Many aspects of our perceptual experience are dominated by the fact that our two eyes point forward. Whilst the location of our eyes leaves the environment behind our head inaccessible to vision, co-ordinated use of our two eyes gives us direct access to the three-dimensional structure of the scene in front of us, through the mechanism of stereoscopic vision. Scientific understanding of the different brain regions involved in stereoscopic vision and three-dimensional spatial cognition is changing rapidly, with consequent influences on fields as diverse as clinical practice in ophthalmology and the technology of virtual reality devices.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'. PMID:27269595

  4. Three-dimensional microbubble streaming flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rallabandi, Bhargav; Marin, Alvaro; Rossi, Massimiliano; Kaehler, Christian; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha

    2014-11-01

    Streaming due to acoustically excited bubbles has been used successfully for applications such as size-sorting, trapping and focusing of particles, as well as fluid mixing. Many of these applications involve the precise control of particle trajectories, typically achieved using cylindrical bubbles, which establish planar flows. Using astigmatic particle tracking velocimetry (APTV), we show that, while this two-dimensional picture is a useful description of the flow over short times, a systematic three-dimensional flow structure is evident over long time scales. We demonstrate that this long-time three-dimensional fluid motion can be understood through asymptotic theory, superimposing secondary axial flows (induced by boundary conditions at the device walls) onto the two-dimensional description. This leads to a general framework that describes three-dimensional flows in confined microstreaming systems, guiding the design of applications that profit from minimizing or maximizing these effects.

  5. Topology of three-dimensional separated flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobak, M.; Peake, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    Based on the hypothesis that patterns of skin-friction lines and external streamlines reflect the properties of continuous vector fields, topology rules define a small number of singular points (nodes, saddle points, and foci) that characterize the patterns on the surface and on particular projections of the flow (e.g., the crossflow plane). The restricted number of singular points and the rules that they obey are considered as an organizing principle whose finite number of elements can be combined in various ways to connect together the properties common to all steady three dimensional viscous flows. Introduction of a distinction between local and global properties of the flow resolves an ambiguity in the proper definition of a three dimensional separated flow. Adoption of the notions of topological structure, structural stability, and bifurcation provides a framework to describe how three dimensional separated flows originate and succeed each other as the relevant parameters of the problem are varied.

  6. Three-dimensional separation and reattachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peake, D. J.; Tobak, M.

    1982-01-01

    The separation of three dimensional turbulent boundary layers from the lee of flight vehicles at high angles of attack is investigated. The separation results in dominant, large scale, coiled vortex motions that pass along the body in the general direction of the free stream. In all cases of three dimensional flow separation and reattachment, the assumption of continuous vector fields of skin friction lines and external flow streamlines, coupled with simple laws of topology, provides a flow grammar whose elemental constituents are the singular points: the nodes, spiral nodes (foci), and saddles. The phenomenon of three dimensional separation may be constrained as either a local or a global event, depending on whether the skin friction line that becomes a line of separation originates at a node or a saddle point.

  7. Three-dimensional separation and reattachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peake, D. J.; Tobak, M.

    1982-01-01

    The separation of three dimensional turbulent boundary layers from the lee of flight vehicles at high angles of attack is investigated. The separation results in dominant, large scale, coiled vortex motions that pass along the body in the general direction of the free stream. In all cases of three dimensional flow separation and reattachment, the assumption of continuous vector fields of skin friction lines and external flow streamlines, coupled with simple laws of topology, provides a flow grammar whose elemental constituents are the singular points: the nodes, spiral nodes (foci), and saddles. The phenomenon of three dimensional separation may be construed as either a local or a global event, depending on whether the skin friction line that becomes a line of separation originates at a node or a saddle point.

  8. Three-Dimensional Robotic Vision System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Thinh V.

    1989-01-01

    Stereoscopy and motion provide clues to outlines of objects. Digital image-processing system acts as "intelligent" automatic machine-vision system by processing views from stereoscopic television cameras into three-dimensional coordinates of moving object in view. Epipolar-line technique used to find corresponding points in stereoscopic views. Robotic vision system analyzes views from two television cameras to detect rigid three-dimensional objects and reconstruct numerically in terms of coordinates of corner points. Stereoscopy and effects of motion on two images complement each other in providing image-analyzing subsystem with clues to natures and locations of principal features.

  9. Three-dimensional magnetic bubble memory system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Katti, Romney R. (Inventor); Wu, Jiin-Chuan (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A compact memory uses magnetic bubble technology for providing data storage. A three-dimensional arrangement, in the form of stacks of magnetic bubble layers, is used to achieve high volumetric storage density. Output tracks are used within each layer to allow data to be accessed uniquely and unambiguously. Storage can be achieved using either current access or field access magnetic bubble technology. Optical sensing via the Faraday effect is used to detect data. Optical sensing facilitates the accessing of data from within the three-dimensional package and lends itself to parallel operation for supporting high data rates and vector and parallel processing.

  10. Three-Dimensional Extended Bargmann Supergravity.

    PubMed

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Rosseel, Jan

    2016-06-24

    We show that three-dimensional general relativity, augmented with two vector fields, allows for a nonrelativistic limit, different from the standard limit leading to Newtonian gravity, that results in a well-defined action which is of the Chern-Simons type. We show that this three-dimensional "extended Bargmann gravity," after coupling to matter, leads to equations of motion allowing a wider class of background geometries than the ones that one encounters in Newtonian gravity. We give the supersymmetric generalization of these results and point out an important application in the context of calculating partition functions of nonrelativistic field theories using localization techniques. PMID:27391712

  11. Three-Dimensional Extended Bargmann Supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergshoeff, Eric; Rosseel, Jan

    2016-06-01

    We show that three-dimensional general relativity, augmented with two vector fields, allows for a nonrelativistic limit, different from the standard limit leading to Newtonian gravity, that results in a well-defined action which is of the Chern-Simons type. We show that this three-dimensional "extended Bargmann gravity," after coupling to matter, leads to equations of motion allowing a wider class of background geometries than the ones that one encounters in Newtonian gravity. We give the supersymmetric generalization of these results and point out an important application in the context of calculating partition functions of nonrelativistic field theories using localization techniques.

  12. Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to make images of organs and structures inside the body. ... An ultrasound machine makes images so that organs inside the body can be examined. The machine sends out high- ...

  13. Three-Dimensional Visualization of Particle Tracks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julian, Glenn M.

    1993-01-01

    Suggests ways to bring home to the introductory physics student some of the excitement of recent discoveries in particle physics. Describes particle detectors and encourages the use of the Standard Model along with real images of particle tracks to determine three-dimensional views of tracks. (MVL)

  14. Three-Dimensional Messages for Interstellar Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakoch, Douglas A.

    One of the challenges facing independently evolved civilizations separated by interstellar distances is to communicate information unique to one civilization. One commonly proposed solution is to begin with two-dimensional pictorial representations of mathematical concepts and physical objects, in the hope that this will provide a foundation for overcoming linguistic barriers. However, significant aspects of such representations are highly conventional, and may not be readily intelligible to a civilization with different conventions. The process of teaching conventions of representation may be facilitated by the use of three-dimensional representations redundantly encoded in multiple formats (e.g., as both vectors and as rasters). After having illustrated specific conventions for representing mathematical objects in a three-dimensional space, this method can be used to describe a physical environment shared by transmitter and receiver: a three-dimensional space defined by the transmitter--receiver axis, and containing stars within that space. This method can be extended to show three-dimensional representations varying over time. Having clarified conventions for representing objects potentially familiar to both sender and receiver, novel objects can subsequently be depicted. This is illustrated through sequences showing interactions between human beings, which provide information about human behavior and personality. Extensions of this method may allow the communication of such culture-specific features as aesthetic judgments and religious beliefs. Limitations of this approach will be noted, with specific reference to ETI who are not primarily visual.

  15. Three-dimensional rf structure calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.K.; Browman, M.J.; Weiland, T.

    1988-01-01

    The calculation of three-dimensional rf structures is rapidly approaching adolescence, after having been in its infancy for the last four years. This paper will show the kinds of calculations that are currently being performed in the frequency domain and is a companion paper to one in which time-domain calculations are described. 13 refs., 14 figs.

  16. Three-dimensional RF structure calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, R. K.; Browman, M. J.; Weiland, T.

    1989-04-01

    The calculation of three-dimensional rf structures is rapidly approaching adolescence, after having been in its infancy for the last four years. This paper will show the kinds of calculations that are currently being performed in the frequency domain and is a companion paper to one in which time-domain calculations are described.

  17. Growing Three-Dimensional Cocultures Of Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, David A.; Goodwin, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    Laboratory process provides environmental conditions favoring simultaneous growth of cocultures of mammalian cells of more than one type. Cultures become three-dimensional tissuelike assemblies serving as organoid models of differentiation of cells. Process used, for example, to study growth of human colon cancers, starting from mixtures of normal colonic fibroblasts and partially differentiated colon adenocarcinoma cells.

  18. Three-dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah; Reichert, Anke

    2001-01-01

    A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flue virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.

  19. Cohomology of real three-dimensional triquadrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, Vyacheslav A.

    2012-02-01

    We consider non-singular intersections of three real five-dimensional quadrics. They are referred to for brevity as real three-dimensional triquadrics. We calculate the dimensions of the cohomology spaces of triquadrics with coefficients in the field of two elements.

  20. Three-Dimensional Printing Surgical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Michelle F.; Butler, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Three-dimensional printing, a technology used for decades in the industrial field, gains a lot of attention in the medical field for its potential benefits. With advancement of desktop printers, this technology is accessible and a lot of research is going on in the medical field. Objective: To evaluate its application in surgical field, which may include but not limited to surgical planning, surgical education, implants, and prosthesis, which are the focus of this review. Methods: Research was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of science, and other reliable sources. We included original articles and excluded articles based on animals, those more than 10 years old, and those not in English. These articles were evaluated, and relevant studies were included in this review. Discussion: Three-dimensional printing shows a potential benefit in surgical application. Printed implants were used in patient in a few cases and show successful results; however, longer follow-up and more trials are needed. Surgical and medical education is believed to be more efficient with this technology than the current practice. Printed surgical instrument and surgical planning are also believed to improve with three-dimensional printing. Conclusion: Three-dimensional printing can be a very powerful tool in the near future, which can aid the medical field that is facing a lot of challenges and obstacles. However, despite the reported results, further research on larger samples and analytical measurements should be conducted to ensure this technology's impact on the practice. PMID:26301002

  1. Three-Dimensional Pointers for Stereoscopic Projection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayman, H. J. G.

    1984-01-01

    Because class size often limits student opportunity to handle individual models, teachers use stereoscopic projections to demonstrate structural features. Describes three-dimensional pointers for use with different projection systems so teachers can indicate a particular atom or bond to entire classes, avoiding the perspective problems inherent in…

  2. Real time three dimensional sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, Steven J.

    1996-01-01

    The invention is a three dimensional sensing system which utilizes two flexibly located cameras for receiving and recording visual information with respect to a sensed object illuminated by a series of light planes. Each pixel of each image is converted to a digital word and the words are grouped into stripes, each stripe comprising contiguous pixels. One pixel of each stripe in one image is selected and an epi-polar line of that point is drawn in the other image. The three dimensional coordinate of each selected point is determined by determining the point on said epi-polar line which also lies on a stripe in the second image and which is closest to a known light plane.

  3. Real time three dimensional sensing system

    DOEpatents

    Gordon, S.J.

    1996-12-31

    The invention is a three dimensional sensing system which utilizes two flexibly located cameras for receiving and recording visual information with respect to a sensed object illuminated by a series of light planes. Each pixel of each image is converted to a digital word and the words are grouped into stripes, each stripe comprising contiguous pixels. One pixel of each stripe in one image is selected and an epi-polar line of that point is drawn in the other image. The three dimensional coordinate of each selected point is determined by determining the point on said epi-polar line which also lies on a stripe in the second image and which is closest to a known light plane. 7 figs.

  4. Three-dimensional visualization of a qutrit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzyński, Paweł; Kołodziejski, Adrian; Laskowski, Wiesław; Markiewicz, Marcin

    2016-06-01

    We present a surprisingly simple three-dimensional Bloch sphere representation of a qutrit, i.e., a single three-level quantum system. We start with a symmetric state of a two-qubit system and relate it to the spin-1 representation. Using this representation we associate each qutrit state with a three-dimensional vector a and a metric tensor Γ ̂ which satisfy a .Γ ̂.a ≤1 . This resembles the well known condition for qubit Bloch vectors in which case Γ ̂=1 . In our case the vector a corresponds to spin-1 polarization, whereas the tensor Γ ̂ is a function of polarization uncertainties. Alternatively, a is a local Bloch vector of a symmetric two-qubit state and Γ ̂ is a function of the corresponding correlation tensor.

  5. Transformation equation in three-dimensional photoelasticity.

    PubMed

    Ainola, Leo; Aben, Hillar

    2006-03-01

    Optical phenomena that occur when polarized light passes through an inhomogeneous birefringent medium are complicated, especially when the principal directions of the dielectric tensor rotate on the light ray. This case is typical in three-dimensional photoelasticity, in particular in integrated photoelasticity by stress analysis on the basis of measured polarization transformations. Analysis of polarization transformations in integrated photoelasticity has been based primarily on a system of two first-order differential equations. Using a transformed coordinate in the direction of light propagation, we have derived a single fourth-order differential equation of three-dimensional photoelasticity. For the case of uniform rotation of the principal directions we have obtained an analytical solution. PMID:16539073

  6. Analysis of three-dimensional transonic compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourgeade, A.

    1984-01-01

    A method for computing the three-dimensional transonic flow around the blades of a compressor or of a propeller is given. The method is based on the use of the velocity potential, on the hypothesis that the flow is inviscid, irrotational and isentropic. The equation of the potential is solved in a transformed space such that the surface of the blade is mapped into a plane where the periodicity is implicit. This equation is in a nonconservative form and is solved with the help of a finite difference method using artificial time. A computer code is provided and some sample results are given in order to demonstrate the influence of three-dimensional effects and the blade's rotation.

  7. Three-Dimensional Images For Robot Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarland, William D.

    1983-12-01

    Robots are attracting increased attention in the industrial productivity crisis. As one significant approach for this nation to maintain technological leadership, the need for robot vision has become critical. The "blind" robot, while occupying an economical niche at present is severely limited and job specific, being only one step up from the numerical controlled machines. To successfully satisfy robot vision requirements a three dimensional representation of a real scene must be provided. Several image acquistion techniques are discussed with more emphasis on the laser radar type instruments. The autonomous vehicle is also discussed as a robot form, and the requirements for these applications are considered. The total computer vision system requirement is reviewed with some discussion of the major techniques in the literature for three dimensional scene analysis.

  8. Three-dimensional bio-printing.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qi; Hao, Jie; Lu, YangJie; Wang, Liu; Wallace, Gordon G; Zhou, Qi

    2015-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has been widely used in various manufacturing operations including automotive, defence and space industries. 3D printing has the advantages of personalization, flexibility and high resolution, and is therefore becoming increasingly visible in the high-tech fields. Three-dimensional bio-printing technology also holds promise for future use in medical applications. At present 3D bio-printing is mainly used for simulating and reconstructing some hard tissues or for preparing drug-delivery systems in the medical area. The fabrication of 3D structures with living cells and bioactive moieties spatially distributed throughout will be realisable. Fabrication of complex tissues and organs is still at the exploratory stage. This review summarize the development of 3D bio-printing and its potential in medical applications, as well as discussing the current challenges faced by 3D bio-printing. PMID:25921944

  9. Three dimensional fabrication at small size scales

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Timothy G.; Zarafshar, Aasiyeh M.; Gracias, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the fact that we live in a three-dimensional (3D) world and macroscale engineering is 3D, conventional sub-mm scale engineering is inherently two-dimensional (2D). New fabrication and patterning strategies are needed to enable truly three-dimensionally-engineered structures at small size scales. Here, we review strategies that have been developed over the last two decades that seek to enable such millimeter to nanoscale 3D fabrication and patterning. A focus of this review is the strategy of self-assembly, specifically in a biologically inspired, more deterministic form known as self-folding. Self-folding methods can leverage the strengths of lithography to enable the construction of precisely patterned 3D structures and “smart” components. This self-assembling approach is compared with other 3D fabrication paradigms, and its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. PMID:20349446

  10. Simulation of complex three-dimensional flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diewert, G. S.; Rothmund, H. J.; Nakahashi, K.

    1985-01-01

    The concept of splitting is used extensively to simulate complex three dimensional flows on modern computer architectures. Used in all aspects, from initial grid generation to the determination of the final converged solution, splitting is used to enhance code vectorization, to permit solution driven grid adaption and grid enrichment, to permit the use of concurrent processing, and to enhance data flow through hierarchal memory systems. Three examples are used to illustrate these concepts to complex three dimensional flow fields: (1) interactive flow over a bump; (2) supersonic flow past a blunt based conical afterbody at incidence to a free stream and containing a centered propulsive jet; and (3) supersonic flow past a sharp leading edge delta wing at incidence to the free stream.

  11. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome. PMID:25279337

  12. Three-dimensional motor schema based navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkin, Ronald C.

    1989-01-01

    Reactive schema-based navigation is possible in space domains by extending the methods developed for ground-based navigation found within the Autonomous Robot Architecture (AuRA). Reformulation of two dimensional motor schemas for three dimensional applications is a straightforward process. The manifold advantages of schema-based control persist, including modular development, amenability to distributed processing, and responsiveness to environmental sensing. Simulation results show the feasibility of this methodology for space docking operations in a cluttered work area.

  13. Generating Three-Dimensional Grids About Anything

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorenson, Reese L.

    1991-01-01

    Three-Dimensional Grids About Anything by Poisson's Equation (3DGRAPE) computer program designed to make computational grids in or about almost any shape. Generated by solution of Poisson's differential equations in three dimensions. Program automatically finds its own values for inhomogeneous terms giving near-orthogonality and controlled grid-cell height at boundaries. Grids generated applied to both viscous and inviscid aerodynamic problems, and to problems in other areas of fluid dynamics. Written in 100 percent FORTRAN 77.

  14. Three-dimensional Lorentz-violating action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, J. R.; Petrov, A. Yu.; Wotzasek, C.; Zarro, C. A. D.

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate the generation of the three-dimensional Chern-Simons-like Lorentz-breaking "mixed" quadratic action via an appropriate Lorentz-breaking coupling of vector and scalar fields to the spinor field and study some features of the scalar QED with such a term. We show that the same term emerges through a nonperturbative method, namely the Julia-Toulouse approach of condensation of charges and defects.

  15. Three-dimensional display of document set

    DOEpatents

    Lantrip, David B.; Pennock, Kelly A.; Pottier, Marc C.; Schur, Anne; Thomas, James J.; Wise, James A.; York, Jeremy

    2009-06-30

    A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.

  16. Three-dimensional display of document set

    DOEpatents

    Lantrip, David B.; Pennock, Kelly A.; Pottier, Marc C.; Schur, Anne; Thomas, James J.; Wise, James A.

    2006-09-26

    A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may e transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.

  17. Three-dimensional display of document set

    DOEpatents

    Lantrip, David B [Oxnard, CA; Pennock, Kelly A [Richland, WA; Pottier, Marc C [Richland, WA; Schur, Anne [Richland, WA; Thomas, James J [Richland, WA; Wise, James A [Richland, WA

    2001-10-02

    A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.

  18. Three-Dimensional Dispaly Of Document Set

    DOEpatents

    Lantrip, David B.; Pennock, Kelly A.; Pottier, Marc C.; Schur, Anne; Thomas, James J.; Wise, James A.

    2003-06-24

    A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.

  19. Three-dimensional simulation of vortex breakdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuruvila, G.; Salas, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    The integral form of the complete, unsteady, compressible, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in the conservation form, cast in generalized coordinate system, are solved, numerically, to simulate the vortex breakdown phenomenon. The inviscid fluxes are discretized using Roe's upwind-biased flux-difference splitting scheme and the viscous fluxes are discretized using central differencing. Time integration is performed using a backward Euler ADI (alternating direction implicit) scheme. A full approximation multigrid is used to accelerate the convergence to steady state.

  20. Three-dimensional adjustment of trilateration data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sung, L.-Y.; Jackson, D. D.

    1985-01-01

    The three-dimensional locations of the monuments in the USGS Hollister trilateration network were adjusted to fit line length observations observed in 1977, using a Bayesian approach, and incorporating prior elevation estimates as data in the adjustment procedure. No significant discrepancies in the measured line lengths were found, but significant elevation adjustments (up to 1.85 m) were needed to fit the length data.

  1. Three-dimensional ballistocardiography in weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scano, A.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment is described the aim of which is to record a three dimensional ballistocardiogram under the condition of weightlessness and to compare it with tracings recorded on the same subject on the ground as a means of clarifying the meaning of ballistocardiogram waves in different physiological and perphaps pathological conditions. Another purpose is to investigate cardiovascular and possibly fluid adaptations to weightlessness from data collected almost simultaneously on the same subjects during the other cardiovascular during the other cardiovascular and metabolic experiments.

  2. Mineralized three-dimensional bone constructs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Mark S. F. (Inventor); Sundaresan, Alamelu (Inventor); Pellis, Neal R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The present disclosure provides ex vivo-derived mineralized three-dimensional bone constructs. The bone constructs are obtained by culturing osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors under randomized gravity vector conditions. Preferably, the randomized gravity vector conditions are obtained using a low shear stress rotating bioreactor, such as a High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) culture system. The bone constructs of the disclosure have utility in physiological studies of bone formation and bone function, in drug discovery, and in orthopedics.

  3. Mineralized Three-Dimensional Bone Constructs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Mark S. F. (Inventor); Sundaresan, Alamelu (Inventor); Pellis, Neal R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present disclosure provides ex vivo-derived mineralized three-dimensional bone constructs. The bone constructs are obtained by culturing osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors under randomized gravity vector conditions. Preferably, the randomized gravity vector conditions are obtained using a low shear stress rotating bioreactor, such as a High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) culture system. The bone constructs of the disclosure have utility in physiological studies of bone formation and bone function, in drug discovery, and in orthopedics.

  4. The first three-dimensional vanadium hypophosphite.

    PubMed

    Maouel, Hind A; Alonzo, Véronique; Roisnel, Thierry; Rebbah, Houria; Le Fur, Eric

    2009-07-01

    The title synthesized hypophosphite has the formula V(H(2)PO(2))(3). Its structure is based on VO(6) octahedra and (H(2)PO(2))(-) pseudo-tetrahedra. The asymmetric unit contains two crystallographically distinct V atoms and six independent (H(2)PO(2))(-) groups. The connection of the polyhedra generates [VPO(6)H(2)](6-) chains extended along a, b and c, leading to the first three-dimensional network of an anhydrous transition metal hypophosphite. PMID:19578249

  5. Stress tensor correlators in three dimensional gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagchi, Arjun; Grumiller, Daniel; Merbis, Wout

    2016-03-01

    We calculate holographically arbitrary n -point correlators of the boundary stress tensor in three-dimensional Einstein gravity with negative or vanishing cosmological constant. We provide explicit expressions up to 5-point (connected) correlators and show consistency with the Galilean conformal field theory Ward identities and recursion relations of correlators, which we derive. This provides a novel check of flat space holography in three dimensions.

  6. Three-dimensional printing of the retina

    PubMed Central

    Lorber, Barbara; Hsiao, Wen-Kai; Martin, Keith R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Biological three-dimensional printing has received a lot of media attention over recent years with advances made in printing cellular structures, including skin and heart tissue for transplantation. Although limitations exist in creating functioning organs with this method, the hope has been raised that creating a functional retina to cure blindness is within reach. The present review provides an update on the advances made toward this goal. Recent findings It has recently been shown that two types of retinal cells, retinal ganglion cells and glial cells, can be successfully printed using a piezoelectric inkjet printer. Importantly, the cells remained viable and did not change certain phenotypic features as a result of the printing process. In addition, recent advances in the creation of complex and viable three-dimensional cellular structures have been made. Summary Some first promising steps toward the creation of a functional retina have been taken. It now needs to be investigated whether recent findings can be extended to other cells of the retina, including those derived from human tissue, and if a complex and viable retinal structure can be created through three-dimensional printing. PMID:27045545

  7. Multiparallel Three-Dimensional Optical Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Lam K.; Price, Jeffrey H.; Kellner, Albert L.; Bravo-Zanoquera, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Multiparallel three-dimensional optical microscopy is a method of forming an approximate three-dimensional image of a microscope sample as a collection of images from different depths through the sample. The imaging apparatus includes a single microscope plus an assembly of beam splitters and mirrors that divide the output of the microscope into multiple channels. An imaging array of photodetectors in each channel is located at a different distance along the optical path from the microscope, corresponding to a focal plane at a different depth within the sample. The optical path leading to each photodetector array also includes lenses to compensate for the variation of magnification with distance so that the images ultimately formed on all the photodetector arrays are of the same magnification. The use of optical components common to multiple channels in a simple geometry makes it possible to obtain high light-transmission efficiency with an optically and mechanically simple assembly. In addition, because images can be read out simultaneously from all the photodetector arrays, the apparatus can support three-dimensional imaging at a high scanning rate.

  8. Teaching and Assessing Three-Dimensional M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateman, Robert C., Jr.; Booth, Deborah; Sirochman, Rudy; Richardson, Jane; Richardson, David

    2002-05-01

    Structural concepts such as the exact arrangement of a protein in three dimensions are crucial to almost every aspect of biology and chemistry, yet most of us have not been educated in three-dimensional literacy and all of us need a great deal of help in order to perceive and to communicate structural information successfully. It is in the undergraduate biochemistry course where students learn most concepts of molecular structure pertinent to living systems. We are addressing the issue of three-dimensional structural literacy by having undergraduate students construct kinemages, which are plain text scripts derived from Protein Data Bank coordinate files that can be viewed with the program MAGE. These annotated, interactive, three-dimensional illustrations are designed to develop a molecular story and allow exploration in the world of that story. In the process, students become familiar with the structure-based scientific literature and the Protein Data Bank. Our assessment to date has shown that students perceive kinemage authorship to be more helpful in understanding protein structure than simply viewing prepared kinemages. In addition, students perceived kinemage authorship as being beneficial to their career and a significant motivation to learn biochemistry.

  9. Three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets

    PubMed Central

    Melenka, Garrett W; Nobes, David S; Major, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    Braces are used by orthodontists to correct the misalignment of teeth in the mouth. Archwire rotation is a particular procedure used to correct tooth inclination. Wire rotation can result in deformation to the orthodontic brackets, and an orthodontic torque simulator has been designed to examine this wire–bracket interaction. An optical technique has been employed to measure the deformation due to size and geometric constraints of the orthodontic brackets. Images of orthodontic brackets are collected using a stereo microscope and two charge-coupled device cameras, and deformation of orthodontic brackets is measured using a three-dimensional digital image correlation technique. The three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets will be evaluated. The repeatability of the three-dimensional digital image correlation measurement method was evaluated by performing 30 archwire rotation tests using the same bracket and archwire. Finally, five Damon 3MX and five In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets will be compared using this technique to demonstrate the effect of archwire rotation on bracket design. PMID:23762201

  10. Three-Dimensional Imaging. Chapter 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelso, R. M.; Delo, C.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with three-dimensional imaging of fluid flows. Although relatively young, this field of research has already yielded an enormous range of techniques. These vary widely in cost and complexity, with the cheapest light sheet systems being within the budgets of most laboratories, and the most expensive Magnetic Resonance Imaging systems available to a select few. Taking the view that the most likely systems to be developed are those using light sheets, the authors will relate their knowledge and experience of such systems. Other systems will be described briefly and references provided. Flows are inherently three-dimensional in structure; even those generated around nominally 2-D surface geometry. It is becoming increasingly apparent to scientists and engineers that the three-dimensionalities, both large and small scale, are important in terms of overall flow structure and species, momentum, and energy transport. Furthermore, we are accustomed to seeing the world in three dimensions, so it is natural that we should wish to view, measure and interpret flows in three-dimensions. Unfortunately, 3-D images do not lend themselves to convenient presentation on the printed page, and this task is one of the challenges facing us.

  11. Three-Dimensional Audio Client Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2005-01-01

    The Three-Dimensional Audio Client Library (3DAudio library) is a group of software routines written to facilitate development of both stand-alone (audio only) and immersive virtual-reality application programs that utilize three-dimensional audio displays. The library is intended to enable the development of three-dimensional audio client application programs by use of a code base common to multiple audio server computers. The 3DAudio library calls vendor-specific audio client libraries and currently supports the AuSIM Gold-Server and Lake Huron audio servers. 3DAudio library routines contain common functions for (1) initiation and termination of a client/audio server session, (2) configuration-file input, (3) positioning functions, (4) coordinate transformations, (5) audio transport functions, (6) rendering functions, (7) debugging functions, and (8) event-list-sequencing functions. The 3DAudio software is written in the C++ programming language and currently operates under the Linux, IRIX, and Windows operating systems.

  12. Co-registered spectral photoacoustic tomography and ultrasonography of breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Haixin; Erpelding, Todd N.; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Jacobs, Eileen; Holley, Susan; Monsees, Barbara; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-03-01

    Many breast cancer patients receive neoadjuvant treatment to reduce tumor size and enable breast conserving therapy. Most imaging methods used to monitor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy or hormone therapy depend on overall gross tumor morphology and size measurements, which may not be sensitive or specific, despite tumor response on a cellular level. A more sensitive and specific method of detecting response to therapy might allow earlier adjustments in treatment, and thus result in better outcomes while avoiding unnecessary morbidity. We developed an imaging system that combines spectral photoacoustic tomography and ultrasonography to predict breast neoadjuvant therapeutic response based on blood volume and blood oxygenation contrast. The system consists of a tunable dye laser pumped by a Nd:YAG laser, a commercial ultrasound imaging system (Philips iU22), and a multichannel data acquisition system which displays co-registered photoacoustic and ultrasound images in real time. Early studies demonstrate functional imaging capabilities, such as oxygen saturation and total concentration of hemoglobin, in addition to ultrasonography of tumor morphology. Further study is needed to determine if the co-registered photoacoustic tomography and ultrasonography system may provide an accurate tool to assess treatment efficacy by monitoring tumor response in vivo.

  13. Three-dimensional multiexcitation magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Mariappan, Leo; He, Bin

    2010-12-15

    Magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI) is a hybrid imaging modality proposed to image electrical conductivity contrast of biological tissue with high spatial resolution. This modality combines magnetic excitations with ultrasound detection through the Lorentz force based coupling mechanism. However, previous studies have shown that MAT-MI method with single type of magnetic excitation can only reconstruct the conductivity boundaries of a sample. In order to achieve more complete conductivity contrast reconstruction, we proposed a multiexcitation MAT-MI approach. In this approach, multiple magnetic excitations using different coil configurations are applied to the object sequentially and ultrasonic signals corresponding to each excitation are collected for conductivity image reconstruction. In this study, we validate the new multiexcitation MAT-MI method for three-dimensional (3D) conductivity imaging through both computer simulations and phantom experiments. 3D volume data are obtained by utilizing acoustic focusing and cylindrical scanning under each magnetic excitation. It is shown in our simulation and experiment results that with a common ultrasound probe that has limited bandwidth we are able to correctly reconstruct the 3D relative conductivity contrast of the imaging object. As compared to those conductivity boundary images generated by previous single-excitation MAT-MI, the new multiexcitation MAT-MI method provides more complete conductivity contrast reconstruction, and therefore, more valuable information in possible clinical and research applications. PMID:21267084

  14. Three-dimensional multiexcitation magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xu; Mariappan, Leo; He, Bin

    2010-12-01

    Magnetoacoustic tomography with magnetic induction (MAT-MI) is a hybrid imaging modality proposed to image electrical conductivity contrast of biological tissue with high spatial resolution. This modality combines magnetic excitations with ultrasound detection through the Lorentz force based coupling mechanism. However, previous studies have shown that MAT-MI method with single type of magnetic excitation can only reconstruct the conductivity boundaries of a sample. In order to achieve more complete conductivity contrast reconstruction, we proposed a multiexcitation MAT-MI approach. In this approach, multiple magnetic excitations using different coil configurations are applied to the object sequentially and ultrasonic signals corresponding to each excitation are collected for conductivity image reconstruction. In this study, we validate the new multiexcitation MAT-MI method for three-dimensional (3D) conductivity imaging through both computer simulations and phantom experiments. 3D volume data are obtained by utilizing acoustic focusing and cylindrical scanning under each magnetic excitation. It is shown in our simulation and experiment results that with a common ultrasound probe that has limited bandwidth we are able to correctly reconstruct the 3D relative conductivity contrast of the imaging object. As compared to those conductivity boundary images generated by previous single-excitation MAT-MI, the new multiexcitation MAT-MI method provides more complete conductivity contrast reconstruction, and therefore, more valuable information in possible clinical and research applications.

  15. Three-dimensional stereo by photometric ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, L.B.; Angelopoulou, E.

    1994-11-01

    We present a methodology for corresponding a dense set of points on an object surface from photometric values for three-dimensional stereo computation of depth. The methodology utilizes multiple stereo pairs of images, with each stereo pair being taken of the identical scene but under different illumination. With just two stereo pairs of images taken under two different illumination conditions, a stereo pair of ratio images can be produced, one for the ratio of left-hand images and one for the ratio of right-hand images. We demonstrate how the photometric ratios composing these images can be used for accurate correspondence of object points. Object points having the same photometric ratio with respect to two different illumination conditions constitute a well-defined equivalence class of physical constraints defined by local surface orientation relative to illumination conditions. We formally show that for diffuse reflection the photometric ratio is invariant to varying camera characteristics, surface albedo, and viewpoint and that therefore the same photometric ratio in both images of a stereo pair implies the same equivalence class of physical constraints. The correspondence of photometric ratios along epipolar lines in a stereo pair of images under different illumination conditions is a correspondence of equivalent physical constraints, and the determination of depth from stereo can be performed. Whereas illumination planning is required, our photometric-based stereo methodology does not require knowledge of illumination conditions in the actual computation of three-dimensional depth and is applicable to perspective views. This technique extends the stereo determination of three-dimensional depth to smooth featureless surfaces without the use of precisely calibrated lighting. We demonstrate experimental depth maps from a dense set of points on smooth objects of known ground-truth shape, determined to within 1% depth accuracy.

  16. Three-dimensional lock and key colloids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Yufeng; Zheng, Xiaolong; Yi, Gi-Ra; Sacanna, Stefano; Pine, David J; Weck, Marcus

    2014-05-14

    Colloids with well-defined multicavities are synthesized through the hydrolytic removal of silica cluster templates from organo-silica hybrid patchy particles. The geometry of the cavities stems from the originally assembled cluster templates, displaying well-defined three-dimensional symmetries, ranging from spherical, linear, triangular, tetrahedral, trigonal dipyramidal, octahedral, to pentagonal dipyramidal. The concave surface of the cavities is smooth, and the cavity shallowness and size can be varied. These particles with multicavities can act as "lock" particles with multiple "key holes". Up to n "key" particles can self-assemble into the lock particles via depletion interaction, resulting in multivalent, site-specific, reversible, and flexible bonding. PMID:24785203

  17. Three dimensional digital holographic aperture synthesis.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Stephen; Kaylor, Brant M; Barber, Zeb W; Reibel, Randy R

    2015-09-01

    Aperture synthesis techniques are applied to temporally and spatially diverse digital holograms recorded with a fast focal-plane array. Because the technique fully resolves the downrange dimension using wide-bandwidth FMCW linear-chirp waveforms, extremely high resolution three dimensional (3D) images can be obtained even at very long standoff ranges. This allows excellent 3D image formation even when targets have significant structure or discontinuities, which are typically poorly rendered with multi-baseline synthetic aperture ladar or multi-wavelength holographic aperture ladar approaches. The background for the system is described and system performance is demonstrated through both simulation and experiments. PMID:26368474

  18. High resolution three-dimensional doping profiler

    DOEpatents

    Thundat, Thomas G.; Warmack, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    A semiconductor doping profiler provides a Schottky contact at one surface and an ohmic contact at the other. While the two contacts are coupled to a power source, thereby establishing an electrical bias in the semiconductor, a localized light source illuminates the semiconductor to induce a photocurrent. The photocurrent changes in accordance with the doping characteristics of the semiconductor in the illuminated region. By changing the voltage of the power source the depth of the depletion layer can be varied to provide a three dimensional view of the local properties of the semiconductor.

  19. Three-dimensional instability of elliptical flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayly, B. J.

    1986-10-01

    A clarification of the physical and mathematical nature of Pierrhumbert's (1986) three-dimensional short-wave inviscid instability of simple two-dimensional elliptical flow is presented. The instabilities found are independent of length scale, extending Pierrhumbert's conclusion that the structures of the instabilities are independent of length scale in the limit of large wave number. The fundamental modes are exact solutions of the nonlinear equations, and they are plane waves whose wave vector rotates elliptically around the z axis with a period of 2(pi)/Omega. The growth rates are shown to be the exponents of a matrix Floquet problem, and good agreement is found with previous results.

  20. Three-dimensional ultrasonic colloidal crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caleap, Mihai; Drinkwater, Bruce W.

    2016-05-01

    Colloidal assembly represents a powerful method for the fabrication of functional materials. In this article, we describe how acoustic radiation forces can guide the assembly of colloidal particles into structures that serve as microscopic elements in novel acoustic metadevices or act as phononic crystals. Using a simple three-dimensional orthogonal system, we show that a diversity of colloidal structures with orthorhombic symmetry can be assembled with megahertz-frequency (MHz) standing pressure waves. These structures allow rapid tuning of acoustic properties and provide a new platform for dynamic metamaterial applications. xml:lang="fr"

  1. Three-Dimensional Printing in Orthopedic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Nguyen, Eric; Daniels, Alan H

    2015-11-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is emerging as a clinically promising technology for rapid prototyping of surgically implantable products. With this commercially available technology, computed tomography or magnetic resonance images can be used to create graspable objects from 3D reconstructed images. Models can enhance patients' understanding of their pathology and surgeon preoperative planning. Customized implants and casts can be made to match an individual's anatomy. This review outlines 3D printing, its current applications in orthopedics, and promising future directions. PMID:26558661

  2. Three-dimensional quantitative flow diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Richard B.; Nosenchuck, Daniel M.

    1989-01-01

    The principles, capabilities, and practical implementation of advanced measurement techniques for the quantitative characterization of three-dimensional flows are reviewed. Consideration is given to particle, Rayleigh, and Raman scattering; fluorescence; flow marking by H2 bubbles, photochromism, photodissociation, and vibrationally excited molecules; light-sheet volume imaging; and stereo imaging. Also discussed are stereo schlieren methods, holographic particle imaging, optical tomography, acoustic and magnetic-resonance imaging, and the display of space-filling data. Extensive diagrams, graphs, photographs, sample images, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  3. Three-dimensional x-ray microtomography

    SciTech Connect

    Flannery, B.P.; Deckman, H.W.; Roberge, W.G.; D'Amico, K.L.

    1987-09-18

    The new technique of x-ray microtomography nondestructively generates three-dimensional maps of the x-ray attenuation coefficient inside small samples with approximately 1 percent accuracy and with resolution approaching 1 micrometer. Spatially resolved elemental maps can be produced with synchrotron x-ray sources by scanning samples at energies just above and below characteristic atomic absorption edges. The system consists of a high-resolution imaging x-ray detector and high-speed algorithms for tomographic image reconstruction. The design and operation of the microtomography device are described, and tomographic images that illustrate it performance with both synchrotron and laboratory x-ray sources are presented.

  4. Three-dimensional simulations of burning thermals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspden, Andy; Bell, John; Woosley, Stan

    2010-11-01

    Flame ignition in type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) leads to isolated bubbles of burning buoyant fluid. As a bubble rises due to gravity, it becomes deformed by shear instabilities and transitions to a turbulent buoyant vortex ring. Morton, Taylor and Turner (1956) introduced the entrainment assumption, which can be applied to inert thermals. In this study, we use the entrainment assumption, suitably modified to account for burning, to predict the late-time asymptotic behaviour of these turbulent buoyant vortex rings in SNe Ia. The theory is validated against three- dimensional simulations with adaptive mesh refinement at effective resolutions up to 4096^3.

  5. Electrode With Porous Three-Dimensional Support

    DOEpatents

    Bernard, Patrick; Dauchier, Jean-Michel; Simonneau, Olivier

    1999-07-27

    Electrode including a paste containing particles of electrochemically active material and a conductive support consisting of a three-dimensional porous material comprising strands delimiting contiguous pores communicating via passages, characterized in that the average width L in .mu.m of said passages is related to the average diameter .O slashed. in .mu.m of said particles by the following equation, in which W and Y are dimensionless coefficients: wherein W=0.16 Y=1.69 X=202.4 .mu.m and Z=80 .mu.m

  6. Intersection of three-dimensional geometric surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, V. K.; Rehder, J. J.; Schwing, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Calculating the line of intersection between two three-dimensional objects and using the information to generate a third object is a key element in a geometry development system. Techniques are presented for the generation of three-dimensional objects, the calculation of a line of intersection between two objects, and the construction of a resultant third object. The objects are closed surfaces consisting of adjacent bicubic parametric patches using Bezier basis functions. The intersection determination involves subdividing the patches that make up the objects until they are approximately planar and then calculating the intersection between planes. The resulting straight-line segments are connected to form the curve of intersection. The polygons in the neighborhood of the intersection are reconstructed and put back into the Bezier representation. A third object can be generated using various combinations of the original two. Several examples are presented. Special cases and problems were encountered, and the method for handling them is discussed. The special cases and problems included intersection of patch edges, gaps between adjacent patches because of unequal subdivision, holes, or islands within patches, and computer round-off error.

  7. Two component-three dimensional catalysis

    DOEpatents

    Schwartz, Michael; White, James H.; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2002-01-01

    This invention relates to catalytic reactor membranes having a gas-impermeable membrane for transport of oxygen anions. The membrane has an oxidation surface and a reduction surface. The membrane is coated on its oxidation surface with an adherent catalyst layer and is optionally coated on its reduction surface with a catalyst that promotes reduction of an oxygen-containing species (e.g., O.sub.2, NO.sub.2, SO.sub.2, etc.) to generate oxygen anions on the membrane. The reactor has an oxidation zone and a reduction zone separated by the membrane. A component of an oxygen containing gas in the reduction zone is reduced at the membrane and a reduced species in a reactant gas in the oxidation zone of the reactor is oxidized. The reactor optionally contains a three-dimensional catalyst in the oxidation zone. The adherent catalyst layer and the three-dimensional catalyst are selected to promote a desired oxidation reaction, particularly a partial oxidation of a hydrocarbon.

  8. Nanowired three-dimensional cardiac patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvir, Tal; Timko, Brian P.; Brigham, Mark D.; Naik, Shreesh R.; Karajanagi, Sandeep S.; Levy, Oren; Jin, Hongwei; Parker, Kevin K.; Langer, Robert; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2011-11-01

    Engineered cardiac patches for treating damaged heart tissues after a heart attack are normally produced by seeding heart cells within three-dimensional porous biomaterial scaffolds. These biomaterials, which are usually made of either biological polymers such as alginate or synthetic polymers such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA), help cells organize into functioning tissues, but poor conductivity of these materials limits the ability of the patch to contract strongly as a unit. Here, we show that incorporating gold nanowires within alginate scaffolds can bridge the electrically resistant pore walls of alginate and improve electrical communication between adjacent cardiac cells. Tissues grown on these composite matrices were thicker and better aligned than those grown on pristine alginate and when electrically stimulated, the cells in these tissues contracted synchronously. Furthermore, higher levels of the proteins involved in muscle contraction and electrical coupling are detected in the composite matrices. It is expected that the integration of conducting nanowires within three-dimensional scaffolds may improve the therapeutic value of current cardiac patches.

  9. In-lab three-dimensional printing

    PubMed Central

    Partridge, Roland; Conlisk, Noel; Davies, Jamie A.

    2012-01-01

    The development of the microscope in 1590 by Zacharias Janssenby and Hans Lippershey gave the world a new way of visualizing details of morphogenesis and development. More recent improvements in this technology including confocal microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical projection tomography (OPT) have enhanced the quality of the resultant image. These technologies also allow a representation to be made of a developing tissue’s three-dimensional (3-D) form. With all these techniques however, the image is delivered on a flat two-dimensional (2-D) screen. 3-D printing represents an exciting potential to reproduce the image not simply on a flat screen, but in a physical, palpable three-dimensional structure. Here we explore the scope that this holds for exploring and interacting with the structure of a developing organ in an entirely novel way. As well as being useful for visualization, 3-D printers are capable of rapidly and cost-effectively producing custom-made structures for use within the laboratory. We here describe the advantages of producing hardware for a tissue culture system using an inexpensive in-lab printer. PMID:22652907

  10. Nanowired three-dimensional cardiac patches.

    PubMed

    Dvir, Tal; Timko, Brian P; Brigham, Mark D; Naik, Shreesh R; Karajanagi, Sandeep S; Levy, Oren; Jin, Hongwei; Parker, Kevin K; Langer, Robert; Kohane, Daniel S

    2011-11-01

    Engineered cardiac patches for treating damaged heart tissues after a heart attack are normally produced by seeding heart cells within three-dimensional porous biomaterial scaffolds. These biomaterials, which are usually made of either biological polymers such as alginate or synthetic polymers such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA), help cells organize into functioning tissues, but poor conductivity of these materials limits the ability of the patch to contract strongly as a unit. Here, we show that incorporating gold nanowires within alginate scaffolds can bridge the electrically resistant pore walls of alginate and improve electrical communication between adjacent cardiac cells. Tissues grown on these composite matrices were thicker and better aligned than those grown on pristine alginate and when electrically stimulated, the cells in these tissues contracted synchronously. Furthermore, higher levels of the proteins involved in muscle contraction and electrical coupling are detected in the composite matrices. It is expected that the integration of conducting nanowires within three-dimensional scaffolds may improve the therapeutic value of current cardiac patches. PMID:21946708

  11. Three-dimensional television: a broadcaster's perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, S. J. E.; Armstrong, M.; Salmon, R. A.

    2009-02-01

    The recent resurgence of interest in the stereoscopic cinema and the increasing availability to the consumer of stereoscopic televisions and computer displays are leading broadcasters to consider, once again, the feasibility of stereoscopic broadcasting. High Definition Television is now widely deployed, and the R&D departments of broadcasters and consumer electronics manufacturers are starting to plan future enhancements to the experience of television. Improving the perception of depth via stereoscopy is a strong candidate technology. In this paper we will consider the challenges associated with the production, transmission and display of different forms of "three-dimensional" television. We will explore options available to a broadcaster wishing to start a 3D service using the technologies available at the present time, and consider how they could be improved to enable many more television programmes to be recorded and transmitted in a 3D-compatible form, paying particular attention to scenarios such as live broadcasting, where the workflows developed for the stereoscopic cinema are inapplicable. We will also consider the opportunities available for broadcasters to reach audiences with "three-dimensional" content via other media in the near future: for example, distributing content via the existing stereoscopic cinema network, or over the Internet to owners of stereoscopic computer displays.

  12. Three-dimensional image signals: processing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiopu, Paul; Manea, Adrian; Craciun, Anca-Ileana; Craciun, Alexandru

    2010-11-01

    Over the years extensive studies have been carried out to apply coherent optics methods in real-time processing, communications and transmission image. This is especially true when a large amount of information needs to be processed, e.g., in high-resolution imaging. The recent progress in data-processing networks and communication systems has considerably increased the capacity of information exchange. We describe the results of literature investigation research of processing methods for the signals of the three-dimensional images. All commercially available 3D technologies today are based on stereoscopic viewing. 3D technology was once the exclusive domain of skilled computer-graphics developers with high-end machines and software. The images capture from the advanced 3D digital camera can be displayed onto screen of the 3D digital viewer with/ without special glasses. For this is needed considerable processing power and memory to create and render the complex mix of colors, textures, and virtual lighting and perspective necessary to make figures appear three-dimensional. Also, using a standard digital camera and a technique called phase-shift interferometry we can capture "digital holograms." These are holograms that can be stored on computer and transmitted over conventional networks. We present some research methods to process "digital holograms" for the Internet transmission and results.

  13. On three-dimensional dilational elastic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bückmann, Tiemo; Schittny, Robert; Thiel, Michael; Kadic, Muamer; Milton, Graeme W.; Wegener, Martin

    2014-03-01

    Dilational materials are stable, three-dimensional isotropic auxetics with an ultimate Poisson's ratio of -1. Inspired by previous theoretical work, we design a feasible blueprint for an artificial material, a metamaterial, which approaches the ideal of a dilational material. The main novelty of our work is that we also fabricate and characterize corresponding metamaterial samples. To reveal all modes in the design, we calculate the phonon band structures. On this basis, using cubic symmetry we can unambiguously retrieve all different non-zero elements of the rank-four effective metamaterial elasticity tensor from which all effective elastic metamaterial properties follow. While the elastic properties and the phase velocity remain anisotropic, the effective Poisson's ratio indeed becomes isotropic and approaches -1 in the limit of small internal connections. This finding is also supported by independent, static continuum-mechanics calculations. In static experiments on macroscopic polymer structures fabricated by three-dimensional printing, we measure Poisson's ratios as low as -0.8 in good agreement with the theory. Microscopic samples are also presented.

  14. Three-dimensional fluorescence lifetime tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Godavarty, Anuradha; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Eppstein, Margaret J.

    2005-04-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence tomography using molecularly targeted lifetime-sensitive, fluorescent contrast agents have applications for early-stage cancer diagnostics. Yet, although the measurement of fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is extensively used in microscopy and spectroscopy applications, demonstration of fluorescence lifetime tomography for medical imaging is limited to two-dimensional studies. Herein, the feasibility of three-dimensional fluorescence-lifetime tomography on clinically relevant phantom volumes is established, using (i) a gain-modulated intensified charge coupled device (CCD) and modulated laser diode imaging system, (ii) two fluorescent contrast agents, e.g., Indocyanine green and 3-3'-Diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide differing in their fluorescence lifetime by 0.62 ns, and (iii) a two stage approximate extended Kalman filter reconstruction algorithm. Fluorescence measurements of phase and amplitude were acquired on the phantom surface under different target to background fluorescence absorption (70:1, 100:1) and fluorescence lifetime (1:1, 2.1:1) contrasts at target depths of 1.4-2 cm. The Bayesian tomography algorithm was employed to obtain three-dimensional images of lifetime and absorption owing to the fluorophores.

  15. Three-dimensional flow in Kupffer's Vesicle.

    PubMed

    Montenegro-Johnson, T D; Baker, D I; Smith, D J; Lopes, S S

    2016-09-01

    Whilst many vertebrates appear externally left-right symmetric, the arrangement of internal organs is asymmetric. In zebrafish, the breaking of left-right symmetry is organised by Kupffer's Vesicle (KV): an approximately spherical, fluid-filled structure that begins to form in the embryo 10 hours post fertilisation. A crucial component of zebrafish symmetry breaking is the establishment of a cilia-driven fluid flow within KV. However, it is still unclear (a) how dorsal, ventral and equatorial cilia contribute to the global vortical flow, and (b) if this flow breaks left-right symmetry through mechanical transduction or morphogen transport. Fully answering these questions requires knowledge of the three-dimensional flow patterns within KV, which have not been quantified in previous work. In this study, we calculate and analyse the three-dimensional flow in KV. We consider flow from both individual and groups of cilia, and (a) find anticlockwise flow can arise purely from excess of cilia on the dorsal roof over the ventral floor, showing how this vortical flow is stabilised by dorsal tilt of equatorial cilia, and (b) show that anterior clustering of dorsal cilia leads to around 40 % faster flow in the anterior over the posterior corner. We argue that these flow features are supportive of symmetry breaking through mechano-sensory cilia, and suggest a novel experiment to test this hypothesis. From our new understanding of the flow, we propose a further experiment to reverse the flow within KV to potentially induce situs inversus. PMID:26825450

  16. Three-dimensional singular points in aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unal, Aynur

    1988-01-01

    When three-dimensional separation occurs on a body immersed in a flow governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, the geometrical surfaces formed by the three vector fields (velocity, vorticity and the skin-friction) and a scalar field (pressure) become interrelated through topological maps containing their respective singular points and extremal points. A mathematically consistent description of these singular points becomes inevitable when we want to study the geometry of the separation. A separated stream surface requires, for example, the existence of a saddle-type singular point on the skin-friction surface. This singular point is actually, in the proper language of mathematics, a saddle of index two. The index is a measure of the dimension of the outset (set leaving the singular point). Hence, when a saddle of index two is specified, a two dimensional surface that becomes separated from the osculating plane of the saddle is implied. The three-dimensional singular point is interpreted mathematically and the most common aerodynamical singular points are discussed through this perspective.

  17. Three-dimensional head anthropometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enciso, Reyes; Shaw, Alex M.; Neumann, Ulrich; Mah, James

    2003-05-01

    Currently, two-dimensional photographs are most commonly used to facilitate visualization, assessment and treatment of facial abnormalities in craniofacial care but are subject to errors because of perspective, projection, lack metric and 3-dimensional information. One can find in the literature a variety of methods to generate 3-dimensional facial images such as laser scans, stereo-photogrammetry, infrared imaging and even CT however each of these methods contain inherent limitations and as such no systems are in common clinical use. In this paper we will focus on development of indirect 3-dimensional landmark location and measurement of facial soft-tissue with light-based techniques. In this paper we will statistically evaluate and validate a current three-dimensional image-based face modeling technique using a plaster head model. We will also develop computer graphics tools for indirect anthropometric measurements in a three-dimensional head model (or polygonal mesh) including linear distances currently used in anthropometry. The measurements will be tested against a validated 3-dimensional digitizer (MicroScribe 3DX).

  18. Three-dimensional model of lignin structure

    SciTech Connect

    Jurasek, L.

    1995-12-01

    An attempt to build a three-dimensional model of lignin structure using a computer program is described. The program simulates the biosynthesis of spruce lignin by allowing coniferyl alcohol subunits to be added randomly by six different types of linkages, assumed to be most common. The simulated biosynthesis starts from a number of seed points within restricted space, corresponding to 50 mM initial concentration of coniferyl alcohol. Rules of three-dimensional packing of the subunits within the lignin macro-molecule are observed during the simulated biosynthetic process. Branched oligomeric structures thus generated form crosslinks at those positions where the chains grow close enough to form a link. Inter-chain crosslinking usually joins the oligomers into one macromolecule. Intra-chain crosslinks are also formed and result in closed loops. Typically, a macromolecule with molecular weight of approx. 2 x 105 is formed, with internal density of 1.35g/cm3. Various characteristics of the internal structure, such as branching, crosslinking, bond frequencies, and chain length distribution are described. Breakdown of the polymer was also simulated and the effect of closed loops on the weight average molecular weight is shown. The effect of the shape of the biosynthetic space on the degree of crosslinking is discussed and predictions of the overall molecular shape of lignin particles are made.

  19. Three-dimensional turbopump flowfield analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, O. P.; Belford, K. A.; Ni, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    A program was conducted to develop a flow prediction method applicable to rocket turbopumps. The complex nature of a flowfield in turbopumps is described and examples of flowfields are discussed to illustrate that physics based models and analytical calculation procedures based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are needed to develop reliable design procedures for turbopumps. A CFD code developed at NASA ARC was used as the base code. The turbulence model and boundary conditions in the base code were modified, respectively, to: (1) compute transitional flows and account for extra rates of strain, e.g., rotation; and (2) compute surface heat transfer coefficients and allow computation through multistage turbomachines. Benchmark quality data from two and three-dimensional cascades were used to verify the code. The predictive capabilities of the present CFD code were demonstrated by computing the flow through a radial impeller and a multistage axial flow turbine. Results of the program indicate that the present code operated in a two-dimensional mode is a cost effective alternative to full three-dimensional calculations, and that it permits realistic predictions of unsteady loadings and losses for multistage machines.

  20. Ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... please enable JavaScript. Ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to make images of organs and structures inside ... examined. The machine sends out high-frequency sound waves, which reflect off body structures. A computer receives ...

  1. Integration of 3D intraoperative ultrasound for enhanced neuronavigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, Keith D.; Ji, Songbai; Hartov, Alex; Fan, Xiaoyao; Roberts, David W.

    2012-03-01

    True three-dimensional (3D) volumetric ultrasound (US) acquisitions stand to benefit intraoperative neuronavigation on multiple fronts. While traditional two-dimensional (2D) US and its tracked, hand-swept version have been recognized for many years to advantage significantly image-guided neurosurgery, especially when coregistered with preoperative MR scans, its unregulated and incomplete sampling of the surgical volume of interest have limited certain intraoperative uses of the information that are overcome through direct volume acquisition (i.e., through 2D scan-head transducer arrays). In this paper, we illustrate several of these advantages, including image-based intraoperative registration (and reregistration) and automated, volumetric displacement mapping for intraoperative image updating. These applications of 3D US are enabled by algorithmic advances in US image calibration, and volume rasterization and interpolation for multi-acquisition synthesis that will also be highlighted. We expect to demonstrate that coregistered 3D US is well worth incorporating into the standard neurosurgical navigational environment relative to traditional tracked, hand-swept 2D US.

  2. Three-dimensional pancreas organogenesis models.

    PubMed

    Grapin-Botton, A

    2016-09-01

    A rediscovery of three-dimensional culture has led to the development of organ biogenesis, homeostasis and disease models applicable to human tissues. The so-called organoids that have recently flourished serve as valuable models bridging between cell lines or primary cells grown on the bottom of culture plates and experiments performed in vivo. Though not recapitulating all aspects of organ physiology, the miniature organs generated in a dish are useful models emerging for the pancreas, starting from embryonic progenitors, adult cells, tumour cells and stem cells. This review focusses on the currently available systems and their relevance to the study of the pancreas, of β-cells and of several pancreatic diseases including diabetes. We discuss the expected future developments for studying human pancreas development and function, for developing diabetes models and for producing therapeutic cells. PMID:27615129

  3. Heterogeneous, three-dimensional texturing of graphene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Michael Cai; Chun, SungGyu; Han, Ryan Steven; Ashraf, Ali; Kang, Pilgyu; Nam, SungWoo

    2015-03-11

    We report a single-step strategy to achieve heterogeneous, three-dimensional (3D) texturing of graphene and graphite by using a thermally activated shape-memory polymer substrate. Uniform arrays of graphene crumples can be created on the centimeter scale by controlling simple thermal processing parameters without compromising the electrical properties of graphene. In addition, we show the capability to selectively pattern crumples from otherwise flat graphene and graphene/graphite in a localized manner, which has not been previously achievable using other methods. Finally, we demonstrate 3D crumpled graphene field-effect transistor arrays in a solution-gated configuration. The presented approach has the capability to conform onto arbitrary 3D surfaces, a necessary prerequisite for adaptive electronics, and will enable facile large-scale topography engineering of not only graphene but also other thin-film and 2D materials in the future. PMID:25667959

  4. Scaffolding for Three-Dimensional Embryonic Vasculogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraehenbuehl, Thomas P.; Aday, Sezin; Ferreira, Lino S.

    Biomaterial scaffolds have great potential to support efficient vascular differentiation of embryonic stem cells. Vascular cell fate-specific biochemical and biophysical cues have been identified and incorporated into three-dimensional (3D) biomaterials to efficiently direct embryonic vasculogenesis. The resulting vascular-like tissue can be used for regenerative medicine applications, further elucidation of biophysical and biochemical cues governing vasculogenesis, and drug discovery. In this chapter, we give an overview on the following: (1) developmental cues for directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into vascular cells, (2) 3D vascular differentiation in embryoid bodies (EBs), (3) preparation of 3D scaffolds for the vascular differentiation of hESCs, and (4) the most significant studies combining scaffolding and hESCs for development of vascular-like tissue.

  5. Multiscale modeling of three-dimensional genome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bin; Wolynes, Peter

    The genome, the blueprint of life, contains nearly all the information needed to build and maintain an entire organism. A comprehensive understanding of the genome is of paramount interest to human health and will advance progress in many areas, including life sciences, medicine, and biotechnology. The overarching goal of my research is to understand the structure-dynamics-function relationships of the human genome. In this talk, I will be presenting our efforts in moving towards that goal, with a particular emphasis on studying the three-dimensional organization, the structure of the genome with multi-scale approaches. Specifically, I will discuss the reconstruction of genome structures at both interphase and metaphase by making use of data from chromosome conformation capture experiments. Computationally modeling of chromatin fiber at atomistic level from first principles will also be presented as our effort for studying the genome structure from bottom up.

  6. Three-dimensional joint transform correlator cryptosystem.

    PubMed

    Zea, Alejandro Velez; Barrera Ramirez, John Fredy; Torroba, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    We introduce for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a three-dimensional experimental joint transform correlator (JTC) cryptosystem allowing the encryption of information for any 3D object, and as an additional novel feature, a second 3D object plays the role of the encoding key. While the JTC architecture is normally used to process 2D data, in this work, we envisage a technique that allows the use of this architecture to protect 3D data. The encrypted object information is contained in the joint power spectrum. We register the key object as a digital off-axis Fourier hologram. The encryption procedure is done optically, while the decryption is carried out by means of a virtual optical system, allowing for flexible implementation of the proposal. We present experimental results to demonstrate the validity and feasibility of the method. PMID:26907433

  7. The Three-Dimensional EIT Wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, B. J.; Biesecker, D. A.; Gilbert, H. R.; Lawrence, G. R.; Ofman, L.; Wu, S. T.; Warmuth, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An EIT wave is an impulsive disturbance which has been observed in the EUV, Soft X-ray and white light corona, with corresponding observations in the chromosphere. The effects of these disturbances can be observed across the entire solar disk of the Sun, and throughout the inner heliosphere as well. However, the picture is not complete; observations alone do not establish a complete understanding of the nature of this three-dimensional phenomenon. A number of associated phenomena have been documented, though in most cases causality has not determined. Additionally, it is unclear which factors govern the impulse's ability to affect regions of the corona and heliosphere. We discuss the various observations and the models which provided links between the associated phenomena.

  8. Three dimensional fabric evolution of sheared sand

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, Alsidqi; Alshibli, Khalid

    2012-10-24

    Granular particles undergo translation and rolling when they are sheared. This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) experimental assessment of fabric evolution of sheared sand at the particle level. F-75 Ottawa sand specimen was tested under an axisymmetric triaxial loading condition. It measured 9.5 mm in diameter and 20 mm in height. The quantitative evaluation was conducted by analyzing 3D high-resolution x-ray synchrotron micro-tomography images of the specimen at eight axial strain levels. The analyses included visualization of particle translation and rotation, and quantification of fabric orientation as shearing continued. Representative individual particles were successfully tracked and visualized to assess the mode of interaction between them. This paper discusses fabric evolution and compares the evolution of particles within and outside the shear band as shearing continues. Changes in particle orientation distributions are presented using fabric histograms and fabric tensor.

  9. Surface fitting three-dimensional bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejarnette, F. R.; Ford, C. P., III

    1975-01-01

    The geometry of general three-dimensional bodies was generated from coordinates of points in several cross sections. Since these points may not be on smooth curves, they are divided into groups forming segments and general conic sections are curve fit in a least-squares sense to each segment of a cross section. The conic sections are then blended in the longitudinal direction through longitudinal curves. Both the cross-sectional and longitudinal curves may be modified by specifying particular segments as straight lines or specifying slopes at selected points. This method was used to surface fit a 70 deg slab delta wing and the HL-10 Lifting Body. The results for the delta wing were very close to the exact geometry. Although there is no exact solution for the lifting body, the surface fit generated a smooth surface with cross-sectional planes very close to prescribed coordinate points.

  10. Three-dimensional hybrid vortex solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driben, Rodislav; Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Malomed, Boris A.; Meier, Torsten; Torner, Lluis

    2014-06-01

    We show, by means of numerical and analytical methods, that media with a repulsive nonlinearity which grows from the center to the periphery support a remarkable variety of previously unknown complex stationary and dynamical three-dimensional (3D) solitary-wave states. Peanut-shaped modulation profiles give rise to vertically symmetric and antisymmetric vortex states, and novel stationary hybrid states, built of top and bottom vortices with opposite topological charges, as well as robust dynamical hybrids, which feature stable precession of a vortex on top of a zero-vorticity soliton. The analysis reveals stability regions for symmetric, antisymmetric, and hybrid states. In addition, bead-shaped modulation profiles give rise to the first example of exact analytical solutions for stable 3D vortex solitons. The predicted states may be realized in media with a controllable cubic nonlinearity, such as Bose-Einstein condensates.