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Sample records for corn flour dough

  1. Gluten-free dough-making of specialty breads: Significance of blended starches, flours and additives on dough behaviour.

    PubMed

    Collar, Concha; Conte, Paola; Fadda, Costantino; Piga, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The capability of different gluten-free (GF) basic formulations made of flour (rice, amaranth and chickpea) and starch (corn and cassava) blends, to make machinable and viscoelastic GF-doughs in absence/presence of single hydrocolloids (guar gum, locust bean and psyllium fibre), proteins (milk and egg white) and surfactants (neutral, anionic and vegetable oil) have been investigated. Macroscopic (high deformation) and macromolecular (small deformation) mechanical, viscometric (gelatinization, pasting, gelling) and thermal (gelatinization, melting, retrogradation) approaches were performed on the different matrices in order to (a) identify similarities and differences in GF-doughs in terms of a small number of rheological and thermal analytical parameters according to the formulations and (b) to assess single and interactive effects of basic ingredients and additives on GF-dough performance to achieve GF-flat breads. Larger values for the static and dynamic mechanical characteristics and higher viscometric profiles during both cooking and cooling corresponded to doughs formulated with guar gum and Psyllium fibre added to rice flour/starch and rice flour/corn starch/chickpea flour, while surfactant- and protein-formulated GF-doughs added to rice flour/starch/amaranth flour based GF-doughs exhibited intermediate and lower values for the mechanical parameters and poorer viscometric profiles. In addition, additive-free formulations exhibited higher values for the temperature of both gelatinization and retrogradation and lower enthalpies for the thermal transitions. Single addition of 10% of either chickpea flour or amaranth flour to rice flour/starch blends provided a large GF-dough hardening effect in presence of corn starch and an intermediate effect in presence of cassava starch (chickpea), and an intermediate reinforcement of GF-dough regardless the source of starch (amaranth). At macromolecular level, both chickpea and amaranth flours, singly added, determined

  2. [Enrichment of precooked white corn flour (Zea mays) with amaranth seed flour (Amaranthus sp.)].

    PubMed

    Pacheco de Delahaye, E; Portillo, M

    1990-09-01

    Three mixtures of precooked white corn flour with 10, 20 and 30% amaranth flour were prepared. The sedimentation and consistency of the mixtures differed from those of the white corn flour, but without altering the capacity of dough formation to prepare arepas. The protein, fiber, and ash contents were higher than those of the precooked white corn flour. The functional properties of water and oil absorption increased in 20 and 10%, respectively. During the three-month storage, the protein and fat contents were not altered. Acceptability tests of the arepas were carried out and results indicated that those mixtures prepared with 10% and 20% substitution levels were acceptable from the sensory point of view. The protein quality was analyzed in terms of protein efficiency ratio (PER), which proved to be higher than that of the commercial white corn flour (PER 1.93), and the apparent digestibility was 92%. As far as lysine is concerned, results showed that arepas prepared with the mixture containing 10% amaranth (1.6 g lysine/100 g protein) and 20% (2.0 g lysine/100 g protein) also proved to be higher than the commercial white corn flour arepas (0.7 g lysine/100 g protein). Based on the above findings, enrichment of commercial white corn flour with grain amaranth flour, prior to the preparation of arepas, a product of high consumption in Venezuela as part of the habitual diet, is recommended. PMID:2134139

  3. Ultrasonic analysis to discriminate bread dough of different types of flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Álvarez, J.; Rosell, C. M.; García-Hernández, M. J.; Chávez, J. A.; Turó, A.; Salazar, J.

    2012-12-01

    Many varieties of bread are prepared using flour coming from wheat. However, there are other types of flours milled from rice, legumes and some fruits and vegetables that are also suitable for baking purposes, used alone or in combination with wheat flour. The type of flour employed strongly influences the dough consistency, which is a relevant property for determining the dough potential for breadmaking purposes. Traditional methods for dough testing are relatively expensive, time-consuming, off-line and often require skilled operators. In this work, ultrasonic analysis are performed in order to obtain acoustic properties of bread dough samples prepared using two different types of flour, wheat flour and rice flour. The dough acoustic properties can be related to its viscoelastic characteristics, which in turn determine the dough feasibility for baking. The main advantages of the ultrasonic dough testing can be, among others, its low cost, fast, hygienic and on-line performance. The obtained results point out the potential of the ultrasonic analysis to discriminate doughs of different types of flour.

  4. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  5. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  6. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  7. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  8. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  9. Impact of wheat flour-associated endoxylanases on arabinoxylan in dough after mixing and resting.

    PubMed

    Dornez, Emmie; Gebruers, Kurt; Cuyvers, Sven; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2007-08-22

    The impact of varying levels of endoxylanase activity in wheat flour on arabinoxylan (AX) in mixed and rested dough was studied using eight industrially milled wheat flour fractions with varying endoxylanase activity levels. Analysis of the levels of reducing end xylose (RX) and solubilized AX (S-AX) formed during mixing and resting and their correlation with the endoxylanase activity in the flour milling fractions showed that solubilization of AX during the mixing phase is mainly due to mechanical forces, while solubilization of AX during resting is caused by endoxylanase activity. Moreover, solubilization of AX during the dough resting phase is more outspoken than that during the mixing phase. Besides endoxylanase activity, there were significant xylosidase and arabinofuranosidase activities during the dough resting phase. The results indicate that wheat flour-associated endoxylanases can alter part of the AX in dough, thereby changing their functionality in bread making and potentially affecting dough and end product properties. PMID:17661495

  10. Textural and sensory properties of trifoliate yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) flour and stiff dough 'amala'.

    PubMed

    Abiodun, O A; Akinoso, R

    2015-05-01

    The use of trifoliate yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) flour for stiff dough 'amala' production is one of the ways to curb under-utilization of the tuber. The study evaluates the textural and sensory properties of trifoliate yam flour and stiff dough. Freshly harvested trifoliate yam tubers were peeled, washed, sliced and blanched (60 (°)C for 10 min). The sliced yam were soaked in water for 12 h, dried and milled into flour. Pasting viscosities, functional properties, brown index and sensory attributes of the flour and stiff dough were analyzed. Peak, holding strength and final viscosities ranged from 84.09 to 213.33 RVU, 81.25 to 157.00 RVU and 127.58 to 236.17 RVU respectively. White raw flour had higher viscosity than the yellow flours. The swelling index, water absorption capacity and bulk density ranged from 1.46 to 2.28, 2.11 to 2.92 ml H2O/g and 0.71 to 0.88 g/cm(3) respectively. Blanching method employed improved the swelling index and water absorption capacity of flour. The brown index values of flour and stiff dough ranged from 6.73 to 18.36 and 14.63-46.72 respectively. Sensory evaluation revealed significant differences in the colour, odour and general acceptability of the product when compared with the stiff dough from white yam. PMID:25892788

  11. Structural characterization of proteins in wheat flour doughs enriched with intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium) flour.

    PubMed

    Marti, Alessandra; Bock, Jayne E; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina; Ismail, Baraem; Seetharaman, Koushik

    2016-03-01

    The high protein and fiber content of intermediate wheatgrass (IWG) - together with its interesting agronomic traits and environment-related benefits - make this perennial crop attractive also for human consumption. Structural characteristics of the proteins in IWG/hard wheat flour (HWF) doughs (at IWG:HWF ratios of 0:100, 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0) - including aggregate formation, thiols availability, and secondary structure changes during dough mixing - were investigated. Proteins in IWG-doughs had higher solubility and thiol content - as function of IWG content - suggesting that protein network was mostly based on non-covalent interactions. While 50% IWG-enrichment gave an increase in random structures, enrichment at ⩾75% resulted in a decrease in β-sheets with an increase in random structures, indicating a decrease in structural order. The observed differences in protein molecular configuration and interactions in HWF compared to IWG doughs necessitate further investigation to establish their impact on the quality of IWG-enriched bread. PMID:26471645

  12. Predicting hot-press wheat tortilla quality using flour, dough and gluten properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cost-effective, faster and efficient way of screening wheat samples suitable for tortilla production is needed. This research aimed to develop prediction models for tortilla quality (diameter, specific volume, color and texture parameters) using grain, flour and dough properties of 16 wheat flours...

  13. 21 CFR 137.211 - White corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false White corn flour. 137.211 Section 137.211 Food and... Related Products § 137.211 White corn flour. (a) White corn flour is the food prepared by so grinding and bolting cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this...

  14. 21 CFR 137.211 - White corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false White corn flour. 137.211 Section 137.211 Food and... Related Products § 137.211 White corn flour. (a) White corn flour is the food prepared by so grinding and bolting cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this...

  15. 21 CFR 137.211 - White corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false White corn flour. 137.211 Section 137.211 Food and... Related Products § 137.211 White corn flour. (a) White corn flour is the food prepared by so grinding and bolting cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this...

  16. Activity of carbohydrate oxidases as influenced by wheat flour dough components.

    PubMed

    Degrand, L; Rakotozafy, L; Nicolas, J

    2015-08-15

    The carbohydrate oxidase (COXMn) from Microdochium nivale may well have desired functionalities as a dough and bread improver, similarly to Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase (GOX). COXMn catalyses the oxidation of various monosaccharides as well as maltooligosaccharides for which the best activity is obtained towards the maltooligosaccharides of polymerisation degrees 3 and 4. For the same activity towards glucose under air saturation, we show that COXMn exhibits a similar efficiency towards maltose as GOX towards glucose whatever the oxygen supply. Assays with COXMn show that no competition exists between carbohydrates naturally present in the wheat flour. We show that reaction products (d-glucono-δ-lactone and hydrogen peroxide) and the wheat flour dough component, ferulic acid, have no noticeable specific effect on the COXMn activity. The demonstrated differences in kinetics between COXMn and GOX allow predicting of differences in the functional behaviours of those enzymes during wheat flour dough formation. PMID:25794758

  17. Effect of β-glucan-rich barley flour fraction on rheology and quality of frozen yeasted dough.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Abdelmagid; Ragaee, Sanaa; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M

    2014-12-01

    Research has shown that prolonged frozen storage of bread dough reduces the quality of the end product. In this study, the effect of air-classified barley flour fraction rich in β-glucan (approximately 25%) on rheology and quality of frozen yeasted bread dough was investigated. Wheat flour (W) was replaced by air-classified barley flour fraction (B) at 10% without or with 1.4% vital gluten to produce β-glucan enriched barley dough (WB) or barley dough plus gluten (WB + G). Dough products were stored at -18 ºC for 8 wk and their rheological properties were investigated weekly. During frozen storage dough extensibility increased, while elastic and viscous moduli decreased. Differential scanning calorimeter and nuclear magnetic resonance data indicated that WB and WB + G dough products contained approximately 10% less freezable water and 9% more bound water compared to the control dough (W). β-Glucan enriched dough also exhibited less changes in gluten network as shown by SEM photographs. The addition of air-classified barley flour fraction at 10% in frozen dough reduced deterioration effects caused by frozen storage via minimizing water redistribution and maintaining rheological properties of frozen dough. PMID:25403947

  18. Assessment of breadmaking performance of wheat flour dough by means of frequency dependent ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunstein, D.; Page, J. H.; Strybulevych, A.; Peressini, D.; Scanlon, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    Technological performance of wheat flour varies among different wheat varieties. Gluten plays a key role within the solid phase of dough in the formation and the retention of gas bubbles during breadmaking. Rheological tests are usually performed to predict breadmaking potential. The aim here was to investigate the ability of ultrasound to discriminate wheat doughs based on breadmaking qualities. The ultimate goal is the development of an online quality control system currently unavailable in the baked goods industry, rendering this work innovative. Samples were prepared from a strong wheat flour, with one control sample and one added with inulin and distilled monoglycerides, producing doughs of distinct breadmaking quality. Doughs were subjected to density determination, elongation tests, and ultrasound analysis. The ultrasound tests were performed in the frequency range of 300 kHz - 6 MHz. Ultrasonic phase velocity increased with increasing frequency to about 2 MHz, becoming constant and then decreasing from 3 MHz for the control sample. Distinct differences in attenuation coefficient between the fibre-enriched and control doughs were observed. Ultrasound can potentially add to a better understanding of dough quality and can discriminate between doughs of contrasting properties.

  19. Modified dough preparation for Alveograph analysis with limited flour sample size

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dough rheological characteristics, such as resistance-to-extension and extensibility, obtained by alveograph testing are important traits for determination of wheat and flour quality. A challenging issue that faces wheat breeding programs and some wheat-research projects is the relatively large flou...

  20. Effect of Malting and Nixtamalization Processes on the Physicochemical Properties of Instant Extruded Corn Flour and Tortilla Quality.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Nicolás Alberto; Salazar-García, María Guadalupe; Ramírez-Wong, Benjamín; Islas-Rubio, Alma Rosa; Platt-Lucero, Luis Carlos; Morales-Rosas, Ignacio; Marquez-Melendez, Rubén; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    This research aimed to prepare instant flour from malted and raw (un-malted) corn flours nixtamalized by the extrusion process and evaluate the effect on the physicochemical properties of tortillas prepared using these flours. White maize was malted for 24 h, dried at 50 ± 1 °C, and ground. Subsequently, 0.3 % lime and 25 or 30 % water were added to ground malted or un-malted corn, and the mixture was refrigerated (4 °C) for 12 h. These samples were nixtamalized by an extrusion process in a single screw extruder at two temperature profiles within four heating zones, TP1 (60, 60, 70, and 80 °C) and TP2 (60, 70, 80, and 90 °C), to obtain corn flour. Water was added to the extruded corn flours to make a dough, or masa, and the masa was then molded and baked to obtain tortillas. The corn flours were characterized according to their ability to absorb water and viscosity profile (RVA). The firmness and rollability after 2 and 24 h of storage were determined, and a sensory evaluation was conducted. The malted corn flour extruded with a 25 % moisture content and TP2 temperature profile yielded tortillas with the best firmness and rollability. In conclusion, the changes during the malting of corn grain and the nixtamalization by the extrusion process improved the water absorption capacity of flours and textural properties of the tortilla and produced a product with acceptable sensory properties. PMID:26059113

  1. Cookies from composite wheat-sesame peels flours: dough quality and effect of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant addition.

    PubMed

    Zouari, Raida; Besbes, Souhail; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi-Aydi, Dhouha

    2016-03-01

    Sesame coat is a valuable by-product. The study was carried out on sesame peels flour at different replacing levels of white wheat flour in five cookies dough formulations. The functional properties of composite flours such as swelling capacity, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, emulsifying capacity, foam capacity, gelatinization temperature, least gelation concentration and bulk density were increased with increase in the sesame peels flour incorporation along with wheat flour. Texture analysis of dough revealed that, the addition of sesame peels flour affected the quality of dough in terms of hardness, cohesion, adhesion and breaking strength. Cookies supplemented with sesame peels flour showed interesting physical properties with lower moisture content and higher spread factor than those made by white wheat flour. But, their hardness increase with the increase of the replacement ratio and their color becomes indesirable. Interestingly, sensory results indicated that cookies supplemented with sesame peels flour were acceptable at a level that not exceeds 30% of incorporation. By the addition of SPB1 biosurfactant at 0.1%, the dough texture profile was significantly improved and the action of this bioemulsifier was more pronounced than a commercial emulsifier known as glycerol monostearate. With the addition of SPB1 biosurfactant on cookies' dough, we manage to obtain cookies softer and with better overall quality. PMID:26471616

  2. Rheological and sensory behaviour of rice flour dough: effect of selected additives in relation to dough flattening.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Yash; Bhattacharya, Suvendu

    2015-08-01

    The handling of rice flour doughs in terms of sheeting, flattening and rolling is difficult due to the absence of gluten forming proteins; scope exists to improve these characteristics by incorporating appropriate additives during the preparation of rice doughs. Different levels of additives such as whey protein concentrate (WPC) (0-10 %), xanthan gum (0-5 %), sucrose (0-20 %) and salt (0-2 %) have been incorporated, and the rheological (small-deformation oscillation) as well as sensory characteristics have been determined, in addition to microstructural observations and finding inter-relationships. The second order polynomial can adequately explain the rheological parameters like storage modulus, loss modulus and complex viscosity (R = 0.863-0.889, p ≤ 0.01) while it is poor for phase angle (R = 0.659, p ≤ 0.01). Among these additives, xanthan gum imparts the strongest effect (significant at p ≤ 0.01) followed by whey protein concentrate. The effects of these additives are predominantly linear though quadratic effects are also significant in several cases. A cohesive microstructure with improved binding occurs with a high level (7.5 %) of WPC. It is concluded that a judicious selection of additives in appropriate levels can develop rice doughs that possess the desirable handling properties leading to preparation of products. PMID:26243905

  3. Dough Rheology and Wet Milling of Hard Waxy Wheat Flours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To realize the full potential of waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), wet milling of waxy wheat flour to produce gluten and waxy wheat starch was investigated. Flours of six advanced lines of waxy hard wheats, one normal hard wheat (‘Karl 92’), and one partial waxy wheat (‘Trego’) were fractionated by...

  4. Effect of some essential oils on rheological properties of wheat flour dough.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa

    2009-03-01

    The effects of summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), majorana (Origanum vulgare L.), sage (Salvia triloba L), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), pickling herb (Echinophora tenuifolia L.) and laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) essential oils on extensograph and farinograph characteristics of wheat flour doughs were determined. Also, some chemical properties (moisture content, ash content, wet gluten content, sedimentation value and falling number) were established. The results show that resistance to extension, maximum resistance, ratio number (minimum) and ratio number (maximum) values were increased by S. hortensis oil addition during the proving time. Extensibility values of S. hortensis, O. vulgare and S. triloba at 90 min of proving time were found lower that than those of other proving times (except S. triloba at 135 min). According to the extensograph results, rosemary, pickling herb and laurel oils allowed higher extensibility and energy, and lower resistance to extension and maximum resistance (Brabender Unit Line). The farinograph water absorption (500 farinograph units) varied from 63.6 to 64.7. The development time of dough with rosemary oil was the same as the control group. Stabilities of dough with savory sater, majorana and sage oil were found lower that those of both control and other oils. As a result, rosemary, pickling herb and laurel oils had an advantage on the extensograph and farinograph characteristics of wheat flour dough. PMID:18608558

  5. Durum and soft wheat flours in sourdough and straight-dough bread-making.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Caligiani, Augusta; Sgarbi, Elisa; Cirlini, Martina; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Chiavaro, Emma

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, the bread-making performance of durum wheat flour under straight-dough and sourdough procedures were compared to those offered by soft wheat flour by means of selected physical properties (colour, texture, water dynamics, crumb grain characteristic, bulk volume) immediately after baking and during a 5-day shelf-life. The use of sourdough process better preserved both crumb grain characteristic and moisture content of the breads during shelf-life, independently of the wheat flour used. The flour seemed to significantly affect the water dynamics in sourdough breads, being the dehydration process of crust and under-crust faster in durum wheat breads. On the other hand, increasing trend of crumb firmness during the shelf-life was slower in durum wheat breads than in those obtained with soft wheat flour. Initial colour parameters of crust and crumb appeared to less change during shelf-life if durum wheat flour was used. Thus, the final quality of breads after baking and along the shelf-life was significantly affected by both the type of flours and the bread-making process. The results reported herein showed that technological performances of durum wheat flour, especially when combined with sourdough processes, could be successfully exploited for the production of innovative products in the bread-making industry. PMID:26396371

  6. EFFECT OF PROTEIN COMPOSITION OF WHEAT FLOUR MILL STREAMS ON DOUGH RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND BREAD CRUMB CHARACTERISTICS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flour mill streams, obtained from three samples of Nekota, a hard red winter wheat, were used in this study. The objective was to assess the contribution of protein composition on dough rheological properties and bread crumb characteristics of bread made from the mill streams. Flour proteins were fr...

  7. Industrial corn flour enrichment with whole amaranth flour and milling fractions in corn-based products.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Marroquín, A; Maya, S

    1985-09-01

    Whole flour and milling fractions of raw amaranth seeds were used in 90:10, 80:20 and 50:50 mixtures with industrialized corn flour (MINSA) to prepare tortillas and arepas, basic nutritional foods in several Latin American countries. The three corn-amaranth mixtures showed a good protein and fat content as well as amino acid profile, and presented adequate physical characteristics for making tortillas. Amaranth whole flour and commercial corn flour mixtures in the proportion of 80:20 and 50:50 were found suitable for the preparation of arepas. Protein and fat content were substantially improved, with no changes in organoleptic characteristics. The Mexican type of Amaranthus cruentus, selected due to its availability and bromatologic properties, yielded products of excellent nutritional quality, according to their amino acid content and protein efficiency ratio (PER). The protein-rich (1R) and starchy (2-R) fractions obtained by air classification, also yielded good results when substituting amaranth flour. The afore-mentioned flours and air-classified fractions of the 50:50 mixtures proved to be adequate in gruel preparations when used in 1:8 and 1:12 dilutions, as they improved their organoleptic characteristics. Flakes and extrudates were also used, yielding products with a 13.3-15% protein content, 1.7-3.7% fat, and 65.2-74.2% carbohydrates. In addition, extrudates were utilized to prepare snacks of better nutritional quality than existing similar commercial products. Improvement of the tortilla's mineral and fatty acid contents was achieved in every case. Enrichment of this product with whole amaranth flour is, therefore, recommendable for use in programs aimed at improving the nutritional status of the population. PMID:3842057

  8. Reinforcement Effect of Corn Flour in Rubber Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn flour is an economical renewable material and investigated in this study as filler for rubber composites. The composites were prepared by mixing an aqueous dispersion of corn flour with rubber latex, followed by freeze-drying and compression molding. The small strain elastic modulus and the str...

  9. Rheology of Rice Flour Dough with Gum Arabic: Small and Large-Deformation Studies, Sensory Assessment and Modeling.

    PubMed

    Shanthilal, J; Bhattacharya, Suvendu

    2015-08-01

    The absence of gluten protein makes the rice flour doughs difficult to handle when flattened/sheeted products are to be prepared. The rheological, sensory and microstructural changes in rice flour doughs having gum Arabic (0% to 5%, w/w) and moisture contents (44% to 50%) were studied for improving the dough handling characteristics. Rheological parameters like storage modulus (G') and complex viscosity (η*) decreased with an increase in moisture content while loss angle (δ) increased. A power-law type equation was suitable to relate angular frequency (ω) with G', G", and η* (0.814 ≤ r ≤ 0.999, P ≤ 0.01). An increase in gum and moisture contents increased δ from 6.9° to 15.5° but decreased the energy required for compression/flattening. The 6-element spring-dashpot model was suitable (r ≥ 0.991, P ≤ 0.01) for creep curves. The sensory panel had the opinion that dough with a low to moderate hardness between 3 and 4, and stickiness of ≤ 3.5 was suitable for the purpose of flattening in relation to the preparation of sheeted/flattened products; the appropriate condition for dough formulation was with the moisture and gum contents of 47.0% to 47.9% and 1.55% to 2.25%, respectively to offer the desirability index between 0.50 and 0.52. The microstructure of the rice flour dough in the absence of gum Arabic appeared to possess loosely bound flour particles. The presence of gum provided a coating on flour particles to yield dough having good cohesive microstructure. PMID:26248962

  10. Effect of mechanically damaged starch from wheat flour on the quality of frozen dough and steamed bread.

    PubMed

    Ma, Sen; Li, Li; Wang, Xiao-Xi; Zheng, Xue-Ling; Bian, Ke; Bao, Qing-Dan

    2016-07-01

    The influence of damaged starch (DS) on the quality of frozen dough and steamed bread were investigated. Characterization of the farinographical properties showed that DS levels affected water absorption, development, weakness, falling number and gluten index. Flour viscosity profiles indicated that pasting temperatures increased, but peak viscosity, low viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback increased and then decreased with increasing amounts of DS. Compared to leavened dough, unleavened dough had significantly higher peak times, of T21 and T22, and was also affected by DS concentration. Steamed bread had a higher specific volume, relatively lower hardness, exhibited more whiteness, and a higher degree of gumminess and chewiness with higher DS levels. We compared two methods of making steamed bread and assessed the quality of the product. We found that an appropriate DS content improved the quality of frozen dough and steamed bread. This study provides the basis for future development and improvements to methods for making frozen dough products. PMID:26920275

  11. Chemical, rheological and mechanical evaluation of maize dough and tortillas in blends with cassava and malanga flour.

    PubMed

    Chel-Guerrero, Luis; Parra-Pérez, Joaquin; Betancur-Ancona, David; Castellanos-Ruelas, Arturo; Solorza-Feria, Javier

    2015-07-01

    Masa or dough from nixtamalized maize with cassava (Cf) and malanga flour (Mf) addition at 20, 30 and 40 % (w/w) were prepared making seven treatments. The produced masas or doughs were subjected to chemical analysis, rheological and mechanical tests. Tortillas were manufactured from these doughs and mechanical tests were undertaken. Doughs from tubers had less protein and lipid content but higher nitrogen free extract than the control. All doughs presented weak viscoelastic gel-like behavior, with those of Mf behaving mainly as viscous systems. Doughs with Cf showed lower decrease in both the elastic (G') and viscous (G") moduli than those with Mf. The adhesiveness and cohesiveness of doughs with Mf showed a higher reduction of maximum force than those with Cf. Tortillas with Cf were more elastic with higher tensile strength than those with Mf. Using Cf as partial substitution of maize might lower production costs, but Mf is not particularly suitable as maize substitute in tortilla production. Tortillas with 40 % (w/w) cassava flour, presented the highest preference on a sensory test. PMID:26139904

  12. [Effect of addition of instant corn flour on rheological characteristics of wheat flour and breadmaking III].

    PubMed

    Martínez, F; el-Dahs, A A

    1993-12-01

    The instant corn flour prepared by the hydrothermal process using corn grits soaked in water at room temperature (28-30 degrees C) for 5 hours and steaming for 1 minute at 118 degrees C presented characteristics similar to that of flours prepared with grits soaked in water at temperature higher than room temperature and different steaming time (5 and 15 minutes). The addition of instant corn flour up of a 25% mixture with wheat flour reduced the peak of maximum viscosity during the heating cycle; however, the final viscosity during the cooling cycle was increased. The water absorption was increased with the increase of substitution in the level of wheat flour. Extensibility, maximum resistance and values of area were reduced with an increase in the level of instant corn flour in the mixture. However, extension resistance and proportional number were increased. Bread prepared from a mixture of instant corn flour and wheat flour showed higher weight with low loaf volume, color and texture of the crumb related to bread wheat. PMID:7872835

  13. Fortification of wheat flour with corn bran in baked products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Processed food-grade corn bran, a byproduct from the grain milling industry that is a good source of dietary fiber replaced flour in cakes at 0%, 5%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30% level. Farinograph water absorption was used determine the optimum water level for cake batters with wheat flour replaced with ...

  14. Physical characteristics of extrudates from corn flour and dehulled carioca bean flour blend

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extruded products were prepared from a corn flour and dehulled carioca bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) flour blend using a single-screw extruder. A central composite rotate design was used to evaluate the effects of extrusion process variables: screw speed (318.9-392.9 rpm), feed moisture (10.9-21.0 g...

  15. Significance of Wheat Flour Dough Rheology to Gas Cell Structure Development in Bread and Other Baked Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engmann, Jan

    2008-07-01

    We discuss which rheological material functions of wheat flour dough are most relevant for structure development in baked products under common processing conditions. We consider the growth of gas cells during dough proofing (driven by yeast) and during baking, where the growth is driven by a combination of CO2 desorption, water and ethanol evaporation, and thermal expansion of gas. Attention is given to upper limits on biaxial extension rate and stress and the consequences for the required rheological material functions. The applicability of the "Considère criterion" to predict the probability of coalescence between gas cells and its effect on loaf aeration is briefly discussed.

  16. Processing maize flour and corn meal food products.

    PubMed

    Gwirtz, Jeffrey A; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-04-01

    Corn is the cereal with the highest production worldwide and is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and fuel. Various food technologies are currently used for processing industrially produced maize flours and corn meals in different parts of the world to obtain precooked refined maize flour, dehydrated nixtamalized flour, fermented maize flours, and other maize products. These products have different intrinsic vitamin and mineral contents, and their processing follows different pathways from raw grain to the consumer final product, which entail changes in nutrient composition. Dry maize mechanical processing creates whole or fractionated products, separated by anatomical features such as bran, germ, and endosperm. Wet maize processing separates by chemical compound classification such as starch and protein. Various industrial processes, including whole grain, dry milling fractionation, and nixtamalization, are described. Vitamin and mineral losses during processing are identified and the nutritional impacts outlined. Also discussed are the vitamin and mineral contents of corn. PMID:24329576

  17. Processing maize flour and corn meal food products

    PubMed Central

    Gwirtz, Jeffrey A; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-01-01

    Corn is the cereal with the highest production worldwide and is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and fuel. Various food technologies are currently used for processing industrially produced maize flours and corn meals in different parts of the world to obtain precooked refined maize flour, dehydrated nixtamalized flour, fermented maize flours, and other maize products. These products have different intrinsic vitamin and mineral contents, and their processing follows different pathways from raw grain to the consumer final product, which entail changes in nutrient composition. Dry maize mechanical processing creates whole or fractionated products, separated by anatomical features such as bran, germ, and endosperm. Wet maize processing separates by chemical compound classification such as starch and protein. Various industrial processes, including whole grain, dry milling fractionation, and nixtamalization, are described. Vitamin and mineral losses during processing are identified and the nutritional impacts outlined. Also discussed are the vitamin and mineral contents of corn. PMID:24329576

  18. Influence of doum (Hyphaene thebaica L.) flour addition on dough mixing properties, bread quality and antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Aboshora, Waleed; Lianfu, Zhang; Dahir, Mohammed; Qingran, Meng; Musa, Abubakr; Gasmalla, Mohammed A A; Omar, Khamis Ali

    2016-01-01

    In this covenant of functional foods, the world seeks for new healthier food products with appropriate proportions of bioactive constituents such as fiber, mineral elements, phenols and flavonoids. The doum fruit has good nutritional and pharmaceutical properties; therefore, its incorporation in breads could be beneficial in improving human health. In the current study, partial substitution of wheat flour (WF) with doum fruit flour (DFF) at levels of 5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 % were carried out to investigate the dough viscoelastic properties, baking performance, proximate compositions and antioxidant properties of the breads. Partial substitution of WF with DFF increased the water absorption and developing time of dough (P ≤ 0.05), while, the dough extensibility, resistance to extension and the deformation energy were reduced. Bread supplemented with DFF resulted in a reduction in quality in terms of specific loaf volume, conferred softness, hardness, cohesiveness and gumminess to the bread crumbs. DFF up to 15 % could partially replace WF in bread; increase its nutritional value in terms of fiber content and minerals, with only a small depreciation in the bread quality. Sensory evaluation showed that breads supplemented up to 15 % DFF were acceptable to the panelists and there was no significant difference in terms of taste, texture and overall acceptability compared to the control. The incorporation of DFF increased the total phenolic contents, total flavonoids contents and antioxidant properties compared to the control (for both flour and bread). PMID:26787978

  19. Changes in the solubility of corn proteins through interaction with the arabinoxylans in extruded nixtamalized corn flour treated with xylanase.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Rivas, Silvia Carolina; Medina-Rodríguez, Concepción Lorenia; Torres-Chávez, Patricia Isabel; Ramírez-Wong, Benjamín; Platt-Lucero, Luis Carlos

    2014-06-01

    The extrusion process allows the production of nixtamalized corn flour rich in arabinoxylans, which help to prevent cardiovascular and intestinal diseases. During extrusion, physiochemical properties of nixtamalized corn flour are negatively modified. The use of enzymes such as xylanase in order to obtain nixtamalized corn flour using extrusion has been studied as an alternative to reduce these changes in corn flour tortilla. The aim of this research was to evaluate changes in protein solubility of extruded nixtamalized corn flour with and without different concentrations of xylanase enzyme (0.05, 0.075, and 0.1%, w/w). Soluble proteins of each corn flour were extracted and analyzed by SE-HPLC, while insoluble proteins were determined by the combustion method. In addition, each corn flour was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that the extruded nixtamalized corn flour, with and without xylanase, increased the protein solubility, and this effect was lower in extruded nixtamalized corn flour with xylanase. Insoluble protein diminished in corn flours either with or without xylanase enzyme. The addition of xylanase reduces the effect that the extrusion process has on the solubility proteins of extruded nixtamalized corn flour. PMID:24627046

  20. Equity in access to fortified maize flour and corn meal

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Gerardo; De-Regil, Luz Maria

    2014-01-01

    Mass fortification of maize flour and corn meal with a single or multiple micronutrients is a public health intervention that aims to improve vitamin and mineral intake, micronutrient nutritional status, health, and development of the general population. Micronutrient malnutrition is unevenly distributed among population groups and is importantly determined by social factors, such as living conditions, socioeconomic position, gender, cultural norms, health systems, and the socioeconomic and political context in which people access food. Efforts trying to make fortified foods accessible to the population groups that most need them require acknowledgment of the role of these determinants. Using a perspective of social determinants of health, this article presents a conceptual framework to approach equity in access to fortified maize flour and corn meal, and provides nonexhaustive examples that illustrate the different levels included in the framework. Key monitoring areas and issues to consider in order to expand and guarantee a more equitable access to maize flour and corn meal are described. PMID:24329609

  1. Dough Rheology and Breadmaking Traits of Flour Mill Streams from a Hard Spring Wheat and Relationships to Sulfur Content and Protein Size Distribution.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of the differences in quality traits among individual flour mill streams (FMS) provides more precise blending techniques that would meet customer’s flour specifications. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in dough rheology and breadmaking traits among FMS and their relations...

  2. Particle size and particle-particle interactions on tensile properties and reinforcement of corn flour particles in natural rubber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Renewable corn flour has a significant reinforcement effect in natural rubber. The corn flour was hydrolyzed and microfluidized to reduce its particle size. Greater than 90% of the hydrolyzed corn flour had an average size of ~300 nm, a reduction of 33 times compared to unhydrolyzed corn flour. Comp...

  3. Impact of mixing time and sodium stearoyl lactylate on gluten polymerization during baking of wheat flour dough.

    PubMed

    Van Steertegem, Bénédicte; Pareyt, Bram; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2013-12-15

    The impact of differences in dough transient gluten network on gluten cross-linking during baking is insufficiently understood. We varied dough mixing times and/or added sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL; 1.0% on flour dry matter basis) to the recipe and studied the effect on subsequent gluten polymerization during heating. The level of proteins extractable in sodium dodecyl sulfate containing media was fitted using first order kinetics. The extent and rate of gluten polymerization were lower when mixing for 8 min than when mixing for 2 min. This effect was even more outspoken in the presence of SSL. The present observations were explained as resulting from less gliadin incorporation in the polymer gluten network and from interaction of SSL with the gluten proteins. Finally, a higher degree of gluten polymerization during baking increased the firmness of the baked products. PMID:23993603

  4. Relationship of high molecular weight glutenin subunit composition and molecular weight distribution of wheat flour protein with water absorption and color characteristics of noodle dough

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colors of noodle doughs made from hard white winter wheat flours from Oregon were measured at optimum noodle water absorptions (NWA). Partial correlations, removing effect of protein concentration, indicated that NWA had negative relationships with 0 hr L* and 24 hr b*, and positive relationships wi...

  5. Sulfur, Protein Size Distribution, and Free Amino Acids in Flour Mill Streams and Their Relationship to Dough Rheology and Breadmaking Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in sulfur content, protein size distribution, and free amino acids among flour mill streams (FMS) and their relationships to dough rheology and breadmaking traits. Information from this study would likely lead to more precise blending of FMS in comme...

  6. Evaluation of nutritional, textural and particle size characteristics of dough and biscuits made from composite flours containing sprouted and malted ingredients.

    PubMed

    Agrahar-Murugkar, Dipika; Gulati, Paridhi; Kotwaliwale, Nachiket; Gupta, Chetan

    2015-08-01

    Composite flours (CF) using cereals, legumes, millets, soy-protein isolate, dairy ingredient and fruit without refined flour were used for preparing multi-nutrient biscuits. Dough and biscuits were evaluated for physical, nutritional and textural properties, particle size, colour and sensory evaluation and compared against refined-flour biscuits (C). Effect of malting and sprouting on biscuit quality were also analyzed. The highest volume of particles for CF was 140 μm higher than C flour. CF biscuits had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower spread ratio and % weight loss compared to C. The hardness, stickiness and cohesiveness values of CF doughs were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower than C resulting in lower cutting strength and increased hardness of CF biscuits. Sprouting further decreased hardness of CF dough. Nutrient content of CF biscuits (sprouted and unsprouted) were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than C biscuits. Sensory evaluation showed CF biscuits especially with sprouted flour had higher acceptability and were superior to C. PMID:26243934

  7. Assignments of proton populations in dough and bread using NMR relaxometry of starch, gluten, and flour model systems.

    PubMed

    Bosmans, Geertrui M; Lagrain, Bert; Deleu, Lomme J; Fierens, Ellen; Hills, Brian P; Delcour, Jan A

    2012-05-30

    Starch-water, gluten-water, and flour-water model systems as well as straight-dough bread were investigated with (1)H NMR relaxometry using free induction decay and Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill pulse sequences. Depending on the degree of interaction between polymers and water, different proton populations could be distinguished. The starch protons in the starch-water model gain mobility owing to amylopectin crystal melting, granule swelling, and amylose leaching, whereas water protons lose mobility due to increased interaction with starch polymers. Heating of the gluten-water sample induces no pronounced changes in proton distributions. Heating changes the proton distributions of the flour-water and starch-water models in a similar way, implying that the changes are primarily attributable to starch gelatinization. Proton distributions of the heated flour-water model system and those of fresh bread crumb are very similar. This allows identifying the different proton populations in bread on the basis of the results from the model systems. PMID:22553963

  8. Structural analysis of gluten-free doughs by fractional rheological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orczykowska, Magdalena; Dziubiński, Marek; Owczarz, Piotr

    2015-02-01

    This study examines the effects of various components of tested gluten-free doughs, such as corn starch, amaranth flour, pea protein isolate, and cellulose in the form of plantain fibers on rheological properties of such doughs. The rheological properties of gluten-free doughs were assessed by using the rheological fractional standard linear solid model (FSLSM). Parameter analysis of the Maxwell-Wiechert fractional derivative rheological model allows to state that gluten-free doughs present a typical behavior of viscoelastic quasi-solid bodies. We obtained the contribution dependence of each component used in preparations of gluten-free doughs (either hard-gel or soft-gel structure). The complicate analysis of the mechanical structure of gluten-free dough was done by applying the FSLSM to explain quite precisely the effects of individual ingredients of the dough on its rheological properties.

  9. Evaluation of antioxidant, rheological, physical and sensorial properties of wheat flour dough and cake containing turmeric powder.

    PubMed

    Park, S H; Lim, H S; Hwang, S Y

    2012-10-01

    The effects of addition of turmeric powder (0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8%) were examined in order to obtain an antioxidant-enriched cake with good physico-chemical and sensorial properties. The rheological properties of doughs were evaluated using dynamic rheological measurements. Physical properties, curcumin content, radical scavenging activity (RSA-DPPH assay) and sensory analysis (hedonic test) of the supplemented cake were determined. Addition of turmeric powder up to 8% caused significant changes on dough characteristics and on cake rheological properties. The highest curcumin (203 mg/kg) and RSA-DPPH activity (45%) were achieved in the cake having the highest percentage of turmeric powder (8%); however, this sample showed the worst results regarding the rheological properties. Moreover, by sensory evaluation this cake sample was not acceptable. A 6% substitution of wheat flour with turmeric powder showed acceptable sensory scores which were comparable to those of 0-4% turmeric cakes. This indicated that up to 6% level of turmeric powder might be included in cake formulation. PMID:23144239

  10. Legislative frameworks for corn flour and maize meal fortification.

    PubMed

    Makhumula, Phillip; Dary, Omar; Guamuch, Monica; Tom, Carol; Afidra, Ronald; Rambeloson, Zo

    2014-04-01

    Corn flour and maize meal fortification can benefit the consumer when the added nutrient contents are in amounts appropriate to address nutrient gaps. Legislative instruments (standards and regulations) are needed to provide guidance to the producers and food control authorities. We reviewed a number of national standards and regulations of fortified corn flour and maize meal and identified constraints; contrary to current belief, the practice of using minimum contents or ranges of nutrients has caused confusion, misinterpretation, and conflict, and should therefore be abandoned. On the basis of the findings, a model of fortification legislation is proposed, in which the additional content and the expected average nutrient content in a final product are recommended as the main parameters for quality control and enforcement. For labeling, the average content, or one adjusted to the expected content of the product at the market, can be applied. Variation in micronutrient contents should still be checked to ensure homogeneity but with adherence to clear procedures of sampling and testing, which should be part of the standards and regulations. PMID:24521440

  11. Effect of extrusion temperature and moisture content of corn flour on crystallinity and hardness of rice analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budi, Faleh Setia; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Budijanto, Slamet; Syah, Dahrul

    2015-12-01

    Rice analogues are food products made of broken rice and/or any other carbohydrate sources to have similar texture and shape as rice. They are usually made by hot extrusion processing. The hot extrusion process may change the crystallinity of starch and influence the characteristic of rice analogues. Therefore, this research aimed to study the effect of moisture content of incoming dough and temperature of extrusion process on the crystallinity and hardness of resulting rice analogues. The dough's were prepared by mixing of corn starch-flour with ratio 10/90 (w/w) and moisture content of 35%, 40% and 45% (w/w) and extrusion process were done at temperature of 70, 80, 90°C by using of twin screw extruder BEX-DS-2256 Berto. The analyses were done to determine the type of crystal, degree of crystallinity, and hardness of the resulting rice analogues. Our result showed that the enhancement of extrusion temperature from 70 - 90°C increased degree of crystallinity from 5.86 - 15.00% to 10.70 - 18.87% and hardness from 1.71 - 4.36 kg to 2.05 - 5.70 kg. The raising of dough moisture content from 35 - 45% decreased degree of crystallinity from 15.00 - 18.87% to 5.86 - 10.70% and hardness from 4.36 - 5.70 kg to 1.71 - 2.05 kg. The increase of degree of crystallinity correlated positively with the increase of hardness of rice analogues (r = 0.746, p = 0.05).

  12. Flour, dough, and baking quality attributes of hard red spring wheat cultivars grown in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The State of North Dakota is number one in the production of hard red spring wheat (HRSW) with approximately 7 million acres devoted to this crop. HRSW has superior characteristics for bread baking, and is used in blends with other wheat to improve the quality of the final flour. Nineteen different ...

  13. Assaying Total Carotenoids in Flours of Corn and Sweetpotato by Laser Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bicanic, Dane; Kljak, Kristina; Grbesa, Darko; Martínez, Eduardo San Martin; Spruijt, Ruud

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the application of the laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) for quantification of total carotenoids (TC) in corn flours and sweetpotato flours. Overall, thirty-three different corn flours and nine sweetpotato flours were investigated. All PAS measurements were performed at room temperature using 488-nm argon laser radiation for excitation and mechanical modulation of 9 and 30 Hz. The measurements were repeated within a run and within several days or months. The UV–Vis spectrophotometry was used as the reference method. The concentration range that allows for the reliable analysis of TC spans a region from 1 to 40 mg kg−1 for corn flours and from 9 to 40 mg kg−1 for sweetpotato flours. In the case of sweetpotato flours, the quantification may extend even to 240 mg kg−1 TC. The estimated detection limit values for TC in corn and sweetpotato flours were 0.1 and 0.3 mg kg−1, respectively. The computed repeatability (n = 3–12) and intermediate precision (n = 6–28) RSD values at 9 and 30 Hz are comparable: 0.1–17.1% and 5.3–14.7% for corn flours as compared with 1.4–9.1% and 4.2–23.0% for sweetpotato flours. Our results show that PAS can be successfully used as a new analytical tool to simply and rapidly screen the flours for their nutritional potential based on the total carotenoid concentration. PMID:21423327

  14. Rheological, baking, and sensory properties of composite bread dough with breadfruit (Artocarpus communis Forst) and wheat flours.

    PubMed

    Bakare, Adegoke H; Osundahunsi, Oluwatooyin F; Olusanya, Joseph O

    2016-07-01

    The rheological (Pasting, farinograph, and alveograph) properties of wheat flour (WF) replaced with breadfruit four (05-40%) was analyzed. Baking and sensory qualities of the resulting bread were evaluated. Differences in baking properties of loaves produced under laboratory and industrial conditions were analyzed with t-test, whereas ANOVA was used for other analyses. Peak and final viscosities in the composite blends (CB) ranged from 109.20 to 114.06 RVU and 111.86 to 134.40 RVU, respectively. Dough stability decreased from 9.15 to 0.78 min, whereas farinograph water absorption increased 59.7-65.9%. Alveograph curve configuration ratio increased from 1.27 to 7.39, whereas specific volume (Spv) of the loaves decreased from 2.96 to 1.32 cm(3)/g. The Spv of WF loaves were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from that of the 5% CB, whereas production conditions had no significant effects on absorbed water (t = 0.532, df = 18 P = 0.3005), weight loss during baking (t = 0.865, df = 18, P = 0.199), and Spv (t = 0.828, df = 14.17, P = 0.211). The sensory qualities of the 5% blend were not significantly different from the WF. PMID:27386107

  15. Metabolic effects of ß-glucans addition to corn maize flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The addition of ß-glucans to degermed precooked corn maize flour produced favorably low metabolic responses in healthy young subjects. The increase in viscosity in the small intestine during the digestion period is the proposed mechanism for this effect. The addition of ß-glucans to corn maize pro...

  16. Gluten-free bread formulated with Prosopis ruscifolia (vinal) seed and corn flours.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, C; Sánchez, H; Freyre, M; Osella, C

    2010-05-01

    Vinal (Prosopis ruscifolia) is a wild leguminous tree found widely in the north of Argentina. Like other Prosopis, vinal can grow under extreme temperatures, in poor soils and can tolerate high saline conditions. Taking into account the high protein and gums contents of vinal seeds, a gluten-free bread was developed including them and corn flour. A central composite design involving vinal seed flour/corn starch ratio (X1) and corn flour/corn starch ratio (X2) was used, and second-order models for specific volume (Y1) and bread score (Y2), evaluated by an expert panel, were employed to generate response surfaces. In the optimum zone of response surfaces, a product with higher protein content (5.2 g/100 g) than gluten-free breads found in local commercial markets was obtained. Also, an interesting antioxidant activity (115 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/100 g) was found in optimized gluten-free bread. PMID:20109128

  17. Protein and starch digestibilities and mineral availability of products developed from potato, soy and corn flour.

    PubMed

    Gahlawat, P; Sehgal, S

    1998-01-01

    A technique for development of potato flour was standardized. Five products viz. cake, biscuit, weaning food, panjiri and ladoo were prepared incorporating potato flour, defatted soy flour and corn flour. Baking and roasting were the major processing techniques employed for the development of these products. Protein, ash and fat contents of potato flour were almost similar to those of raw potatoes. Significant differences in protein, ash and fat contents of all the products were observed. Protein and starch digestibility of potato flour was significantly higher than that of raw potatoes. Protein digestibility increased by 12 to 17 percent on baking or roasting of products. Processed products had significantly higher starch digestibility and mineral availability compared to raw products. Thus, it can be concluded that roasting and baking are effective means of improving starch and protein digestibility and mineral availability of products. PMID:9839814

  18. [Soy and corn flour precooked with microwaves and its use in the preparation of arepas].

    PubMed

    Fernández, J J; Guerra, M J; Racca, E

    1991-09-01

    Unhusked corn and soy grits were used as raw material, with a particle size ranging between 10 and 20 mesh (ASTM). The results obtained in this study reveal that microwave heating is effective in destroying the antinutritional factors present in soybeans. The trypsin inhibitor activity, in effect, was reduced to a 76% inactivation. The hemagglutinating titer was labile to the heating process, showing values of +8 to +3 for the full-fat soy flour and precooked soy flour, respectively. The quality of soy protein was measured by the protein efficiency ratio (PER) showing values of 2.63 for the precooked soy flour, and 2.46 to 2.21 for the precooked corn:soy blends (70:30 and 50:50). These uncooked blends present values of 1.17 and 1.04. The enriched corn:soy flour had a PER value of 1.60, in comparison to casein (PER = 2.90). The microwave heating improved the digestibility of the soy flour and blends. There were no significant differences (P less than or equal to 0.05) in relation to the functionality of the precooked flour and mixtures. The results obtained revealed that the applied process markedly improve the functional properties and nutritional value of the enriched flour, and of the "arepas" prepared from them. PMID:1824518

  19. Mechanical properties of melt-processed polymer blend of amorphous corn flour composite filler and styrene-butadiene rubber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The corn flour composite fillers were prepared by blending corn flour with rubber latex, dried, and cryogenically ground into powders, which were then melt-blended with rubber polymers in an internal mixer to form composites with enhanced mechanical properties. The composites prepared with melt-blen...

  20. Sensory properties changes of fortified nixtamalized corn flour with lysine and tryptophan during storage.

    PubMed

    Waliszewski, Krzysztof N; Estrada, Yokiushirdhilgilmara; Pardio, Violeta

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine sensory changes of fortified nixtamalized corn flour with lysine and tryptophan up to 83, 100, and 150% of suggested FAO pattern after 2 months storage at room temperature (30 degrees C). Totally, 16 trained panelists participated in sensory study of tortilla made of enriched and normal corn flours where six attributes and a total of 19 descriptors were taken into consideration. A reflectance colorimeter was also used in determination of changes in tortilla color parameters. No significant differences were found in the analysis of 19 descriptors of tortilla made of enriched and normal nixtamalized corn flour after 2 months storage. Also, no color parameter changes were found between normal and enriched tortillas. PMID:15678751

  1. Hard Winter Wheat and Flour Properties in Relation to Breadmaking Quality of Straight-dough Bread: Flour Particle Size and Bread Crumb Grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Samples of 12 hard winter wheats and their flours that produced breads varying in crumb grain scores were studied for 38 quality parameters including: wheat physical and chemical characteristics; flour ash and protein content, starch damage, swelling power, pasting characteristics, and flour particl...

  2. Effect of processing on phenolic composition of dough and bread fractions made from refined and whole wheat flour of three wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingjian; Luthria, Devanand; Fuerst, E Patrick; Kiszonas, Alecia M; Yu, Liangli; Morris, Craig F

    2014-10-29

    This study investigated the effect of breadmaking on the assay of phenolic acids from flour, dough, and bread fractions of three whole and refined wheat varieties. Comparison of the efficacy of two commonly used methods for hydrolysis and extraction of phenoilc acids showed that yields of total phenolic acids (TPA) were 5-17% higher among all varieties and flour types when samples were directly hydrolyzed in the presence of ascorbate and EDTA as compared to the method separating free, soluble conjugates and bound, insoluble phenolic acids. Ferulic acid (FA) was the predominant phenolic acid, accounting for means of 59 and 81% of TPA among all refined and whole wheat fractions, respectively. All phenolic acids measured were more abundant in whole wheat than in refined samples. Results indicated that the total quantified phenolic acids did not change significantly when breads were prepared from refined and whole wheat flour. Thus, the potential phytochemical health benefits of total phenolic acids appear to be preserved during bread baking. PMID:25286188

  3. Use of a pressuremeter to measure the kinetics of carbon dioxide evolution in chemically leavened wheat flour dough.

    PubMed

    Bellido, Guillermo G; Scanlon, Martin G; Sapirstein, Harry D; Page, John H

    2008-11-12

    Among a number of impediments to a wider use of chemical leavening agents in bakery applications is the lack of standardized instrumentation capable of providing information on the rates of CO2 production from chemical leaveners in a format that is meaningful to both the technologist (i.e., the dough rate of reaction or DRR) and the researcher (e.g., in terms of fundamental unitskmol CO2 per kg of dough per s). This paper presents an original methodology to carry out the DRR test using a commercial pressuremeter, the Gassmart apparatus, and to model the kinetics of CO2 evolution of chemically leavened dough. Lean formula doughs were leavened at 27 and 39 degrees C with four chemical leavening systems containing sodium bicarbonate and one of four leavening acids, sodium acid pyrophosphate 40 (SAPP), adipic acid (ADA), potassium acid tartrate (KAT), and glucono-delta-lactone (GDL). Chemical kinetics theory was used to gain an insight into the reaction mechanisms responsible for the evolution of carbon dioxide from the leaveners. A first-order reaction kinetics model was found to be suitable for describing the neutralizing properties of GDL and ADA leavening systems, whereas a first-order reaction kinetics model for irreversible parallel reactions better described the leavening properties of the acidic salts KAT and SAPP. PMID:18841986

  4. Fortification of corn masa flour with folic acid in the United States: an overview of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Hamner, Heather C.; Tinker, Sarah C.

    2015-01-01

    Corn masa flour, used to make products such as corn tortillas, is a staple food for Hispanic populations residing in the United States, particularly among Mexican Americans and Central Americans. Research has indicated that Hispanic women in the United States continue to be at a higher risk of having a neural tube defect–affected pregnancy than women of other races/ethnicities, even after the introduction of folic acid fortification of cereal grain products labeled as “enriched.” Corn masa flour has, therefore, been suggested as a potential food vehicle for folic acid in the United States. This paper explores the potential impact that folic acid fortification of corn masa flour could have on the Hispanic population in the United States. PMID:24494975

  5. Homogeneity study of a corn flour laboratory reference material candidate for inorganic analysis.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Ana Maria Pinto; Dos Santos, Liz Oliveira; Brandao, Geovani Cardoso; Leao, Danilo Junqueira; Bernedo, Alfredo Victor Bellido; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Lemos, Valfredo Azevedo

    2015-07-01

    In this work, a homogeneity study of a corn flour reference material candidate for inorganic analysis is presented. Seven kilograms of corn flour were used to prepare the material, which was distributed among 100 bottles. The elements Ca, K, Mg, P, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn and Mo were quantified by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) after acid digestion procedure. The method accuracy was confirmed by analyzing the rice flour certified reference material, NIST 1568a. All results were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA). In the study, a sample mass of 400mg was established as the minimum mass required for analysis, according to the PCA. The between-bottle test was performed by analyzing 9 bottles of the material. Subsamples of a single bottle were analyzed for the within-bottle test. No significant differences were observed for the results obtained through the application of both statistical methods. This fact demonstrates that the material is homogeneous for use as a laboratory reference material. PMID:25704713

  6. Comparison of observed rheological properties of hard wheat flour dough with predictions of the Giesekus-Leonov, White-Metzner and Phan-Thien Tanner models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhanasekharan, M.; Huang, H.; Kokini, J. L.; Janes, H. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The measured rheological behavior of hard wheat flour dough was predicted using three nonlinear differential viscoelastic models. The Phan-Thien Tanner model gave good zero shear viscosity prediction, but overpredicted the shear viscosity at higher shear rates and the transient and extensional properties. The Giesekus-Leonov model gave similar predictions to the Phan-Thien Tanner model, but the extensional viscosity prediction showed extension thickening. Using high values of the mobility factor, extension thinning behavior was observed but the predictions were not satisfactory. The White-Metzner model gave good predictions of the steady shear viscosity and the first normal stress coefficient but it was unable to predict the uniaxial extensional viscosity as it exhibited asymptotic behavior in the tested extensional rates. It also predicted the transient shear properties with moderate accuracy in the transient phase, but very well at higher times, compared to the Phan-Thien Tanner model and the Giesekus-Leonov model. None of the models predicted all observed data consistently well. Overall the White-Metzner model appeared to make the best predictions of all the observed data.

  7. Utilization of sorghum, rice, corn flours with potato starch for the preparation of gluten-free pasta.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sila Mary Rodrigues; de Mello, Ana Paula; de Caldas Rosa dos Anjos, Mônica; Krüger, Cláudia Carneiro Hecke; Azoubel, Patrícia Moreira; de Oliveira Alves, Márcia Aurelina

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of mixture of sorghum-rice-corn flour and potato starch in the development of gluten-free pasta for celiac disease patients. The experiment was designed according to simplex-lattice method and different types of gluten-free flours were used, such as sorghum, rice, corn, and potato starch. The fifteen formulations were subjected to sensory analysis (Mixed Structured Scale - MSS) and seven formulations were selected in respect to taste and grittiness. These formulations were subjected to Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA), which evaluated the attributes: appearance, color, odor, hardness, elasticity, stickiness, grittiness, taste, residual bitterness and overall quality. Results showed significant difference in appearance, color and hardness. The formulations that showed the best sensory results were submitted to chemical analysis and cooking quality of pasta. It was observed that the best results for mixing is sorghum flour, rice flour and potato starch. PMID:26258714

  8. Rheology of Model Dough Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Kiran; Lele, Smita; Lele, Ashish

    2008-07-01

    Dough is generally considered a viscoelastic material, and its elasticity is attributed to the hydrated gluten matrix. Since starch is a major constituent of flour (˜70 wt% on dry basis) we may expect it to contribute to dough rheology in a non-trivial manner. Considering dough to belong to the generic class of soft solid materials, we use the Strain-Rate Frequency Superposition (SRFS) technique to study rheology of various model dough compositions in which the starch/gluten ratio is systematically varied from 100/0 to 0/100. We find that for compositions containing 0-25% gluten the SRFS superposition principle works well, while for compositions containing greater than 25% gluten the quality of SRFS mastercurves deteriorates gradually. Thus we propose that starch particles contribute substantially to the rheology of dough containing up to 25% gluten.

  9. Effect of incorporation of corn byproducts on quality of baked and extruded products from wheat flour and semolina.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Savita; Gupta, Jatinder Pal; Nagi, H P S; Kumar, Rakesh

    2012-10-01

    The effect of blending level (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) of corn bran, defatted germ and gluten with wheat flour on the physico-chemical properties (protein, crude fiber, phosphorus, iron and calcium), baking properties of bread, muffins and cookies, and extrusion properties of noodles and extruded snacks prepared from semolina were examined. Blending of wheat flour and corn byproducts significantly increased the protein, crude fiber, phosphorus, iron and calcium contents. Breads from gluten blends had higher loaf volume as compared to bran and germ breads. Among corn byproducts, gluten cookies were rated superior with respect to top grain. Muffins from germ blends and gluten blends had higher acceptability scores than the bran muffins. Blending of corn bran, defatted germ and gluten at 5 and 10% with wheat flour resulted in satisfactory bread, cookie, and muffin score. Quality of noodles was significantly influenced by addition of corn byproducts and their levels. Corn byproducts blending had significant influence on cooking time, however, gruel solid loss affected non-significantly in case of noodles. Expansion ratio and density of extruded snacks was affected non significantly by blending source and blending level. However, significant effect was observed on amperage, pressure, yield and overall acceptability of extruded snacks. Acceptable extruded products (noodles and extruded snacks) could be produced by blending corn byproducts with semolina upto 10% level. PMID:24082269

  10. Defatted flaxseed meal incorporated corn-rice flour blend based extruded product by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Ganorkar, Pravin M; Patel, Jhanvi M; Shah, Vrushti; Rangrej, Vihang V

    2016-04-01

    Considering the evidence of flaxseed and its defatted flaxseed meal (DFM) for human health benefits, response surface methodology (RSM) based on three level four factor central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed for the development of DFM incorporated corn - rice flour blend based extruded snack. The effect of DFM fortification (7.5-20 %), moisture content of feed (14-20 %, wb), extruder barrel temperature (115-135 °C) and screw speed (300-330 RPM) on expansion ratio (ER), breaking strength (BS), overall acceptability (OAA) score and water solubility index (WSI) of extrudates were investigated using central composite rotatable design (CCRD). Significant regression models explained the effect of considered variables on all responses. DFM incorporation level was found to be most significant independent variable affecting on extrudates characteristics followed by extruder barrel temperature and then screw rpm. Feed moisture content did not affect extrudates characteristics. As DFM level increased (7.5 % to 20 %), ER and OAA value decreased. However, BS and WSI values were found to increase with increase in DFM level. Based on the defined criteria for numerical optimization, the combination for the production of DFM incorporated extruded snack with desired sensory attributes was achieved by incorporating 10 % DFM (replacing rice flour in flour blend) and by keeping 20 % moisture content, 312 screw rpm and 125 °C barrel temperature. PMID:27413213

  11. The poor bioavailability of elemental iron in corn masa flour is not affected by disodium EDTA.

    PubMed

    Walter, Tomas; Pizarro, Fernando; Boy, Erick; Abrams, Steven A

    2004-02-01

    The most sustainable way to eradicate iron deficiency is through food fortification. Elemental iron powders are commonly utilized as fortificants due to their low cost and few sensory problems. However, their bioavailability is unknown. Our goals were to measure the bioavailability of elemental iron in Mexican style corn masa flour tortillas and to evaluate the effects of Na(2)EDTA. We used a stable isotope of H(2)-reduced iron powder, with and without Na(2)EDTA in tortillas prepared with corn masa flour. Two groups of 5- to 7-y-old children (n = 12/group) were fed tortillas to which was added 3 mg/100 g of H(2)-reduced (58)Fe with a mean particle size of 15 micro m. In one group, Na(2)EDTA was incorporated at a ratio of 1:2 mol/mol. The next day, (57)Fe ascorbate was given as a reference dose. After 14 d, blood samples were analyzed for isotopic enrichment. When normalized to 40% absorption of the reference dose, the geometric mean (+/-range 1 SD) bioavailability of reduced iron in tortilla was 3.8% (2.7-5.3). The addition of Na(2)EDTA, tended to increase it (P = 0.18) to 5.1% (2.8-9.2). This observed low absorption was compounded by the use of iron isotopes with smaller particle size (mean diameter 15 micro m) than typical of commercial elemental iron powder (<45 micro m). We conclude that H(2)-reduced iron powder is an ineffective fortificant in corn tortillas. PMID:14747675

  12. Development of extruded Ready-To-Eat (RTE) snacks using corn, black gram, roots and tuber flour blends.

    PubMed

    Reddy, M Kavya; Kuna, Aparna; Devi, N Lakshmi; Krishnaiah, N; Kaur, Charanjit; Nagamalleswari, Y

    2014-09-01

    Extruded RTE snacks were prepared from flour blends made with corn flour, Bengal gram flour, roots and tuber flours in a proportion of 60-80: 20: 20 respectively and moisture was adjusted to 17-20 %. The roots and tubers flours were developed from potato (Solanum tuberosum), yam (Dioscorea spp.), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), taro (Colocassia esculenta) and beet root (Beta vulgaris). Different formulations were extruded at 80 ± 5 °C (heater I) and 95-105 °C (heater II) temperature, 300-350 rpm screw speed, 100 ± 10 °C die temperature and 15 ± 2 kg/h feed rate. The exit diameter of the circular die was 3 mm. Sensory acceptability, physical parameters and nutrient analysis along with storage stability of the products was conducted. The fiber and energy content of the RTE extruded snack improved in experimental samples prepared using root and tuber flours. A serving of 100 g of the snack can provide more than 400 Kcal and 10 g of protein. The overall acceptability of RTE extruded products made with potato and taro were highly acceptable compared to yam and sweet potato. The study demonstrates utilization of roots and tuber flours as potential and diverse ingredients to enhance the appearance and nutritional properties in RTE extruded snack. PMID:25190848

  13. Ethanol at levels produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wheat dough fermentation has a strong impact on dough properties.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, Vinay B; Rezaei, Mohammad N; Cuyvers, Sven; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2014-09-24

    Yeast's role in bread making is primarily the fermentative production of carbon dioxide to leaven the dough. Fermentation also impacts dough matrix rheology, thereby affecting the quality of the end product. Surprisingly, the role of ethanol, the other yeast primary metabolite, has been ill studied in this context. Therefore, this study aims to assess the potential impact of ethanol on yeastless dough extensibility and spread and gluten agglomeration at concentrations at which it is produced in fermenting dough, i.e., up to 60 mmol per 100 g of flour. Reduced dough extensibility and dough spread were observed upon incorporation of ethanol in the dough formula, and were more pronounced for a weak than for a strong flour. Uniaxial and biaxial extension tests showed up to 50% decrease in dough extensibility and a dough strength increase of up to 18% for 60 mmol of ethanol/100 g of flour. Ethanol enhanced gluten agglomeration of a weak flour. Sequential extraction of flour in increasing ethanol concentrations showed that better gluten-solvent interaction is a possible explanation for the changed dough behavior. PMID:25174613

  14. Development of flaxseed fortified rice - corn flour blend based extruded product by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Ganorkar, P M; Jain, R K

    2015-08-01

    Flaxseed imparted the evidence of health benefits in human being. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to develop flaxseed fortified rice - corn flour blend based extruded product using twin screw extruder. The effect of roasted flaxseed flour (RFF) fortification (15-25 %), moisture content of feed (12-16 %, wb), extruder barrel temperature (120-140 °C) and screw speed (300-330 RPM) on expansion ratio (ER), breaking strength (BS), bulk density (BD) and overall acceptability (OAA) score of extrudates were investigated using central composite rotatable design (CCRD). Increased RFF level decreased the ER and OAA score significantly while increased BS and BD of extrudates (p < 0.01). Moisture content of extruder feed was positively related to ER (p < 0.01) and OAA (p < 0.05) and negatively related to BD (p < 0.01). Extruder barrel temperature was found to be negatively related to ER and OAA (p < 0.05) and positively related to BD (p < 0.1). Quadratic effect of screw speed was significantly positively related to ER (p < 0.01), BS (p < 0.05) and negatively related to BD (p < 0.01). 15 % RFF fortification with rice flour, 16 % moisture content (wb) of extruder feed, 120 °C extruder barrel temperature and 330 RPM of screw speed gave an optimized product of high desirability with corresponding responses as 3.08 ER, 0.53 kgf BS, 0.106 g.cm(-3) BD and 7.86 OAA. PMID:26243928

  15. Special role of corn flour as an ideal carbon source for aerobic denitrification with minimized nitrous oxide emission.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shuangyue; Zheng, Maosheng; Li, Can; Gui, Mengyao; Chen, Qian; Ni, Jinren

    2015-06-01

    Much effort has been made for reducing nitrous oxide (N2O) emission in wastewater treatment processes. This paper presents an interesting way to minimize N2O in aerobic denitrification by strain Pseudomonas stutzeri PCN-1 with help of corn flour as cheaper additional carbon source. Experimental results showed that maximal N2O accumulation by strain PCN-1 was only 0.02% of removed nitrogen if corn flour was used as sole carbon source, which was significantly reduced by 52.07-99.81% comparing with others such as succinate, glucose, acetate and citrate. Sustained release of reducing sugar from starch and continuous expression of nosZ coding for N2O reductase contributed to the special role of corn flour as the ideal carbon source for strain PCN-1. Further experiments in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) demonstrated similarly efficient nitrogen removal with much less N2O emission due to synergy of the novel strain and activated sludge, which was then confirmed by quantitative PCR analysis. PMID:25802047

  16. Refrigerated dough quality: effect of environment and genotypes of hard red spring wheat.

    PubMed

    Simsek, S; Whitney, K L; Ohm, J B; Anderson, J; Mergoum, M

    2011-01-01

    Refrigerated dough products use wheat flour as their primary ingredient, so the quality and chemical composition of the flour determine the quality of the final product. Six varieties of hard red spring wheat, grown in 3 locations in Minnesota, U.S.A., were evaluated for use in refrigerated dough products. Total arabinoxylan percentages in the flours ranged from 0.97 to 1.54. Xylanase activity of the flour was measured and ranged from 0.20 to 0.84 mU/g. An important factor in the suitability for refrigerated dough is the syruping during storage. A large amount of variability in dough syruping was observed among the varieties and locations when the extent of dough syruping was measured over a period of 10 d. The mean dough syruping on day 10 ranged from 2.05% to 14.83%. Despite the significant interaction effect of genotype and environment, 2 varieties, Glenn and Oklee, had lower dough syrup formation with greater stability across growing locations and storage days than other varieties. Practical Application: Refrigerated dough production is one of the fastest growing segments of the ready-to-use food industry. Well-formulated and processed refrigerated doughs are practical to consume and should stay fresh during extended periods of storage; thus, maintenance of dough quality during refrigeration is critical. This study was designed to perform the research on genotypic and environmental effects on variations in dough syruping during refrigeration storage of doughs from hard red spring wheats. PMID:21535707

  17. Rheological Changes in Refrigerated Dough During Storage in Relation to Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Refrigerated dough is a flour-based, unbaked product that is stored between 4-7 ºC. The aim of this work was to study the rheological properties of refrigerated dough during storage and determine their correlations with dough proteins. Rheological properties were determined using texture analyzer an...

  18. Relationship of dough thermomechanical properties with oil uptake, cooking and textural properties of instant fried noodles.

    PubMed

    Gulia, Neelam; Khatkar, B S

    2014-04-01

    Instant noodles were prepared from fifteen diverse wheat cultivars varying widely in their flour quality and dough rheology. Dough thermomechanical parameters obtained by Mixolab and flour analytical properties were correlated with the quality of instant noodles including oil uptake, cooking quality and textural attributes. The Mixolab parameters dough development time and dough stability showed significant positive correlation with cooking time, cooked weight, overall acceptability, hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness of noodles, while negatively correlated with oil uptake and cooking loss, therefore, exhibiting a marked positive effect on quality of instant noodles. Lower protein breakdown represented by C2 torque was also positively related with overall acceptability, hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness of noodles. Stickiness/adhesiveness of noodles was revealed to be mainly conferred by falling number values (R (2 )= 0.671) and damaged starch (R (2 )= 0.523) content of wheat flour samples. Flour samples with lesser values of protein content, sodium dodecyl sulphate sedimentation volume, thermal stability of proteins, dough stability and dough development time were found to be linked with poor noodle quality. Medium strong flours performed better in noodle making, while weaker flours demonstrated poor noodle quality. Dough rheology of good noodle making flours was characterized with higher dough development time, dough stability, C2, C3, C4 as well as C5 values. Noodles with higher overall acceptability showed a more continuous and uniform protein starch matrix in comparison to the poor counterparts. PMID:23744117

  19. Refrigerated dough quality of hard red spring wheat: Effect of genotype and environment on dough syruping and arabinoxylan production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arabinoxylans (AXs) are the main non-starch polysaccharides found in wheat flour. Structural changes of AXs in refrigerated dough are linked to deleterious effects on refrigerated dough quality during storage. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of cultivar and growing environmen...

  20. Effect of hydrocolloids on selected properties of gluten-free dough and bread.

    PubMed

    Sabanis, D; Tzia, C

    2011-08-01

    Addition of hydrocolloids (H/C) in gluten-free (GF) bread formulation is necessary in order to act as polymeric substances that should mimic the viscoelastic properties of gluten and increase the dough's gas-retaining ability. The properties of H/C vary depending on their origin and chemical structure. Addition of H/C (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), xanthan, κ-carrageenan and guar gum) of different origins at 1%, 1.5% and 2% (w/w) in GF formulations based on corn starch and rice flour was carried out to investigate the effects on dough rheology and bread quality. The consistency, viscosity and thermal properties of doughs were evaluated. According to results, 1% and 1.5% addition of H/C (except from xanthan) contributed to bread with higher loaf volume and better color compared to control GF bread as well as to increased shelf life due to its moisture-absorption ability. Sensory evaluation by a trained panel revealed a preference for bread containing 1.5% HPMC because of its loaf volume, appearance and firmness characteristics. The micrographs of the dough showed a continuous matrix between starch and HPMC obtaining a more aerated structure. PMID:21917639

  1. Influence of some formulation and process parameters on the stability of lysozyme incorporated in corn flour- or corn starch-based extruded materials prepared by melt blending processing.

    PubMed

    Jbilou, Fouzia; Galland, Sophie; Telliez, Camille; Akkari, Zied; Roux, Roselyne; Oulahal, Nadia; Dole, Patrice; Joly, Catherine; Degraeve, Pascal

    2014-12-01

    In order to obtain an antimicrobial biodegradable material, corn flour was extruded with 1% of lysozyme. Since the limited stability of natural preservatives such as lysozyme is a common bottleneck to the elaboration of active biomaterials by melt blending processes, the influence of formulation and of extrusion processing temperature on its residual enzymatic activity was investigated. To assess the contribution of process parameters such as temperature, shear stress and of related formulation parameters such as glycerol and moisture contents, the stability of lysozyme following its extrusion or its thermoforming with plasticized corn starch or thermal treatments in aqueous glycerol solutions was also studied. Increasing glycerol content from 25% to 30% significantly limited inactivation of lysozyme during extrusion, while increasing initial moisture content of the mixture from 14.5% to 28.5% had the opposite effect. These observations open the possibility to prepare active materials retaining more than 60±7% of initial lysozyme activity. PMID:25442947

  2. Potential use of cyclodextrin-glycosyltransferase enzyme in bread-making and the development of gluten-free breads with pinion and corn flours.

    PubMed

    Basso, Fernanda Maria; Mangolim, Camila Sampaio; Aguiar, Maria Fernanda Alves; Monteiro, Antonio Roberto Giriboni; Peralta, Rosane Marina; Matioli, Graciette

    2015-05-01

    Gluten-free breads are an alternative for celiacs but are characterized by deficient sensory qualities compared with traditional breads. This work aimed to incorporate a commercial CGTase enzyme and the CGTase produced by Bacillus firmus strain 37 in the production of these breads to overcome these drawbacks. The flours employed were corn and pinion flours, which had the best CD production by CGTase, and exhibited good antioxidant activity, respectively. Rice flour was used as a control. The addition of the CGTase enzyme increased the specific volume and improved the texture of the breads. In the sensory analyses, the best score given by non-celiacs was for bread with pinion and rice flours and CGTase from B. firmus strain 37, while celiacs awarded the best score to the bread with rice flour only and same enzyme. The results demonstrate an improvement in the sensory and technological characteristics of gluten-free breads using the CGTase enzyme. PMID:25666418

  3. Quality characteristics of gluten-free cookies made of buckwheat, corn, and rice flour with/without transglutaminase.

    PubMed

    Altındağ, Gülçin; Certel, Muharrem; Erem, Fundagül; İlknur Konak, Ülgen

    2015-04-01

    Buckwheat is one of the most valuable pseudo-cereals in terms of its nutritional composition, and it is suitable for celiac patients because of its gluten-free characteristic. However, gluten is the main structure-forming protein responsible for the development of structure in baked products. Therefore, it is a challenge to produce high-quality gluten-free products. Transglutaminase addition is a relatively common application used in the production of gluten-free baked goods. The objective of this study was to investigate the combination of buckwheat flour with rice and corn flour at different levels in gluten-free cookie formulations and the impact of transglutaminase on the quality of cookies. Quality parameters evaluated were proximal chemical composition, spread ratio, color, and textural parameters (hardness and fracturability). Spread ratio, protein, crude fiber, ash content, and also b* and hardness values were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by flour combinations. Further, addition of transglutaminase resulted in increased moisture content, spread ratio, and fracturability but decreased hardness values. PMID:24613830

  4. Relationship between the dough quality and content of specific glutenin proteins in wheat mill streams, and its application to making flour suitable for instant Chinese noodles.

    PubMed

    Yahata, Eriko; Maruyama-Funatsuki, Wakako; Nishio, Zenta; Yamamoto, Yoshihiko; Hanaoka, Akihiro; Sugiyama, Hisashi; Tanida, Masatoshi; Saruyama, Haruo

    2006-04-01

    The content of specific proteins such as high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits HMW-GS 5+10 and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits LMW-GS KS2 in wheat mill streams of extra-strong Kachikei 33 wheat was quantified by SDS-PAGE and 2D-PAGE. The mill streams showed varied quantities of HMW-GS 5+10 (0.077 to 2.007 mg/g of mill stream), LMW-GS KS2 (0.018 to 0.586 mg/g of mill stream) and total protein (9.42% to 18.98%). The contents of these specific proteins in the mill streams were significantly correlated with the SDS sedimentation volume and the mixing properties, which are respective indices of specific loaf volume and dough strength. The contents of these specific glutenin proteins in the mill streams were therefore found to be significantly important for improving the dough quality suitable for bread and Chinese noodles. Accordingly, we present here the application of this information to the development of an effective method for producing mill streams with high quality and yield that are suitable for instant Chinese noodles. PMID:16636443

  5. Silencing of omega-5 gliadins in transgenic wheat eliminates a major source of environmental variability and improves dough mixing properties of flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background The end-use quality of wheat flour varies as a result of the growth conditions of the plant. Among the wheat gluten proteins, the omega-5 gliadins have been identified as a major source of environmental variability, increasing in proportion in grain from plants that receive fertilizer or ...

  6. Effect of corn bran particle size on rheology and pasting characteristics of flour gels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary fiber in corn bran is known for its beneficial effects on human health and nutrition. Corn bran substitution has shown to affect batter viscosity, and volume, crumb grain, color, and texture of cakes. Purified food-grade corn bran was milled to pass through 80, 100 and 120 mesh sieve, resu...

  7. Effect of corn bran particle size and substitution on pasting characteristics of wheat flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary fiber in corn bran is known for its beneficial effects on human health and nutrition. Purified ultrafine food-grade corn bran (free of germ and endosperm), a byproduct from the grain milling industry is a good source of dietary fiber. Corn bran substitution effects batter viscosity, cake v...

  8. Rising dough and baking bread at the Australian synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, S. C.; McCann, T.; Day, L.; Favaro, J.; Tuhumury, H.; Thompson, D.; Maksimenko, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat protein quality and the amount of common salt added in dough formulation can have a significant effect on the microstructure and loaf volume of bread. High-speed synchrotron micro-CT provides an ideal tool for observing the three dimensional structure of bread dough in situ during proving (rising) and baking. In this work, the synchrotron micro-CT technique was used to observe the structure and time evolution of doughs made from high and low protein flour and three different salt additives. These experiments showed that, as expected, high protein flour produces a higher volume loaf compared to low protein flour regardless of salt additives. Furthermore the results show that KCl in particular has a very negative effect on dough properties resulting in much reduced porosity. The hundreds of datasets produced and analysed during this experiment also provided a valuable test case for handling large quantities of data using tools on the Australian Synchrotron's MASSIVE cluster.

  9. Determination and chemometric evaluation of total aflatoxin, aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A and heavy metals content in corn flours from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Algül, Işıl; Kara, Derya

    2014-08-15

    Concentrations of the total aflatoxin, aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2, ochratoxin A, lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, copper, zinc and chromium in corn flour samples were determined. Eighteen corn flour samples that were obtained from different cities and villages in Turkey and 3 corn flour samples obtained from the UK. Determination of the different toxins was carried out using HPLC instrumentation after pre-separation using immunoaffinity columns that work through a mechanism of solid-phase extraction. An ICP-MS instrument was used for the heavy metal determinations. The results obtained from HPLC and ICP-MS analyses of the corn flour samples showed that these samples contain detectable levels of most of the analytes but the mercury was at undetectable levels. A very strong statistical relationship was observed between Cr and total Aflatoxin and Aflatoxin B1; whereas Ochratoxin A was related to Cu and Zn concentrations using correlation analyses and principal component analyses. PMID:24679753

  10. Effect of mixing time on the structural characteristics of noodle dough under vacuum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Xing, Yanan; Zhang, Yingquan; Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Xuju; Wei, Yimin

    2015-12-01

    The structural characteristics of noodle dough under different vacuum mixing times were investigated using three flour samples by texture profile analysis (TPA), SEM, FTIR micro-imaging, and by measuring the glutenin macropolymer and free -SH content. The sheeted dough mixed for 8 min presented better textural properties and a more compact and even microstructure. Insufficient mixing resulted in an uneven distribution and an inadequately developed gluten network, especially for weak-gluten flour (Jimai 22). Excessive mixing was detrimental to the developed dough network and decreased the uniformity of component spatial distribution. Furthermore, excessive mixing led to a decrease in GMP content as well as the increase in free -SH content. Flours with different protein characteristics behaved differently. The TPA, microstructure and free -SH content of dough of Zhengmai 366 was less affected by mixing time than that of Jimai 22, suggesting that strong-gluten flour has better noodle dough mixing tolerance. PMID:26041200

  11. Arepas made from ß-glucans enriched corn flour produced low metabolic responses in healthy subjects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn is one of the most important cereals for the nutrition of large groups of the Latin American population and arepa is a very popular corn-based food preparation. In order to study the arepa consumption effects on glucose and insulin response when ß-glucans were added to this preparation, three ...

  12. [Pre-cooked corn flour intake and its contribution of iron and vitamin A in low income preschoolers].

    PubMed

    del Real, Sara; Páez, María Concepción; Solano, Liseti; Fajardo, Zuleida

    2002-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the addition of iron and vitamin A (VA) to corn flour, supplied through a national enrichment program since 1993, allows preschoolers to achieve an adequate intake of these nutrients. Data from the assessment of 196 children (4-6 year old) from Valencia, Venezuela is presented, including socio-demographic, anthropometric, anemia, VA deficiency (by conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) and serum retinol), and food intake. 92% of the children lived in poverty. 12% were below the norm for weight-for-height. 13% had anemia, 9% had VA deficiency according to CIC, and 0.5% according to serum retinol (< 0.70 mumol/L), 30% were at risk of VA deficiency (0.70-1.05 mmol/L). 17%, 37%, and 5% of the sample had an insufficient intake (< 80% of RDA) of energy, iron, and VA, respectively. When excluding from the analysis the amount of iron and VA from corn flour enrichment, an additional 38% and 10% of the sample showed deficient intakes of each nutrient, respectively. According to the weight-for-height indicator, iron intake was significantly lower in undernourished children (p < 0.05) than in those normal or above the norm; this was not so for VA. It is concluded that iron enrichment contributes to the improvement of the intake of this nutrient but is not enough to provide an adequate amount of it; and that the addition of VA does not seem to have an important effect on the diet of this age group. PMID:12448342

  13. Comparison of methods and optimisation of the analysis of fumonisins B₁ and B₂ in masa flour, an alkaline cooked corn product.

    PubMed

    De Girolamo, A; Pascale, M; Visconti, A

    2011-05-01

    A comparison study of different extraction and clean-up procedures for the liquid chromatographic analysis of fumonisins B(1) (FB(1)) and B(2) (FB(2)) in corn masa flour was performed. The procedures included extraction (heat or room temperature) with acidic conditions or EDTA-containing solvents, and clean-up by immunoaffinity or C18 solid-phase extraction columns. Thereafter an analytical method was optimised using extraction with an acidic mixture of methanol-acetonitrile-citrate/phosphate buffer, clean-up through the immunoaffinity column and determination of fumonisins by liquid chromatography with automated pre-column derivatisation with o-phthaldialdehyde reagent. Recovery experiments performed on yellow, white and blue masa flours at spiking levels of 400, 800 and 1200 µg kg(-1) FB(1) and of 100, 200 and 300 µg kg(-1) FB(2) gave overall mean recoveries of 99% (±6%) for FB(1) and 88% (±6%) for FB(2). Good recoveries (higher than 90% for both FB(1) and FB(2)) were also obtained with corn tortilla chips. The limits of quantification of the method (signal-to-noise ratio of 10) were 25 µg kg(-1) for FB(1) and 17 µg kg(-1) for FB(2). The method was tested on different commercial corn masa flours as well as on white and yellow corn tortilla chips, showing fumonisin contamination levels (FB(1) + FB(2)) up to 1800 µg kg(-1) (FB(1) + FB(2)) in masa flour and 960 µg kg(-1) in tortilla chips. Over 30% of masa flours originating from Mexico exceeded the European Union maximum permitted level. PMID:21400323

  14. Organoleptic Analysis of Doughs Fermented with Yeasts From A Nigerian Palm Wine (Elaeis guineensis) and Certain Commercial Yeasts.

    PubMed

    I, Dayo-Owoyemi; B, Boboye; Fa, Akinyosoye

    2008-01-01

    Yeasts isolated from a freshly tapped palm wine obtained from Akure, Nigeria were identified as Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Debaryomyces hansenii, Geotrichum lactis and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Each of the isolates was used to ferment wheat flour dough and baked. Sensory analysis of the doughs was carried out using leavening, texture, aroma, taste and appearance. Saccharomyces cerevisiae performed best in leavening the dough while Debaryomyces hansenii produced doughs with the best taste and aroma. Appearances of the doughs made with all the isolated yeasts did not differ significantly (P>0.05) from that of the dough that lacked yeast. PMID:19088921

  15. Organoleptic Analysis of Doughs Fermented with Yeasts From A Nigerian Palm Wine (Elaeis guineensis) and Certain Commercial Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    B, Boboye; I, Dayo-Owoyemi; F. A, Akinyosoye

    2008-01-01

    Yeasts isolated from a freshly tapped palm wine obtained from Akure, Nigeria were identified as Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Debaryomyces hansenii, Geotrichum lactis and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Each of the isolates was used to ferment wheat flour dough and baked. Sensory analysis of the doughs was carried out on leavening, texture, aroma, taste and appearance. Saccharomyces cerevisiae performed best in leavening the dough while Debaryomyces hansenii produced doughs with the best taste and aroma. Appearances of the doughs made with all the isolated yeasts did not differ significantly (P<0.05) from that of the dough that lacked yeast. PMID:19088921

  16. The contribution of glutenin macropolymer depolymerization to the deterioration of frozen steamed bread dough quality.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei; Lee, Tung-Ching; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu

    2016-11-15

    Depolymerization of glutenin macropolymers (GMP) widely exists in the frozen dough with little effort in elucidating its effects on steamed bread quality. To clarify this, GMP was fractionated from wheat flour and reconstituted to yeast and chemical leavened dough (YLD/CLD). Results showed that with supplementary GMP fraction, depolymerization degree was alleviated in frozen dough. The bread quality loss from freezing was partially counteracted along with better preserved GMP content. Both of dough elasticity and gas retention capability were enhanced in GMP-enriched frozen dough. Gassing power in frozen YLD decreased while remained constant in CLD. Addition of GMP did not affect the gassing power, which allowed interpreting the improved bread qualities from the enhanced dough elasticity and gas retention capability. Based on the improved facts of frozen steamed bread dough quality with additional GMP fractions, this study revealed the pivotal role of GMP depolymerization on the frozen steamed bread dough quality. PMID:27283603

  17. Physico-chemical, nutritional and infrared spectroscopy evaluation of an optimized soybean/corn flour extrudate.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Ortiz, Fabiola Araceli; Hernández-Sánchez, Humberto; Yee-Madeira, Hernani; San Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; Robles-Ramírez, María Del Carmen; Rojas-López, Marlon; Berríos, Jose De J; Mora-Escobedo, Rosalva

    2015-07-01

    A central composite design using RMS (Response Surface Methodology) successfully described the effect of independent variables (feed moisture, die temperature and soybean proportion) on the specific parameters of product quality as expansion index (EI), water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI) and total color difference (ΔE) studied. The regression model indicated that EI, WAI, WSI and ΔE were significant (p < 0.05) with coefficients of determination (R(2)) of 0.7371, 0.7588, 0.7622, 0.8150, respectively. The optimized processing conditions were obtained with 25.8 % feed moisture, 160 °C die temperature and 58 %/42 % soybean/corn proportion. It was not found statistically changes in amino acid profile due to extrusion process. The electrophoretic profile of extruded soybean/corn mix presented low intensity molecular weight bands, compared to the unprocessed sample. The generation of low molecular weight polypeptides was associated to an increased in In vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of the extrudate. The FTIR spectra of the soybean/corn mix before and after extrusion showed that the α-helix structure remained unchanged after extrusion. However, the band associated with β-sheet structure showed to be split into two bands at 1624 and 1640 cm(-1) . The changes in the β-sheet structures may be also associated to the increased in IVPD in the extruded sample. PMID:26139872

  18. SENSORY ANALYSIS OF WHOLE WHEAT/SOY FLOUR BREADS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of dough formulation on wheat/soy bread taste and texture were studied in order to design a low cost, high protein bread which could help reduce hunger in the U.S. and abroad. Breads contained 0-40% defatted soy flour, 30-100% whole wheat flour and 0-30% white wheat flour and were prepa...

  19. [Corn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa History for Young People, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on corn. Iowa is the number one corn producing state in the United States. The featured articles in the issue concern, among other topics, Iowa children who live on farms, facts and statistics about corn, the Mesquakie Indians and corn shelling, corn hybrids, a short story, and the corn palaces of Sioux City. Activities,…

  20. Succinic acid in levels produced by yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during fermentation strongly impacts wheat bread dough properties.

    PubMed

    Jayaram, Vinay B; Cuyvers, Sven; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2014-05-15

    Succinic acid (SA) was recently shown to be the major pH determining metabolite produced by yeast during straight-dough fermentation (Jayaram et al., 2013), reaching levels as high as 1.6 mmol/100 g of flour. Here, the impact of such levels of SA (0.8, 1.6 and 2.4 mmol/100 g flour) on yeastless dough properties was investigated. SA decreased the development time and stability of dough significantly. Uniaxial extension tests showed a consistent decrease in dough extensibility upon increasing SA addition. Upon biaxial extension in the presence of 2.4 mmol SA/100 g flour, a dough extensibility decrease of 47-65% and a dough strength increase of 25-40% were seen. While the SA solvent retention capacity of flour increased with increasing SA concentration in the solvent, gluten agglomeration decreased with gluten yield reductions of over 50%. The results suggest that SA leads to swelling and unfolding of gluten proteins, thereby increasing their interaction potential and dough strength, but simultaneously increasing intermolecular electrostatic repulsive forces. These phenomena lead to the reported changes in dough properties. Together, our results establish SA as an important yeast metabolite for dough rheology. PMID:24423552

  1. Raw Dough's a Raw Deal and Could Make You Sick

    MedlinePlus

    ... even though there are websites devoted to “flour crafts,” don’t give your kids raw dough or ... care or kindergarten, a common pastime may be art using “play” clay that is homemade from raw ...

  2. CORN FLAVOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn is a large part of the modern diet through sweeteners, oil, processed foods, and animal-derived foods. In addition, corn is eaten directly in bread and cereal-type foods, snack foods, and foods made from masa flour. Corn gluten meal is a byproduct of grain processed by wet milling. Although pri...

  3. Extensigraph Dough Preparation Based on Protein Content and 10-g Mixograph for Limited Sample Size

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Brabender extensigraph is one of several empirical rheological instruments used to determine dough extension characteristics to predict end-product qualities of wheat flour. The extensigraph method (AACCI 54-10) utilizes 450 g flour and a 50-g farinograph to estimate optimal mix time and water a...

  4. Effect of Genotype and Environment on the Refrigerated Dough Quality and Arabinoxylan Content of Hard Red Spring Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arabinoxylans (AXs) are the main non-starch polysaccharides found in wheat flour. Structural changes of AXs in refrigerated dough are linked to deleterious effects on refrigerated dough quality during storage. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of cultivar and environment on dou...

  5. Rheological and functional properties of composite sweet potato - wheat dough as affected by transglutaminase and ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Ndayishimiye, Jean Bernard; Huang, Wei-Ning; Wang, Feng; Chen, Yong-Zheng; Letsididi, Rebaone; Rayas-Duarte, Patricia; Ndahetuye, Jean Baptiste; Tang, Xiao-Juan

    2016-02-01

    Effect of transglutaminase (TGM) and ascorbic acid (AA) on composite sweet potato - wheat dough functional and rheological properties was studied. Partial substitution of wheat flour with sweet potato flour at the level of 20 % significantly (P ≤ 0.05) reduced glutenin, gliadin, dough stability, protein weakening, storage modulus (G') and viscous modulus (G″). Mixolab revealed that both TGM and AA treated dough had stability and protein weakening closed to wheat dough (control), with TGM treated dough having the highest values. TGM Introduced new cross-link bonds as shown by the change of amino acid concentration, leading to an increase in storage modulus (G') and viscous modulus (G″), with G' being higher at all levels of TGM concentration. The opposite was observed for composite dough treated with AA as measured by controlled - stress rheometer. TGM treatment increased glutenin and gliadin content. Compared with the control, dough treated with AA exhibited high molecular weight of polymers than TGM treated dough. The results indicate that the TGM and AA modification of the mixolab and dynamic rheological characteristics (G' and G″) dependent on the changes of GMP, glutenin, gliadin and protein weakening in the composite dough. TGM and AA treatment could improve functional and rheological properties of sweet potato - wheat dough to levels that might be achieved with normal wheat bread. However, it's extremely important to optimize the concentrations of both additives to obtain the optimum response. PMID:27162397

  6. A novel fortified blended flour, corn-soy blend "plus-plus," is not inferior to lipid-based ready-to-use supplementary foods for the treatment of moderate acute malnutrition in Malawian children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) are often treated with fortified blended flours, most commonly a corn-soy blend (CSB). However, recovery rates remain <75%, lower than the rate achieved with peanut-paste-based ready-to-use supplementary foods (RUSFs). To bridge this gap, a novel CSB r...

  7. Corn

    MedlinePlus

    ... composed of a dense core that presses on sensory nerves, causing extreme pain. Soft corns occur between ... a benign condition and may not require medical evaluation. However, if corns become very painful, evaluation should ...

  8. Particle Size Effects on the Quality of Flour Tortillas Enriched with Whole Grain Waxy Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat tortillas were enriched with whole barley flour (WBF) of different particle sizes including 237 micros (regular-R), 131 micros (intermediate-IM), and 68 micros (microground-MG). Topographical and fluorescent microstructure images of flours, doughs and tortillas were examined. Flours and tort...

  9. Phytate negatively influences wheat dough and bread characteristics by interfering with cross-linking of glutenin molecules

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of added phytate on dough properties and bread baking quality was studied to determine the role of phytate in the impaired functional properties of whole grain wheat flour for baking bread. Phytate addition to refined flour at a 1% level substantially increased mixograph mixing time, g...

  10. Effect of fructo-oligosaccharide and isomalto-oligosaccharide addition on baking quality of frozen dough.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Young; Jang, Sung-Bum; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2016-12-15

    The baking quality of frozen doughs containing different levels of fructo-oligosaccharides (FO) or isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO) (3-9%, w/w flour), and stored for 0-8weeks at -18°C, was examined. The addition of FO or IMO increased the proof volume of the dough and the loaf volume of bread prepared from frozen dough. A 6% addition of FO or IMO was optimum, giving the highest proof volume and bread loaf volume, but a higher concentration than 6% induced low baking quality including lower proof volume and bread loaf volume. The bread crumb was moister and softer after the addition of FO or IMO before, and even after, frozen storage. Darker crumb colour was observed in the bread after the addition of FO or IMO. The oligosaccharides added to the frozen dough were effective in improving the quality of bread made from frozen dough, except for resulting in a darker bread crumb. PMID:27451167

  11. Quality characteristics of bread and cookies enriched with debittered Moringa oleifera seed flour.

    PubMed

    Ogunsina, B S; Radha, C; Indrani, D

    2011-03-01

    The effects of replacing wheat flour with 0-15% debittered moringa seed (DBMS) flour on the dough rheology of wheat flour and physical, sensory and chemical properties of bread were studied. Incorporation of an increasing amount of DBMS from 0 to 15% decreased farinograph water absorption, dough stability, amylograph peak viscosity and overall quality of bread. The bread with 10% DBMS had a typical moringa seed taste and was acceptable. Addition of combination of additives improved the dough strength and quality of bread with 10% DBMS flour. Replacement of wheat flour with 10%, 20% and 30% DBMS grits was found to affect cookies quality. Cookies with 20% DBMS grits had the nutty taste of moringa seeds and were acceptable. Bread with 10% DBMS flour and cookies with 20% DBMS grits had more protein, iron and calcium. Incorporating moringa seeds in baked foods may be exploited as a means of boosting nutrition in Africa and Asia where malnutrition is prevalent. PMID:21118057

  12. Water dynamics in fresh and frozen yeasted dough.

    PubMed

    Loveday, Simon M; Huang, Victor T; Reid, David S; Winger, Ray J

    2012-01-01

    Water is an integral part of wheat flour dough-the amount, physical state, and location of water are crucial to the formation of a dough that will hold gas and produce an open, aerated crumb structure in the final product. This has been understood for centuries by craft bakers, who were highly attuned to the "feel" of dough in their hands. In the 20th century, empirical instruments were invented that simulated part of the breadmaking process, and their limited predictive capacity made them valuable quality control tools. During the latter decades of the 20th century the cost and availability of advanced instrumental methods for characterizing foods improved dramatically, and facilitated a "fundamental science" approach to food research. The physicochemical mechanisms by which water exerts such a strong influence on the character of dough are now better understood. This review contrasts the empirical and fundamental view points, and summarizes recent knowledge about the roles of water in the manufacture of fresh and frozen yeasted dough. PMID:22369259

  13. Fermented corn flour poisoning in rural areas of China. III. Isolation and identification of main toxin produced by causal microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Hu, W J; Chen, X M; Meng, H D; Meng, Z H

    1989-03-01

    Flavotoxin A was isolated from Pseudomonas cocovenenans subsp. farinofermentans culture in semisolid potato-dextrose-agar medium, which was isolated from fermented corn meal that had caused food poisoning outbreaks in China. The isolation, purification, and chemical structure of this toxin were studied. The NMR spectra, the uv spectra, and molar extinction coefficients, and the mass spectra of Flavotoxin A are in good agreement with those reported for bongkrekic acid. Therefore, Flavotoxin A and bongkrekic acid are the same organic chemical compound; the molecular formula is C28H38O7. The oral LD50 of the purified Flavotoxin A in mice was 3.16 mg/kg (1.53-6.15 mg/kg). The existence of bongkrekic acid in toxic fermented corn samples collected during food poisoning outbreaks was also confirmed. It is concluded that bongkrekic acid has played an important role in the outbreaks of fermented corn poisoning. PMID:2590494

  14. Volume, texture, and molecular mechanism behind the collapse of bread made with different levels of hard waxy wheat flours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physico-chemical properties of bread baked by partially replacing wild type wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) flour (15, 30, and 45%) with two waxy wheat flours having different dough properties were investigated. Substitution with waxy wheat flour resulted in higher loaf volume and softer loaves. Howeve...

  15. Ingredient Functionality in Multilayered Dough-margarine Systems and the Resultant Pastry Products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ooms, Nand; Pareyt, Bram; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2016-10-01

    Pastry products are produced from heterogeneous multilayered dough systems. The main ingredients are flour, water, fat and sugar for puff pastry, and the same plus yeast for fermented pastry. Key aspects in pastry production are (i) building laminated dough containing alternating layers of dough and bakery fat and (ii) maintaining this multilayered structure during processing to allow for steam entrapment for proper dough lift during baking. Although most authors agree on the importance of gluten and fat for maintaining the integrity of the different layers, detailed studies on their specific function are lacking. The exact mechanism of steam entrapment during dough lift and the relative contribution of water set free from the fat phase during baking also remain unclear. This review brings together current knowledge on pastry products and the factors determining (intermediate) product quality. Its focus is on flour constituents, fat, water, and (where applicable) yeast during the different production stages of pastry products. Future research needs are addressed as the knowledge on biochemical and physical changes occurring in flour constituents and other ingredients during pastry production and their effect on product quality is currently inadequate. PMID:26177127

  16. Implications of non-covalent interactions in zein-starch dough and bread quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major limitation in the production of wheat-free breads is the lack of protein functionality in non-wheat cereals. Breads made from non-wheat flours such as rice, maize, and sorghum must be made from thick batters and are of lower quality than wheat bread. The development of visco-elastic dough f...

  17. Modification of Extensigraph Dough Preparation Method Developed for Wheat Breeding Lines and Commercial Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dough rheological characteristics - resistance to extension and extensibility, are very important wheat flour quality traits for the milling and baking industries, and for new wheat varietal selection in wheat breeding programs. Current available techniques or test methods, such as the AACCI extens...

  18. A Modified Alveograph Method for Dough Evaluation of Wheat Breeding Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dough rheological characteristics, such as resistance-to-extension and extensibility, are very important wheat flour quality traits evaluated in wheat-based food industries and wheat breeding programs. However, small sample size, rapid testing time, and large sample throughput are necessary in breed...

  19. Effects of chickpea flour on wheat pasting properties and bread making quality.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, I; Ahmed, Abdelrahman R; Senge, B

    2014-09-01

    Pulses (pea, chickpea, lentil, bean) are an important source of food proteins. They contain high amounts of lysine, leucine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and arginine and provide well balanced essential amino acid profiles when consumed with cereals. The influence of partial substitution of wheat flour with chickpea flour at the levels of 10, 20 and 30 % was carried out to study their pasting properties and bread making quality. Pasting properties were determined using Micro Visco-Amylo-Graph Analyser and Farinograph. The pasting temperature increased with increase chickpea flour concentration and the temperature of pasting ranged between 62 to 66.5 °C. No peak of viscosity curve was found for pure chickpea flour and have higher pasting temperature than pure wheat flour. Chickpea flour addition increased the water absorption and dough development time (p < 0.05), Regarding dough stability, it appears that 10 % chickpea exhibited higher stability and resistance to mechanical mixing values than the control, while it decreased as the substitute level increases from 20 % to 30 %. The dough surface of the wheat dough and the blend with 10 % was classified as "normal", however the blend with 20 % and 30 % produced "sticky" dough surface. The presence of chickpea flour in dough affected bread quality in terms of volume, internal structure and texture. The color of crust and crumb got progressively darker as the level of chickpea flour substitution increased. While the substitution of wheat flour with 10 % chickpea flour gave loaves as similar as control. PMID:25190845

  20. Critical assessment of the formation of hydrogen peroxide in dough by fermenting yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Mohammad N; Dornez, Emmie; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2015-02-01

    Fermentation of bread dough leads to strengthening of the dough matrix. This effect has previously been ascribed to the action of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by yeast in dough. In this study, we re-evaluate the production of H2O2 by yeast in dough and aqueous fermentation broth. Results show that the previously reported high levels of H2O2 in fermenting dough were most probably due to the lack of specificity of the potassium dichromate/acetic acid-based method used. Using the chemiluminescent HyPerBlu assay, no yeast H2O2 production could be detected in fermented dough or broth. Even though the formation of low levels of H2O2 cannot be ruled out due to the presence of catalase in flour and the fast reaction of H2O2 with gluten proteins, our results suggest that the changes in dough matrix rheological properties upon fermentation are not due to production of H2O2 by yeast. PMID:25172698

  1. Impact of Wheat Bran Hydration Properties As Affected by Toasting and Degree of Milling on Optimal Dough Development in Bread Making.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Pieter J; Bogaerts, Silke; Hemdane, Sami; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2016-05-11

    The impact of the hydration capacity and hydration rate of wheat bran on optimal bread dough development and loaf volume was investigated using coarse bran, both native as well as after toasting, milling, presoaking, and combinations of the latter. It was found that toasting reduces bran's hydration rate, which, during mixing, results in a temporary excess of water in which dough development takes place inefficiently and hence requires additional time. This mechanism was further substantiated by the observation that delayed dough development can be counteracted by the presoaking of bran. Milling of bran increases its hydration rate and results in faster optimal dough development. Presoaking of nonmilled bran, however, did not result in faster dough development. Smaller bran particles do lead to faster dough development, probably due to increased proper contacts between flour particles. Optimal loaf volumes did not change upon milling and toasting. PMID:27092966

  2. Rheological, thermo-mechanical, and baking properties of wheat-millet flour blends.

    PubMed

    Aprodu, Iuliana; Banu, Iuliana

    2015-07-01

    Millet has long been known as a good source of fiber and antioxidants, but only lately started to be exploited by food scientists and food industry as a consequence of increased consumer awareness. In this study, doughs and breads were produced using millet flour in different ratios (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%) to white, dark, and whole wheat flour. The flour blends were evaluated in terms of rheological and thermo-mechanical properties. Fundamental rheological measurements revealed that the viscosity of the flour formulations increases with wheat flour-extraction rate and decreases with the addition of millet flour. Doughs behavior during mixing, overmixing, pasting, and gelling was established using the Mixolab device. The results of this bread-making process simulation indicate that dough properties become critical for the flour blends with millet levels higher than 30%. The breads were evaluated for volume, texture, and crumb-grain characteristics. The baking test and sensory evaluation results indicated that substitution levels of up to 30% millet flour could be used in composite bread flour. High levels of millet flour (40 and 50%) negatively influenced the loaf volume, crumb texture, and taste. PMID:24837596

  3. Effect of Cephalaria syriaca addition on rheological properties of composite flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaoðlu, M. M.

    2012-10-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the effect of whole and defatted Cephalaria syriaca flour on the rheological properties of composite flours that used in bran bread production. Cephalaria syriaca products were used to replace 0.25, 0.75, 1.25, 1.75, and 2.25% of wheat-wheat bran composite flour, and its rheological and fermentative properties were measured by farinograph, extensograph and rheofermentometre. The data showed that the rheological parameters of flours were greatly modified by addition of Cephalaria syriaca. The rheological properties of wheatwheat bran composite flour added with whole and defatted Cephalaria syriaca flour were considerably improved with regard to especially extensograph characteristics such as dough resistance, area (energy), ratio number and rheofermentometer parameters such as Hm, T1, Tx, volume loss and gas retention, as compared to control. However addition of Cephalaria syriaca products adversely affected the farinograph characteristics. Generally, these effects of both whole and defatted Cephalaria syriaca flour increased, as the addition level increased. Maximum Tx, gas retention and area (energy) of dough were obtained from wheat-wheat bran composite flour added with 1.75% whole Cephalaria syriaca flour, while the highest dough stability was at addition level of 0.25% whole Cephalaria syriaca flour.

  4. Physico-chemical and metabolomic characterization of KAMUT® Khorasan and durum wheat fermented dough.

    PubMed

    Balestra, Federica; Laghi, Luca; Taneyo Saa, Danielle; Gianotti, Andrea; Rocculi, Pietro; Pinnavaia, GianGaetano

    2015-11-15

    Investigations were made in order to evaluate the influence of the flour type, chemical acidification and fermentation on characteristics of doughs obtained with durum wheat and KAMUT® Khorasan flour. Doughs were observed immediately after mixing, 90 and 360 min of leavening at 30 °C. Fundamental rheology, yeasts heat production by isothermal microcalorimetry and the interaction between water and biopolymers by means of time domain nuclear magnetic resonance were evaluated. In addition aromatic metabolite development was followed by means of the combined application of gas-chromatography and electronic nose. KAMUT® Khorasan flour was found to be more suitable than durum wheat for the fermentation processes tested, especially at acidic conditions, as shown by the increase of the volume and the metabolic heat production by yeast. In acidified dough the pattern of volatile metabolites allowed a clear distinction between the types of dough. Moreover the water/starch proton pool was characterized by higher T2 values in the KAMUT® Khorasan samples. PMID:25977050

  5. Coexpression of the High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunit 1Ax1 and Puroindoline Improves Dough Mixing Properties in Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. durum)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Xin; Sun, Fusheng; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Wei; Feng, Zhijuan; Chang, Junli; Chen, Mingjie; Wang, Yuesheng; Li, Kexiu; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2012-01-01

    Wheat end-use quality mainly derives from two interrelated characteristics: the compositions of gluten proteins and grain hardness. The composition of gluten proteins determines dough rheological properties and thus confers the unique viscoelastic property on dough. One group of gluten proteins, high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), plays an important role in dough functional properties. On the other hand, grain hardness, which influences the milling process of flour, is controlled by Puroindoline a (Pina) and Puroindoline b (Pinb) genes. However, little is known about the combined effects of HMW-GS and PINs on dough functional properties. In this study, we crossed a Pina-expressing transgenic line with a 1Ax1-expressing line of durum wheat and screened out lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina or lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. Dough mixing analysis of these lines demonstrated that expression of 1Ax1 improved both dough strength and over-mixing tolerance, while expression of PINA detrimentally affected the dough resistance to extension. In lines coexpressing 1Ax1 and Pina, faster hydration of flour during mixing was observed possibly due to the lower water absorption and damaged starch caused by PINA expression. In addition, expression of 1Ax1 appeared to compensate the detrimental effect of PINA on dough resistance to extension. Consequently, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat had combined effects on dough mixing behaviors with a better dough strength and resistance to extension than those from lines expressing either 1Ax1 or Pina. The results in our study suggest that simultaneous modulation of dough strength and grain hardness in durum wheat could significantly improve its breadmaking quality and may not even impair its pastamaking potential. Therefore, coexpression of 1Ax1 and PINA in durum wheat has useful implications for breeding durum wheat with dual functionality (for pasta and bread) and may improve the economic values of durum

  6. Impact of the substitution of rice bran on rheological properties of dough and in the new product development.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice bran is a nutrient-rich co-product of the rice milling industries. The impact of adding 2-20% rice bran in wheat flour on the rheological behavior of the dough was investigated using the instruments, Farinograph, Consistograph, and Alveograph. The changes in physico-chemical properties were fo...

  7. Studies on physicochemical and pasting properties of Taro (Colocasia esculenta L.) flour in comparison with a cereal, tuber and legume flour.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Maninder; Kaushal, Pragati; Sandhu, Kawaljit Singh

    2013-02-01

    The physicochemical and pasting properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta L.) flour were investigated and compared with flours from other botanical sources. Proximate composition, color parameters, water and oil absorption, foaming characteristics and pasting properties (measured using Rapid visco analyzer) of flours were related to each other using Pearson correlation and principal component analysis (PCA). Taro flour was significantly (P < 0.05) different from other flours in exhibiting highest carbohydrate, water absorption, and lower protein, foaming capacity and setback viscosity. Peak viscosity of taro flour was lower in comparison to potato flour but higher than that of soya and corn flours. Several significant correlations between functional and pasting properties were revealed both by PCA and Pearson correlation. PCA showed that taro and potato flours were located at the left of the score plot with a negative score, while soybean and corn flours had a large positive score in the first principal component. PMID:24425892

  8. Towards a Simple Constitutive Model for Bread Dough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Roger I.

    2008-07-01

    Wheat flour dough is an example of a soft solid material consisting of a gluten (rubbery) network with starch particles as a filler. The volume fraction of the starch filler is high-typically 60%. A computer-friendly constitutive model has been lacking for this type of material and here we report on progress towards finding such a model. The model must describe the response to small strains, simple shearing starting from rest, simple elongation, biaxial straining, recoil and various other transient flows. A viscoelastic Lodge-type model involving a damage function. which depends on strain from an initial reference state fits the given data well, and it is also able to predict the thickness at exit from dough sheeting, which has been a long-standing unsolved puzzle. The model also shows an apparent rate-dependent yield stress, although no explicit yield stress is built into the model. This behaviour agrees with the early (1934) observations of Schofield and Scott Blair on dough recoil after unloading.

  9. Relationship of Dough Extensibility to Dough Strength in a Spring Wheat Cross

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A negative relationship between dough strength and dough extensibility would pose a problem for breeding hard wheats, as both dough strength and dough extensibility are desirable. We derived 77 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) from a cross between hard red spring wheat cultivars McNeal and Thatcher. M...

  10. Studies on effect of oat and cheese incorporation on sensory and textural quality of short-dough type biscuit.

    PubMed

    Swapna, K S; Rao, K Jayaraj

    2016-03-01

    In view of their growing importance in human nutrition, incorporation of oats and cheese during the manufacture of short-dough type biscuits was studied. Rolled oats were incorporated at 25, 35 and 45 % of refined wheat flour in short-dough type biscuit formulation. Cheddar and processed cheese were used for flavouring purpose at three levels each, viz. 30, 40 and 50 % on flour basis. The dough exhibited less firmness on oats incorporation as indicated by lower firmness value (21.73 N) as against 25.05 N for control dough measured by Texture Analyser. Addition of cheese to the 25 % oat incorporated dough further reduced its firmness and altered its viscoelastic characteristics. Baking conditions for the oats and cheese incorporated biscuits were optimized as 165 °C for 25-27 min. Sensory evaluation results revealed that the biscuit made from 25 % oat incorporated dough scored highest in most of the sensory attributes including overall acceptability. Cheddar cheese and processed cheese levels were optimized at 30 and 40 % in oats-incorporated dough based on the sensory analysis of biscuits prepared from the dough samples. The moisture and β- glucan contents were 3.93 % and 0.62 %; 4.32 % and 0.60 % for cheddar cheese and processed cheese added biscuits, respectively. The spread ratios were higher in cheese incorporated biscuits than in oat incorporated biscuits. It was concluded that good quality cheese flavoured biscuits can be prepared by incorporating rolled oats in biscuit formulation along with cheddar or processed cheese. PMID:27570275

  11. Effect of raw material characteristics on the properties of fried rice-blackgram dough.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Sila; Narasimha, H V

    2008-09-01

    The dough, comprising a mixture of rice and blackgram, is shaped in a forming extruder followed by deep frying to obtain a crisp snack. Although it is a popular product in several oriental countries, the details of the role of raw materials and processing conditions are not known. Two different flour mixes obtained from rice and blackgram were studied to investigate the influence of the raw material on product characteristics. Fine particles in one flour mix (70 microm) had a high water-holding capacity (1.7 g/g) and gave product with low fat content (approximately 16%), but had an undesirable hard texture coupled with a floury mouth feel. On the contrary, coarse particles (113 microm) in another flour mix with a low water-holding capacity (1.5 g/g) produced a snack with higher fat content (26-30%) with a desirable crisp texture. Addition of fat and the use of coarse flour can avoid bursting of the product during frying, which is a common problem associated with frying of such products while using fine flour. A mechanism for frying rice-blackgram dough strands has been proposed. PMID:19086242

  12. A novel fortified blended flour, corn-soy blend “plus-plus,” is not inferior to lipid-based ready-to-use supplementary foods for the treatment of moderate acute malnutrition in Malawian children12345

    PubMed Central

    LaGrone, Lacey N; Trehan, Indi; Meuli, Gus J; Wang, Richard J; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Maleta, Kenneth; Manary, Mark J

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children with moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) are often treated with fortified blended flours, most commonly a corn-soy blend (CSB). However, recovery rates remain <75%, lower than the rate achieved with peanut paste–based ready-to-use supplementary foods (RUSFs). To bridge this gap, a novel CSB recipe fortified with oil and dry skim milk, “CSB++,” has been developed. Objective: In this trial we compared CSB++ with 2 RUSF products for the treatment of MAM to test the hypothesis that the recovery rate achieved with CSB++ will not be >5% worse than that achieved with either RUSF. Design: We conducted a prospective, randomized, investigator-blinded, controlled noninferiority trial involving rural Malawian children aged 6–59 mo with MAM. Children received 75 kcal CSB++ · kg−1 · d−1, locally produced soy RUSF, or an imported soy/whey RUSF for ≤12 wk. Results: The recovery rate for CSB++ (n = 763 of 888; 85.9%) was similar to that for soy RUSF (795 of 806, 87.7%; risk difference: −1.82%; 95% CI: −4.95%, 1.30%) and soy/whey RUSF (807 of 918, 87.9%; risk difference: −1.99%; 95% CI: −5.10%, 1.13%). On average, children who received CSB++ required 2 d longer to recover, and the rate of weight gain was less than that with either RUSF, although height gain was the same among all 3 foods studied. Conclusions: A novel, locally produced, fortified blended flour (CSB++) was not inferior to a locally produced soy RUSF and an imported soy/whey RUSF in facilitating recovery from MAM. The recovery rate observed for CSB++ was higher than that for any other fortified blended flour tested previously. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00998517. PMID:22170366

  13. Relationship between population growth of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and protein and carbohydrate content in flour and starch.

    PubMed

    Wong, Nellie; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2011-12-01

    The effects of eight diets (atta flour, wheat flour, self-rising flour, rice flour, custard powder, corn flour, tapioca starch, and potato starch) on the development of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), reared at 29-31 degrees C and 66-70% RH were assessed. Five pairs of male and female T. castaneum were reared on the respective diets for 28 d before the experimental setup was dismantled and adult counts were recorded. In another experiment, the insects were allowed to mate and oviposit in each flour or starch type over a period of 7 d before being removed. The counting of pupae and adult emergence began on the day of emergence and was continued on a daily basis until day 140. Proximate analysis was performed for chemical composition of each diet, and the numbers of new adults that developed were found to be positively correlated (r2 = 0.97; P < 0.05) with the protein content and negatively correlated (r2 = 0.93; P < 0.05) with the carbohydrate content. For T. castaneum, the suitable diets were ranked as follows: atta flour > wheat flour > self-rising flour > rice flour > custard powder > corn flour > tapioca starch > potato starch. T. castaneum larval development to the pupal and adult stages developed significantly faster in atta flour (P < 0.05) than in the other diets, and the greatest number of progeny was produced from beetles reared on atta flour. Fewer adults emerged from wheat flour, self-rising flour, and rice flour, and no new emergences were recorded for the remaining diets. Developmental rate was much slower in beetles reared on diets in which a low number in progeny was produced. These data illustrate that different diets can influence the sustainability of these insects and affect their development and growth. PMID:22299375

  14. Cookie dough and baking quality of pulse flour cookies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pulses are globally recognized as a part of a healthy diet to address obesity as well as to prevent and help manage chronic diseases such as diabetes, coronary conditions and cancer. They are a good source of soluble fiber, B-vitamins, iron, calcium, potassium, and phosphorous, and low in sodium and...

  15. Use of whole grain and refined flour from tannin and non-tannin sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) varieties in frybread.

    PubMed

    Rose, Devin J; Williams, Emily; Mkandawire, Nyambe L; Weller, Curtis L; Jackson, David S

    2014-07-01

    Frybreads were prepared using wheat flour and wheat-sorghum composite flours (refined and whole grain; white, tannin-free and red, tannin-containing) at 0, 25, 50, and 75% sorghum flour. Hardness, volume, specific volume, color, and oil uptake were determined. Frybreads made with refined white, tannin-free sorghum were also evaluated in a sensory panel. Substitution of sorghum flour for wheat flour reduced the volume and increased the darkness of the fried dough pieces compared with wheat flour controls. Oil absorption was unaffected when using white, tannin-free sorghum. When using red, tannin-containing sorghum, oil absorption increased for refined flour and decreased for whole grain flour, suggesting that a component only present in the whole grain tannin-containing Sorghum--perhaps tannins themselves--may decrease oil uptake. Panelists rated frybreads containing up to 50% white, tannin-free sorghum flour as not significantly different from control frybreads made with refined wheat flour. PMID:23744121

  16. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  17. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  18. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  19. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  20. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  1. Generation of a mixolab profile after the evaluation of the functionality of different commercial wheat flours for hot-press tortilla production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five commercial flours intended for tortilla production were tested for quality and related to the mills’ technical specifications and adjustments. Qualities of the flours were evaluated during dough handling, baking, and the first 5 days on the shelf at room temperature. The Mixolab was used to gen...

  2. Characterisation of a Talaromyces emersonii thermostable enzyme cocktail with applications in wheat dough rheology.

    PubMed

    Waters, Deborah M; Ryan, Liam A M; Murray, Patrick G; Arendt, Elke K; Tuohy, Maria G

    2011-07-10

    In this paper, we report new sequence data for secreted thermostable fungal enzymes from the un-sequenced xylanolytic filamentous fungus Talaromyces emersonii and reveal novel insights on the potential role of enzymes relevant as wheat dough improvers. The presence of known and de novo enzyme sequences were confirmed through NanoLC-ESI-MS/MS and resultant peptide sequences were identified using SWISS PROT databases. The de novo protein sequences were assigned identity based on homology to known fungal proteins. Other proteins were assigned function based on the limited T. emersonii genome coverage. This approach allowed the identification of enzymes with relevance as wheat dough improvers. Rheological examination of wheat dough and wheat flour components treated with the thermostable fungal enzyme cocktail revealed structural alterations that can be extrapolated to the baking process. Thermoactive amylolytic, xylanolytic, glucanolytic, proteolytic and lipolytic enzyme activities were observed. Previously characterized T. emersonii enzymes present included; β-glucosidase, xylan-1,4-β-xyloxidase, acetylxylan esterase, acid trehalase, avenacinase, cellobiohydrolase and endo-glucanase. De novo sequence analysis confirmed peptides as being; α-glucosidase, endo-1,4-β-xylanase, endo-arabinase, endo-glucanase, exo-β-1,3-glucanase, glucanase/cellulase, endopeptidase and lipase/acylhydrolase. Rheology tests using wheat dough and fractioned wheat flour components in conjunction with T. emersonii enzymes show the role of these novel biocatalysts in altering properties of wheat substrates. Enzyme treated wheat flour fractions showed the effects of particular enzymes on appropriate substrates. This proteomic approach combined with rheological characterization is the first such report to the authors' knowledge. PMID:22112414

  3. Effects of transglutaminase on the rheological and noodle-making characteristics of oat dough containing vital wheat gluten or egg albumin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incorporating exogenous proteins into food production is a common practice for improving processing characteristics. In the present study, oat dough containing 15% (w/w, blends of protein-oat flour basis [POB]) vital wheat gluten (VWG) or 15% (w/w, POB) egg albumin (EA) were used to produce noodles ...

  4. Synergistic effect of Aspergillus tubingensis CTM 507 glucose oxidase in presence of ascorbic acid and alpha amylase on dough properties, baking quality and shelf life of bread.

    PubMed

    Kriaa, Mouna; Ouhibi, Rabeb; Graba, Héla; Besbes, Souhail; Jardak, Mohamed; Kammoun, Radhouane

    2016-02-01

    The impact of Aspergillus tubingensis glucose oxidase (GOD) in combination with α-amylase and ascorbic acid on dough properties, qualities and shelf life of bread was investigated. Regression models of alveograph and texture parameters of dough and bread were adjusted. Indeed, the mixture of GOD (44 %) and ascorbic acid (56 %) on flour containing basal improver showed its potential as a corrective action to get better functional and rheological properties of dough and bread texture. Furthermore, wheat flour containing basal additives and enriched with GOD (63.8 %), ascorbic acid (32 %) and α- amylase (4.2 %) led to high technological bread making parameters, to decrease the crumb firmness and chewiness and to improve elasticity, adhesion, cohesion and specific volume of bread. In addition to that, the optimized formulation addition significantly reduced water activity and therefore decreased bread susceptibility to microbial spoilage. These findings demonstrated that GOD could partially substitute not only ascorbic acid but also α-amylase. The generated models allowed to predict the behavior of wheat flour containing additives in the range of values tested and to define the additives formula that led to desired rheological and baking qualities of dough. This fact provides new perspectives to compensate flour quality deficiencies at the moment of selecting raw materials and technological parameters reducing the production costs and facilitating gluten free products development. Graphical abstractᅟ. PMID:27162406

  5. Developmental outcomes among 18-month-old Malawians after a year of complementary feeding with lipid-based nutrient supplements or corn-soy flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The major aim of this trial was to compare the development of 18-month-old infants who received complementary feeding for 1 year with either lipid-based nutrient supplements or micronutrient-fortified corn-soy porridge. Our secondary aim was to determine the socio-economic factors associated with de...

  6. Non-Starch Polysaccharides in Wheat Flour Wire-Cut Cookie Making

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-starch polysaccharides in wheat flour have significant capacity to affect the processing quality of dough and the finished quality of wheat products. Most research has focused on the effects of arabinoxylans (AX) in bread making. We found that water-extractable arabinoxylan and arabinogalactan...

  7. Bran hydration and physical treatments improve the bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fine and coarse bran particles of a hard red and a hard white wheat were used to study the influences of bran hydration and physical treatments such as autoclaving and freezing as well as their combinations on the dough properties and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF). For both h...

  8. Applying Genetic Engineering to Understand the Contributions of Various Seed Proteins to Wheat Flour Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contributions of individual seed proteins and protein families to wheat dough visco-elasticity can be uncovered by comparison of the end-use properties of flours prepared from the seeds of closely related genotypes that differ only or mainly in the presence/absence of those proteins. Genetic eng...

  9. Relationship of various flour properties with noodle making characteristics among durum wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder; Kaur, Seeratpreet; Katyal, Mehak; Virdi, Amardeep Singh; Kaur, Davinder; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2015-12-01

    The grain, flour, dough and noodle making properties of Indian durum wheat varieties were evaluated. Varieties having higher grain weight had lower hardness and higher yellow pigment content. Gluten performance index showed positive correlation with α-helix and negative with intermolecular+antiparallel-β-sheets in gluten. The proportion of extracted polymeric proteins was related to dough strength. Elastic (G') and loss (G″) modulus of dough were positively correlated to intermolecular+antiparallel-β-sheets and negatively with β-turn+ β-sheets proportion of dough and gluten. PDW291 with exceptionally higher G' and G″ and best noodle making properties showed the presence 90 kDa and 88 kDa polypeptides corresponding to 14+15 and type 2 banding pattern. PMID:26041226

  10. A micromechanics model for bread dough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, M. A. P.; Tarleton, E.; Charalambides, M. N.; Williams, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour of dough and gluten was studied in an effort to investigate whether bread dough can be treated as a two phase (starch and gluten) composite material. The dough and gluten show rate dependent behaviour under tension, compression and shear tests, and non-linear unloading-reloading curves under cyclic compression tests. There is evidence from cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) that damage in the form of debonding between starch and gluten occurs when the sample is stretched. A composite finite element model was developed using starch as filler and gluten as matrix. The interaction between the starch and gluten was modelled as cohesive contact. The finite element analysis predictions agree with trends seen in experimental test data on dough and gluten, further evidence that debonding of starch and gluten is a possible damage mechanism in dough.

  11. A micromechanics model for bread dough

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammed, M. A. P; Tarleton, E.; Charalambides, M. N.; Williams, J. G.

    2015-01-22

    The mechanical behaviour of dough and gluten was studied in an effort to investigate whether bread dough can be treated as a two phase (starch and gluten) composite material. The dough and gluten show rate dependent behaviour under tension, compression and shear tests, and non-linear unloading-reloading curves under cyclic compression tests. There is evidence from cryo-Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) that damage in the form of debonding between starch and gluten occurs when the sample is stretched. A composite finite element model was developed using starch as filler and gluten as matrix. The interaction between the starch and gluten was modelled as cohesive contact. The finite element analysis predictions agree with trends seen in experimental test data on dough and gluten, further evidence that debonding of starch and gluten is a possible damage mechanism in dough.

  12. [Physicochemical and sensory properties of flours ready to prepare an amaranth "atole"].

    PubMed

    Contreras López, Elizabeth; Jaimez Ordaz, Judith; Porras Martínez, Griselda; Juárez Santillán, Luis Felipe; Villanueva Rodríguez, Javier Añorve Morga y Socorro

    2010-06-01

    Atole is a Mexican pre-hispanic drink prepared traditionally with corn; however, cereals as wheat, rice and amaranth have also been used. The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical and sensory properties of an amaranth flour to prepare a drink (atole) mentioned above, in order to determine its nutritive value. Proximate analysis of the amaranth, corn and rice drink flours was determined by means of official techniques of AOAC. Mineral content was carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry. Viscosity was measured in a reometer from 25 to 90 degrees C. The quantitative descriptive profile (QDA) of the amaranth drink was studied by a trained panel of 10 judges. Results showed that the amaranth drink flour presented the highest protein and fat content compared to corn and rice drink flours. Sodium and potassium were the most abundant minerals in all flours studied. Corn and rice drink flours showed a constant viscosity from 20 to 84 degrees C, to 85 degrees C an important increase in this parameter was observed. This increase was detected in the amaranth drink flour to 75 degrees C. Descriptors defined by trained judges for the QDA of the amaranth drink flours were: starch, almond/cherry, caramel, vanilla, strawberry, walnut and chocolate. The amaranth drink flour, compared to corn and rice drink flours, presented the best nutritional profile; it is important to emphasize its protein content. PMID:21427887

  13. Rheological parameters of dough with inulin addition and its effect on bread quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojnanska, T.; Tokar, M.; Vollmannova, A.

    2015-04-01

    The rheological properties of enriched flour prepared with an addition of inulin were studied. The addition of inulin caused changes of the rheological parameters of the recorder curve. 10% and more addition significantly extended development time and on the farinogram were two peaks of consistency, what is a non-standard shape. With increasing addition of inulin resistance to deformation grows and dough is difficult to process, over 15% addition make dough short and unsuitable for making bread. Bread volume, the most important parameter, significantly decreased with inulin addition. Our results suggest a level of 5% inulin to produce a functional bread of high sensory acceptance and a level of 10% inulin produce a bread of satisfactory sensory acceptance. Bread with a level over 10% of inulin was unsatisfactory.

  14. Use of glucose oxidase to improve refrigerated dough quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Refrigerated dough encompasses a wide range of products including bread, rolls, pastries and pizza crust and is a very popular choice for consumers. Two of the largest problems that occur during refrigerated dough storage are dough syruping and loss of dough strength. The goal of this study was to e...

  15. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than...

  16. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  17. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  18. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than...

  19. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  20. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  1. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  2. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than...

  3. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  4. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  5. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  6. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  7. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  8. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than...

  9. Influence of defatted soy flour addition on the quality and stability of pretzel type product.

    PubMed

    Naik, Haroon Rashid; Sekhon, K S

    2014-03-01

    Effect of soya flour addition to 70% extraction bread wheat flour (PBW-343) at (0, 5, 10, 20 & 30%) was investigated for physico-chemical, dough handling and pretzel making properties. Results revealed that with increasing DSF addition, farinogram characteristics; water absorption, arrival time, dough development time and dough stability increased while mixing tolerance index and degree of softening decreased. Amylogram characteristics gelatinization temperature, peak viscosity, peak temperature and viscosity at 95 °C decreased with extended rate of DSF addition. Pretzels developed with different levels of DSF addition observed decrease in moisture, fat, non reducing sugars and starch where as ash, protein, reducing and total sugars increased compared to control. Calories calculated from proximate composition showed lower values than control due to high protein and low fat soy flour addition. Minerals increased significantly with increased levels of defatted soy flour addition. Organoleptic evaluation revealed that 5% level of soy flour blended pretzels were found best with respect to texture, colour and flavor on the basis of mean acceptability scores. Pretzels recorded shelf life of 90 days in laminated pouches irrespective of the level of DSF addition. PMID:24587534

  10. Prebiotic Content of Bread Prepared with Flour from Immature Wheat Grain and Selected Dextran-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ventorino, Valeria; Cavella, Silvana; Fagnano, Massimo; Brugno, Rachele

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years the need to produce food with added value has fueled the search for new ingredients and health-promoting compounds. In particular, to improve the quality of bakery products with distinct nutritional properties, the identification of new raw materials, appropriate technologies, and specific microbial strains is necessary. In this study, different doughs were prepared, with 10% and 20% flour from immature wheat grain blended with type “0 America” wheat flour. Immature flour was obtained from durum wheat grains harvested 1 to 2 weeks after anthesis. Doughs were obtained by both the straight-dough and sourdough processes. Two selected exopolysaccharide-producing strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Leuconostoc lactis A95 and Lactobacillus curvatus 69B2, were used as starters. Immature flour contained 2.21 g/100 g (dry weight) of fructo-oligosaccharides. Twenty percent immature flour in dough resulted in a shorter leavening time (4.23 ± 0.03 h) than with the control and dough with 10% immature flour. The total titratable acidity of sourdough with 20% immature flour was higher (12.75 ± 0.15 ml 0.1 N NaOH) than in the control and sourdough with 10% immature wheat flour (9.20 ml 0.1 N NaOH). Molecular analysis showed that all samples contained three LAB species identified as L. lactis, L. curvatus, and Pediococcus acidilactici. A larger amount of exopolysaccharide was found in sourdough obtained with 20% immature flour (5.33 ± 0.032 g/kg), positively influencing the exopolysaccharide content of the bread prepared by the sourdough process (1.70 ± 0.03 g/kg). The addition of 20% immature flour also led to a greater presence of fructo-oligosaccharides in the bread (900 mg/100 g dry weight), which improved its nutritional characteristics. While bread volume decreased as the concentration of immature wheat flour increased, its mechanical characteristics (stress at a strain of 30%) were the same in all samples obtained with different percentages

  11. Suitability of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for cry9C detection in Mexican corn tortillas: fate of DNA and protein after alkaline cooking.

    PubMed

    Quirasco, Maricarmen; Schoel, Bernd; Plasencia, Javier; Fagan, John; Galvez, Amanda

    2004-01-01

    Alkaline-cooked corn, called nixtamal, is the basis for many traditional corn products such as tortillas, chips, and taco shells that are used widely in Mexico and Central America and in the preparation of snack foods that are consumed globally. To assess the effects of alkaline and thermal treatments on the detectability of DNA and protein for the presence of genetically modified sequences, various nixtamalized products were prepared from blends of conventional white corn containing 0.1, 1.0, and 10% transgenic corn (event CBH 351, StarLink). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reactions (RTQ-PCR) and immunoassays were used to determine the cry9C gene and protein, respectively, in unprocessed corn kernels, freshly prepared alkaline-cooked and ground corn (masa), masa flour, tortillas prepared from masa by heat treatment, chips prepared from damp masa dough by deep frying, and from tortillas processed at high (200 degrees C) and low temperatures (70 degrees C). In spite of progressive degradation of genomic DNA during processing, RTQ-PCR genetic analysis allowed detection and quantification of the cry9C gene in all products prepared from 10, 1, and 0.1% StarLink corn, except deep-fried chips containing 0.1% StarLink. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays readily detected <1 ppm cry9C protein in all blends of unprocessed corn (10, 1, and 0.1% StarLink) as well as in nonfried tortilla and masa products. This technique was not suitable for thermally treated nixtamalized products containing <1% transgenic corn. PMID:15287662

  12. [Use of flour of pejibaye fruit (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K.) in bread making].

    PubMed

    Tracy, M

    1987-03-01

    Trial were conducted in Costa Rica in 1984 and 1985, to determine the possibility of substituting pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K.) meal for wheat flour in bread. Utilization in three distinct mixtures was examined: 90:10, 85:15 and 80:20 percentage of wheat flour to percentage of pejibaye meal, respectively. The breads were made, and dough analyses were conducted at "Molinos de Costa Rica, S.A.", the country's principal flour mill. Chemical analyses were carried out at the University of Costa Rica. Results indicate a marked inverse relationship between both initial dough development time and dough strength maintenance, and the content of pejibaye meal present in the flour mixture. Consequent problems with sufficient dough expansion preclude utilization of this fruit meal for bread-making in proportions significantly greater than 10% of the total composite flour. The above-mentioned findings reflect the high nutritional value of the pejibaye fruit. Although the protein content is inversely correlated with the amount of pejibaye meal in the mixture, vitamin A and fat contents are positively correlated. This fact demonstrates that the utilization of pejibaye meal in bread-making may well be in some ways considered as a form of nutritional enrichment. As a final conclusion drawn from the results of analyses of the trials and sensory observations, the 90% wheat flour with 10% pejibaye meal mixture apparently was the optimum substitution level of the breads examined. The potential macroeconomic ramifications on the Costa Rican economy of producing and utilizing pejibaye meal in bread-making, are highly favorable. PMID:3454612

  13. Comparison of the effects of different heat treatment processes on rheological properties of cake and bread wheat flours.

    PubMed

    Bucsella, Blanka; Takács, Ágnes; Vizer, Viktoria; Schwendener, Urs; Tömösközi, Sándor

    2016-01-01

    Dry and hydrothermal heat treatments are efficient for modifying the technological-functional and shelf-life properties of wheat milling products. Dry heat treatment process is commonly used to enhance the volume of cakes. Hydrothermal heat treatment makes wheat flours suitable as thickener agents. In this study, cake and bread wheat flours that differed in baking properties were exposed to dry (100 °C, 12 min) and hydrothermal (95 °C, 5 min, 5-20 l/h water) heat treatments. Rheological differences caused by the treatments were investigated in a diluted slurry and in a dough matrix. Dry heat treatment resulted in enhanced dough stability. This effect was significantly higher in the cake flour than the bread flour. Altered viscosity properties of the bread flour in the slurry matrix were also observed. The characteristics of hydrothermally treated samples showed matrix dependency: their viscosity increases in the slurry and decreases in the dough matrix. These results can support us to produce flour products with specific techno-functional properties. PMID:26213066

  14. Cold plasma: A new technology to modify wheat flour functionality.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Niloufar; Bayliss, Danny; Chope, Gemma; Penson, Simon; Perehinec, Tania; Fisk, Ian D

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric pressure cold plasma has the potential to modify biological chemistry and modulate physical surface properties. Wheat flour was treated by low levels of cold plasma (air, 15V and 20V) for 60 or 120s. There was no change in the total aerobic bacterial count or total mould count as a result of treatment. Treatment did not impact the concentration of total non-starch lipids, or non-polar and glycolipids. However, treatment did reduce total free fatty acids and phospholipids and was dose dependent. Oxidation markers (hydroperoxide value and head space n-hexanal) increased with treatment time and voltage, which confirmed the acceleration of lipid oxidation. Total proteins were not significantly influenced by treatment although there was a trend towards higher molecular weight fractions which indicated protein oxidation and treated flour did produce a stronger dough. This study confirms the potential of cold plasma as a tool to modify flour functionality. PMID:26920291

  15. RNA interference targeting rye secalins alters flour protein composition in a wheat variety carrying a 1Bl.1RS translocation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat varieties carrying chromosome translocations from rye are part of the international wheat breeding pool, despite being associated with defects in dough processing quality. Among the proposed causes for the quality defects of flours from such wheats is the presence of the secalins, encoded by ...

  16. Evaluation the quality characteristics of wheat flour and shelf-life of fresh noodles as affected by ozone treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Wang, Bi-Wen; Guo, Xiao-Na; Peng, Wei; Zhou, Hui-Ming

    2012-12-15

    In this study, the effects of ozone treatment on the microorganism mortality in wheat flour and shelf-life of fresh noodles were investigated, as well as the physicochemical properties of wheat flour and textural qualities of cooked noodles. Results showed that the total plate count (TPC) can be largely reduced in wheat flour exposed to ozone gas for 30 min and 60 min. Whiteness of flour and noodle sheet, dough stability, and peak viscosity of wheat starch were all increased by ozone treatment. Free cysteine content in wheat flour was shown to decrease significantly (P<0.05) as the treatment time increased and remarkable protein aggregates were observed in both reduced and non-reduced SDS-PAGE patterns. In addition, ozone treated noodles were generally higher in firmness, springiness, and chewiness, while lower in adhesiveness. Microbial growth and darkening rate of fresh noodles made from ozone treated flour were delayed significantly. PMID:22980785

  17. Dough performance, quality and shelf life of flat bread supplemented with fractions of germinated date seed.

    PubMed

    Hejri-Zarifi, Sudiyeh; Ahmadian-Kouchaksaraei, Zahra; Pourfarzad, Amir; Khodaparast, Mohammad Hossein Haddad

    2014-12-01

    Germinated palm date seeds were milled into two fractions: germ and residue. Dough rheological characteristics, baking (specific volume and sensory evaluation), and textural properties (at first day and during storage for 5 days) were determined in Barbari flat bread. Germ and residue fractions were incorporated at various levels ranged in 0.5-3 g/100 g of wheat flour. Water absorption, arrival time and gelatination temperature were decreased by germ fraction but accompanied by an increasing effect on the mixing tolerance index and degree of softening in most levels. Although improvement in dough stability was monitored but specific volume of bread was not affected by both fractions. Texture analysis of bread samples during 5 days of storage indicated that both fractions of germinated date seeds were able to diminish bread staling. Avrami non-linear regression equation was chosen as useful mathematical model to properly study bread hardening kinetics. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) allowed discriminating among dough and bread specialties. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were applied to determine the relationships between sensory and instrumental data. PMID:25477644

  18. Chemical composition, functional and sensory characteristics of wheat-taro composite flours and biscuits.

    PubMed

    Himeda, Makhlouf; Njintang Yanou, Nicolas; Fombang, Edith; Facho, Balaam; Kitissou, Pierre; Mbofung, Carl M F; Scher, Joel

    2014-09-01

    The physicochemical, alveographic and sensory characteristics of precooked taro-wheat composite flours and their biscuits were investigated. A 2x7 factorial design consisting of two varieties of taro flour (Red Ibo Ngaoundere, RIN, and egg-like varieties) and 7 levels of wheat substitutions (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 %) was used for this purpose. It was observed that water absorption capacity (range 95-152 g/100 g), water solubility index (range 18.8-29.5 g/100 g) and swelling capacity (range 125.4-204.6 mL/100 g) of composite flours significantly (p < 0.05) increased with increase in taro level. Conversely the dough elasticity index (range 59.8-0 %), extensibility (78-22 mm) and strength (range 281-139 × 10(-4) joules) significantly (p < 0.05) diminished with increase in wheat substitution. Up to 10 % substitution with RIN taro flour and 15 % with egg-like taro flour, the composite taro-wheat dough exhibited elasticity indices acceptable for the production of baking products, whereas at all levels of taro substitution, the composite biscuits samples were either acceptable as or better (5-10 % substitution with RIN flour) than 100 % wheat biscuit. PMID:25190844

  19. Evaluation of Bacillus spp. as dough starters for Adhirasam - A traditional rice based fermented food of Southern India.

    PubMed

    Anisha, Anvar Hussain Noorul; Anandham, Rangasamy; Kwon, Soon Woo; Gandhi, Pandiyan Indira; Gopal, Nellaiappan Olaganathan

    2015-01-01

    Adhirasam is a cereal based, doughnut shaped, deep fried dessert consumed in the southern regions of India. The dough used to prepare adhirasam is fermented and contains rice flour and jaggery. The aim of the present study was to characterize the cultivable bacteria associated with this fermented dough and to identify a suitable starter culture for the production of quality adhirasam. In total, one hundred and seventy bacterial isolates were recovered from de Man Rogosa Sharp (MRS) agar, nutrient agar, lysogeny agar and tryptic soy agar media. Out of the 170 bacterial isolates, sixteen isolates were selected based on their ability to tolerate glucose and sucrose. All the bacterial isolates tolerated 15% glucose and 30% sucrose. Analyses of 16S rDNA gene sequences of the bacterial isolates showed that the dominant cultivable bacteria were members of the genus Bacillus. These strains were further used as starters and tested for their ability to ferment rice flour with jaggery to produce adhirasam dough. Organoleptic evaluation was carried out to choose the best starter strain. Adhirasam prepared from Bacillus subtilis isolates S4-P11, S2-G2-A1 and S1-G15, Bacillus tequilensis isolates S2-H16, S3-P9, S3-G10 and Bacillus siamensis isolate S2-G13 were highly acceptable to consumers. Adhirasam prepared using these starter cultures had superior product characteristics such as softness in texture, flavor and enhanced aroma and sweet taste. PMID:26691480

  20. Evaluation of Bacillus spp. as dough starters for Adhirasam - A traditional rice based fermented food of Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Anisha, Anvar Hussain Noorul; Anandham, Rangasamy; Kwon, Soon Woo; Gandhi, Pandiyan Indira; Gopal, Nellaiappan Olaganathan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adhirasam is a cereal based, doughnut shaped, deep fried dessert consumed in the southern regions of India. The dough used to prepare adhirasam is fermented and contains rice flour and jaggery. The aim of the present study was to characterize the cultivable bacteria associated with this fermented dough and to identify a suitable starter culture for the production of quality adhirasam. In total, one hundred and seventy bacterial isolates were recovered from de Man Rogosa Sharp (MRS) agar, nutrient agar, lysogeny agar and tryptic soy agar media. Out of the 170 bacterial isolates, sixteen isolates were selected based on their ability to tolerate glucose and sucrose. All the bacterial isolates tolerated 15% glucose and 30% sucrose. Analyses of 16S rDNA gene sequences of the bacterial isolates showed that the dominant cultivable bacteria were members of the genus Bacillus. These strains were further used as starters and tested for their ability to ferment rice flour with jaggery to produce adhirasam dough. Organoleptic evaluation was carried out to choose the best starter strain. Adhirasam prepared from Bacillus subtilis isolates S4-P11, S2-G2-A1 and S1-G15, Bacillus tequilensis isolates S2-H16, S3-P9, S3-G10 and Bacillus siamensis isolate S2-G13 were highly acceptable to consumers. Adhirasam prepared using these starter cultures had superior product characteristics such as softness in texture, flavor and enhanced aroma and sweet taste. PMID:26691480

  1. Reconstitution baking tests with defatted wheat flour are suitable for determining the functional effects of lipase-treated wheat lipids.

    PubMed

    Schaffarczyk, Monika; Østdal, Henrik; Matheis, Olivia; Jekle, Mario; Koehler, Peter

    2016-06-01

    A microscale reconstitution baking test, using wheat flour defatted with 2-propanol at 20 °C, was established to determine the functional effects of lipids isolated from lipase-treated wheat dough. Proper selection of solvent and extraction temperature was of major importance to maintain the functionality of defatted flour. Dough and gluten from flour defatted with water-saturated 1-butanol (WSB; extracted at 20 °C) and 2-propanol (extracted at 75 °C) had inferior extensibility and loaf volume compared to control flour extracted with 2-propanol at 20 °C. Quantitation of gluten proteins showed that defatting with WSB (20 °C) or 2-propanol (75 °C) decreased the gliadin and increased the glutenin content. Possible reasons were thiol-disulfide interchange reactions, caused either by heat (2-propanol, 75 °C) or by the solvent WSB, which affected gluten proteins. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that regular, interconnected gluten structures were only present in dough from flour defatted with 2-propanol at 20 °C. PMID:26830576

  2. Significance of thermal transitions on starch digestibility and firming kinetics of restricted water mixed flour bread matrices.

    PubMed

    Collar, Concha; Jiménez, Teresa; Conte, Paola; Piga, Antonio

    2015-05-20

    The impact of wheat (WT) flour replacement up to 45% (weight basis) by incorporation of ternary blends of teff (T), green pea (GP) and buckwheat (BW) flours on the thermal profiles of quaternary blended dough matrices have been investigated by simulating baking, cooling, and storage in differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) pans. Endothermal transitions related to suitable patterns for low and slow starch hydrolysis, softer crumb and retarded firming kinetics in blended breads include delayed temperatures for starch gelatinization, and for the dissociation of amylose-lipid complex. In addition, (a) higher stability for the amylose-lipid inclusion complex, (b) lower energy for starch gelatinization, (c) lower limiting melting enthalpy and (d) slower rate for amylopectin retrogradation meet thermal requirements for achieving suitable textural and starch digestibility features in blended breads, fulfilled by adding T/GP/BW to replace 45% of WT flour in blended dough formulations. PMID:25817656

  3. Influence of Wheat-Milled Products and Their Additive Blends on Pasta Dough Rheological, Microstructure, and Product Quality Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Dhiraj, B.; Prabhasankar, P.

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed to assess the suitability of T. aestivum wheat milled products and its combinations with T. durum semolina with additives such as ascorbic acid, vital gluten and HPMC (Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose) for pasta processing quality characteristics such as pasta dough rheology, microstructure, cooking quality, and sensory evaluation. Rheological studies showed maximum dough stability in Comb1 (T. aestivum wheat flour and semolina). Colour and cooking quality of Comb2 (T. durum semolina and T. aestivum wheat flour) and Comb3 (T. aestivum wheat semolina and T. durum semolina) were comparable with control. Pasting results indicated that T. aestivum semolina gave the lowest onset gelatinization temperature (66.9°C) but the highest peak viscosity (1.053 BU). Starch release was maximum in Comb1 (53.45%) when compared with control (44.9%) as also proved by microstructure studies. Firmness was seen to be slightly high in Comb3 (2.430 N) when compared with control (2.304 N), and sensory evaluations were also in the acceptable range for the same. The present study concludes that Comb3 comprising 50% T. durum semolina and 50% T. aestivum refined wheat flour with additives would be optimal alternate for 100% T. durum semolina for production of financially viable pasta. PMID:26904601

  4. Evaluating corn starch and corn stover biochar as renewable filler in carboxylated styrene-butadiene rubber composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn starch, corn flour, and corn stover biochar were evaluated as potential renewable substitutes for carbon black as filler in rubber composites using carboxylated styrene-butadiene as the rubber matrix. Previous work has shown that starch-based fillers have very good reinforcement properties at t...

  5. Cookie- versus cracker-baking--what's the difference? Flour functionality requirements explored by SRC and alveography.

    PubMed

    Kweon, Meera; Slade, Louise; Levine, Harry; Gannon, Diane

    2014-01-01

    The many differences between cookie- and cracker-baking are discussed and described in terms of the functionality, and functional requirements, of the major biscuit ingredients--flour and sugar. Both types of products are similar in their major ingredients, but different in their formulas and processes. One of the most important and consequential differences between traditional cracker and cookie formulas is sugar (i.e., sucrose) concentration: usually lower than 30% in a typical cracker formula and higher than 30% in a typical cookie formula. Gluten development is facilitated in lower-sugar cracker doughs during mixing and sheeting; this is a critical factor linked to baked-cracker quality. Therefore, soft wheat flours with greater gluten quality and strength are typically preferred for cracker production. In contrast, the concentrated aqueous sugar solutions existing in high-sugar cookie doughs generally act as an antiplasticizer, compared with water alone, so gluten development during dough mixing and starch gelatinization/pasting during baking are delayed or prevented in most cookie systems. Traditional cookies and crackers are low-moisture baked goods, which are desirably made from flours with low water absorption [low water-holding capacity (WHC)], and low levels of damaged starch and water-soluble pentosans (i.e., water-accessible arabinoxylans). Rheological (e.g., alveography) and baking tests are often used to evaluate flour quality for baked-goods applications, but the solvent retention capacity (SRC) method (AACC 56-11) is a better diagnostic tool for predicting the functional contribution of each individual flour functional component, as well as the overall functionality of flours for cookie- and/or cracker-baking. PMID:24188236

  6. Functionality of gliadin proteins in wheat flour tortillas.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Suchismita; Hays, Dirk B; Alviola, Noviola J; Mason, Richard E; Tilley, Michael; Waniska, Ralph D; Bean, Scott R; Glover, Karl D

    2009-02-25

    Gliadins are monomeric proteins that are encoded by the genes at the loci Gli 1 and Gli 2 present on the short arm of homologous wheat chromosomes 1 and 6, respectively. Studies have suggested that gliadins may play an important role in determining the functional properties of wheat flour. The main objective of this study was to understand the functionality of gliadins with respect to tortilla quality. The important tortilla quality attributes are diameter, opacity, and shelf stability, designated here as rollability or the ability to roll or fold the tortilla without cracking. In this study gliadin functionality in tortilla quality was studied using near-isogenic wheat lines that have deletions in either Gli A1, Gli D1, Gli A2, or Gli D2 gliadin loci. The deletion lines are designated by the same abbreviations. Dough and tortillas were prepared from the parent line used to derive these deletion lines, each individual deletion line, and a control commercial tortilla flour. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations were performed on the dough and tortillas derived from the flour from each of these lines. None of the deletions in the gliadin loci altered the shelf stability versus that found for the parent to the deletion lines or control tortilla flour. However, deletions in the Gli 2 loci, in particular Gli A2 reduced the relative proportion of alpha- and beta-gliadins with a greater cysteine amino acid content and gluten cross-link function versus the chain-terminating omega-gliadins in Gli 1, which were still present. As such, the dough and gluten matrix appeared to have greater extensibility, which improved the diameter and overall quality of the tortillas while not altering the rollability. Deletions in the Gli 1 loci had the opposite result with increased cross-linking of alpha- and beta-gliadins, polymeric protein content, and a stronger dough that decreased the diameter and overall quality of the tortillas. The data suggest that altering certain Gli 2 loci

  7. Application of capillary electrophoresis to determine the technological properties of wheat flours by a glutenin index.

    PubMed

    Di Luccia, A; Lamacchia, C; Mamone, G; Picariello, G; Trani, A; Masi, P; Addeo, F

    2009-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis was used to characterize glutenin proteins from ancient varieties of Southern Italy common wheat and to determine the technological properties of wheat flours based on a glutenin index. Three zones were identified in the electropherograms, indicated as A, B, and C according to electroelution order. The three zones corresponded to the low molecular weight glutenin subunits and to the y- and x-type high molecular weight subunits, respectively. The ratio B/C was correlated to the alveographic parameter P/L. These results indicated that flours resulting in a B/C ratio lower than 2 produced elastic doughs whereas flours resulting in a B/C ratio higher than 2 produced doughs more resistant to extension. This study showed that capillary electrophoresis is useful for determining the types and quantities of gluten proteins in the evaluation of wheat-flour technological properties of a limited number of noncommercial varieties as evidenced by the x-type content which seems to strongly influence the flour technological parameters. PMID:19490316

  8. Breadmaking with zein-starch dough

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mixtures of maize prolamins (zein) and starch form a cohesive, extensible, viscoelastic dough when mixed above zein's glass transition temperature, e.g. at 35-40 degrees Celsius. Although this phenomenon has long been known, it has not yet been successfully used for gluten-free breadmaking. We fou...

  9. [Allergenicity of lupin flour].

    PubMed

    Leduc, V; Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Guérin, L

    2002-06-01

    Lupin flour is used in human food for its high quality nutritional and functional qualities. The frequency of crossed allergy between lupin flour and peanuts, both members of the family of Leguminosae, is strong, since 68% of patients who are allergic to peanut have shown positive reactions to lupin flour when tested by TPO-DA. Cases of isolated allergy to lupin flour without pre-existence of peanut allergy as well as workplace asthma by inhalation are also rarely seen. The specific allergens of lupin and those that participate in crosses with peanut have been studied by SDS-PAGE and immunoblot. The diversity of allergens contained in different lupin flour has also been studied. Further, the detection of lupin flour in a "pizza" flour which induced a strong allergic reaction exposed its eventual implication as a masked allergen. PMID:12134645

  10. Analysis of Glu-1 deletion lines reveals the importance of high molecular weight glutenin subunits 7+9 Glu-B1 in wheat flour tortilla making

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) play a significant role in the functional properties of wheat flour. Wheat lines in which one or more of the HMW-GS alleles were absent from Glu-A1, Glu-B1 or Glu-D1 loci (deletion lines) were compared with non-deletion lines for dough and tortilla ma...

  11. PIXE analysis of Nigerian flour and bread samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olise, Felix S.; Fernandes, Adriana M.; Cristina Chaves, P.; Taborda, Ana; Reis, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    The alleged use of potassium bromate (KBrO3) in bread baking led a few authors to report on the chemical methods for the determination of KBrO3 levels in bread. In order to examine the potentials of a non chemical particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method for this purpose, six sets of samples, each composed of flour, dough and bread from a production batch were analysed. The samples were obtained from six different bakers of bread at Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The flour samples were air-dried while others were freeze dried at about -16 °C. The samples were homogenised in an agate mortar and then pelletised. Samples were analysed at the CTN standard PIXE setup and standard procedures for thick target samples analysis were followed. In some samples significant concentrations of bromine were found. In the present work we present possible explanations for the presence of this potentially dangerous contaminant in the samples.

  12. [Gluten-free cookies prepared with sorghum flour].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Ferreira, Sila Mary; Luparelli, Paola Cordeiro; Schieferdecker, Maria Eliana Madalozzo; Vilela, Regina Maria

    2009-12-01

    Considering that sorghum is a gluten free flour, it could be proposed as an ingredient to produce alternative bakery products for the subjects with Celiac Disease, since they do not have many food options available in the market. For this reason, the main goal of this study is to develop chocolate cookies with sorghum flour (Sorghum vulgare). The experimental design used was the simplex-lattice factor to compare the following variables: sorghum flour (50-100%), rice flour (0-50%) and corn starch (0-50%), totaling up to ten experiments. The formulations IX and X were selected as the ones with the highest sensorial scores The sorghum flour, regular chocolate cookies and gluten free cookies were submitted to physicochemical analysis. Physical and sensorial analysis using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) and hedonic analysis were performed for the two cookies preparation. Sorghum flour presented characteristics compared with the described by the food regulation laws. The preparations that presented satisfactory sensorial characteristics were the ones that had 58 and 67% of sorghum flour, 8 and 17% of rice flour, 33 and 17% of corn starch, respectively. The performance for both IX and X formulations was 0,92 and the specific volume was 1,54 and 1.46 cm3/g, respectively. When compared with regular cookies, the differences on most of the sensorial attributes evaluated on sorghum cookies were not statistically significant (P < 0.05), except for the color and the odour. All the sensorial scores reached values equal or higher than 7 for both samples and most of them scored 8. The results showed the feasibility of including sorghum flour on the manufacture of gluten free cookies. PMID:20677459

  13. Influence of the incorporation of fibers in biscuit dough on proton mobility characterized by time domain NMR.

    PubMed

    Serial, M R; Blanco Canalis, M S; Carpinella, M; Valentinuzzi, M C; León, A E; Ribotta, P D; Acosta, R H

    2016-02-01

    The effect of fiber addition on the distribution and mobility of protons in biscuits is studied by using low resolution time domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR). The proportion of flour is reduced in order to incorporate inulin and oat fiber. NMR temperature dependent experiments are carried out in order to gain insight on the processes occurring in biscuit baking. Proton populations were identified measuring spin-spin relaxation times (T2). The major change in the relaxation profiles upon incorporation of fibers corresponds to mobile water molecules, which appear to be related to dough spreading behavior and biscuit quality. Biscuit samples baked in a commercial oven were studied by two dimensional spin-lattice/spin-spin (T1-T2) relaxation maps. The T1/T2 ratio is used as an indicator of the population mobility, where changes in the mobility of water in contact with flour components as starch, proteins and pentosans are observed. PMID:26304434

  14. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§...

  15. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§...

  16. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§...

  17. Organic cultivation of Triticum turgidum subsp. durum is reflected in the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Cavoski, Ivana; Turk, Jelena; Ercolini, Danilo; Nionelli, Luana; Pontonio, Erica; De Angelis, Maria; De Filippis, Francesca; Gobbetti, Marco; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2015-05-01

    Triticum turgidum subsp. durum was grown according to four farming systems: conventional (CONV), organic with cow manure (OMAN) or green manure (OLEG), and without inputs (NOINPUT). Some chemical and technological characteristics differed between CONV and organic flours. As shown by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis, OMAN and OLEG flours showed the highest number of gliadins, and OMAN flour also had the highest number of high-molecular-mass glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prepared at the laboratory level through a back-slopping procedure, and the bacterial ecology during sourdough preparation was described by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Before fermentation, the dough made with CONV flour showed the highest bacterial diversity. Flours were variously contaminated by genera belonging to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Mature sourdoughs were completely and stably dominated by lactic acid bacteria. The diversity of Firmicutes was the highest for mature sourdoughs made with organic and, especially, NOINPUT flours. Beta diversity analysis based on the weighted UniFrac distance showed differences between doughs and sourdoughs. Those made with CONV flour were separated from the other with organic flours. Lactic acid bacterium microbiota structure was qualitatively confirmed through the culturing method. As shown by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, yeasts belonging to the genera Saccharomyces, Candida, Kazachstania, and Rhodotorula occurred in all sourdoughs. Levels of bound phenolic acids and phytase and antioxidant activities differed depending on the farming system. Mature sourdoughs were used for bread making. Technological characteristics were superior in the breads made with organic sourdoughs. The farming system is another determinant affecting the sourdough microbiota. The organic cultivation of durum wheat was reflected along the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis. PMID:25724957

  18. Organic Cultivation of Triticum turgidum subsp. durum Is Reflected in the Flour-Sourdough Fermentation-Bread Axis

    PubMed Central

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Cavoski, Ivana; Turk, Jelena; Ercolini, Danilo; Nionelli, Luana; Pontonio, Erica; De Angelis, Maria; De Filippis, Francesca; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Triticum turgidum subsp. durum was grown according to four farming systems: conventional (CONV), organic with cow manure (OMAN) or green manure (OLEG), and without inputs (NOINPUT). Some chemical and technological characteristics differed between CONV and organic flours. As shown by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis, OMAN and OLEG flours showed the highest number of gliadins, and OMAN flour also had the highest number of high-molecular-mass glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prepared at the laboratory level through a back-slopping procedure, and the bacterial ecology during sourdough preparation was described by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Before fermentation, the dough made with CONV flour showed the highest bacterial diversity. Flours were variously contaminated by genera belonging to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Mature sourdoughs were completely and stably dominated by lactic acid bacteria. The diversity of Firmicutes was the highest for mature sourdoughs made with organic and, especially, NOINPUT flours. Beta diversity analysis based on the weighted UniFrac distance showed differences between doughs and sourdoughs. Those made with CONV flour were separated from the other with organic flours. Lactic acid bacterium microbiota structure was qualitatively confirmed through the culturing method. As shown by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, yeasts belonging to the genera Saccharomyces, Candida, Kazachstania, and Rhodotorula occurred in all sourdoughs. Levels of bound phenolic acids and phytase and antioxidant activities differed depending on the farming system. Mature sourdoughs were used for bread making. Technological characteristics were superior in the breads made with organic sourdoughs. The farming system is another determinant affecting the sourdough microbiota. The organic cultivation of durum wheat was reflected along the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis. PMID:25724957

  19. Nutritional enrichment of bakery products by supplementation with nonwheat flours.

    PubMed

    Chavan, J K; Kadam, S S

    1993-01-01

    Bakery products are important ready-to-eat processed foods. The nutritional quality of these products is low because of the inferior nutritional composition of wheat grain per se. This is further accentuated with the use of refined flours in their preparations. Nutritional composition of these products can be improved by using quality wheat for milling, increased extraction rates, air classification of flours to obtain protein-rich nonwheat flours and their products. The flours and protein products of legumes, oilseeds, other cereals, tubers, corn gluten and germ, and rice bran can be used effectively as vegetable protein sources for nutritional enrichment of the bakery products. In this article, recent literature concerning the nutritional composition of major bakery products, sources of vegetable proteins for product enrichment, and modifications in conventional processing methods to maintain the rheological and sensory properties of supplemented bakery products are reviewed critically. PMID:8484866

  20. Utilization of a maltotetraose-producing amylase as a whole wheat bread improver: dough rheology and baking performance.

    PubMed

    Bae, Woosung; Lee, Sung Ho; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Lee, Suyong

    2014-08-01

    A maltotetraose-producing enzyme (G4-amylase) was utilized to improve the baking performance of whole-grain wheat flour. Whole-grain bread dough prepared with G4-amylase showed reduced water absorption and increased development time, while the dough stability was not affected. Also, the G4-amylase-treated samples exhibited lower Mixolab torque values than the control upon heating and cooling. Rheological measurements showed the decreased ratio of Rmax /E and increased tan δ, clearly demonstrating that the viscous characteristics of whole-grain bread dough became dominant with increasing levels of G4-amylase. The use of G4-amylase produced whole-grain wheat breads with a variety of maltooligosaccharides, primarily maltotetraose that positively contributed to the bread volume (1.2-fold higher than the control). Moreover, G4-amylase delayed the crumb firming of whole-grain wheat bread during a 7-d storage period, showing that it can function as an antiretrogradation agent to enhance the quality attributes of whole-grain wheat bread. PMID:25040090

  1. Diversity in quality traits amongst Indian wheat varieties II: Paste, dough and muffin making properties.

    PubMed

    Singh, Narpinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Katyal, Mehak; Bhinder, Seerat; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2016-04-15

    The relationship between protein molecular weight (MW) distribution, quality characteristics and muffin making properties amongst Indian wheat varieties were evaluated. Flours from varieties with higher grain weight showed lower proportion of fine particles. Lactic acid solvent retention capacity (LASRC), sedimentation value (SV) and dough stability (DS) correlated with the proportion of 0-55 μm size particles. Paste peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity showed positive correlation with polymeric protein and negatively with monomeric protein, α-amylase activity and sodium carbonate solvent retention capacity (NaSRC). Gluten strength indicators such as DS, dough development time (DDT), LASRC and gluten index (GI) were positively related to polymeric protein and negatively to monomeric protein. Both G' and G″ were correlated significantly with GI, LASRC, DS and DDT. The varieties that possesses high MW glutenin subunits combinations of 91 kDa + 84 kDa + 78 kDa + 74 kDa showed lower G' and G″. Muffin volume was positively correlated with gluten content and LASRC. PMID:26616955

  2. Influence of watermelon seed protein concentrates on dough handling, textural and sensory properties of cookies.

    PubMed

    Wani, Ali Abas; Sogi, D S; Singh, Preeti; Khatkar, B S

    2015-04-01

    Fruit processing wastes contain numerous by products of potential use in food & allied industry. Watermelon seeds represent a major by-product of the processing waste and contain high amount of nutritional proteins. Protein rich cereal based products are in demand due to their health promoting benefits. With this aim, wheat flour was fortified with watermelon seed protein concentrates (2.5 %, 5 %, 7.5 % and 10 % levels) to prepare cookies with desirable physical, nutritional, and textural and sensory properties. Substitution levels of 5 % and 10 % significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased the dough stability and mixing tolerance index, however pasting properties and dough extensibility decreased considerably above 5 % substitution levels. Cookie fracture force (kg) increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) above 5 % fortification levels. Cookie spread factor (W/T) increased from 2.5 % to 7.5 % fortification levels, further increase showed negative impact. Sensory scores of the cookies showed that protein concentrate may be added up to 7.5 % fortification levels. This study revealed that watermelon protein concentrates can be fortified with protein concentrates upto 5-7.5 % levels in cookies to improve their protein quality. PMID:25829594

  3. Acute and Subacute Toxicity Studies on Rutin-Rich Tartary Buckwheat Dough in Experimental Animals.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tatsuro; Morishita, Toshikazu; Noda, Takahiro; Ishiguro, Koji

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the toxicity of rutin-rich dough from the Tartary buckwheat variety 'Manten-Kirari,' acute and subacute toxicity studies (10,000 and 5,000 mg/kg flour, respectively) were performed using rats. In the acute toxicity study, no toxic symptoms were observed and no rats died during the test. Body weight in the 'Manten-Kirari'-treated group was not significantly different when compared with that of the control group. On pathologico-anatomic observation, no unusual symptoms were observed in the 'Manten-Kirari'-treated group when compared with the control group. In the subacute toxicity study, no toxic symptoms were observed and no rats died during the test. Body weight and food intake in the 'Manten-Kirari'-treated and common buckwheat groups were not significantly different when compared with the control group. However, some investigated properties, such as urine protein and serum albumin, were significantly different in the 'Manten-Kirari' and common buckwheat groups when compared with the control group. However, these changes were not caused by toxicity, but by transient changes. On pathologico-anatomic observation, some abnormalities were observed in the liver, kidneys, heart, lung, bronchi and pituitary gland in some rats. However, the incidental rates in the 'Manten-Kirari' and common buckwheat groups did not differ when compared to controls. Therefore, these abnormalities may be caused by natural generation. Based on these results, we concluded that dough at a dose of 5,000 mg flour/kg is at a non effect level. PMID:26052149

  4. Proteomics of Wheat Flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat is a major food crop grown on more than 215 million hectares of land throughout the world. Wheat flour provides an important source of protein for human nutrition and is used as a principal ingredient in a wide range of food products, largely because wheat flour, when mixed with water, has un...

  5. Flour Flame Thrower: The "Flaming Potential" of Plain Flour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Plain flour has a lot of chemical energy packed into it. When the flour is in a clump or pile it does not ignite although it may blacken. This is because there is not enough flour exposed to the oxygen in the air. Aerosolising the flour exposes it to much more oxygen allowing a self sustaining combustion reaction to occur when an ignition source…

  6. Physicochemical and rheological properties of starch and flour from different durum wheat varieties and their relationships with noodle quality.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amritpal; Shevkani, Khetan; Katyal, Mehak; Singh, Narpinder; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2016-04-01

    Starch and flour properties of different Indian durum wheat varieties were evaluated and related to noodle-making properties. Flours were evaluated for pasting properties, protein characteristics (extractable as well as unextractable monomeric and polymeric proteins) and dough rheology (farinographic properties), while starches were evaluated for granule size, thermal, pasting, and rheological properties. Flour peak and final viscosities related negatively to the proportion of monomeric proteins but positively to that of polymeric proteins whereas opposite relations were observed for dough rheological properties (dough-development time and stability). Starches from varieties with higher proportion of large granules showed the presence of less stable amylose-lipids and had more swelling power, peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity than those with greater proportion of small granules. Noodle-cooking time related positively to the proportion of monomeric proteins and starch gelatinization temperatures but negatively to that of polymeric proteins and amylose content. Varieties with more proteins resulted in firmer noodles. Noodle-cohesiveness related positively to the proportion of polymeric proteins and amylose-lipids complexes whereas springiness correlated negatively to amylose content and retrogradation tendency of starches. PMID:27413243

  7. Addition of glucose oxidase for the improvement of refrigerated dough quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Refrigerated dough encompasses a wide range of products and is a very popular choice for consumers. Two of the largest problems that occur during refrigerated dough storage are dough syruping and loss of dough strength. The goal of this study was to evaluate glucose oxidase as an additive to refri...

  8. Quinoa flour in baked products.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, K; Coulter, L

    1991-07-01

    The performance of quinoa-wheat flour blends (5/95, 10/90, 20/80, 30/70) were evaluated in breads, cakes and cookies. Breads baked with 5% and 10% quinoa flour were of good quality. Loaf volume decreased, crumb grain became more open and the texture slightly harsh at higher usage levels of quinoa flour. A bitter after taste was noted at the 30% level. Cake quality was acceptable with 5% and 10% of quinoa flour. Cake grain became more open and the texture less silky as the level of quinoa substitution increased. Cake taste improved with either 5% or 10% quinoa flour in the blend. Cookie spread and top grain scores decreased with increasing levels of quinoa flour blended with high-spread cookie flour. Flavor improved up to 20% quinoa flour in the blend. Cookie spread and cookie appearance was improved with a quinoa/low-spread flour blend by using 2% lecithin. PMID:1924185

  9. Cold plasma: A new technology to modify wheat flour functionality

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Niloufar; Bayliss, Danny; Chope, Gemma; Penson, Simon; Perehinec, Tania; Fisk, Ian D.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure cold plasma has the potential to modify biological chemistry and modulate physical surface properties. Wheat flour was treated by low levels of cold plasma (air, 15 V and 20 V) for 60 or 120 s. There was no change in the total aerobic bacterial count or total mould count as a result of treatment. Treatment did not impact the concentration of total non-starch lipids, or non-polar and glycolipids. However, treatment did reduce total free fatty acids and phospholipids and was dose dependent. Oxidation markers (hydroperoxide value and head space n-hexanal) increased with treatment time and voltage, which confirmed the acceleration of lipid oxidation. Total proteins were not significantly influenced by treatment although there was a trend towards higher molecular weight fractions which indicated protein oxidation and treated flour did produce a stronger dough. This study confirms the potential of cold plasma as a tool to modify flour functionality. PMID:26920291

  10. Measuring Technique of Bubble Size Distributions in Dough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Tatsurou; Do, Gab-Soo; Sugiyama, Junichi; Oguchi, Kosei; Tsuta, Mizuki

    A novel technique to recognize bubbles in bread dough and analyze their size distribution was developed by using a Micro-Slicer Image Processing System (MSIPS). Samples were taken from the final stage of the mixing process of bread dough which generally consists of four distinctive stages. Also, to investigate the effect of freeze preservation on the size distribution of bubbles, comparisons were made between fresh dough and the dough that had been freeze preserved at .30°C for three months. Bubbles in the dough samples were identified in the images of MSIPS as defocusing spots due to the difference in focal distance created by vacant spaces. In case of the fresh dough, a total of 910 bubbles were recognized and their maximum diameter ranged from 0.4 to 70.5μm with an average of 11.1μm. On the other hand, a total of 1,195 bubbles were recognized from the freeze-preserved sample, and the maximum diameter ranged from 0.9 to 32.7μm with an average of 6.7μm. Small bubbles with maximum diameters less than 10μm comprised approximately 59% and 78% of total bubbles for fresh and freeze-preserved dough samples, respectively. The results indicated that the bubble size of frozen dough is smaller than that of unfrozen one. The proposed method can provide a novel tool to investigate the effects of mixing and preservation treatments on the size, morphology and distribution of bubbles in bread dough.

  11. Effect of industrial processing on the distribution of aflatoxins and zearalenone in corn-milling fractions.

    PubMed

    Brera, Carlo; Catano, Carla; de Santis, Barbara; Debegnach, Francesca; de Giacomo, Marzia; Pannunzi, Elena; Miraglia, Marina

    2006-07-12

    The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of aflatoxins and zearalenone levels in various corn-milling fractions. Corn kernels and six derived milling fractions (germ, bran, large and small grits, flour, and animal feed flour) were sampled in an industrial plant; both conventional and organic corns were sampled. To evaluate the effect of cooking, samples of polenta were prepared starting from naturally contaminated flour. Conventional and organic lots showed mycotoxin contamination. For both lots, germ, bran, and animal feed flour showed a marked concentration factor from 239 to 911% accounting for both the low yields of the derived products and the distribution of aflatoxins and zearalenone contamination in the outer parts of the kernels. Conversely, a reduction factor of at least four times from raw material to finished products was observed. Polenta samples were unaffected by the cooking process, with levels of contamination similar to those of starting flour. PMID:16819910

  12. 3D-front-face fluorescence spectroscopy and independent components analysis: A new way to monitor bread dough development.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Rebeca; Boussard, Aline; Rakotozafy, Lalatiana; Nicolas, Jacques; Potus, Jacques; Rutledge, Douglas N; Cordella, Christophe B Y

    2016-01-15

    Following bread dough development can be a hard task as no reliable method exists to give the optimal mixing time. Dough development is linked to the evolution of gluten proteins, carbohydrates and lipids which can result in modifications in the spectral properties of the various fluorophores naturally present in the system. In this paper, we propose to use 3-D-front-face-fluorescence (3D-FFF) spectroscopy in the 250-550nm domain to follow the dough development as influenced by formulation (addition or not of glucose, glucose oxidase and ferulic acid in the dough recipe) and mixing time (2, 4, 6 and 8min). In all the 32 dough samples as well as in flour, three regions of maximum fluorescence intensities have been observed at 320nm after excitation at 295nm (Region 1), at 420nm after excitation at 360nm (Region 2) and 450nm after excitation at 390nm (Region 3). The principal components analysis (PCA) of the evolution of these maxima shows that the formulations with and without ferulic acid are clearly separated since the presence of ferulic acid induces a decrease of fluorescence in Region 1 and an increase in Regions 2 and 3. In addition, a kinetic effect of the mixing time can be observed (decrease of fluorescence in the Regions 1 and 2) mainly in the absence of ferulic acid. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) on these maximum values statistically confirms these observations. Independent components analysis (ICA) is also applied to the complete 3-D-FFF spectra in order to extract interpretable signals from spectral data which reflect the complex contribution of several fluorophores as influenced by their environment. In all cases, 3 signals can be clearly separated matching the 3 regions of maximal fluorescence. The signals corresponding to regions 1 and 2 can be ascribed to proteins and ferulic acid respectively, whereas the fluorophores associated with the 3rd signal (corresponding to region 3) remain unidentified. Good correlations are obtained between the IC

  13. Simulation model of the red flour beetle in flour mills

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) is one of the most common insect pests infesting wheat flour mills. Structural treatments such as methyl bromide, sulfuryl fluoride and heat, are used to control the red flour beetle. The structural treatments do not provide any residual action and, thus, any s...

  14. Physicochemical and microbiological properties of selected rice flour-based batters for fried chicken drumsticks.

    PubMed

    Mukprasirt, A; Herald, T J; Boyle, D L; Boyle, E A

    2001-07-01

    Rice flour-based batter (RFBB) formulations for chicken drumstick coating were developed as an alternative for traditional wheat flour-based batter (WFBB). Physicochemical properties and storage stability of selected RFBB were evaluated and compared to WFBB. Batter pickup of RFBB formulated in combination with oxidized corn starch and methylcellulose (MC) was not significantly different from that of WFBB. In contrast, batters with only rice and corn flour (60:40% flour weight) exhibited significantly higher pickup. Rice flour batter with 15% oxidized corn starch had the lowest batter pickup. All RFBB exhibited (P < 0.05) lower oil absorption than WFBB. The TBA values of RFBB and WFBB increased (P < 0.05) with increased frozen storage time at -40 C for 90 d. The RFBB with MC exhibited the lowest TBA values, whereas WFBB had the highest values. Microstructural analysis revealed that freezing caused structural deterioration of all batters, but the RFBB with MC exhibited less freezing tolerance than other samples. The total plate counts of immediately fried or frozen fried chicken stored for 90 d were less than 1 log cfu/g sample. The RFBB with 5% oxidized corn starch and MC can replace WFBB on fried drumsticks. Additionally, RFBB results in a healthier product due to lower fat absorption. PMID:11469667

  15. Analysis of ingredient functionality and formulation optimization of pasta supplemented with peanut flour.

    PubMed

    Howard, Brandy M; Hung, Yen-Con; McWatters, Kay

    2011-01-01

    lysine content of peanuts is higher than wheat, peanuts can be used to supplement wheat flour in food preparation. This study found by partially replacing wheat flour with peanut flour and with incorporation of hydrocolloid emulsifier, such as carrageenan or xanthan gum, dough viscosity, and pasta firmness significantly improved. Peanut pasta with high protein content and balanced amino acid profile can help support consumers with a healthy lifestyle. PMID:21535674

  16. REDUCTION OF WATER CONSUMPTION AND POLLUTION IN THE CORN MASA PRODUCTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Maize (corn) is the principle food source in Mexico accounting for approximately 70 percent of the total calorie intake and 50 percent of the total protein intake (Paredes and Saharopulos, 1983). Maize is primarily used to produce masa, a maize based dough. In Mexico there ...

  17. 21 CFR 137.290 - Self-rising yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Self-rising yellow corn meal. 137.290 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.290 Self-rising yellow corn meal. Self-rising yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.270 for self-rising white corn...

  18. 21 CFR 137.290 - Self-rising yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-rising yellow corn meal. 137.290 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.290 Self-rising yellow corn meal. Self-rising yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.270 for self-rising white corn...

  19. 21 CFR 137.290 - Self-rising yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Self-rising yellow corn meal. 137.290 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.290 Self-rising yellow corn meal. Self-rising yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.270 for self-rising white corn...

  20. 21 CFR 137.290 - Self-rising yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Self-rising yellow corn meal. 137.290 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.290 Self-rising yellow corn meal. Self-rising yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.270 for self-rising white corn...

  1. 21 CFR 137.290 - Self-rising yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Self-rising yellow corn meal. 137.290 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.290 Self-rising yellow corn meal. Self-rising yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.270 for self-rising white corn...

  2. Prediction of tortilla quality using multivariate model of kernel, flour and dough properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advances in high-throughput wheat breeding techniques have resulted in the need for rapid, accurate and cost-effective means to predict tortilla making performance for large number of early generation wheat lines. Currently, the most reliable approach is to process tortilla which is laborious, time ...

  3. Prediction of wheat tortilla quality using multivariate modeling of kernel, flour and dough properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat grain attributes that influence tortilla quality are not fully understood. This impedes genetic improvement efforts to develop wheat varieties for the growing market. This study used a multivariate discriminant analysis to predict tortilla quality using a set of 16 variables derived from kerne...

  4. Evaluation of exopolysaccharide producing Weissella cibaria MG1 strain for the production of sourdough from various flours.

    PubMed

    Wolter, A; Hager, A-S; Zannini, E; Galle, S; Gänzle, M G; Waters, D M; Arendt, E K

    2014-02-01

    This study determined exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by Weissella cibaria MG1 in sourdoughs prepared from gluten-free flours (buckwheat, oat, quinoa and teff), as well as wheat flour. Sourdoughs (SD) were fermented without sucrose, or by replacing 10% flour with sucrose to support EPS production. The amount of EPS depended on the substrate: high amounts of EPS corresponding to low amounts of oligosaccharides were found in buckwheat (4.2 g EPS/kg SD) and quinoa sourdoughs (3.2 g EPS/kg SD); in contrast, no EPS but panose-series oligosaccharides (PSO) were detected in wheat sourdoughs. Organic acid production, carbohydrates and rheological changes during fermentation were compared to the EPS negative control without added sucrose. Corresponding to the higher mineral content of the flours, sourdoughs from quinoa, teff and buckwheat had higher buffering capacity than wheat. Fermentable carbohydrates in buckwheat, teff and quinoa flours promoted W. cibaria growth; indicating why W. cibaria failed to grow in oat sourdoughs. Endogenous proteolytic activity was highest in quinoa flour; α-amylase activity was highest in wheat and teff flours. Protein degradation during fermentation was most extensive in quinoa and teff SD reducing protein peaks 18-29, 30-41 and 43-55 kDa extensively. Rheological analyses revealed decreased dough strength (AF) after fermentation, especially in sucrose-supplemented buckwheat sourdoughs correlating with amounts of EPS. High EPS production correlated with high protein, fermentable sugars (glucose, maltose, fructose), and mineral contents in quinoa flour. In conclusion, W. cibaria MG1 is a suitable starter culture for sourdough fermentation of buckwheat, quinoa and teff flour. PMID:24230472

  5. Chemical and functional properties of cassava starch, durum wheat semolina flour, and their blends

    PubMed Central

    Oladunmoye, Olufunmilola O; Aworh, Ogugua C; Maziya-Dixon, Bussie; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Elemo, Gloria N

    2014-01-01

    High-quality cassava starch (HQCS) produced from high-yielding low-cyanide improved cassava variety, TMS 30572, was mixed with durum wheat semolina (DWS) on a replacement basis to produce flour samples containing 0, 20, 30, 50, 70, and 100% cassava starch. They were analyzed for chemical composition (proximate, amylose, free sugars, starch, wet gluten, and cyanide) and functional properties (pasting, swelling power, solubility, water absorption, water binding, starch damage, diastatic and α-amylase activity, dough mixing, and stability). Protein, carbohydrate, fat, and ash of flour samples ranged from 0.75–12.31%, 70.87–87.80%, 0.95–4.41%, and 0.12–0.83%, respectively. Cyanide levels in all the flour samples were less than 0.1 ppm. Amylose content varied between 19.49% for cassava and 28.19% for wheat, correlating significantly with protein (r = 0.95, P = 0.004) and ash contents (r = 0.92, P = 0.01) at 5%. DWS and HQCS had similar pasting temperatures (50.2–53°C), while other pasting properties increased with increasing levels of HQCS. Dough mixing stability of samples decreased with increasing levels of HQCS. All the flour samples had α-amylase activity greater than 200. Both HQCS and DWS compare favorably well in swelling power (7.80–9.01%); but the solubility of wheat starch doubled that of cassava. Starch damage varied between 3.3 and 7.2 AACC for semolina and starch, with the latter having higher absorption rate (97%), and the former, higher absorption speed (67 sec). Results obtained showed positive insight into cassava–wheat blend characteristics. Data thus generated provide additional opportunities of exploiting cassava utilization and hence boost its value–addition potentials for product development. PMID:24804071

  6. Gamma radiation effects on commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agúndez-Arvizu, Z.; Fernández-Ramírez, M. V.; Arce-Corrales, M. E.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Meléndrez, R.; Chernov, V.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2006-04-01

    Gamma irradiation is considered to be an alternative method for food preservation to prevent food spoilage, insect infestation and capable of reducing the microbial load. In the present investigation, commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour was irradiated at 1.0 kGy using a 60C Gammabeam 651 PT irradiator facility. No changes were detected in moisture, protein and ashes in gamma irradiated samples as compared to those of non-irradiated samples. Slight radiation effects were observed in the alveogram values and farinograph properties; the falling number decreased 11%, the absorption as well as the mixing tolerance were practically unchanged by irradiation. An increase of 15% in the stability value and a 29% in the dough development time were observed. Also the deformation energy decreased 7% with no change at all in the tenacity/extensibility factor. Total aerobic, yeast and mold counts were reduced 96%, 25% and 75%; respectively by the irradiation process. The obtained results confirm that gamma irradiation is effective in reducing the microbial load in bread making wheat flour without a significant change in the physicochemical and baking properties.

  7. Effects of inulin on the structure and emulsifying properties of protein components in dough.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Luo, Denglin; Li, Xuan; Xu, Baocheng; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Jianxue

    2016-11-01

    High-purity gliadin, glutenin and gluten fractions were extracted from wheat gluten flour. To investigate the effects of three types of inulin with different degrees of polymerization (DP) on the emulsifying properties, disulfide contents, secondary structures and microstructures of these fractions, Turbidimetry, spectrophotometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used in this study. The results showed that the emulsifying activity of gliadin was higher than that of glutenin and gluten, but its emulsion stability was lower than that of glutenin. Adding inulin increased the emulsifying activity of the three protein fractions and emulsion stability of gliadin and gluten, but decreased the emulsion stability of glutenin and disulfide bond contents of glutenin and gluten. In the presence of inulin, the α-helical structure of the three proteins had no significant change, whereas the β-turn structure decreased and β-sheet structure increased. The SEM images showed that inulin had the most significant effect on the glutenin microstructure. In general, inulin with a higher DP had greater effects on the structure and emulsifying properties of protein components in dough. PMID:27211643

  8. Quality assessment and consumer acceptability of bread from wheat and fermented banana flour.

    PubMed

    Adebayo-Oyetoro, Abiodun Omowonuola; Ogundipe, Oladeinde Olatunde; Adeeko, Kehinde Nojeemdeen

    2016-05-01

    Bread was produced from wheat flour and fermented unripe banana using the straight dough method. Matured unripe banana was peeled, sliced, steam blanched, dried and milled, and sieved to obtain flour. The flour was mixed with water and made into slurry and allowed to stand for 24 h after which it was divided into several portions and blended with wheat flour in different ratios. Proximate and mineral compositions as well as functional, pasting, and sensory characteristics of the samples were determined. The results of proximate analysis showed that crude fiber ranged between 1.95% and 3.19%, carbohydrate was between 49.70% and 52.98% and protein was 6.92% and 10.25%, respectively, while iron was between 27.07 mg/100 g and 29.30 mg/100 g. Swelling capacity of the experimental samples showed a significant difference from that of control. Peak viscosity ranged between 97.00RVU and 153.63RVU for experimental samples compared with 392.35RVU obtained for the control. Most of the sensory properties for the experimental samples were significantly different from the control. This study showed that bread with better quality and acceptability can be produced from wheat-unripe banana blends. PMID:27247766

  9. Adhesion of rice flour-based batter to chicken drumsticks evaluated by laser scanning confocal microscopy and texture analysis.

    PubMed

    Mukprasirt, A; Herald, T J; Boyle, D L; Rausch, K D

    2000-09-01

    The convenience and appeal of battered or breaded products have resulted in a sales increase of 100% since 1980. Because of the rapid growth of the Asian-American population and increasing consumption of rice and rice products, rice flour is a logical alternative for wheat flour in traditional batter formulation. The effects of ingredients used in rice flour-based batters on adhesion characteristic for deep-fat fried chicken drumsticks were studied by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and texture analysis. Raw chicken drumsticks were predusted with egg albumin powder before dipping into batters prepared from combinations of rice flour, yellow corn flour, oxidized cornstarch, methylcellulose, or xanthan gum. The drumsticks were fried at 175+/-5 C until the internal temperature reached at least 71 C. For LSCM, samples were fixed overnight and were sectioned by vibratome (200 microm) before viewing. Batter adhesion was determined using an attachment specifically designed for chicken drumsticks. Microstructural analysis showed that batter formulated with a 50:50 mixture of rice and corn flours adhered better to drumsticks than batter with other rice flour ratios. Xanthan gum (0.2%) or methylcellulose (0.3%) alone had poor adhesion to chicken skin. However, when combined with other ingredients, xanthan gum increased the amount of batter pick-up before frying by increasing viscosity. Egg albumin significantly facilitated batter adhesion. The results from texture analysis supported the microstructural studies. As rice flour ratio increased from 50 to 70%, the binding force decreased. Rice flour showed potential as an alternative to wheat flour for batter formulas when the appropriate levels of oxidized starch, xanthan gum, and methylcellulose were included in the formulation. PMID:11020085

  10. Mixture design of rice flour, maize starch and wheat starch for optimization of gluten free bread quality.

    PubMed

    Mancebo, Camino M; Merino, Cristina; Martínez, Mario M; Gómez, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Gluten-free bread production requires gluten-free flours or starches. Rice flour and maize starch are two of the most commonly used raw materials. Over recent years, gluten-free wheat starch is available on the market. The aim of this research was to optimize mixtures of rice flour, maize starch and wheat starch using an experimental mixture design. For this purpose, dough rheology and its fermentation behaviour were studied. Quality bread parameters such as specific volume, texture, cell structure, colour and acceptability were also analysed. Generally, starch incorporation reduced G* and increased the bread specific volume and cell density, but the breads obtained were paler than the rice flour breads. Comparing the starches, wheat starch breads had better overall acceptability and had a greater volume than maize-starch bread. The highest value for sensorial acceptability corresponded to the bread produced with a mixture of rice flour (59 g/100 g) and wheat starch (41 g/100 g). PMID:26396377

  11. Flour Quality and Related Molecular Characterization of High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunit Genes from Wild Emmer Wheat Accession TD-256.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-Le; He, Ting-Ting; Liang, Hui-Hui; Huang, Lu-Yu; Su, Ya-Zhong; Li, Yu-Ge; Li, Suo-Ping

    2016-06-22

    To clarify the effect of high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) from wild emmer wheat on flour quality, which has the same mobility as that from common wheat, the composition and molecular characterization of HMW-GS from wild emmer wheat accession TD-256, as well as its flour quality, were intensively analyzed. It is found that the mobilities of Glu-A1 and Glu-B1 subunits from TD-256 are consistent with those of bread wheat cv. 'XiaoYan 6'. Nevertheless, dough rheological properties of TD-256 reveal its poor flour quality. In the aspect of molecular structure from HMW-GS, only two conserved cysteine residues can be observed in the deduced protein sequence of 1Bx14* from TD-256, while most Glu-1Bx contain four conserved cysteine residues. In addition, as can be predicted from secondary structure, the quantity both of α-helixes and their amino acid residues of the subunits from TD-256 is fewer than those of common wheat. Though low molecular weight glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) and gliadin can also greatly influence flour quality, the protein structure of the HMW-GS revealed in this work can partly explain the poor flour quality of wild emmer accession TD-256. PMID:27243935

  12. Texturized pinto bean protein fortification in straight dough bread formulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pinto beans were milled and then air-classified to obtain a raw high protein fraction (RHPF) followed by extrusion to texturize the protein fraction. The texturized high protein fraction (THPF) was then milled to obtain flour, and combined with wheat flour at 5%, 10%, and 15% levels to make bread. A...

  13. Corn Insect Pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, the major corn insect pests have been corn rootworms (northern and western), European corn borer, and black cutworm. Bt-corn hybrids are effective against most of these pests. However, Bt-corn hybrids are not effective against corn leaf aphid, corn root aphid, sap beetles, corn rootwor...

  14. Corn transformed

    SciTech Connect

    Moffat, A.S.

    1990-08-10

    Researchers have produced fertile corn transformed with a foreign gene that makes the plants resistant to the herbicide bialaphos. This achievement, is the first report of fertile transgenic corn in the reviewed literature, and it is the capstone of almost a decade's efforts to genetically engineer this country's most important crop. The only other major crop to be so manipulated is rice. The ability produce transgenic corn gives biologists a valuable tool to probe the whys and hows of gene expression and regulation. It may also give plant breeders a way to develop new corn varieties with a speed and predictability that would be impossible with classical breeding techniques.

  15. Use of sourdough fermentation and pseudo-cereals and leguminous flours for the making of a functional bread enriched of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

    PubMed

    Coda, Rossana; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Gobbetti, Marco

    2010-02-28

    Lactobacillus plantarum C48 and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis PU1, previously selected for the biosynthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), were used for sourdough fermentation of cereal, pseudo-cereal and leguminous flours. Chickpea, amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat were the flours most suitable to be enriched of GABA. The parameters of sourdough fermentation were optimized. Addition of 0.1mM pyridoxal phosphate, dough yield of 160, inoculum of 5 x 10(7)CFU/g of starter bacteria and fermentation for 24h at 30 degrees C were found to be the optimal conditions. A blend of buckwheat, amaranth, chickpea and quinoa flours (ratio 1:1:5.3:1) was selected and fermented with baker's yeast (non-conventional flour bread, NCB) or with Lb. plantarum C48 sourdough (non-conventional flour sourdough bread, NCSB) and compared to baker's yeast started wheat flour bread (WFB). NCSB had the highest concentration of free amino acids and GABA (ca. 4467 and 504 mg/kg, respectively). The concentration of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of NCSB bread was the highest, as well as the rate of in vitro starch hydrolysis was the lowest. Texture analysis showed that sourdough fermentation enhances several characteristics of NCSB with respect to NCB, thus approaching the features of WFB. Sensory analysis showed that sourdough fermentation allowed to get good palatability and overall taste appreciation. PMID:20071045

  16. A combination of two lactic acid bacteria improves the hydrolysis of gliadin during wheat dough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Gerez, Carla Luciana; Dallagnol, Andrea; Rollán, Graciela; Font de Valdez, Graciela

    2012-12-01

    The evaluation of gliadin hydrolysis during dough fermentation by using two lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus plantarum CRL 775 and Pediococcus pentosaceus CRL 792, as pooled cell suspension (LAB) or cell free extract (CFE) was undertaken. The CFE pool produced a greater (121%) increase in amino acid concentration than the LAB pool (70-80%). These results were correlated with the decrease (76,100 and 64,300 ppm) in the gliadin concentration of doughs supplemented with CFE and LAB, respectively, compared to control doughs. The use of LAB peptidases seemed to be a viable technologic alternative to reduce the gliadin concentration in wheat dough without using living bacteria as starter. PMID:22986210

  17. Dynamics of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Transcriptome during Bread Dough Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Zhu, Bo; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Voordeckers, Karin; De Maeyer, Dries; Marchal, Kathleen; Dornez, Emmie

    2013-01-01

    The behavior of yeast cells during industrial processes such as the production of beer, wine, and bioethanol has been extensively studied. In contrast, our knowledge about yeast physiology during solid-state processes, such as bread dough, cheese, or cocoa fermentation, remains limited. We investigated changes in the transcriptomes of three genetically distinct Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during bread dough fermentation. Our results show that regardless of the genetic background, all three strains exhibit similar changes in expression patterns. At the onset of fermentation, expression of glucose-regulated genes changes dramatically, and the osmotic stress response is activated. The middle fermentation phase is characterized by the induction of genes involved in amino acid metabolism. Finally, at the latest time point, cells suffer from nutrient depletion and activate pathways associated with starvation and stress responses. Further analysis shows that genes regulated by the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, the major pathway involved in the response to osmotic stress and glycerol homeostasis, are among the most differentially expressed genes at the onset of fermentation. More importantly, deletion of HOG1 and other genes of this pathway significantly reduces the fermentation capacity. Together, our results demonstrate that cells embedded in a solid matrix such as bread dough suffer severe osmotic stress and that a proper induction of the HOG pathway is critical for optimal fermentation. PMID:24056467

  18. Physico-chemical properties and acceptability of yam flour substituted with soy flour.

    PubMed

    Akingbala, J O; Oguntimein, G B; Sobande, A O

    1995-07-01

    Yam flour was substituted 10, 20 and 40% with defatted and full fat soy flour. The effect of the substitution on the proximate composition, swelling power, solubility, water binding capacity and Brabender visco amylograph cooking properties of the yam flour and acceptability of the cooked paste (amala), were evaluated. Protein contents of the mixtures were 23.0 and 25.5% on substituting 40% full-and defatted soy flours for yam flour, ash and crude fibre contents increased while carbohydrate content, swelling power, Brabender paste viscosities decreased with increase in soy flour substitution of yam flour. Colour, texture, taste and overall acceptability of pastes (amala) from the mixed flours were rated lower than that of yam flour. Up to 10% defatted and 20% full fat soy flour substitution for yam flour was acceptable for amala. PMID:8719741

  19. Investigation of Food Acceptability and Feeding Practices for Lipid Nutrient Supplements and Blended Flours Used to Treat Moderate Malnutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Richard J.; Trehan, Indi; LaGrone, Lacey N.; Weisz, Ariana J.; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie M.; Maleta, Kenneth M.; Manary, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine acceptability and feeding practices associated with different supplementary food items and identify practices associated with weight gain. Methods: Caregivers (n = 409) whose children had been enrolled in a trial comparing a fortified corn-soy blended flour (CSB++), soy ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF), and soy/whey…

  20. Investigation of food acceptability and feeding practices for lipid nutrient supplements and blended flours used to treat moderate malnutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study objectives were to examine acceptability and feeding practices associated with different supplementary food items and to identify practices associated with weight gain. Caregivers (n = 409) whose children had been enrolled in a trial comparing a fortified corn-soy blended flour (CSB++), so...

  1. The influence of thermal processing on emulsion properties of defatted hazelnut flour.

    PubMed

    Turan, Deniz; Altay, Filiz; Capanoğlu Güven, Esra

    2015-01-15

    In this study, the influences of roasting and the amount of hazelnut flour on the formation and stabilization of emulsions containing different amounts of oil were investigated. After hazelnuts were roasted in an oven at 140°C for 40 min, the oil content was removed. The emulsions with defatted hazelnut flour containing corn oil at 3%, 10% and 50% were prepared. Roasting process significantly decreased the interfacial tension values of samples down to 1.9 mN/m due to protein denaturation. There was no significant difference between the particle sizes of oil droplets in emulsions with roasted and raw hazelnut flour at the same concentration. However, diffusion coefficients of oil droplets increased for emulsions containing roasted defatted flour samples. The zeta (ζ) potential values of all emulsions increased when roasted hazelnut flour was used, indicating the stabilization of suspensions and the solution resistance against aggregation. Storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G″) and complex viscosity (η(∗)) of emulsions were measured. G' value was found to be greater than the G″ value, which fits into weak gel model. The roasting process resulted with lower transition temperatures but with increased transition enthalpies of the flour samples based on differential scanning (DSC) measurements. Lower transition temperatures may be attributed to the partial gelatinization of starch in the flour and partial denaturation of proteins. These results may help to tailor the properties of defatted hazelnut flour when it is used in food products containing emulsions such as sauces, dressings and creams for stabilizing purposes. PMID:25148965

  2. [Protein complementation of defatted hazelnut flour with pea flour].

    PubMed

    Villarroel, M; Biolley, E; Ballester, D

    1990-09-01

    A great deal of research has been carried out to increase the availability of naturally-occurring proteins, or obtained from secondary products derived through industrial processes. As a result of the industrial exploitation of the native hazelnut (Gevuina avellana) in Chile, a defatted residue is obtained which eventually could be utilized as a human food. To determine the complementary potential capacity of the defatted hazelnut flour and pea flour, a study was carried out in weaning rats of the Wistar strain, as follows. The biological evaluation considered diet formulation with defatted hazelnut flour and pea flour in the 30:70, 50:50, 60:40 and 70:30 proportions, respectively. The NPR values obtained in this evaluation of the assay diets were: 3.4, 3.5, 3.9, 4.1 and 4.1, in comparison with 3.7 for casein. In percentage terms, the 4.1 NPR value was 11% higher than that obtained for casein. The maximum protein quality was observed when the two protein sources were mixed in the 60:40 and 70:30 (w/w) ratios. In regard to true digestibility, there were no significant differences among the experimental diets, but were lower than casein. The results of this study demonstrate that the defatted hazelnut flour constitutes an attractive nutritional alternative for the amino acid supplementation of cereal and legumes, the latter being of habitual consumption by the Chilean population. PMID:2134141

  3. Fumonisins B1 and B2 in the corn-milling process and corn-based products, and evaluation of estimated daily intake.

    PubMed

    Savi, Geovana D; Piacentini, Karim C; Marchi, Djeini; Scussel, Vildes M

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of fumonisins (FBs: FB1 and FB2) in the corn-milling process and in corn-based products, as well as daily intake estimates for the Brazilian population were evaluated. Among corn fractions samples, corn meal had the highest mean concentration of FB1 (1305 µg kg(-1)) and FB2 (651 µg kg(-1)) and a distribution factors of 452% and 256% in relation to corn grain, respectively. On the other hand, the distribution factor of FB1 and FB2 in corn flour was found to be 144% and 88% respectively, which demonstrates that fumonisins in this fraction were reduced compared with corn grain. As a result, almost half the corn meal samples (47%) would be non-compliant with future Brazilian regulation (2017) for fumonisins. However, corn-based products, such as corn flakes and popcorn, were in compliance with the regulation. The average probable daily intake and maximum probable daily intake of fumonisins estimated for the Santa Catarina state (Brazil) population were below the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 2 µg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for all corn samples. Despite this, the adoption of practices to control the occurrence of fumonisins should be applied to the corn-milling fractions that may contain a higher concentration of this toxin, such as corn meal, often used for animal feed in Brazil. PMID:26605670

  4. Blisters, Calluses, and Corns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Blisters, Calluses, and Corns KidsHealth > For Kids > Blisters, Calluses, and Corns Print ... used to all of that stress. What's a Corn? Like calluses, corns are also areas of hard, ...

  5. Corns and calluses

    MedlinePlus

    Calluses and corns ... Corns and calluses are caused by pressure or friction on skin. A corn is thickened skin on the top or side ... the bunion because it rubs against the shoe. Corns and calluses are not serious problems.

  6. Effect of mixing time and speed on experimental baking and dough testing with a 200g pin-mixer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Under mixing or over mixing the dough results in varied experimental loaf volumes. Bread preparation requires a trained baker to evaluate dough development and determine stop points of mixer. Instrumentation and electronic control of the dough mixer would allow for automatic mixing. This study us...

  7. 21 CFR 137.211 - White corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..._federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.Attach cone to a suction flask. Wash with 150 ml. of petroleum... vigorous horizontal motion, striking the side against the hand, and then weigh. The decrease in weight of... motion, striking the side against the hand; remove and weigh the residue; calculate the weight of...

  8. 21 CFR 137.211 - White corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..._federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html.Attach cone to a suction flask. Wash with 150 ml. of petroleum... vigorous horizontal motion, striking the side against the hand, and then weigh. The decrease in weight of... motion, striking the side against the hand; remove and weigh the residue; calculate the weight of...

  9. Glycerol production by fermenting yeast cells is essential for optimal bread dough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aslankoohi, Elham; Rezaei, Mohammad Naser; Vervoort, Yannick; Courtin, Christophe M; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    Glycerol is the main compatible solute in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. When faced with osmotic stress, for example during semi-solid state bread dough fermentation, yeast cells produce and accumulate glycerol in order to prevent dehydration by balancing the intracellular osmolarity with that of the environment. However, increased glycerol production also results in decreased CO2 production, which may reduce dough leavening. We investigated the effect of yeast glycerol production level on bread dough fermentation capacity of a commercial bakery strain and a laboratory strain. We find that Δgpd1 mutants that show decreased glycerol production show impaired dough fermentation. In contrast, overexpression of GPD1 in the laboratory strain results in increased fermentation rates in high-sugar dough and improved gas retention in the fermenting bread dough. Together, our results reveal the crucial role of glycerol production level by fermenting yeast cells in dough fermentation efficiency as well as gas retention in dough, thereby opening up new routes for the selection of improved commercial bakery yeasts. PMID:25764309

  10. A Rapid Small-Scale Method to Evaluate Dough Viscoelastic Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dough viscoelastic properties are of special interest to bakers and wheat breeders. Dough extensibility (DE) and resistance to extension (RE) influence each step of the baking process as well as product end-use quality, and thus are important quality factors to consider in wheat breeding programs. T...