Science.gov

Sample records for corn le rendement

  1. Le rendement énergétique de la production d’éthanol à partir de maïs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavanne, Xavier; Frangi, Jean-Pierre

    2008-05-01

    This article establishes the primary energy balance for making ethanol out of corn in the USA, calculated from the farm to the fuel station, following a methodology described in Chavanne and Frangi (C. R. Geoscience 339 (2007) 519-535). Raw data (direct energy and material consumption as well as their heat value and external costs) come from published papers related to this topic, technical textbooks, as well as reports from the US Departments of Agriculture and Energy. For the 2001 harvest, over the area producing more than 90% of ethanol and for the 2005 network of working refineries, 100 J of ethanol and recovery of by-products (the energy saved by the replacement of animal feed by these by-products is around 12% of the ethanol heat value) needed 86 ± 3 J of energy spending, of which more than 50 J is natural gas and 62 J is used in refineries. A third of the area of Nebraska corn must be irrigated with water pumped from underground, at an added cost of 26 ± 3 J. In 1996, the extra drying required, because of heavy rains, added 6 J. By comparison, 100 J of gasoline cost less than 25 J to be produced out of crude oil. Complementary studies of resource availability are not performed here. The largest possible reduction in energy costs can be achieved at the refinery stage, by fermenting by-products, gas residues, (from 62 J to around 12 J). The article gives also an expression for the expenditure to enable comparison between different energy systems, including everything from biomass to transport. For the ethanol case, the average cost is 130 J for 100 J of corn grain heat.

  2. Effects of refuges on the evolution of resistance to transgenic corn by western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte is a major pest of corn causing millions of dollars of economic loss annually through yield reductions and preventative management practices. Corn producing toxins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been developed to help manage D. v. virgifera. Sinc...

  3. [Corn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa History for Young People, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on corn. Iowa is the number one corn producing state in the United States. The featured articles in the issue concern, among other topics, Iowa children who live on farms, facts and statistics about corn, the Mesquakie Indians and corn shelling, corn hybrids, a short story, and the corn palaces of Sioux City. Activities,…

  4. Characterization of a new bacteriocin from Lactobacillus plantarum LE5 and LE27 isolated from ensiled corn.

    PubMed

    Amortegui, Jairo; Rodríguez-López, Alexander; Rodríguez, Deicy; Carrascal, Ana K; Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J; Melendez, Adelina del P; Sánchez, Oscar F

    2014-04-01

    Bacteriocins are low molecular peptides with antimicrobial activity, which are of great interest as food bio-preservatives and for treating diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we present the characterization of bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus plantarum LE5 and LE27 isolated from ensiled corn. Bacteriocins were purified through ammonium sulfate precipitation and double dialysis by using 12- and 1-kDa membranes. Bacteriocins showed activity against Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enteroccocus faecalis. Molecular weight was estimated through Tricine-SDS-PAGE and overloading the gel onto Mueller-Hinton agar seeded with L. monocytogenes, showing an inhibition zone between 5 and 10 kDa. NanoLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the identification of UPF0291 protein (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q88VI7), which is also presented in other lactic acid bacteria without assigned function. Ab initio modeling showed it has an α-helix-rich structure and a large positive-charged region. Bacteriocins were stable between 4 and 121 °C and pH 2 and 12, and the activity was inhibited by SDS and proteases. Mode of action assay suggests that the bacteriocin causes of target microorganism. Taken together, these results describe a possible new class IIa bacteriocin produced by L. plantarum, which has a wide stability to physicochemical conditions, and that could be used as an alternative for the control of foodborne diseases. PMID:24532444

  5. Corn

    MedlinePlus

    ... composed of a dense core that presses on sensory nerves, causing extreme pain. Soft corns occur between ... a benign condition and may not require medical evaluation. However, if corns become very painful, evaluation should ...

  6. Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) Population Dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much has been learned about the population dynamics of the western corn rootworm over the last half-century of intensive study, and this knowledge has helped humans manage this destructive pest of corn relatively successfully. However, this insect is something of a moving target when it comes to un...

  7. Binary toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis active against the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte.

    PubMed

    Baum, James A; Chu, Chi-Rei; Rupar, Mark; Brown, Gregory R; Donovan, William P; Huesing, Joseph E; Ilagan, Oliver; Malvar, Thomas M; Pleau, Michael; Walters, Matthew; Vaughn, Ty

    2004-08-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a significant pest of corn in the United States. The development of transgenic corn hybrids resistant to rootworm feeding damage depends on the identification of genes encoding insecticidal proteins toxic to rootworm larvae. In this study, a bioassay screen was used to identify several isolates of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis active against rootworm. These bacterial isolates each produce distinct crystal proteins with approximate molecular masses of 13 to 15 kDa and 44 kDa. Insect bioassays demonstrated that both protein classes are required for insecticidal activity against this rootworm species. The genes encoding these proteins are organized in apparent operons and are associated with other genes encoding crystal proteins of unknown function. The antirootworm proteins produced by B. thuringiensis strains EG5899 and EG9444 closely resemble previously described crystal proteins of the Cry34A and Cry35A classes. The antirootworm proteins produced by strain EG4851, designated Cry34Ba1 and Cry35Ba1, represent a new binary toxin. Genes encoding these proteins could become an important component of a sustainable resistance management strategy against this insect pest. PMID:15294828

  8. Binary Toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis Active against the Western Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte

    PubMed Central

    Baum, James A.; Chu, Chi-Rei; Rupar, Mark; Brown, Gregory R.; Donovan, William P.; Huesing, Joseph E.; Ilagan, Oliver; Malvar, Thomas M.; Pleau, Michael; Walters, Matthew; Vaughn, Ty

    2004-01-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a significant pest of corn in the United States. The development of transgenic corn hybrids resistant to rootworm feeding damage depends on the identification of genes encoding insecticidal proteins toxic to rootworm larvae. In this study, a bioassay screen was used to identify several isolates of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis active against rootworm. These bacterial isolates each produce distinct crystal proteins with approximate molecular masses of 13 to 15 kDa and 44 kDa. Insect bioassays demonstrated that both protein classes are required for insecticidal activity against this rootworm species. The genes encoding these proteins are organized in apparent operons and are associated with other genes encoding crystal proteins of unknown function. The antirootworm proteins produced by B. thuringiensis strains EG5899 and EG9444 closely resemble previously described crystal proteins of the Cry34A and Cry35A classes. The antirootworm proteins produced by strain EG4851, designated Cry34Ba1 and Cry35Ba1, represent a new binary toxin. Genes encoding these proteins could become an important component of a sustainable resistance management strategy against this insect pest. PMID:15294828

  9. Behavior and Ecology of the Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Western corn rootworm beetles (WCR) are historic pests with a legacy of resistance and behavioral plasticity. Current patterns of behavior and nutritional ecology are important and relevant to the history and the future of rootworm management. The success of the most effective and environmenta...

  10. Ultrastructural changes caused by Snf7 RNAi in larval enterocytes of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte).

    PubMed

    Koči, Juraj; Ramaseshadri, Parthasarathy; Bolognesi, Renata; Segers, Gerrit; Flannagan, Ronald; Park, Yoonseong

    2014-01-01

    The high sensitivity to oral RNA interference (RNAi) of western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte) provides a novel tool for pest control. Previous studies have shown that RNAi of DvSnf7, an essential cellular component of endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT), caused deficiencies in protein de-ubiquitination and autophagy, leading to WCR death. Here we investigated the detailed mechanism leading to larval death by analyzing the ultrastructural changes in midgut enterocytes of WCR treated with double-stranded RNA (ds-DvSnf7). The progressive phases of pathological symptoms caused by DvSnf7-RNAi in enterocytes include: 1) the appearance of irregularly shaped macroautophagic complexes consisting of relatively large lysosomes and multi-lamellar bodies, indicative of failure in autolysosome formation; 2) cell sloughing and loss of apical microvilli, and eventually, 3) massive loss of cellular contents indicating loss of membrane integrity. These data suggest that the critical functions of Snf7 in insect midgut cells demonstrated by the ultrastructural changes in DvSnf7 larval enterocytes underlies the conserved essential function of the ESCRT pathway in autophagy and membrane stability in other organisms. PMID:24409288

  11. Identification of sensilla involved in taste mediation in adult western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte).

    PubMed

    Chyb, S; Eichenseer, H; Hollister, B; Mullin, C A; Frazier, J L

    1995-03-01

    A group of sensilla present on the maxillary galea of adult western corn rootworm,Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) beetles has been identified morphologically and physiologically to be involved in taste mediation. There are approximately 15 chemosensory hairs on each galea. Bilateral removal of these structures resulted in a significantly reduced consumption of a strongly phagostimulant triterpenoid, cucurbitacin B, and led to increased ingestion of a phagodeterrent alkaloid, strychnine. Electrophysiological responses obtained via tip-recording of galeal chemosensilla with submillimolar concentrations of host and nonhost plant compounds resulted in dose responses overlapping with the effective behavioral ranges. Cucurbitacin B was found to evoke chemosensory responses at levels as low as 0.1µM. Sinceγ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an agonist. (-)-β-hydrastine and strychnine are antagonists, and cucurbitacin B has been proposed to act at a separate modulatory site of classical synaptic GABA and glycine receptor-channel complexes, results reported here raise the possibility that there are peripheral chemosensory receptor sites that may resemble, functionally and structurally, synaptic receptor sites in the central nervous system. PMID:24234063

  12. Screening for corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) resistance to transgenic Bt corn in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and northern corn rootworms (NCR), D. barberi Smith & Lawrence, are major economic pests of corn in much of the U.S. Corn Belt. Western corn rootworm resistance to transgenic corn expressing Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) endotoxins has been confi...

  13. Evidence of Field-Evolved Resistance to Bifenthrin in Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) Populations in Western Nebraska and Kansas.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Adriano E; Wang, Haichuan; Zukoff, Sarah N; Meinke, Lance J; French, B Wade; Siegfried, Blair D

    2015-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides have been used to control larvae or adults of the western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, a key pest of field corn in the United States. In response to reports of reduced efficacy of pyrethroids in WCR management programs in southwestern areas of Nebraska and Kansas the present research was designed to establish a baseline of susceptibility to the pyrethroid insecticide, bifenthrin, using susceptible laboratory populations and to compare this baseline with susceptibility of field populations. Concentration-response bioassays were performed to estimate the baseline susceptibility. From the baseline data, a diagnostic concentration (LC99) was determined and used to test adults of both laboratory and field populations. Larval susceptibility was also tested using both laboratory and field populations. Significant differences were recorded in adult and larval susceptibility among WCR field and laboratory populations. The highest LC50 for WCR adults was observed in populations from Keith 2 and Chase Counties, NE, with LC50s of 2.2 and 1.38 μg/vial, respectively, and Finney County 1, KS, with 1.43 μg/vial, as compared to a laboratory non-diapause population (0.24 μg/vial). For larvae, significant differences between WCR field and laboratory populations were also recorded. Significant differences in mortalities at the diagnostic bifenthrin concentration (LC99) were observed among WCR adult populations with western Corn Belt populations exhibiting lower susceptibility to bifenthrin, especially in southwestern Nebraska and southwestern Kansas. This study provides evidence that resistance to bifenthrin is evolving in field populations that have been exposed for multiple years to pyrethroid insecticides. Implications to sustainable rootworm management are discussed. PMID:26566127

  14. Evidence of Field-Evolved Resistance to Bifenthrin in Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) Populations in Western Nebraska and Kansas

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Adriano E.; Wang, Haichuan; Zukoff, Sarah N.; Meinke, Lance J.; French, B. Wade; Siegfried, Blair D.

    2015-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides have been used to control larvae or adults of the western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, a key pest of field corn in the United States. In response to reports of reduced efficacy of pyrethroids in WCR management programs in southwestern areas of Nebraska and Kansas the present research was designed to establish a baseline of susceptibility to the pyrethroid insecticide, bifenthrin, using susceptible laboratory populations and to compare this baseline with susceptibility of field populations. Concentration-response bioassays were performed to estimate the baseline susceptibility. From the baseline data, a diagnostic concentration (LC99) was determined and used to test adults of both laboratory and field populations. Larval susceptibility was also tested using both laboratory and field populations. Significant differences were recorded in adult and larval susceptibility among WCR field and laboratory populations. The highest LC50 for WCR adults was observed in populations from Keith 2 and Chase Counties, NE, with LC50s of 2.2 and 1.38 μg/vial, respectively, and Finney County 1, KS, with 1.43 μg/vial, as compared to a laboratory non-diapause population (0.24 μg/vial). For larvae, significant differences between WCR field and laboratory populations were also recorded. Significant differences in mortalities at the diagnostic bifenthrin concentration (LC99) were observed among WCR adult populations with western Corn Belt populations exhibiting lower susceptibility to bifenthrin, especially in southwestern Nebraska and southwestern Kansas. This study provides evidence that resistance to bifenthrin is evolving in field populations that have been exposed for multiple years to pyrethroid insecticides. Implications to sustainable rootworm management are discussed. PMID:26566127

  15. Parental RNA interference of genes involved in embryonic development of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte.

    PubMed

    Khajuria, Chitvan; Vélez, Ana M; Rangasamy, Murugesan; Wang, Haichuan; Fishilevich, Elane; Frey, Meghan L F; Carneiro, Newton Portilho; Gandra, Premchand; Narva, Kenneth E; Siegfried, Blair D

    2015-08-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is being developed as a potential tool for insect pest management and one of the most likely target pest species for transgenic plants that express double stranded RNA (dsRNA) is the western corn rootworm. Thus far, most genes proposed as targets for RNAi in rootworm cause lethality in the larval stage. In this study, we describe RNAi-mediated knockdown of two developmental genes, hunchback (hb) and brahma (brm), in the western corn rootworm delivered via dsRNA fed to adult females. dsRNA feeding caused a significant decrease in hb and brm transcripts in the adult females. Although total oviposition was not significantly affected, there was almost complete absence of hatching in the eggs collected from females exposed to dsRNA for either gene. These results confirm that RNAi is systemic in nature for western corn rootworms. These results also indicate that hunchback and brahma play important roles in rootworm embryonic development and could provide useful RNAi targets in adult rootworms to prevent crop injury by impacting the population of larval progeny of exposed adults. The ability to deliver dsRNA in a trans-generational manner by feeding to adult rootworms may offer an additional approach to utilizing RNAi for rootworm pest management. The potential to develop parental RNAi technology targeting progeny of adult rootworms in combination with Bt proteins or dsRNA lethal to larvae may increase opportunities to develop sustainable approaches to rootworm management involving RNAi technologies for rootworm control. PMID:26005118

  16. Performance of a model for egg hatching of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, using measured and modelled soil temperatures as input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaafsma, A. W.; Fuentes, J. D.; Gillespie, T. J.; Whitfield, G. H.; Ellis, C. R.

    1993-03-01

    A model for egg hatching of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, was tested at several locations in Ontario, Canada, during the 1989 and 1990 seasons. The model required soil temperatures as input and was tested using measured and modelled data. Modelled soil temperatures at 5 and 10 cm depths were obtained from empirically and physically based models. The physically based model provided better estimates of soil temperatues, but both models slightly underestimated the temperatures. Predicted egg hatching, using measured and modelled soil temperature at 5 and 10 cm depths for all locations, compared reasonably well with the observations of egg hatching. When using modelled soil temperatures, the egg developmental model performed better using soil temperatures from the physically based model. However, both soil temperature models provided sufficiently accurate temperature values for use in the egg developmental model. Unlike the empirically based model, the physically based model was not site-specific and its application to larger areas appeared feasible.

  17. Effect of transgenic corn hybrids and a soil insecticide on corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) beetle emergence in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Northern, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence, and western corn rootworms, D. virgifera virgifera LeConte, are economic pests of corn, Zea mays L. (Poaceae) in North Dakota. Many area corn growers rely on transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn hybrids to manage corn rootworms. Our objective was...

  18. Field-based assessment of resistance to Bt Corn by Western Corn Rootworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a serious pest of corn and is managed with Bt corn that produce insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Beginning in 2009, severe injury to Bt corn producing Cry3Bb1 was observed in some cornfields ...

  19. Novel Bacillus thuringiensis Binary Insecticidal Crystal Proteins Active on Western Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, R. Tracy; Stockhoff, Brian A.; Stamp, Lisa; Schnepf, H. Ernest; Schwab, George E.; Knuth, Mark; Russell, Josh; Cardineau, Guy A.; Narva, Kenneth E.

    2002-01-01

    A new family of insecticidal crystal proteins was discovered by screening sporulated Bacillus thuringiensis cultures for oral activity against western corn rootworm (WCR) larvae. B. thuringiensis isolates PS80JJ1, PS149B1, and PS167H2 have WCR insecticidal activity attributable to parasporal inclusion bodies containing proteins with molecular masses of ca. 14 and 44 kDa. The genes encoding these polypeptides reside in apparent operons, and the 14-kDa protein open reading frame (ORF) precedes the 44-kDa protein ORF. Mutagenesis of either gene in the apparent operons dramatically reduced insecticidal activity of the corresponding recombinant B. thuringiensis strain. Bioassays performed with separately expressed, biochemically purified 14- and 44-kDa polypeptides also demonstrated that both proteins are required for WCR mortality. Sequence comparisons with other known B. thuringiensis insecticidal proteins failed to reveal homology with previously described Cry, Cyt, or Vip proteins. However, there is evidence that the 44-kDa polypeptide and the 41.9- and 51.4-kDa binary dipteran insecticidal proteins from Bacillus sphaericus are evolutionarily related. The 14- and 44-kDa polypeptides from isolates PS80JJ1, PS149B1, and PS167H2 have been designated Cry34Aa1, Cry34Ab1, and Cry34Ac1, respectively, and the 44-kDa polypeptides from these isolates have been designated Cry35Aa1, Cry35Ab1, and Cry35Ac1, respectively. PMID:11872461

  20. Novel Bacillus thuringiensis binary insecticidal crystal proteins active on western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte.

    PubMed

    Ellis, R Tracy; Stockhoff, Brian A; Stamp, Lisa; Schnepf, H Ernest; Schwab, George E; Knuth, Mark; Russell, Josh; Cardineau, Guy A; Narva, Kenneth E

    2002-03-01

    A new family of insecticidal crystal proteins was discovered by screening sporulated Bacillus thuringiensis cultures for oral activity against western corn rootworm (WCR) larvae. B. thuringiensis isolates PS80JJ1, PS149B1, and PS167H2 have WCR insecticidal activity attributable to parasporal inclusion bodies containing proteins with molecular masses of ca. 14 and 44 kDa. The genes encoding these polypeptides reside in apparent operons, and the 14-kDa protein open reading frame (ORF) precedes the 44-kDa protein ORF. Mutagenesis of either gene in the apparent operons dramatically reduced insecticidal activity of the corresponding recombinant B. thuringiensis strain. Bioassays performed with separately expressed, biochemically purified 14- and 44-kDa polypeptides also demonstrated that both proteins are required for WCR mortality. Sequence comparisons with other known B. thuringiensis insecticidal proteins failed to reveal homology with previously described Cry, Cyt, or Vip proteins. However, there is evidence that the 44-kDa polypeptide and the 41.9- and 51.4-kDa binary dipteran insecticidal proteins from Bacillus sphaericus are evolutionarily related. The 14- and 44-kDa polypeptides from isolates PS80JJ1, PS149B1, and PS167H2 have been designated Cry34Aa1, Cry34Ab1, and Cry34Ac1, respectively, and the 44-kDa polypeptides from these isolates have been designated Cry35Aa1, Cry35Ab1, and Cry35Ac1, respectively. PMID:11872461

  1. Characterizing the Mechanism of Action of Double-Stranded RNA Activity against Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte)

    PubMed Central

    Bolognesi, Renata; Ramaseshadri, Parthasarathy; Anderson, Jerry; Bachman, Pamela; Clinton, William; Flannagan, Ronald; Ilagan, Oliver; Lawrence, Christina; Levine, Steven; Moar, William; Mueller, Geoffrey; Tan, Jianguo; Uffman, Joshua; Wiggins, Elizabeth; Heck, Gregory; Segers, Gerrit

    2012-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has previously been shown to be effective in western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) larvae via oral delivery of synthetic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in an artificial diet bioassay, as well as by ingestion of transgenic corn plant tissues engineered to express dsRNA. Although the RNAi machinery components appear to be conserved in Coleopteran insects, the key steps in this process have not been reported for WCR. Here we characterized the sequence of events that result in mortality after ingestion of a dsRNA designed against WCR larvae. We selected the Snf7 ortholog (DvSnf7) as the target mRNA, which encodes an essential protein involved in intracellular trafficking. Our results showed that dsRNAs greater than or equal to approximately 60 base-pairs (bp) are required for biological activity in artificial diet bioassays. Additionally, 240 bp dsRNAs containing a single 21 bp match to the target sequence were also efficacious, whereas 21 bp short interfering (si) RNAs matching the target sequence were not. This result was further investigated in WCR midgut tissues: uptake of 240 bp dsRNA was evident in WCR midgut cells while a 21 bp siRNA was not, supporting the size-activity relationship established in diet bioassays. DvSnf7 suppression was observed in a time-dependent manner with suppression at the mRNA level preceding suppression at the protein level when a 240 bp dsRNA was fed to WCR larvae. DvSnf7 suppression was shown to spread to tissues beyond the midgut within 24 h after dsRNA ingestion. These events (dsRNA uptake, target mRNA and protein suppression, systemic spreading, growth inhibition and eventual mortality) comprise the overall mechanism of action by which DvSnf7 dsRNA affects WCR via oral delivery and provides insights as to how targeted dsRNAs in general are active against insects. PMID:23071820

  2. Characterizing the mechanism of action of double-stranded RNA activity against western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte).

    PubMed

    Bolognesi, Renata; Ramaseshadri, Parthasarathy; Anderson, Jerry; Bachman, Pamela; Clinton, William; Flannagan, Ronald; Ilagan, Oliver; Lawrence, Christina; Levine, Steven; Moar, William; Mueller, Geoffrey; Tan, Jianguo; Uffman, Joshua; Wiggins, Elizabeth; Heck, Gregory; Segers, Gerrit

    2012-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has previously been shown to be effective in western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) larvae via oral delivery of synthetic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in an artificial diet bioassay, as well as by ingestion of transgenic corn plant tissues engineered to express dsRNA. Although the RNAi machinery components appear to be conserved in Coleopteran insects, the key steps in this process have not been reported for WCR. Here we characterized the sequence of events that result in mortality after ingestion of a dsRNA designed against WCR larvae. We selected the Snf7 ortholog (DvSnf7) as the target mRNA, which encodes an essential protein involved in intracellular trafficking. Our results showed that dsRNAs greater than or equal to approximately 60 base-pairs (bp) are required for biological activity in artificial diet bioassays. Additionally, 240 bp dsRNAs containing a single 21 bp match to the target sequence were also efficacious, whereas 21 bp short interfering (si) RNAs matching the target sequence were not. This result was further investigated in WCR midgut tissues: uptake of 240 bp dsRNA was evident in WCR midgut cells while a 21 bp siRNA was not, supporting the size-activity relationship established in diet bioassays. DvSnf7 suppression was observed in a time-dependent manner with suppression at the mRNA level preceding suppression at the protein level when a 240 bp dsRNA was fed to WCR larvae. DvSnf7 suppression was shown to spread to tissues beyond the midgut within 24 h after dsRNA ingestion. These events (dsRNA uptake, target mRNA and protein suppression, systemic spreading, growth inhibition and eventual mortality) comprise the overall mechanism of action by which DvSnf7 dsRNA affects WCR via oral delivery and provides insights as to how targeted dsRNAs in general are active against insects. PMID:23071820

  3. Delaying corn rootworm resistance to Bt corn.

    PubMed

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Gould, Fred

    2012-06-01

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect control have been successful, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. To delay pest resistance to Bt crops, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has required refuges of host plants that do not produce Bt toxins to promote survival of susceptible pests. Such refuges are expected to be most effective if the Bt plants deliver a dose of toxin high enough to kill nearly all hybrid progeny produced by matings between resistant and susceptible pests. In 2003, the EPA first registered corn, Zea mays L., producing a Bt toxin (Cry3Bb1) that kills western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. The EPA requires minimum refuges of 20% for Cry3Bb1 corn and 5% for corn producing two Bt toxins active against corn rootworms. We conclude that the current refuge requirements are not adequate, because Bt corn hybrids active against corn rootworms do not meet the high-dose standard, and western corn rootworm has rapidly evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Accordingly, we recommend increasing the minimum refuge for Bt corn targeting corn rootworms to 50% for plants producing one toxin active against these pests and to 20% for plants producing two toxins active against these pests. Increasing the minimum refuge percentage can help to delay pest resistance, encourage integrated pest management, and promote more sustainable crop protection. PMID:22812111

  4. Modelisation et commande des redresseurs triphases fonctionnant a haut rendement et a faible taux de distorsion harmonique: Application au redresseur triphase de vienne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belhadj Youssef, Nesrine

    Les problemes de la qualite de l'onde electrique constituent l'une des preoccupations majeures des fournisseurs de l'energie et des organismes specialises en qualite d'energie. Ce sujet a gagne davantage d'ampleur avec l'utilisation ascendante des convertisseurs de l'energie electrique dans la majorite des applications industrielles et domestiques. Dans le cadre de cette these, on s'interesse plus particulierement au type des convertisseurs alternatif/continu, dont le fonctionnement adequat implique la parfaite regulation du bus DC de tension, l'attenuation des harmoniques de courants, la compensation de l'energie reactive et la maximisation du rendement energetique. Ces differents criteres doivent etre maintenus pour diverses conditions de fonctionnement, c'est-a-dire independamment des variations parametriques auxquelles le systeme peut etre sujet. Il s'avere donc indispensable d'adopter des techniques de commande efficaces, ce qui passe par une modelisation correcte du convertisseur. L'optimisation du nombre de capteurs dans le circuit est egalement un facteur cle a prendre en consideration.

  5. Evidence of field-evolved resistance to bifenthrin in western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) populations in western Nebraska and Kansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyrethroid insecticides are widely used to control larvae or adult western corn rootworm, a key pest of corn in the United States. In response to reports of reduced efficacy of pyrethroids in WCR management programs in southwestern areas of Nebraska and Kansas the present research was designed to es...

  6. Evidence of resistance to Cry34/35Ab1 corn by western corn rootworm: root injury in the field and larval survival in plant-based bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a serious pest of corn in the United States and recent management of western corn rootworm has included planting of Bt corn. Beginning in 2009, western corn rootworm populations with resistance to Cry3Bb1 c...

  7. Insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis protect corn from corn rootworms.

    PubMed

    Moellenbeck, D J; Peters, M L; Bing, J W; Rouse, J R; Higgins, L S; Sims, L; Nevshemal, T; Marshall, L; Ellis, R T; Bystrak, P G; Lang, B A; Stewart, J L; Kouba, K; Sondag, V; Gustafson, V; Nour, K; Xu, D; Swenson, J; Zhang, J; Czapla, T; Schwab, G; Jayne, S; Stockhoff, B A; Narva, K; Schnepf, H E; Stelman, S J; Poutre, C; Koziel, M; Duck, N

    2001-07-01

    Field tests of corn co-expressing two new delta-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have demonstrated protection from root damage by western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte). The level of protection exceeds that provided by chemical insecticides. In the bacterium, these proteins form crystals during the sporulation phase of the growth cycle, are encoded by a single operon, and have molecular masses of 14 kDa and 44 kDa. Corn rootworm larvae fed on corn roots expressing the proteins showed histopathological symptoms in the midgut epithelium. PMID:11433280

  8. Localized Search Cues in Corn Roots for Western Corn Rootworm Larvae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host-recognition cues that elicit a unique “tight-turning” behavior by larvae of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, were extracted from living corn roots with acetone. In behavioral bioassays, an acetone extract of corn roots had activity in the tight-turning bioassa...

  9. Effects of Pyramided Bt Corn and Blended Refuges on Western Corn Rootworm and Northern Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Keweshan, Ryan S; Head, Graham P; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2015-04-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and the northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), are major pests of corn (Zea mays L). Several transgenic corn events producing insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) kill corn rootworm larvae and reduce injury to corn roots. However, planting of Bt corn imposes selection on rootworm populations to evolve Bt resistance. The refuge strategy and pyramiding of multiple Bt toxins can delay resistance to Bt crops. In this study, we assessed the impact of four treatments--1) non-Bt corn, 2) Cry3Bb1 corn, 3) corn pyramided with Cry3Bb1 and Cry34/35Ab1, and 4) pyramided corn with a blended refuge--on survival, time of adult emergence, and size of western and northern corn rootworm. All treatments with Bt corn led to significant reductions in the number of adults that emerged per plot. However, at one location, we identified Cry3Bb1-resistant western corn rootworm. In some cases Bt treatments reduced size of adults and delayed time of adult emergence, with effects most pronounced for pyramided corn. For both species, the number of adults that emerged from pyramided corn with a blended refuge was significantly lower than expected, based solely on emergence from pure stands of pyramided corn and non-Bt corn. The results of this study indicate that pyramided corn with a blended refuge substantially reduces survival of both western and northern corn rootworm, and as such, should be a useful tool within the context of a broader integrated pest management strategy. PMID:26470183

  10. Knockdown of RNA Interference Pathway Genes in Western Corn Rootworms (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte) Demonstrates a Possible Mechanism of Resistance to Lethal dsRNA

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Ana María; Khajuria, Chitvan; Wang, Haichuan; Narva, Kenneth E.; Siegfried, Blair D.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is being developed as a potential tool for insect pest management. Increased understanding of the RNAi pathway in target insect pests will provide information to use this technology effectively and to inform decisions related to resistant management strategies for RNAi based traits. Dicer 2 (Dcr2), an endonuclease responsible for formation of small interfering RNA’s and Argonaute 2 (Ago2), an essential catalytic component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) have both been associated with the RNAi pathway in a number of different insect species including the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). We identified both genes from a transcriptome library generated from different tissues and developmental stages of the western corn rootworm, an important target pest for transgenic plants expressing dsRNA targeting essential genes. The expression of these genes was suppressed by more than 90% after injecting gene specific dsRNA into adult rootworms. The injected beetles were then fed vATPase A dsRNA which has previously been demonstrated to cause mortality in western corn rootworm adults. The suppression of both RNAi pathway genes resulted in reduced mortality after subsequent exposure to lethal concentrations of vATPase A dsRNA as well as increased vATPase A expression relative to control treatments. Injections with dsRNA for a non-lethal target sequence (Laccase 2) did not affect mortality or expression caused by vATPase A dsRNA indicating that the results observed with Argo and Dicer dsRNA were not caused by simple competition among different dsRNA’s. These results confirm that both genes play an important role in the RNAi pathway for western corn rootworms and indicate that selection pressures that potentially affect the expression of these genes may provide a basis for future studies to understand potential mechanisms of resistance. PMID:27310918

  11. Isolation and characterization of host recognition cues in corn roots for larvae of the western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Behavioral bioassays were used to isolate compounds from germinating corn roots that elicit a host recognition response (tight-turning behavior) by neonate larvae of the western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. When a behaviorally-active extract of germinating corn roots was sep...

  12. CORN FLAVOR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn is a large part of the modern diet through sweeteners, oil, processed foods, and animal-derived foods. In addition, corn is eaten directly in bread and cereal-type foods, snack foods, and foods made from masa flour. Corn gluten meal is a byproduct of grain processed by wet milling. Although pri...

  13. Behavioral and electrophysiological dose-response relationships in adult western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) for host pollen amino acids.

    PubMed

    Hollister, Benedict; Mullin, Christopher A.

    1998-05-01

    A strong correlation is shown between taste cell inputs and phagostimulatory outputs with predominant dietary pollen amino acids for western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera. Behavioral and electrophysiological dose-response profiles in adult beetles are presented for five major free amino acids in host pollens. Differential responses were found with strongest phagostimulation and sensory response elicited by L-alanine and L-serine, followed in order by L-proline and beta-alanine. gamma-Aminobutyric acid gave the weakest and most sporadic response. ED(50) values for phagostimulation and chemosensory input were 28.3nmol/disk and 13mM, respectively, for L-alanine and 17nmol/disk and 11mM, respectively, for serine. Threshold values for the responses were approximately 1-2mM. These behavioral and chemosensory dose-response ranges correspond closely to levels of free amino acids present in host plant pollens. Use of these response values in development of a pollen chemosensory code for western corn rootworm feeding is discussed. PMID:12770166

  14. Susceptibility of Nebraska Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Populations to Bt Corn Events

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic plants have been widely adopted by growers to manage the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, in field corn. Because of reduced efficacy in some Nebraska fields after repeated use of Cry3Bb1 expressing hybrids, single plant bioassays were conducted in 2012 and 20...

  15. Corn Insect Pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, the major corn insect pests have been corn rootworms (northern and western), European corn borer, and black cutworm. Bt-corn hybrids are effective against most of these pests. However, Bt-corn hybrids are not effective against corn leaf aphid, corn root aphid, sap beetles, corn rootwor...

  16. Corn transformed

    SciTech Connect

    Moffat, A.S.

    1990-08-10

    Researchers have produced fertile corn transformed with a foreign gene that makes the plants resistant to the herbicide bialaphos. This achievement, is the first report of fertile transgenic corn in the reviewed literature, and it is the capstone of almost a decade's efforts to genetically engineer this country's most important crop. The only other major crop to be so manipulated is rice. The ability produce transgenic corn gives biologists a valuable tool to probe the whys and hows of gene expression and regulation. It may also give plant breeders a way to develop new corn varieties with a speed and predictability that would be impossible with classical breeding techniques.

  17. Distribution and antifeedant associations of sesquiterpene lactones in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) on western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte).

    PubMed

    Chou, J C; Mullin, C A

    1993-07-01

    Seven antifeedant sesquiterpene lactones (STLs), 4,5-dihydroniveusin A, argophyllin B, argophyllin A, 15-hydroxy-3-dehydrodesoxytifruticin, niveusin B, 1,2-anhydridoniveusin A, and an unidentified epoxide, in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) have been quantified by a highperformance thin-layer chromatography and UV-reflectance scanning densitometry analysis. Age-related expression of STL content in sunflower reveals a heretofore undescribed pattern in which nonpolar STLs such as 15-hydroxy-3-dehydrodesoxytifruticin predominate up to an age of three weeks, but are subsequently displaced by polar STLs, especially argophyllin A, through later foliar stages and anthesis. This leaf pattern of STL ontogeny is maintained in three widely differentH. annuus cultivars (Giant Gray Stripe, Royal Hybrid 2141, Hybrid 7111), which in turn had similar total contents of STLs. Antifeedant activity for western corn rootworm was positively correlated with STL content, particularly with argophyllin A and its isomer argophyllin B, in respective tissue extracts. Enhanced amounts of highly antifeedant argophyllins, especially in newly grown leaf and floral tissues yielding sunflower progeny, strongly suggest that these epoxy-STLs are a chemical defense against insect herbivory. PMID:24249174

  18. Behavioral responses of western corn rootworm larvae to volatile semiochemicals from corn seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, B E; Bjostad, L B

    1988-06-01

    Corn seedling volatiles collected cryogenically are highly attractive to western corn rootworm larvae,Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in a laboratory bioassay. Carbon dioxide is known as an attractant for western corn rootworm larvae, and the amount of carbon dioxide in the cryogenic collections was measured with an infrared gas analyzer. In a choice test between a source containing carbon dioxide alone and a source containing corn seedling volatiles with an equal amount of carbon dioxide (verified by infrared gas analysis), western corn rootworm larvae chose the corn volatile source significantly more often than the side with carbon dioxide alone. This indicates that carbon dioxide is only one of the volatiles from corn seedlings that is behaviorally important and that other compounds of behavioral importance are present as well. PMID:24276403

  19. Characterization of the spectrum of insecticidal activity of a double-stranded RNA with targeted activity against Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte).

    PubMed

    Bachman, Pamela M; Bolognesi, Renata; Moar, William J; Mueller, Geoffrey M; Paradise, Mark S; Ramaseshadri, Parthasarathy; Tan, Jianguo; Uffman, Joshua P; Warren, Joanne; Wiggins, B Elizabeth; Levine, Steven L

    2013-12-01

    The sequence specificity of the endogenous RNA interference pathway allows targeted suppression of genes essential for insect survival and enables the development of durable and efficacious insecticidal products having a low likelihood to adversely impact non-target organisms. The spectrum of insecticidal activity of a 240 nucleotide (nt) dsRNA targeting the Snf7 ortholog in Western Corn Rootworm (WCR; Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) was characterized by selecting and testing insects based upon their phylogenetic relatedness to WCR. Insect species, representing 10 families and 4 Orders, were evaluated in subchronic or chronic diet bioassays that measured potential lethal and sublethal effects. When a specific species could not be tested in diet bioassays, the ortholog to the WCR Snf7 gene (DvSnf7) was cloned and corresponding dsRNAs were tested against WCR and Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata); model systems known to be sensitive to ingested dsRNA. Bioassay results demonstrate that the spectrum of activity for DvSnf7 is narrow and activity is only evident in a subset of beetles within the Galerucinae subfamily of Chrysomelidae (>90% identity with WCR Snf7 240 nt). This approach allowed for evaluating the relationship between minimum shared nt sequence length and activity. A shared sequence length of ≥ 21 nt was required for efficacy against WCR (containing 221 potential 21-nt matches) and all active orthologs contained at least three 21 nt matches. These results also suggest that WCR resistance to DvSnf7 dsRNA due to single nucleotide polymorphisms in the target sequence of 240 nt is highly unlikely. PMID:23748931

  20. Baseline Susceptibility of Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to Clothianidin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, neonate susceptibility to clothianidin, a highly effective contact and systemic neonicotinoid insecticide, was determined from both laboratory and field collected populations. Neonates were exposed to filter paper treated with increasing...

  1. Blisters, Calluses, and Corns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Blisters, Calluses, and Corns KidsHealth > For Kids > Blisters, Calluses, and Corns Print ... used to all of that stress. What's a Corn? Like calluses, corns are also areas of hard, ...

  2. Corns and calluses

    MedlinePlus

    Calluses and corns ... Corns and calluses are caused by pressure or friction on skin. A corn is thickened skin on the top or side ... the bunion because it rubs against the shoe. Corns and calluses are not serious problems.

  3. Greenhouse-selected resistance to Cry3Bb1-producing corn in three western corn rootworm populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic corn producing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry3Bb1 has been useful for controlling western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. However, rapid evolution of resistance by this beetle to Bt c...

  4. Selection for resistance to mCry3A-expressing transgenic corn in western corn rootworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate the development of resistance to mCry3A, a laboratory colony of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, was established from field survivors of mCry3A-expressing (MIR604) corn. Feral adults emerging from MIR604 (selected) and isoline (control) field plots w...

  5. Corn kernel oil and corn fiber oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unlike most edible plant oils that are obtained directly from oil-rich seeds by either pressing or solvent extraction, corn seeds (kernels) have low levels of oil (4%) and commercial corn oil is obtained from the corn germ (embryo) which is an oil-rich portion of the kernel. Commercial corn oil cou...

  6. Mortality of western corn rootworm larvae on MIR604 transgenic maize roots: field survivorship has no impact on survivorship of F1 progeny on MIR604

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mortality of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) larvae due to MIR604 transgenic corn (Zea mays L.) expressing the modified Cry3A (mCry3A) protein relative to survivorship on corn with the same genetic background without the gene (isoline corn) was evaluated at three Misso...

  7. Greenhouse-Selected Resistance to Cry3Bb1-Producing Corn in Three Western Corn Rootworm Populations

    PubMed Central

    Meihls, Lisa N.; Higdon, Matthew L.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Hibbard, Bruce E.

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic corn producing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry3Bb1 has been useful for controlling western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. However, rapid evolution of resistance by this beetle to Bt corn producing Cry3Bb1 has been reported previously from the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Here we selected in the greenhouse for resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in three colonies of WCR derived from Kansas, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, respectively. Three generations of rearing on Cry3Bb1 corn significantly increased larval survival on Cry3Bb1 corn, resulting in similar survival in the greenhouse for selected colonies on Cry3Bb1 corn and isoline corn that does not produce Bt toxin. After four to seven generations of rearing on Cry3Bb1 corn, survival in the field on Cry3Bb1 corn relative to isoline corn more than doubled for selected colonies (72%) compared with control colonies (33%). For both selected and control colonies, survival in the field was significantly lower on Cry3Bb1 corn than on isoline corn. On isoline corn, most fitness components were similar for selected colonies and control colonies. However, fecundity was significantly lower for selected colonies than control colonies, indicating a fitness cost associated with resistance. The rapid evolution of resistance by western corn rootworm to Bt corn reported here and previously underlines the importance of effective resistance management for this pest. PMID:23284656

  8. Greenhouse-selected resistance to Cry3Bb1-producing corn in three western corn rootworm populations.

    PubMed

    Meihls, Lisa N; Higdon, Matthew L; Ellersieck, Mark R; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Hibbard, Bruce E

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic corn producing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry3Bb1 has been useful for controlling western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. However, rapid evolution of resistance by this beetle to Bt corn producing Cry3Bb1 has been reported previously from the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Here we selected in the greenhouse for resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in three colonies of WCR derived from Kansas, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, respectively. Three generations of rearing on Cry3Bb1 corn significantly increased larval survival on Cry3Bb1 corn, resulting in similar survival in the greenhouse for selected colonies on Cry3Bb1 corn and isoline corn that does not produce Bt toxin. After four to seven generations of rearing on Cry3Bb1 corn, survival in the field on Cry3Bb1 corn relative to isoline corn more than doubled for selected colonies (72%) compared with control colonies (33%). For both selected and control colonies, survival in the field was significantly lower on Cry3Bb1 corn than on isoline corn. On isoline corn, most fitness components were similar for selected colonies and control colonies. However, fecundity was significantly lower for selected colonies than control colonies, indicating a fitness cost associated with resistance. The rapid evolution of resistance by western corn rootworm to Bt corn reported here and previously underlines the importance of effective resistance management for this pest. PMID:23284656

  9. Implications of corn prices on water footprints of bioethanol.

    PubMed

    Suh, Kyo; Suh, Sangwon; Smith, Timothy

    2011-04-01

    Previously reported water footprints (WFPs) of corn ethanol have been estimated based on the assumption that corn ethanol feedstock could be supplied by the same states where the corn is grown. However, ethanol conversion facilities may choose out-of-state feedstock suppliers depending on the total price of feedstock they have to pay including both the corn price and transportation costs. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the WFPs and total water use (TWU) of corn ethanol considering an optimal allocation of corn with heterogeneous corn feedstock prices across states. The results show that the WFPs of corn ethanol are less than 100 l of water per liter of ethanol (Lw/Le) for all ethanol-producing states based on both the 2008 corn price and transportation costs for rail and truck. Results also reveal that WFPs are very sensitive to the market price of corn and that additional greenhouse gas emissions due to corn trade between states are not significant. PMID:21306890

  10. Evidence of Resistance to Cry34/35Ab1 Corn by Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): Root Injury in the Field and Larval Survival in Plant-Based Bioassays.

    PubMed

    Gassmann, Aaron J; Shrestha, Ram B; Jakka, Siva R K; Dunbar, Mike W; Clifton, Eric H; Paolino, Aubrey R; Ingber, David A; French, B Wade; Masloski, Kenneth E; Dounda, John W; St Clair, Coy R

    2016-08-01

    Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a serious pest of corn in the United States, and recent management of western corn rootworm has included planting of Bt corn. Beginning in 2009, western corn rootworm populations with resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn and mCry3A corn were found in Iowa and elsewhere. To date, western corn rootworm populations have remained susceptible to corn producing Bt toxin Cry34/35Ab1. In this study, we used single-plant bioassays to test field populations of western corn rootworm for resistance to Cry34/35Ab1 corn, Cry3Bb1 corn, and mCry3A corn. Bioassays included nine rootworm populations collected from fields where severe injury to Bt corn had been observed and six control populations that had never been exposed to Bt corn. We found incomplete resistance to Cry34/35Ab1 corn among field populations collected from fields where severe injury to corn producing Cry34/35Ab1, either singly or as a pyramid, had been observed. Additionally, resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn and mCry3A corn was found among the majority of populations tested. These first cases of resistance to Cry34/35Ab1 corn, and the presence of resistance to multiple Bt toxins by western corn rootworm, highlight the potential vulnerability of Bt corn to the evolution of resistance by western corn rootworm. The use of more diversified management practices, in addition to insect resistance management, likely will be essential to sustain the viability of Bt corn for management of western corn rootworm. PMID:27329619

  11. Adult activity and oviposition of corn rootworms, Diabrotica spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in Miscanthus, corn, and switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of the biomass crop Miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus Greef and Deuter ex Hodkinson and Renvoize) to support larval development for both United States (U.S.) and European populations of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, suggests an avenue for potential i...

  12. Adaptation by western corn rootworm to Bt corn: characterizing inheritance, fitness costs, and feeding preference

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we used a laboratory-selected, Bt-resistant strain of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte, to characterize inheritance of resistance, feeding behavior, and fitness costs associated with resistance to maize producing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry3...

  13. Larval mortality and development for rotation-resistant and rotation-susceptible populations of the western corn rootworm on Bt corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is one of the most economically important insect pests threatening the production of corn, Zea mays (L.), in the United States. Throughout its history, this insect has displayed considerable adaptability by overcoming a variety of pe...

  14. Antixenosis in maize reduces feeding by western corn rootworm larvae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first known example of a naturally-occurring maize genotype with behavioral resistance to western corn rootworm larval feeding was discovered in tests with SUM2162. Behavioral responses of neonate western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) larvae were evaluated in laboratory...

  15. Maize Phenology Affects Establishment, Damage, and Development of the Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera:Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of maize (Zea mays L.) phenology on establishment and adult emergence of the western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) as well as plant damage to maize was evaluated in the greenhouse and in field trials in 2001 and 2002. Although neonate western corn rootworm larva...

  16. Inheritance and Fitness Costs of Resistance to Cry3Bb1 Corn by Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Ingber, David A; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2015-10-01

    Transgenic crops that produce insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely planted to manage pest insects. One of the primary pests targeted by Bt corn in the United States is western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Cry3Bb1 corn for management of western corn rootworm was commercialized in 2003, and beginning in 2009, populations of western corn rootworm with field-evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn were found in Iowa. Here we quantify the magnitude, inheritance, and fitness costs of resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in two strains (Hopkinton and Cresco) derived from field populations that evolved resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn. For Hopkinton, we found evidence for complete resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn and nonrecessive inheritance. Additionally, no fitness costs of Cry3Bb1 resistance were detected for Hopkinton. For Cresco, resistance was incomplete and recessive, and we detected fitness costs affecting developmental rate, survival to adulthood, and fecundity. These results suggest that variation may exist among field populations in both the inheritance and accompanying fitness costs of resistance. To the extent that field populations exhibit nonrecessive inheritance and a lack of fitness cost, this will favor more rapid evolution of resistance than would be expected when resistance is functionally recessive and is accompanied by fitness costs. PMID:26453731

  17. Our Mother Corn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Developed to provide an understanding of the magnitude of the role of corn, referred to as Mother Corn in the cultures of the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes, the student text provides information on the tribes' basic lifestyles and the way they grew and used corn in three different parts of the United States. The section on the origin of corn…

  18. Predicting western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larval injury to rotated corn with Pherocon AM traps in soybeans.

    PubMed

    O'Neal, M E; Gray, M E; Ratcliffe, S; Steffey, K L

    2001-02-01

    Crop rotation for portions of east central Illinois and northern Indiana no longer adequately protects corn (Zea mays L.) roots from western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. Seventeen growers in east central Illinois monitored western corn rootworm adults in soybean (Glycine max L.) fields with unbaited Pherocon AM traps during 1996 and 1997. In the following years (1997 and 1998), growers left untreated strips (no insecticide applied) when these fields were planted with corn. Damage to rotated corn by rootworms was more severe in untreated than in treated strips of rotated corn, ranging from minor root scarring to a full node of roots pruned. Densities of western corn rootworms in soybean fields from 1996 were significantly correlated with root injury to rotated corn the following season. Adult densities from 1997 were not significantly correlated with root injury in 1998, due to heavy precipitation throughout the spring of 1998 and extensive larval mortality. Twenty-eight additional growers volunteered in 1998 to monitor rootworm adults in soybean fields with Pherocon AM traps based on recommendations that resulted from our research efforts in 1996 and 1997. In 1999, these 28 fields were rotated to corn, and rootworm larval injury was measured in untreated strips. Based on 1996-1997 and 1998-1999 data, a regression analysis revealed that 27% of the variation in root injury to rotated corn could be explained by adult density in soybeans the previous season. We propose a sampling plan for soybean fields and a threshold for predicting western corn rootworm larval injury to rotated corn. PMID:11233140

  19. Transgenic approaches to western corn rootworm control.

    PubMed

    Narva, Kenneth E; Siegfried, Blair D; Storer, Nicholas P

    2013-01-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a significant corn pest throughout the United States corn belt. Rootworm larvae feed on corn roots causing yield losses and control expenditures that are estimated to exceed US$1 billion annually. Traditional management practices to control rootworms such as chemical insecticides or crop rotation have suffered reduced effectiveness due to the development of physiological and behavioral resistance. Transgenic maize expressing insecticidal proteins are very successful in protecting against rootworm damage and preserving corn yield potential. However, the high rate of grower adoption and early reliance on hybrids expressing a single mode of action and low-dose traits threatens the durability of commercialized transgenic rootworm technology for rootworm control. A summary of current transgenic approaches for rootworm control and the corresponding insect resistance management practices is included. An overview of potential new modes of action based on insecticidal proteins, and especially RNAi targeting mRNA coding for essential insect proteins is provided. PMID:23604211

  20. Modeling the dynamics of adaptation to transgenic corn by western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Onstad, D W; Guse, C A; Spencer, J L; Levine, E; Gray, M E

    2001-04-01

    A simulation model of the population dynamics and genetics of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, was created for a landscape of corn, soybean, and other crops. Although the model was created to study a 2-locus problem for beetles having genes for resistance to both crop rotation and transgenic corn, during this first phase of the project, the model was simulated to evaluate only resistance management plans for transgenic corn. Allele expression in the rootworm and toxin dose in the corn plant were the two most important factors affecting resistance development. A dominant resistance allele allowed quick evolution of resistance to transgenic corn, whereas a recessive allele delayed resistance >99 yr. With high dosages of toxin and additive expression, the time required to reach 3% resistance allele frequency ranged from 13 to >99 yr. With additive expression, lower dosages permitted the resistant allele frequency to reach 3% in 2-9 yr with refuges occupying 5-30% of the land. The results were sensitive to delays in emergence by susceptible adults and configuration of the refuge (row strips versus blocks). PMID:11332850

  1. Evaluation of conventional resistance to European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in experimental maize lines developed from a backcross breeding program.

    PubMed

    Abel, C A; Berhow, M A; Wilson, R L; Binder, B F; Hibbard, B E

    2000-12-01

    Plant resistance is a promising control method for the two most damaging insect pests of maize, Zea mays L.: the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), and the western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. Fifteen experimental lines of maize, derived from a backcross breeding program designed to introgress resistance to European corn borer from Peruvian maize into two U.S. Corn Belt adapted inbred lines, were evaluated for resistance to European corn borer and western corn rootwonrm. The experimental lines were in the second generation of backcrossing. All experimental lines were resistant to leaf blade feeding by European corn borer. These lines had low levels of 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one, a chemical commonly associated with leaf blade feeding resistance, indicating that this was not the mechanism of resistance to leaf blade feeding in these lines. Eleven experimental lines were resistant to leaf sheath and collar feeding by European corn borer. Useful sources of European corn borer ovipositional nonpreference and root feeding resistance to western corn rootworm were not identified. Some of the lines evaluated in this study may provide useful sources of resistance to both leaf blade and leaf sheath and collar feeding by European corn borer. PMID:11142317

  2. Post-establishment movement of western corn rootworm larvae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Central Missouri corn.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, Bruce E; Duran, Daniel P; Ellersieck, Mark R; Ellsbury, Michael M

    2003-06-01

    If registered, transgenic corn, Zea mays L., with corn rootworm resistance will offer a viable alternative to insecticides for managing Diabrotica spp. corn rootworms. Resistance management to maintain susceptibility is in the interest of growers, the Environmental Protection Agency, and industry, but little is known about many aspects of corn rootworm biology required for an effective resistance management program. The extent of larval movement by the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, that occurs from plant-to-plant or row-to-row after initial establishment was evaluated in 1998 and 1999 in a Central Missouri cornfield. Post-establishment movement by western corn rootworm larvae was clearly documented in two of four treatment combinations in 1999 where larvae moved up to three plants down the row and across a 0.46-m row. Larvae did not significantly cross a 0.91-m row after initial host establishment in 1998 or 1999, whether or not the soil had been compacted by a tractor and planter. In the current experiment, western corn rootworm larvae moved from highly damaged, infested plants to nearby plants with little to no previous root damage. Our data do not provide significant insight into how larvae might disperse after initial establishment when all plants in an area are heavily damaged or when only moderate damage occurs on an infested plant. A similar situation might also occur if a seed mixture of transgenic and isoline plants were used and if transgenic plants with rootworm resistance are not repellent to corn rootworm larvae. PMID:12852594

  3. Corn rootworms and Bt resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn rootworms have been a major pest of corn for many years. As their name suggests, corn rootworms damage corn plants by feeding on the roots. Western and northern corn rootworms have overcome practices farmers use to keep their population numbers down, such as insecticides and crop rotation. Cor...

  4. Identifying resistance in corn to southwestern corn borer, fall armyworm, and corn earworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southwestern corn borer, Diatraea grandiosella Dyar; fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith); and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie, are major insect pests of corn, Zea mays L., in the southern United States. Corn germplasm with resistance to leaf feeding by southwestern corn borer a...

  5. Susceptibility of Nebraska Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Populations to Bt Corn Events.

    PubMed

    Wangila, David S; Gassmann, Aaron J; Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L; French, B Wade; Meinke, Lance J

    2015-04-01

    Transgenic plants have been widely adopted by growers to manage the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, in field corn. Because of reduced efficacy in some Nebraska fields after repeated use of Cry3Bb1-expressing hybrids, single plant bioassays were conducted in 2012 and 2013 to characterize the susceptibility of western corn rootworm populations to the rootworm-active proteins Cry3Bb1, mCry3A, and Cry34/35Ab1. Results demonstrate that there are heritable differences in susceptibility of Nebraska western corn rootworm populations to rootworm-active Bt traits. Proportional survival and corrected survival data coupled with field histories collectively support the conclusion that a level of field resistance to Cry3Bb1 has evolved in some Nebraska populations in response to selection pressure and that cross-resistance exists between Cry3Bb1 and mCry3A. There was no apparent cross-resistance between Cry34/35Ab1 and either Cry3Bb1 or mCry3A. The potential implications of these results on current and future corn rootworm management strategies are discussed. PMID:26470186

  6. The effect of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and water deficit on maize performance under controlled conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of greenhouse experiments using three infestation levels of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, under well-watered, moderately dry, and very dry soil moisture levels were conducted to quantify the interaction of western corn rootworm and soil water deficit on ...

  7. A Western Corn Rootworm Cadherin-like Protein is not Involved in the Binding and Toxicity of Cry34/35Ab1 and Cry3Aa Bacillus Thuringiensis Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western corn rootworm (WCR) Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte is an important insect pest of corn. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins Cry3Aa (as mCry3A) and Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 have been expressed in transgenic corn and are used to control the insect in the U.S. To date, there ...

  8. Corn blight watch experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The corn blight problem is briefly described how the experiment was organized and conducted, the effect of the blight on the 1971 crop, and some conclusions that may be drawn as a result of the experiment. The information is based on preliminary reports of the Corn Blight Watch Steering Committee and incorporates much illustrative material conceived at Purdue University.

  9. PRODUCING HIGH CORN YIELDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Coll. of Agriculture.

    RESOURCE MATERIAL ON CORN PRODUCTION FOR HIGH SCHOOL VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE AND ADULT FARMER CLASSES WAS DESIGNED BY A STATE LEVEL GROUP OF SUBJECT MATTER SPECIALISTS, TEACHER EDUCATORS, SUPERVISORS, AND TEACHERS TO HELP SOLVE PROBLEMS THAT CONFRONT CORN PRODUCERS AT PLANTING TIME. THE SUBJECT MATTER CONCERNS PLANTING TIME, DEPTH, ROW WIDTH,…

  10. A novel Bacillus thuringiensis (PS149B1) containing a Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 binary toxin specific for the western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte forms ion channels in lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Masson, Luke; Schwab, George; Mazza, Alberto; Brousseau, Roland; Potvin, Lena; Schwartz, Jean-Louis

    2004-09-28

    The binary Bacillus thuringiensis PS149B1 insecticidal crystal (Cry) protein is comprised of two components, Cry34Ab1, a 14-kDa protein, and Cry35Ab1, a 44-kDa protein, the combination of which forms a novel binary toxin active on western corn rootworm larvae. The permeabilizing behavior of the native binary toxin and its two individual components expressed as recombinant proteins was studied using calcein efflux determination in liposomes and by ion channel activity measurements in planar lipid bilayers (PLBs). Data obtained with solubilized native PS149B1 binary protein revealed it to be a pore-forming toxin that can permeabilize liposomes and form ion channels ( approximately 300-900 pS) in PLBs at pH 5.5 but not pH 9.0. The 14-kDa component of the toxin also formed ion channels ( approximately 15-300 pS) at pH 5.5 but did not insert easily in PLBs. While the 44-kDa moiety did seldomly form resolvable ion channels ( approximately 15-750 pS) in PLBs, it did destabilize the membranes. It showed pH-dependent truncation to a stable 40-kDa protein. The purified 40-kDa truncated product formed channels ( approximately 10-450 pS) in PLBs at pH 5.5. At that same pH, while a 3:1 molar mixture (14:44 kDa) of the individual components of the toxin induced channel activity that resembled that of the 14-kDa component alone, the 3:1 molar mixture of the 14-kDa component and 40-kDa truncated product induced channel activity ( approximately 20-800 pS) similar to that of PS149B1 in planar lipid bilayers. We conclude that the overall membrane permeabilization process of Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 is a result of ion channel formation. PMID:15379574

  11. Le Rendement en Lecture dans les Ecoles Franco-Ontariennes (Sixieme, Septieme, et Huitieme Annees) (Reading in Franco-Ontarian Schools [Sixth, Seventh, and Eighth Grades]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brassard, Jean; Langevin, Claude

    A research project was carried out to investigate the reading situation in the sixth, seventh, and eighth grades of French-language schools in Ontario. Specifically, the project sought to determine the nature of reading deficiencies found in these schools, the percentage of the student body affected by these deficiencies, and the psychological,…

  12. Kepler Corn Maze

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Dell'Osso Family Farm, located on the outskirts of Lathrop, California held the grand opening of their corn maze that was designed with a NASA theme. The maze is part of a nation-wide group of ...

  13. TQM at Corning.

    PubMed

    Houghton, J

    1992-01-01

    Houghton has been with Corning for 30 years, up through the ranks. Now, as chairman and CEO, his individual leadership stamp is TQM. It's a major turn-around story with Total Quality at its center. PMID:10117839

  14. Argentina corn yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate corn yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the corn-growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1965 to 1980 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

  15. Energy balance and turbulent flux partitioning in a corn-soybean rotation in the Midwestern US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Ramirez, Guillermo; Hatfield, Jerry L.; Prueger, John H.; Sauer, Thomas J.

    2010-03-01

    Quantifying the energy balance above plant canopies is critical for better understanding of water balance and changes in regional weather patterns. This study examined temporal variations of energy balance terms for contrasting canopies [corn ( Zea mays L.) and soybean ( Glycine max L. Merr.)]. We monitored energy balance for 4 years using eddy-covariance systems, net radiometers, and soil heat flux plates in adjacent production fields near Ames, Iowa. On an annual basis, soybean exhibited 20% and 30% lower sensible heat flux ( H) and Bowen ratio than corn, respectively. As canopies developed, a gradual shift in turbulent fluxes occurred with decreasing H and increasing latent heat flux (LE), but with a more pronounced effect for corn. Conversely, during mid-growing season and as both canopies progressively senesced, H in general increased and LE decreased; however, soybean exhibited slightly greater LE and much lower H than corn. These temporal variations in magnitude and partitioning of turbulent fluxes translated into a pronounced energy imbalance for soybean (0.80) and an enhanced closure for corn (0.98) in August and September. These discrepancies could be directly associated with differences in momentum transport as shown by friction velocities of 0.34 and 0.28 m s-1 for corn and soybean, respectively. These results support influential roles of plant canopy on intensity and mode of surface energy exchange processes.

  16. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... glutelin. Corn gluten is a byproduct of the wet milling of corn for starch. The gluten fraction is washed... conversion of the starch in whole or various fractions of dry milled corn to corn syrups. (b) The...

  20. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction method for differentiating western and northern corn rootworm larvae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Roehrdanz, Richard L

    2003-06-01

    Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, and northern corn rootworm, D. barberi Smith and Lawrence, are sympatric species and serious pests of corn cultivation in North America. Comparison of nucleotide sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and II was used to design polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers that discriminate immature stages of the two species based on differences in amplicon size. Multiplex PCR can be used to give a positive test for each species in a single amplification reaction. This provides a method to identify field caught larvae and facilitates investigations of larval interaction and competition between the species. PMID:12852603

  1. Carbon isotope ratios document that the elytra of western corn rootworm reflects adult versus larval feeding and later instar larvae prefer Bt corn to alternate hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a major pest of maize, Zea mays L., worldwide. While exploring conventional approaches to management and more recently bioengineering, extended research has been conducted on ways to manage its root-feeding larvae. The nee...

  2. Density-Dependent and Density-Independent Mortality of the Western Corn Rootworm: Impact on Dose Calculations of Rootworm-Resistant Bt Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The percent of viable eggs of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, which survived to the adult stage was evaluated for the effect of egg density in 2005 and 2007 in Central Missouri. In 2005, each plot was 2.44 m × 3.05 m and contained 64 maize, Zea mays L., plants. I...

  3. Impact of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on sweet corn and evaluation of insecticidal and cultural control options.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, M P; Kirkwyland, J J; Gardner, J

    2000-06-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is an important pest of corn, Zea mays L., causing yield losses from root damage, plant lodging, and silk feeding. Because little is known about its impact on sweet corn, we conducted research to evaluate the combined effects of insecticide, planting date, and cultivar on root damage, plant lodging, and yield in central New York sweet corn. We also examined the influence of planting date and cultivar on the emergence of adult western corn rootworms. The research was conducted in 1994 and again in 1995 by using a split-split plot experimental design with insecticide as main plot, planting date as subplot, and cultivar as sub-subplot. The effect of cultivar on beetle emergence was not significant. Root damage was not correlated with adult emergence in 1994 but was positively correlated in 1995. In 1994, there was no interaction of the main factors, and all factors had a significant impact on root damage. In 1995 there was an interaction of insecticide and planting date, and of cultivar and planting date. Generally, root damage was reduced by insecticide and later planting. Plant lodging was affected by the interaction of insecticide and planting date, and the interaction of cultivar and planting date, for both years of the study. As with root damage, lodging was reduced with insecticide treatment and later planting but also was dependent on cultivar. In 1994 and especially in 1995, silk clipping by adult western corn rootworms precluded much inference about how yield was influenced by larval feeding damage on roots. The number of emerging western corn rootworm adults was lower and later in later plantings. PMID:10902334

  4. Indiana Corn Dry Mill

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    The goal of this project is to perform engineering, project design, and permitting for the creation and commercial demonstration of a corn dry mill biorefinery that will produce fuel-grade ethanol, distillers dry grain for animal feed, and carbon dioxide for industrial use.

  5. Foliar diseases of corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf blights and spots caused by fungi are some of the most destructive diseases of corn in the US and around the world. Correct identification of the disease is very important in determining the best means of control. For example, gray leaf spot of maize can be caused by one of at least two species...

  6. Adaptation and Invasiveness of Western Corn Rootworm: Intensifying Research on a Worsening Pest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is an established insect pest of maize (Zea mays L.) in North America. The rotation of maize with another crop, principally soybeans, Glycine max (L.), was the primary management strategy utilized by North American producers and rema...

  7. Toxic and behavioral effects of free fatty acids on western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feeding behavior, feeding intensity and staying behavior of neonate western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) larvae were evaluated in response to synthetic feeding stimulant blends. All of the treatments contained a 3-sugar blend (glucose:fructose:sucrose, 30:4:4 mg per ml) an...

  8. A core set of microsatellite markers for Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) population genetics studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interest in the ecological and population genetics of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, has grown rapidly in the last few years in North America and Europe. This interest is a result of a number of converging issues related to increasing difficult...

  9. Monogalactosyldiacylglycerols as host recognition cues for western corn rootworm larvae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) was identified as a host recognition cue for larvae of the western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. An active glycolipid fraction obtained from an extract of germinating maize roots was isolated with thin layer chromatography using a bioassay-...

  10. Fitness costs of resistance to Cry3Bb1 maize by Western Corn Rootworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crops producing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are widely planted to manage insect pests, including western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a significant pest of maize. The evolution of resistance would diminish the ef...

  11. Mortality impact of MON863 transgenic maize roots on western corn rootworm larvae in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mortality of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) larvae due to feeding on MON863 transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) expressing the Cry3Bb1 protein relative to survivorship on maize with the same genetic background without the gene (isoline maize) was evaluated at three Missour...

  12. Methyl anthranilate as a repellent for western corn rootworm larvae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl anthranilate was identified as the active compound in extracts of maize roots that were shown to be repellent to neonate western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) larvae. A bioassay-driven approach was used to isolate the active material from diethyl ether extracts of r...

  13. The Nutritive Value of Dying Maize and Setaria Faberi Roots for Western Corn Rootworm Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The timing that senescing root tissues of Setaria faberi R.A.W. Herrm. and maize, Zea mays L., no longer support growth and development of neonate and 2nd instar western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, larvae was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Three separate experimen...

  14. Development and characterization of MIR604 resistance in a western corn rootworm population (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    mCry3A is one of only four proteins licensed for commercial use in Diabrotica control. Utilizing a colony of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, selected for resistance to mCry3A, we evaluated how mCry3A resistance was inherited and whether fitness costs were associated wi...

  15. Dynamic precision phenotyping reveals mechanism of crop tolerance to herbivory by the western corn rootworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (LeConte) is a major pest of maize, Zea mays L. Over the years, this pest has repeatedly shown its resilience and adaptability not only to traditional crop management strategies including chemical pesticides and crop rotation, but also to de...

  16. Examining cuphea as a potential host for western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae): larval development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In previous crop rotation research, adult emergence traps placed in plots planted to Cuphea PSR-23 (a selected cross of C. viscossisma and C. lanceolata) caught high numbers of adult western corn rootworms, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, suggesting that larvae may have completed development...

  17. LARVAL SAMPLING AND INSTAR DETERMINATION IN FIELD POPULATIONS OF NORTHERN AND WESTERN CORN ROOTWORM (COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Head capsule width was measured for northern (Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence) and western corn rootworm (D. virgifera virgifera LeConte) larvae recovered primarily from maize root systems but also from large soil cores each centered around a root system. Larvae for measurement derived from fie...

  18. Synthetic feeding stimulants enhance insecticide activity against western corn rootworm larvae, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In behavioral bioassays, the addition of a synthetic feeding stimulant blend improved the efficacy of the insecticide thiamethoxam against neonate western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, larvae. In 4-h bioassays, the concentration of thiamethoxam required for 50% mortality (LC...

  19. Environmental and Genotypic Effects for Western Corn Rootworm Tolerance Traits in American and European Maize Trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) (WCR) is the most destructive pest of maize in North America currently causing considerable economic losses also in Central and Southeast Europe. Developing and releasing of commercial hybrids with higher level of native (host-plant)...

  20. Impact of the Bt corn proteins Cry34/35Ab1 and Cry3Bb1, alone or pyramided, on western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) beetle emergence in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a major pest of corn, Zea mays L. This study compared the effect of the Bt proteins Cry34/35Ab1, Cry3Bb1, singly expressed, and Cry3Bb1 plus Cry34/35Ab1 in a pyramid, with a near-isoline control, on D. virgifera adult emergence in fie...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1262 - Corn silk and corn silk extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Corn silk and corn silk extract. 184.1262 Section... Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1262 Corn silk and corn silk extract. (a) Corn silk is the fresh styles and stigmas of Zea mays L. collected when the corn is in milk. The filaments are extracted with dilute ethanol...

  2. Callosities, corns, and calluses.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, D.; Bentley, G.; Trevino, S. G.

    1996-01-01

    Inappropriate shoes, abnormal foot mechanics, and high levels of activity produce pressure and friction that lead to corns and calluses. Most lesions can be managed conservatively by proper footwear, orthoses, and, if necessary, regular paring. The lesions usually disappear when the causative mechanical forces are removed. Surgery is rarely indicated and should be specifically aimed at correcting the abnormal mechanical stresses. Images Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 6 Fig 7 PMID:8646101

  3. Identification of a female-produced sex pheromone of the western corn rootworm.

    PubMed

    Guss, P L; Tumlinson, J H; Sonnet, P E; Proveaux, A T

    1982-02-01

    A sex pheromone has been isolated and identified from virgin females of the western corn rootworm (WCR),Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. The synthesized compound, racemic 8-methyl-2-decanol propanoate, was equal in attraction to the natural pheromone when tested in the field as a trap bait against three taxa ofDiabrotica known to respond to pheromone extracts from female WCR. Five taxa (D. virgifera virgifera; D. virgifera zeae Krysan and Smith, Mexican corn rootworm;D. longicornis barberi Smith and Lawrence, northern corn rootworm;D. longicornis longicornis (Say); andD. porracea Harold) were attracted to traps baited with 8-methyl-2-decanol propanoate. The response of male northern corn rootworms (NCR) in the field peaked at a relatively low concentration of 8-methyl-2-decanol propanoate and then was severely reduced at the higher concentrations tested. Conversely, the response of male WCR in the field continued to increase up to the highest dose tested. PMID:24414965

  4. 21 CFR 184.1321 - Corn gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... principal protein component of corn endosperm. It consists mainly of zein and glutelin. Corn gluten is a... soluble proteins. Corn gluten is also produced as a byproduct during the conversion of the starch in...

  5. Ovarian development and ovipositional preference of the western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) variant in east central Illinois.

    PubMed

    Rondon, Silvia I; Gray, Michael E

    2004-04-01

    The rotation of maize, Zea mays L., and soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., has been the traditional cultural tactic to manage the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, in the Corn Belt. The reduced effectiveness of this rotation as a pest management tool in east central Illinois, northern Indiana, and southern Michigan can be explained by the shift in the ovipositional behavior of the new variant of western corn rootworm. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of maize, soybean, oat, Avena sativa L., stubble, and alfalfa, Medicago sativa L., on the ovarian development and ovipositional preferences of the variant western corn rootworm. Field research was conducted near Urbana, IL, during 1998-2000. Gravid females were present throughout the season in all crops, and due to the prolonged period in which western corn rootworm females can lay eggs, none of the crops were immune from oviposition. Results indicated that the western corn rootworm variant oviposits in maize, soybean, oat stubble, and alfalfa In 1998 and 1999, maize was the preferred oviposition site among crops; however, in 2000, maize, soybean, and oat stubble treatments had similar densities of western corn rootworm eggs. Lack of oviposition preference of the western corn rootworm variant demonstrated in this experiment represents a reasonable explanation of why the effectiveness of the rotation strategy to control western corn rootworm has diminished. PMID:15154460

  6. Management of corn leafhopper (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) and corn stunt disease in sweet corn using reflective mulch.

    PubMed

    Summers, C G; Stapleton, J J

    2002-04-01

    Plastic reflective mulches significantly reduced populations of corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis (DeLong & Wolcott), adults and the incidence of corn stunt disease caused by Spiroplasma kunkelii (CSS) in late planted sweet corn (Zea mays L.). The reflective mulches were more effective than were either foliar or soil applied insecticides in managing both the leafhopper and the pathogen it transmits. Yields of marketable ears were 1.5 to 2 times greater in reflective mulch plots than from fallow plots. This was due to larger ears (individual ear weight and length) rather than an increase in the number of ears. The use of reflective mulches provides an alternative strategy to insecticides in the management of both D. maidis and corn stunt disease. Such a strategy may prove useful to growers in Latin America and to limited resource growers and organic growers in the United States who wish to grow corn without the use of insecticides. PMID:12020008

  7. Aflatoxin in corn hybrids infested at different growth stages with southwestern corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aflatoxin is a potent toxin produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Contamination of corn, Zea mays L., with aflatoxin greatly reduces the value of corn grain and is a major impediment to profitable corn production in the South. Infestation of developing corn ears with southwestern corn borer, D...

  8. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing “Corned Beef Round” and other corned beef cuts, except “Corned Beef Briskets,” the curing solution shall...

  9. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing “Corned Beef Round” and other corned beef cuts, except “Corned Beef Briskets,” the curing solution shall...

  10. Characterization and Functionality of Corn Germ Proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the functional properties of protein extracted from wet-milled corn germ and identify potential applications of the recovered protein. Corn germ comprises 12% of the total weight of normal dent corn and about 29% of the corn protein (moisture-free and oil- free ...

  11. Diapause in northern corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabroticite corn rootworms are prominent pests of maize and have adapted to both cultural and chemical management methods. In response to a widely used corn-soybean crop rotation in the U.S. Corn Belt over several years, northern corn rootworm (NCR) populations adapted by increasing the proportion ...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Corn syrup. 184.1865 Section 184.1865 Food and....1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by... dehydrated form (dried glucose sirup). Depending on the degree of hydrolysis, corn syrup may contain,...

  13. Corn Culture: A Story of Intelligent Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Jude

    2008-01-01

    Scientists are not sure of how corn was created. There were two competing genetic theories about how corn came to be. One theory maintains that corn had been teased out of a wheatlike grass called teosinte (genus Zea), and the other contends that one now-extinct ancestor of corn had crossed with another grass, "Tripsacum," several millennia ago.…

  14. Characterization of Corn Grains for Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives of this study were to understand how the composition of corn kernels and starch structure affect enzyme hydrolysis of starch in dry-grind corn and ethanol yield from yeast fermentation. Four selected corn inbred lines were used in this study. Starch in uncooked dry-grind corn samples sh...

  15. Responses of northern and western corn rootworms to semiochemical attractants in corn fields.

    PubMed

    Lance, D R

    1988-04-01

    Small plots (18 × 18 m) were treated with grids of cotton wicks that contained semiochemicals for adultDiabrotica barberi Smith and Lawrence, the northern corn rootworm (NCR). In plots treated with eugenol (350 g/hectare), NCR were attracted to point sources of the compound, but there were no significant changes in numbers of either NCR orD. virgifera virgifera LeConte, the western corn rootworm (WCR), found on plants in the plots. In plots treated with 12.5 mg/hectare of 8R-methyl-2R-decyl propanoate (2R,8R-MDP, the apparent female-produced sex pheromone of NCR and WCR), males of both species were attracted to point sources, but beetles did not congregate within treated plots. With racemic 2,8-MDP at 1.0 g/hectare, male WCR were attracted into plots, but NCR of both sexes were strongly repelled. In a separate study, capture of beetles at pheromone-baited traps declined when the surrounding area contained wicks that emitted racemic 2,8-MDP. In treated plots, male WCR were relatively inefficient at finding pheromone sources. With NCR, emigration from plots could account totally for the observed 3- to 10-fold reduction in catch at 0.01-1.0 g/hectare. PMID:24276203

  16. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    DOEpatents

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Binder, Thomas P.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  17. Distribution patterns of MCA-coated granules aerially applied to corn fields of Southern Hungary between 2000 and 2002.

    PubMed

    Wennemann, L; Hummel, H E

    2003-01-01

    Field studies in corn (Zea mays L.) were conducted to evaluate distribution patterns of 4-methoxy-cinnamaldehyde (MCA) coated corn grits after aerial application with a Dromader fixed wing aircraft. The kairomone mimic MCA is synthetically available and a quite specific and efficient adult attractant for the invasive alien maize pest western corn rootworm (WCR) Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. Orientation disruptive properties of MCA for WCR when applied at unphysiologically high concentrations are currently under investigation. For successful implementation of the MCA disruption technique, the distribution patterns of MCA coated corn granules ('grits') in the field are important. Grits are degrained corn cobs, shredded to different sizes, coated with MCA and used as a carrier material to disseminate MCA vapors into corn fields. Granules of 10-12 mesh size were aerially applied eight times at rates ranging from 12.4 to 25.0 kg/ha. The goal is to evaluate distribution patterns of corn grits treated with MCA in three fields located at Csanadpalota, Kardoskút and Mezöhegyes in Southern Hungary between 2000 and 2002. Increasing rates reflect our attempts in finding and optimising the most even distribution of granules in the field. Field experiments were evaluated by collecting grits in 30-cm plastic saucers and by counting grits accumulated on corn plant parts. Variation in grit number per unit area and frequency of corn granule number per plant showed some transient technical application problems. Analysis of grits collected in the saucers revealed some statistical difference between the different application dates as well as differences in rates applied. Altogether grits in saucers were more evenly distributed in comparison to the grits collected on plant parts. As the corn plants age, their leaves and whorls present a smaller and smaller surface area where granules can accumulate. Altogether, however, grit distribution patterns indicate that aerial

  18. Diagravitropism in corn roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leopold, A. C.; Wettlaufer, S. H.

    1988-01-01

    The diagravitropic behavior of Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots grown in darkness provides an opportunity for comparison of two qualitatively different gravitropic systems. As with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism is shown to require the presence of the root cap, have a similar time course for the onset of curvature, and a similar presentation time. In contrast with positive gravitropism, diagravitropism appears to have a more limited requirement for calcium, for it is insensitive to the elution of calcium by EGTA and insensitive to the subsequent addition of a calcium/EGTA complex. These results are interpreted as indicating that whereas the same sensing system is shared by the two types of gravitropism, separate transductive systems are involved, one for diagravitropism, which is relatively independent of calcium, and one for positive gravitropism, which is markedly dependent on calcium.

  19. Grossesse dans une corne rudimentaire: difficultés diagnostiques et prise en charge thérapeutique

    PubMed Central

    Mamouni, Nisrine; Ghazal, Nabil; Erraghay, Sanaa; Bouchikhi, Chahrazed; Banani, Abdelaziz

    2016-01-01

    La survenue d'une grossesse dans une corne utérine rudimentaire est une situation obstétricale extrêmement rare et potentiellement grave, menaçant le pronostic materno-fœtal. Les auteurs rapportent cinq observations de grossesse dans une corne utérine rudimentaire, à travers lesquelles, ils relatent les difficultés sur le plan diagnostique ainsi que la prise en charge thérapeutique de cette entité pathologique, soulignant l'intérêt de l’échographie endovaginale, de l'IRM pelvienne et de la cœlioscopie dans le diagnostic précoce de ce type de malformation uterine.

  20. Carbon isotope ratios document that the elytra of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) reflects adult versus larval feeding and later instar larvae prefer Bt corn to alternate hosts.

    PubMed

    Hiltpold, Ivan; Adamczyk, John J; Higdon, Matthew L; Clark, Thomas L; Ellersieck, Mark R; Hibbard, Bruce E

    2014-06-01

    In much of the Corn Belt and parts of Europe, the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is the most important insect pest of maize. The need for additional basic knowledge of this pest has been highlighted while developing resistance management plans for insecticidal genetically modified crops. This study evaluated the possibility of tracking feeding habits of western corn rootworm larvae using stable carbon isotope signatures. Plants accumulate different ratios of (13)C:(12)C isotopes, usually expressed as δ(13)C, according to whether they use the C3 or C4 photosynthetic pathway. Herbivore biomass is expected to reflect the δ(13)C of the food they eat. For the current experiment, western corn rootworm larvae were grown on different species of plants exhibiting different δ(13)C values. The δ(13)C values were then measured in elytra of emerged beetles. When beetles were unfed, biomass reflected larval feeding. When beetles were fed for 31 d postemergence, δ(13)C values of elytra almost exclusively reflected adult feeding. These results suggest the use of caution in the interpretation of δ(13)C data aiming to document larval diet history when adult feeding history is unknown. The technique was also used to evaluate western corn rootworm larval choice between alternate hosts and maize with and without genetically modified (Bt) traits aimed at their control. Propensity for feeding on alternate hosts versus maize was biased toward feeding on maize regardless whether the maize had Bt or not, suggesting western corn rootworm larvae were not repelled by Bt. These data will be helpful for regulators in interpreting western corn rootworm feeding data on Bt maize. PMID:24874160

  1. Disruption of host location of western corn rootworm larvae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) with carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Bernklau, E J; Fromm, E A; Bjostad, L B

    2004-04-01

    Elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) prevented neonate larvae of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, from locating the roots of growing corn in behavioral bioassays conducted in soil tubs. When CO2 was pumped into one end of a soil tub, significantly more larvae were recovered from soil at the treated end than from soil around a growing corn plant at the opposite end of the tub. In controls with ambient air pumped into one end of a soil tub, significantly more larvae were recovered from the soil around the corn plant than from soil on the treated side. Larvae were unable to locate the roots of corn seedlings when CO2-generating materials were mixed into the soil. CO2-concentrations in soil were measured by mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring at m/z 44. Granules composed of baker's yeast, yeast nutrients, and an organic substrate were prepared as a CO2 source and were tested in larger soil tub bioassays. Significantly fewer larvae were recovered from corn roots in the soil tubs with yeast granules than from corn roots in control soil tubs. The CO2-generating granules produced soil CO2 concentrations between 15.8 and 18.5 mmol/mol (compared with 1.7-2.6 mmol/mol in control tubs), and this was sufficient to prevent larvae from locating corn roots. In field trials, organic and inorganic CO2- generating treatments resulted in root ratings that were significantly lower than for the control plants. PMID:15154452

  2. Diagnostic assays based on esterase-mediated resistance mechanisms in western corn rootworms (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuguo; Scharf, Michael E; Parimi, Srinivas; Meinke, Lance J; Wright, Robert J; Chandler, Laurence D; Siegfried, Blair D

    2002-12-01

    Resistance to methyl-parathion among Nebraska western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, populations is associated with increased hydrolytic metabolism of an organophosphate insecticide substrate. An electrophoretic method to identify resistant individuals based on the staining intensity of esterase isozymes on nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels was developed. Three groups of esterases (I, II, and III) were visible on the gels, but only group II esterase isozymes were intensified in resistant populations. A total of 26 and 31 field populations of western corn rootworms from Nebraska (in 1998 and 1999, respectively) were assessed with nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) assays and diagnostic concentration bioassays. Significant correlations were observed between the two diagnostic assays. Group II esterase isozymes provide a reliable biochemical marker for detection of methyl-parathion resistance in individual western corn rootworms and a tool for monitoring the frequency of resistant individuals in field populations. PMID:12539840

  3. Isolation and characterization of host recognition cues in corn roots for larvae of the western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Bernklau, E J; Hibbard, B E; Bjostad, L B

    2013-12-01

    Behavioral bioassays were used to isolate compounds from germinating corn roots that elicit a host recognition response (tight-turning behavior) by neonate larvae of the western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. When a behaviorally active extract of germinating corn roots was separated into an aqueous partition and a hexane partition, significantly more larvae (P < 0.05) responded to the recombined partitions than to either partition alone, demonstrating that the active material is a blend comprising both polar and nonpolar compounds. When the aqueous partition was separated with reverse-phase solid phase extraction, most of the behavioral activity was retained in the 100% water fraction (F-1). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis determined that F-1 contained a blend of small sugars, diacids, amino acids, and inorganic compounds. The nonpolar partition was separated on a silica column, and the resulting fractions were tested in combination with F-1 from the aqueous separation. More than 70% of larvae responded to the 100% acetone fraction (fraction B) in combination with F-1, and the response to this treatment was significantly higher than responses to the other nonpolar fractions or to F-1 alone. Methyl esterification of fraction B, followed by gas chromatographic fatty acid methyl ester analysis, confirmed that fraction B primarily consisted of lipids containing fatty acyl groups. PMID:24498734

  4. Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Larval Movement in eCry3.1Ab+mCry3A Seed Blend Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Zukoff, Sarah N; Zukoff, Anthony L; Geisert, Ryan W; Hibbard, Bruce E

    2016-08-01

    Corn fields planted with plant-incorporated Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins must have a portion of the field planted with non-Bt, isoline, plants that serve as a refuge for susceptible insects. In the Corn Belt, refuge seeds are now blended in the bag with Bt seeds for corn hybrids containing two or more toxins targeted toward the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. Syngenta's corn hybrid, Agrisure Duracade, containing the eCry3.1Ab (event 5307) and mCry3a (event MIR604) rootworm-targeted toxins were registered as a seed blend in 2014. Western corn rootworm larval movement between the refuge plants and the Duracade plants was assessed to determine western corn rootworm survival and amount of root damage on these plants when planted in all possible seed blend scenarios. In this study, western corn rootworm larvae moved between isoline and Bt plants and adult survival was greater on Bt plants if movement from a neighboring infested isoline plant had occurred. However, root damage to these Bt plants did not reach economic levels. The low numbers of western corn rootworm larvae that did move from an infested Bt plant to an isoline plant could potentially select for resistance if they survived to adulthood. PMID:27190042

  5. Patterns of differential gene expression in adult rotation-resistant and wild-type western corn rootworm digestive tracts

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chia-Ching; Zavala, Jorge A; Spencer, Joseph L; Curzi, Matías J; Fields, Christopher J; Drnevich, Jenny; Siegfried, Blair D; Seufferheld, Manfredo J

    2015-01-01

    The western corn rootworm (WCR,Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) is an important pest of corn. Annual crop rotation between corn and soybean disrupts the corn-dependent WCR life cycle and is widely adopted to manage this pest. This strategy selected for rotation-resistant (RR) WCR with reduced ovipositional fidelity to corn. Previous studies revealed that RR-WCR adults exhibit greater tolerance of soybean diets, different gut physiology, and host–microbe interactions compared to rotation-susceptible wild types (WT). To identify the genetic mechanisms underlying these phenotypic changes, a de novo assembly of the WCR adult gut transcriptome was constructed and used for RNA-sequencing analyses of RNA libraries from different WCR phenotypes fed with corn or soybean diets. Global gene expression profiles of WT- and RR-WCR were similar when feeding on corn diets, but different when feeding on soybean. Using network-based methods, we identified gene modules transcriptionally correlated with the RR phenotype. Gene ontology enrichment analyses indicated that the functions of these modules were related to metabolic processes, immune responses, biological adhesion, and other functions/processes that appear to correlate to documented traits in RR populations. These results suggest that gut transcriptomic divergence correlated with brief soybean feeding and other physiological traits may exist between RR- and WT-WCR adults. PMID:26240606

  6. crw1 - A Novel Maize Mutant Highly Susceptible to Foliar Damage by the Western Corn Rootworm Beetle

    PubMed Central

    Venkata, Bala Puchakayala; Lauter, Nick; Li, Xu; Chapple, Clint; Krupke, Christian; Johal, Gurmukh; Moose, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is the most destructive insect pest of corn (Zea mays L.) in the United States. The adult WCR beetles derive their nourishment from multiple sources including corn pollen and silks as well as the pollen of alternate hosts. Conversely, the corn foliage is largely neglected as a food source by WCR beetles, leading to a perception of a passive interaction between the two. We report here a novel recessive mutation of corn that was identified and named after its foliar susceptibility to corn rootworm beetles (crw1). The crw1 mutant under field conditions was exceptionally susceptible to foliar damage by WCR beetles in an age-specific manner. It exhibits pleiotropic defects on cell wall biochemistry, morphology of leaf epidermal cells and lower structural integrity via differential accumulation of cell wall bound phenolic acids. These findings indicate that crw1 is perturbed in a pathway that was not previously ascribed to WCR susceptibility, as well as implying the presence of an active mechanism(s) deterring WCR beetles from devouring corn foliage. The discovery and characterization of this mutant provides a unique opportunity for genetic analysis of interactions between maize and adult WCR beetles and identify new strategies to control the spread and invasion of this destructive pest. PMID:23951124

  7. crw1--A novel maize mutant highly susceptible to foliar damage by the western corn rootworm beetle.

    PubMed

    Venkata, Bala Puchakayala; Lauter, Nick; Li, Xu; Chapple, Clint; Krupke, Christian; Johal, Gurmukh; Moose, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is the most destructive insect pest of corn (Zea mays L.) in the United States. The adult WCR beetles derive their nourishment from multiple sources including corn pollen and silks as well as the pollen of alternate hosts. Conversely, the corn foliage is largely neglected as a food source by WCR beetles, leading to a perception of a passive interaction between the two. We report here a novel recessive mutation of corn that was identified and named after its foliar susceptibility to corn rootworm beetles (crw1). The crw1 mutant under field conditions was exceptionally susceptible to foliar damage by WCR beetles in an age-specific manner. It exhibits pleiotropic defects on cell wall biochemistry, morphology of leaf epidermal cells and lower structural integrity via differential accumulation of cell wall bound phenolic acids. These findings indicate that crw1 is perturbed in a pathway that was not previously ascribed to WCR susceptibility, as well as implying the presence of an active mechanism(s) deterring WCR beetles from devouring corn foliage. The discovery and characterization of this mutant provides a unique opportunity for genetic analysis of interactions between maize and adult WCR beetles and identify new strategies to control the spread and invasion of this destructive pest. PMID:23951124

  8. Emergence and Abundance of Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Bt Cornfields With Structured and Seed Blend Refuges.

    PubMed

    Hughson, Sarah A; Spencer, Joseph L

    2015-02-01

    To slow evolution of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) resistance to Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner) corn hybrids, non-Bt "refuges" must be planted within or adjacent to Bt cornfields, allowing susceptible insects to develop without exposure to Bt toxins. Bt-susceptible adults from refuges are expected to find and mate with resistant adults that have emerged from Bt corn, reducing the likelihood that Bt-resistant offspring are produced. The spatial and temporal distribution of adults in four refuge treatments (20, 5, and 0% structured refuges and 5% seed blend) and adjacent soybean fields was compared from 2010 to 2012. Adult emergence (adults/trap/day) from refuge corn in structured refuge treatments was greater than that from Bt corn, except during the post-pollination period of corn phenology when emergence from refuge and Bt plants was often the same. Abundance of free-moving adults was greatest in and near refuge rows in structured refuge treatments during vegetative and pollination periods. By post-pollination, adult abundance became evenly distributed. In contrast, adult abundance in 5% seed blends and 0% refuges was evenly distributed, or nearly so, across plots throughout the season. The persistent concentration of adults in refuge rows suggests that structured refuge configurations may not facilitate the expected mixing of adults from refuge and Bt corn. Seed blends produce uniform distributions of adults across the field that may facilitate mating between Bt and refuge adults and ultimately delay the evolution of Bt resistance. PMID:26470111

  9. The Effect of Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and Water Deficit on Maize Performance Under Controlled Conditions.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, M A B; Sharp, R E; Oliver, M J; Finke, D L; Ellersieck, M R; Hibbard, B E

    2016-04-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is the most important insect of maize, Zea mays L., but knowledge of its interaction with water deficit on maize production is lacking. A series of greenhouse experiments using three infestation levels of the western corn rootworm, D. virgifera virgifera, under well-watered, moderately dry, and very dry soil moisture levels were conducted to quantify the interaction of western corn rootworm and soil water deficit on B73×Mo17 maize growth and physiology. Three separate experiments were conducted. Soil moisture regimes were initiated 30 d postplanting for experiments using neonate and second-instar larvae and 30 d postinfestation in the experiment using eggs. In the neonate and second-instar experiments, there were no significant differences among western corn rootworm levels in their effects on leaf water potential, shoot dry weight, and root dry weight. The interaction of western corn rootworm and soil moisture significantly impacted the larval recovery in the neonate experiment, but no other significant interactions were documented between soil moisture levels and rootworm infestation levels. Overall, the results indicate that under the conditions of these experiments, the effect of water deficit was much greater on plants than the effect of western corn rootworm and that the interactions between water deficit and western corn rootworm levels minimally affected the measured parameters of plant performance. PMID:26896532

  10. Patterns of differential gene expression in adult rotation-resistant and wild-type western corn rootworm digestive tracts.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chia-Ching; Zavala, Jorge A; Spencer, Joseph L; Curzi, Matías J; Fields, Christopher J; Drnevich, Jenny; Siegfried, Blair D; Seufferheld, Manfredo J

    2015-08-01

    The western corn rootworm (WCR,Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) is an important pest of corn. Annual crop rotation between corn and soybean disrupts the corn-dependent WCR life cycle and is widely adopted to manage this pest. This strategy selected for rotation-resistant (RR) WCR with reduced ovipositional fidelity to corn. Previous studies revealed that RR-WCR adults exhibit greater tolerance of soybean diets, different gut physiology, and host-microbe interactions compared to rotation-susceptible wild types (WT). To identify the genetic mechanisms underlying these phenotypic changes, a de novo assembly of the WCR adult gut transcriptome was constructed and used for RNA-sequencing analyses of RNA libraries from different WCR phenotypes fed with corn or soybean diets. Global gene expression profiles of WT- and RR-WCR were similar when feeding on corn diets, but different when feeding on soybean. Using network-based methods, we identified gene modules transcriptionally correlated with the RR phenotype. Gene ontology enrichment analyses indicated that the functions of these modules were related to metabolic processes, immune responses, biological adhesion, and other functions/processes that appear to correlate to documented traits in RR populations. These results suggest that gut transcriptomic divergence correlated with brief soybean feeding and other physiological traits may exist between RR- and WT-WCR adults. PMID:26240606

  11. 21 CFR 155.131 - Canned field corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned field corn. 155.131 Section 155.131 Food... Canned field corn. (a) Identity. (1) Canned field corn conforms to the definition and standard of... corn by § 155.130(a), except that the corn ingredient consists of succulent field corn or a mixture...

  12. 21 CFR 155.131 - Canned field corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned field corn. 155.131 Section 155.131 Food... Canned field corn. (a) Identity. (1) Canned field corn conforms to the definition and standard of... corn by § 155.130(a), except that the corn ingredient consists of succulent field corn or a mixture...

  13. 21 CFR 155.131 - Canned field corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned field corn. 155.131 Section 155.131 Food... Canned field corn. (a) Identity. (1) Canned field corn conforms to the definition and standard of... corn by § 155.130(a), except that the corn ingredient consists of succulent field corn or a mixture...

  14. 21 CFR 155.131 - Canned field corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned field corn. 155.131 Section 155.131 Food... Canned field corn. (a) Identity. (1) Canned field corn conforms to the definition and standard of... corn by § 155.130(a), except that the corn ingredient consists of succulent field corn or a mixture...

  15. 21 CFR 155.131 - Canned field corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned field corn. 155.131 Section 155.131 Food... Canned field corn. (a) Identity. (1) Canned field corn conforms to the definition and standard of... corn by § 155.130(a), except that the corn ingredient consists of succulent field corn or a mixture...

  16. Utilisation of Corn (Zea mays) Bran and Corn Fiber in the Production of Food Components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past decade, the demand for ethanol has increased dramatically. Demand for other products of corn milling, such as starches and sweeteners, is also expected to increase. With the increase in demand for industrial and food use of corn, the production of byproducts, such as corn fiber, corn...

  17. 77 FR 10617 - Wellsboro & Corning Railroad, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Wellsboro & Corning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Wellsboro & Corning Railroad, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Wellsboro & Corning Railroad Company Wellsboro & Corning Railroad, LLC (WCLLC), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Wellsboro & Corning Railroad Company...

  18. Resistance to Bt corn by western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in the U.S. corn belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic Bt corn hybrids that produce insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner have become the standard insect management tactic across the United States Corn Belt. Widespread planting of Bt corn creates intense selection pressure for target insects to develop resis...

  19. Corn-in-chip: Mesofluidic Device for Corn Root

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreis, Kevin; Ryu, Sangjin

    2015-03-01

    Plants have a collection of beneficial microorganisms in a region surrounding their roots called the rhizosphere. Although rhizosphere management could increase crop yield, little is known about the interaction between plant roots and their associated microorganisms. Thus we aim to simulate the rhizosphere and monitor root-microbe interactions in the lab environment, and have chosen corn as a model plant because of its economic significance. Here we present our preliminary study to develop a transparent mesofluidic device accommodating the root of corn seedlings into its channel and allowing further growth of the root.

  20. The 1971 corn blight watch experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifton, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The successful fulfillment of the objectives for the 1971 corn blight watch experiment is reported. The objectives were: (1) detect the development and spread of corn blight during the growing season across the Corn Belt; (2) assess different levels of infection in the Corn Belt; (3) amplify data acquired by ground observations to better appraise current blight status and the probable impact on crop production; and (4) estimate through extrapolation the applicability of these techniques to similar situations occurring in the future.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Corn syrup. 184.1865 Section 184.1865 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Corn syrup. 184.1865 Section 184.1865 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  3. "King Corn": Teaching the Food Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinehart, Tim

    2012-01-01

    "King Corn" is in so many ways the story of how government food policy has entirely remade the food landscape in the United States over the last 40 years. From the massive expansion of the number of acres of corn grown across the country, to the ever-increasing ways that corn is incorporated into the food production process, to the industrial…

  4. 9 CFR 319.100 - Corned beef.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... permitting that use in this subchapter or 9 CFR Chapter III, Subchapter E, or in 21 CFR Chapter I, Subchapter... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef. 319.100 Section 319.100... Corned beef. “Corned Beef” shall be prepared from beef briskets, navels, clods, middle ribs,...

  5. Geographic information systems in corn rootworm management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp. Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are serious pests of corn (Zea mays) in the United States and Europe. Control measures for corn rootworms (CRW) were historically based upon chemical pesticides and crop rotation. Pesticide use created environmental and economic concerns. In...

  6. Does Bt Corn Really Produce Tougher Residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bt corn hybrids produce insecticidal proteins that are derived from a bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis. There have been concerns that Bt corn hybrids produce residues that are relatively resistant to decomposition. We conducted four experiments that examined the decomposition of corn residues und...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes. It may also occur in the dehydrated form (dried glucose sirup). Depending on the degree of...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes. It may also occur in the dehydrated form (dried glucose sirup). Depending on the degree of...

  9. Alfalfa: A Companion Crop with Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn grain-based ethanol is the major form of biofuel production in the USA. Corn is an attractive biofuel crop because it is easy to manage, process, and ship; is high yielding; and has significant industry support and research. However, there are concerns about growing corn in rotation with soyb...

  10. In-field labeling of western corn rootworm adults (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) with rubidium.

    PubMed

    Nowatzki, Timothy M; Niimi, Bradly; Warren, Kelli J; Putnam, Sean; Meinke, Lance J; Gosselin, David C; Harvey, F Edwin; Hunt, Thomas E; Siegfried, Blair D

    2003-12-01

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted in 2000 and 2001 to determine the feasibility of mass marking western corn rootworm adults, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, with RbCl in the field. Results showed that application of rubidium (Rb) in solution to both the soil (1 g Rb/plant) and whorl (1 g Rb/plant) of corn plants was optimal for labeling western corn rootworm adults during larval development. Development of larvae on Rb-enriched corn with this technique did not significantly influence adult dry weight or survival. Rb was also highly mobile in the plant. Application of Rb to both the soil and the whorl resulted in median Rb concentrations in the roots (5,860 ppm) that were 150-fold greater than concentrations in untreated roots (38 ppm) 5 wk after treatment. Additionally, at least 90% of the beetles that emerged during the first 3 wk were labeled above the baseline Rb concentration (5 ppm dry weight) determined from untreated beetles. Because emergence was 72% complete at this time, a significant proportion of the population had been labeled. Results from laboratory experiments showed that labeled beetles remained distinguishable from unlabeled beetles for up to 4 d postemergence. The ability to efficiently label large numbers of beetles under field conditions and for a defined period with virtually no disruption of the population provides an unparalleled opportunity to conduct mark-recapture experiments for quantifying the short-range, intrafield movement of adult corn rootworms. PMID:14977112

  11. Effects of replacing conventional corn silage with BMR corn silage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has shown that the (lignin reducing) brown mid-rib mutation in corn silage, which increases in vitro fiber digestibility, does not always improve fiber digestibility when fed as part of a TMR; however, feed intake and milk production are increased. The objectives of this experiment...

  12. Economics versus alleles: balancing integrated pest management and insect resistance management for rotation-resistant western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Onstad, D W; Crowder, D W; Mitchell, P D; Guse, C A; Spencer, J L; Levine, E; Gray, M E

    2003-12-01

    Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, has overcome crop rotation in several areas of the central United States. We expanded a simple model of adult behavior and population genetics to explain how rotation resistance may have developed and to study ways to manage the western corn rootworm in a landscape of corn, soybean, and winter wheat where evolution of resistance may occur. We modeled six alternative management strategies over a 15-yr time horizon, as well as a strategy involving a 2-yr rotation of corn and soybean in 85% of the landscape, to investigate their effectiveness from both a biological and economic perspective. Generally, resistance to crop rotation evolves in fewer than 15 yr, and the rate of evolution increases as the level of rotated landscape (selection pressure) increases. When resistance is recessive, all six alternative strategies were effective at preventing evolution of rotation resistance. The two most successful strategies were the use of transgenic rotated corn in a 2-yr rotation and a 3-yr rotation of corn, soybean, and wheat with unattractive wheat (for oviposition) preceding corn. Results were most sensitive to increases in the initial allele frequency and modifications of the density-dependent survival function. Economically, three alternative strategies were robust solutions to the problem, if technology fees were not too high. Repellant soybean, attractive rotated corn, and transgenic rotated corn, all in 2-yr rotations, were economically valuable approaches. However, even the currently common 2-yr rotation was economical when resistance was recessive and the actual costs of resistance would not be paid until far in the future. PMID:14977129

  13. Dispersal behavior of neonate European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Bt corn.

    PubMed

    Razze, J M; Mason, C E

    2012-08-01

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), has historically been a significant economically important insect pest of corn (Zea mays L.) in the United States and Canada. The development in the 1990s of genetically modified corn expressing genes derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that encodes insecticidal crystalline (Cry) proteins has proven to be effective in controlling this insect as well as other corn pests. The purpose of this study was to assess the movement and dispersal behavior of neonate European corn borer on Bt corn. We examined differences in neonate European corn borer dispersal behavior for the first 4 h after eclosion in the field among a stacked pyramid (Cry1F X Cry1Ab X Cry34/35Ab1) Bt corn, a Cry1F Bt corn, and a non-Bt sweet corn; and in the laboratory among a Bt corn hybrid containing Cry1F, a hybrid containing Cry1Ab, a pyramid combining these two hybrids (Cry1F X Cry1Ab), and a non-Bt near isoline corn. In field experiments, we found that dispersal was significantly higher on Bt corn compared with sweet corn. In laboratory experiments, dispersal was significantly higher on Cry1Ab Bt corn and Cry1F X Cry1Ab Bt corn than on non-Bt near isoline corn. Results indicated that neonate dispersal may be significantly greater in Bt cornfields compared with non-Bt cornfields. The findings on dispersal behavior in this study will be useful in evaluating the efficacy of a blended seed refuge system for managing European corn borer resistance in Bt corn. PMID:22928300

  14. Le Indeterminacy in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, David William

    The standard treatment of object pronouns in Latin American Spanish assigns a direct-object function to "lo" and "la" and an indirect-object function to "le." This study challenges this descriptive attribution in light of the contradictory and refractory evidence in Spanish morphosyntax. It is suggested that more detailed research, especially…

  15. Le Figaro. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Linda

    These instructional materials are designed for students with some French reading skills and vocabulary in late beginning or early intermediate senior high school French. The objectives are to introduce students to a French newspaper, "Le Figaro," and develop reading skills for skimming, gathering specific information, and relying on cognates. The…

  16. Compatibility with corn: N credits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Productive and efficient short rotations of alfalfa and corn are needed to reduce energy inputs, produce food, feed, and energy, and yield the environmental quality benefits from the perennial legume. After decades of research, however, farmers and their advisors still question how much fertility ...

  17. Sustainable Corn Stover Harvest Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn stover has been identified as an important initial source of biomass for conversion to ethanol and other biofuels. This poster presentation outlines on-going cooperative research being conducted near Ames, IA. Our university partner is responsible for developing the one-pass harvester and our I...

  18. Corn gluten meal application equipment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has determined that corn gluten meal (CGM) produces an inhibitory effect and reduces root formation in several weed species. One limitation to further evaluation of CGM in field vegetable production is the difficulty in achieving a uniform application to the soil surface. The use o...

  19. Improved corn protein based articles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing higher value uses for zein (corn protein), a potential major co-product of the bio-ethanol industry, will improve the economics of this business. Historically, zein was predominantly used in the textile fiber industry. Unfortunately the techniques used at that time to modify the zein cann...

  20. Our Mother Corn. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathers, Sherry; And Others

    Designed to accompany the preceding student text (which deals with the role of corn in the Seneca, Pawnee, and Hopi tribes), the teaching guide contains a suggested sequence of activities and needed supplementary information along with an indication of the student text they follow. Sections include: farming notes; basic needs activities; house…

  1. Effect of MIR604 transgenic maize at different stages of development on western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in a central missouri field environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The establishment and survival of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, was evaluated on transgenic Bt maize, Zea mays L., expressing the mCry3A protein (MIR604) and non-Bt maize with the same genetic background (isoline maize) at different stages of development in 2007 and ...

  2. The Impact of MON863 Transgenic Roots is Equivalent on Western Corn Rootworm Larvae for a Wide Range of Maize Phenologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of maize (Zea mays L.) phenology on establishment, damage, and adult emergence of the western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) to MON863 transgenic maize expressing the Cry3Bb1 protein and its isoline was evaluated in field trials in 2002 and 2003. As expected, pla...

  3. Development of resistance to eCry3.1Ab-expressing transgenic maize in a laboratory-selected population of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A laboratory colony of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, was selected for resistance to transgenic maize expressing the eCry3.1ab protein. The selected colony was developed by rearing larvae on non-elite, non-commercial Bt maize expressing the eCry3.1Ab protein. After ...

  4. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Michael

    2015-11-04

    Corn oil recovery and conversion to biodiesel has been widely adopted at corn ethanol plants recently. The US EPA has projected 2.6 billion liters of biodiesel will be produced from corn oil in 2022. Corn oil biodiesel may qualify for federal renewable identification number (RIN) credits under the Renewable Fuel Standard, as well as for low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity credits under California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Because multiple products [ethanol, biodiesel, and distiller’s grain with solubles (DGS)] are produced from one feedstock (corn), however, a careful co-product treatment approach is required to accurately estimate GHG intensities of bothmore » ethanol and corn oil biodiesel and to avoid double counting of benefits associated with corn oil biodiesel production. This study develops four co-product treatment methods: (1) displacement, (2) marginal, (3) hybrid allocation, and (4) process-level energy allocation. Life-cycle GHG emissions for corn oil biodiesel were more sensitive to the choice of co-product allocation method because significantly less corn oil biodiesel is produced than corn ethanol at a dry mill. Corn ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions with the displacement, marginal, and hybrid allocation approaches are similar (61, 62, and 59 g CO2e/MJ, respectively). Although corn ethanol and DGS share upstream farming and conversion burdens in both the hybrid and process-level energy allocation methods, DGS bears a higher burden in the latter because it has lower energy content per selling price as compared to corn ethanol. As a result, with the process-level allocation approach, ethanol’s life-cycle GHG emissions are lower at 46 g CO2e/MJ. Corn oil biodiesel life-cycle GHG emissions from the marginal, hybrid allocation, and process-level energy allocation methods were 14, 59, and 45 g CO2e/MJ, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the influence corn oil yield, soy biodiesel, and defatted DGS displacement

  5. Influence of corn oil recovery on life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of corn ethanol and corn oil biodiesel

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhichao; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Michael

    2015-11-04

    Corn oil recovery and conversion to biodiesel has been widely adopted at corn ethanol plants recently. The US EPA has projected 2.6 billion liters of biodiesel will be produced from corn oil in 2022. Corn oil biodiesel may qualify for federal renewable identification number (RIN) credits under the Renewable Fuel Standard, as well as for low greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensity credits under California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard. Because multiple products [ethanol, biodiesel, and distiller’s grain with solubles (DGS)] are produced from one feedstock (corn), however, a careful co-product treatment approach is required to accurately estimate GHG intensities of both ethanol and corn oil biodiesel and to avoid double counting of benefits associated with corn oil biodiesel production. This study develops four co-product treatment methods: (1) displacement, (2) marginal, (3) hybrid allocation, and (4) process-level energy allocation. Life-cycle GHG emissions for corn oil biodiesel were more sensitive to the choice of co-product allocation method because significantly less corn oil biodiesel is produced than corn ethanol at a dry mill. Corn ethanol life-cycle GHG emissions with the displacement, marginal, and hybrid allocation approaches are similar (61, 62, and 59 g CO2e/MJ, respectively). Although corn ethanol and DGS share upstream farming and conversion burdens in both the hybrid and process-level energy allocation methods, DGS bears a higher burden in the latter because it has lower energy content per selling price as compared to corn ethanol. As a result, with the process-level allocation approach, ethanol’s life-cycle GHG emissions are lower at 46 g CO2e/MJ. Corn oil biodiesel life-cycle GHG emissions from the marginal, hybrid allocation, and process-level energy allocation methods were 14, 59, and 45 g CO2e/MJ, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the influence corn oil yield, soy biodiesel, and

  6. Le mouvement du pôle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizouard, Christian

    2012-03-01

    Les variations de la rotation terrestre. En conditionnant à la fois notre vie quotidienne, notre perception du ciel, et bon nombre de phénomènes géophysiques comme la formation des cyclones, la rotation de la Terre se trouve au croisement de plusieurs disciplines. Si le phenomena se faisait uniformément, le sujet serait vite discuté, mais c'est parce que la rotation terrestre varie, même imperceptiblement pour nos sens, dans sa vitesse angulaire comme dans la direction de son axe, qu'elle suscite un grand intérêt. D'abord pour des raisons pratiques : non seulement les aléas de la rotation terrestre modi_ent à la longue les pointés astrométriques à un instant donné de la journée mais in_uencent aussi les mesures opérées par les techniques spatiales ; en consequence l'exploitation de ces mesures, par exemple pour déterminer les orbites des satellites impliqués ou pratiquer le positionnement au sol, nécessite une connaissance précise de ces variations. Plus fondamentalement, elles traduisent les propriétés globales de la Terre comme les processus physiques qui s'y déroulent, si bien qu'en analysant les causes des fluctuations observées, on dispose d'un moyen de mieux connaître notre globe. La découverte progressive des fluctuations de la rotation de la Terre a une longue histoire. Sous l'angle des techniques d'observation, trois époques se pro-celle du pointé astrométrique à l'oeil nu, à l'aide d'instruments en bois ou métalliques (quart de cercle muraux par exemple). À partir du XVIIe siècle débute l'astrométrie télescopique dont les pointés sont complétés par des datations de plus en plus précises grâce à l'invention d'horloges régulées par balancier. Cette deuxième époque se termine vers 1960, avec l'avènement des techniques spatiales : les pointés astrométriques sont délaissés au profit de la mesure ultra-précise de durées ou de fréquences de signaux électromagnétiques, grâce à l'invention des horloges

  7. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  8. 7 CFR 810.401 - Definition of corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of corn. 810.401 Section 810.401... GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Terms Defined § 810.401 Definition of corn. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of shelled dent corn and/or shelled flint corn (Zea mays...

  9. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  10. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  11. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  12. 7 CFR 810.401 - Definition of corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definition of corn. 810.401 Section 810.401... GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Terms Defined § 810.401 Definition of corn. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of shelled dent corn and/or shelled flint corn (Zea mays...

  13. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  14. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  15. 7 CFR 810.401 - Definition of corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definition of corn. 810.401 Section 810.401... GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Terms Defined § 810.401 Definition of corn. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of shelled dent corn and/or shelled flint corn (Zea mays...

  16. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  17. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  18. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  19. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  20. 7 CFR 810.401 - Definition of corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definition of corn. 810.401 Section 810.401... GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Terms Defined § 810.401 Definition of corn. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of shelled dent corn and/or shelled flint corn (Zea mays...

  1. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing...

  2. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  3. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  4. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  5. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead...

  6. 7 CFR 810.401 - Definition of corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definition of corn. 810.401 Section 810.401... GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Terms Defined § 810.401 Definition of corn. Grain that consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of shelled dent corn and/or shelled flint corn (Zea mays...

  7. Pest Control in Corn and Soybeans: Weeds - Insects - Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doersch, R. E.; And Others

    This document gives the characteristics and application rates for herbicides used to control annual weeds in corn, annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in corn, quackgrass and yellow nutsedge in corn, and annual weeds in soybeans. It also gives insecticide use information for corn and soybeans. A brief discussion of disease control in corn and…

  8. 75 FR 48321 - Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Application August 4, 2010. Take notice that on July 26, 2010, Corning Natural Gas Corporation (Corning), 330 W. William Street, Corning... Natural Gas Act (NGA) requesting the determination of a service area with which Corning may,...

  9. Fuel ethanol from raw corn

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, C.L.; Rodda, E.D.; Steinberg, M.P.

    1983-06-01

    Crude amylase preparations were produced by growing Aspergillus awamori and A. niger on raw ground whole corn. These Koji preparations were used to hydrolyze the starch of raw ground whole corn to sugars during simultaneous fermentation of the sugars to ethanol by distillers active dry yeast. Ethanol concentrations of the fermentation beers were determined with gas-chromatography. These fermentations yielded an average of 89.6% theoretical ethanol compared to control, conventional, fermentations that had an average of 89.8%. Carbon dioxide evolutions were determined with use of Alwood valves. Both the Koji and conventional fermentations produced an average of 0.48 gram of carbon dioxide per gram of dry substrate starch within 72 hours. However, initially the conventional fermentation rate was greater. Koji dehydrated at 41/sup 0/C had no apparent detrimental effects on theoretical ethanol yield.

  10. Fuel ethanol from raw corn

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, C.L.; Rodda, E.D.; Steinberg, M.P.

    1983-06-01

    Crude amylase preparations were produced by growing Aspergillus awamori and A. niger on raw ground whole corn. These Koji preparations were used to hydrolyze the starch of raw ground whole corn to sugars during simultaneous fermentation of the sugars to ethanol by distillers active dry yeast. Ethanol concentrations of the fermentation beers were determined with gas-chromatography. These fermentations yielded an average of 89.6% theoretical ethanol compared to control, conventional, fermentations that had an average of 89.8%. Carbon dioxide evolutions were determined with use of Alwood valves. Both the Koji and conventional fermentations produced an average of 0.48 gram of carbon dioxide per gram of dry substrate starch within 72 hours. However, initially the conventional fermentation rate was greater. Koji dehydrated at 41 degrees C had no apparent detrimental effects on theoretical ethanol yield.

  11. Field-evolved resistance to Bt maize by western corn rootworm: predictions from the laboratory and effects in the field.

    PubMed

    Gassmann, Aaron J

    2012-07-01

    Crops engineered to produce insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provide an effective management tool for many key insect pests. However, pest species have repeatedly demonstrated their ability to adapt to management practices. Results from laboratory selection experiments illustrate the capacity of pest species to evolve Bt resistance. Furthermore, resistance has been documented to Bt sprays in the field and greenhouse, and more recently, by some pests to Bt crops in the field. In 2009, fields were discovered in Iowa (USA) with populations of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, that had evolved resistance to maize that produces the Bt toxin Cry3Bb1. Fields with resistant insects in 2009 had been planted to Cry3Bb1 maize for at least three consecutive years and as many as 6years. Computer simulation models predicted that the western corn rootworm might evolve resistance to Bt maize in as few as 3years. Laboratory and field data for interactions between western corn rootworm and Bt maize indicate that currently commercialized products are not high-dose events, which increases the risk of resistance evolution because non-recessive resistance traits may enhance survival on Bt maize. Furthermore, genetic analysis of laboratory strains of western corn rootworm has found non-recessive inheritance of resistance. Field studies conducted in two fields identified as harboring Cry3Bb1-resistant western corn rootworm found that survival of western corn rootworm did not differ between Cry3Bb1 maize and non-Bt maize and that root injury to Cry3Bb1 maize was higher than injury to other types of Bt maize or to maize roots protected with a soil insecticide. These first cases of field-evolved resistance to Bt maize by western corn rootworm provide an early warning and point to the need to apply better integrated pest management practices when using Bt maize to manage western corn rootworm. PMID:22537837

  12. Effect of soybean varieties on survival and fecundity of western corn rootworm.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Mike W; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2012-04-01

    The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a major pest of corn (Zea mays L.) in North America and has evolved resistance to crop rotation by ovipositing in alternate crops such as soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Through experiments with plants grown in the greenhouse and the field, we tested whether soybeans with resistance to the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), affected survival, fecundity, and consumption of soybean for D. v. virgifera. Soybean varieties tested included those types resistant to A. glycines (Rag1 and rag1/rag3) and a susceptible near isoline of the Rag1 variety. Females were provided with a diet of corn tissue for 4 d after which they were fed a diet of tissue from one of three soybean varieties for 4 d, starved for 4 d, or fed corn tissue. When fed greenhouse grown plants, strains differed significantly in survival and consumption, but consumption did not differ by variety of soybean. Diet treatment only affected fecundity; individuals fed corn continuously had greater fecundity than those individuals fed soybeans. In the experiment with plants grown in the field, leaf consumption differed among strains and individuals fed corn continuously had greater fecundity than the other treatments. Soybean varieties with Rag1 and rag1/rag3 resistance to A. glycines did not appear to affect the fitness of D. v. virgifera. Thus, planting of these A. glycines-resistant soybean varieties should not directly affect the spread of rotation-resistant D. v. virgifera. PMID:22606835

  13. Western corn rootworm larval movement in SmartStax seed blend scenarios.

    PubMed

    Zukoff, Sarah N; Bailey, Wayne C; Ellersieck, Mark R; Hibbard, Bruce E

    2012-08-01

    Insect resistance management (IRM) can extend the lifetime of management options, but depends on extensive knowledge of the biology of the pest species involved for an optimal plan. Recently, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) registered seed blends refuge for two of the transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn products targeting the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. Larval movement between Bt and isoline plants can be detrimental to resistance management for high dose Bt products because the larger larvae can be more tolerant of the Bt toxins. We assessed movement of western corn rootworm larvae among four spatial arrangements of SmartStax corn (expressing both the Cry34/35Ab1 and Cry3Bb1 proteins) and isoline plants by infesting specific plants with wild type western corn rootworm eggs. Significantly fewer western corn rootworm larvae, on average, were recovered from infested SmartStax plants than infested isoline plants, and the SmartStax plants were significantly less damaged than corresponding isoline plants. However, when two infested isoline plants surrounded a SmartStax plant, a significant number of larvae moved onto the SmartStax plant late in the season. These larvae caused significant damage both years and produced significantly more beetles than any other plant configuration in the study (including isoline plants) in the first year of the study. This plant configuration would occur rarely in a 5% seed blend refuge and may produce beetles of a susceptible genotype because much of their initial larval development was on isoline plants. Results are discussed in terms of their potential effects on resistance management. PMID:22928304

  14. Production and analysis of citrinin in corn.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, L K; Ciegler, A

    1978-01-01

    A convenient method for the production and analysis of citrinin in corn is described. Up to 2.964 g of citrinin can be produced by Penicillium citrinum per kg of corn by harvesting on day 21 or later. The analysis method has a lower detection limit of 0.25 ppm. Heating citrinin-contaminated corn destroys citrinin but may produce another toxin instead. PMID:727774

  15. Prevalence of a gene conferring sensitivity to nicosulfuron and mesotrione in sweet corn and field corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In previous research, a single gene in a herbicide-sensitive sweet corn inbred, Cr1, conditioned sensitivity to nicosulfuron, mesotrione and other postemergence herbicides. Many other sweet corn hybrids and inbreds and certain field corn inbreds also have been noted as being sensitive to certain po...

  16. The development of a "Green" aqueous enzymatic process to extract corn oil from corn germ

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 2.4 million tons of commercial corn oil were produced worldwide in 2012, compared to 2012 world production of palm oil (53.3 MT) and soybean oil (43.1 MT) according to FAS, USDA. Most commercial corn oil (~90%) is produced from corn germ that is expeller pressed and/or hexane extracte...

  17. Exploring Management Options for Increasing Corn Land on NY Farms Affected by Rising Corn Prices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New York dairy farms use their most fertile land to produce corn silage, an important component of their production system. Increasing demand for corn by ethanol producers is driving up corn grain prices. This is introducing a major shift into the NY dairy farm system by prompting farmers to place m...

  18. Potential Harvestable Corn Cob Biomass in Several Production Systems in the Western Corn Belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The proposed use of corn residues for biofuel production has increased interest in how much and what components of residue should/can be removed. One component of corn residue that is already being handled (corn cobs) might be an easily harvestable product that could be used for biofuel production. ...

  19. EFFECT OF SAMPLE PROCESSING PROCEDURES ON MEASUREMENT OF STARCH IN CORN SILAGE AND CORN GRAIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods for processing feedstuffs before analysis can affect analytical results. The effects of drying temperature and grinding method on starch analysis of corn silage and of grinding method on corn grain were evaluated. Corn silage samples dried at 55°C or 105°C and grain samples dried at 55°C w...

  20. Understanding successful resistance management: The European corn borer and Bt corn in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been a major pest of corn and other crops in North America since its accidental introduction nearly a hundred years ago. Wide adoption of transgenic corn that expresses toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, referred to as Bt c...

  1. Proteins induced in corn (Zea mays) in response to the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis) is a major pest of corn. ECB begin by feeding in the whorl tissue and then eventually tunnel into the stalk of the corn where they cause most of the damage. Tunneling can disrupt the transport of water and nutrients in the plant and it provides sites...

  2. Evaluation of Elevated Dietary Corn Fiber from Corn Germ Meal in Growing Female Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the effects of high dietary corn fiber on growth and metabolic measures, female pigs (n= 48; initial body weight of 30.8 kg) were fed diets containing 0 to 38.6% solvent-extracted corn germ meal for 28 days. Increasing the level of dietary corn fiber had no impact on average daily gain o...

  3. Impact of corn variety on potential predators of larval corn rootworms (Coleoptera: Diabrotica spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn rootworms (Coleoptera: Diabrotica spp.) are serious pests of maize around the world. Larvae feed on corn roots, which reduces uptake of water and nutrients and lowers plant yield. Current control practices rely on soil insecticides or genetically modified corn varieties. Although some researche...

  4. 3. Interior view of corn crib showing heavytimber framing, railed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Interior view of corn crib showing heavy-timber framing, railed trackway and corn car at upper level. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Corn Crib, 2 miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  5. Gut bacteria facilitate adaptation to crop rotation in the western corn rootworm.

    PubMed

    Chu, Chia-Ching; Spencer, Joseph L; Curzi, Matías J; Zavala, Jorge A; Seufferheld, Manfredo J

    2013-07-16

    Insects are constantly adapting to human-driven landscape changes; however, the roles of their gut microbiota in these processes remain largely unknown. The western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a major corn pest that has been controlled via annual rotation between corn (Zea mays) and nonhost soybean (Glycine max) in the United States. This practice selected for a "rotation-resistant" variant (RR-WCR) with reduced ovipositional fidelity to cornfields. When in soybean fields, RR-WCRs also exhibit an elevated tolerance of antiherbivory defenses (i.e., cysteine protease inhibitors) expressed in soybean foliage. Here we show that gut bacterial microbiota is an important factor facilitating this corn specialist's (WCR's) physiological adaptation to brief soybean herbivory. Comparisons of gut microbiota between RR- and wild-type WCR (WT-WCR) revealed concomitant shifts in bacterial community structure with host adaptation to soybean diets. Antibiotic suppression of gut bacteria significantly reduced RR-WCR tolerance of soybean herbivory to the level of WT-WCR, whereas WT-WCR were unaffected. Our findings demonstrate that gut bacteria help to facilitate rapid adaptation of insects in managed ecosystems. PMID:23798396

  6. 6-Methoxy-2-benzoxazolinone: A semiochemical for host location by western corn rootworm larvae.

    PubMed

    Bjostad, L B; Hibbard, B E

    1992-07-01

    A bioassay-driven sequential fractionation scheme was used to isolate all portions of a crude dichloromethane corn seedling extract behaviorally active to larvae of the western corn rootworm,Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. 6-Methoxy-2-benzoxazolinone (MBOA) was identified as one of the most important components of an attractive crude corn extract. MBOA was found on or in the intact root tissues by injecting an extract of undamaged roots onto an HPLC immediately after extraction. MBOA was demonstrated to be volatile and functions as a semiochemical in conjunction with carbon dioxide in host location by western corn rootworm larvae, which are oligophagous on the roots of maize and several other species of grasses. Because MBOA occurs almost exclusively in maize and other grasses, it offers a simple way for the larvae to distinguish possible hosts from non-hosts. MBOA has previously been reported as a chemical defense against other insect species. This is the first report in grasses of a secondary compound that is toxic or a deterrent to nonadapted insect herbivores but that is used as a semiochemical in host location by a specialist insect species. PMID:24254139

  7. Influence of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larval injury on yield of different types of maize.

    PubMed

    Urías-López, M A; Meinke, L J

    2001-02-01

    Two field experiments were conducted in 1995-1996 to determine if there are common yield responses among maize hybrids to larval western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte injury. Three yellow dent hybrids, five white food grade dent hybrids, and a popcorn hybrid were included in the study. The minimum level of rootworm injury as measured by root damage ratings (3.2-4.2) that significantly reduced yield was similar across the hybrids included in the study. However, the pattern of yield response to different rootworm injury levels varied among hybrids. This suggests that maize hybrids may inherently differ in their ability to tolerate rootworm injury and partition biomass in response to injury and other stresses. The complex interaction among hybrid, level of injury, and other stresses suggests that a common western corn rootworm injury-yield relationship may not exist within maize. PMID:11233098

  8. Lipid, polyamide, and flavonol phagostimulants for adult western corn rootworm from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) pollen.

    PubMed

    Lin, S; Mullin, C A

    1999-03-01

    Adult Diabroticites including western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, consume pollen of corn, squash, sunflower, and other species. Short-chain neutral amino acids in methanol-water extracts of pollen have been previously identified in our laboratory as strong phagostimulants for Diabrotica. Bioassay-driven fractionation was used to characterize the interacting lipid and midpolarity phagostimulants for adult WCR in Giant Gray Stripe sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., pollen. Lipids rich in omega3-linolenic acid including triglycerides, free fatty acids, phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidic acids, and phosphatidylcholines were highly phagostimulatory. Other important phagostimulatory components included a hydroxycinnamic acid-polyamine amide, N(1),N(5),N(10)-tri[(E)-p-coumaroyl]spermidine, and a flavonol, quercetin beta-3-O-glucoside. The structural characteristics of these phagoactive compounds and their role in the pollinivory specialization of rootworm beetles are discussed. PMID:10552441

  9. Corn silage from corn treated with foliar fungicide and performance of Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Haerr, K J; Lopes, N M; Pereira, M N; Fellows, G M; Cardoso, F C

    2015-12-01

    Foliar fungicide application to corn plants is used in corn aimed for corn silage in the dairy industry, but questions regarding frequency of application and its effect on corn silage quality and feed conversion when fed to dairy cows remain prevalent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of various foliar fungicide applications to corn on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and milk composition when fed to dairy cows. Sixty-four Holstein cows with parity 2.5±1.5, 653±80kg of body weight, and 161±51d in milk were blocked and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 corn silage treatments (total mixed ration with 35% of the dry matter as corn silage). Treatments were as follows: control (CON), corn silage with no applications of foliar fungicide; treatment 1 (1X), corn silage from corn that received 1 application of pyraclostrobin (PYR) foliar fungicide (Headline; BASF Corp.) at corn vegetative stage 5; treatment 2 (2X), corn silage from corn that received the same application as 1X plus another application of a mixture of PYR and metconazole (Headline AMP; BASF Corp.) at corn reproductive stage 1 ("silking"); and treatment 3 (3X), corn silage from corn that received the same applications as 2X as well as a third application of PYR and metconazole at reproductive stage 3 ("milky kernel"). Corn was harvested at about 32% dry matter and 3/4 milk line stage of kernel development and ensiled for 200d. Treatments were fed to cows for 5wk, with the last week being used for statistical inferences. Week -1 was used as a covariate in the statistical analysis. Dry matter intake tended to be lower for cows fed corn silage treated with fungicide than CON (23.8, 23.0, 19.5, and 21.3kg for CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X, respectively). A linear treatment effect for DMI was observed, with DMI decreasing as foliar fungicide applications increased. Treatments CON, 1X, 2X, and 3X did not differ for milk yield (34.5, 34.5, 34.2, and 34.4kg/d, respectively); however, a trend for

  10. Starlink corn: a risk analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Bucchini, Luca; Goldman, Lynn R

    2002-01-01

    Modern biotechnology has dramatically increased our ability to alter the agronomic traits of plants. Among the novel traits that biotechnology has made available, an important group includes Bacillus thuringiensis-derived insect resistance. This technology has been applied to potatoes, cotton, and corn. Benefits of Bt crops, and biotechnology generally, can be realized only if risks are assessed and managed properly. The case of Starlink corn, a plant modified with a gene that encodes the Bt protein Cry9c, was a severe test of U.S. regulatory agencies. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency had restricted its use to animal feed due to concern about the potential for allergenicity. However, Starlink corn was later found throughout the human food supply, resulting in food recalls by the Food and Drug Administration and significant disruption of the food supply. Here we examine the regulatory history of Starlink, the assessment framework employed by the U.S. government, assumptions and information gaps, and the key elements of government efforts to manage the product. We explore the impacts on regulations, science, and society and conclude that only significant advances in our understanding of food allergies and improvements in monitoring and enforcement will avoid similar events in the future. Specifically, we need to develop a stronger fundamental basis for predicting allergic sensitization and reactions if novel proteins are to be introduced in this fashion. Mechanisms are needed to assure that worker and community aeroallergen risks are considered. Requirements are needed for the development of valid assays so that enforcement and post market surveillance activities can be conducted. PMID:11781159

  11. Impact of the Bt Corn Proteins Cry34/35Ab1 and Cry3Bb1, Alone or Pyramided, on Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Beetle Emergence in the Field.

    PubMed

    Hitchon, A J; Smith, J L; French, B W; Schaafsma, A W

    2015-08-01

    Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a major pest of corn, Zea mays L. The effect of the Bt proteins Cry34/35Ab1 and Cry3Bb1, alone or pyramided in corn hybrids on D. v. virgifera adult emergence was evaluated in field experiments for 3 yr. Experiments were infested artificially with 2,500 viable D. v. virgifera eggs per row meter of corn. The reduction in beetle emergence compared with non-Bt controls, from Cry34/35Ab1, Cry3Bb1, and the pyramided hybrids ranged from 64.3 to 97.4%, 91.1 to 95.2%, and 98.1 to 99.6%, respectively. The sex ratio of emerged beetles was usually female-biased from the Cry3Bb1 and pyramided treatments, but not from Cry34/35Ab1 treatment alone. Emergence from all Bt hybrids was delayed compared with the control, with the delay longest from the pyramided hybrid. In 2013, three egg infestation levels were tested, with density-dependent mortality observed at 1,250 viable eggs per row meter. The effect of Bt proteins on the emergence timing and sex ratio of D. v. virgifera may impact the suitability of resistance management plans, specifically the effectiveness of the refuge strategy. Susceptible males emerging from refuge might not be synchronized to mate with potentially resistant females emerging later from Bt corn hybrids. PMID:26470344

  12. Integrated Corn-Based Bio-Refinery

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-01

    The Integrated Corn-Based Bio-Refinery (ICBR) process will use new technology to convert corn grain and stover into fermentable sugars for the parallel production of value-added chemicals such as 1,3-propanediol (PDO) and fuel ethanol.

  13. Climate forecasts for corn producer decision making

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn is the most widely grown crop in the Americas, with annual production in the United States of approximately 332 million metric tons. Improved climate forecasts, together with climate-related decision tools for corn producers based on these improved forecasts, could substantially reduce uncertai...

  14. Corn fiber utilization for production of Schizophyllan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn fiber is an abundant coproduct of the corn wet milling process, primarily composed of the seed pericarp and adherent starch. Schizophyllan is a biopolymer composed entirely of glucose, with a ß-1,3-linked backbone and single ß-1,6-linked glucose side chains at every third residue, produced by t...

  15. Sweet Corn Hybrid Disease Nursery - 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report summarizes the reactions of 387 sweet corn hybrids to Stewart’s wilt, common rust, maize dwarf mosaic virus, Southern leaf blight, and Northern leaf blight based on their performance in the University of Illinois sweet corn disease nursery in 2009. The reactions of these hybrids to three...

  16. INTACT OR UNIT-KERNEL SWEET CORN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report evaluates process and product modifications in canned and frozen sweet corn manufacture with the objective of reducing the total effluent produced in processing. In particular it evaluates the proposed replacement of process steps that yield cut or whole kernel corn w...

  17. The corn blight problem: 1970 and 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E.

    1972-01-01

    Southern corn leaf blight is caused by the fungus, Helminthosporium maydis. Race T of H maydis adapted itself to the Texas male sterile cytoplasm corn. The problems caused by this variety of the blight in 1970 and 1971 are discussed, as well as the symptoms and development of the disease.

  18. Critical Precipitation Period for Dryland Corn Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain yields for dryland corn (Zea mays L.) production in the semi-arid Great Plains of the United States can be very unpredictable because of the erratic nature of growing season precipitation. Because inputs costs for corn production can be very high, farmers need to have a tool that will help the...

  19. Corn production with Spray, LEPA, and SDI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn, a major irrigated crop in the U.S. Great Plains, has a large irrigation requirement making efficient, effective irrigation technology important. The objective of this paper was to compare corn productivity for different irrigation methods and irrigation rates in 2009 and 2010 at Bushland, Texa...

  20. Active sensor assessment of corn nitrogen status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Use of active sensor measurements of in-season corn (Zea mays L.) nitrogen (N) status for directing spatially-variable N applications has been advocated to improve N use efficiency. However, first it is necessary to confirm that active sensors can reliably assess corn N status. Our research goals we...

  1. CONVERSION OF CORN FIBROUS MATERIAL INTO ETHANOL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 1.7 billion gallons of fuel ethanol were produced in the U.S. (2001), over 90% of which was produced from corn. Corn is prepared for ethanol fermentation by either wet milling or dry grinding in approximately equal volumes. In both processes, the fibrous components of the kernel are folded in...

  2. Sweet Corn Hybrid Disease Nursery - 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report summarizes the reactions of 439 sweet corn hybrids to Stewart’s wilt, common rust, maize dwarf mosaic virus, Southern leaf blight, and Northern leaf blight based on their performance in the University of Illinois sweet corn disease nursery in 2010. The reactions of these hybrids to two h...

  3. Erraticity of sprinkler irrigated corn in 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sprinkler non-uniformity effects on corn are accentuated in a drought. The lack of rainfall during the 2011 corn growing season in Colby, Kansas illustrated many fields irrigated by center pivot sprinklers that had poor crops due to non-uniform irrigation. Many of these effects were due to use of ...

  4. Corn plant locating by image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jiancheng; Krutz, Gary W.; Gibson, Harry W.

    1991-02-01

    The feasibility investigation of using machine vision technology to locate corn plants is an important issue for field production automation in the agricultural industry. This paper presents an approach which was developed to locate the center of a corn plant using image processing techniques. Corn plants were first identified using a main vein detection algorithm by detecting a local feature of corn leaves leaf main veins based on the spectral difference between mains and leaves then the center of the plant could be located using a center locating algorithm by tracing and extending each detected vein line and evaluating the center of the plant from intersection points of those lines. The experimental results show the usefulness of the algorithm for machine vision applications related to corn plant identification. Such a technique can be used for pre. cisc spraying of pesticides or biotech chemicals. 1.

  5. Soil application of an encapsulated CO2 source and its potential for management of western corn rootworm larvae.

    PubMed

    Schumann, M; Patel, A; Vidal, S

    2014-02-01

    Western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) larvae use carbon dioxide (CO2) to locate the roots of their hosts. This study investigated whether an encapsulated CO2 source (CO2-emitting capsules) is able to outcompete CO2 gradients established by corn root respiration in the soil. Furthermore, the following two management options with the capsules were tested in semifield experiments (0.5- to 1-m2 greenhouse plots): the disruption of host location and an "attract-and-kill" strategy in which larvae were lured to a soil insecticide (Tefluthrin) between the corn rows. The attract-and-kill strategy was compared with an application of Tefluthrin in the corn rows (conventional treatment) at 33 and 18% of the standard field application rate. Application of the CO2-emitting capsules 30 cm from the plant base increased CO2 levels near the application point for up to 20 d with a peak at day 10. Both the disruption of host location and an attract-and-kill strategy caused a slight but nonsignificant reduction in larval densities. The disruption of host location caused a 17% reduction in larval densities, whereas an attract-and-kill strategy with Tefluthrin added at 33 and 18% of the standard application rate caused a 24 and 27% reduction in larval densities, respectively. As presently formulated, the CO2-emitting capsules, either with or without insecticide, do not provide adequate control of western corn rootworm. PMID:24665706

  6. Insecticidal activity of monoterpenoids to western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), twospotted spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae), and house fly (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Tsao, R; Peterson, C; Coats, J R

    1997-08-01

    Acute toxicities of 34 naturally occurring monoterpenoids were evaluated against 3 important arthropod pest species; the larva of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte; the adult of the twospotted spider mite. Tetranychus urticae Koch; and the adult house fly. Musca domestica L. Potential larvicidal or acaricidal activities of each monoterpenoid were determined by topical application, leaf-dip method, soil bioassay, and greenhouse pot tests. Phytotoxicity was also tested on a corn plant. Citronellic acid and thymol were the most topically toxic against the house fly, and citronellol and thujone were the most effective on the western corn rootworm. Most of the monoterpenoids were lethal to the twospotted spider mite at high concentrations; carvomenthenol and terpinen-4-ol were especially effective. A wide range of monoterpenoids showed some larvicidal activity against the western corn rootworm in the soil bioassay. Perillaldehyde, the most toxic (LC50 = 3 micrograms/g) in soil, was only 1/3 as toxic as carbofuran, a commercial soil insecticide (LC50 = 1 microgram/g). Selected monoterpenoids also effectively protected corn roots from attack by the western corn rootworm larvae under greenhouse conditions. alpha-Terpineol was the best monoterpenoid in the greenhouse pot test. The acute toxicity of monoterpenoids was low relative to conventional insecticides. Some monoterpenoids were phytotoxic to corn roots and leaves. l-Carvone was the most phytotoxic, whereas pulegone was the safest. The results with thymyl ethyl ether, one of the synthetic derivatives of thymol, showed a potential of derivatization to reduce monoterpenoid phytotoxicity. PMID:9260540

  7. Genetic monitoring of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) populations on a microgeographic scale.

    PubMed

    Ivkosic, S A; Gorman, J; Lemic, D; Mikac, K M

    2014-06-01

    Microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA genetic monitoring of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, was undertaken in Croatia and Serbia from 1996 to 2011 and in the United States in 2011. The seven U.S. populations displayed the greatest allelic diversity. In Europe, the highest number of alleles was found in Rugvica, Croatia, and Surčin, Serbia, the two sites closest to international airports. The highest number of mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplotypes was recorded from Croatia in 1996. From 2009 to 2011, haplotype diversity declined, and Croatia and Serbia had a single fixed haplotype. U.S. continuous maize locations had one haplotype, while three haplotypes were found at crop-rotated locations. Minimal temporal genetic differentiation was found within and between populations in Europe and the United States. Bayesian cluster analysis identified two genetic clusters that grouped western corn rootworm from Croatia and Serbia separately from U.S. populations; however, these clusters were not neat, and numerous U.S. individuals had both European and U.S. ancestry, suggesting bidirectional gene flow. Bottlenecks were identified within most Croatian populations sampled in 1996, only two populations in 2009, and in all populations in 2011. Bottlenecks were not identified from Serbia from 1996 to 2011 or from the United States in 2011. As suspected Serbia was identified as the geographic source of western corn rootworm in Croatia. The temporal genetic monitoring undertaken allowed a deeper understanding of the population genetics of western corn rootworm in Croatia, neighboring Serbia, and its geographic source in the United States. The data obtained can be used to inform western corn rootworm pest management strategies in Croatia and Europe. PMID:24690224

  8. Western corn rootworm and Bt maize: challenges of pest resistance in the field.

    PubMed

    Gassmann, Aaron J; Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L; Keweshan, Ryan S; Dunbar, Mike W

    2012-01-01

    Crops genetically engineered to produce insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) manage many key insect pests while reducing the use of conventional insecticides. One of the primary pests targeted by Bt maize in the United States is the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. Beginning in 2009, populations of western corn rootworm were identified in Iowa, USA that imposed severe root injury to Cry3Bb1 maize. Subsequent laboratory bioassays revealed that these populations were resistant to Cry3Bb1 maize, with survival on Cry3Bb1 maize that was three times higher than populations not associated with such injury. Here we report the results of research that began in 2010 when western corn rootworm were sampled from 14 fields in Iowa, half of which had root injury to Cry3Bb1 maize of greater than 1 node. Of these samples, sufficient eggs were collected to conduct bioassays on seven populations. Laboratory bioassays revealed that these 2010 populations had survival on Cry3Bb1 maize that was 11 times higher and significantly greater than that of control populations, which were brought into the laboratory prior to the commercialization of Bt maize for control of corn rootworm. Additionally, the developmental delays observed for control populations on Cry3Bb1 maize were greatly diminished for 2010 populations. All 2010 populations evaluated in bioassays came from fields with a history of continuous maize production and between 3 and 7 y of Cry3Bb1 maize cultivation. Resistance to Cry34/35Ab1 maize was not detected and there was no correlation between survival on Cry3Bb1 maize and Cry34/35Ab1 maize, suggesting a lack of cross resistance between these Bt toxins. Effectively dealing with the challenge of field-evolved resistance to Bt maize by western corn rootworm will require better adherence to the principles of integrated pest management. PMID:22688688

  9. Larval sampling and instar determination in field populations of northern and western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Hammack, Leslie; Ellsbury, Michael M; Roehrdanz, Richard L; Pikul, Joseph L

    2003-08-01

    Abundance and head capsule width were measured for northern (Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence) and western corn rootworm (D. virgifera virgifera LeConte) larvae recovered primarily from maize root systems but also from large soil cores each centered around a root system. Larvae for measurement derived from field populations under infestation and rotation regimes that allowed most specimens to be assigned to species. A frequency distribution of head capsule widths indicated three separate peaks for western corn rootworm, presumably representing frequency of the three larval instars, with no larvae measuring 280 or 420 microm in the valleys between peaks. Multiple normal curves fit to similar but partially overlapping peaks generated by northern corn rootworm suggested that division of first to second and second to third instar can best be made for this species at 267 and 406 microm, respectively (270 and 410 when measurements are made to the nearest 20 microm). These results implied that instar of individuals from mixed northern and western corn rootworm populations can be accurately judged from head capsule width without having to determine species. The relative abundance of western corn rootworm instars was similar in root systems removed from the center of 19-cm diameter x 19-cm deep soil cores and in soil cores from which the root systems were removed. Furthermore, the number of larvae from root systems correlated significantly with that from the surrounding soil. These results indicated that the former and much more convenient sampling unit can be used to estimate population developmental stage and possibly density, at least early in the season when these tests were done and young larvae predominated. PMID:14503586

  10. Pilot process for decolorizing/deodorizing commercial corn zein products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn zein is the major protein component of ground corn, and co-products of the corn ethanol industry which includes distiller’s dried grains and corn gluten meal. Zein products generated from those materials all possess some degree of yellow color and off-odor that deters their usage in food syste...

  11. On-Farm Validation of Alfalfa N Credits to Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rotating alfalfa with corn is useful for reducing soil erosion, enhancing soil tilth and carbon storage, reducing weed seedbanks, disrupting the life cycles of disease and insect pests of corn, and supplying nitrogen (N) to the subsequent corn crop. To adjust N fertilizer rates for corn following al...

  12. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than...

  13. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  14. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  15. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than...

  16. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  17. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  18. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  19. 21 CFR 137.211 - White corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false White corn flour. 137.211 Section 137.211 Food and... Related Products § 137.211 White corn flour. (a) White corn flour is the food prepared by so grinding and bolting cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this...

  20. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than...

  1. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  2. 21 CFR 137.211 - White corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false White corn flour. 137.211 Section 137.211 Food and... Related Products § 137.211 White corn flour. (a) White corn flour is the food prepared by so grinding and bolting cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this...

  3. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  4. 21 CFR 137.211 - White corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false White corn flour. 137.211 Section 137.211 Food and... Related Products § 137.211 White corn flour. (a) White corn flour is the food prepared by so grinding and bolting cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this...

  5. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  6. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265...

  7. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that...

  8. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than...

  9. Nitrogen Fertilizer Applications for Corn Based on Sufficiency Index Calculations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn was grown in both continuous corn and corn/soybean cropping systems under irrigation in the Platte Valley of Nebraska. The objective of the study was to determine whether in-season N stress measured by using chlorophyll meters could be used to determine N fertilizer applications. Four corn hyb...

  10. Multipass rotary shear comminution process to produce corn stover particles

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2015-04-14

    A process of comminution of corn stover having a grain direction to produce a mixture of corn stover, by feeding the corn stover in a direction of travel substantially randomly to the grain direction one or more times through a counter rotating pair of intermeshing arrays of cutting discs (D) arrayed axially perpendicular to the direction of corn stover travel.

  11. Native Resistance of Maize to Western Corn Rootworm Larval Feeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western corn rootworm (WCR) is a major insect pest in continuous corn production. By feeding on corn roots, WCR causes economic losses due to plant lodging and decreased nutrient uptake. Currently, insecticides and transgenic corn are only available options for its control under continuous cor...

  12. Possible causes of dry pea synergy to corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry pea improves corn yield and tolerance to weed interference compared with soybean, spring wheat, or canola as preceding crops. To understand this synergy between dry pea and corn, we examined growth and nutrient concentration of corn following dry pea or soybean in sequence. Each corn plot was ...

  13. Studies of Corn Stover Decomposition Using the Litter Bag Technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decomposition rates of residue from three genetically-modified corn hybrids expressing one or more Bt endotoxins were compared to that of residue from a near isogenic, unmodified hybrid. The corn hybrids were (i) DKC60-16 (Yieldguard Corn Borer), (ii) DKC60-12 (Yieldguard Corn Rootworm), (iii) DKC60...

  14. 34. Credit JTL. Second floor, view of Monarch Co. Corn ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Credit JTL. Second floor, view of Monarch Co. Corn cracking machine, by Sprout, Waldron and Co., (Muncy, PA), which cut and diced corn to a uniform size, then separated it into three grades of cracked corn and corn meal and removed chaff. - Bunker Hill Mill, County Route 26, Bunker Hill, Berkeley County, WV

  15. Deposition of insecticides on corn silks applied at high and low spray rates for control of corn earworm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn earworm is a major pest of sweet corn, especially when grown organically. Aerial application of insecticides is important for both conventionally- and organically-grown sweet corn production as sweet corn is frequently irrigated to assure return on investment given the high production costs. ...

  16. Effects of amylose, corn protein and corn fiber contents on production of ethanol from starch-rich media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of amylose: amylopectin ratio, and protein and fiber contents on ethanol yields were evaluated by using artificially formulated media made from commercial corn starches with different contents of amylose, corn protein, and corn fiber, as well as different cereal sources, including corn, ...

  17. Rubidium marking technique for the European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in corn

    SciTech Connect

    Legg, D.E.; Chiang, H.C.

    1984-04-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments conducted in 1980 showed that rubidium (Rb) could be used to mark corn plants and emergent European corn borer (ECB), Ostrinia nubilalis (Huebner), moths. Rb had no adverse effects on pre-adult mortality, moth deformity, or fecundity. The best application method for marking ECB moths was an over-the-top + directed foliar spray to the corn plants. 14 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  18. Isolation of corn semiochemicals attractive and repellent to western corn rootworm larvae.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, B E; Bjostad, L B

    1990-12-01

    Dichloromethane extracts of germinating corn are significantly attractive to western corn rootworm larvae in choice tests with equal levels of carbon dioxide present on both sides of the choice. Two fractions that are significantly attractive and two fractions that are significantly repellent to larvae were isolated from these extracts of germinating corn by gas chromatography and silica gel chromatography. In a separate set of experiments, Porapak N was used to collect headspace volatiles from germinating corn; significantly more larvae were attracted to aliquots of these extracts in singlechoice tests without added carbon dioxide present than to solvent controls. PMID:24263439

  19. NEP facilities (LeRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrone, Robert H.

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the Electric Propulsion Research Building (no. 16) the Electric Power Laboratory (BLDG. 301); the Tank 6 Vacuum Facility; and test facilities for electric propulsion and LeRC.

  20. Fusaric acid and pathogenic interactions of corn and non-corn isolates of Fusarium moniliforme, a nonobligate pathogen of corn.

    PubMed

    Bacon, C W; Hinton, D M

    1996-01-01

    Fusarium moniliform is a nonobligate parasite of corn, which exists as a complex of closely related fungi from different mating population or biological species. Strains of this fungus isolated from corn, have been determined to belong to mating populations A, although other populations have been isolated from corn. The ultrastructural association of the fungus with corn during growth, and the effects of the host on suppression of disease suppression are reviewed. This fungus enters a relationship with corn cultivars that is not always pathogenic. Pathogenesis is delayed, if it ever occurs. F. moniliforme can exist entirely as an endophyte, systemically colonizing kernels, remaining there until germination upon which the fungus infects the emerging seedlings. The symptomless association persists during the growth cycle of corn, and the resulting endophytic hyphae may be the source of mycotoxin production. The host's ability to suppress the fungus appears to be related to one class of compounds, the cyclic hydroxamic acids and their decomposition products, which can be catabolized by the fungi of mating population A but not C. PMID:8850616

  1. Le bégaiement

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Hector R.; Stoeckle, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Fournir une mise à jour sur l’épidémiologie, l’hérédité, la physiopathologie, le diagnostic et le traitement du bégaiement développemental. Qualité des données Une recherche d’études récentes ou non portant sur l’épidémiologie, l’hérédité, la physiopathologie, le diagnostic et le traitement du bégaiement développemental a été effectuée dans les bases de données MEDLINE et Cochrane. La plupart des recommandations s’appuient sur des études de petite envergure, des données probantes de qualité limitée ou des consensus. Message principal Le bégaiement est un trouble d’élocution fréquent chez les personnes de tous âges, il altère la fluidité verbale normale et l’enchaînement du discours. Le bégaiement a été lié à des différences de l’anatomie, du fonctionnement et de la régulation dopaminergique du cerveau qui seraient de source génétique. Il importe de poser le diagnostic avec attention et de faire les recommandations qui conviennent chez les enfants, car de plus en plus, le consensus veut que l’intervention précoce par un traitement d’orthophonie soit cruciale chez les enfants bègues. Chez les adultes, le bégaiement est lié à une morbidité psychosociale substantielle, dont l’anxiété sociale et une piètre qualité de vie. Les traitements pharmacologiques ont soulevé l’intérêt depuis quelques années, mais les données cliniques sont limitées. Le traitement des enfants et des adultes repose sur l’orthophonie. Conclusion De plus en plus de recherches ont tenté de lever le voile sur la physiopathologie du bégaiement. La meilleure solution pour les enfants et les adultes bègues demeure la recommandation à un traitement d’orthophonie.

  2. Specific energy requirement for compacting corn stover.

    PubMed

    Mani, Sudhagar; Tabil, Lope G; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2006-08-01

    Corn stover is a major crop residue for biomass conversion to produce chemicals and fuels. One of the problems associated with the supply of corn stover to conversion plants is the delivery of feedstock at a low cost. Corn stover has low bulk density and it is difficult to handle. In this study, chopped corn stover samples were compacted in a piston cylinder under three pressure levels (5, 10, 15 MPa) and at three moisture content levels (5%, 10%, 15% (wb)) to produce briquettes. The total energy requirement to compress and extrude briquette ranged from 12 to 30 MJ/t. The briquette density ranged from 650 to 950 kg/m3 increasing with pressure. Moisture content had also a significant effect on briquette density, durability and stability. Low moisture stover (5-10%) resulted in denser, more stable and more durable briquettes than high moisture stover (15%). PMID:16139500

  3. Pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of corn fiber

    SciTech Connect

    Grohmann, K.; Bothast, R.J.

    1996-10-01

    Corn fiber is a co-product of the corn wet milling industry which is usually marketed as a low value animal feed ingredient. Approximately 1.2 x 10{sup 6} dry tons of this material are produced annually in the United States. The fiber is composed of kernel cell wall fractions and a residual starch which can all be potentially hydrolyzed to a mixture of glucose, xylose, arabinose and galactose. We have investigated a sequential saccharification of polysaccharides in corn fiber by a treatment with dilute sulfuric acid at 100 to 160{degrees}C followed by partial neutralization and enzymatic hydrolysis with mixed cellulose and amyloglucosidase enzymes at 45{degrees}C. The sequential treatment achieved a high (approximately 85%) conversion of all polysaccharides in the corn fiber to monomeric sugars, which were in most cases fermentable to ethanol by the recombinant bacterium Escherichia coli KOll.

  4. Corn contact urticaria in a nurse.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wendy; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2007-05-01

    A 33-year-old nurse presented with persistent hand dermatitis. Radioallergosorbent tests showed moderate to strong reactions to latex, avocado and banana. Despite avoidance of latex gloves, she failed to improve. Patch testing was negative. Prick testing showed a negative reaction to latex, but a strong reaction to corn, with relevance to cornstarch powder present in many medical examination gloves. She was diagnosed with corn contact urticaria, irritant contact dermatitis and type I hypersensitivity to latex fruits. PMID:17535205

  5. Springback and diagravitropism in Merit corn roots.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, M O; Leopold, A C

    1992-01-01

    Dark-treated Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots are diagravitropic and lose curvature upon withdrawal of the gravity stimulus (springback). Springback was not detected in a variety of corn that is orthogravitropic in the dark, nor in Merit roots in which tropistic response was enhanced either with red light or with abscisic acid. A possible interpretation is that springback may be associated with a weak growth response of diagravitropic roots. PMID:11537884

  6. Springback and diagravitropism in Merit corn roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, M. O.; Leopold, A. C.

    1992-01-01

    Dark-treated Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots are diagravitropic and lose curvature upon withdrawal of the gravity stimulus (springback). Springback was not detected in a variety of corn that is orthogravitropic in the dark, nor in Merit roots in which tropistic response was enhanced either with red light or with abscisic acid. A possible interpretation is that springback may be associated with a weak growth response of diagravitropic roots.

  7. Springback and diagravitropism in Merit corn roots.

    PubMed

    Kelly, M O; Leopold, A C

    1992-06-01

    Dark-treated Merit corn (Zea mays L.) roots are diagravitropic and lose curvature upon withdrawal of the gravity stimulus (springback). Springback was not detected in a variety of corn that is orthogravitropic in the dark, nor in Merit roots in which tropistic response was enhanced either with red light or with abscisic acid. A possible interpretation is that springback may be associated with a weak growth response of diagravitropic roots. PMID:11537884

  8. Long-chain free fatty acids: Semiochemicals for host location by western corn rootworm larvae.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, B E; Bernklau, E J; Bjostad, L B

    1994-12-01

    A bioassay-driven sequential fractionation scheme was used to isolate fractions of a crude dichloromethane maize seedling extract behaviorally active to larvae of the western corn rootworm,Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. (Z,Z)-9,12-Octadecadienoic (linoleic) acid, (Z)-9-octadecenoic (oleic) acid, and octadecanoic (stearic) acid were identified from a purified fraction of maize extract that was attractive to western corn rootworm larvae in choice tests with equal levels of carbon dioxide on both sides of the choice. When synthetic linoleic, oleic, and stearic acids were tested together in the amounts and proportions found in the attractive fraction (1000, 800, and 300 ng of linoleic, oleic, and stearic acids, respectively), significantly more western corn rootworm larvae were found on the side with synthetic free fatty acids plus carbon dioxide than on the side with carbon dioxide alone. Results of the choice-test bioassays were not significantly different when the synthetic blend of free fatty acids was substituted for the purified maize fraction. Neither the purified extract nor the synthetic blend was behaviorally active in preliminary single-choice experiments without carbon dioxide. Linoleic, oleic, and stearic acids were also tested individually in the choice test bioassay with carbon dioxide on both sides of the choice to determine a dose-response curve. Linoleic and oleic acid each had one dose that was significantly attractive in conjunction with carbon dioxide on both sides of the choice, but stearic acid was not active in the doses tested. PMID:24241996

  9. Interaction of insecticides, entomopathogenic nematodes, and larvae of the western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Nishimatsu, T; Jackson, J J

    1998-04-01

    Chemical insecticides and entomopathogenic nematodes have been independently used to suppress corn rootworm damage in maize. We report on the mortality response of larvae of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, to the combined treatment with 1 of 3 insecticides (terbufos, fonofos, and tefluthrin) and the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser (Mexican strain). Corn rootworm mortality with combinations of the insecticides terbufos or fonofos and S. carpocapsae was typically additive for the 2 agents. Evidence of antagonism between these agents was sometimes observed. The combination of tefluthrin with S. carpocapsae frequently resulted in a synergistic response and a 24% average increase in expected mortality. The influence of the tefluthrin appears to be isolated to an effect on the rootworm larvae. Synergism also was observed when tefluthrin was combined with the nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Lewiston strain). The combined use of tefluthrin with an entomopathogenic nematode may offer an integrated approach to increase the efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes for insect control. PMID:9589627

  10. Le pompage optique naturel dans le milieu astrophysique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecker, J.-C.

    The title of this lecture abstracts only a part of it : the importance in astrophysics of the study of non-LTE situations has become considerable, as well in the stellar atmospheres as, still more, in the study of fortuitous coincidences as a mechanism of formation of emission line nebular spectra, or of molecular interstellar « masers ». Another part of this talk underlines the role of Kastler in his time, and describes his warm personality through his public reactions in front of the nuclear armement, of the Viet-Nam and Algerian wars, of the problems of political refugees... Kastler was a great scientist ; he was also a courageous humanist. 1976 : Les accords nucléaires du Brésil : allocution d'ouverture (19 mars). Colloque sur le sujet ci-dessus. 1976 : La promotion de la culture dans le nouvel ordre économique international, allocution à l'occasion d'une table ronde sur ce thème par l'UNESCO (23-27 juin 1976) ; « Sciences et Techniques », octobre 1976. 1979 : La bête immonde (avec J.-C. Pecker), « Le Matin », 20 mars. 1979 : Appel à nos ministres (avec J.-C. Pecker), « Le Monde », 13 décembre. 1979 : Le flou, le ténébreux, l'irrationnel (avec J.-C. Pecker), « Le Monde », 14 septembre. 1980 : Education à la paix, Préface, in : Publ. UNESCO. 1981 : Le vrai danger, « Le Monde », 6 août 1981. 1982 : Nucléaire civil et militaire, « Le Monde », 1er juin 1982. 1982 : Les scientifiques face à la perspective d'holocauste nucléaire (texte inédit). Le titre de cette communication en résume seulement une partie : l'importance prise en astrophysique par l'analyse des situations hors ETL est devenue considérable, qu'il s'agisse des atmosphères stellaires, ou plus encore, des coïncidences fortuites de la formation des spectres d'émission nébulaires, ou des « masers » moléculaires interstellaires. Une autre partie de cet exposé souligne lele de Kastler dans son époque, et décrit sa personnalité généreuse à travers ses r

  11. A process for the aqueous enzymatic extraction of corn oil from dry-milled corn germ and enzymatic wet milled corn germ (E-Germ)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we reported an aqueous enzymatic oil extraction process that achieved oil yields of 80-90% using corn germ from a commercial corn wet mill. Three commercial cellulases were reported to result in similar oil yields when wet milles corn germ was used as a feedstock in this process. When ...

  12. Comparing production practices and costs for continuous corn and corn-soybean cropping systems: A National Survey of 2005 corn-for-grain producers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forecasts for increased corn acreage will likely lead to an increase in continuous corn cropping systems which may require producers to adjust their production practices compared to the more widely practiced corn-soybean rotation system. Using 2005 field-level data from a probability-based national...

  13. COMPARISON OF FEEDING CORN SILAGES FROM LEAFY OR CONVENTIONAL CORN HYBRIDS TO LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three corn hybrids (Pioneer 36F30, Mycogen TMF2450, and Mycogen TMF2404) were compared for yield, plant components, nutrient composition, in vitro digestibility, apparent digestibility, and lactation performance by Holstein cows. The three corn silages were harvested at a target of 33 to 35% dry mat...

  14. Resistance Management Monitoring for the US Corn Crop to the Illinois Corn Growers Association

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant increases in genetically modified corn planting are expected for future planted acreages approaching 80% of total corn plantings anticipated by 2009. As demand increases, incidence of farmer non-compliance with mandated non-genetically modified refuge is likely to in...

  15. Use of Spectral Vegetation Indices for Detection of European Corn Borer Infestation in Iowa Corn Plots

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, corn grown for grain in the United States has increased from 28 million ha in 2006 to more than 35 million ha in 2007 with a production value of over $52 billion dollars. Transgenic corn expressing the plant incorporated protectant Bacillus thuringiensis toxin represen...

  16. Open-Pollinated Corn Varietal Hybrids: Diverse Germplasm for Corn Improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is some renewed interest in open-pollinated varieties (OPVs) and open-pollinated varietal hybrids (OPVhs) of corn, especially among organic and low-input farmers, due to their stable yield and broad adaptation as compared with hybrid corn. In addition, open-pollinated varietal hybrids may have...

  17. Rye-corn silage double-cropping reduces corn yield but improves environmental impacts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent proliferation of large dairies has prompted concern regarding the environmental impacts of associated corn silage production and high rate manure application. Our objectives were to compare forage production and environmental impacts of corn (Zea mays L.) silage and rye (Secale cereal L.)-cor...

  18. Increased Survival of Western Corn Rootworm on Transgenic Corn Within Three Generations of Onplant Greenhouse Selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agricultural industry has adopted a high dose/refuge strategy as a means of delaying the onset of insect resistance to transgenic crops. Recently, Bt corn products developed for control of western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, have been introduced with less than high-dose...

  19. Corn Snake Genetics: Students Learn about the Fundamentals of Mendelism by Studying Corn Snakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kristin

    2004-01-01

    In an attempt to generate student enthusiasm on the subject of genetics, the author developed a Punnett square activity centered on the genetics of corn snakes to teach students about Mendelism and genetic diversity. As they began the activity, however, some unexpected twists occurred that allowed for investigation into corn snake anatomy and…

  20. Distribution of structural carbohydrates in corn plants as influenced by corn residue management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of the Sun Grant Regional Partnership corn stover project, continuous corn (Zea mays L.) field studies incorporating stover removal management practices (0 and 100% removal) were established in both Alabama and South Carolina. Plots in both states were representative of major soil types in t...

  1. AgRISTARS: Supporting research. Classification of corn: Badhwar profile similarity technique. [us corn belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, W. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The same software programs used to classify spring wheat are applied to the classification of corn in 26 segments in the corn belt. Numerical results of the acreage estimation are given. Potential problem areas defined in an earlier application are examined.

  2. Corn stover removal impacts on soil greenhouse gas emissions in irrigated continuous corn systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harvesting corn stover for livestock feed or for cellulosic biofuel production may impact the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential of high-yield irrigated corn. Soil emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured over the 2011 growing season at two irri...

  3. Corn yield prediction using climatology

    SciTech Connect

    Duchon, C.E.

    1986-05-01

    A method is developed to predict corn yield during the growing season using a plant process model (CERES-Maize), current weather data and climatological data. The procedure is to place the current year's daily weather (temperature and precipitation) into the model up to the time the yield prediction is to be made and sequences of historical data (one sequence per year) after that time until the end of the growing season to produce yield estimates. The mean of the distribution of yield estimates is taken as the prediction. The variance associated with a prediction is relatively constant until the time of tassel initiation and then decreases toward zero as the season progresses. As a consequence, perfect weather forecasts reach their peak value between the beginning of ear growth and the beginning of grain fill. The change in the predicted yield in response to weather as the growing season progresses is discussed for 1983 and 1976 at Peoria, Illinois. Results are given of an attempt to incorporate 30-day Climate Analytic Center outlooks into the predictive scheme. 21 references, 14 figures, 1 table.

  4. Abundance and distribution of western and northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica spp.) and prevalence of rotation resistance in eastern Iowa.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Mike W; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2013-02-01

    The western corn rootworm Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and the northern corn rootworm Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are major pests of corn (Zea mays L.). Historically, crop rotation has been an effective management strategy, but both species have adapted to crop rotation in the Midwest. For both species in eastern Iowa, we measured abundance and prevalence of rotation resistance using sticky traps and emergence cages in fields of corn and soybean (Glycine max L.). Based on currently available data, we calculated the economic thresholds for these pests at two Diabrotica spp. per trap per day in cornfields and 1.5 D. v. virgifera per trap per day in soybean fields. The economic injury level of rotation-resistant D. barberi was determined to be 3.5 adult insects per emergence cage per year. Peak abundance of rootworm adults in cornfields was below economic thresholds in the majority of fields sampled, suggesting that management of rootworm larvae in continuous cornfields may not always be necessary. Rotation-resistant D. barberi was found throughout eastern Iowa using emergence cages in first-year cornfields, however, the abundance was below levels expected to impose economic injury in 14 of 17 fields evaluated. The presence of rotation-resistant D. v. virgifera, as measured by the occurrence of this insect in soybean fields, occurred only in northeastern Iowa and was also below the economic threshold. These data suggests that crop rotation remains a viable pest management strategy in eastern Iowa. PMID:23448029

  5. Prediction des rendements agricoles du mais et du soya, et du deficit en azote du mais a l'aide d'images aeroportees et d'un reseau de neurones a retropropagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serele, Zogbo Charles

    2002-01-01

    This thesis explores the suitability of the multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network for prediction of corn and soybean yield and for classification of nitrogen corn stressed vegetation. The results show while using a combination of vegetation and texture indices, and topographic data, we can successfully predict corn yield with MLP. The regression coefficient between observed and predicted yield for corn and soybean were respectively 92% and 43% for the middle season image only. This research also indicates that the information from an image is more important when it is acquired during the period of maximum crop biological activity. Thus, MLP developed on the middle season predicts the corn and soybean yield with respective R2 of 89% and 40%. The degree of relationship between the inputs and the outputs and the quality of the data are very important, because they determine the capabilities of the MLP. When the generalization capabilities of the MLP models were tested on a non-corrected crop yield dataset, the results drop to 45% and 36% for corn and soybean respectively. The MLP demonstrated also its capability to discriminate corn nitrogen status during the growing season. MLP models based on image spectral and textural indices reach a Kappa coefficient of 72% for middle season image and 81% for the combined multidate images. Image texture features also provide useful complementary information for the discrimination of different nitrogen stress levels. The best MLP for predicting corn nitrogen status was the one that integrates image features and topographic parameters. It outperforms the first one with an accuracy of 90% for middle season image and 95% for all two images. Evidence that topographic data are a critical discriminatory information source is both obvious and strong. In consequence, crop physiological status monitoring systems require taking into account the combined effects of soil background and canopy architecture. This thesis have highlighted

  6. Assessment Of Product In Corn And Soybean Intercropping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Mohammad Mehdi; Yadegari, Mehrab

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was conducted in research station of Fars in 2004, in a piece of Land with a clay texture. In order to evaluate the different ratios of CORN and SOYBEAN intercropping, in comparison to pure culture, a randomized complete block design with 4 replications was adapted. Treatments consist of: p1 = pure corn, p2 = pure soybean, p3 = 50% corn+50% soybean, p4 = %75 corn+%25 soybean, p5 = %75 soybean+%25 corn. This Experiment was conducted by using replacement system. Evaluated factors are as the following Soybean and corn seed yield in pure culture and intercropping, Land Equivalent Ratio, Relative corn yield, Relative soybean yield, aggressively. Results showed that the treatment with %75 SOYBEAN+%25 CORN with LER = 1.19 and also the treatment with %50 soybean+%50 corn with LER—1.11 have preference %19 and %11 respectively higher yield compared to pure culture. Also in relation to the aggressively in treatment with %50corn+%50 soybean and also with %75corn+%25soybean, corn was dominant. Finally the best treatment was %75 soybean+%25corn with %19 efficiency compared to pure culture.

  7. Early Detection and Mitigation of Resistance to Bt Maize by Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Andow, David A; Pueppke, Steven G; Schaafsma, Arthur W; Gassmann, Aaron J; Sappington, Thomas W; Meinke, Lance J; Mitchell, Paul D; Hurley, Terrance M; Hellmich, Richard L; Porter, R Pat

    2016-02-01

    Transgenic Bt maize that produces less than a high-dose has been widely adopted and presents considerable insect resistance management (IRM) challenges. Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, has rapidly evolved resistance to Bt maize in the field, leading to local loss of efficacy for some corn rootworm Bt maize events. Documenting and responding to this resistance has been complicated by a lack of rapid diagnostic bioassays and by regulatory triggers that hinder timely and effective management responses. These failures are of great concern to the scientific and agricultural community. Specific challenges posed by western corn rootworm resistance to Bt maize, and more general concerns around Bt crops that produce less than a high-dose of Bt toxin, have caused uncertainty around current IRM protocols. More than 15 years of experience with IRM has shown that high-dose and refuge-based IRM is not applicable to Bt crops that produce less than a high-dose. Adaptive IRM approaches and pro-active, integrated IRM-pest management strategies are needed and should be in place before release of new technologies that produce less than a high-dose. We suggest changes in IRM strategies to preserve the utility of corn rootworm Bt maize by 1) targeting local resistance management earlier in the sequence of responses to resistance and 2) developing area-wide criteria to address widespread economic losses. We also favor consideration of policies and programs to counteract economic forces that are contributing to rapid resistance evolution. PMID:26362989

  8. What stages in the phenology of corn are the most correlated with rainfed corn yields in the Corn Belt using remote sensing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Zachary Lee

    Two weekly and freely available remotely sensed vegetation indices, Vegetation Condition Index (VCI) and Temperature Condition Index (TCI), were assessed for state level corn yield correlation in the Corn Belt region of the United States for the years of 2007-2013. VCI and TCI were 16-km pixels which are derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). Corn pixels were identified by downloading yearly USDA Cropscape pixels for corn in each state. Irrigated corn pixels were removed by using the 2007 Irrigated Agriculture Dataset developed by Pervez and Brown (2010) as a mask. Corn pixels were then resampled to 16-km in ArcGIS 10.1, with only pixels with greater than 50% corn coverage being drawn. These corn pixels were then used to identify VCI and TCI corn pixels for each state. Weekly VCI and TCI corn pixel values were then averaged for each state and correlated with yield from the National Agriculture Statistics Service (NASS). For the Corn Belt as a whole, VCI had high positive correlation in Week 34 and TCI has high positive correlation in Week 28. The highest correlating VCI and TCI weeks for each state were then used for regression with yield. Seven of the 12 states had R2 values greater than 0.7, meaning at least 70 percent of the variation in yield for seven of the states can be explained by VCI and TCI.

  9. Temperature-Dependent Models for Predicting European Corn Borer Early Feeding on Corn in Missouri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magai, Robert Nthipe

    The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) is one of the most damaging insect pests to corn. Current yield losses attributed to the European corn borer are in the region of 400 million annually. Even though the European corn borer (ECB) has been extensively studied, few models exist that attempt to accurately predict its early infestation on corn. The basic problem encountered in formulating a first generation infestation prediction model is when to start calculating the temperature index. The exact conditions required to terminate diapause and the resumption of normal development are not well established. One of the old methods used in Missouri to predict the earliest date of ECB infestation involves the use of growing degree days, and by convention the heat units are arbitrarily calculated from January 1. This study was conducted to formulate prediction, and simulation-decision models for corn and first generation ECB infestation. The effects of variable maximum and minimum temperatures on the growth and development of the ECB were studied both in the laboratory and field designed experiments. Archival biological data from the IPM programs in three Missouri counties and weather data from weather stations were also used in corn phenology studies and to determine the dates of earliest ECB infestation on corn, for the period covering 1984 through 1989. Results from laboratory experiments suggest that the total growth and development period of ECB reared at variable temperatures is a constant value. However, the phenological development of the ECB stages does not follow a linear trend as earlier assumed during the introduction of the growing degree day model, but assumes a cubic curve. The starting point for the calculation of the temperature index in early spring occurs under conditions of longer than 13.0 hours of day length and a daily mean temperature of 60^ circF and above for at least five consecutive days. Three prediction models were developed. These are

  10. Le LHC, un tunnel cosmique

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Et si la lumière au bout du tunnel du LHC était cosmique ? En d?autres termes, qu?est-ce que le LHC peut nous apporter dans la connaissance de l?Univers ? Car la montée en énergie des accélérateurs de particules nous permet de mieux appréhender l?univers primordial, chaud et dense. Mais dans quel sens dit-on que le LHC reproduit des conditions proches du Big bang ? Quelles informations nous apporte-t-il sur le contenu de l?Univers ? La matière noire est-elle détectable au LHC ? L?énergie noire ? Pourquoi l?antimatière accumulée au CERN est-elle si rare dans l?Univers ? Et si le CERN a bâti sa réputation sur l?exploration des forces faibles et fortes qui opèrent au sein des atomes et de leurs noyaux, est-ce que le LHC peut nous apporter des informations sur la force gravitationnelle qui gouverne l?évolution cosmique ? Depuis une trentaine d?années, notre compréhension de l?univers dans ses plus grandes dimensions et l?appréhension de son comportement aux plus petites distances sont intimement liées : en quoi le LHC va-t-il tester expérimentalement cette vision unifiée ? Tout public, entrée libre / Réservations au +41 (0)22 767 76 76

  11. Bats initiate vital agroecological interactions in corn.

    PubMed

    Maine, Josiah J; Boyles, Justin G

    2015-10-01

    In agroecosystems worldwide, bats are voracious predators of crop pests and may provide services to farmers worth billions of U.S. dollars. However, such valuations make untested assumptions about the ecological effect of bats in agroecosystems. Specifically, estimates of the value of pest suppression services assume bats consume sufficient numbers of crop pests to affect impact pest reproduction and subsequent damage to crops. Corn is an essential crop for farmers, and is grown on more than 150 million hectares worldwide. Using large exclosures in corn fields, we show that bats exert sufficient pressure on crop pests to suppress larval densities and damage in this cosmopolitan crop. In addition, we show that bats suppress pest-associated fungal growth and mycotoxin in corn. We estimate the suppression of herbivory by insectivorous bats is worth more than 1 billion USD globally on this crop alone, and bats may further benefit farmers by indirectly suppressing pest-associated fungal growth and toxic compounds on corn. Bats face a variety of threats globally, but their relevance as predators of insects in ubiquitous corn-dominated landscapes underlines the economic and ecological importance of conserving biodiversity. PMID:26371304

  12. Agroecology of corn production in Tlaxcala, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Altieri, M.A.; Trujillo, J.

    1987-06-01

    The primary components of Tlaxcalan corn agriculture are described, including cropping patterns employed, resource management strategies, and interactions of human and biological factors. Tlaxcalan farmers grow corn in an array of polyculture and agroforestry designs that result in a series of ecological processes important for insect pest and soil fertility management. Measurements derived from a few selected fields show that trees integrated into cropping systems modify the aerial and soil environment of associated understory corn plants, influencing their growth and yields. With decreasing distance from trees, surface concentrations of most soil nutrients increase. Certain tree species affect corn yields more than others. Arthropod abundance also varies depending on their degree of association with one or more of the vegetational components of the system. Densities of predators and the corn pest Macrodactylus sp. depend greatly on the presence and phenology of adjacent alfalfa strips. Although the data were derived from nonreplicated fields, they nevertheless point out some important trends, information that can be used to design new crop association that will achieve sustained soil fertility and low pest potentials.

  13. Bats initiate vital agroecological interactions in corn

    PubMed Central

    Maine, Josiah J.; Boyles, Justin G.

    2015-01-01

    In agroecosystems worldwide, bats are voracious predators of crop pests and may provide services to farmers worth billions of U.S. dollars. However, such valuations make untested assumptions about the ecological effect of bats in agroecosystems. Specifically, estimates of the value of pest suppression services assume bats consume sufficient numbers of crop pests to affect impact pest reproduction and subsequent damage to crops. Corn is an essential crop for farmers, and is grown on more than 150 million hectares worldwide. Using large exclosures in corn fields, we show that bats exert sufficient pressure on crop pests to suppress larval densities and damage in this cosmopolitan crop. In addition, we show that bats suppress pest-associated fungal growth and mycotoxin in corn. We estimate the suppression of herbivory by insectivorous bats is worth more than 1 billion USD globally on this crop alone, and bats may further benefit farmers by indirectly suppressing pest-associated fungal growth and toxic compounds on corn. Bats face a variety of threats globally, but their relevance as predators of insects in ubiquitous corn-dominated landscapes underlines the economic and ecological importance of conserving biodiversity. PMID:26371304

  14. 2. View of NE elevation of corn crib showing doubletrack ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of NE elevation of corn crib showing double-track rail system leading to upper level. - Laurel Valley Sugar Plantation, Corn Crib, 2 miles South of Thibodaux on State Route 308, Thibodaux, Lafourche Parish, LA

  15. Preparation of antioxidative corn protein hydrolysates, purification and evaluation of three novel corn antioxidant peptides.

    PubMed

    Jin, Du-Xin; Liu, Xiao-Lan; Zheng, Xi-Qun; Wang, Xiao-Jie; He, Jun-Fang

    2016-08-01

    Corn gluten meal is a major co-product of corn wet milling. Corn gluten meal was hydrolyzed with Alcalase, Flavourzyme, Alcalase+Flavourzyme and Flavourzyme+Alcalase. At the substrate concentration of 10%, corn protein hydrolysate catalyzed by Alcalase had a degree of hydrolysis of 17.83%, which was higher than that by Flavourzyme (3.65%). The hydrolysate catalyzed by Alcalase+Flavourzyme exhibited better antioxidant activities and was further purified. Three novel antioxidant peptides were purified by a series of chromatographic techniques. Sequences of the three peptides were identified as Cys-Ser-Gln-Ala-Pro-Leu-Ala, Tyr-Pro-Lys-Leu-Ala-Pro-Asn-Glu and Tyr-Pro-Gln-Leu-Leu-Pro-Asn-Glu, respectively. Among the three peptides, Cys-Ser-Gln-Ala-Pro-Leu-Ala exhibited good reducing power and excellent scavenging capacities for DPPH radical and superoxide anion radical, with IC50 values of 0.116 and 0.39mg/ml, respectively. The results from our study indicate antioxidant potency of corn protein hydrolysates and peptides separated from corn gluten meal and can provide basic understanding for the application of corn protein hydrolysates as natural antioxidants. PMID:26988521

  16. Understanding successful resistance management: the European corn borer and Bt corn in the United States.

    PubMed

    Siegfried, Blair D; Hellmich, Richard L

    2012-01-01

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) has been a major pest of corn and other crops in North America since its accidental introduction nearly a hundred years ago. Wide adoption of transgenic corn hybrids that express toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis, referred to as Bt corn, has suppressed corn borer populations and reduced the pest status of this insect in parts of the Corn Belt. Continued suppression of this pest, however, will depend on managing potential resistance to Bt corn, currently through the high-dose refuge (HDR) strategy. In this review, we describe what has been learned with regard to O. nubilalis resistance to Bt toxins either through laboratory selection experiments or isolation of resistance from field populations. We also describe the essential components of the HDR strategy as they relate to O. nubilalis biology and ecology. Additionally, recent developments in insect resistance management (IRM) specific to O. nubilalis that may affect the continued sustainability of this technology are considered. PMID:22688691

  17. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§...

  18. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§...

  19. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§...

  20. A method for sampling waste corn

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frederick, R.B.; Klaas, E.E.; Baldassarre, G.A.; Reinecke, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    Corn had become one of the most important wildlife food in the United States. It is eaten by a wide variety of animals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus ), raccoon (Procyon lotor ), ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus , wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo ), and many species of aquatic birds. Damage to unharvested crops had been documented, but many birds and mammals eat waste grain after harvest and do not conflict with agriculture. A good method for measuring waste-corn availability can be essential to studies concerning food density and food and feeding habits of field-feeding wildlife. Previous methods were developed primarily for approximating losses due to harvest machinery. In this paper, a method is described for estimating the amount of waste corn potentially available to wildlife. Detection of temporal changes in food availability and differences caused by agricultural operations (e.g., recently harvested stubble fields vs. plowed fields) are discussed.

  1. Relevance of traditional integrated pest management (IPM) strategies for commercial corn producers in a transgenic agroecosystem: a bygone era?

    PubMed

    Gray, Michael E

    2011-06-01

    The use of transgenic Bt maize hybrids continues to increase significantly across the Corn Belt of the United States. In 2009, 59% of all maize planted in Illinois was characterized as a "stacked" gene variety. This is a 40% increase since 2006. Stacked hybrids typically express one Cry protein for corn rootworm control and one Cry protein for control of several lepidopteran pests; they also feature herbicide tolerance (to either glyphosate or glufosinate). Slightly more than 50 years has passed since Vernon Stern and his University of California entomology colleagues published (1959) their seminal paper on the integrated control concept, laying the foundation for modern pest management (IPM) programs. To assess the relevance of traditional IPM concepts within a transgenic agroecosystem, commercial maize producers were surveyed at a series of meetings in 2009 and 2010 regarding their perceptions on their use of Bt hybrids and resistance management. Special attention was devoted to two insect pests of corn, the European corn borer and the western corn rootworm. A high percentage of producers who participated in these meetings planted Bt hybrids in 2008 and 2009, 97 and 96.7%, respectively. Refuge compliance in 2008 and 2009, as mandated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), was 82 and 75.7%, respectively, for those producers surveyed. A large majority of producers (79 and 73.3% in 2009 and 2010, respectively) revealed that they would, or had, used a Bt hybrid for corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) or European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner) control even when anticipated densities were low. Currently, the EPA is evaluating the long-term use of seed blends (Bt and non-Bt) as a resistance management strategy. In 2010, a large percentage of producers, 80.4%, indicated they would be willing to use this approach. The current lack of integration of management tactics for insect pests of maize in the U.S. Corn Belt, due primarily to

  2. Nitrogen use and carbon sequestered by corn rotations in the northern corn belt, U.S.

    PubMed

    Pikul, J L; Schumacher, T E; Vigil, M

    2001-09-27

    Diversified crop rotation may improve production efficiency, reduce fertilizer nitrogen (N) requirements for corn (Zea mays L.), and increase soil carbon (C) storage. Objectives were to determine effect of rotation and fertilizer N on soil C sequestration and N use. An experiment was started in 1990 on a Barnes clay loam (U.S. soil taxonomy: fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, frigid Calcic Hapludoll) near Brookings, SD. Tillage systems for corn-soybean ( Glycine max [L.] Merr.) rotations were conventional tillage (CS) and ridge tillage (CSr). Rotations under conventional tillage were continuous corn (CC), and a 4-year rotation of corn-soybean-wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) companion-seeded with alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.)-alfalfa hay (CSWA). Additional treatments included plots of perennial warm season, cool season, and mixtures of warm and cool season grasses. N treatments for corn were corn fertilized for a grain yield of 8.5 Mg ha(-1) (highN), of 5.3 Mg ha(-1) (midN), and with no N fertilizer (noN). Total (1990-2000) corn grain yield was not different among rotations at 80.8 Mg ha(-1) under highN. Corn yield differences among rotations increased with decreased fertilizer N. Total (1990-2000) corn yields with noN fertilizer were 69 Mg ha-1 under CSWA, 53 Mg ha(-1) under CS, and 35 Mg ha(-1) under CC. Total N attributed to rotations (noN treatments) was 0.68 Mg ha(-1) under CSWA, 0.61 Mg ha(-1) under CS, and 0.28 Mg ha(-1) under CC. Plant carbon return depended on rotation and N. In the past 10 years, total C returned from above- ground biomass was 29.8 Mg ha(-1) under CC with highN, and 12.8 Mg ha(-1) under CSWA with noN. Soil C in the top 15 cm significantly increased (0.7 g kg(-1)) with perennial grass cover, remained unchanged under CSr, and decreased (1.7 g kg(-1)) under CC, CS, and CSWA. C to N ratio significantly narrowed (-0.75) with CSWA and widened (0.72) under grass. Diversified rotations have potential to increase N use efficiency and reduce fertilizer N

  3. Alfalfa: a companion crop with corn for bioenergy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn grain-based ethanol is the major form of biofuel production in the USA. However, there are concerns about growing corn in rotation with soybean or as a continuous corn crop for ethanol, including high energy inputs, high soil erosion potential, and high nutrient inputs and loss to the environme...

  4. Production of ethanol and furfural from corn stover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn stover has potential for economical production of biofuels and value-added chemicals. The conversion of corn stover to sugars involves pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. We have optimized hydrothermal, dilute H2SO4 and dilute H3PO4 pretreatments of corn stover for enzymatic saccharificati...

  5. 7 CFR 407.11 - Group risk plan for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Group risk plan for corn. 407.11 Section 407.11..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.11 Group risk plan for corn. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Corn for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  6. 7 CFR 407.11 - Group risk plan for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Group risk plan for corn. 407.11 Section 407.11..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.11 Group risk plan for corn. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Corn for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  7. 9 CFR 319.101 - Corned beef brisket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Corned beef brisket. 319.101 Section... Smoked § 319.101 Corned beef brisket. In preparing “Corned Beef Brisket,” the application of curing solution to the beef brisket shall not result in an increase in the weight of the finished cured product...

  8. 9 CFR 319.101 - Corned beef brisket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef brisket. 319.101 Section... Smoked § 319.101 Corned beef brisket. In preparing “Corned Beef Brisket,” the application of curing solution to the beef brisket shall not result in an increase in the weight of the finished cured product...

  9. 21 CFR 73.315 - Corn endosperm oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Corn endosperm oil. 73.315 Section 73.315 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.315 Corn endosperm oil. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive corn endosperm oil is a reddish-brown liquid composed chiefly of glycerides, fatty acids,...

  10. 21 CFR 73.315 - Corn endosperm oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Corn endosperm oil. 73.315 Section 73.315 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.315 Corn endosperm oil. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive corn endosperm oil is a reddish-brown liquid composed chiefly of glycerides, fatty acids,...

  11. 7 CFR 407.11 - Group risk plan for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Group risk plan for corn. 407.11 Section 407.11..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.11 Group risk plan for corn. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Corn for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  12. 21 CFR 73.315 - Corn endosperm oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Corn endosperm oil. 73.315 Section 73.315 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.315 Corn endosperm oil. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive corn endosperm oil is a reddish-brown liquid composed chiefly of glycerides, fatty acids,...

  13. 7 CFR 407.11 - Group risk plan for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Group risk plan for corn. 407.11 Section 407.11..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.11 Group risk plan for corn. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Corn for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  14. 1. Perspective view of the corn crib, taken from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Perspective view of the corn crib, taken from the southwest looking past the corn crib toward the north elevation of the chicken coop, showing the spatial relationship of the outbuildings to one another - Chellberg Farm, Corn Crib, 900 North Mineral Springs Road, Porter, Porter County, IN

  15. Wisconsin - Increased corn silage protein with intercropped lablab bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein supplements for livestock are costly. In recent research in southern WI, lablab bean grown with corn increased forage CP concentration over monoculture corn without compromising forage yield or potential milk production per acre. Corn was intercropped with each of three climbing beans: lab...

  16. Soil aggregation response to harvesting corn stover for bioenergy production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) stover has been identified as a primary feedstock for cellulosic bioenergy production in the U.S. Corn/Soybean Belt because of the vast area upon which the crop is grown. Developing sustainable cellulosic ethanol from corn stover residue has also been identified as a high priority...

  17. Detection of matrix-bound fumonisins in nixtamalized corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins found in corn and corn-based foods worldwide. They are produced by Fusarium, most notably F. verticillioides. Nixtamalization involves cooking and steeping corn in an alkaline solution and has been shown to reduce the amount of detectable fumonisins in the cooked products....

  18. Corn stover harvest: Likely effects on soil productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for corn stover for cattle feeding is likely to be especially high this year because of poor rainfed corn performance and because drought stressed pastures and rangeland are likely to be slow to recover in 2013 and stover will be needed to feed cows. Corn stover harvest is addressed in more d...

  19. Visual responses of corn silk flies (Diptera: Ulidiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn silk flies are major pests impacting fresh market sweet corn production in Florida and Georgia. Control depends solely on well-times applications of insecticides to protect corn ear development. Surveillance depends on visual inspection of ears with no effective trapping methods currently ava...

  20. Soil responses to stover management in the Northern Corn Belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Minnesota, at the northern edge of the United States Corn Belt, is among the top corn producing states in the country. National and local interest in using corn stover for energy sparked concerns that over-harvesting biomass would degrade the highly productive soils in the region. Therefore, a study...

  1. Corn Response to Nitrogen Following Onion in Rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, we evaluated the effects of residual soil N level plus applied N fertilizer (6 N rates) on corn grain yields and corn N uptake following the 2005 onion crop. Residual soil N levels in the 0- to 6-ft soil profile at corn planting ranged from 86 to 189 lb N/a where furrow irrigation was used...

  2. Impact of corn residue quantity on yield of following crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have observed that crop growth can be suppressed in fields where high quantities of corn residue are present on the soil surface. To examine this perceived trend, we grew dry pea, spring wheat, and red clover in two levels of corn residues, achieved by growing corn at 21,000 and 30,000 plants/ac...

  3. 21 CFR 573.530 - Hydrogenated corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrogenated corn syrup. 573.530 Section 573.530... Additive Listing § 573.530 Hydrogenated corn syrup. (a) Identity. The product is produced by hydrogenation of corn syrup over a nickel catalyst. (b) Specifications. The product contains 70...

  4. Evaluation of corn germ meal as extender in plywood adhesive

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of corn germ meal as protein extender in plywood adhesive. Partially defatted dried corn germ, containing 2.1% (dry basis, db) crude oil and 24.7% (db) crude protein, was ground to 40-mesh particle size. The corn germ meal was then substituted (on...

  5. Soil carbon levels in irrigated Western Corn Belt cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An irrigated monoculture corn, monoculture soybean, and soybean-corn cropping systems study was initiated in 1991 on a uniform site in the Platte Valley near Shelton, Nebraska. The objective was to determine the long-term effects of these cropping systems on soil organic carbon levels. Four corn hyb...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1866 - High fructose corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the Office of Food Additive Safety... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false High fructose corn syrup. 184.1866 Section 184... as GRAS § 184.1866 High fructose corn syrup. (a) High fructose corn syrup, a sweet,...

  7. 21 CFR 573.530 - Hydrogenated corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrogenated corn syrup. 573.530 Section 573.530... Additive Listing § 573.530 Hydrogenated corn syrup. (a) Identity. The product is produced by hydrogenation of corn syrup over a nickel catalyst. (b) Specifications. The product contains 70...

  8. 21 CFR 573.530 - Hydrogenated corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydrogenated corn syrup. 573.530 Section 573.530... Additive Listing § 573.530 Hydrogenated corn syrup. (a) Identity. The product is produced by hydrogenation of corn syrup over a nickel catalyst. (b) Specifications. The product contains 70...

  9. 21 CFR 573.530 - Hydrogenated corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydrogenated corn syrup. 573.530 Section 573.530... Additive Listing § 573.530 Hydrogenated corn syrup. (a) Identity. The product is produced by hydrogenation of corn syrup over a nickel catalyst. (b) Specifications. The product contains 70...

  10. 21 CFR 573.530 - Hydrogenated corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydrogenated corn syrup. 573.530 Section 573.530... Additive Listing § 573.530 Hydrogenated corn syrup. (a) Identity. The product is produced by hydrogenation of corn syrup over a nickel catalyst. (b) Specifications. The product contains 70...

  11. Ethanol Plant Siting and the Corn Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatal, Yeheshua Shay

    Corn-based ethanol production has affected U.S. agriculture in general and the corn market in particular for the last several years. This study provides practical insights on the linkage formed between the two industries. The study aims to answer questions related to ethanol industry growth such as: where will the next ethanol plants be located, what will be their capacities, and what will be the plant siting effect on corn supply and price in the plants' regions? Some of these questions have never been addressed in the literature while some have only been casually researched. The first chapter of the dissertation provides background on the ethanol industry. The second chapter investigates how changes in ethanol plant capacity affect corn supply geographically around the plant. The study is based on a county-level analysis of the 48 contiguous states for the years 2002-2008. The empirical analysis uses a non-linear least squares (NLS) model for estimating the key parameters and accounts for spatial autocorrelation. The results indicate that locating an ethanol plant in a county stimulates additional acres of planted corn within a 286-mile radius around the plant. An additional one million gallons of annual ethanol capacity is estimated to increase planted corn by 5.21 acres in the county in which the plant is located. This effect diminishes linearly to zero as the distance between the plant and other counties approaches 286 miles. In order to establish confidence intervals for the NLS estimators I utilize both residual and block bootstrap techniques. To account for spatial autocorrelation across counties, I employ a spatial error model.

  12. Le Planetaire (Around the World)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebouillet, Andre; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This section, "Le Planetaire," contains an interview with Anne Slack on the American Association of Teachers of French and contemporary French culture, a review of a dictionary of familiar French for students, dates to remember, events of interest to French teachers and a general bibliography. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  13. Impacts of climate change on corn yield and the length of corn growing season in U.S. Corn Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niyogi, D.; Liu, X.; Takle, E. S.; Anderson, C.; Andresen, J.; Alagarswamy, G.; Gramig, B. M.; Doering, O.

    2015-12-01

    This study is a result of a USDA sponsored project titled Useful to Usable (U2U): "Transforming Climate Variability and Change Information for Cereal Crop Producers". The objective of this project is to improve farm resilience and profitability in the U.S. Corn Belt region by transforming existing meteorological dataset into usable knowledge and tools for the agricultural community. In this study, we conducted the Hybrid-Maize corn growth simulation model at 18 sites across the U.S. Corn Belt with 5 CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project) climate models. The crop model was running for two time periods: 1981-2010 ('current') and 2041-2070 ('future'). We also developed a "delta" method, which combines the current climate variability with the "mean" model projected climate change. The results indicate that under the 'future' climate, growing degree days (GDD) projected corn growing season (from planting date reach to maturity required GDD) are shortened due to the increasing of mean temperature. Compare to the contemporary simulations, the shorter growing season under "future" scenario brings lower attainable yields if farmers using the same cultivar. This presentation will focus on the details about the model simulations, the interactive process employed in developing the simulations, the implications of the results, the uncertainties, and the lessons learned.

  14. Captures of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) adults with Pherocon AM and vial traps in four crops in east central Illinois.

    PubMed

    Rondon, Silvia I; Gray, Michael E

    2003-06-01

    It is hypothesized that the long-term rotation of maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) in east central Illinois has caused a significant change in the ovipositional behavior of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. Since the mid 1990s in east central Illinois, western corn rootworm adults have been observed feeding on soybean foliage and also now use soybean fields as egg laying sites. This behavioral adaptation has greatly decreased the effectiveness of rotation as a pest management tactic. By using Pherocon AM and vial traps, we evaluated the influence of maize, soybean, oat stubble (Avena sativa L.), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) on male and female adult western corn rootworm densities from April 1998 through September 2000 near Urbana, IL. Our results indicated that western corn rootworm adults are common inhabitants of maize, soybean, oat stubble, and alfalfa. Trapping efforts with both Pherocon AM (attractive) and vial traps (passive) revealed that initial densities of both male and female western corn rootworm adults were greater in maize. Soon after emergence, densities of females began to decline within maize and increase in other crops (soybean, oat stubble, and alfalfa). Results from this experiment support the hypothesis that variant western corn rootworm females in east central Illinois are colonizing crops other than maize at densities of potential economic importance. Those producers who choose to rotate maize with soybean or alfalfa may remain at risk to economic larval injury to maize roots. Potentially, oat stubble also may support levels of western corn rootworm females resulting in sufficient oviposition to cause economic losses to rotated maize the following season. PMID:12852611

  15. Detection of European Corn Borer Infestation in Iowa Corn Plots using Spectral Vegetation Indices Derived from Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing technology was used to distinguish corn infested with European corn borers, Ostrinia nubilalis, from corn that was not infested. In 2004 and 2005, eleven spectral vegetation indices that emphasize foliar plant pigments were calculated using airborne hyperspectral imagery. Manual inocu...

  16. Evaluating corn starch and corn stover biochar as renewable filler in carboxylated styrene-butadiene rubber composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn starch, corn flour, and corn stover biochar were evaluated as potential renewable substitutes for carbon black as filler in rubber composites using carboxylated styrene-butadiene as the rubber matrix. Previous work has shown that starch-based fillers have very good reinforcement properties at t...

  17. [Effects of phytase transgenic corn planting on soil nematode community].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zong-Chao; Su, Ying; Mou, Wen-Ya; Liu, Man-Qiang; Chen, Xiao-Yun; Chen, Fa-Jun

    2014-04-01

    A healthy soil ecosystem is essential for nutrient cycling and energy conversion, and the impact of exogenous genes from genetically modified crops had aroused wide concerns. Phytase transgenic corn (i. e., the inbred line BVLA430101) was issued a bio-safety certificate on 27 September 2009 in China, which could improve the efficiency of feed utilization, reduce environmental pollution caused by animal manure. In this study, the abundance of trophic groups, community structure and ecological indices of soil nematodes were studied over the growing cycle of phytase transgenic corn (ab. transgenic corn) and control conventional parental corn (ab. control corn) in the field. Totally 29 and 26 nematode genera were isolated from transgenic corn and control corn fields, respectively. The abundances of bacterivores and omnivores-predators, the total number of soil nematodes, and the Shannon index (H) were significantly greater under transgenic corn than under control corn, while the opposite trend was found for the relative abundance of herbivores and the maturity index (Sigma MI) of soil nematodes. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not detect any significant effects of transgenic corn on the composition and abundance of nematode trophic groups and ecological indices of soil nematodes. Furthermore, the Student-T test showed that the abundances of bacterivores and omnivores-predators and the total number of soil nematodes during the milk-ripe stage were significant higher in the transgenic corn field than in the control corn field. The effects of transgenic corn planting on soil nematodes might be related to the increase in the nitrogen content of field soil under transgenic corn compared to control corn. PMID:25011306

  18. Effect of Seed Blends and Soil-Insecticide on Western and Northern Corn Rootworm Emergence from mCry3A+eCry3.1Ab Bt Maize.

    PubMed

    Frank, Daniel L; Kurtz, Ryan; Tinsley, Nicholas A; Gassmann, Aaron J; Meinke, Lance J; Moellenbeck, Daniel; Gray, Michael E; Bledsoe, Larry W; Krupke, Christian H; Estes, Ronald E; Weber, Patrick; Hibbard, Bruce E

    2015-06-01

    Seed blends containing various ratios of transgenic Bt maize (Zea mays L.) expressing the mCry3A+eCry3.1Ab proteins and non-Bt maize (near-isoline maize) were deployed alone and in combination with a soil applied pyrethroid insecticide (Force CS) to evaluate the emergence of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, in a total of nine field environments across the Midwestern United States in 2010 and 2011. Northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence emergence was also evaluated in four of these environments. Both western and northern corn rootworm beetle emergence from all Bt treatments was significantly reduced when compared with beetle emergence from near-isoline treatments. Averaged across all environments, western corn rootworm beetle emergence from 95:5, 90:10, and 80:20 seed blend ratios of mCry3A+eCry3.1Ab: near-isoline were 2.6-, 4.2-, and 6.7-fold greater than that from the 100:0 ratio treatment. Northern corn rootworm emergence from the same seed blend treatments resulted in 2.8-, 3.2-, and 4.2-fold more beetles than from the 100:0 treatment. The addition of Force CS (tefluthrin) significantly reduced western corn rootworm beetle emergence for each of the three treatments to which it was applied. Force CS also significantly delayed the number of days to 50% beetle emergence in western corn rootworms. Time to 50% beetle emergence in the 100% mCry3A+eCry3.1Ab treatment with Force CS was delayed 13.7 d when compared with western corn rootworm beetle emergence on near-isoline corn. These data are discussed in terms of rootworm resistance management. PMID:26470254

  19. AmeriFlux US-Tw2 Twitchell Corn

    SciTech Connect

    Baldocchi, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Tw2 Twitchell Corn. Site Description - The Twitchell Corn site is a corn field on peat soil. The tower was installed on May 17, 2012 and was equipped to analyze energy, H2O and CO2 fluxes. The field was planted in early May 2012 and harvested in early November 2012. The field was fallow during the non-growing season. The variety of corn used was ES-7477 hybrid corn commercialized by Eureka seeds. The site is near US-Tw1, US-Tw3 and US-Twt sites.

  20. Effects of bacillus thuringiensis transgenic corn on corn earworm and fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) densities.

    PubMed

    Chilcutt, Charles F; Odvody, Gary N; Correa, J Carlos; Remmers, Jeff

    2007-04-01

    We examined 17 pairs of near-isogenic hybrids of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) (176, Mon810, and Bt11) and non-Bt corn, Zea mays L., to examine the effects of Bt on larval densities of Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) during 2 yr. During ear formation, instar densities of H. zea and S. frugiperda were recorded for each hybrid. We found that H. zea first, second, and fifth instar densities were each affected by Mon810 and Bt11 Bt corn but not by 176 corn. Surprisingly, first and second instars were found in higher numbers on ears of Mon810 and Bt11 corn than on non-Bt corn. Densities of third and fourth instars were equal on Bt and non-Bt hybrids, whereas densities of fifth instars were lower on Bt plants. S. frugiperda larval densities were only affected during 1 yr when second, and fourth to sixth instars were lower on ears of Mon810 and Bt11 hybrids compared with their non-Bt counterparts. Two likely explanations for early instar H. zea densities being higher on Bt corn than non-Bt corn are that (1) Bt toxins delay development, creating a greater abundance of early instars that eventually die, and (2) reduced survival of H. zea to later instars on Bt corn decreased the normal asymmetric cannibalism or H. zea-S. frugiperda intraguild predation of late instars on early instars. Either explanation could explain why differences between Bt and non-Bt plants were greater for H. zea than S. frugiperda, because H. zea is more strongly affected by Bt toxins and more cannibalistic. PMID:17461054

  1. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... “Dextrose,” which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 1. Copies... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1857 - Corn sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... “Dextrose,” which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 1. Copies... monohydrate form and is produced by the complete hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids...

  3. Extraction and characterization of corn germ proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our study was conducted to develop methods to extract corn germ protein economically and characterize and identify potential applications of the recovered protein. Protein was extracted from both wet germ and finished (dried) germ using 0.1M NaCl as solvent. The method involved homogenization, sti...

  4. 21 CFR 155.130 - Canned corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned sweet corn is the product prepared from clean, sound kernels of... stand at least 24 hours at a temperature of 68 °F to 85 °F. Determine the gross weight, open, transfer..., is not more than 20 percent of the net weight, and the container is closed under conditions...

  5. 21 CFR 155.130 - Canned corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned sweet corn is the product prepared from clean, sound kernels of... stand at least 24 hours at a temperature of 68 °F to 85 °F. Determine the gross weight, open, transfer..., is not more than 20 percent of the net weight, and the container is closed under conditions...

  6. How safe is Capreno on sweet corn?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet corn hybrid sensitivity to postemergence herbicides was reported in the early 1990s with use of acetolactate-synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides. Despite introduction of newer postemergence herbicides since that time, hybrid sensitivity has remained a problem. Recently a mutant cytochrome P45...

  7. Corn yields benefit in rotations with cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop rotations have long been stated to benefit all species involved in the sequence. Continuous cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) has been the primary crop for much of the Mississippi Delta until recently. Corn (Zea mays L.) is now grown on about 1 million acres in the states of Arkansas, Mississippi...

  8. Ethanol emission from loose corn silage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Silage and silage-containing feed on dairy farms have recently been identified as a source of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. In this work, we present measurements of ethanol (a dominant silage VOC) emission from loose corn silage samples made using a wind tunnel system. Flux of ethanol f...

  9. Optical Sensor Based Corn Algorithm Evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optical sensor based algorithms for corn fertilization have developed by researchers in several states. The goal of this international research project was to evaluate these different algorithms and determine their robustness over a large geographic area. Concurrently the goal of this project was to...

  10. UTILIZING CORN GERM MEAL IN PLYWOOD GLUE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of corn germ meal as protein extender in plywood adhesive. This research is part of our laboratory’s efforts to develop new uses for the proteinaceous co-products from cereal and soybean processing. We were previously successful in formulating a s...

  11. Fructose and high fructose corn syrup

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fructose, a monosaccharide, is naturally present in fruits, vegetables and honey, usually accompanied by other sugars including glucose and the disaccharide sucrose. It is also found as a component of sweeteners used in many processed food products, usually as sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HF...

  12. US corn and soybeans exploratory experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnes, J. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The results from the U.S. corn/soybeans exploratory experiment which was completed during FY 1980 are summarized. The experiment consisted of two parts: the classification procedures verification test and the simulated aggregation test. Evaluations of labeling, proportion estimation, and aggregation procedures are presented.

  13. Temporal spectral response of a corn canopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, B. L.; Kimes, D. S.; Tucker, C. J.; Mcmurtrey, J. E., III

    1981-01-01

    Techniques developed for the prediction of winter wheat yields from remotely sensed data indicating crop status over the growing season are tested for their applicability to corn. Ground-based spectral measurements in the Landsat Thematic Mapper bands 3 (0.62-0.69 microns), 4 (0.76-0.90 microns) and 5 (1.55-1.75 microns) were performed at one-week intervals throughout the growing season for 24 plots of corn, and analyzed to derive spectral ratios and normalized spectral differences of the IR and shortwave IR bands with the red. The ratios of the near IR and shortwave IR bands are found to provide the highest and most consistent correlations with corn yield and dry matter accumulation, however the value of band 5 could not be tested due to the absence of water stress conditions. Integration of spectral ratios over several dates improved the correlations over those of any single date by achieving a seasonal, rather than instantaneous, estimate of crop status. Results point to the desirability of further tests under other growth conditions to determine whether satellite-derived data will be useful in providing corn yield information.

  14. Intraspecific and interspecific competition in sweet corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Competition among crop plants (i.e. intraspecific) and between crop and weed plants (i.e. interspecific) likely co-occurs in many sweet corn fields; however, a fundamental understanding of the extent to which the crop is affected by the combination of these stresses is unknown. The objective of this...

  15. In-season nitrogen recommendations for corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen fertilizer continues to be the major input influencing corn yield in the Midwest. Improved N recommendations should result in greater N use efficiency and producer profit while reducing surface and groundwater contamination. This study was conducted to develop a plant-based technique to det...

  16. Fructose and High Fructose Corn Syrup

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fructose, a monosaccharide, is naturally present in fruits, vegetables and honey, usually accompanied by other sugars including glucose and the disaccharide sucrose. It is also found as a component of sweeteners used in many processed food products, usually as sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HF...

  17. Masked mycotoxins in corn: an update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins are frequent contaminants in corn infested with Aspergillus and Fusarium molds. Consumption of mycotoxin products have been shown to be harmful to both humans and animals. Mycotoxins can be “masked” or “hidden” from detection by common antibody-based and chemical analytical methods. The “...

  18. High Moisture Corn Evaluated for Northern Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Profitable rotation crops that can grow in cool, northern Maine climates are needed to sustain the diversity of potato systems. A field experiment was conducted to determine whether three high moisture corn hybrids were suitable for harvest as a short season rotation crop. Yield and grain moisture...

  19. Vertical distribution of corn stover dry mass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanol production from biomass may reduce reliance on imported fossil fuel, increase revenue for farmers and rural communities, and reduce rates of greenhouse gas production. Corn stover and other crop biomass are viewed by the renewable energy industry as an inexpensive, "unused" source of feedsto...

  20. Hyperspectral imagery for characterization of different corn genotypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Haibo; Hruska, Zuzana; DiCrispino, Kevin; Lewis, David; Beach, James; Brown, Robert L.; Cleveland, Thomas E.

    2004-11-01

    USDA and the Institute for Technology Development are currently collaborating on a project using hyperspectral imagery to detect pathogens such as mycotoxin producing molds in grain products. The initial experiments are being implemented on corn kernels. When molds appear on corn, reflectance spectra from the molds and corn are mixed. Therefore, it is important to characterize the corn reflectance, which is the background reflectance in the image. The objective of this study was to qualitatively identify and quantify kernel signatures of several corn genotypes. Four different corn genotypes (genetically distinct corn lines) and four near isogenic corn lines were prepared at the USDA laboratory. The study used a visible-near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system for data acquisition. The imaging system utilizes focal plane pushbroom scanning for high spatial and high spectral resolution imaging. Procedures were developed for optimum image calibration and image processing. It was expected that the results would be useful for reducing the background influence of corn in mold detection and would also be applicable in corn genotype identification, especially among corn lines with different resistance levels to molds.

  1. Corn stalk orientation effect on mechanical cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Igathinathane, C.; Womac, A.R.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine

    2010-07-01

    Research efforts that increase the efficiency of size reduction of biomass can lead to a significant energy saving. This paper deals with the determination of the effect of sample orientation with respect to cutting element and quantify the possible cutting energy reduction, utilising dry corn stalks as the test material (15%e20% wet basis). To evaluate the mechanical cutting characteristics of corn stalks, a Warnere Bratzler device was modified by replacing its blunt edged cutting element with one having a 30_ single bevel sharp knife edge. Cutting force-deformation characteristics obtained with a universal testing machine were analysed to evaluate the orientation effects at perpendicular (90o), inclined (45o), and parallel (0o) orientations on internodes and nodes for cutting force, energy, ultimate stress, and specific energy of corn stalks. The corn stalks cutting force-displacement characteristics were found to differ with orientation, and internode and node material difference. Overall, the peak failure force, and the total cutting energy of internodes and nodes varied significantly (P < 0.05) with stalk cross-sectional area. The specific energy values (total energy per unit cut area) of dry corn stalk internodes ranged from 11.3 to 23.5 kN m_1, and nodes from 8.6 to 14.0 kN m_1. The parallel orientation (along grain) compared to perpendicular (across grain) produced a significant reduction of the cutting stress and the specific energy to one tenth or better for internodes, and to about one-fifth for nodes.

  2. In re LePage.

    PubMed

    2001-01-01

    Court Decision: 18 Pacific Reporter, 3d Series 1177; 2001 Mar 8 (date of decision). The Supreme Court of Wyoming held that the state Department of Health was not authorized to inquire about the sincerity of a mother's religious beliefs when determining whether her daughter was exempt from a public school immunization requirement. Susan LePage submitted a request to the Department of Health seeking to exempt her daughter from receiving the hepatitis B vaccination. The Department of Health inquired into the sincerity of LePage's religious beliefs against vaccination and determined that her objections were of a personal or philosophical nature and not on religious grounds. The Department of Health denied LePage's request. The Supreme Court of Wyoming held that state law requires the Department of Health to grant an exemption upon the submission of a written objection and does not allow the Department of Health to make an inquiry into the sincerity of the requestor's religious beliefs. The court balanced a valid state interest in protecting schoolchildren from disease with the relatively low number of requests for exemption and its confidence in parents to make decisions in the best interest of their children's physical and spiritual health. Since there was no justification within the statute to allow a religious inquiry, the court held that the Department of Health had exceeded its authority with LePage. Furthermore, state law did not require a religious waiver to exempt a child from this particular vaccine. The lower court's holding was reversed. PMID:16479706

  3. Changes in the solubility of corn proteins through interaction with the arabinoxylans in extruded nixtamalized corn flour treated with xylanase.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Rivas, Silvia Carolina; Medina-Rodríguez, Concepción Lorenia; Torres-Chávez, Patricia Isabel; Ramírez-Wong, Benjamín; Platt-Lucero, Luis Carlos

    2014-06-01

    The extrusion process allows the production of nixtamalized corn flour rich in arabinoxylans, which help to prevent cardiovascular and intestinal diseases. During extrusion, physiochemical properties of nixtamalized corn flour are negatively modified. The use of enzymes such as xylanase in order to obtain nixtamalized corn flour using extrusion has been studied as an alternative to reduce these changes in corn flour tortilla. The aim of this research was to evaluate changes in protein solubility of extruded nixtamalized corn flour with and without different concentrations of xylanase enzyme (0.05, 0.075, and 0.1%, w/w). Soluble proteins of each corn flour were extracted and analyzed by SE-HPLC, while insoluble proteins were determined by the combustion method. In addition, each corn flour was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that the extruded nixtamalized corn flour, with and without xylanase, increased the protein solubility, and this effect was lower in extruded nixtamalized corn flour with xylanase. Insoluble protein diminished in corn flours either with or without xylanase enzyme. The addition of xylanase reduces the effect that the extrusion process has on the solubility proteins of extruded nixtamalized corn flour. PMID:24627046

  4. Greffe de cornée: expérience du service d'ophtalmologie au CHU Mohammed VI de Marrakech, Maroc

    PubMed Central

    Belghmaidi, Sarah; Hajji, Ibtissam; Soummane, Hasna; Ennassiri, Wiam; Essafi, Hafsa; Moutaouakil, Abdeljalil

    2016-01-01

    La kératoplastie transfixiante est l'une des plus fréquentes des greffes de tissus et transplantations d'organes. Le but de notre travail est de rapporter notre expérience en matière de greffe de cornée. C'est une étude prospective de 195 patients ayant bénéficié d'une greffe de cornée sur une période allant d'aout 2009 à Août 2015. Le recul moyen est de 21 mois. Les indications de la greffe étaient le kératocône 33.8%, les séquelles de traumatisme 10.7%, la kératopathie bulleuse 19.5%, les dystrophies héréditaires 10.7%, et les kératites herpétiques 9.2%. L'acuité visuelle initiale était inférieure à 1/10 dans 90% des cas. Nous avons observé une réaction de rejet dans 19 yeux dont 14 étaient récupérables, 33 hypertonies oculaires, 20cataracte, et 2 décollements descmetiques. La greffe de cornée apparaît comme une intervention donnant de bons résultats anatomiques et fonctionnels. Les résultats ne doivent pas occulter une surveillance post opératoire étroite et régulière pour dépister à temps d’éventuelles complications, en particulier le rejet de greffe. PMID:27303575

  5. Adaptation by western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to Bt maize: inheritance, fitness costs, and feeding preference.

    PubMed

    Petzold-Maxwell, Jennifer L; Cibils-Stewart, Ximena; French, B Wade; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2012-08-01

    We examined inheritance of resistance, feeding behavior, and fitness costs for a laboratory-selected strain of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), with resistance to maize (Zea maize L.) producing the Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) toxin Cry3Bb1. The resistant strain developed faster and had increased survival on Bt maize relative to a susceptible strain. Results from reciprocal crosses of the resistant and susceptible strains indicated that inheritance of resistance was nonrecessive. No fitness costs were associated with resistance alleles in the presence of two entomopathogenic nematode species, Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar. Larval feeding studies indicated that the susceptible and resistant strains did not differ in preference for Bt and non-Bt root tissue in choice assays. PMID:22928323

  6. Parasitism of Western Corn Rootworm Larvae and Pupae by Steinernema carpocapsae.

    PubMed

    Jackson, J J; Brooks, M A

    1995-03-01

    Virulence and development of the insect-parasitic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) (Mexican strain), were evaluated for the immature stages of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. Third instar rootworm larvae were five times more susceptible to nematode infection than second instar larvae and 75 times more susceptible than first instar larvae and pupae, based on laboratory bioassays. Rootworm eggs were not susceptible. Nematode development was observed in all susceptible rootworm stages, but a complete life cycle was observed only in second and third instar larvae and pupae. Nematode size was affected by rootworm stage; the smallest infective-stage nematodes were recovered from second instar rootworm larvae. Results of this study suggest that S. carpocapsae should be applied when second and third instar rootworm larvae are predominant in the field. PMID:19277256

  7. Le Fevre [Le Fèvre; LeFebvre], Jean (1652-1706)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Born in Lisieux, France, became an associate of JEAN PICARD and PHILIPPE DE LA HIRE, became a member of the Académie des Sciences and worked on rather routine work calculating ephemeredes, and surveying. Le Fevre accused La Hire of stealing his tables after Philippe de La Hire published Tabulae Astronomicae in 1687. In 1701, resentful at not having been named official publisher of ephemerides to ...

  8. Alfalfa nitrogen credit to first-year corn: potassium, regrowth, and tillage timing effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compared to corn (Zea mays L.) following corn, N guidelines for corn following alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the U.S. Corn Belt suggest that N rates for first-year corn after alfalfa be reduced by about 168 kg N/ha when 43 to 53 alfalfa plants per square meter are present at termination; however, ...

  9. Fomation of corn fiber gum-milk protein conjugates and their molecular characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn fiber arabinoxylan is hemicellulose B isolated from the fibrous portions (pericarp, tip cap, and endosperm cell wall fractions) of corn kernels and is commonly referred to as corn fiber gum (CFG). Our previous studies showed that CFG isolated from corn bran (a byproduct of corn dry milling) co...

  10. Validation of Reference Housekeeping Genes for Gene Expression Studies in Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera)

    PubMed Central

    Barros Rodrigues, Thaís; Khajuria, Chitvan; Wang, Haichuan; Matz, Natalie; Cunha Cardoso, Danielle; Valicente, Fernando Hercos; Zhou, Xuguo; Siegfried, Blair

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a powerful technique to investigate comparative gene expression. In general, normalization of results using a highly stable housekeeping gene (HKG) as an internal control is recommended and necessary. However, there are several reports suggesting that regulation of some HKGs is affected by different conditions. The western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a serious pest of corn in the United States and Europe. The expression profile of target genes related to insecticide exposure, resistance, and RNA interference has become an important experimental technique for study of western corn rootworms; however, lack of information on reliable HKGs under different conditions makes the interpretation of qRT-PCR results difficult. In this study, four distinct algorithms (Genorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and delta-CT) and five candidate HKGs to genes of reference (β-actin; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; β-tubulin; RPS9, ribosomal protein S9; EF1a, elongation factor-1α) were evaluated to determine the most reliable HKG under different experimental conditions including exposure to dsRNA and Bt toxins and among different tissues and developmental stages. Although all the HKGs tested exhibited relatively stable expression among the different treatments, some differences were noted. Among the five candidate reference genes evaluated, β-actin exhibited highly stable expression among different life stages. RPS9 exhibited the most similar pattern of expression among dsRNA treatments, and both experiments indicated that EF1a was the second most stable gene. EF1a was also the most stable for Bt exposure and among different tissues. These results will enable researchers to use more accurate and reliable normalization of qRT-PCR data in WCR experiments. PMID:25356627

  11. Validation of reference housekeeping genes for gene expression studies in western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Thaís Barros; Barros Rodrigues, Thaís; Khajuria, Chitvan; Wang, Haichuan; Matz, Natalie; Cunha Cardoso, Danielle; Valicente, Fernando Hercos; Zhou, Xuguo; Siegfried, Blair

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a powerful technique to investigate comparative gene expression. In general, normalization of results using a highly stable housekeeping gene (HKG) as an internal control is recommended and necessary. However, there are several reports suggesting that regulation of some HKGs is affected by different conditions. The western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a serious pest of corn in the United States and Europe. The expression profile of target genes related to insecticide exposure, resistance, and RNA interference has become an important experimental technique for study of western corn rootworms; however, lack of information on reliable HKGs under different conditions makes the interpretation of qRT-PCR results difficult. In this study, four distinct algorithms (Genorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and delta-CT) and five candidate HKGs to genes of reference (β-actin; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; β-tubulin; RPS9, ribosomal protein S9; EF1a, elongation factor-1α) were evaluated to determine the most reliable HKG under different experimental conditions including exposure to dsRNA and Bt toxins and among different tissues and developmental stages. Although all the HKGs tested exhibited relatively stable expression among the different treatments, some differences were noted. Among the five candidate reference genes evaluated, β-actin exhibited highly stable expression among different life stages. RPS9 exhibited the most similar pattern of expression among dsRNA treatments, and both experiments indicated that EF1a was the second most stable gene. EF1a was also the most stable for Bt exposure and among different tissues. These results will enable researchers to use more accurate and reliable normalization of qRT-PCR data in WCR experiments. PMID:25356627

  12. Methyl Anthranilate as a Repellent for Western Corn Rootworm Larvae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Bernklau, E J; Hibbard, B E; Norton, A P; Bjostad, L B

    2016-08-01

    Methyl anthranilate was identified as the active compound in extracts of maize (Zea mays L.) roots that were shown to be repellent to neonate western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) larvae. A bioassay-driven approach was used to isolate the active material from diethyl ether extracts of roots from germinating maize seeds. Separation of the extract on a Florisil column yielded an active fraction of 90:10 hexane:diethyl ether. Analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified two compounds in the active fraction: indole (2,3-benzopyrrole) and methyl anthranilate (methyl 2-aminobenzoate). When tested in behavioral bioassays, methyl anthranilate elicited a significant (P < 0.05) repellent response at doses of 1, 10, and 100 µg. In subsequent single-choice bioassays, 1, 10, and 100 µg of methyl anthranilate prevented larvae from approaching 10 mmol/mol concentrations of carbon dioxide, which is normally highly attractive to the larvae. Indole, the other compound identified from the active fraction, did not elicit a behavioral response by the larvae. Methyl anthranilate has potential for development as a management tool for western corn rootworm larvae and may be best suited for use in a push-pull control strategy. PMID:27122493

  13. Effects of concentration and composition of wet corn gluten feed in steam-flaked corn-based finishing diets.

    PubMed

    Macken, C N; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Stock, R A

    2004-09-01

    Two finishing experiments were conducted to determine the effects of concentration (Exp. 1) and composition of wet corn gluten feed (Exp. 2) in steam-flaked corn-based diets on feedlot steer performance. In Exp. 1, 192 English x Continental crossbred steer calves (299 +/- 0.6 kg) were used in a completely randomized design with six dietary treatments (four pens per treatment). Treatments were six concentrations of wet corn gluten feed (Sweet Bran, Cargill Inc., Blair, NE; 0, 10, 20, 25, 30, and 35%) replacing steam-flaked corn (DM basis). All diets contained 10% corn silage, 5% supplement, and 3.5% tallow (DM basis). Gain efficiency and ADG were similar (P > 0.25) among treatments. Dry matter intake was lower (P < 0.10) with 0% wet corn gluten feed than with concentrations of 20, 25, and 35% WCGF. Dry matter intake did not differ among treatments containing wet corn gluten feed. In Exp. 2, 160 English x Continental crossbred steer calves (315 +/- 0.6 kg) were used in a completely randomized design with five dietary treatments (four pens/treatment). Treatments were assigned based on four ratios of steep to corn bran/germ meal mix in wet corn gluten feed plus a negative control (CON). Wet corn gluten feed was fed at 25% of the dietary DM and was made by mixing steep and corn bran/germ meal into the diet. The four concentrations of steep in wet corn gluten feed that comprised the ratios were 37.5, 41.7, 45.8, and 50% (DM basis), with the remaining proportion being the bran/germ meal mix. Bran/germ meal mix was comprised of 60% dry corn bran, 24% germ meal, and 16% fine-cracked corn (DM basis). All diets contained 10% corn silage, 5% supplement, and 3.5% tallow (DM basis). Daily gain did not differ (P = 0.18) among treatments. Gain efficiency did not differ between CON and 50% steep; however, G:F was decreased (P < 0.05) for concentrations of 37.5, 41.7, and 45.8% steep compared with CON. A linear improvement (P < 0.05) was observed for G:F as concentration of steep

  14. Comparison of DNA extraction methods for sweet corn and processed sweet corns.

    PubMed

    Takabatake, Reona; Noritake, Hiromichi; Noguchi, Akio; Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    DNA was extracted from sweet corn and its processed products using four DNA extraction methods: the CTAB method, the DNeasy Plant Maxi kit, GM Quicker 3, and Genomic-tip 20/G. DNA was successfully extracted from raw sweet corn and baby corn samples using all four methods. Meanwhile, from frozen, canned, and dry pack products, DNA was well extracted using the DNeasy Plant Maxi kit, GM Quicker 3, and Genomic-tip 20/G, but not enough with the CTAB method. The highest yield of DNA was obtained with Genomic-tip 20/G. The degree of degradation of extracted DNA was observed to increase in the order of raw, frozen, canned, dry pack, and baby corn samples. To evaluate the quality of extracted DNA, real-time PCR analyses were conducted using three maize endogenous genes. The DNAs extracted using GM Quicker 3 had high purity, suggesting that GM Quicker 3 would be the most suitable method for DNA extraction from processed sweet corn products. PMID:24025210

  15. Worldwide survey of fumonisin contamination of corn and corn-based products.

    PubMed

    Shephard, G S; Thiel, P G; Stockenström, S; Sydenham, E W

    1996-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive risk assessment study for fumonisins, reliable data on exposure of populations to these dietary toxins must be obtained. To assess the extent of worldwide exposure, the published literature on the contamination of food and feed supplies has been reviewed and supplemented with unpublished material from various international sources. Fumonisin contamination of corn and corn-based products occurs in many countries. Animal mycotoxicoses such as equine leukoencephalomalacia and porcine pulmonary edema are caused by heavily contaminated animal feeds. For example, as much as 330 micrograms/g fumonisin B1 (FB1) has been found in swine feed. Although commercially available refined corn products for human consumption are generally contaminated at levels below 1 microgram/g FB1, individual products in certain countries can reach far higher levels. Health risks associated with consumption of these products depend on the extent to which they are consumed in a varied diet. Home-grown corn in certain rural areas, where it also constitutes the staple diet, can be contaminated at > 100 micrograms/g. Consumption of corn contaminated at these high levels has been associated with a high incidence of esophageal cancer in these areas. PMID:8634537

  16. Modeling the impact of cross-pollination and low toxin expression in corn kernels on adaptation of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to transgenic insecticidal corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used a mathematical model with processes reflecting mortality of larval feeding on cross-pollinated ears in the refuge or on ears of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn to analyze the risk of evolution of Cry-toxin resistance in European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis. Our results showed that Bt-pol...

  17. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for corn, corn gluten meal, and corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) among three different bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine standardized AA digestibility of corn, corn gluten meal (CGM) and three distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal AA broiler chicken assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed p...

  18. [Carbon balance analysis of corn fuel ethanol life cycle].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-shan; Yuan, Xi-gang

    2006-04-01

    The quantity of greenhouse gas emissions (net carbon emissions) of corn-based fuel ethanol, which is known as an alternative for fossil fuel is an important criteria for evaluating its sustainability. The methodology of carbon balance analysis for fuel ethanol from corn was developed based on principles of life cycle analysis. For the production state of fuel ethanol from summer corn in China, carbon budgets in overall life cycle of the ethanol were evaluated and its main influence factors were identified. It presents that corn-based fuel ethanol has no obvious reduction of carbon emissions than gasoline, and potential improvement in carbon emission of the life cycle of corn ethanol could be achieved by reducing the nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation electricity used in the corn farming and energy consumption in the ethanol conversion process. PMID:16767974

  19. Distribution of MCA-coated grits in maize fields after high wheel tractor application for disrupting orientation of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte.

    PubMed

    Wennemann, Ludger; Hummel, Hans E

    2002-01-01

    High wheel tractor applications of 4-methoxycinnamaldehyde (MCA)-coated corn granules ('grits') were conducted in Ruski Krstur (Serbia) in summer 2001 in a 5 ha corn field. Grits are a by-product after corn is harvested and separated from the cob and used as a carrier medium to disseminate MCA into the corn field. MCA is a kairomone mimic derived form Cucurbita maxima (Duchesne) used to disrupt orientation of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte towards different MCA and pheromone baited traps. The ultimate goal is to investigate the use of MCA as a mating disruptant. MCA was dissolved in an organic solvent and mixed in a cement machine with the grits. Grits were applied at rates of 17.39, 17.1 and 12.45 kg/ha on July 4th, July 19th and August 3rd. Before the impact of MCA as a disruptant can be addressed, the distribution patterns of MCA coated grits have to be thoroughly investigated. They were evaluated by counting girts deposited in 16 or 20 plastic dishes of 30-cm diameter positioned along 2 rows through the field directly after the grit application by tractor. Additionally, grits deposited on corn plant surface such as leaves, leaf axils and corn cobs were counted. Total number of grits collected in plastic dishes revealed even application rates at the first and second application but not on the third application date. Number of grits collected on plant surfaces were significantly different from each other regarding each application date. Altogether, grit distribution in the dishes as well as on the plant surface was variable. However, distribution patterns achieved so far hold promise to disseminate MCA coated grits into corn fields for orientation disruption or mating disruption of D. virgifera virgifera. PMID:12696417

  20. 2008 National dry mill corn ethanol survey.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Steffen

    2010-09-01

    Emerging regulations require an examination of corn ethanol's greenhouse gas emissions on a life cycle basis, including emissions from energy consumed at the plant level. However, comprehensive survey data of the industry's average performance dates back to 2001, prior to the industry's expansion phase. Responding to the need for updated data, we conducted a survey to collect energy and processing data for average dry mill ethanol produced during 2008. The study finds that the average liter of anhydrous corn ethanol produced during 2008 requires 28% less thermal energy than 2001 ethanol: 7.18 MJ/l compared to 10 MJ/l. Also, 2008 ethanol requires 32% less electricity: 0.195 kWh/l compared to 0.287 kWh/l, but anhydrous ethanol yields from corn are 5.3% higher and total 0.416 l/kg compared to 0.395 l/kg. Findings also suggest that older plants installed energy efficiency retrofits. PMID:20473631

  1. Possibility of sweet corn synthetic seed production.

    PubMed

    Thobunluepop, P; Pawelzik, E; Vearasilp, S

    2009-08-01

    Somatic embryogenesis in sweet corn has been reported by a number of workers. However, the knowledge maintaining storage life, vigor and viability of these somatic embryos are limited. A model system of synchronous somatic embryos production combined with encapsulation to synthetic seed was studied in sweet corn (Zea mays var. saccharata). In this study immature zygotic embryo cultured on N6 medium, contained 2, 4-D 2 mg L(-1) and sucrose 60 g L(-1) form the embryogenic callus. Higher 2, 4-D levels did not show increasing in inducing embryogenic callus. If the concentration of 2, 4-D decreased globular-stage, somatic zygote form the roots. Somatic embryo develop without surrounding nutritive tissues and protective seed coat has been devoted to causing somatic embryos to functionally mimic embryo, then was encapsulated by 3% (w/v) sodium alginate with 4-6 mm in diameter. It was found that when synthetic seed were treated with 60 g L(-1) sucrose and stored at 15+/-2 degree Celsius for 2 weeks, the survival rate of synthetic seed were 44%, after 8 days of germination test, it was found that there were 91% of which were normal seedling and 9% were abnormal seedling. This result indicated that there is a possibility in sweet corn synthetic seed production. Anyhow, more research for better technique are further required. PMID:19943466

  2. Processed sweet corn has higher antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Dewanto, Veronica; Wu, Xianzhong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2002-08-14

    Processed fruits and vegetables have been long considered to have lower nutritional value than the fresh produce due to the loss of vitamin C during processing. Vitamin C in apples has been found to contribute <0.4% of total antioxidant activity, indicating most of the activity comes from the natural combination of phytochemicals. This suggests that processed fruits and vegetables may retain their antioxidant activity despite the loss of vitamin C. Here it is shown that thermal processing at 115 degrees C for 25 min significantly elevated the total antioxidant activity of sweet corn by 44% and increased phytochemical content such as ferulic acid by 550% and total phenolics by 54%, although 25% vitamin C loss was observed. Processed sweet corn has increased antioxidant activity equivalent to 210 mg of vitamin C/100 g of corn compared to the remaining 3.2 mg of vitamin C in the sample that contributed only 1.5% of its total antioxidant activity. These findings do not support the notion that processed fruits and vegetables have lower nutritional value than fresh produce. This information may have a significant impact on consumers' food selection by increasing their consumption of fruits and vegetables to reduce the risk of chronic diseases. PMID:12166989

  3. Calcium Transport by Corn Mitochondria 1

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Marco Aurelio P.; Carnieri, Eva G. S.; Vercesi, Anibal E.

    1992-01-01

    Mitochondria from some plant tissues possess the ability to take up Ca2+ by a phosphate-dependent mechanism associated with a decrease in membrane potential, H+ extrusion, and increase in the rate of respiration (AE Vercesi, L Pereira da Silva, IS Martins, CF Bernardes, EGS Carnieri, MM Fagian [1989] In G Fiskum, ed, Cell Calcium Metabolism. Plenum Press, New York, pp 103-111). The present study reexamined the nature of the phosphate requirement in this process. The main observations are: (a) Respiration-coupled Ca2+ uptake by isolated corn (Zea mays var Maya Normal) mitochondria or carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone-induced efflux of the cation from such mitochondria are sensitive to mersalyl and cannot be dissociated from the silmultaneous movement of phosphate in the same direction. (b) Ruthenium red-induced efflux is not affected by mersalyl and can occur in the absence of phosphate movement. (c) In Ca2+-loaded corn mitochondria, mersalyl causes net Ca2+ release unrelated to a decrease in membrane potential, probably due to an inhibition of Ca2+ cycling at the level of the influx pathway. It is concluded that corn mitochondria (and probably other plant mitochondria) do possess an electrophoretic influx pathway that appears to be a mersalyl-sensitive Ca2+/inorganic phosphate-symporter and a phosphate-independent efflux pathway possibly similar to the Na2+-independent Ca2+ efflux mechanism of vertebrate mitochondria, because it is not stimulated by Na+. PMID:16668661

  4. Portevin-Le chatelier effect

    PubMed

    Franklin; Mertens; Marder

    2000-12-01

    Aluminum subjected to smooth mechanical loading does not often deform in a correspondingly smooth manner. Typically it deforms inhomogeneously through the propagation of deformation fronts that slowly traverse the sample. These are called Portevin-Le Chatelier fronts; what determines their velocity has been somewhat mysterious. We present a phenomenological theory for deformation fronts that centers on a nonlocal rate dependence of the flow stress. In a one-dimensional idealization the equations can be solved exactly, and compared directly with experiment. Many significant features of deformation fronts are captured, including a well-known transition from hopping to continuous front motion. The phenomenology's predictions are confirmed by our experiments. PMID:11138118

  5. Evaluation of Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) neonate preferences for corn and weeds in corn.

    PubMed

    Tate, Colothdian D; Hellmich, Richard L; Lewis, Leslie C

    2006-12-01

    Choice tests were conducted to determine feeding preferences of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), neonates for 15 species of plants. Percentage of neonates accepting (found on) each leaf disc after 24 h was measured using choice tests. Initially, nine species of plants were evaluated. The following year, 10 plant species were evaluated during O. nubilalis first generation and 11 species during the second generation. Pennsylvania smartweed, Polygonum pennsylvanicum (L.), had the highest percentage of neonates accepting leaf discs in both years. Other plants with high acceptance rates included swamp smartweed, Polygonum amphibium L.; velvetleaf, Abutilon theophrasti Medicus; cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L.; and yellow foxtail, Setaria glauca (L.). Corn, Zea mays L., consistently had low percentages of neonates accepting leaf discs along with common waterhemp, Amaranthus rudis Sauer. Implications these results may have on O. nubilalis host plant selection in central Iowa's corn dominated landscape are considered. PMID:17195664

  6. Co-production of schizophyllan and arabinoxylan from corn fiber.

    PubMed

    Leathers, Timothy D; Nunnally, Melinda S; Price, Neil P

    2006-05-01

    Schizophyllum commune strain ATCC 38548 grew well on a medium containing alkaline H2O2 -pretreated corn fiber as a sole carbon source, and clarified the culture medium within 7 days. The strain preferentially utilized the starch component of corn fiber for growth and production of schizophyllan. Culture supernatants contained approx. 50 mg schizophyllan and 200 mg arabinoxylan per g corn fiber. These polysaccharides were recovered separately by differential precipitation with ethanol. PMID:16642298

  7. Aflatoxicosis in cattle pastured in a field of sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Hall, R F; Harrison, L R; Colvin, B M

    1989-04-01

    Aflatoxicosis was diagnosed in a small herd of cattle having access to moldy, unharvested sweet corn. Necropsy of 1 cow that died revealed anasarca and a pale tan liver. In this cow, microscopic examination revealed edema of all soft tissues and liver lesions consistent with aflatoxicosis. Samples of corn taken from the field contained 2,365 ng of aflatoxin/g of corn. Weather conditions were conducive to the formation of aflatoxins by Aspergillus flavus and A parasiticus. PMID:2703428

  8. Measurement of fumonisins in corn with a fiber optic fluoroimmunosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Vicki S.; Maragos, Chris M.

    1997-05-01

    A fiber-optic immunosensor was used to determine concentrations of the mycotoxin fumonisin B1(FB1) in both spiked and naturally contaminated corn samples. Samples were extracted with a mixture of methanol/water. Two methods were used to prepare the methanolic corn extracts before introduction to the immunosensor: (1) simple dilution of the methanolic corn extract; or (2) affinity column cleanup. The sensor displayed an IC50 of 70 ng FB1/mL when toxin was introduced in phosphate buffered saline. Simple dilution of methanolic corn extracts yielded an assay with an IC50 equivalent to 25 (mu) gFB1/g corn and a limit of detection of 3.2 (mu) g/g corn, while affinity cleanup of corn extracts yielded an assay with an IC50 of 5 (mu) gFB1/g corn and a limit of detection of 0.4 (mu) gFB1/g corn. The difference in sensitivity between the two cleanup techniques was due to concentration of fumonisins obtained from the affinity cleanup procedure. Naturally contaminated corn samples were also analyzed after either simple dilution or affinity column cleanup. For comparison the naturally contaminated corn samples were analyzed with an HPLC method after isolation of the fumonisins with strong anion exchange (SAX) solid phase extraction cartridges. The SAX/HPLC method and the immunosensor method agreed well except when large amounts of other fumonisins (i.e. fumonisin B2) were present. This was due in part to the cross-reactivity of the monoclonal antibody with other fumonisins. The immunosensor has the potential to screen individual corn samples for fumonisins within six minutes, and is among the fastest of the currently available FB1 detection methods.

  9. POLYMORPHIC MICROSATELLITE LOCI FROM NORTHERN AND MEXICAN CORN ROOTWORMS (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE) AND CROSS-AMPLIFICATION WITH OTHER DIABROTICA SPP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The northern corn rootworm (Diabrotica barberi) and Mexican corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera zeae) are significant agricultural pests. For the northern corn rootworm, and to a lesser extent, the Mexican corn rootworm, high resolution molecular markers are needed. Here we pres...

  10. Microscopic Analysis of Corn Fiber Using Corn Starch- and Cellulose-Specific Molecular Probes

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, S. E.; Donohoe, B. S.; Beery, K. E.; Xu, Q.; Ding, S.-Y.; Vinzant, T. B.; Abbas, C. A.; Himmel, M. E.

    2007-09-01

    Ethanol is the primary liquid transportation fuel produced from renewable feedstocks in the United States today. The majority of corn grain, the primary feedstock for ethanol production, has been historically processed in wet mills yielding products such as gluten feed, gluten meal, starch, and germ. Starch extracted from the grain is used to produce ethanol in saccharification and fermentation steps; however the extraction of starch is not 100% efficient. To better understand starch extraction during the wet milling process, we have developed fluorescent probes that can be used to visually localize starch and cellulose in samples using confocal microscopy. These probes are based on the binding specificities of two types of carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs), which are small substrate-specific protein domains derived from carbohydrate degrading enzymes. CBMs were fused, using molecular cloning techniques, to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) or to the red fluorescent protein DsRed (RFP). Using these engineered probes, we found that the binding of the starch-specific probe correlates with starch content in corn fiber samples. We also demonstrate that there is starch internally localized in the endosperm that may contribute to the high starch content in corn fiber. We also surprisingly found that the cellulose-specific probe did not bind to most corn fiber samples, but only to corn fiber that had been hydrolyzed using a thermochemical process that removes the residual starch and much of the hemicellulose. Our findings should be of interest to those working to increase the efficiency of the corn grain to ethanol process.

  11. Corn volatiles as attractants for northern and western corn rootworm beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae:Diabrotica spp.).

    PubMed

    Hammack, L

    1996-07-01

    Synthetic corn volatiles and selected analogs were tested in commercial corn fields for attractiveness to feral northern (NCR,Diabrotica barberi) and western corn rootworm beetles (WCR,D. virgifera virgifera). Two new attractants, geranylacetone and α-terpineol, were identified among corn terpenes and compared at four stages in crop development with the phenylpropanoid standards cinnamyl alcohol and 4-methoxy-cinnamaldehyde, with each component at 30 mg/trap. Dose-response relationships (0.1-100 mg/trap) and efficacy of two-component blends (30 mg/component) were also examined. More beetles were captured on traps baited with (+)- than (-)-α-terpineol, but the difference was statistically significant only for WCR. Captures with geranylacetone or (+)-α-terpineol were directly proportional to the logarithm of the attractant dose. WCR females were attracted to as little as 0.1 mg of either compound. WCR males required ≥ 1.0 mg of (+)-α-terpineol and were not attracted to geranylacetone at any dose. NCR required ≥0.3 mg of either attractant and showed less marked response differences between the sexes than did WCR. Geranylacetone and cinnamyl alcohol were equally effective attractants, whereas (+)-α-terpineol was significantly less attractive to WCR but more attractive to NCR than was 4-methoxycinnamaldehyde. Corn terpenes and phenylpropanoid standards produced similar seasonal response patterns in that captures tended to rise in each case as the season progressed, except during silking when no compound was attractive. Mixing corn terpenes or phenylpropanoid standards synergized responses of WCR females, but (+)-α-terpineol suppressed attraction of NCR females to geranylacetone. PMID:24226082

  12. BIOTECHNOLOGY AND THE EUROPEAN CORN BORER: MEASURING HISTORICAL FARMER PERCEPTIONS AND ADOPTION OF TRANSGENIC BT CORN AS A PEST MANAGEMENT STRATEGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-year, multi-state survey of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn farmers was conducted to evaluate perceptions of Bt corn performance and its utility as a European corn borer management option. A questionnaire was sent to farmers who had grown Bt corn during the previous field season...

  13. 35% corn wet distiller's grains plus solubles in steam-flaked and dry-rolled corn finishing diets: Effects on animal performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fifty-four crossbred steers (308 ± 8 kg) were fed dry-rolled corn (DRC) and steam-flaked corn (SFC) based diets with and without 35% wet distiller's grains plus solubles (WDGS) derived from corn to determine impacts of corn processing method and WDGS inclusion on animal performance and carcass chara...

  14. Modernizing the handling of ear corn. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Kleptz, C.F.

    1980-01-01

    The goal of the project was to modernize the handling of ear corn. The corn was picked with a three row JD 300 picker pulled by a tractor. Pulled behind the picker was a side dump wagon with a capacity of 150 bushels of ear corn. When the dump wagon was full, a grain truck was driven along side of the wagon and the dump wagon, controlled by the tractor driver, was emptied into the truck. After two dumps of the wagon, the truck was driven to the storage area. The storage area consisted of ten (ten) 2000 bushel corn cribs set in a semi circle so that the elevator that filled the cribs could be moved from one crib to the next without changing the fill point. At the storage area, the truck full of corn was dumped into the platform feeder. By using a platform feeder to feed the elevator, all ten (10) cribs could be filled without moving it. After the harvest was complete, the corn remains in the cribs until needed for feed or until the corn is sold. During the time that the corn remains in the cribs, the turbine ventilator draws air through the corn and dries it.

  15. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    DOEpatents

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  16. Kernel compositions of glyphosate-tolerant and corn rootworm-protected MON 88017 sweet corn and insect-protected MON 89034 sweet corn are equivalent to that of conventional sweet corn (Zea mays).

    PubMed

    Curran, Kassie L; Festa, Adam R; Goddard, Scott D; Harrigan, George G; Taylor, Mary L

    2015-03-25

    Monsanto Co. has developed two sweet corn hybrids, MON 88017 and MON 89034, that contain biotechnology-derived (biotech) traits designed to enhance sustainability and improve agronomic practices. MON 88017 confers benefits of glyphosate tolerance and protection against corn rootworm. MON 89034 provides protection against European corn borer and other lepidopteran insect pests. The purpose of this assessment was to compare the kernel compositions of MON 88017 and MON 89034 sweet corn with that of a conventional control that has a genetic background similar to the biotech sweet corn but does not express the biotechnology-derived traits. The sweet corn samples were grown at five replicated sites in the United States during the 2010 growing season and the conventional hybrid and 17 reference hybrids were grown concurrently to provide an estimate of natural variability for all assessed components. The compositional analysis included proximates, fibers, amino acids, sugars, vitamins, minerals, and selected metabolites. Results highlighted that MON 88017 and MON 89034 sweet corns were compositionally equivalent to the conventional control and that levels of the components essential to the desired properties of sweet corn, such as sugars and vitamins, were more affected by growing environment than the biotech traits. In summary, the benefits of biotech traits can be incorporated into sweet corn with no adverse effects on nutritional quality. PMID:25764285

  17. Spatiotemporal distribution of Chinavia hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in corn farmscapes.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Ted E; Tillman, P Glynn

    2015-01-01

    The green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a pest of cotton in the southeastern United States but little is known concerning its spatiotemporal distribution in corn cropping systems. Therefore, the spatiotemporal distribution of C. hilaris in farmscapes, when corn was adjacent to cotton, peanut, or both, was examined weekly. The spatial patterns of C. hilaris counts were analyzed using Spatial Analysis by Distance Indices methodology. Interpolated maps of C. hilaris density were used to visualize abundance and distribution of C. hilaris in crops in corn-peanut-cotton farmscapes. This stink bug was detected in six of seven corn-cotton farmscapes, four of six corn-peanut farmscapes, and in both corn-peanut-cotton farmscapes. The frequency of C. hilaris in cotton (89.47%) was significantly higher than in peanut (7.02%) or corn (3.51%). This stink bug fed on noncrop hosts that grew in field borders adjacent to crops. The spatial distribution of C. hilaris in crops and the capture of C. hilaris adults and nymphs in pheromone-baited traps near noncrop hosts indicated that these hosts were sources of this stink bug dispersing into crops, primarily cotton. Significant aggregated spatial distributions were detected in cotton on some dates within corn-peanut-cotton farmscapes. Maps of local clustering indices depicted small patches of C. hilaris in cotton or cotton-sorghum at the peanut-cotton interface. Factors affecting the spatiotemporal dynamics of C. hilaris in corn farmscapes are discussed. PMID:25843581

  18. Production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from corn stalk catalyzed by corn stalk-derived carbonaceous solid acid catalyst.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lulu; Liu, Nian; Wang, Yu; Machida, Hiroshi; Qi, Xinhua

    2014-12-01

    A carbonaceous solid acid was prepared by hydrothermal carbonization of corn stalk followed by sulfonation and was characterized by FT-IR, XRD, SEM and elemental analysis techniques. The as-prepared corn stalk-derived carbonaceous solid acid catalyst contained SO3H, COOH, and phenolic OH groups, and was used for the one-step conversion of intact corn stalk to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ([BMIM][Cl]), where a 5-HMF yield of 44.1% was achieved at 150 °C in 30 min reaction time. The catalytic system was applicable to initial corn stalk concentration of up to ca. 10 wt.% for the production of 5-HMF. The synthesized catalyst and the developed process of using corn stalk-derived carbon catalyst for corn stalk conversion provide a green and efficient strategy for crude biomass utilization. PMID:25444888

  19. Evidence of evolving carbaryl resistance in western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in areawide-managed cornfields in north central Kansas.

    PubMed

    Zhu, K Y; Wilde, G E; Higgins, R A; Sloderbeck, P E; Buschman, L L; Shufran, R A; Whitworth, R J; Starkey, S R; He, F

    2001-08-01

    Susceptibility of adult populations of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, to carbaryl was determined by a survey in 1996 before the implementation of an areawide management program near Scandia in north central Kansas. Subsequently, the susceptibility of western corn rootworm adults to carbaryl has been monitored throughout the program from 1997 to 2000 in both control and managed areas. In 1996, adults were highly susceptible to carbaryl with a mean LC50 value of 0.64 microg/vial. This value was comparable to those for adults collected from other regions within Kansas. However, adult susceptibility to carbaryl decreased rapidly within the managed area, where the cucurbitacin- carbaryl-based bait SLAM has been used as the primary tool to control adults in this project since 1997. In 1999, adults collected from the managed area were 9- and 20-fold less susceptible to carbaryl at the LC50 and LC90 levels, respectively, than those evaluated in 1996. In contrast, adults collected from the control area were only 2- and 3-fold less susceptible to carbaryl at the LC50 and LC90 levels, respectively, than adults evaluated in 1996. Although field adult populations of western corn rootworm were relatively low in 2000, evaluations showed trends similar to those in 1999 regarding their carbaryl susceptibility in the managed and control areas. These results provide evidence that western corn rootworm has been evolving carbaryl resistance rapidly in response to the use of SLAM in areawide-managed cornfields near Scandia. PMID:11561854

  20. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2008-09-01

    Fragmentation et astéroïdes binaires; Astéroïde géocroiseur triple; Rosetta sort de son hibernation; Messenger; Transit lunaire vu par Deep Impact; Titan; Phobos; Phoenix; Einstein avait raison; Le ballet des taches rouges; Le poids des lentilles;

  1. Enterobacter cloacae is an endophytic symbiont of corn.

    PubMed

    Hinton, D M; Bacon, C W

    1995-01-01

    The bacterium Enterobacter cloacae is presently used for biocontrol of postharvest diseases of fruits and vegetables and as a preplant seed treatment for suppression of damping-off. This bacterium has apparent affinities for several grass species, but it is not considered to be an endophyte. While screening corn for fungi and bacteria with potential for biocontrol of various corn diseases, the surface-sterilized kernels of one unknown Italian corn cultivar produced fungus-free corn seedlings with roots endophytically infected by E. cloacae. This paper describes the microscopic nature of E. cloacae RRC 101 with corn, and the in vitro control of Fusarium moniliforme and other fungi with this bacterium. Light and electron microscopy determined that this isolate of E. cloacae was biologically associated with corn seedling roots, where it was distributed intercellularly within the cortex and stele. This is a first report of a strain of this bacterium as an endophytic symbiont of roots. Following a topical application of E. cloacae to kernels, and upon germination this bacterium readily infected roots of two other corn cultivars. The bacterium was observed within the endosperm of germinating corn seedling, but germination was not affected. Further, the bacterium was isolated from leaves and stems of 3- to 6-week-old seedlings indicating that the above ground portions of corn were also colonized. There was no evidence of damage to cells of the root during a three to four week observation period. This bacterium was antagonistic to several isolates of the corn pathogen Fusarium moniliforme, and to two other species of fungi, all of which produce mycotoxins on corn. PMID:7659140

  2. Evaluation of corn hybrids expressing Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 and Cry3BbL against the western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Prasifka, P L; Rule, D M; Storer, N P; Nolting, S P; Hendrix, W H

    2013-04-01

    Studies were conducted across nine U.S. states, over 5 yr, to characterize the efficacy of transgenic corn (Zea mays L.) hybrids producing insecticidal proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) for control of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte. Hybrids tested had the same genetic background, contained one of two single events (DAS-59122-7 expressing Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1 or MON 88017 expressing Cry3Bb1) or a pyramid consisting of both rootworm-active events (SmartStax traits) and were compared with a non-Bt near isoline. Frequency analyses of root feeding data showed that hybrids containing both events sustained less root damage (0-3 node injury scale) than hybrids containing either event alone. The levels of root protection provided by MON 88017 and DAS-59122-7 were not different from each other. Efficacy was also evaluated based on consistency of protection, based on the proportion of plants with root ratings of either < or = 0.25 or < 1.00 on the node injury scale. The combination of two modes of action in SmartStax provided greater product consistency over a single mode of action at the 0.25 level and all hybrids producing Bt proteins provided equally high consistency at the 1.00 level. Overall these data show single and multiple mode of action hybrids provided high, consistent protection over the past 5 yr across the trial geography; however, pyramiding the rootworm Bt events provided greater and more consistent root protection. These findings also support that pyramided traits like SmartStax (Cry3Bb1 + Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1) remain a viable strategy for delaying resistance to either trait. PMID:23786070

  3. The distribution of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) moths in pivot-irrigated corn.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Scott C; Walter, Shawn M; Peairs, Frank B; Schleip, Erin M

    2013-10-01

    The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), is a damaging pest of numerous crops including corn, potato, and cotton. An understanding of the interaction between O. nubilalis and its spatial environment may aid in developing pest management strategy. Over a 2-yr period, approximately 8,000 pheromone trap catches of O. nubilalis were recorded on pivot-irrigated corn in northeastern Colorado. The highest weekly moth capture per pivot-irrigated field occurred on the week of 15 July 1997 at 1,803 moths captured. The lowest peak moth capture per pivot-irrigated field was recorded on the week of 4 June 1998 at 220 moths captured. Average trap catch per field ranged from approximately 1.6 moths captured per trap per week in 1997 to approximately 0.3 moths captured per trap per week in 1998. Using pheromone trap moth capture data, we developed a quantified understanding of the spatial distribution of adult male moths. Our findings suggest strong correlations between moth density and adjacent corn crops, prevailing wind direction, and an edge effect. In addition, directional component effects suggest that more moths were attracted to the southwestern portion of the crop, which has the greatest insolation potential. In addition to the tested predictor variables, we found a strong spatial autocorrelation signal indicating positive aggregations of these moths and that males from both inside and outside of the field are being attracted to within-field pheromone traps, which has implications for refuge strategy management. PMID:24224250

  4. Improved Multivariate Calibration Models for Corn Stover Feedstock and Dilute-Acid Pretreated Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfrum, E. J.; Sluiter, A. D.

    2009-01-01

    We have studied rapid calibration models to predict the composition of a variety of biomass feedstocks by correlating near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic data to compositional data produced using traditional wet chemical analysis techniques. The rapid calibration models are developed using multivariate statistical analysis of the spectroscopic and wet chemical data. This work discusses the latest versions of the NIR calibration models for corn stover feedstock and dilute-acid pretreated corn stover. Measures of the calibration precision and uncertainty are presented. No statistically significant differences (p = 0.05) are seen between NIR calibration models built using different mathematical pretreatments. Finally, two common algorithms for building NIR calibration models are compared; no statistically significant differences (p = 0.05) are seen for the major constituents glucan, xylan, and lignin, but the algorithms did produce different predictions for total extractives. A single calibration model combining the corn stover feedstock and dilute-acid pretreated corn stover samples gave less satisfactory predictions than the separate models.

  5. Corn residue removal impact on soil aggregates in a no-till corn/soybean rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many questions have surfaced regarding the removal of corn residue for use in the biofuels industry. Concerned producers are asking questions pertaining to what impacts removing residue will have on the following crop (short-term) and the effects this practice has on soil quality (long-term). To ad...

  6. Fitness of Bt-resistant Western Corn Rootworm on Mon863 and Isoline Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract: To help ensure that insect resistance management plans mandated by the US Environmental Protection Agency are based on the best science available, we evaluated fitness costs associated with resistance development in artificially selected laboratory lines of the western corn rootworm, Diabr...

  7. ENERGY BALANCE COMPARISON AMONG TILLAGE PRACTICES IN CORN AND CORN-SOYBEAN SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction There is little information available on the effect of common management practices on the energy balance of corn and soybean cropping systems. This type of information is needed to assess the sustainability of these systems. Such information will also be useful for designing improved cr...

  8. Yield response to corn stover harvest in the northern Corn Belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn stover is targeted as a potential non-food bioenergy feedstock, especially in the midwestern United States. Three parallel experiments were conducted on adjacent fields. One was managed without tillage since 1995. A second experiment was managed without tillage since 2005. The third was managed...

  9. Le syndrome d'apert

    PubMed Central

    Benmiloud, Sarra; Chaouki, Sana; Atmani, Samir; Hida, Moustapha

    2013-01-01

    Le syndrome d'Apert est une affection congénitale rare, caractérisée par une sténose cranio-faciale associée à une syndactylie des mains et des pieds. Sa prise en charge doit être précoce et multidisciplinaire. Sa gravité réside dans la coexistence de plusieurs malformations avec un risque d'hypertension intracrânienne chronique responsable d'une cécité et d'une débilité mentale. Les auteurs rapportent une nouvelle observation à travers laquelle ils illustrent les aspects cliniques et évolutifs ainsi que les difficultés thérapeutiques de cette affection. PMID:23565313

  10. Intraday LeBaron effects

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Simone; Corsi, Fulvio; Renò, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    We study the relation at intraday level between serial correlation and volatility of the Standard and Poor (S&P) 500 stock index futures returns. At daily and weekly levels, serial correlation and volatility forecasts have been found to be negatively correlated (LeBaron effect). After finding a significant attenuation of the original effect over time, we show that a similar but more pronounced effect holds by using intraday measures, by such as realized volatility and variance ratio. We also test the impact of unexpected volatility, defined as the part of volatility which cannot be forecasted, on the presence of intraday serial correlation in the time series by employing a model for realized volatility based on the heterogeneous market hypothesis. We find that intraday serial correlation is negatively correlated to volatility forecasts, whereas it is positively correlated to unexpected volatility.

  11. Corn Storage Protein - A Molecular Genetic Model

    SciTech Connect

    Messing, Joachim

    2013-05-31

    Corn is the highest yielding crop on earth and probably the most valuable agricultural product of the United States. Because it converts sun energy through photosynthesis into starch and proteins, we addressed energy savings by focusing on protein quality. People and animals require essential amino acids derived from the digestion of proteins. If proteins are relatively low in certain essential amino acids, the crop becomes nutritionally defective and has to be supplemented. Such deficiency affects meat and fish production and countries where corn is a staple. Because corn seed proteins have relatively low levels of lysine and methionine, a diet has to be supplemented with soybeans for the missing lysine and with chemically synthesized methionine. We therefore have studied genes expressed during maize seed development and their chromosomal organization. A critical technical requirement for the understanding of the molecular structure of genes and their positional information was DNA sequencing. Because of the length of sequences, DNA sequencing methods themselves were insufficient for this type of analysis. We therefore developed the so-called “DNA shotgun sequencing” strategy, where overlapping DNA fragments were sequenced in parallel and used to reconstruct large DNA molecules via overlaps. Our publications became the most frequently cited ones during the decade of 1981-1990 and former Associate Director of Science for the Office of Basic Energy Sciences Patricia M. Dehmer presented our work as one of the great successes of this program. A major component of the sequencing strategy was the development of bacterial strains and vectors, which were also used to develop the first biotechnology crops. These crops possessed new traits thanks to the expression of foreign genes in plants. To enable such expression, chimeric genes had to be constructed using our materials and methods by the industry. Because we made our materials and methods freely available to

  12. Improved predictability of fertilizer nitrogen need for corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accounting for alfalfa nitrogen (N) credits to first-year corn reduces fertilizer N costs, over-application of N, and the risk of nitrate loss to ground water. It is equally important, however, to avoid inadequate N supply for corn. We analyzed nearly all previous research on fertilizer N response i...

  13. People on the Farm: Corn and Hog Farming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet provides information on corn and hog farming on a small farm through a profile of a farm family. According to the profile, John and Mary Miller and their three children are a comfortable family operating a corn and hog farm in Iowa. John, the principal farmer, uses a variety of skills in management, veterinary science, soil science,…

  14. Nitrogen fertilization affects corn cellulosic biomass and ethanol yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research results on the effects of N management on corn (Zea mays L.) grain production in high-yielding cropping systems are widely available, but information on its effects on cellulosic ethanol potential from corn stover and cobs is limited. Stover and cob biomass and respective ethanol yields all...

  15. 5. Anthony Bley, Photographer Summer, 1975 L TO R: CORN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Anthony Bley, Photographer Summer, 1975 L TO R: CORN CRIB-WAGON SHED, BARN, FRAME OF WHEAT BARN, CORN CRIB, PIG BARN - Dundore Farm, State Route 183 & Church Road vicinity, Penn Township (moved to Brownsville vicinity, Lower Heidelberg Township, Berks County), Mount Pleasant, Berks County, PA

  16. 4. Anthony Bley, Photographer September, 1976 L TO R: CORN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Anthony Bley, Photographer September, 1976 L TO R: CORN CRIB, -WAGON SHED, BARN, FRAME OF WHEAT BARN, CORN CRIB - Dundore Farm, State Route 183 & Church Road vicinity, Penn Township (moved to Brownsville vicinity, Lower Heidelberg Township, Berks County), Mount Pleasant, Berks County, PA

  17. Comparing corn stover and switchgrass biochar: characterization and sorption properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A switchgrass biochar (SB) produced by fast pyrolysis and a corn stover biochar (CSB) from a slow pyrolysis process were mechanically milled and characterized. Both of these biochars are very cost-effective and originate as residues from bioenergy production and the corn industry, respectively. Thes...

  18. Transgenic phenolic production in corn silks moderately enhances insect resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some phenolic compounds produced in corn silks, such as maysin, can promote resistance to caterpillar pests. We evaluated transgenic maize engineered to express a maize cDNA controlled by a putative silk specific promoter for secondary metabolite production and corn earworm resistance. Transgene e...

  19. Areawide Insect Management Plans for Corn Rootworm Using GIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn rootworms (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are serious pests of maize in the United States and Europe. Historically, chemical pesticides and crop rotation have been used to control these pests, creating economic and environmental concerns. A five year corn rootworm areawide management program was es...

  20. Flight behavior of European corn borer infected with Nosema pyrausta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The microsporidian Nosema pyrausta is a common and widespread pathogen of European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner), in North America and Europe. Nosema negatively affects European corn borer longevity and fecundity. In this study, we used flight mills to examine the effects of Nosema infec...

  1. 3. BIG HOUSE (left) AND CORN CRIB (right) IN THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BIG HOUSE (left) AND CORN CRIB (right) IN THE BACKGROUND. See also individual HABS documentation: Walker Family Farm, Big House (HABS No. TN-121 A), and Walker Family Farm, Corn Crib (HABS No. TN-121 C). - Walker Family Farm (General views), Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  2. Rotational Effects of Cuphea on Corn, Spring Wheat, and Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural diversity is lacking in the northern Corn Belt. Adding crop diversity to rotations can give economic and environmental benefits. Cuphea (Cuphea viscosissima Jacq. x C. lanceolata W.T. Aiton; PSR23), which grows well in the northern Corn Belt, is a new oilseed crop and a source of medium...

  3. ANALYSIS OF HEADSPACE VOLATILES OF CORN GLUTEN MEAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn gluten meal is the high-protein fraction from wet milling of corn. Although protein, minerals, and fat compositions have been reported, minor components that cause unpleasant flavor and taste are not known. The objective of this study is to determine the compounds present in the headspace of ...

  4. Accounting for alfalfa N credits increases returns to corn production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guidelines are relatively consistent across the Upper Midwest regarding the N benefit of alfalfa to the following grain crops. With higher corn yields and prices, however, some growers have questioned these guidelines and whether more N fertilizer is needed for first-year corn following a good stand...

  5. Predicting fertilizer nitrogen response in corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Correct prediction and application of alfalfa nitrogen (N) credits to first-year corn can reduce fertilizer N costs for growers, reduce over-application of N, and reduce the potential for water contamination. For decades, researchers have found that first-year corn following alfalfa often requires n...

  6. Results of the 1971 Corn Blight Watch experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.; Allen, R. D.; Bauer, M. E.; Clifton, J. W.; Frickson, J. D.; Landgrebe, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Advanced remote sensing techniques are used to: (1)Detect development and spread of corn leaf blight during the growing season; (2) assess the extent and severity of blight infection; (3) assess the impact of blight on corn production; and (4) estimate the applicability of these techniques to similar situations occurring in the future.

  7. 8. VIEW OF 'TRIUMPH' CORN SHELLER (C. O. Bartlett & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF 'TRIUMPH' CORN SHELLER (C. O. Bartlett & Snow Co., Cleveland), LOCATED IN THE BASEMENT, USED TO REMOVE CORN KENNELS FROM THE COB. Photographer: Louise Taft Cawood, July 1986 - Alexander's Grist Mill, Lock 37 on Ohio & Erie Canal, South of Cleveland, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  8. Nutritive Value of Corn Silage in Mixture with Climbing Beans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) for silage is a major forage source for dairy cows in the northern USA. It has high energy density, but crude protein concentration is low. This study was conducted to determine the silage fiber characteristics and fermentation profile of monoculture corn or in mixture with one o...

  9. Genetic Basis of Sensitivity in Sweet Corn to Tembotrione

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were used to 1) test the hypothesis that the genetic basis of sweet corn sensitivity to AE 0172747 is the same recessive gene that conditions sensitivity to mesotrione, and 2) compare the extent of early-season herbicide injury from AE 0172747 and mesotrione on sweet corn hybrids and i...

  10. Plant-to-plant variability in corn production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) grain yields are known to vary from plant to plant, but the extent of this variability across a range of environments has not been evaluated. This study was initiated to evaluate by-plant corn grain yield variability over a range of production environments and to establish the rel...

  11. Production costs of potential corn stover harvest and storage systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn stover has potential as a bioenergy feedstock in North America. Here we compared production costs for various corn stover harvest (three-pass and two-pass with baling and chopping, and single-pass) and storage options (outdoor and indoor dry bales, outdoor wrapped bales, and chopped stover in b...

  12. IMPACT OF OZONE ON FIELD-CORN YIELD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field corn(Zea mays L.) is the most important agricultural crop in the U.S. and the major production areas are subjected to potentially damaging concentrations of ozone (O3). Since no information was available regarding the sensitivity of field-corn hybrids grown in the Midwest, ...

  13. Resistance Management Monitoring For the US Corn Crop

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant increases in genetically modified corn planting are expected for future planted acreages approaching 80% of total corn plantings anticipated by 2009. As demand increases, incidence of farmer non-compliance with mandated non-genetically modified refuge is likely to in...

  14. CORN BELT PLAIN RIVER AND STREAMS PROJECT - 3 BIOCRITERIA PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This effort resulted in eight products, as follows: 1) Development of Index of Biotic Integrity Expectations for the Ecoregions of Indiana I. Central Corn Belt Plain; 2) Ibid. II. Huron-Erie Lake Plain; 3) Ibid III. Northern Indiana Till Plain; 4) Ibid .IV.Eastern Corn Belt Plain...

  15. Corn Stover for Bioethanol: Your New Cash Crop?

    SciTech Connect

    2001-02-01

    Biomass ethanol technology is still developing and important questions need to be answered about corn stover removal, but prospects are excellent for you to someday be able to harvest and sell a substantial portion of your stover for fuel production—without hurting your soil or main corn grain operation.

  16. Corn Stover for Bioethanol -- Your New Cash Crop?

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, H.

    2001-05-16

    Biomass ethanol technology is still developing and important questions need to be answered about corn stover removal, but prospects are excellent for you to someday be able to harvest and sell a substantial portion of your stover for fuel production--without hurting your soil or main corn grain operation.

  17. Does K affect N response of corn after alfalfa?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rising potassium (K) fertilizer prices in recent years have made it imperative for farmers to apply optimum K rates for alfalfa-corn rotations. However, little is understood about the effect of excess K applied to alfalfa on the subsequent corn crop's grain and silage yield. Furthermore, relatively ...

  18. Canopy Reflectance Sensing as Impacted by Corn Hybrid Growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection of physical and chemical properties with canopy reflectance sensing could help predict the overall health and yield of a corn crop. Little research has been done to show differences of corn hybrids on canopy reflectance sensing. This study was conducted to examine potential hybrid differe...

  19. Hyperspectral imaging system for whole corn ear surface inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Haibo; Kincaid, Russell; Hruska, Zuzana; Brown, Robert L.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E.

    2013-05-01

    Aflatoxin is a mycotoxin produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus (A.flavus) and Aspergillus parasitiucus fungi that grow naturally in corn. Very serious health problems such as liver damage and lung cancer can result from exposure to high toxin levels in grain. Consequently, many countries have established strict guidelines for permissible levels in consumables. Conventional chemical-based analytical methods used to screen for aflatoxin such as thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are time consuming, expensive, and require the destruction of samples as well as proper training for data interpretation. Thus, it has been a continuing effort within the research community to find a way to rapidly and non-destructively detect and possibly quantify aflatoxin contamination in corn. One of the more recent developments in this area is the use of spectral technology. Specifically, fluorescence hyperspectral imaging offers a potential rapid, and non-invasive method for contamination detection in corn infected with toxigenic A.flavus spores. The current hyperspectral image system is designed for scanning flat surfaces, which is suitable for imaging single or a group of corn kernels. In the case of a whole corn cob, it is preferred to be able to scan the circumference of the corn ear, appropriate for whole ear inspection. This paper discusses the development of a hyperspectral imaging system for whole corn ear imaging. The new instrument is based on a hyperspectral line scanner using a rotational stage to turn the corn ear.

  20. Shrunken 2 sweet corn breeding and selection for insect resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southeastern United States is one of the largest production areas for fresh market sweet corn in the country. The sub-temperate, subtropical and tropical climates of this region offer growers the opportunity to provide the market with a year-round supply of fresh sweet corn. Across this region...

  1. The Energy Relationships of Corn Production and Alcohol Fermentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Koevering, Thomas E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Proposes that the production of alcohol from corn be used as a practical application of scientific principles that deal with energy transformations. Discusses the solar energy available for growth, examining the utilization of solar energy by plants. Describes the conversion of corn to alcohol, with suggestions for classroom and laboratory study.…

  2. Irrigated Corn Cob Production and Quality: Potential Cellulosic Feedstock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escalating fossil fuel cost and concern over global climate change have accelerated interest in cellulosic feedstocks, such as corn cobs, for liquid fuel production. Little information is available about corn cob yield and its N and C content. Available cob data was compiled and summarized from seve...

  3. Reinforcement Effect of Corn Flour in Rubber Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn flour is an economical renewable material and investigated in this study as filler for rubber composites. The composites were prepared by mixing an aqueous dispersion of corn flour with rubber latex, followed by freeze-drying and compression molding. The small strain elastic modulus and the str...

  4. Crop seeding level: implications for weed management in sweet corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet corn is seeded under a wide range of population densities; however, the extent to which variable population density influences weed fitness is unknown. Therefore, field studies were undertaken to quantify the influence of sweet corn seeding level on growth, seed production, and post-harvest se...

  5. Impact of transgenic sweet corn silks to two noctuid pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eight Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic sweet corn hybrids were evaluated (with two controls) for their efficacy against two ear-feeding insects; the corn earworm [Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)], and the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuid...

  6. Using less atrazine in sweet corn: challenges to overcome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the near future, growers may see further restrictions on their most widely used weed control tactic - atrazine. Studies were conducted throughout the major processing sweet corn growing areas in North America to determine the impact of using less atrazine postemergence on sweet corn production. I...

  7. Development of sustainable corn stover harvest strategies for cellulosic ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. EPA identified corn (Zea mays L.) stover as “the most economical agricultural feedstock…to meet the 16 billion gallon cellulosic biofuel requirement.” They estimated that 7.8 billion gallons of ethanol would come from 82 million tons of corn stover by 2022. POET-DSM Advanced Biofuels is con...

  8. WILD PROSO MILLET SUPPRESSION AMONG SWEET CORN HYBRIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation in canopy architecture among sweet corn hybrids influences the effectiveness of weed management systems, both in short-term objectives (e.g. maximizing crop yield and quality) and long-term goals (e.g. weed seedbank depletion). Several canopy traits in sweet corn, such as height and canop...

  9. Changes in Physical Properties during Dry Grind Processing of Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn-based ethanol has dramatically increased in the U.S. in recent years. So too has the quantity of coproducts. These are composed of nonfermentable components (i.e., protein, lipid, fiber, and ash) from the corn kernel. These materials are separated from the ethanol and then subjected to various ...

  10. Response of the North American corn belt to climatic warming

    SciTech Connect

    Blasing, T.J.; Solomon, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    The climate of the North American corn belt was characterized as part of an effort to estimate the effects of climatic change on that agricultural region. Heat and moisture characteristics of the current corn belt were first identified. Locations of those characteristics were then mapped, based on a climate simulated to result from doubling the amount of atmospheric CO/sub 2/. Such projections of corn-belt location were made both with and without allowance for earlier planting dates under a warmer climate. Because the direct effects of CO/sub 2/ on plants, improvements in farm technology, and plant breeding are not considered, the resulting projections represent an extreme or worst case. Results indicate that even for such a worst case, climatic conditions favoring corn production would not extend very far into Canada. Greatest translocations are projected for the western, or driest, part of the corn belt where other crops such as winter wheat could replace corn. However, this kind of exercise clearly shows that the use of climate-model output requires several highly questionable assumptions about changes in the timing and regional distribution of precipitation accompanying a climatic warming. Increased use of climatic data and improved specification of CO/sub 2/-induced increases in water-use efficiency of corn are suggested for more credible projections of corn-belt responses to increasing CO/sub 2/.

  11. Winter cover crops impact on corn production in semiarid regions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops have been proposed as a technique to increase soil health. This study examined the impact of winter brassica cover crop cocktails grown after wheat (Triticum aestivum) on corn yields; corn yield losses due to water and N stress; soil bacteria to fungi ratios; mycorrhizal markers; and ge...

  12. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and not more than 26 mg of iron (Fe); (2) It may contain in each pound not less than 250 U.S.P. units...-rising corn meals shall contain in each pound not more than 1,750 milligrams of calcium (Ca). Iron and... does not impair the enriched corn meal; such carrier is used only in the quantity necessary to...

  13. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and not more than 26 mg of iron (Fe); (2) It may contain in each pound not less than 250 U.S.P. units...-rising corn meals shall contain in each pound not more than 1,750 milligrams of calcium (Ca). Iron and... does not impair the enriched corn meal; such carrier is used only in the quantity necessary to...

  14. 75 FR 80486 - Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Filing December 15, 2010. Take notice that on December 13, 2010, Corning Natural Gas Corporation resubmitted marked and clean...

  15. 76 FR 18213 - Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Corning Natural Gas Corporation; Notice of Filing Take notice that on March 23, 2011, Corning Natural Gas Corporation submitted a revised baseline filing of their Statement of Operating Conditions for services provided under section 311 of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978...

  16. Evidence for fumonisin-corn matrix binding during nixtamalization.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium verticilliodes. They are found in corn and corn-based foods. Nixtamalization (cooking in alkaline water) reduces detectable fumonisins; however, their concentrations in foods can be underestimated if fumonisin-matrix binding occurs. The purpose of this ...

  17. Effect of corn bran substitution on baking quality of cakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food-grade corn bran from the grain milling industry is good source of dietary fiber and can be incorporated into baking goods for low calorie, high-fiber diet. Food grade corn bran was obtained from ICM (St. Joseph, MO) and purified from endosperm and germ fragments using a Kice Multi-Aspirator. ...

  18. Nitrogen management for first-year corn after alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rotating alfalfa with corn can increase corn yield potential due to improved soil physical properties that enhance water infiltration and root extension, altered soil microbial communities, and reduced pest pressure. In addition, fertilizer nitrogen (N) requirements are commonly reduced by about 100...

  19. Insect Screening Results: Assessment of Corn Hybrids for Insect Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the growing season of 2006, the relatively dry environmental conditions in Tifton, Georgia were favorable for the rapid buildup of corn earworms, providing the potential for considerable damage to the corn crop. Six ear-feeding insects recorded in the order of infestation severity were: the...

  20. Liquefaction, Saccharification, and Fermentation of Ammoniated Corn to ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Treatment of whole corn kernels with anhydrous ammonia gas has been proposed as a way to facilitate the separation of non-fermentable coproducts before fermentation of the starch to ethanol, but the fermentability of ammoniated corn has not been thoroughly investigated. Also, it is intended that the...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1866 - High fructose corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false High fructose corn syrup. 184.1866 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1866 High fructose corn syrup. (a) High...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1866 - High fructose corn syrup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false High fructose corn syrup. 184.1866 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1866 High fructose corn syrup. (a) High...

  3. Soil carbon and nitrogen dynamic after corn stover harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofuel production from plant biomass seems to be a suitable solution to mitigate fossil fuel use and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Corn (Zea mays) is a highly promising crop for biomass production. However, stover harvest could negatively impact soil properties. Changes in the quantity of corn r...

  4. An evaluation of corn earworm damage and thresholds in soybean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Brian Patrick

    Interactions between corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and soybean, Glycine max L. (Merrill), were investigated in the Mid-South to evaluate thresholds and damage levels. Field studies were conducted in both indeterminate and determinate modern cultivars to evaluate damage, critical injury levels, and soybean response to simulated corn earworm injury. Field studies were also conducted to evaluate the response of indeterminate cultivars to infestations of corn earworm. Field studies were also conducted to investigate the relationship between pyrethroid insecticide application and corn earworm oviposition in soybean. Results of field studies involving simulated corn earworm damage indicated the need for a dynamic threshold that becomes more conservative as soybean phenology progressed through the reproductive growth stages. This suggested that soybean was more tolerant to fruit loss during the earlier reproductive stages and was able to compensate for fruit loss better during this time than at later growth stages. Results of field studies involving infestations of corn earworm indicated that current thresholds are likely too liberal. This resulted in economic injury level tables being constructed based upon a range of crop values and control costs, however, a general action threshold was also recommended for indeterminate soybean in the Mid-South. Field study results investigating the relationship of pyrethroid application and corn earworm oviposition indicated that even in the presence of an insecticide, corn earworm prefers to oviposit in the upper portion of the canopy, as well as on the leaves as opposed to all other plant parts, consistent with all previous literature.

  5. Winter cover crop effect on corn seedling pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are an excellent management tool to improve the sustainability of agriculture. Winter rye cover crops have been used successfully in Iowa corn-soybean rotations. Unfortunately, winter rye cover crops occasionally reduce yields of the following corn crop. We hypothesize that one potential...

  6. Significance of Atrazine in Weed Management Systems of Sweet Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of weed management systems being used by sweet corn growers, including the role of atrazine in these systems, is poorly characterized. Management records of 175 fields throughout the major sweet corn production areas of the Midwest were surveyed from 2005 to 2007. Seventy-four percent of s...

  7. Properties of extruded chia-corn meal puffs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the properties of extruded corn meal puffs containing chia. Mixtures of corn meal and chia seeds (0-20%) were processed in a laboratory-scale twin-screw extruder at different moisture contents (18-22%) and final heating zone temperatures (120-160 °C). Extrusion processing pro...

  8. Yield response to variable rate irrigation in corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate the impact of variable rate irrigation on corn yield, twenty plots of corn were laid out under a center pivot variable rate irrigation (VRI) system in an experimental field near Stoneville, MS. The VRI system is equipped with five VRI zone control units, a global positioning system (G...

  9. Cob biomass production in the western corn belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn residue is viewed as an abundant, inexpensive source of biomass that can be removed from fields for ethanol production without deleterious production or environmental effects if proper management is used according to some recent publications. Other publications indicate that corn residue needs ...

  10. Population densities of corn flea beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and incidence of Stewart's wilt in sweet corn.

    PubMed

    Cook, K A; Weinzierl, R A; Pataky, J K; Esker, P D; Nutter, F W

    2005-06-01

    To quantify populations of the corn flea beetle, Chaetocnema pulicaria Melsheimer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and refine estimates of a threshold for its control to prevent Stewart's wilt caused by Erwinia stewartii, sequential plantings of 'Jubilee' sweet corn were made at 2-wk intervals from April or May through August or September 2001 and 2002 at four locations from southern to northern Illinois: Simpson, Brownstown, Champaign, and Mendota. Densities of C. pulicaria and incidence of Stewart's wilt were monitored weekly. At Mendota, where C. pulicaria populations were decimated by cold temperatures during winter 2000-2001, densities reached 33.3 beetles per 15-cm yellow sticky trap per day by September 2002, after a mild 2001-2002 winter. Maximum incidence of Stewart's wilt in single plots at Simpson, Brownstown, Champaign, and Mendota was 22, 36, 39, and 2%, respectively, in 2001, and 33, 47, 99, and 87%, respectively, in 2002. In 24 plots where beetle densities were < or =2 per trap per day, Stewart's wilt incidence was <5% in 20 plots. We propose that two corn flea beetles per trap per day be used as a threshold for insecticide application to seedlings to control C. pulicaria and minimize subsequent incidence of Stewart's wilt in processing sweet corn. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays indicated that E. stewartii incidence in C. pulicaria peaked at 67, 62, and 54%, respectively, at Simpson, Brownstown, and Champaign, in 2001, and at 71, 76, and 60%, respectively, in 2002. Further studies might allow the use of areawide or field-specific estimates of E. stewartii incidence in corn flea beetles for adjusting management decisions. PMID:16022292

  11. Carbofuran affects wildlife on Virginia corn fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stinson, E.R.; Hayes, L.E.; Bush, P.B.; White, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    Forty-four Virginia corn fields on 11 farms were searched for evidence of dead or debilitated wildlife following in-furrow application of granular carbofuran (Furadan 15G) during April and May 1991. Evidence of pesticide poisoned wildlife, including dead animals, debilitated animals, feather spots, and fur spots was found on 33 fields on 10 farms. Carcasses of 61 birds, 4 mammals, and 1 reptile were recovered. Anticholinesterase poisoning was confirmed or suspected as the cause of most wildlife deaths based on the circumstances surrounding kills, necropsies of Carcasses, residue analyses, and brain ChE assays.

  12. Amyloplast Sedimentation Kinetics in Corn Roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leopold, A. C.; Sack, F.

    1985-01-01

    Knowledge of the parameters of amyloplast sedimentation is crucial for an evaluation of proposed mechanisms of root graviperception. Early estimates of the rate of root amyloplast sedimentation were as low as 1.2 micron/min which may be too slow for many amyloplasts to reach the vicinity of the new lower wall within the presentation time. On this basis, Haberlandt's classical statolith hypothesis involving amyloplast stimulation of a sensitive surface near the new lower wall was questioned. The aim was to determine the kinetics of amyloplast sedimentation with reference to the presentation time in living and fixed corn rootcap cells as compared with coleoptiles of the same variety.

  13. Corning and Kroger turn whey to yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-16

    It is reported that Corning and Kroger intend to build a 35,000 sq. ft. plant in Winchester, Ky., that will turn whey into bakers' yeast. The plant will convert whey from Kroger's dairies into bakers' yeast, supplying about 60% of the yeast needed for nine Kroger bakeries. It will also produce syrups and whey protein concentrate for use in other food processing activities. In addition to making useful products, the project will convert the whey to glucose and galactose. The protein component of the whey will be concentrated and used in various foods and feeds.

  14. Evaluation of newly formulated Dow Corning 321 dry film lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1989-01-01

    An evaluation of the newly formulated Dow Corning 321 dry film lubricant was performed. The purpose of the evaluation was to compare lubricating characteristics of Dow Corning 321 (STW4-2955, SCN No. 3) to those of Molykote 321R (STW4-2955). Ten igniter bolts were installed and torqued on test plates using the old formulation thread lubricant (Molykote 321R), and 10 bolts were installed using the new formulation (Dow Corning 321). After bolt removal, no signs of galling were found on any of the bolts or test plates threaded holes. Average torque-load values for each formulation were very close. Test results showed there are no significant differences in lubrication abilities between Molykote 321R and Dow Corning 321. It is recommended that, once current supplies of Molykote 321R are depleted, Dow Corning 321 dry film lubricant be used in place of Molykote 321R as a thread lubricant on redesigned solid rocket motor assemblies.

  15. Whole corn and wet distiller's grains substitution in steam-flaked corn diet alters rumen fermentation and bacterial dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study evaluated effects of whole shelled corn (WSC) in steam-flaked corn (SFC) finishing diets containing differing amounts of wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDGS) on ruminal fermentation and shifts in ruminal bacterial populations. A total of 642 heifers (initial body weight (BW) = 412 +/-...

  16. Whole corn substitution in steam-flaked corn-based diets with different concentrations of wet distiller's grains plus solubles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Substituting steam-flaked corn (SFC) with whole shelled corn (WSC) in finishing diets containing wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDGS) could reduce grain processing costs without affecting feedlot cattle performance, feed conversion, and carcass characteristics. This study used 642 Angus-cross...

  17. Market-oriented ethanol and corn-trade policies can reduce climate-induced US corn price volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Monika; Hertel, Thomas; Diffenbaugh, Noah

    2014-05-01

    Agriculture is closely affected by climate. Over the past decade, biofuels have emerged as another important factor shaping the agricultural sector. We ask whether the presence of the US ethanol sector can play a role in moderating increases in US corn price variability, projected to occur in response to near-term global warming. Our findings suggest that the answer to this question depends heavily on the underlying forces shaping the ethanol industry. If mandate-driven, there is little doubt that the presence of the corn-ethanol sector will exacerbate price volatility. However, if market-driven, then the emergence of the corn-ethanol sector can be a double-edged sword for corn price volatility, possibly cushioning the impact of increased climate driven supply volatility, but also inheriting volatility from the newly integrated energy markets via crude oil price fluctuations. We find that empirically the former effect dominates, reducing price volatility by 27%. In contrast, mandates on ethanol production increase future price volatility by 54% in under future climate after 2020. We also consider the potential for liberalized international corn trade to cushion corn price volatility in the US. Our results suggest that allowing corn to move freely internationally serves to reduce the impact of near-term climate change on US corn price volatility by 8%.

  18. Detection of European corn borer infestation in rainfed and irrigated corn using airborne hyperspectral imaging: implications for resistance management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, corn grown for grain in the United States has increased from 28 million ha in 2006 to more than 35 million ha in 2007 with a production value of over $52 billion dollars. Transgenic corn expressing the plant incorporated protectant Bacillus thuringiensis toxin represen...

  19. Evaluation of whole corn substitution in steam-flaked corn-based diets containing different concentrations of wet distiller's grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Substituting steam-flaked corn (SFC) with whole shelled corn (WSC) in finishing diets containing wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDGS) could reduce grain processing costs without affecting feedlot cattle performance, feed conversion, and carcass characteristics. This study used 642 Angus-cross...

  20. Standardized ileal digestible tryptophan to lysine ratios in growing pigs fed corn-based and non-corn-based diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two 21-d experiments were conducted to determine the optimum standard ileal digestible (SID) Trp:Lys ratio in growing pigs fed corn-based diets compared to non-corn-based diets. The primary response variables in both experiments were ADG and plasma urea N (PUN) concentrations with the optimum SID Tr...

  1. Feasibility of near infrared spectroscopy for analyzing corn kernel damage and viability of soybean and corn kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current US corn grading system accounts for the portion of damaged kernels, which is measured by time-consuming and inaccurate visual inspection. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), a non-destructive and fast analytical method, was tested as a tool for discriminating corn kernels with heat and f...

  2. Influence of Stenocarpella maydis infected corn on the composition of corn kernel and its conversion into ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Widespread epidemics of Stenocarpella ear rot (formerly Diplodia ear rot) have occurred throughout the central U.S. Corn Belt in recent years, but the influence of S. maydis infected grain on corn ethanol production is unknown. In this study, S. maydis infected ears of variety 'Heritage 4646' were h...

  3. Managing the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis, and Corn Earworm, Helicoverpa zea, using Bt Corn and Insecticide Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Juliano R.; Costa, Ervandil C.; Guedes, Jerson V. C.; Arbage, Alessandro P.; Neto, Armando B.; Bigolin, Mauricio; Pinto, Felipe F.

    2013-01-01

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are important pests of corn in Brazil and have not been successfully managed, because of the difficulty of managing them with pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bt corn MON810, transformed with a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) insecticide seed treatment, and foliar insecticide spray using treatments developed for control of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is the major pest of corn. The experiments were done under field conditions in early- and late-planted corn in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and in the laboratory. The MON810 corn reduced infestations and damage by D. saccharalis and H. zea. The insecticides used in seed treatments or foliar sprays did not affect D. saccharalis and H. zea infestations or damage levels. The exception was the insecticide seed treatment in non-transformed corn, which reduced early infestations of D. saccharalis. The MON810 corn, therefore, can be used for managing these two pest species, especially D. saccharalis. PMID:24735131

  4. Managing the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis, and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, using Bt corn and insecticide treatments.

    PubMed

    Farias, Juliano R; Costa, Ervandil C; Guedes, Jerson V C; Arbage, Alessandro P; Neto, Armando B; Bigolin, Mauricio; Pinto, Felipe F

    2013-01-01

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), are important pests of corn in Brazil and have not been successfully managed, because of the difficulty of managing them with pesticides. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bt corn MON810, transformed with a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) insecticide seed treatment, and foliar insecticide spray using treatments developed for control of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), which is the major pest of corn. The experiments were done under field conditions in early- and late-planted corn in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and in the laboratory. The MON810 corn reduced infestations and damage by D. saccharalis and H. zea. The insecticides used in seed treatments or foliar sprays did not affect D. saccharalis and H. zea infestations or damage levels. The exception was the insecticide seed treatment in non-transformed corn, which reduced early infestations of D. saccharalis. The MON810 corn, therefore, can be used for managing these two pest species, especially D. saccharalis. PMID:24735131

  5. Temporal Dynamics of Corn Flea Beetle Populations Infested with Pantoea stewartii, Causal Agent of Stewart's Disease of Corn.

    PubMed

    Esker, P D; Nutter, F W

    2003-02-01

    ABSTRACT In order to better understand the epidemiology of the Stewart's disease of corn pathosystem, quantitative information concerning the temporal dynamics of the amount of pathogen inoculum present in the form of Pantoea stewartii-infested corn flea beetles (Chaetocnema pulicaria) is needed. Temporal changes in the proportion of P. stewartii-infested corn flea beetle populations were monitored by testing individual corn flea beetles for the presence of P. stewartii using a peroxidase-labeled, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Approximately 90 corn flea beetles were collected each week from seven locations in Iowa from September 1998 through October 2000 using sweep nets. The proportion of P. stewartii-infested beetles at the end of the 1998 growing season ranged from 0.04 to 0.19. In spring 1999, the proportion of overwintering adult corn flea beetles infested with P. stewartii ranged from 0.10 to 0.11 and did not differ significantly from the previous fall based on chi(2). During the 1999 corn-growing season, the proportion of infested corn flea beetles ranged from 0.04 to 0.86, with the highest proportions occurring in August. In fall 1999, the proportion of beetles infested with P. stewartii ranged from 0.20 to 0.77. In spring 2000, the proportion of overwintering adult corn flea beetles infested with P. stewartii ranged from 0.08 to 0.30; these proportions were significantly lower than the proportions observed in fall 1999 at Ames, Chariton, and Nashua. During the 2000 corn-growing season, the proportion of P. stewartii-infested corn flea beetles ranged from 0.08 to 0.53, and the highest observed proportions again occurred in August. Corn flea beetle populations sampled in late fall 2000 had proportions of infested beetles ranging from 0.08 to 0.20. This is the first study to quantify the temporal population dynamics of P. stewartii-infested C. pulicaria populations in hybrid corn and provides new quantitative information that should be useful in

  6. Meteorological models for estimating phenology of corn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Cochran, J. C.; Hollinger, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    Knowledge of when critical crop stages occur and how the environment affects them should provide useful information for crop management decisions and crop production models. Two sources of data were evaluated for predicting dates of silking and physiological maturity of corn (Zea mays L.). Initial evaluations were conducted using data of an adapted corn hybrid grown on a Typic Agriaquoll at the Purdue University Agronomy Farm. The second phase extended the analyses to large areas using data acquired by the Statistical Reporting Service of USDA for crop reporting districts (CRD) in Indiana and Iowa. Several thermal models were compared to calendar days for predicting dates of silking and physiological maturity. Mixed models which used a combination of thermal units to predict silking and days after silking to predict physiological maturity were also evaluated. At the Agronomy Farm the models were calibrated and tested on the same data. The thermal models were significantly less biased and more accurate than calendar days for predicting dates of silking. Differences among the thermal models were small. Significant improvements in both bias and accuracy were observed when the mixed models were used to predict dates of physiological maturity. The results indicate that statistical data for CRD can be used to evaluate models developed at agricultural experiment stations.

  7. Distribution of phosphorus compounds in corn processing.

    PubMed

    Noureddini, H; Malik, M; Byun, J; Ankeny, A J

    2009-01-01

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and corn gluten feed (CGF) are major coproducts of ethanol production from corn dry grind and wet milling facilities, respectively. These coproducts contain important nutrients, nevertheless, high levels of phosphorus (P). About 50-80% of the P in these products is in an organically bound form known as phytate. The phytate P in these products cannot be digested by nonruminant animals. Consequently, large quantities of phytate are deposited into the soil with the animal wastes which potentially could cause P pollution in soil and underground water resources. As regulations on the concentration of P material in ethanol production coproducts become more restrictive, measures need to be taken for effective extraction of phytate P from the coproducts to make these processes more environmentally compatible. Proper marketing of coproducts is critical to the overall economy of ethanol production facilities. In this study, distribution of P compounds in different streams of dry grind and wet milling operations was determined. In the dry grind process, the highest P concentration was found to be in the condensed distillers solubles (CDS) at about 1.34 wt.% (db). About 59% of P in this stream was in phosphates form. The highest concentration of P in the wet milling process was found in the light steep water at about 3.4 wt.% (db). In this stream, about 22% of P was attributed to phosphates. PMID:18692392

  8. Effects of entomopathogens on mortality of western corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and fitness costs of resistance to Cry3Bb1 maize.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Amanda M; French, B Wade; Jaronski, Stefan T; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2014-02-01

    Fitness costs can delay pest resistance to crops that produce insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), and past research has found that entomopathogens impose fitness costs of Bt resistance. In addition, entomopathogens can be used for integrated pest management by providing biological control of pests. The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a major pest of maize and is currently managed by planting of Bt maize. We tested whether entomopathogenic nematodes and fungi increased mortality of western corn rootworm and whether these entomopathogens increased fitness costs of resistance to Cry3Bb1 maize. We exposed western corn rootworm larvae to two species of nematodes, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) and Steinernemafeltiae Filipjev (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), and to two species of fungi, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) (strain GHA) and Metarhizium brunneum (Metschnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) (strain F52) in two assay types, namely, seedling mat and small cup. Larval mortality increased with the concentration of H. bacteriophora and S. feltiae in the small cup assay, and with the exception of S. feltiae and B. bassiana in the seedling mat assay, mortality from entomopathogens was significantly greater than zero for the remaining entomopathogens in both assays. However, no fitness costs were observed in either assay type for any entomopathogen. Increased mortality of western corn rootworm larvae caused by these entomopathogens supports their potential use in biological control; however, the lack of fitness costs suggests that entomopathogens will not delay the evolution of Bt resistance in western corn rootworm. PMID:24665720

  9. Aflatoxin Accumulation in Commercial Corn Hybrids Artificially Inoculated with Aspergillus flavus in 2008 and 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial corn hybrids were grown at two locations and evaluated for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. In 2008, 92 commercial corn hybrids and 8 single-cross hybrids were grown at Mississippi State, MS, and 77 commercial corn hybrids were grown at Raymond, MS. In 2009, 35 commercial corn hybrid...

  10. 7 CFR 319.24a - Administrative instructions relating to entry of corn into Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administrative instructions relating to entry of corn...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Corn Diseases Quarantine § 319.24a Administrative instructions relating to entry of corn into Guam. Corn may...

  11. 7 CFR 319.24-4 - Notice of arrival of corn by permittee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notice of arrival of corn by permittee. 319.24-4... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Corn Diseases Regulations Governing Entry of Indian Corn Or Maize § 319.24-4 Notice of arrival of corn by permittee. Immediately...

  12. 7 CFR 319.24a - Administrative instructions relating to entry of corn into Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative instructions relating to entry of corn...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Corn Diseases Quarantine § 319.24a Administrative instructions relating to entry of corn into Guam. Corn may...

  13. 7 CFR 319.24-4 - Notice of arrival of corn by permittee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of arrival of corn by permittee. 319.24-4... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Corn Diseases Regulations Governing Entry of Indian Corn Or Maize § 319.24-4 Notice of arrival of corn by permittee. Immediately...

  14. Effect of eastern gamagrass on fall armyworm and corn earworm development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) are two important corn pests in the southern U.S. states. Effect of the leaves from the corn relative, the Eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides L.) on fall armyworm and corn earworm development ...

  15. Oil separation from foam fractions of enzymatically treated wet milled corn germ dispersions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The many recent dry grind plants that convert corn to ethanol are potential sources of substantial amounts of corn oil, if an economical method of separating it can be developed. Oil was separated from corn germ by aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE). Batches of wet- milled corn germ in water were...

  16. Soil N to corn after alfalfa through tillage and regrowth management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Planting corn after alfalfa can eliminate or greatly reduce the nitrogen (N) fertilizer requirement for first-year corn while increasing corn yield potential due to the rotation effect. Current University of Minnesota guidelines regarding alfalfa N credits to corn are based on alfalfa stand density ...

  17. 7 CFR 407.11 - Area risk protection insurance for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area risk protection insurance for corn. 407.11... protection insurance for corn. The corn crop insurance provisions for Area Risk Protection Insurance for the... Insurance Corporation Area Risk Protection Insurance Corn Crop Insurance Provisions 1. Definitions...

  18. 7 CFR 319.24-4 - Notice of arrival of corn by permittee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notice of arrival of corn by permittee. 319.24-4... HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Corn Diseases Regulations Governing Entry of Indian Corn Or Maize § 319.24-4 Notice of arrival of corn by permittee. Immediately...

  19. 7 CFR 319.24a - Administrative instructions relating to entry of corn into Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrative instructions relating to entry of corn...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Corn Diseases Quarantine § 319.24a Administrative instructions relating to entry of corn into Guam. Corn may...

  20. 7 CFR 319.24a - Administrative instructions relating to entry of corn into Guam.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administrative instructions relating to entry of corn...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Corn Diseases Quarantine § 319.24a Administrative instructions relating to entry of corn into Guam. Corn may...