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Sample records for coronary spasm induced

  1. A case of coronary microvascular spasm with slow flow induced by the intracoronary acetylcholine provocation test.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Yasuhiro; Yoneyama, Kihei; Izumo, Masaki; Kongoji, Ken; Harada, Tomoo; Akashi, Yoshihiro J

    2015-10-01

    Microvascular angina is a rare condition in which myocardial ischemia is caused by microvascular dysfunction without any abnormalities of the epicardial coronary arteries. In clinical practice, it is difficult to diagnose because the microvascular alterations cannot be detected by conventional angiography. Herein we present a rare case of a 67-year-old woman with unstable angina pectoris in whom considerably slow coronary flow was induced by the acetylcholine provocation test with mild epicardial arterial spasm, suggesting the presence of microvascular spasm. Moreover, we show that ?-methyl-p-[(123)I]-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic ((123)I-BMIPP) single-photon emission computed tomography imaging is useful for proving myocardial ischemia. PMID:25403747

  2. Resistant spontaneous coronary artery spasm.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Kudret; ?ahin, Alparslan; Y?ld?z, Süleyman Sezai; Aksan, Gökhan

    2015-10-01

    Coronary artery spasm should always be suspected in patients who have myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries. This case report presents a 33-year-old woman with anterior myocardial infarction, whose coronary angiograph revealed normal left anterior descending artery and new onset complete occlusion of the circumflex artery at the time of the procedure. Nitroglycerin up to 800 mcg was administered without success. In such resistant cases, when all efforts fail, including prompt recognition and application of vasodilator drugs, retracting the catheter and waiting may play a role. PMID:26536989

  3. Comparison of electrocardiography and thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy for the detection of ergonovine-induced coronary artery spasm: angiographic correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Shanes, J.G.; Pavel, D.; Blend, M.; Olea, E.; Krone, R.; Lacny, K.; Marmulstein, M.; Malik, R.; Meyer, C.; Kondos, G.T.

    1987-03-01

    This study was performed to determine the sensitivity of thallium imaging vs ECG monitoring for detecting coronary artery spasm noninvasively following intravenous ergonovine administration as compared to simultaneous coronary angiography. Thirty-two patients with insignificant coronary artery disease and chest pain underwent 12-lead ECG monitoring, thallium imaging, and coronary arteriography following the administration of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mg of ergonovine given 5 minutes apart or until chest pain occurred. One minute following the last dose of ergonovine, 2.5 mCi of thallium-201 was injected intravenously, and a final ECG was recorded and repeat coronary arteriography performed. Within 10 minutes following the injection of thallium, imaging was performed in the 40-degree and 70-degree left anterior oblique and anterior projections. The ECG, thallium study, and coronary arteriogram were read blindly and results were compared. The ECG, angiogram, and thallium study were read as positive if the following occurred, respectively: greater than or equal to 1 mm ST segment elevation, depression, or T wave reversal; greater than 50% vessel narrowing,; and reversible perfusion defect. Five patients were excluded from analysis because of either catheter-induced spasm, suboptimal thallium studies, or protocol violations. Of the 27 patients included for analysis, six had chest pain, five had a positive angiogram, five had a positive thallium study, and one had a positive ECG. The sensitivity of thallium vs ECG monitoring was 80% vs 25%, and the accuracy was 92% vs 80%. We conclude that thallium imaging greatly increases the noninvasive detection of ergonovine-induced coronary spasm as compared with the ECG with no loss of accuracy.

  4. Prevalence of coronary artery spasm during dobutamine stress echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Mansencal, Nicolas; El Hajjaji, Imane; El Mahmoud, Rami; Digne, Franck; Dubourg, Olivier

    2012-03-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of coronary artery spasm during dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). Over a 9-year period (from November 2001 to October 2010) we reviewed all patients (n = 2,224) referred for DSE. Criteria for selection included patients > 18 years old who underwent DSE. We systematically analyzed all electrocardiograms obtained during DSE to detect ST-segment elevation during the examination. All patients with ST-segment elevation underwent coronary angiography. DSE was performed in 2,179 patients. ST-segment elevation was observed in 21 patients, all of whom underwent emergency coronary angiography. In 13 of these 21 patients (62%) significant coronary stenosis was observed: 6 patients with critical coronary stenosis and 7 patients with chronic coronary occlusion. The remaining 8 patients (38% of patients presenting with ST-segment elevation during DSE, 7 men, mean age 67 ± 11 years) had no significant coronary stenosis. Prevalence of coronary artery spasm during DSE was 0.4%. In conclusion, physicians should be aware that, although rare, coronary artery spasm may occur during DSE. PMID:22189013

  5. Refractory Vascular Spasm Associated with Coronary Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Sam; Yoon, Yong Han; Kim, Jeoung Taek; Shinn, Helen Ki; Woo, Seong Ill; Baek, Wan Ki

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse refractory vascular spasms associated with coronary bypass artery grafting (CABG) are rare but devastating. A 42-year-old male patient with a past history of stent insertion was referred for the surgical treatment of a recurrent left main coronary artery disease. A hemodynamic derangement developed during graft harvesting, necessitating a hurried initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Although CABG was carried out as planned, the patient could not be weaned from the bypass. An emergency coronary angiography demonstrated a diffuse spasm of both native coronary arteries and grafts. CPB was switched to the femorofemoral extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO). Although he managed to recover from heart failure, his discharge was delayed due to the ischemic injury of the lower limb secondary to cannulation for ECMO. We reviewed the case and literature, placing emphasis on the predisposing factors and appropriate management. PMID:25346903

  6. Acute myocarditis triggering coronary spasm and mimicking acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Andreas; Bagur, Rodrigo; Béliveau, Patrick; Potvin, Jean-Michel; Levesque, Pierre; Fillion, Nancy; Tremblay, Benoit; Larose, Éric; Gaudreault, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    A 24-year-old healthy man consulted to our center because of typical on-and-off chest-pain and an electrocardiogram showing ST-segment elevation in inferior leads. An urgent coronary angiography showed angiographically normal coronary arteries. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging confirmed acute myocarditis. Although acute myocarditis triggering coronary spasm is an uncommon association, it is important to recognize it, particularly for the management for those patients presenting with ST-segment elevation and suspect myocardial infarction and angiographically normal coronary arteries. The present report highlights the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to identify acute myocarditis as the underlying cause. PMID:25276306

  7. Coronary Spasm in Neurosurgical Patients and Role of Trigeminocardiac Reflex

    PubMed Central

    Sandu, Nora; Cappellani, Ronald B.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Coronary artery spasm (CAS) is a rarely reported complication in neurosurgical patients and its main causative mechanism was attributed to vagal mediated responses. However, these may be the unusual manifestations of trigeminal cardiac reflex (TCR) which is a well established brain stem reflex observed in various neurosurgical patients. Methods and Results. In this review, we have searched for the case reports/papers related to intraoperative coronary spasm in neurosurgical patients and described the role of TCR in this regard. TCR is a possible mechanism in producing CAS in most of the cases in which stimulation occurred at or near the vicinity of trigeminal nerve. It is likely that TCR mediated coronary spasm may be a physiological mechanism and not related to actual myocardial insult apparent by cardiac enzymes or echocardiography studies in most of the cases. Some common risk factors may also exist related to occurrence of CAS as well as TCR. Conclusions. In conclusion, neurosurgical procedures occurring at the vicinity of trigeminal nerve may produce CAS even in previously healthy patients and may produce catastrophic consequences. There is a need for future reports and experimental studies on the interaction of TCR and pathophysiological mechanisms related to CAS. PMID:24587903

  8. Coronary spasm in neurosurgical patients and role of trigeminocardiac reflex.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Tumul; Meuwly, Cyrill; Sandu, Nora; Cappellani, Ronald B; Schaller, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Background. Coronary artery spasm (CAS) is a rarely reported complication in neurosurgical patients and its main causative mechanism was attributed to vagal mediated responses. However, these may be the unusual manifestations of trigeminal cardiac reflex (TCR) which is a well established brain stem reflex observed in various neurosurgical patients. Methods and Results. In this review, we have searched for the case reports/papers related to intraoperative coronary spasm in neurosurgical patients and described the role of TCR in this regard. TCR is a possible mechanism in producing CAS in most of the cases in which stimulation occurred at or near the vicinity of trigeminal nerve. It is likely that TCR mediated coronary spasm may be a physiological mechanism and not related to actual myocardial insult apparent by cardiac enzymes or echocardiography studies in most of the cases. Some common risk factors may also exist related to occurrence of CAS as well as TCR. Conclusions. In conclusion, neurosurgical procedures occurring at the vicinity of trigeminal nerve may produce CAS even in previously healthy patients and may produce catastrophic consequences. There is a need for future reports and experimental studies on the interaction of TCR and pathophysiological mechanisms related to CAS. PMID:24587903

  9. Complete rupture of the anterolateral papillary muscle caused by coronary spasm.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Masataka; Fukui, Toshihiro; Mahara, Keitaro; Takanashi, Shuichiro

    2015-12-01

    Papillary muscle rupture usually occurs as a catastrophic complication of acute myocardial infarction in patients with coronary artery stenosis; it is therefore less common in patients without coronary artery stenosis. We report the case of a 67-year old woman without coronary artery stenosis who suffered an acute anterolateral papillary muscle rupture and was successfully treated with mitral valve replacement. Evidence of coronary spasm was found on a coronary vasomotion test, suggesting that a high sensitivity to coronary spasm may explain a mechanism of isolated papillary muscle infarction. PMID:26330339

  10. Noninvasive ergonovine maleate provocative testing for coronary artery spasm: the need for routine thallium-201 imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Shanes, J.G.; Krone, R.J.; Fisher, K.; Shah, B.; Eisenkramer, G.; Humphrey, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    We administered ergonovine and used both electrocardiographic monitoring and thallium-/sup 201/ (/sup 201/Tl) imaging to detect reversible ischemia in 100 patients. Patients already established as having coronary artery spasm and those with nonbypassed, proximal, high-grade coronary artery stenosis were excluded. No complication occurred in any patient. The use of thallium imaging in addition to electrocardiographic monitoring resulted in a higher degree of sensitivity than did ECG monitoring alone. Fourteen patients demonstrated evidence of coronary artery spasm as documented by /sup 201/Tl imaging but of the 14, significant ECG changes occurred in only 50%, and classic ST segment elevation in 21%. Thus, in carefully selected patients the noninvasive provocation of coronary spasm can be accomplished safely, but ECG monitoring must be combined with thallium-/sup 201/ imaging to achieve an acceptable degree of sensitivity.

  11. Stimulus-induced reflex epileptic spasms in 5p- syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Kentaro; Saito, Yoshiaki; Yokoyama, Atushi; Nishimura, Yoko; Tamasaki, Akiko; Maegaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-02-01

    Here we describe two patients with 5p- syndrome who suffered from epilepsy characterised by stimulus-induced epileptic spasms manifesting as head nodding. In patient 1, a series of spasms were exclusively triggered by eating, and were associated with diffuse high-voltage slow waves on ictal EEG, particularly presenting as a positive slow potential at the left mid-temporal area. Clusters of sharp waves with negative polarity emerged in the same area during the inter-spasm periods during eating. In patient 2, spasms were provoked by either eating or micturition. Ictal EEG of clustered spasms after micturition showed positive slow or triphasic waves, which correlated with each spasm, over the bifrontal and vertex areas. These findings suggest that the focal cortical areas act as trigger regions in reflex epilepsies, and that a spasm-generator responsible for the execution of reflex spasms exists either in other cortical areas or in the subcortical structures. Although epilepsy is an unusual complication of 5p- syndrome, this syndrome may have a propensity to develop reflex epilepsy, particularly epileptic spasms. However, identification of responsible genes and their roles in this phenotype requires further investigations. PMID:26298410

  12. Worsening of coronary spasm during the perioperative period: A case report.

    PubMed

    Teragawa, Hiroki; Nishioka, Kenji; Fujii, Yuichi; Idei, Naomi; Hata, Takaki; Kurushima, Shuji; Shokawa, Tomoki; Kihara, Yasuki

    2014-07-26

    We present the case of a 65-year-old male with vasospastic angina (VSA) whose condition worsened during the perioperative period. He had been diagnosed with VSA 10 years prior. He was treated with two types of vasodilators and had not experienced any chest symptoms for 5 years. At this juncture, he underwent surgery for relapsed maxillary sublingual carcinoma. He had taken two vasodilators one day prior to surgery. Intravenous infusion of nitroglycerin (NTG) was initiated immediately before the surgery and continued the following day. Instead of stopping NTG, a dermal isosorbide dinitrate tape was applied on post-operative day 1. Two days later, a complete atrioventricular block with pulseless electrical activity appeared. After cardiopulmonary resuscitation, emergent coronary angiography showed severe coronary spasm in both the left and right coronary arteries. Intracoronary infusion of nitroglycerin and epinephrine with percutaneous cardiopulmonary support relieved the coronary spasm. During the perioperative period, several factors can trigger coronary vasospasm, including the discontinuation of vasodilators. Thus, surgeons, anesthetists, and cardiologists should watch for coronary vasospasm during this period and for worsening coronary spasm when discontinuing vasodilators in patients at risk for VSA. PMID:25068030

  13. Case of angina pectoris at rest and during effort due to coronary spasm and myocardial bridging

    PubMed Central

    Teragawa, Hiroki; Fujii, Yuichi; Ueda, Tomohiro; Murata, Daiki; Nomura, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a 71-year-old male who had chest symptoms at rest and during effort. He had felt chest oppression during effort for 1 year, and his chest symptoms had recently worsened. One month before admission he felt chest squeezing at rest in the early morning. He presented at our institution to evaluate his chest symptoms. Electrocardiography and echocardiography failed to show any specific changes. Because of the possibility that his chest symptoms were due to myocardial ischemia, he was admitted to our institution for coronary angiography (CAG). An initial CAG showed mild atherosclerotic changes in the proximal segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and mid-segment of the left circumflex coronary artery. Subsequent spasm provocation testing using acetylcholine revealed a bilateral coronary vasospasm, which was relieved after the intracoronary infusion of nitroglycerin. Finally, a CAG showed myocardial bridging (MB) of the mid-distal segments of the LAD. Fractional flow reserve using the intravenous administration of adenosine triphosphate was positive at 0.77, which jumped up to 0.90 through the myocardial bridging segments when the pressure wire was pulled back. Thus, coronary vasospasm and MB might have contributed to his chest symptoms at rest and during effort. Interventional cardiologists should consider the presence of MB as a potential cause of myocardial ischemia. PMID:26131343

  14. Enhanced p122RhoGAP/DLC-1 Expression Can Be a Cause of Coronary Spasm

    PubMed Central

    Kinjo, Takahiko; Tanaka, Makoto; Osanai, Tomohiro; Shibutani, Shuji; Narita, Ikuyo; Tanno, Tomohiro; Nishizaki, Kimitaka; Ichikawa, Hiroaki; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Ishida, Yuji; Yokota, Takashi; Shimada, Michiko; Homma, Yoshimi; Tomita, Hirofumi; Okumura, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Background We previously showed that phospholipase C (PLC)-?1 activity was enhanced by 3-fold in patients with coronary spastic angina (CSA). We also reported that p122Rho GTPase-activating protein/deleted in liver cancer-1 (p122RhoGAP/DLC-1) protein, which was discovered as a PLC-?1 stimulator, was upregulated in CSA patients. We tested the hypothesis that p122RhoGAP/DLC-1 overexpression causes coronary spasm. Methods and Results We generated transgenic (TG) mice with vascular smooth muscle (VSM)-specific overexpression of p122RhoGAP/DLC-1. The gene and protein expressions of p122RhoGAP/DLC-1 were markedly increased in the aorta of homozygous TG mice. Stronger staining with anti-p122RhoGAP/DLC-1 in the coronary artery was found in TG than in WT mice. PLC activities in the plasma membrane fraction and the whole cell were enhanced by 1.43 and 2.38 times, respectively, in cultured aortic vascular smooth muscle cells from homozygous TG compared with those from WT mice. Immediately after ergometrine injection, ST-segment elevation was observed in 1 of 7 WT (14%), 6 of 7 heterozygous TG (84%), and 7 of 7 homozygous TG mice (100%) (p<0.05, WT versus TGs). In the isolated Langendorff hearts, coronary perfusion pressure was increased after ergometrine in TG, but not in WT mice, despite of the similar response to prostaglandin F2? between TG and WT mice (n = 5). Focal narrowing of the coronary artery after ergometrine was documented only in TG mice. Conclusions VSM-specific overexpression of p122RhoGAP/DLC-1 enhanced coronary vasomotility after ergometrine injection in mice, which is relevant to human CSA. PMID:26624289

  15. Value of noninvasive assessment of patients with atypical chest pain and suspected coronary spasm using ergonovine infusion and thallium-201 scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    DiCarlo, L.A. Jr.; Botvinick, E.H.; Canhasi, B.S.; Schwartz, A.S.; Chatterjee, K.

    1984-10-01

    Twenty-six patients with known benign coronary anatomic characteristics and atypical chest pain syndromes were evaluated for the possibility of coronary spasm. Incremental intravenous ergonovine maleate infusions were administered, and thallium-201 scintigraphy was performed at the peak dosage and during recovery in the coronary care unit. With ergonovine therapy, 4 patients (16%) had chest pain associated with electrocardiographic (ECG) or scintigraphic changes. Nine patients (35%) had chest pain without associated ECG or scintigraphic changes, and 13 patients did not have chest pain in response to ergonovine administration, although 2 (8%) had ergonovine-induced scintigraphic defects. All 4 patients with ergonovine-induced chest pain and associated ECG or scintigraphic abnormalities had resolution or reduction of chest pain after medical treatment. However, 7 of the 9 patients with ergonovine-induced chest pain in the absence of ECG or scintigraphic abnormalities continued to have symptoms despite medical treatment a mean of 18 months later. In this limited study of a select group, bedside ergonovine provocation appeared safe. Many patients had chest pain, but few showed ECG or scintigraphic evidence of ischemia. Perfusion scintigraphy appears to have potential complementary value for the identification of an ischemic cardiac cause of atypical chest pain and provides a rationale for appropriate therapy.

  16. Coronary arteriography and left ventriculography during spontaneous and exercise-induced ST segment elevation in patients with variant angina

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, Y.; Ozaki, M.; Ogawa, H.; Naito, H.; Yoshino, F.; Katayama, K.; Fujii, T.; Matsuzaki, M.; Kusukawa, R.

    1983-09-01

    The present study is an angiographic demonstration of coronary artery spasm during both spontaneous and exercise-induced angina in three patients with variant angina. In each case, clinical, ECG, coronary angiographic, and left ventriculographic observations were made at rest, during spontaneous angina, and during exercise-induced angina. The character of chest pain was similar during spontaneous and exercise-induced episodes. ST segment elevation was present in the anterior ECG leads during both episodes. The left anterior descending coronary artery became partially or totally obstructed during both types of attacks. When coronary spasm was demonstrated during both types of attacks, left ventriculography disclosed akinetic or dyskinetic wall motion in the area supplied by the involved artery. In those patients with reproducible exercise-induced ST segment elevation and chest pain, thallium-201 scintigraphy showed areas of reversible anteroseptal hypoperfusion. Thus in selected patients exercise-induced attacks of angina were similar to spontaneous episodes.

  17. Management of unexpected coronary artery spasm in an asymptomatic patient during anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Adachi, N; Miyamoto, Y; Hodono, S; Yorozuya, T; Arai, T

    2003-10-01

    We report a case of life-threatening arrhythmia that was not predicted before surgery. Pulse-less ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation occurred during surgery without any changes in heart rate and blood pressure, and cardiac massage was required to maintain circulation. Although no organic stenosis was found in either the right or left coronary arteries, post-surgical angiographic examination revealed severe vasospastic angina induced by intra-luminal administration of acetylcholine. Anaesthesia with a high dose of fentanyl and vasodilators prevented the recurrence of life-threatening arrhythmia. Vasospastic angina attacks are difficult to predict with the preoperative examination routinely employed. PMID:12969114

  18. Maximal acetylcholine dose of 200 ?g into the left coronary artery as a spasm provocation test: comparison with 100 ?g of acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Sueda, Shozo; Kohno, Hiroaki; Miyoshi, Toru; Sakaue, Tomoki; Sasaki, Yasuhiro; Habara, Hirokazu

    2015-11-01

    As a spasm provocation test of acetylcholine (ACH), incremental dose up (20/50/100 ?g) into the left coronary artery (LCA) is recommended in the guidelines established by Japanese Circulation Society. Recently, Ong et al. reported the ACOVA study which maximal ACH dose was 200 ?g in the LCA. We compared the angiographic findings between ACH 100 ?g and ACH 200 ?g in the LCA and also examined the usefulness and safety of ACH 200 ?g in Japanese patients without variant angina. As a spasm provocation test, we performed intracoronary injection of ACH 200 ?g after ACH 100 ?g in 88 patients (55 males, 68.4 ± 11.7 years old) including 59 ischemic heart disease (IHD) patients and 29 non-IHD patients. Positive spasm was defined as >99 % transient stenosis (focal spasm) or 90 % severe diffuse vasoconstriction (diffuse spasm). Positive spasm by ACH 200 ?g was significantly higher than that by ACH 100 ?g (36 pts: 40.9 % vs. 17 pts: 19.3 %, p < 0.01). Diffuse distal spasm on the left anterior descending artery was more recognized in ACH 200 ?g than in ACH 100 ?g (30.7 vs. 13.6 %, p < 0.01). In 29 rest angina patients, positive spasm by ACH 200 ?g (19 pts) was significantly higher than that by ACH 100 ?g (7 pts) (65.5 vs. 24.1 %, p < 0.01). No serious irreversible complications were found during ACH 200 ?g. Administration of ACH 200 ?g into the LCA was safe and useful. We may reexamine the maximal ACH dose into the LCA. PMID:25179297

  19. Development of a mouse model of infantile spasms induced by N-methyl-d-aspartate.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiu-Yu; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Tomonoh, Yuko; Hu, Lin-Yan; Ju, Jun; Hirose, Shinichi; Zou, Li-Ping

    2015-12-01

    Using N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) injection, we attempt to develop a mouse model for infantile spasms (IS). Experiments were performed in postnatal 11- to 13-day-old C57 and Balbc mice. In the pilot experiment, mice were injected with different doses of NMDA (7, 15, and 30mg/kg) to determine the optimal age and convulsant doses of NMDA. In further experiment optimal age mice were divided into five groups: group A, control group that received intraperitoneal injection of physiological saline; group B, convulsion group that was given intraperitoneal NMDA; group C, pretreatment group that received adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) injection (100IU/kg) 30min before NMDA administration; group D, electroencephalogram (EEG) group that received EEG recording, group E, performance group that received motor and learning test at different time point after NMDA administration. The behaviors of each group were observed continuously for 3h, the latency and the total numbers of spasms were recorded. Pilot experiments showed that a 15mg/kg dose of NMDA could induce typical spasm-like seizures in P13 C57 mice, NMDA administration caused anxiety and deficits in motor and cognitive functions at early time and that large doses of ACTH reduced the number of seizures and rating scale (P<0.05). The NMDA mouse model has the following characteristics: age dependency, spasm-like seizures, cognitive impairment and response to ACTH, which fulfills the criteria of an IS model. PMID:26600368

  20. A case of vasospastic angina in which the ergonovine provocation test with intracoronary isosorbide dinitrate and nicorandil was effective in the diagnosis of microvascular spasm.

    PubMed

    Kiyooka, Takahiko; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Ikari, Yuji

    2014-10-01

    A 60-year-old man was admitted with early morning angina while at rest. Coronary angiogram revealed no organic lesions; therefore, a spasm provocation test with ergonovine was performed. Administration of intracoronary ergonovine induced total occlusion of the right coronary artery. The induced total occlusion improved but coronary flow velocity remained severely reduced and chest discomfort with ST-T changes in ECG remained in spite of repeated administration of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN). Intracoronary administration of nicorandil following ISDN alleviated the chest discomfort, normalized the ST-T change in ECG, and improved the coronary flow. This suggested that microvascular spasm and the epicardial spasm were not relieved by ISDN but by nicorandil. Intracoronary nicorandil injection following ISDN administration may be useful for the diagnosis of microvascular spasm in the ergonovine provocation test. PMID:24407773

  1. Infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Hrachovy, Richard A; Frost, James D

    2013-01-01

    Infantile spasms are a unique disorder of infancy and early childhood. The average age at onset of infantile spasms is 6 months and the average incidence of the disorder is approximately 0.31 per 1000 live births. Approximately one-quarter of patients will spontaneously stop having spasms within 1 year of onset. There are three main types of epileptic spasms: flexor, extensor, and mixed flexor-extensor. Spasms frequently occur in clusters and commonly occur upon arousal from sleep. The motor spasms are frequently confused with other normal and abnormal infant behaviors. Typically, the interictal EEG reveals hypsarrhythmia or one of its variants. A variety of ictal EEG patterns may be seen, the most common of which is a generalized slow-wave transient followed by an attenuation of the background activity in all regions. The primary treatment objective is to improve the EEG and stop the spasms as soon as possible and to avoid prolonged treatment durations with any form of therapy. Currently, there is no conclusive evidence that medical or surgical treatment of infantile spasms significantly alters long-term outcome. Although the pathophysiological mechanism underlying infantile spasms is unknown, several animal models of infantile spasms have been developed in recent years. PMID:23622208

  2. Coronary artery spasm

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 71. Cannon CP, Braunwald E. Unstable angina and non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: ...

  3. FMLP provokes coronary vasoconstriction and myocardial ischemia in rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, M.N.; Booth, D.C.; Friedman, B.J.; Cunningham, M.R.; Jay, M.; De Maria, A.N. )

    1988-03-01

    Recent pathological studies of coronary arteries from humans with suspected coronary spasm have revealed an augmented intramural burden of inflammatory cells. To test the hypothesis than inappropriate activation of inflammatory cells participates in the evolution of coronary vasospasm, the present experiment employed a newly developed coronary arteriographic technique for use in pentobarbital-anesthetized rabbits to evaluate the coronary vasomotor actions of the nonselective inflammatory cell stimulant, N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP). In 10 of 10 animals, selective left intracoronary injection of 200 ng fMLP evoked profound left coronary narrowing accompanied in all cases by ST segment deviation and dysrhythmias. Thallium-201 scintigraphy demonstrated hypoperfusion of the left ventricular free wall and septum supplied by the spastic coronary artery. The fMLP-induced epicardial vasoconstriction, ischemic electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, and thallium perfusion defects were reversed by intravenous nitroglycerin. Neither the right coronary artery nor its distribution were influenced by left coronary injection of fMLP. Additional experiments in isolated, salt solution-perfused rabbit hearts demonstrated that fMLP failed to exert direct coronary vasoconstrictor effects. These observations indicate that the nonselective inflammatory cell stimulant, fMLP, provokes arteriographically demonstrable coronary spasm with attendant myocardial hypoperfusion and ischemic ECG changes in anesthetized rabbits. Such a model may be useful in exploring the dynamic role of inflammatory cells in development of coronary spasm.

  4. Vigabatrin-induced MRI changes associated with extrapyramidal symptoms in a child with infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Schonstedt, Valeria; Stecher, Ximena; Venegas, Viviana; Silva, Claudio

    2015-10-01

    Vigabatrin is an antiepileptic drug used for treatment of infantile spasms. We present a female patient with infantile spasms in treatment with vigabatrin who developed ataxic movements. MRI demonstrated a symmetrical pattern of thalamic and globi pallidi diffusion restriction. While these image features have been widely described to be related to the use of vigabatrin, this case highlights the development of movement disorders in association with MRI signal changes. Awareness of the reversible nature of this condition is reassuring for the treating team and avoids unjustified studies. PMID:26306928

  5. Current trends in the treatment of infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Chang-Yong

    2009-01-01

    Infantile spasms are an epilepsy syndrome with distinctive features, including age onset during infancy, characteristic epileptic spasms, and specific electroencephalographic patterns (interictal hypsarrhythmia and ictal voltage suppression). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) was first employed to treat infantile spasms in 1958, and since then it has been tried in prospective and retrospective studies for infantile spasms. Oral corticosteroids were also used in a few studies for infantile spasms. Variable success in cessation of infantile spasms and normalization of electroencephalograms was demonstrated. However, frequent significant adverse effects are associated with ACTH and oral corticosteroids. Vigabatrin has been used since the 1990s, and shown to be successful in resolution of infantile spasms, especially for infantile spasms associated with tuberous sclerosis. It is associated with visual field constriction, which is often asymptomatic and requires perimetric visual field study to identify. When ACTH, oral corticosteroids, and vigabatrin fail to induce cessation of infantile spasms, other alternative treatments include valproic acid, nitrazepam, pyridoxine, topiramate, zonisamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, felbamate, ganaxolone, liposteroid, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, intravenous immunoglobulin and a ketogenic diet. Rarely, infantile spasms in association with biotinidase deficiency, phenylketonuria, and pyridoxine-dependent seizures are successfully treated with biotin, a low phenylalanine diet, and pyridoxine, respectively. For medically intractable infantile spasms, some properly selected patients may have complete cessation of infantile spasms with appropriate surgical treatments. PMID:19557123

  6. Hand or foot spasms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... foot spasms include: Abnormal levels of electrolytes or minerals in the body Brain disorders, such as Parkinson disease , multiple sclerosis , dystonia, and Huntington disease Chronic kidney disease and ...

  7. Experimental coronary sclerosis induced by immobilization of rabbits: A new model of arteriosclerosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyavokin, V. V.; Tjawokin, W. W.

    1980-01-01

    A new method for producing arteriosclerosis with coronary insufficiency in rabbits by means of immobilization is described and discussed. The experimentally induced atherosclerosis develops due to hypodynamics imposed by the reduced muscular activity without overloading with exogenous cholesterol. The atherosclerosis and coronary insufficiency are associated. With variations in the duration and extent of immobilization, coronary insufficiency alone or with atherosclerosis can be produced.

  8. Palmaris brevis spasm syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Serratrice, G; Azulay, J P; Serratrice, J; Pouget, J

    1995-01-01

    Palmaris brevis spasm syndrome is a rare and benign condition of localised muscular hyperactivity. In five men, the hypothenar eminence underwent spontaneous, irregular, tonic contractions of the palmaris brevis muscle. An EMG showed spontaneous high frequency discharges of normal motor units, without evidence of neuropathy or of nerve compression. This syndrome resembles other restricted muscle hyperactivity syndromes although there are some differences. Curiously, the palmaris brevis muscle is not under voluntary control. The mechanism of the syndrome could be an ephaptic transmission possibly secondary to the transient and repeated stretching of the ulnar nerve superficial branch. In one patient a root compression was the probable origin. Images PMID:7629536

  9. Placental Induced Growth Factor (PIGf) in Coronary Artery Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaresan, Alamelu; Carabello, Blaise; Mehta, Satish; Schlegel, Todd; Pellis, Neal; Ott, Mark; Pierson, Duane

    2010-01-01

    Our previous studies on normal human lymphocytes have shown a five-fold increase (p less than 0.001) in angiogenic inducers such as Placental Induced Growth Factor (PIGf) in physiologically stressful environments such as modeled microgravity, a space analog. This suggests de-regulation of cardiovascular signalling pathways indicated by upregulation of PIGf. In the current study, we measured PIGf in the plasma of 33 patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD) to investigate whether such disease is associated with increased levels of PIGf. A control consisting of 31 sex matched apparently healthy subjects was also included in the study. We observed that the levels of PIGf in CAD patients were significantly increased compared to those in healthy control subjects (p less than 0.001) and usually increased beyond the clinical threshold level (greater than 27ng/L). The mechanisms leading to up-regulation of angiogenic factors and the adaptation of organisms to stressful environments such as isolation, high altitude, hypoxia, ischemia, microgravity, increased radiation, etc are presently unknown and require further investigation in spaceflight and these other physiologically stressed environments.

  10. Infantile spasms and HLA antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Howitz, P; Platz, P

    1978-01-01

    21 new cases of infantile spasms were reported in 1976 from paediatric departments in Denmark. The connection between infantile spasms and the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is mentioned, because of reports of a significantly higher incidence of HLA-B7 in children with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. The HLA antigen distribution in 19 of the 21 children was compared with that of 1967 healthy adults. No difference in the HLA antigens was demonstrated between children with infantile spasms and controls, whether in the material as a whole, or in the cryptogenic or symptomatic groups. However HLA typing of children with infantile spasms should continue in the search for a potential genetic marker in this grave disease, particularly in view of the reported high incidence of HLA-B7 in children with the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. PMID:708109

  11. Ecstasy-induced acute coronary syndrome: something to rave about.

    PubMed

    Hoggett, Kerry; McCoubrie, David; Fatovich, Daniel M

    2012-06-01

    Ecstasy or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine is a commonly used illicit recreational drug, enjoying popularity for its stimulant effects. Although acute coronary syndrome is recognized after cocaine and methamphetamine use, association with Ecstasy use has rarely been reported. We report three cases of significantly delayed acute coronary syndrome and ST elevation myocardial infarction related to ingestion of Ecstasy. PMID:22672176

  12. Imaging of cocaine-induced global and regional myocardial ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Oster, Z.H.; Som, P.; Wang, G.J.; Weber, D.A. )

    1991-08-01

    Severe and often fatal cardiac complications have been reported in cocaine users with narrowed coronary arteries caused by atherosclerosis as well as in young adults with normal coronaries. The authors have found that in normal dogs cocaine induces severe temporary hypoperfusion of the left ventricle as indicated by a significantly lower 201Tl concentration compared to the baseline state. The most significant decrease in uptake occurred 5 min after injection and was more pronounced in the septal and apical segments. Following intravenous administration of cocaine, instead of gradual disappearance of 201Tl from the left ventricle, there was continuous increase in 201Tl concentration in the left ventricle. These imaging experiments indicate that the deleterious effects of cocaine on the heart are probably due to spasm of the coronaries and decreased myocardial perfusion. Since spasm of the large subpericardial vessels does not seem to explain the magnitude of the increased coronary resistance and decreased coronary flow after cocaine as described in the literature, it is suggested that microvascular spasm of smaller vessels plays a major role in the temporary decrease in perfusion. The data may also suggest that severe temporary myocardial ischemia is probably the initiating factor for the cardiac complications induced by cocaine.

  13. Altered Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha expression levels correlate with coronary vessel anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Wikenheiser, Jamie; Wolfram, Julie A.; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Yang, Ke; Karunamuni, Ganga; Wilson, David L.; Semenza, Gregg L.; Agani, Faton; Fisher, Steven A.; Ward, Nicole; Watanabe, Michiko

    2009-01-01

    The outflow tract myocardium and other regions corresponding to the location of the major coronary vessels of the developing chicken heart, display a high level of hypoxia as assessed by the hypoxia indicator EF5. The EF5 positive tissues were also specifically positive for nuclear-localized hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1?), the oxygen-sensitive component of the hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) heterodimer. This led to our hypothesis that there is a “template” of hypoxic tissue that determines the stereotyped pattern of the major coronary vessels. In this study we disturbed this template by altering ambient oxygen levels (hypoxia 15%; hyperoxia 75-40%) during the early phases of avian coronary vessel development, in order to alter tissue hypoxia, HIF-1? protein expression and its downstream target genes without high mortality. We also altered HIF-1? gene expression in the embryonic outflow tract cardiomyocytes by injecting an adenovirus containing a constitutively active form of HIF-1? (AdCA5). We assayed for coronary anomalies using anti-alpha-smooth muscle actin immunohistology. When incubated under abnormal oxygen levels or injected with a low titer of the AdCA5, coronary arteries displayed deviations from their normal proximal connections to the aorta. These deviations were similar to known clinical anomalies of coronary arteries. These findings indicated that developing coronary vessels may be subject to a level of regulation that is dependent on differential oxygen levels within cardiac tissues and subsequent HIF-1 regulation of gene expression. PMID:19777592

  14. Vigabatrin and mental retardation in tuberous sclerosis: infantile spasms vs focal seizures

    PubMed Central

    Yum, Mi-Sun; Lee, Eun Hye; Ko, Tae-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is a genetic disorder resulting in epilepsy and mental retardation. Vigabatrin has shown efficacy in the treatment of infantile spasms caused by tuberous sclerosis complex, but its effects on focal seizures caused by tuberous sclerosis complex have not been determined. We compared the efficacy of vigabatrin in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex-induced focal seizures and infantile spasms and assessed the mental outcomes in both groups. We retrospectively evaluated 31 children with tuberous sclerosis complex and epilepsy, who were treated with vigabatrin in single tertiary center in Seoul, Korea. Vigabatrin treatment resulted in spasms cessation in 16 of 18 (88.9%) patients with infantile spasms, whereas 6 of 13 (46.2%) patients with focal seizures became seizure-free. Initial response to vigabatrin had no effect on intellectual disability. Vigabatrin was highly effective in eliminating infantile spasms caused by tuberous sclerosis complex, but was less effective in patients with focal seizures. PMID:22752486

  15. Vigabatrin and mental retardation in tuberous sclerosis: infantile spasms versus focal seizures.

    PubMed

    Yum, Mi-Sun; Lee, Eun Hye; Ko, Tae-Sung

    2013-03-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is a genetic disorder resulting in epilepsy and mental retardation. Vigabatrin has shown efficacy in the treatment of infantile spasms caused by tuberous sclerosis complex, but its effects on focal seizures caused by tuberous sclerosis complex have not been determined. We compared the efficacy of vigabatrin in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex-induced focal seizures and infantile spasms and assessed the mental outcomes in both groups. We retrospectively evaluated 31 children with tuberous sclerosis complex and epilepsy, who were treated with vigabatrin in a single tertiary center in Seoul, Korea. Vigabatrin treatment resulted in spasms cessation in 16 of 18 (88.9%) patients with infantile spasms, whereas 6 of 13 (46.2%) patients with focal seizures became seizure free. Initial response to vigabatrin had no effect on intellectual disability. Vigabatrin was highly effective in eliminating infantile spasms caused by tuberous sclerosis complex but was less effective in patients with focal seizures. PMID:22752486

  16. Modeling new therapies for infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    Chudomelova, Lenka; Scantlebury, Morris H.; Raffo, Emmanuel; Coppola, Antonietta; Betancourth, David; Galanopoulou, Aristea S.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Infantile spasms are the classical seizure type of West syndrome. Infantile spasms often herald a dismal prognosis, due to the high probability to evolve into intractable forms of epilepsies with significant cognitive deficits, especially if not adequately treated. The current therapies, high doses of adrenocorticotropic hormone, steroids or the GABA transaminase inhibitor vigabatrin, are often toxic and may not always be effective. The need to identify new therapies for spasms has led to the generation of a number of rodent models of infantile spasms. These include acute and chronic models of infantile spasms, with cryptogenic or symptomatic origin, many of which are based on specific etiologies. In this review, we will summarize the clinical experience with treating infantile spasms, the main features of the new animal models of infantile spasms and discuss their utility in the preclinical development of new therapies for infantile spasms. PMID:20618396

  17. Infantile spasms--evidence based medical management.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Jitendra Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Infantile spasms constitute significant burden of refractory epilepsy in children. The first line treatment choice varies at different centres. The author presents concise evidence based update on medical management of infantile spasms. PMID:24986193

  18. Pregestational diabetes induces fetal coronary artery malformation via reactive oxygen species signaling.

    PubMed

    Moazzen, Hoda; Lu, Xiangru; Liu, Murong; Feng, Qingping

    2015-04-01

    Hypoplastic coronary artery disease is a congenital coronary artery malformation associated with a high risk of sudden cardiac death. However, the etiology and pathogenesis of hypoplastic coronary artery disease remain undefined. Pregestational diabetes increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and the risk of congenital heart defects. We show that pregestational diabetes in mice induced by streptozotocin significantly increased 4-hydroxynonenal production and decreased coronary artery volume in fetal hearts. Pregestational diabetes also impaired epicardial epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as shown by analyses of the epicardium, epicardial-derived cells, and fate mapping. Additionally, the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (Hif-1?), Snail1, Slug, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFgf), and retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (Aldh1a2) was decreased and E-cadherin expression was increased in the hearts of fetuses of diabetic mothers. Of note, these abnormalities were all rescued by treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in diabetic females during gestation. Ex vivo analysis showed that high glucose levels inhibited epicardial EMT, which was reversed by NAC treatment. We conclude that pregestational diabetes in mice can cause coronary artery malformation through ROS signaling. This study may provide a rationale for further clinical studies to investigate whether pregestational diabetes could cause hypoplastic coronary artery disease in humans. PMID:25422104

  19. Recurrent angina after coronary angioplasty: mechanisms, diagnostic and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Izzo, Paolo; Macchi, Andrea; De Gennaro, Luisa; Gaglione, Antonio; Di Biase, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    Recurrent angina in patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention is defined as recurrence of chest pain or chest discomfort. Careful assessment is recommended to differentiate between non-cardiac and cardiac causes. In the case of the latter, recurrent angina occurrence can be related to structural (‘stretch pain’, in-stent restenosis, in-stent thrombosis, incomplete revascularization, progression of coronary atherosclerosis) or functional (coronary micro-vascular dysfunction, epicardial coronary spasm) causes. Even though a complete diagnostic algorithm has not been validated, ECG exercise testing, stress imaging and invasive assessment of coronary blood flow and coronary vaso-motion (i.e. coronary flow reserve, provocation testing for coronary spasm) may be required. When repeated coronary revascularization is not indicated, therapeutic approaches should aim at targeting the underlying mechanism for the patient’s symptoms using a variety of drugs currently available such as beta-blockers, calcium-channel blockers, ivabradine or ranolazine. PMID:24062904

  20. Stenting and surgery for coronary vasospasm : the wrong solution fails to solve the problem.

    PubMed

    Nedeljkovic, Milan A; Ostojic, Miodrag; Lalic, Nebojsa; Beleslin, Branko; Nedeljkovic, Ivana; Lalic, Katarina; Ristic, Miljko; Giga, Vojislav; Angelkov, Lazar; Tomasevic, Miloje; Kanjuh, Vladimir

    2009-11-01

    A 55-year-old man, with a history of medically uncontrolled coronary vasospasm, presented for evaluation of chest pain 6 months after implantation of left internal mammary artery. Due to recurrent episodes of vasospastic angina and serious complications of coronary spasm (ventricular fibrillation, myocardial infarction), a stent had previously been implanted in the proximal part of left anterior descending artery at the site of angiographically and ergonovine-proven coronary spasm, with subsequent in-stent restenosis. PMID:20091257

  1. Impact of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention on Exercise-Induced Repolarization Changes in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Juki?, Anita; Carevi?, Vedran; Zekanovi?, Dražen; Stojanovi?-Stipi?, Sanda; Runji?, Frane; Ljubkovi?, Marko; Fabijani?, Damir

    2015-09-15

    Recent reports suggest T peak to T end (Tpe) interval and Tpe/QT ratio as valuable indicators of increased arrhythmogenic risk in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to examine the exercise-induced changes in these indexes in patients with stable CAD, before and after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Forty patients were consecutively included in the interventional group (n = 20), with significant lesions (?75% luminal narrowing) suitable for PCI and in the control group (n = 20), with no significant coronary artery lesions (<50% luminal narrowing). One day before and 30 days after the coronarography, all patients performed treadmill exercise stress testing, and the electrocardiographic (ECG) indexes of repolarization were assessed during baseline and at peak exercise intensity. In the control group, the QT interval, QTc (QT-corrected) interval, Tpe interval, and Tpe/QT ratio measured at peak exercise significantly decreased from baseline values (p = 0.001, p = 0.004, p <0.001, and p = 0.017, respectively). Conversely, in interventional patients before the PCI, an increase in the Tpe interval and the Tpe/QT ratio was observed at exercise (p = 0.009, and p <0.001, respectively), with only the QT interval exhibiting a significant decrease from baseline (p <0.001). Thirty days after the PCI, all the ECG arrhythmogenic indexes measured at peak exercise significantly decreased from baseline values, thus assuming the same trend as detected in controls. In conclusion, restoration of blood supply normalized exercise-induced repolarization changes, suggesting that revascularization of previously ischemic myocardium lowers the cardiac arrhythmogenic potential in patients with stable CAD. PMID:26174604

  2. Epileptic spasms without hypsarrhythmia in infancy and childhood: tonic spasms as a seizure type.

    PubMed

    Marchi, Luciana R De; Seraphim, Evelyn A; Corso, Jeana T; Naves, Pedro Vf; Carvalho, Kelly Cristina de; Ramirez, Milton David H; Ferrari-Marinho, Taissa; Guaranha, Mirian Sb; Yacubian, Elza Márcia T

    2015-06-01

    Epileptic spasms were defined by the International League Against Epilepsy Task Force on Classification and Terminology in 2001 as a specific seizure type. Epileptic spasms without hypsarrhythmia have been described in some series of patients, occurring either in infancy or childhood. More prolonged epileptic spasms without hypsarrhythmia were previously defined as a different seizure type, and referred to as "tonic spasm seizures". Here, we present a 5-year-old boy who started having epileptic spasms without hypsarrhythmia at 8 months of age, effectively treated with oxcarbazepine. With the withdrawal of medication, epileptic spasms returned. Video-EEG monitoring revealed high-voltage slow waves superimposed by low-voltage fast activity, followed by an electrodecremental phase and a burst of asymmetric fast activity, time-locked to clinical tonic spasm seizures. Brain MRI showed left temporal atrophy with temporal pole grey/white matter junction blurring and ictal PET-CT showed left basal frontal hypermetabolism. Seizures were refractory to several AEDs and vigabatrin was introduced with seizure cessation. Despite efforts to classify epileptic spasms, these are still considered as part of the group of unknown seizure types. In some cases, a focal origin has been suggested, leading to the term "periodic spasms" and "focal spasms". In this case, epileptic spasms without hypsarrhythmia, associated with tonic spasms, may be a variant of focal spasms and might be considered as an epileptic syndrome. [Published with video sequence]. PMID:25895540

  3. Physical activity opposes coronary vascular dysfunction induced during high fat feeding in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoonjung; Booth, Frank W; Lee, Sewon; Laye, Mathew J; Zhang, Cuihua

    2012-09-01

    The study's purpose was to investigate if physical activity initiated with the start of high-fat feeding would oppose development of endothelial dysfunction, and if it does, then to determine some potential mechanisms. C57BL/6 female mice were randomly divided into three groups: (1) control low-fat diet (LF-SED; 15% of calories from fat), (2) high-fat diet (HF-SED; 45% of calories from fat), and (3) HF diet given access to a voluntary running wheel (HF-RUN). Our hypothesis was that HF-RUN would differ in multiple markers of endothelial dysfunction from HF-SED after 10 weeks of 45%-fat diet, but would not differ from LF-SED. HF-RUN differed from HF-SED in nine determinations in which HF-SED either had decreases in (1) acetylcholine (ACh)-induced and flow-induced vasodilatations in isolated, pressurized coronary arterioles, (2) heart phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS/eNOS) protein, (3) coronary arteriole leptin (ob) receptor protein, (4) phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3/STAT3) protein, and (5) coronary arteriole superoxide dismutase 1 protein; or had increases in (6) percentage body fat, (7) serum leptin, (8) coronary arteriole suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3) protein, and (9) coronary arteriole gp91(phox) protein. Higher endothelium-dependent vasodilatation by ACh or leptin was abolished with incubation of NOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester (l-NAME) in LF-SED and HF-RUN groups. Further, impaired ACh-induced vasodilatation in HF-SED was normalized by apocynin or TEMPOL to LF-SED and HF-RUN. These findings demonstrate multiple mechanisms (eNOS, leptin and redox balance) by which voluntary running opposes the development of impaired coronary arteriolar vasodilatation during simultaneous high-fat feeding. PMID:22674721

  4. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked infantile spasm syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > X-linked infantile spasm syndrome On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance ... definitions Reviewed August 2012 What is X-linked infantile spasm syndrome? X-linked infantile spasm syndrome is a ...

  5. Contrast induced neurotoxicity following coronary angiogram with Iohexol in an end stage renal disease patient.

    PubMed

    Gollol Raju, Narasimha Swamy; Joshi, Deepak; Daggubati, Ramesh; Movahed, Assad

    2015-11-16

    Neurotoxicity is an infrequent adverse reaction to iodinated contrast agents. Contrast induced neurotoxicity following coronary angiogram is very rare. Renal disease is a risk factor for contrast induced neurotoxicity. We report a case of contrast induced neurotoxicity following coronary angiogram and intervention using Iohexol (Omnipaque 350) in an end stage renal disease patient on peritoneal dialysis who had prior exposure to iodinated contrast without any adverse reaction. Hemodialysis had to be initiated for rapid removal of the contrast agent with subsequent complete resolution of neurological deficits. This case highlights the need for interventionalists to be aware of an important adverse reaction to iodinated contrast agents, especially in individuals with renal dysfunction, and that neurotoxicity is a possibility even with prior uneventful exposures. The role and timing of hemodialysis in contrast induced neurotoxicity in patients with chronic kidney disease and in those without chronic kidney disease needs further deliberation. PMID:26601097

  6. Contrast induced neurotoxicity following coronary angiogram with Iohexol in an end stage renal disease patient

    PubMed Central

    Gollol Raju, Narasimha Swamy; Joshi, Deepak; Daggubati, Ramesh; Movahed, Assad

    2015-01-01

    Neurotoxicity is an infrequent adverse reaction to iodinated contrast agents. Contrast induced neurotoxicity following coronary angiogram is very rare. Renal disease is a risk factor for contrast induced neurotoxicity. We report a case of contrast induced neurotoxicity following coronary angiogram and intervention using Iohexol (Omnipaque 350) in an end stage renal disease patient on peritoneal dialysis who had prior exposure to iodinated contrast without any adverse reaction. Hemodialysis had to be initiated for rapid removal of the contrast agent with subsequent complete resolution of neurological deficits. This case highlights the need for interventionalists to be aware of an important adverse reaction to iodinated contrast agents, especially in individuals with renal dysfunction, and that neurotoxicity is a possibility even with prior uneventful exposures. The role and timing of hemodialysis in contrast induced neurotoxicity in patients with chronic kidney disease and in those without chronic kidney disease needs further deliberation. PMID:26601097

  7. Cellular and Pharmacological Targets to Induce Coronary Arteriogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hollander, Maurits R.; Horrevoets, Anton J.G.; van Royen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The formation of collateral vessels (arteriogenesis) to sustain perfusion in ischemic tissue is native to the body and can compensate for coronary stenosis. However, arteriogenesis is a complex process and is dependent on many different factors. Although animal studies on collateral formation and stimulation show promising data, clinical trials have failed to replicate these results. Further research to the exact mechanisms is needed in order to develop a pharmalogical stimulant. This review gives an overview of recent data in the field of arteriogenesis. PMID:23638831

  8. Carperitide induces coronary vasodilation and limits infarct size in canine ischemic hearts: role of NO.

    PubMed

    Asanuma, Hiroshi; Sanada, Shoji; Asakura, Masanori; Asano, Yoshihiro; Kim, Jiyoong; Shinozaki, Yoshiro; Mori, Hidezo; Minamino, Tetsuo; Takashima, Seiji; Kitakaze, Masafumi

    2014-08-01

    Carperitide is effective for heart failure (HF) owing to its diuretic and vasodilatory effects. This recombinant peptide may also have direct cardioprotective effects because carperitide reduces the severity of heart failure and limits infarct size. Because coronary vasodilation is an important cardioprotective treatment modality, we investigated whether carperitide increased coronary blood flow (CBF) and improved myocardial metabolic and contractile dysfunction during ischemia in canine hearts. We also tested whether carperitide is directly responsible for limiting the infarct size. We infused carperitide at 0.025-0.2??g?kg(-1)?min(-1) into the canine coronary artery. A minimum dose of 0.1??g?kg(-1)?min(-1) was required to obtain maximal vasodilation. To test the effects of carperitide on ischemic hearts, we reduced perfusion pressure in the left anterior descending coronary artery such that CBF decreased to one-third of the baseline value. At 10?min after carperitide was infused at a dose of 0.1??g?kg(-1)?min(-1), we observed increases in CBF, fractional shortening (FS) and pH levels in coronary venous blood without concomitant increases in cardiac nitric oxide (NO) levels; these changes were attenuated using either the atrial natriuretic peptide receptor antagonist HS-142-1 or the NO synthase inhibitor L(?)-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP) levels in the coronary artery were elevated in response to carperitide that also limited the infarct size after 90?min of ischemia and subsequent reperfusion. Again, these effects were blunted by L-NAME. Carperitide increases CBF, reduces myocardial contractile and metabolic dysfunction and limits infarct size. In addition, NO is necessary for carperitide-induced vasodilation and cardioprotection in ischemic hearts. PMID:24694647

  9. Practice Parameter: Medical Treatment of Infantile Spasms

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, M.T.; Weiss, S.K.; Adams-Webber, T.; Ashwal, S.; Stephens, D.; Ballaban-Gill, K.; Baram, T.Z.; Duchowny, M.; Hirtz, D.; Pellock, J.M.; Shields, W.D.; Shinnar, S.; Wyllie, E.; Snead, O.C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the current best practice for treatment of infantile spasms in children. Methods Database searches of MEDLINE from 1966 and EMBASE from 1980 and searches of reference lists of retrieved articles were performed. Inclusion criteria were the documented presence of infantile spasms and hypsarrhythmia. Outcome measures included complete cessation of spasms, resolution of hypsarrhythmia, relapse rate, developmental outcome, and presence or absence of epilepsy or an epileptiform EEG. One hundred fifty-nine articles were selected for detailed review. Recommendations were based on a four-tiered classification scheme. Results Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is probably effective for the short-term treatment of infantile spasms, but there is insufficient evidence to recommend the optimum dosage and duration of treatment. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether oral corticosteroids are effective. Vigabatrin is possibly effective for the short-term treatment of infantile spasm and is possibly also effective for children with tuberous sclerosis. Concerns about retinal toxicity suggest that serial ophthalmologic screening is required in patients on vigabatrin; however, the data are insufficient to make recommendations regarding the frequency or type of screening. There is insufficient evidence to recommend any other treatment of infantile spasms. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that successful treatment of infantile spasms improves the long-term prognosis. Conclusions ACTH is probably an effective agent in the short-term treatment of infantile spasms. Vigabatrin is possibly effective. PMID:15159460

  10. A MODEL OF SYMPTOMATIC INFANTILE SPASMS SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Scantlebury, Morris H.; Galanopoulou, Aristea S.; Chudomelova, Lenka; Raffo, Emmanuel; Betancourth, David; Moshé, Solomon L.

    2009-01-01

    Infantile spasms are characterized by age-specific expression of epileptic spasms, hypsarrhythmia and often result in significant cognitive impairment. Other epilepsies or autism often ensue especially in symptomatic IS (SIS). Cortical or subcortical damage, including white matter, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of SIS. To generate a model of SIS, we recreated this pathology by injecting rats with lipopolysaccharide and doxorubicin intracerebrally at postnatal day (P) 3 and with p-chlorophenylalanine intraperitoneally at P5. Spasms occurred between P4–13 and were associated with ictal EEG correlates, interictal EEG abnormalities and neurodevelopmental decline. After P9 other seizures, deficits in learning and memory, and autistic-like behaviors (indifference to other rats, increased grooming) were observed. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) did not affect spasms. Vigabatrin transiently suppressed spasms at P5. This new model of SIS will be useful to study the neurobiology and treatment of SIS, including those that are refractory to ACTH. PMID:19945533

  11. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia following coronary artery bypass grafting: a diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Khanal, Raju; Karmacharya, Paras; Forman, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a challenge in post-cardiac surgery patients because of the high incidence of non-immune thrombocytopenia and heparin–platelet factor 4 antibodies in these groups. We present a case of HIT in a post coronary artery bypass surgery patient, which was successfully treated with prompt recognition and discontinuation of heparin products. PMID:26486110

  12. Closure of guide wire-induced coronary artery perforation with a two-component fibrin glue.

    PubMed

    Störger, Hans; Ruef, Johannes

    2007-08-01

    Perforation or rupture of a coronary artery with subsequent pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade is a potentially life-threatening complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Several emergency treatment strategies exist to close the perforation including reversal of anticoagulation, prolonged balloon inflation, implantation of stent grafts, local injection of thrombogenic molecules, placement of microcoils, or open heart surgery. Here we report on a 66-year-old patient who underwent urgent PCI for acute stent thrombosis in the proximal LAD. The artery was reopened, a new stent implanted successfully, and a GPIIb/IIIa-antagonist was given. Shortly thereafter the patient suffered from cardiac tamponade requiring pericardiocentesis and pericardial drainage. The coronary angiogram indicated a severe guide wire-induced perforation and pericardial effusion originating from a distal diagonal branch segment. Prolonged balloon inflation did not stop the leakage. Therefore the monorail balloon was exchanged for an over-the-wire balloon. A two-component commercial fibrin glue consisting of fibrinogen and thrombin was rapidly but separately injected through the wire channel of the balloon into the distal segment of the diagonal branch. The coronary leak was successfully closed and the patient recovered quickly. In comparison with the previously reported cases of thrombin injection important differences should be noticed: (1) a two-component hemostatic seal was used without reversal of anticoagulation, (2) rapid injection instead of prolonged infusion of the hemostatic drugs was performed, and (3) the rescue technique was applied in a cath lab that routinely uses monorail catheter systems. Therefore we consider this a novel and effective approach for closure of coronary ruptures. PMID:17420994

  13. Acute coronary occlusion during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed Central

    Shiu, M F; Silverton, N P; Oakley, D; Cumberland, D

    1985-01-01

    Two hundred and forty percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty procedures were performed in three centres over a two year period. Acute occlusion of the vessel undergoing angioplasty was seen on 20 (8%) occasions. The cause of occlusion was determined angiographically and in some cases confirmed at the time of emergency open heart surgery. The mechanism of coronary occlusion was arterial dissection in six cases, persisting coronary arterial spasm in seven, and coronary thrombosis in four. In three patients the mechanism could not be determined. Immediate reintroduction of a balloon dilatation catheter was attempted in 10 patients and resulted in restoration of adequate coronary flow in six. The remaining 14 patients underwent open heart surgery as an emergency procedure. Images PMID:3160376

  14. Caring for muscle spasticity or spasms

    MedlinePLUS

    High muscle tone - care; Increased muscle tension - care; Upper motor neuron syndrome - care; Muscle stiffness - care ... Muscle spasticity, or spasms, causes your muscles to become stiff or rigid. It can also cause exaggerated, ...

  15. Carisbamate acutely suppresses spasms in a rat model of symptomatic infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Tomonori; Moshé, Solomon L.; Galanopoulou, Aristea S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Infantile spasms are the signature seizures of West syndrome. The conventional treatments for infantile spasms, such as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and vigabatrin, are not always effective, especially in symptomatic infantile spasms (SIS). We tested the efficacy of carisbamate, a novel neurotherapeutic drug, to suppress spasms in the multiple-hit rat model of SIS and compared it with phenytoin to determine if its effect is via sodium-channel blockade. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats received right intracerebral infusions of doxorubicin and lipopolysaccharide at postnatal day 3 (PN3) and intraperitoneal p-chlorophenylalanine at PN5. A single intraperitoneal injection of carisbamate was administered at PN4, after the onset of spasms, at the following doses: 10mg/kg (CRS-10); 30 mg/kg (CRS-30); 60 mg/kg (CRS-60) and was compared to vehicle-injected group (VEH). Video-monitoring of PN6–7 CRS-60 or VEH injected pups was also done. Key findings Carisbamate acutely reduced both behavioral spasms (CRS-30 and CRS-60 groups only) and electroclinical spasms, during the first 2–3 post-injection hours, without detectable toxicity or mortality. In contrast, phenytoin (20 or 50 mg/kg) failed to suppress spasms. Significance Our findings provide preclinical evidence that carisbamate displays acute anticonvulsive effect on spasms through a sodium channel-independent mechanism. As spasms in the multiple-hit rat model are refractory to ACTH and transiently sensitive to vigabatrin, carisbamate may constitute a candidate new therapy for SIS, including the ACTH-refractory spasms. Further confirmation with clinical studies is needed. PMID:21770922

  16. Stereoselective inhibition of thromboxane-induced coronary vasoconstriction by 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Eltze, M.; Boer, R.; Sanders, K.H.; Boss, H.; Ulrich, W.R.; Flockerzi, D. )

    1990-01-01

    The biological activity of the (+)-S- and (-)-R-enantiomers of niguldipine, of the (-)-S- and (+)-R-enantiomers of felodipine and nitrendipine, and of rac-nisoldipine and rac-nimodipine was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of coronary vasoconstriction due to the thromboxane A2 (TxA2)-mimetic U-46619 in guinea pig Langendorff hearts, displacement of (+)-({sup 3}H)isradipine from calcium channel binding sites of guinea pig skeletal muscle T-tubule membranes, and blood pressure reduction in spontaneously hypertensive rats were determined. The enantiomers were obtained by stereoselective synthesis. Cross-contamination was less than 0.5% for both S- and R-enantiomers of niguldipine and nitrendipine and less than 1% for those of felodipine. From the doses necessary for a 50% inhibition of coronary vasoconstriction, stereoselectivity ratios for (+)-(S)-/(-)-(R)-niguldipine, (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-felodipine, and (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-nitrendipine of 28, 13, and 7, respectively, were calculated. The potency ratio rac-nisoldipine/rac-nimodipine was 3.5. Ratios obtained from binding experiments and antihypertensive activity were (+)-(S)-/(-)-(R)-niguldipine = 45 and 35, (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-felodipine = 12 and 13, (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-nitrendipine = 8 and 8, and rac-nisoldipine/rac-nimodipine = 8 and 7, respectively. Highly significant correlations were found between the in vitro potency of the substances to prevent U-46619-induced coronary vasoconstriction and their affinity for calcium channel binding sites as well as their antihypertensive activity.

  17. Testosterone Replacement Therapy Prevents Alterations of Coronary Vascular Reactivity Caused by Hormone Deficiency Induced by Castration

    PubMed Central

    Rouver, Wender Nascimento; Delgado, Nathalie Tristão Banhos; Menezes, Jussara Bezerra; Santos, Roger Lyrio; Moyses, Margareth Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effects of chronic treatment with different doses of testosterone on endothelium–dependent coronary vascular reactivity in male rats. Adult male rats were divided into four experimental groups: control (SHAM), castrated (CAST), castrated and immediately treated subcutaneously with a physiological dose (0.5 mg/kg/day, PHYSIO group) or supraphysiological dose (2.5 mg/kg/day, SUPRA group) of testosterone for 15 days. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was assessed at the end of treatment through tail plethysmography. After euthanasia, the heart was removed and coronary vascular reactivity was assessed using the Langendorff retrograde perfusion technique. A dose–response curve for bradykinin (BK) was constructed, followed by inhibition with 100 ?M L-NAME, 2.8 ?M indomethacin (INDO), L-NAME + INDO, or L-NAME + INDO + 0.75 ?M clotrimazole (CLOT). We observed significant endothelium–dependent, BK–induced coronary vasodilation, which was abolished in the castrated group and restored in the PHYSIO and SUPRA groups. Furthermore, castration modulated the lipid and hormonal profiles and decreased body weight, and testosterone therapy restored all of these parameters. Our results revealed an increase in SBP in the SUPRA group. In addition, our data led us to conclude that physiological concentrations of testosterone may play a beneficial role in the cardiovascular system by maintaining an environment that is favourable for the activity of an endothelium–dependent vasodilator without increasing SBP. PMID:26322637

  18. Reversible cold-induced abnormalities in myocardial perfusion and function in systemic sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, E.L.; Firestein, G.S.; Weiss, J.L.; Heuser, R.R.; Leitl, G.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Brinker, J.A.; Ciuffo, A.A.; Becker, L.C.

    1986-11-01

    The effects of peripheral cold exposure on myocardial perfusion and function were studied in 13 patients with scleroderma without clinically evident myocardial disease. Ten patients had at least one transient, cold-induced, myocardial perfusion defect visualized by thallium-201 scintigraphy, and 12 had reversible, cold-induced, segmental left ventricular hypokinesis by two-dimensional echocardiography. The 10 patients with transient perfusion defects all had anatomically corresponding ventricular wall motion abnormalities. No one in either of two control groups (9 normal volunteers and 7 patients with chest pain and normal coronary arteriograms) had cold-induced abnormalities. This study is the first to show the simultaneous occurrence of cold-induced abnormalities in myocardial perfusion and function in patients with scleroderma. The results suggest that cold exposure in such patients may elicit transient reflex coronary vasoconstriction resulting in reversible myocardial ischemia and dysfunction. Chronic recurrent episodes of coronary spasm may lead to focal myocardial fibrosis.

  19. Neonatal estradiol stimulation prevents epilepsy in Arx model of X-linked infantile spasms syndrome.

    PubMed

    Olivetti, Pedro R; Maheshwari, Atul; Noebels, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-22

    Infantile spasms are a catastrophic form of pediatric epilepsy with inadequate treatment. In patients, mutation of ARX, a transcription factor selectively expressed in neuronal precursors and adult inhibitory interneurons, impairs cell migration and causes a major inherited subtype of the disease X-linked infantile spasms syndrome. Using an animal model, the Arx((GCG)10+7) mouse, we determined that brief estradiol (E2) administration during early postnatal development prevented spasms in infancy and seizures in adult mutants. E2 was ineffective when delivered after puberty or 30 days after birth. Early E2 treatment altered mRNA levels of three downstream targets of Arx (Shox2, Ebf3, and Lgi1) and restored depleted interneuron populations without increasing GABAergic synaptic density. Postnatal E2 treatment may induce lasting transcriptional changes that lead to enduring disease modification and could potentially serve as a therapy for inherited interneuronopathies. PMID:24452264

  20. Neonatal Estradiol Stimulation Prevents Epilepsy in Arx Model of X-Linked Infantile Spasms Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Olivetti, Pedro R.; Maheshwari, Atul; Noebels, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Infantile spasms are a catastrophic form of pediatric epilepsy with inadequate treatment. In patients, mutation of ARX, a transcription factor selectively expressed in neuronal precursors and adult inhibitory interneurons, impairs cell migration and causes a major inherited subtype of the disease X-linked infantile spasms syndrome. Using an animal model, the Arx(GCG)10+7 mouse, we determined that brief estradiol (E2) administration during early postnatal development prevented spasms in infancy and seizures in adult mutants. E2 was ineffective when delivered after puberty or 30 days after birth. Early E2 treatment altered mRNA levels of three downstream targets of Arx (Shox2, Ebf3, and Lgi1) and restored depleted interneuron populations without increasing GABAergic synaptic density. Postnatal E2 treatment may induce lasting transcriptional changes that lead to enduring disease modification and could potentially serve as a therapy for inherited interneuronopathies. PMID:24452264

  1. Hemifacial Spasm and Neurovascular Compression

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Alex Y.; Yeung, Jacky T.; Gerrard, Jason L.; Michaelides, Elias M.; Sekula, Raymond F.; Bulsara, Ketan R.

    2014-01-01

    Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is characterized by involuntary unilateral contractions of the muscles innervated by the ipsilateral facial nerve, usually starting around the eyes before progressing inferiorly to the cheek, mouth, and neck. Its prevalence is 9.8 per 100,000 persons with an average age of onset of 44 years. The accepted pathophysiology of HFS suggests that it is a disease process of the nerve root entry zone of the facial nerve. HFS can be divided into two types: primary and secondary. Primary HFS is triggered by vascular compression whereas secondary HFS comprises all other causes of facial nerve damage. Clinical examination and imaging modalities such as electromyography (EMG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful to differentiate HFS from other facial movement disorders and for intraoperative planning. The standard medical management for HFS is botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injections, which provides low-risk but limited symptomatic relief. The only curative treatment for HFS is microvascular decompression (MVD), a surgical intervention that provides lasting symptomatic relief by reducing compression of the facial nerve root. With a low rate of complications such as hearing loss, MVD remains the treatment of choice for HFS patients as intraoperative technique and monitoring continue to improve. PMID:25405219

  2. Angiotensin 1-7 induces bradykinin-mediated relaxation in porcine coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Gorelik, G; Carbini, L A; Scicli, A G

    1998-07-01

    Angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7) has been reported to induce relaxation which is partially blocked by a kinin receptor antagonist. We investigated the relationship between kinins and angiotensin peptides with use of preconstricted isolated pig coronary arteries. Ang 1-7 alone (up to 10(-5) M) had no relaxant effect. Bradykinin (BK) (10(-10)-10(-7) M) induced transient relaxation, returning to basal tone, although BK remained in the bath. In these BK-stimulated rings, Ang 1-7 but not BK (both 5 x 10(-6) M) again relaxed the rings by approximately 50%. This relaxation was blocked by a BK B2 antagonist, a kininase, and a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. Ang 1-7 inhibited purified angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) by 30 +/- 3.5% (n = 4) at 10(-6) M. However, in BK-pretreated rings, the ACE inhibitor ramiprilat did not induce relaxation, nor did it affect the relaxant response to Ang 1-7, which suggests that the effect of Ang 1-7 was not caused by ACE inhibition. Ang 1-7-induced vasodilation was reduced by 69.9 +/- 6.2% by an AT2 receptor blocker, PD-123319, and 29.3 +/- 7.3% by an AT1 antagonist, losartan. Neither the nonselective AT1/AT2 receptor antagonist sarthran nor saralasin inhibited the response to Ang 1-7. Ang II did not elicit relaxation either alone or in the presence of losartan, which suggests that activation of AT2 receptors does not cause relaxation. Thus, in the presence of bradykinin, Ang 1-7 relaxes pig coronary arteries via a PD-123319-sensitive mechanism involving nitric oxide, kinins and the BK B2 receptor. The kallikrein-kinin and renin-angiotensin systems may be linked through the interaction of Ang 1-7 and BK. PMID:9655885

  3. Balloon catheter coronary angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Angelini, P.

    1987-01-01

    The author has produced a reference and teaching book on balloon angioplasty. Because it borders in surgery and is performed on an awake patient without circulatory assistance, it is a complex and demanding procedure that requires thorough knowledge before it is attempted. The text is divided into seven sections. The first section describes coronary anatomy and pathophysiology, defines the objectives and mechanisms of the procedure and lists four possible physiologic results. The next section describes equipment in the catheterization laboratory, catheters, guidewires and required personnel. The following section is on the procedure itself and includes a discussion of examination, testing, technique and follow-up. The fourth section details possible complications that can occur during the procedure, such as coronary spasms, occlusion, thrombosis, perforations and ruptures, and also discusses cardiac surgery after failed angioplasty. The fifth section details complex or unusual cases that can occur. The sixth and seventh sections discuss radiation, alternative procedures and the future of angioplasty.

  4. Association between infantile spasms and nonaccidental head injury.

    PubMed

    Birca, Ala; D'Anjou, Guy; Carmant, Lionel

    2014-05-01

    Infantile spasms constitute a severe epileptic encephalopathy of infancy with poor long-term developmental outcome. Many diverse etiologies have been associated with infantile spasms, but the pathophysiological process is still not fully understood. We describe 2 cases of previously healthy 1- and 3-month-old infants who suffered a nonaccidental head injury with extensive cerebral lesions. Both presented with acute focal seizures rapidly controlled with phenobarbital. Nevertheless, they developed infantile spasms after a latency period of 3-4 months. Spasms were rapidly controlled with vigabatrin. Both children manifested with developmental delay, either exacerbated (case 1) or elicited (case 2) by infantile spasms. Our report highlights nonaccidental head injury as a risk factor for developing infantile spasms following a seizure-free latency period. A better understanding of the pathophysiology linking accidental brain trauma with infantile spasms could lead to more effective neuroprotective strategies. In the meantime, increased awareness and follow-up are warranted. PMID:23580697

  5. Prevention of subsequent exercise-induced periinfarct ischemia by emergency coronary angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction: comparison with intracoronary streptokinase

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, A.Y.; Lai, P.; Juni, J.E.; Bourdillon, P.D.; Walton, J.A. Jr.; Laufer, N.; Buda, A.J.; Pitt, B.; O'Neill, W.W.

    1986-09-01

    To compare the efficacy of emergency percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and intracoronary streptokinase in preventing exercise-induced periinfarct ischemia, 28 patients presenting within 12 hours of the onset of symptoms of acute myocardial infarction were prospectively randomized. Of these, 14 patients were treated with emergency angioplasty and 14 patients received intracoronary streptokinase. Recatheterization and submaximal exercise thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography were performed before hospital discharge. Periinfarct ischemia was defined as a reversible thallium defect adjacent to a fixed defect assessed qualitatively. Successful reperfusion was achieved in 86% of patients treated with emergency angioplasty and 86% of patients treated with intracoronary streptokinase (p = NS). Residual stenosis of the infarct-related coronary artery shown at predischarge angiography was 43.8 +/- 31.4% for the angioplasty group and 75.0 +/- 15.6% for the streptokinase group (p less than 0.05). Of the angioplasty group, 9% developed exercise-induced periinfarct ischemia compared with 60% of the streptokinase group (p less than 0.05). Thus, patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with emergency angioplasty had significantly less severe residual coronary stenosis and exercise-induced periinfarct ischemia than did those treated with intracoronary streptokinase. These results suggest further application of coronary angioplasty in the management of acute myocardial infarction.

  6. Validation of the rat model of cryptogenic infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    Chachua, Tamar; Yum, Mi-Sun; Velíšková, Jana; Velíšek, Libor

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether a new model of cryptogenic infantile spasms consisting of prenatal priming with betamethasone and postnatal trigger of spasms by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid responds to chronic ACTH treatment, and has similar EEG signature, efficacy of treatments, and behavioral impairments as human infantile spasms. Methods Rats prenatally primed with betamethasone on gestational day 15 were used. Spasms were triggered with N-methyl-D-aspartic acid between postnatal days (P) 10-15 in a single session or in multiple sessions in one subject. The expression of spasms was compared to prenatally saline-injected controls. Effects of relevant treatments (ACTH, vigabatrin, methylprednisolone, rapamycin) were determined in betamethasone-primed rats. In the rats after spasms, behavioral evaluation was performed in the open field and and elevated plus maze on P20-22. Key Findings NMDA at P10-15 (the rat “infant” period) triggers the spasms significantly earlier and in greater numbers in the prenatal betamethasone-exposed brain compared to controls. Similar to human condition, the spasms occur in clusters. Repeated trigger of spasms is associated with ictal EEG electrodecrements and interictal large-amplitude waves, a possible rat variant of hypsarrhythmia. Chronic ACTH treatment in a randomized experiment, and chronic pretreatment with methylprednisolone significantly suppress number of spasms similar to human condition. Pretreatment with vigabatrin, but not rapamycin, suppressed the spasms. Significant behavioral changes occurred following multiple bouts of spasms. Significance The model of infantile spasms has remarkable similarities with the human condition in semiology, EEG, pharmacological response, and long-term outcome. Thus, the model can be used for search of novel and more effective treatments for infantile spasms. PMID:21854372

  7. Serotonin, atherosclerosis, and collateral vessel spasm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenberg, N.

    1988-01-01

    Studies on animal models demonstrate that platelet products contribute to vascular spasm in ischemic syndromes and that this is reversible with administration of ketanserin and thromboxane synthesis inhibitors. Laboratory animals (dogs, rabbits, and rats) that had femoral artery ligations exhibited supersensitivity to serotonin within days in their collateral blood vessels. This supersensitivity lasted at least 6 months. The response to serotonin was reversed by ketanserin, but not by 5HT-1 antagonists. Supersensitivity does not extend to norepinephrine, and alpha blockers do not influence the response to serotonin. It appears that platelet activation by endothelial injury contributes to ischemia through blood vessel occlusion and vascular spasm. When platelet activation occurs in vivo, blood vessel occlusion and vascular spasm are reversible in part by using ketanserin or agents that block thromboxane synthesis or its action. Combining both classes of agents reverses spasm completely. These findings support existing evidence that platelet products contribute to vascular disease, and provide an approach to improved management with currently available pharmacologic agents.

  8. Efficacy and tolerability of the galanin analog NAX 5055 in the multiple-hit rat model of symptomatic infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Jequier Gygax, Marine; Klein, Brian D; White, H Steve; Kim, Mimi; Galanopoulou, Aristea S

    2014-01-01

    Infantile spasms are seizures manifesting in infantile epileptic encephalopathies that are associated with poor epilepsy and cognitive outcomes. The current therapies are not always effective or are associated with serious side effects. Early cessation of spasms has been proposed to improve long-term outcomes. To identify new therapies for infantile spasms with rapid suppression of spasms, we are using the multiple-hit rat model of infantile spasms, which is a model of refractory infantile spasms. Here, we are testing the efficacy and tolerability of a single dose of the galanin receptor 1 preferring analog, NAX 5055, in the multiple-hit model of spasms. To induce the model, postnatal day 3 (PN3) male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent right intracerebral infusions of doxorubicin and lipopolysaccharide; p-chlorophenylalanine was then injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) at PN5. After the onset of spasms at PN4, 11-14 rats/group were injected i.p. with either NAX 5055 (0.5, 1, 2, or 4mg/kg) or vehicle. Video monitoring for spasms included a 1h pre-injection period, followed by 5h of recording post-injection, and two 2h sessions on PN5. The study was conducted in a randomized, blinded manner. Neurodevelopmental reflexes were assessed daily as well as at 2h after injection. Respiratory function, heart rate, pulse distension, oximetry and blood glucose were measured 4h after injection. The relative expression of GalR1 and GalR2 mRNA over ?-actin in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus was determined with real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. There was no acute effect of NAX 5055 on spasm frequency after the single dose of NAX 5055 (n=11-13 rats/group, following exclusions). Neurodevelopmental reflexes, vital signs, blood glucose measured 4h post-injection, and survival were not affected. A reduction in pulse and breath distention of unclear clinical significance was observed with the 7mg/kg NAX 5055 dose. GalR1 mRNA was present in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of PN4 and adult rats. The hippocampal - but not the cortical - GalR1 mRNA expression was significantly lower in PN4 pups than in adults. GalR1 mRNA was also at least 20 times less abundant in the PN4 cortex than GalR2 mRNA. In conclusion, a single dose of NAX 5055 has no acute efficacy on spasms or toxicity in the multiple hit rat model of medically refractory infantile spasms. Our findings cannot exclude the possibility that repetitive NAX 5055 administration may show efficacy on spasms. The higher expression of GalR2 in the PN4 cortex suggests that GalR2-preferring analogs may be of interest to test for efficacy on spasms. PMID:24252685

  9. Efficacy and tolerability of the Galanin Analog NAX 5055 in the multiple-hit rat model of symptomatic infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    Gygax, Marine Jequier; Klein, Brian D.; White, H. Steve; Kim, Mimi; Galanopoulou, Aristea S.

    2013-01-01

    Infantile spasms are seizures manifesting in infantile epileptic encephalopathies that are associated with poor epilepsy and cognitive outcomes. The current therapies are not always effective or are associated with serious side effects. Early cessation of spasms has been proposed to improve long-term outcomes. To identify new therapies for infantile spasms with rapid suppression of spasms, we are using the multiple-hit rat model of infantile spasms, which is a model of refractory infantile spasms. Here, we are testing the efficacy and tolerability of a single dose of the galanin receptor 1 preferring analog, NAX 5055, in the multiple-hit model of spasms. To induce the model, postnatal day 3 (PN3) male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent right intracerebral infusions of doxorubicin and lipopolysaccharide; p-chlorophenylalanine was then injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) at PN5. After the onset of spasms at PN4, 11–14 rats/group were injected i.p. with either NAX 5055 (0.5, 1, 2, or 4 mg/kg) or vehicle. Video monitoring for spasms included a 1hour pre-injection period, followed by 5 hours of recording post-injection, and two 2 hour sessions on PN5. The study was conducted in a randomized, blinded manner. Neurodevelopmental reflexes were assessed daily as well as at 2 hours after injection. Respiratory function, heart rate, pulse distension, oximetry and blood glucose were measured 4 hours after injection. The relative expression of GalR1 and GalR2 mRNA over ?-actin in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus was determined with real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. There was no acute effect of NAX 5055 on spasm frequency after the single dose of NAX 5055 (n=11–13 rats/group, following exclusions). Neurodevelopmental reflexes, vital signs, blood glucose measured 4 hours post-injection, and survival were not affected. A reduction in pulse and breath distention of unclear clinical significance was observed with the 7mg/kg NAX 5055 dose. GalR1 mRNA was present in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of PN4 and adult rats. The hippocampal –but not the cortical- GalR1 mRNA expression was significantly lower in PN4 pups than in adults. GalR1 mRNA was also at least 20 times less abundant in the PN4 cortex than GalR2 mRNA. In conclusion, a single dose of NAX 5055 has no acute efficacy on spasms or toxicity in the multiple hit rat model of medically refractory infantile spasms. Our findings cannot exclude the possibility that repetitive NAX 5055 administration may show efficacy on spasms. The higher expression of GalR2 in the PN4 cortex suggests that GalR2-preferring analogs may be of interest to test for efficacy on spasms. PMID:24252685

  10. Effect of force-induced mechanical stress at the coronary artery bifurcation stenting: Relation to in-stent restenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Cheng-Hung; Jhong, Guan-Heng; Hsu, Ming-Yi; Wang, Chao-Jan; Liu, Shih-Jung; Hung, Kuo-Chun

    2014-05-28

    The deployment of metallic stents during percutaneous coronary intervention has become common in the treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions. However, restenosis occurs mostly at the bifurcation area even in present era of drug-eluting stents. To achieve adequate deployment, physicians may unintentionally apply force to the strut of the stents through balloon, guiding catheters, or other devices. This force may deform the struts and impose excessive mechanical stresses on the arterial vessels, resulting in detrimental outcomes. This study investigated the relationship between the distribution of stress in a stent and bifurcation angle using finite element analysis. The unintentionally applied force following stent implantation was measured using a force sensor that was made in the laboratory. Geometrical information on the coronary arteries of 11 subjects was extracted from contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan data. The numerical results reveal that the application of force by physicians generated significantly higher mechanical stresses in the arterial bifurcation than in the proximal and distal parts of the stent (post hoc P?induced mechanical stress at coronary artery bifurcation stenting, and potential mechanisms of in-stent restenosis, along with their relationship with bifurcation angle.

  11. Coronary Angiography

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Angiography? Coronary angiography (an-jee-OG-rah-fee) is a test ... and narrows the coronary arteries. Overview During coronary angiography, special dye is released into the bloodstream. The ...

  12. Coronary Arteries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and animations for grades K-6. The Coronary Arteries | Share Coronary Circulation The heart muscle, like every ... into two main coronary blood vessels (also called arteries). These coronary arteries branch off into smaller arteries, ...

  13. Infantile Spasms: Little Seizures, BIG Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Shields, W Donald

    2006-01-01

    Infantile spasms is one of the “catastrophic childhood epilepsies” because of the difficulty in controlling seizures and the association with mental retardation. However, early recognition, a careful diagnostic evaluation, and proper treatment may allow some children to attain seizure control and to achieve a normal, or at least much improved, level of development. Thus, there is the opportunity to have an important impact in the lives of these unfortunate children and their families. PMID:16761063

  14. SR-BI in bone marrow derived cells protects mice from diet induced coronary artery atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Pei, Ying; Chen, Xing; Aboutouk, Dina; Fuller, Mark T; Dadoo, Omid; Yu, Pei; White, Elizabeth J; Igdoura, Suleiman A; Trigatti, Bernardo L

    2013-01-01

    SR-BI deficient mice that are also hypomorphic for apolipoprotein E expression develop diet induced occlusive coronary artery atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction and early death. To test the role of SR-BI in bone marrow derived cells, we used bone marrow transplantation to generate SR-BI-null; apoE-hypomorphic mice in which SR-BI expression was restored solely in bone marrow derived cells. SR-BI-null; apoE-hypomorphic mice were transplanted with SR-BI(+/+)apoE-hypomorphic, or control, autologous SR-BI-null; apoE-hypomorphic bone marrow. Four weeks later, mice were fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol, cholate-containing diet to induce coronary artery atherosclerosis. Mice transplanted with autologous bone marrow developed extensive aortic atherosclerosis and severe occlusive coronary artery atherosclerosis after 4 weeks of feeding. This was accompanied by myocardial fibrosis and increased heart weights. In contrast, restoration of SR-BI expression in bone marrow derived-cells reduced diet induced aortic and coronary artery atherosclerosis, myocardial fibrosis and the increase in heart weights in SR-BI-null; apoE-hypomorphic mice. Restoration of SR-BI in bone marrow derived cells did not, however, affect steady state lipoprotein cholesterol levels, but did reduce plasma levels of IL-6. Monocytes from SR-BI-null mice exhibited a greater capacity to bind to VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 than those from SR-BI(+/+) mice. Furthermore, restoration of SR-BI expression in bone marrow derived cells attenuated monocyte recruitment into atherosclerotic plaques in mice fed high fat, high cholesterol cholate containing diet. These data demonstrate directly that SR-BI in bone marrow-derived cells protects against both aortic and CA atherosclerosis. PMID:23967310

  15. Particles deposition induced by the magnetic field in the coronary bypass graft model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernad, Sandor I.; Totorean, Alin F.; Vekas, Ladislau

    2016-03-01

    Bypass graft failures is a complex process starting with intimal hyperplasia development which involve many hemodynamic and biological factors. This work presents experimental results regarding the possibility to use magnetic drug delivery to prevent the development of the intimal hyperplasia using a simplified but intuitive model. The primary goal is to understand the magnetic particle deposition in the anastomosis region of the bypass graft taking into account the complex flow field created in this area which involves recirculation region, flow mixing and presence of particles with high residence time. The three-dimensional geometry model was used to simulate the motion and accumulation of the particles under the magnetic field influence in anastomotic region of the coronary bypass graft. The flow patterns are evaluated both numerically and experimentally and show a good correlation in term of flow parameters like vortex length and flow stagnation point positions. Particle depositions are strongly dependent on the magnet position and consequently of the magnetic field intensity and field gradient. Increased magnetic field controlled by the magnet position induces increased particle depositions in the bypass graft anastomosis. The result shows that particle depositions depend on the bypass graft angle, and the deposition shape and particle accumulation respectively, depend by the flow pattern in the anastomosis region.

  16. Coronary Balloon Angioplasty in a Severe Takotsubo Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    UDROIU, Cristian A.; ZORMAN, Darko; VINEREANU, Dragos

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT We reported a patient with Takotsubo syndrome, with severe symptoms, prolonged angina with hemodynamic compromise, in the context of severe coronary artery spasm, without response to full medical treatment, which was successfully managed with coronary balloon angioplasty. A 49-year old woman was admitted with chest pain, ECG changes and elevated myocardial necrosis markers suggestive for acute coronary syndrome. First coronary angiography revealed normal epicardial arteries and typical left ventricular apical ballooning, strongly suggestive for Takotsubo syndrome. Forty-eight hours later, with standard medical treatment, patient developed again severe angina with hemodynamic consequences. Second angiography showed total occlusive spasm of one coronary artery, without response to full medical treatment. Coronary balloon angioplasty was performed with final good result. Two month later, angiography revealed normal coronary arteries and normal ventricular shape. The patient is currently asymptomatic. As far as we know, no other examples of similar cases were published in medical literature. Therefore, interventional treatment can be taken into consideration for some particular types of patients with Takotsubo syndrome, non-responsive to medical treatment; despite of balloon angioplasty or stenting of coronary vasospasm is not a standard of care. PMID:24371496

  17. Guidewire-Induced coronary perforation successfully treated with subcutaneous fat embolisation: A simple technique available to all.

    PubMed

    George, Sudhakar; Cotton, James; Wrigley, Ben

    2015-12-01

    A 62-year-old man presented with an anterior ST elevation myocardial infarction and underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention to an occluded diagonal artery. Following stenting, a type III distal guidewire-induced coronary perforation of the diagonal branch was recognized with extravasation of contrast into the pericardial space. Prolonged balloon inflations proximal to the site of the perforation were unsuccessful. Subcutaneous fat was therefore harvested from the patients upper thigh under local anesthetic and embolized through an Export catheter into the distal diagonal vessel, resulting in the immediate cessation of leak through the site of perforation. We discuss the technical aspects of this technique as well as alternative methods of distal embolization and the potential complications that must be considered. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26010175

  18. Efficacy of short-term cordyceps sinensis for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kai; Lin, Yu; Li, Yong-Jian; Gao, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is one of the major causes of hospital-acquired acute renal failure. The pathophysiological mechanism of CIN remains unknown. There has been little evidence regarding the effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) on CIN. Cordyceps sinensis (CS), a traditional Chinese herb, has been widely used clinically for the prevention of the progression of renal failure. We performed a prospective, randomized controlled trial to investigate the role of CS in the prevention of CIN in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The 150 ACS patients were randomly assigned to three groups, basic treatment group (n=51), standard CS therapy group (n=49, corbrin capsule 2 g, 3 times/d were used 3 days before and after angiography), and intensive CS therapy group (n=50, corbrin capsule 3 g, 3 times/d were used 3 days before and after angiography). Renal function was assessed at the time of hospital admission and on days 1, 2, and 3 after PCI. CIN occurred in 13 of 150 patients (8.67%). The incidence of CIN was lower in the CS treatment groups than in the basic treatment group (P<0.05), and a significant decrease in the incidence of CIN in the intensive CS therapy group was shown (P<0.01). In conclusion, prophylactic treatment with CS during the peri-procedural stage in ACS patients undergoing elective PCI has a preventive role against CIN, and intensive CS therapy could be more effective. PMID:25664103

  19. Part Two: Infantile Spasms--The New Consensus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellock, John M.; O'Hara, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the conclusion made by the consensus group regarding infantile spasms. The consensus group concluded that "infantile spasms are a major form of severe epileptic encephalopathy of early childhood that results in neurodevelopmental regression and imposes a significant health burden." The entire group agrees that the best…

  20. Infantile Spasms and Cytomegalovirus Infection: Antiviral and Antiepileptic Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunin-Wasowicz, Dorota; Kasprzyk-Obara, Jolanta; Jurkiewicz, Elzbieta; Kapusta, Monika; Milewska-Bobula, Bogumila

    2007-01-01

    From 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2004, 22 patients (13 males, nine females; age range 2-12mo) with infantile spasms and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection were treated with intravenous ganciclovir (GCV) and antiepileptic drugs. GCV was given for 3 to 12 weeks with a 1-month interval (one, two, or three courses). Epileptic spasms occurred before…

  1. Cerebral arterial spasm. Part 7: In vitro effects of alpha adrenergic agents on canine arteries from six anatomical sites and six blocking agents on serotonin-induced contractions of the canine basilar artery.

    PubMed

    Allen, G S; Gross, C J

    1976-08-01

    In vitro experiments were performed using a small volume chamber to determine the contractile activity of several adrenergic agents on arteries from six locations of the canine vascular bed. Cumulative log-dose response curves were obtained for epinephrine, norepinephrine, phenylephrine and dopamine. It was found that the basilar and internal carotid arteries responded much less to these agents than did the mesenteric, renal and femoral arteries. Six blocking agents including nitroprusside were tested to determine their effect on the response of the canine basilar artery to log-dose additions of serotonin, prostaglandin F2alpha and KC1. Another chamber was developed to study the differential effect of nitroprusside and papaverine when placed on the luminal side versus the adventitial (cerebrospinal fluid) side of the basilar artery during a sustained contraction with serotonin. A theoretical treatment of cerebral arterial spasm following a subarachnoid hemorrhage is presented. PMID:7844

  2. Model of cryptogenic infantile spasms after prenatal corticosteroid priming

    PubMed Central

    Velíšek, Libor; Chachua, Tamar; Yum, Mi-Sun; Poon, Ka-Lai; Velíšková, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Infantile spasms (IS) is a devastating epilepsy syndrome of childhood. They occur in 3-12 month old infants and are characterized by spasms, interictal EEG hypsarrhythmia and profound mental retardation. Hormonal therapy (ACTH, corticosteroids) are frequently used, their efficacy is however tainted by severe side effects. For research of novel therapies, a validated animal model of IS is required. We propose the model of spastic seizures triggered by NMDA in infant rats prenatally exposed to betamethasone. The spasms have remarkable similarity to human IS, including motor flexion spasms, ictal EEG electrodecrement, and responsiveness to ACTH. Interestingly, the spasms do not involve the hippocampus. Autoradiographic metabolic mapping as well as tagging the areas of neuronal excitation with c-fos indicate a strong involvement of hypothalamic structures such as the arcuate nucleus, which has significant bilateral connections with other hypothalamic nuclei as well as with the brainstem. PMID:20618421

  3. Comparison of Carvedilol and Metoprolol for Preventing Contrast-Induced Nephropathy after Coronary Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Y?lmaz, Mustafa; Ayd?nalp, Alp; Okyay, Kaan; Tekin, Abdullah; Bal, U?ur Abbas; Bayraktar, Nilüfer; Y?ld?r?r, Aylin; Müderriso?lu, Haldun

    2015-01-01

    Aims Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is one of the most common causes of hospital-acquired acute renal failure. Oxidative stress and vasoconstriction might play key roles in its pathogenesis. In a few experimental models, antioxidant properties of carvedilol have been documented. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the effects of carvedilol and metoprolol on the development of CIN in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Methods One hundred patients currently taking metoprolol and 100 patients currently taking carvedilol were enrolled into the study. Venous blood samples were obtained before and 48 h after contrast administration. Cystatin C and malondialdehyde values were examined and compared. CIN was defined as a creatinine increase of at least 25% or 0.5 mg/dl from the baseline value. Results Seven patients in the carvedilol group (7%) and 22 patients in the metoprolol group (22%) developed CIN (p = 0.003). In the metoprolol group, the median cystatin C concentration increased significantly from 978 to 1,086 ng/ml (p = 0.001) 48 h after radiocontrast administration. In the carvedilol group, the median cystatin C concentration did not change significantly (1,143 vs. 1,068 ng/ml; p = 0.94). In the metoprolol group, the mean malondialdehyde concentration increased significantly from 7.09 ± 1.48 to 8.38 ± 2.6 nmol/l (p < 0.001). In the carvedilol group, the mean serum malondialdehyde concentration did not change significantly (7.44 ± 1.21 vs. 7.56 ± 1.11 nmol/l; p = 0.59). Conclusion When compared to metoprolol, carvedilol might decrease oxidative stress and subsequent development of CIN. PMID:26195972

  4. Risk scoring system to predict contrast induced nephropathy following percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Victor, Suma M.; Gnanaraj, Anand; S., VijayaKumar; Deshmukh, Rajendra; Kandasamy, Mani; Janakiraman, Ezhilan; Pandurangi, Ulhas M.; Latchumanadhas, K.; Abraham, Georgi; Mullasari, Ajit S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The aim of this study is to evaluate the collective probability of CIN in Indian population by developing a scoring system of several identified risk factors in patients undergoing PCI. Methods This is a prospective single center study of 1200 consecutive patients who underwent PCI from 2008 to 2011. Patients were randomized in 3:1 ratio into development (n = 900) and validation (n = 300) groups. CIN was defined as an increase of ?25% and/or ?0.5 mg/dl in serum creatinine at 48 hours after PCI when compared to baseline value. Seven independent predictors of CIN were identified using logistic regression analysis - amount of contrast, diabetes with microangiopathy, hypotension, peripheral vascular disease, albuminuria, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and anemia. A formula was then developed to identify the probability of CIN using the logistic regression equation. Results The mean (±SD) age was 57.3 (±10.2) years. 83.6% were males. The total incidence of CIN was 9.7% in the development group. The total risk of renal replacement therapy in the study group is 1.1%. Mortality is 0.5%. The risk scoring model correlated well in the validation group (incidence of CIN was 8.7%, sensitivity 92.3%, specificity 82.1%, c statistic 0.95). Conclusion A simple risk scoring equation can be employed to predict the probability of CIN following PCI, applying it to each individual. More vigilant preventive measures can be applied to the high risk candidates. PMID:25443605

  5. Interneuron, interrupted: molecular pathogenesis of ARX mutations and X-linked infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Olivetti, Pedro R; Noebels, Jeffrey L

    2012-10-01

    X-linked Infantile Spasms Syndrome (ISSX) is a catastrophic epilepsy of early childhood with intractable seizures, intellectual disability, and poor prognosis. A spectrum of mutations in the Aristaless-Related Homeobox gene (ARX) has been linked to ISSX, and downstream targets of this interneuron-expressed transcription factor are being defined. Recent advances combining in vitro and in vivo methods have unveiled complex interactions between Arx and its binding partners and their effects on cell migration and maturation that can help explain the diversity of ARX phenotypes. New mutant mouse models of Arx-induced pathology, including a recent human triplet-repeat expansion mutation with a phenotype of infantile spasms and electrographic seizures, provide valuable tools for exploring the pathophysiology of Arx and substrates for testing novel therapies. PMID:22565167

  6. Interneuron, Interrupted: Molecular Pathogenesis of ARX Mutations and X-linked Infantile Spasms

    PubMed Central

    Olivetti, Pedro R.; Noebels, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    X-linked Infantile Spasms Syndrome (ISSX) is a catastrophic epilepsy of early childhood with intractable seizures, intellectual disability, and poor prognosis. A spectrum of mutations in the Aristaless-Related Homeobox gene (ARX) has been linked to ISSX, and downstream targets of this interneuron-expressed transcription factor are being defined. Recent advances combining in vitro and in vivo methods have unveiled complex interactions between Arx and its binding partners and their effects on cell migration and maturation that can help explain the diversity of ARX phenotypes. New mutant mouse models of Arx-induced pathology, including a recent human triplet-repeat expansion mutation with a phenotype of infantile spasms and electrographic seizures, provide valuable tools for exploring the pathophysiology of Arx and substrates for testing novel therapies. PMID:22565167

  7. Anti-muscarinic effect of alinidine on acetylcholine-induced vasodilation in isolated and perfused dog coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Nakane, T; Furukawa, Y; Chiba, S

    1991-10-01

    The effect of alinidine, a bradycardic agent, on the vasodilator responses to acetylcholine was examined in isolated and perfused dog coronary arteries. Single injections of acetylcholine (10(-12)-10(-6) mol) and carbachol (10(-10)-10(-6) mol) produced dose-dependent vasodilations. The endothelial removal by a bolus injection of saponin (1 mg) inhibited those vasodilations. Alinidine (10(-6) M) shifted the dose-response curves of acetylcholine and carbachol to the right, but it did not affect those for isosorbide dinitrate, isoproterenol and adenosine. The rank order of potency of muscarinic antagonists for inhibiting the acetylcholine-induced vasodilation was 4-DAMP greater than or equal to atropine greater than AF-DX 116 greater than or equal to pirenzepine greater than alinidine. Alinidine was approximately 100 times less potent than atropine. Single injection of alinidine (10(-8)-10(-6) mol) dilated the dog coronary artery in a dose-related manner. The vasodilation was not affected by the pretreatment with phentolamine (10(-6) M), pindolol (10(-6) M), atropine (10(-6) M), chlorpheniramine (10(-6) M), cimetidine (10(-6) M) or methysergide (10(-6) M). These results suggest that alinidine has a weak anti-muscarinic effect on the endothelium-dependent vasodilation of the dog coronary artery. PMID:1812592

  8. Infantile spasms syndrome in monozygotic twins.

    PubMed Central

    Pavone, L; Mollica, F; Incorpora, G; Pampiglione, G

    1980-01-01

    The infantile spasms syndrome appeared on the same day in a pair of monozygotic twins at age 6 months. Clinical, electroencephalographic, and neuroradiological findings during the development of the disease are reported. One of the twins was treated with ACTH and in his case clinical and electroencephalographic improvement was more rapid than in the other who was treated with clonazepam. While the computer tomography scan initially showed in each twin an area of low density in the right fronto-parietal region, this had disappeared in the tomograms obtained about 8 months later. PMID:6254446

  9. Le spasme du sanglot chez les nourrissons

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Question Des enfants qui fréquentent ma clinique ont des épisodes semblables à des convulsions pendant lesquels ils pleurent et retiennent leur souffle au point de faire survenir une cyanose et de perdre conscience. Les résultats à l’examen ou aux investigations sont normaux et les pédiatres consultés ne font pas d’autres investigations. Les spasmes du sanglot sont-ils communs et quels genres d’investigations faut-il faire? Réponse Le spasme du sanglot est un trouble non épileptique paroxysmal bénin qui se produit chez les enfants en santé de six à 48 mois. Les épisodes commencent par une provocation, comme un bouleversement émotionnel ou une blessure mineure, et peuvent progresser en une retenue de la respiration, une cyanose et une syncope. Les épisodes sont extrêmement effrayants à regarder mais ont des conséquences bénignes. Une fois le diagnostic clinique posé, on recommande de faire passer un électrocardiogramme et d’exclure la possibilité d’une anémie, mais aucune autre investigation ou demande de consultation n’est nécessaire.

  10. Evidence-based guideline update: Medical treatment of infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    Go, C.Y.; Mackay, M.T.; Weiss, S.K.; Stephens, D.; Adams-Webber, T.; Ashwal, S.; Snead, O.C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To update the 2004 American Academy of Neurology/Child Neurology Society practice parameter on treatment of infantile spasms in children. Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from 2002 to 2011 and searches of reference lists of retrieved articles were performed. Sixty-eight articles were selected for detailed review; 26 were included in the analysis. Recommendations were based on a 4-tiered classification scheme combining pre-2002 evidence and more recent evidence. Results: There is insufficient evidence to determine whether other forms of corticosteroids are as effective as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) for short-term treatment of infantile spasms. However, low-dose ACTH is probably as effective as high-dose ACTH. ACTH is more effective than vigabatrin (VGB) for short-term treatment of children with infantile spasms (excluding those with tuberous sclerosis complex). There is insufficient evidence to show that other agents and combination therapy are effective for short-term treatment of infantile spasms. Short lag time to treatment leads to better long-term developmental outcome. Successful short-term treatment of cryptogenic infantile spasms with ACTH or prednisolone leads to better long-term developmental outcome than treatment with VGB. Recommendations: Low-dose ACTH should be considered for treatment of infantile spasms. ACTH or VGB may be useful for short-term treatment of infantile spasms, with ACTH considered preferentially over VGB. Hormonal therapy (ACTH or prednisolone) may be considered for use in preference to VGB in infants with cryptogenic infantile spasms, to possibly improve developmental outcome. A shorter lag time to treatment of infantile spasms with either hormonal therapy or VGB possibly improves long-term developmental outcomes. PMID:22689735

  11. Cerebrospinal Fluid Corticotropin and Cortisol Are Reduced in Infantile Spasms

    PubMed Central

    Baram, Tallie Z.; Mitchell, Wendy G.; Hanson, Rebecca A.; Snead, O. Carter; Horton, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Infantile spasms respond to ACTH, and levels of the hormone in cerebrospinal fluid of untreated infants with this disorder were found to be lower than in age-matched controls. In this study we analyzed cerebrospinal fluid Cortisol and ACTH using improved immunoassays in a larger cohort of infants with infantile spasms. Analysis of 20 patients and 15 age-matched controls revealed significantly lower levels of both ACTH and Cortisol in the cerebrospinal fluid. These data, combined with the efficacy of ACTH and glucocorticoids for infantile spasms, support an involvement of the brain-adrenal-axis in this disorder. PMID:8534274

  12. [Coronary spastic angina refractory to optimal medical therapy treated by angioplasty and stenting. A case report and review of literature].

    PubMed

    Hajlaoui, N; Tarragano, F; Raisky, P; Beaufils, P; Henry, P

    2010-04-01

    Medical treatment of coronary spastic angina is based classically on the association of calcium channel blockers with nitrate derivatives. Some clinical forms of spastic angina remain refractory to these medications and can thus lead to serious complications (sudden cardiac death secondary to ventricular rhythm disturbance, myocardial infarction...). When the coronary spasm is focal, percutaneous coronary angioplasty with deployment of a stent can offer an interesting therapeutic alternative. We report in this article the case of a patient who had a focal spasm of the right coronary artery, which became refractory to optimal medical treatment. This patient was well improved by percutaneous angioplasty with deployment of a stent in the spastic segment of the right coronary artery. We propose also a review of the literature of the treatment of this pathology, which still remains not well codified. PMID:19007921

  13. Laryngeal spasm mimicking asthma and vitamin d deficiency.

    PubMed

    Masoero, Monica; Bellocchia, Michela; Ciuffreda, Antonio; Ricciardolo, Fabio Lm; Rolla, Giovanni; Bucca, Caterina

    2014-05-01

    We present a woman with heterozygous carnitine palmitoyl transferase 2 (CPT-2) deficiency who in the last 6 months suffered from episodic dyspnea and choking. Symptoms could not be attributed to her muscular energy defect, since heterozygous CPT-2 deficiency is usually asymptomatic or causes only mild muscle fatigability. Myopathy is usually triggered by concurrent factors, either genetic (additional muscle enzymes defects) or acquired (metabolic stress). The patient was referred to our respiratory clinic for suspect bronchial asthma. Spirometry showed mild decrease in inspiratory flows. Methacholine challenge was negative. Dyspnea was triggered by hyperventilation-induced hypocapnia, which produced marked decrease in airflow rates, particularly in inspiratory flows, consistent with laryngospasm. Nutritional assessment of the patient showed low serum level of calcium and vitamin D, attributable to avoidance of milk and dairy products for lactose intolerance and to insufficient sunlight exposure. After calcium and vitamin D supplementation episodic laryngospasm disappeared and hypocapnic hyperventilation test induced very mild change in airflow rates. Calcium and vitamin D deficiency may favour laryngeal spasm mimicking asthma, particularly in subjects with underlying myopathy. PMID:24843804

  14. Laryngeal Spasm Mimicking Asthma and Vitamin D Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Masoero, Monica; Bellocchia, Michela; Ciuffreda, Antonio; Ricciardolo, Fabio LM; Rolla, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    We present a woman with heterozygous carnitine palmitoyl transferase 2 (CPT-2) deficiency who in the last 6 months suffered from episodic dyspnea and choking. Symptoms could not be attributed to her muscular energy defect, since heterozygous CPT-2 deficiency is usually asymptomatic or causes only mild muscle fatigability. Myopathy is usually triggered by concurrent factors, either genetic (additional muscle enzymes defects) or acquired (metabolic stress). The patient was referred to our respiratory clinic for suspect bronchial asthma. Spirometry showed mild decrease in inspiratory flows. Methacholine challenge was negative. Dyspnea was triggered by hyperventilation-induced hypocapnia, which produced marked decrease in airflow rates, particularly in inspiratory flows, consistent with laryngospasm. Nutritional assessment of the patient showed low serum level of calcium and vitamin D, attributable to avoidance of milk and dairy products for lactose intolerance and to insufficient sunlight exposure. After calcium and vitamin D supplementation episodic laryngospasm disappeared and hypocapnic hyperventilation test induced very mild change in airflow rates. Calcium and vitamin D deficiency may favour laryngeal spasm mimicking asthma, particularly in subjects with underlying myopathy. PMID:24843804

  15. Pathogenesis and new candidate treatments for infantile spasms and early life epileptic encephalopathies: A view from preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Galanopoulou, Aristea S; Moshé, Solomon L

    2015-07-01

    Early onset and infantile epileptic encephalopathies (EIEEs) are usually associated with medically intractable or difficult to treat epileptic seizures and prominent cognitive, neurodevelopmental and behavioral consequences. EIEEs have numerous etiologies that contribute to the inter- and intra-syndromic phenotypic variability. Etiologies include structural and metabolic or genetic etiologies although a significant percentage is of unknown cause. The need to better understand their pathogenic mechanisms and identify better therapies has driven the development of animal models of EIEEs. Several rodent models of infantile spasms have emerged that recapitulate various aspects of the disease. The acute models manifest epileptic spasms after induction and include the NMDA rat model, the NMDA model with prior prenatal betamethasone or perinatal stress exposure, and the ?-butyrolactone induced spasms in a mouse model of Down syndrome. The chronic models include the tetrodotoxin rat model, the aristaless related homeobox X-linked (Arx) mouse models and the multiple-hit rat model of infantile spasms. We will discuss the main features and findings from these models on target mechanisms and emerging therapies. Genetic models have also provided interesting data on the pathogenesis of Dravet syndrome and proposed new therapies for testing. The genetic associations of many of the EIEEs have also been tested in rodent models as to their pathogenicity. Finally, several models have tested the impact of subclinical epileptiform discharges on brain function. The impact of these advances in animal modeling for therapy development will be discussed. PMID:25968935

  16. Latest American and European updates on infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Lux, Andrew L

    2013-03-01

    Infantile spasms remain a challenging condition to study and treat, and although they form the commonest epilepsy syndrome with onset in infancy, the challenge is broadened by the wide range of potential underlying causes. The field of study remains dynamic, with debates relating to case definitions and organising structures for classification of seizures and epilepsies in general, and a newly proposed genetic and biologic classification specifically for infantile spasms. There have been recent consensus statements, a Delphi process eliciting prioritised quality-of-care indicators, systematic reviews of treatment, and a survey of clinical practice in the USA. There is increasing evidence that longer duration of spasms is associated with poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes. It has taken many years to develop an animal model that reasonably represents infantile spasms, but there are now several animal models, and they are leading to innovative and valuable studies that suggest novel treatments. PMID:23341252

  17. ACTH therapy in infantile spasms: side effects.

    PubMed Central

    Riikonen, R; Donner, M

    1980-01-01

    162 children with infantile spasms were treated with ACTH at the Children's Hospital, Helsinki, and at the Aurora Hospital, Helsinki, during 1960--76. In a large proportion (37%) of the children the treatment caused pronounced side effects, and the mortality was 4.9%. The most common complications were infections: septic infections, pneumonias, and urinary and gastrointestinal infections. Other side effects were arterial hypertension (11), osteoporosis (2), hypokalaemic alkalosis (2), and other marked electrolyte disturbances (10). In children necropsy showed fresh intracerebral haemorrhages. Four children developed oliguria and hyperkalaemia during and after withdrawal of ACTH. One of them had tubular necrosis confirmed by renal biopsy. Infections were significantly more common with large doses (120 units) of ACTH than with small ones (40 units). It is concluded that side effects, even severe ones, are more common during treatment than had been assumed. Careful watch is important before and after treatment. The benefit of very high dosages should also be reconsidered. PMID:6254450

  18. Congenital Oculomotor Nerve Paresis With Isolated Cyclic Pupillary Spasms.

    PubMed

    Salman, Michael S; Klassen, Samantha F; Clark, Ian H

    2015-12-01

    Cyclic oculomotor nerve paresis is a rare and usually congenital disorder. It is characterized by unilateral third nerve paresis with periodic spasms causing eyelid elevation, miosis, and contraction of 1 or more of the extraocular muscles innervated by the third nerve. We report a 20-month-old girl who presented initially with a congenital partial right third nerve paresis without ptosis. She subsequently developed isolated cyclic spasms of the pupil followed several months later by permanent partial ptosis. PMID:26115077

  19. A genetic and biologic classification of infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    Paciorkowski, Alex R.; Thio, Liu Lin; Dobyns, William B.

    2011-01-01

    Infantile spasms are an age-dependent epilepsy that are highly associated with cognitive impairment, autism, and movement disorders. Previous classification systems have focused on a distinction between symptomatic and cryptogenic etiologies, and have not kept pace with the recent discoveries of mutations in genes in key pathways of central nervous system development in patients with infantile spasms. Children with certain genetic syndromes are much more likely to have infantile spasms, and we review the literature to propose a genetic classification of these disorders. Children with these genetic associations with infantile spasms also have phenotypes beyond epilepsy that may be explained by recent advances in the understanding of underlying biological mechanisms. We therefore also propose a biologic classification of the genes highly associated with infantile spasms, and articulate models for infantile spasms pathogenesis based on that data. The two best described pathways of pathogenesis are abnormalities in the gene regulatory network of GABAergic forebrain development, and abnormalities in molecules expressed at the synapse. We intend for these genetic and biologic classifications to be flexible, and hope that they will encourage much needed progress in syndrome recognition, clinical genetic testing, and ultimately the development of new therapies that target specific pathways of pathogenesis. PMID:22114996

  20. Stent-induced coronary artery stenosis characterized by multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Han-Wei; Simianu, Vlad; Locker, Mattew J.; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Sturek, Michael

    2011-02-01

    We demonstrate for the first time the applicability of multimodal nonlinear optical (NLO) microscopy to the interrogation of stented coronary arteries under different diet and stent deployment conditions. Bare metal stents and Taxus drug-eluting stents (DES) were placed in coronary arteries of Ossabaw pigs of control and atherogenic diet groups. Multimodal NLO imaging was performed to inspect changes in arterial structures and compositions after stenting. Sum frequency generation, one of the multimodalities, was used for the quantitative analysis of collagen content in the peristent and in-stent artery segments of both pig groups. Atherogenic diet increased lipid and collagen in peristent segments. In-stent segments showed decreased collagen expression in neointima compared to media. Deployment of DES in atheromatous arteries inhibited collagen expression in the arterial media.

  1. Myocardial perfusion imaging study of CO(2)-induced panic attack.

    PubMed

    Soares-Filho, Gastão L F; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Santulli, Gaetano; Mesquita, Claudio T; Cosci, Fiammetta; Silva, Adriana C; Nardi, Antonio E

    2014-01-15

    Chest pain is often seen alongside with panic attacks. Moreover, panic disorder has been suggested as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and even a trigger for acute coronary syndrome. Patients with coronary artery disease may have myocardial ischemia in response to mental stress, in which panic attack is a strong component, by an increase in coronary vasomotor tone or sympathetic hyperactivity setting off an increase in myocardial oxygen consumption. Indeed, coronary artery spasm was presumed to be present in cases of cardiac ischemia linked to panic disorder. These findings correlating panic disorder with coronary artery disease lead us to raise questions about the favorable prognosis of chest pain in panic attack. To investigate whether myocardial ischemia is the genesis of chest pain in panic attacks, we developed a myocardial perfusion study through research by myocardial scintigraphy in patients with panic attacks induced in the laboratory by inhalation of 35% carbon dioxide. In conclusion, from the data obtained, some hypotheses are discussed from the viewpoint of endothelial dysfunction and microvascular disease present in mental stress response. PMID:24188891

  2. CPP-115, a vigabatrin analogue, decreases spasms in the multiple-hit rat model of infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Stephen W.; Mowrey, Wenzhu; Hall, Charles B.; Galanopoulou, Aristea S.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Infantile spasms (IS) have poor outcomes and limited treatment options, including vigabatrin, a GABA aminotransferase inactivator. Vigabatrin has been associated with retinal toxicity. A high affinity vigabatrin analogue (CPP-115, Catalyst Pharmaceutical Partners) has shown lower risk of retinal toxicity. Here, we test the efficacy of CPP-115 in reducing spasms and its tolerability in the multiple-hit rat model of IS, in which daily vigabatrin reduced spasms only for one day, but was not well tolerated. Methods Male rats were treated with the protocol of the multiple-hit model of IS at postnatal day 3 (PN3). Using a randomized, blinded, vehicle-controlled, dose-response study design, CPP-115 [0.1, 1, or 5 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.)] or vehicle were given daily (PN4-12) or as single injection (PN7) after spasms onset. Intermittent video- or video-EEG monitoring was done. Secondary endpoints included: daily weights, survival, performance on open field activity, surface righting time, and negative geotaxis (PN3-20), horizontal bar (PN13-20), Barnes maze (PN16-19). Statistics used a linear mixed model of raw or normalized log-transformed data, taking into account the repeated observations on each animal. Results The lower CPP-115 doses (0.1–1 mg/kg/day, PN4-12) reduced spasms between PN6-7 without increasing mortality. CPP-115 at 5 mg/kg/day (PN4-12) reduced spasms earlier (PN5), but was eventually lethal. A single CPP-115 injection (1mg/kg i.p.) decreased electroclinical spasms acutely but transiently. CPP-115 transiently improved the probability to >50% reduction of spasms, but did not accelerate spasms cessation. CPP-115 did not alter neurodevelopmental outcomes or visuospatial learning. Significance We provide proof-of-concept evidence that CPP-115, a vigabatrin analogue, decreases spasms in the multiple-hit rat model of IS at considerably lower and better tolerated doses than vigabatrin did in our previous studies. Further optimization of the treatment protocol is needed. CPP-115 may be a promising new candidate treatment for IS with better tolerability than vigabatrin. PMID:24321005

  3. Recent advances in the pharmacotherapy of infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Riikonen, Raili

    2014-04-01

    Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), oral corticosteroids and vigabatrin are now first-line treatments for infantile spasms in the US and Europe. There is now increased knowledge regarding the role of ACTH, corticosteroids and vigabatrin (e.g. efficacy, doses, side effects, treatment in specific aetiological subtypes of infantile spasms), and other antiepileptic drugs (i.e. topiramate, valproate, zonisamide, sulthiame, levetiracetam, lamotrigine, pyridoxine, ganaxolone), as well as adjunctive flunarizine and novel drugs not yet in clinical use for infantile spasms (i.e. pulse rapamycin and melanocortin receptor agonists). The existence of a latent period, weeks to months following a precipitating brain insult, raises the possibility of preventive interventions. Recent experimental data emerging from animal models of infantile spasms have provided optimism that new and innovative treatments can be developed, and knowledge that drug treatment can affect long-term cognitive outcome is increasing. The aim of this article is to review recent developments in the pharmacotherapy of infantile spasms and to highlight the practical implications of the latest research. PMID:24504827

  4. Vigabatrin retinal toxicity in children with infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Tom; Cortese, Filomeno; Kumarappah, Ananthavalli; Snead, O. Carter; Buncic, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine time to vigabatrin (VGB, Sabril; Lundbeck, Deerfield, IL) induced retinal damage in children with infantile spasms (IS) and to identify risk factors for VGB-induced retinal damage (VGB-RD). Methods: Observational cohort study including 146 participants (68 female, 81 male) with IS, an age-specific epilepsy syndrome of early infancy, treated with VGB. Participants ranged from 3 to 34.9 months of age (median 7.6 months). The median duration of VGB treatment was 16 months (range 4.6–78.5 months). Electroretinograms (ERGs) were performed according to the Standards of the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision. Inclusion required baseline (pre-VGB or within 4 weeks of starting VGB treatment) and at least 2 follow-up ERGs. Significant reduction from baseline of the 30-Hz ERG flicker amplitude on 2 consecutive visits identified VGB-RD. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses depicted the effect of duration of VGB on VGB-RD. Results: These data represent the largest survival analysis of children treated with VGB who did not succumb to retinal toxicity during the study. Thirty of the 146 participants (21%) showed VGB-RD. The ERG amplitude reduced with duration of VGB treatment (p = 0.0004) with no recovery after VGB cessation. With 6 and 12 months of VGB treatment, 5.3% and 13.3%, respectively, developed VGB-RD. There was neither effect of age of initiation of VGB treatment nor sex of the child on survival statistics and no significant effect of cumulative dosage on the occurrence of VGB-RD. Conclusions: Minimizing VGB treatment to 6 months will reduce the prevalence of VGB-RD in patients with IS. PMID:25381295

  5. Effect of atorvastatin on the angiogenic responsiveness of coronary endothelial cells in normal and streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Chaudagar, Kiranj K; Mehta, Anita A

    2014-04-01

    Atorvastatin, a lipid lowering agent, possesses various pleiotropic vasculoprotective effects, but its role in coronary angiogenesis is still controversial. Our objective was to study the effects of atorvastatin on the angiogenic responsiveness of coronary endothelial cells (cEC) from normal and diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were distributed among 9 groups; (i) normal rats, (ii) 30 day diabetic rats, (iii) 60 day diabetic rats, (iv) normal rats administered a low dose of atorvastatin (1 mg/kg body mass, per oral (p.o.), for 15 days); (v) 30 day diabetic rats administered a low dose of atorvastatin; (vi) 60 day diabetic rats administered a low dose of atorvastatin; (vii) normal rats administered a high dose of atorvastatin (5 mg/kg, p.o., for 15 days); (viii) 30 day diabetic rats administered a high dose of atorvastatin; (ix) 60 day diabetic rats administered a high dose of atorvastatin. Each group was further divided into 2 subgroups, (i) sham ischemia-reperfusion and (ii) rats hearts that underwent ischemia-reperfusion. Angiogenic responsiveness the and nitric oxide (NO) releasing properties of the subgroups of cECs were studied using a chorioallantoic membrane assay and the Griess method, respectively. Atorvastatin treatment significantly increased VEGF-induced angiogenic responsiveness and the NO-releasing properties of cECs from all of the subgroups, compared with their respective non-treated subgroups except for the late-phase diabetic rat hearts that underwent ischemia-reperfusion, and the high dose of atorvastatin treatment groups. These effects of atorvastatin were significantly inhibited by pretreatment of cECs with l-NAME, wortmannin, and chelerythrine. Thus, treatment with a low dose of atorvastatin improves the angiogenic responsiveness of the cECs from normal and diabetic rats, in the presence of VEGF, via activation of eNOS-NO release. PMID:24708217

  6. Heart ischaemia–reperfusion induces local up-regulation of vasoconstrictor endothelin ETB receptors in rat coronary arteries downstream of occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Skovsted, G F; Kruse, L S; Larsen, R; Pedersen, A F; Trautner, S; Sheykhzade, M; Edvinsson, L

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Endothelins act via two receptor subtypes, ETA and ETB. Under physiological conditions in coronary arteries, ETA receptors expressed in smooth muscle cells mediate vasoconstriction whereas ETB receptors mainly found in endothelial cells mediate vasorelaxation. However, under pathophysiological conditions, ETB receptors may also be expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells mediating vasoconstriction. Here, we have investigated whether vasoconstrictor ETB receptors are up-regulated in coronary arteries after experimental myocardial ischaemia in rats. Experimental Approach Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either heart ischaemia–reperfusion (15?min ischaemia and 22?h reperfusion), permanent ischaemia (22?h) by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery, or sham operation. Using wire myography, the endothelin receptor subtypes mediating vasoconstriction were examined in isolated segments of the left anterior descending and the non-ligated septal coronary arteries. Endothelin receptor-mediated vasoconstriction was examined with cumulative administration of sarafotoxin 6c (ETB receptor agonist) and endothelin-1 (with or without ETA or ETB receptor blockade). The distribution of ETB receptors was localized with immunohistochemistry and quantified by Western blot. Key Results Endothelin ETB receptor-mediated vasoconstriction and receptor protein levels were significantly augmented in coronary arteries situated downstream of the occlusion after ischaemia–reperfusion compared with non-ischaemic arteries. In contrast, the ETA receptor-mediated vasoconstriction was unaltered in all groups. Conclusions and Implications Ischaemia–reperfusion induced local up-regulation of ETB receptors in the smooth muscle cells of coronary arteries in the post-ischaemic area. In contrast, in non-ischaemic areas, ETB receptor function was unaltered. PMID:24467585

  7. 17q21.31 microdeletion associated with infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Wray, Carter D

    2013-01-01

    Patients with 17q21.31 microdeletions frequently have neurologic abnormalities, especially seizures. This report is of a child with a deletion in this location who developed infantile spasms, a seizure type not specifically described in this syndrome. FISH analysis of parental blood metaphases demonstrated that the deletions occurred de novo. The deleted region encompasses the previously defined critical region for the 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome, and includes the gene encoding for corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1, a protein implicated in hyperexcitability, and potentially in infantile spasms. Treatment with ACTH led to spasm cessation, consistent with its expected repression of CRH levels, which should be augmented by CRHR1 deletion, although this response was transient. PMID:23123321

  8. Infantile Spasms: A Critical Review of Emerging Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Stafstrom, Carl E

    2009-01-01

    Infantile spasms is a developmental epilepsy syndrome with unique clinical and EEG features, a specific pattern of pharmacological responsiveness, and poor outcome in terms of cognition and epilepsy. Despite the devastating nature of infantile spasms, little is known about its pathogenesis. Until recently, there has been no animal model available to investigate the pathophysiology of the syndrome or to generate and test novel therapies. Now, several promising animal models have emerged, spanning the etiological spectrum from genetic causes (e.g., Down syndrome or Aristaless-related homeobox [ARX] mutation) to acquired causes (e.g., endogenous and exogenous toxins or stress hormones with convulsant activity or blockade of neural activity). These new models are discussed in this review, with emphasis on the insights each can provide for understanding, treating, and preventing infantile spasms. PMID:19471616

  9. Artichoke, cynarin and cyanidin downregulate the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in human coronary smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ning; Pautz, Andrea; Wollscheid, Ursula; Reifenberg, Gisela; Förstermann, Ulrich; Li, Huige

    2014-01-01

    Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is one of the world's oldest medicinal plants with multiple health benefits. We have previously shown that artichoke leaf extracts and artichoke flavonoids upregulate the gene expression of endothelial-type nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human endothelial cells. Whereas NO produced by the eNOS is a vasoprotective molecule, NO derived from the inducible iNOS plays a pro-inflammatory role in the vasculature. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of artichoke on iNOS expression in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMC). Incubation of HCASMC with a cytokine mixture led to an induction of iNOS mRNA expression. This iNOS induction was concentration- and time-dependently inhibited by an artichoke leaf extract (1-100 µg/mL, 6 h or 24 h). Consistently, the artichoke leaf extract also reduced cytokine-induced iNOS promoter activation and iNOS protein expression. In addition, treatment of HCASMC with four well-known artichoke compounds (cynarin > cyanidin > luteolin ? cynaroside) led to a downregulation iNOS mRNA and protein expression, with cynarin being the most potent one. In conclusion, artichoke contains both eNOS-upregulating and iNOS-downregulating compounds. Such compounds may contribute to the beneficial effects of artichoke and may per se have therapeutic potentials. PMID:24662080

  10. The genetic landscape of infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Jacques L; Lachance, Mathieu; Hamdan, Fadi F; Carmant, Lionel; Lortie, Anne; Diadori, Paola; Major, Philippe; Meijer, Inge A; Lemyre, Emmanuelle; Cossette, Patrick; Mefford, Heather C; Rouleau, Guy A; Rossignol, Elsa

    2014-09-15

    Infantile spasms (IS) is an early-onset epileptic encephalopathy of unknown etiology in ?40% of patients. We hypothesized that unexplained IS cases represent a large collection of rare single-gene disorders. We investigated 44 children with unexplained IS using comparative genomic hybridisation arrays (aCGH) (n = 44) followed by targeted sequencing of 35 known epilepsy genes (n = 8) or whole-exome sequencing (WES) of familial trios (n = 18) to search for rare inherited or de novo mutations. aCGH analysis revealed de novo variants in 7% of patients (n = 3/44), including a distal 16p11.2 duplication, a 15q11.1q13.1 tetrasomy and a 2q21.3-q22.2 deletion. Furthermore, it identified a pathogenic maternally inherited Xp11.2 duplication. Targeted sequencing was informative for ARX (n = 1/14) and STXBP1 (n = 1/8). In contrast, sequencing of a panel of 35 known epileptic encephalopathy genes (n = 8) did not identify further mutations. Finally, WES (n = 18) was very informative, with an excess of de novo mutations identified in genes predicted to be involved in neurodevelopmental processes and/or known to be intolerant to functional variations. Several pathogenic mutations were identified, including de novo mutations in STXBP1, CASK and ALG13, as well as recessive mutations in PNPO and ADSL, together explaining 28% of cases (5/18). In addition, WES identified 1-3 de novo variants in 64% of remaining probands, pointing to several interesting candidate genes. Our results indicate that IS are genetically heterogeneous with a major contribution of de novo mutations and that WES is significantly superior to targeted re-sequencing in identifying detrimental genetic variants involved in IS. PMID:24781210

  11. Comparison between three supportive treatments for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in high-risk patients undergoing coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Yeganehkhah, Mohammad Reza; Iranirad, Leili; Dorri, Farshad; Pazoki, Soheila; Akbari, Hossein; Miryounesi, Masoumeh; Vahedian, Mostafa; Nazeri, Azam; Hosseinzadeh, Fatemeh; Vafaeimanesh, Jamshid

    2014-11-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy is the third most common cause of acute renal failure in hospitalized patients. The purpose of this study was to compare three supportive treatments for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in high-risk patients undergoing coronary angiography. In this randomized clinical trial study, 150 patients with at least one risk factor, such as, congestive heart failure, history of diabetes mellitus, age>65 years or renal failure were randomly assigned to three equal groups: First group (Sodium (Na) bicarbonate infusion), second group [(N-Acetylcysteine (NAC)+Sodium Chloride (Nacl)], third group (Nacl). Angiography was performed with 350 mgI/mL of Iohexol (Omnipaque). Serum creatinine (Cr), blood blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and urine pH were measured at the start of angiography and 48 hours later. The three groups had no significant difference in demographic characteristics or other risk factors before intervention (P>0.05). Forty eight hours after exposure, the Cr level increased significantly in the Nacl group (P=0.039), while these changes were not significant in the other groups (P>0.05). The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy was not statistically significant between all the groups (P=0.944). Although the Cr clearance had no statistically significant difference, it was lower in the NaCl group. Therefore, Na bicarbonate may be the treatment of choice in the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy, because of less prescribed fluid volume and a lesser time required for infusion of the fluid. PMID:25394438

  12. Coronary Endothelial Dysfunction Induced by Nucleotide Oligomerization Domain-Like Receptor Protein with Pyrin Domain Containing 3 Inflammasome Activation During Hypercholesterolemia: Beyond Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Pitzer, Ashley L.; Chen, Yang; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: This study hypothesized that activation of endothelial nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptor protein with pyrin domain containing 3 (Nlrp3) inflammasomes directly produces endothelial dysfunction during hypercholesterolemia, which is distinct from its canonical roles in inflammation. Results: Acute hypercholesterolemia in mice was induced by intraperitoneal administration of poloxamer 407 (0.5?g/kg) for 24?h. Endothelial dysfunction was assessed by evaluating endothelium-dependent vasodilation in isolated, perfused, and pressurized coronary arteries in response to bradykinin (10?10–10?6 M) and acetylcholine (10?9–10?5 M). Impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation was observed in Nlrp3+/+ mice with acute hypercholesterolemia, which was markedly ameliorated in Nlrp3?/? mice. Treatment of mice with inhibitors for caspase-1 or high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) significantly restored endothelium-dependent vasodilation in Nlrp3+/+ mice with acute hypercholesterolemia. Confocal microscopic analysis demonstrated that hypercholesterolemia markedly increased caspase-1 activity and HMGB1 expression in coronary arterial endothelium of Nlrp3+/+ mice, which was absent in Nlrp3-deficient mice. Further, recombinant HMGB1 directly induced endothelial dysfunction in normal Nlrp3+/+ coronary arteries. In vitro, Nlrp3 inflammasome formation and its activity were instigated in cultured endothelial cells by cholesterol crystal, a danger factor associated with hypercholesterolemia. Moreover, cholesterol crystals directly induced endothelial dysfunction in coronary arteries from Nlrp3+/+ mice, which was attenuated in Nlrp3?/? arteries. Such cholesterol crystal-induced impairment was associated with enhanced superoxide production, downregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity, and pyroptosis. Innovation and Conclusion: Our data provide the first evidence that activation of endothelial Nlrp3 inflammasome directly impairs endothelial function beyond its canonical inflammatory actions. This novel non-canonical action of Nlrp3 inflammasomes may initiate or exacerbate vascular injury during hypercholesterolemia. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 1084–1096. PMID:25739025

  13. [Alinidine in multi-vessel coronary disease: reduction of stress-induced ischemic reaction].

    PubMed

    Ditter, H; Müller, K D; Bahavar, H; Schlepper, M

    1991-02-01

    Ten patients suffering from an angiographically documented coronary two- or three-vessel disease were examined to evaluate the effects of the specific bradycardiac agent alinidine during a bicycle stress test. Hemodynamic and electrocardiographic parameters were compared before and after an intravenous application of 30 mg of the substance. The alinidine plasma levels 30 min after the injection were 160.6 +/- 22.5 ng/ml) (mean +/- SEM). Alinidine significantly (p less than 0.05) reduced the resting levels of heart rate (8.5%), double product (10.3%), myocardial oxygen consumption (9.1%), and cardiac output (9.0%). During exercise, significantly less ST-segment depression (p less than 0.001) in the EKG was observed after alinidine application in nine out of 10 patients, and the rise of pulmonary artery pressure was significantly reduced (34.7 vs 38.1 mm Hg, mean p less than 0.05). However, alinidine had no effect on the maximum heart rate at the end of exercise. We, therefore, assume that the substance has additional anti-ischemic properties. PMID:2058248

  14. Alexander disease with mild dorsal brainstem atrophy and infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Torisu, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Yoko; Yamaguchi-Takada, Yui; Yano, Tamami; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Sawaishi, Yukio; Hara, Toshiro

    2013-05-01

    We present the case of a Japanese male infant with Alexander disease who developed infantile spasms at 8 months of age. The patient had a cluster of partial seizures at 4 months of age. He presented with mild general hypotonia and developmental delay. Macrocephaly was not observed. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings fulfilled all MRI-based criteria for the diagnosis of Alexander disease and revealed mild atrophy of the dorsal pons and medulla oblongata with abnormal intensities. DNA analysis disclosed a novel heterozygous missense mutation (c.1154 C>T, p.S385F) in the glial fibrillary acidic protein gene. At 8 months of age, tonic spasms occurred, and electroencephalography (EEG) revealed hypsarrhythmia. Lamotrigine effectively controlled the infantile spasms and improved the abnormal EEG findings. Although most patients with infantile Alexander disease have epilepsy, infantile spasms are rare. This comorbid condition may be associated with the distribution of the brain lesions and the age at onset of Alexander disease. PMID:22818990

  15. Part One: Infantile Spasms--The New Consensus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellock, John

    2011-01-01

    Infantile spasms (IS, West syndrome) represent a difficult to treat and sometimes not immediately recognized form of epilepsy which is relatively rare. West Syndrome or IS is one of the most recognized types of epileptic encephalopathy, a form of epilepsy usually associated with developmental regression and delay, frequently difficult to treat and…

  16. 2014 Williams Harvey Lecture: importance of coronary vasomotion abnormalities-from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2014-12-01

    Coronary vasomotion abnormalities play important roles in the pathogenesis of ischaemic heart disease, in which endothelial dysfunction and coronary artery spasm are substantially involved. Endothelial vasodilator functions are heterogeneous depending on the vessel size, with relatively greater role of nitric oxide (NO) in conduit arteries and predominant role of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) in resistance arteries, where endothelium-derived hydrogen peroxide serves as an important EDHF. The functions of NO synthases in the endothelium are also heterogeneous with multiple mechanisms involved, accounting for the diverse functions of the endothelium in vasomotor as well as metabolic modulations. Cardiovascular abnormalities and metabolic phenotypes become evident when all three NO synthases are deleted, suggesting the importance of both NO and EDHF. Coronary artery spasm plays important roles in the pathogenesis of a wide range of ischaemic heart disease. The central mechanism of the spasm is hypercontraction of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), but not endothelial dysfunction, where activation of Rho-kinase, a molecular switch of VSMC contraction, plays a major role through inhibition of myosin light-chain phosphatase. The Rho-kinase pathway is also involved in the pathogenesis of a wide range of cardiovascular diseases and new Rho-kinase inhibitors are under development for various indications. The registry study by the Japanese Coronary Spasm Association has demonstrated many important aspects of vasospastic angina. The ongoing international registry study of vasospastic angina in six nations should elucidate the unknown aspects of the disorder. Coronary vasomotion abnormalities appear to be an important therapeutic target in cardiovascular medicine. PMID:25354517

  17. MiR-30b Is Involved in the Homocysteine-Induced Apoptosis in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells by Regulating the Expression of Caspase 3

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng; Chen, Qi; Song, Xiaowei; Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Jianliang

    2015-01-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) is an independent risk factor for a variety of cardiovascular diseases, such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, stroke, etc. There is a close relationship between the vascular endothelial cell apoptosis and these diseases. Recent studies have shown homocysteine can induce apoptosis in endothelial cells, which may be an important mechanism for the development of theses cardiovascular diseases. Although there are several reports about how the Hcy induces apoptosis in endothelial cells, the exact mechanism is not fully understood. MicroRNAs are small, non-coding RNA. Previous studies have shown that there is a close relationship between several microRNAs and cell apoptosis. However, there are no studies about the role of microRNAs in Hcy-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells so far. In this study, we constructed the model of homocysteine-induced apoptosis in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) and found miR-30b was significantly down-regulated by 1 mmol/L Hcy. In addition, overexpression of miR-30b can improve the Hcy-induced apoptosis in HCAECs by downregulating caspase-3 expression. Therefore, miR-30b may play an important role in Hcy-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells. PMID:26263983

  18. MiR-30b Is Involved in the Homocysteine-Induced Apoptosis in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells by Regulating the Expression of Caspase 3.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Chen, Qi; Song, Xiaowei; Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Jianliang

    2015-01-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) is an independent risk factor for a variety of cardiovascular diseases, such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, stroke, etc. There is a close relationship between the vascular endothelial cell apoptosis and these diseases. Recent studies have shown homocysteine can induce apoptosis in endothelial cells, which may be an important mechanism for the development of theses cardiovascular diseases. Although there are several reports about how the Hcy induces apoptosis in endothelial cells, the exact mechanism is not fully understood. MicroRNAs are small, non-coding RNA. Previous studies have shown that there is a close relationship between several microRNAs and cell apoptosis. However, there are no studies about the role of microRNAs in Hcy-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells so far. In this study, we constructed the model of homocysteine-induced apoptosis in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) and found miR-30b was significantly down-regulated by 1 mmol/L Hcy. In addition, overexpression of miR-30b can improve the Hcy-induced apoptosis in HCAECs by downregulating caspase-3 expression. Therefore, miR-30b may play an important role in Hcy-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells. PMID:26263983

  19. L-citrulline for protection of endothelial function from ADMA–induced injury in porcine coronary artery

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Chao; Lun, Li-Min; Zhao, Jin-Xia; Wang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Jue; Ning, Chun-Ping; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Bei-Bei; He, Guo-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a cardiovascular risk factor. We tested the hypothesis that L-citrulline may ameliorate the endothelial function altered by ADMA in porcine coronary artery (PCA). Myograph study for vasorelaxation, electrochemical measurement for NO, RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis for expression of eNOS, argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS), and p-eNOSser1177 were performed. cGMP was determined by enzyme immunoassay. Superoxide anion (O2.?) production was detected by the lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence method. Compare with controls (96.03%?±?6.2%), the maximal relaxation induced by bradykinin was significantly attenuated (61.55%?±?4.8%, p?

  20. Novel angiotensin II AT(1) receptor antagonist irbesartan prevents thromboxane A(2)-induced vasoconstriction in canine coronary arteries and human platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Fukuhara, M; Diz, D I; Ferrario, C M; Brosnihan, K B

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate whether the novel orally active nonpeptide angiotensin II (Ang II) AT(1) receptor antagonist irbesartan interacts with the thromboxane A(2)/prostaglandin endoperoxide H(2) (TxA(2)/PGH(2)) receptor in canine coronary arteries and human platelets. Coronary artery rings were isolated from male dog hearts (n = 18) and isometric tension of vascular rings was measured continuously at optimal basal tension in organ chambers. Autoradiographic binding of [(3)H]SQ29,548, a TxA(2) receptor antagonist, in canine coronary sections was determined. Blood for platelet aggregation studies was collected by venous puncture from healthy human volunteers (n = 6) who were free of aspirin-like agents for at least 2 weeks. Vascular reactivity and platelet aggregation in response to the TxA(2) analogs U46619 and autoradioagraphic receptor binding to the TxA(2) receptor antagonist [(3)H]SQ29,548 were studied with and without irbesartan. The TxA(2) analog U46619 produced dose-dependent vasoconstriction in coronary rings (EC(50) = 11.6 +/- 1.5 nM). Pretreatment with irbesartan inhibited U46619-induced vasoconstriction, and the dose-response curve was shifted to the right in a dose-dependent manner. The EC(50) of U46619 was increased 6- and 35-fold in the presence of 1 and 10 microM of irbesartan without a change of maximal contraction. At 1 microM, irbesartan is 2-fold more potent than the AT(1) receptor antagonist losartan in the inhibition of U46619-induced vasoconstriction in canine coronary arteries. In contrast, neither AT(1) receptor antagonists (CV11974 and valsartan), the AT(2) receptor antagonist PD123319, nor the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril had any effect on U46619-induced coronary vasoconstriction. Irbesartan did not change potassium chloride-induced vasoconstriction; however, irbesartan did inhibit the vasoconstriction mediated by another TxA(2)/PGH(2) receptor agonist prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)). Neither the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester nor the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin had any effect on irbesartan's attenuation of U46619-induced vasoconstriction. Irbesartan specifically reversed U46619-preconstricted coronary artery rings with and without endothelium in a dose-dependent manner. Irbesartan at high concentrations significantly competed for [(3)H]SQ29,548 binding in canine coronary sections. U46619 stimulated dose-dependent human platelet aggregation of platelet-rich plasma. Preincubation with irbesartan significantly inhibited platelet aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, the dual antagonistic actions of irbesartan by acting at both the AT(1) and TxA(2) receptors in blood vessels and platelets may overall enhance its therapeutic profile in the treatment of hypertension, atherosclerosis, and arterial thrombosis. PMID:10604953

  1. Cerebral arterial spasm. Part 4: in vitro effects of temperature, serotonin analogues, large nonphysiological concentrations of serotonin, and extracellular calcium and magnesium on serotonin-induced contractions of the canine basilar artery.

    PubMed

    Allen, G S; Gross, C J; Henderson, L M; Chou, S N

    1976-05-01

    In vitro experiments were performed using a small volume chamber to study serotonin-induced contractions of the canine basilar artery. Temperature was found to have a profound effect on the artery's response to serotonin. Raising the temperature to 40 degrees C (104 degrees F) increased the maximum response by 20% and lowering the temperature by 10 degrees C caused a 40% reduction in the maximum contraction. Cumulative log-dose response curves for analogues of serotonin demonstrated a high degree of specificity for the serotonin receptor and large nonphysiological concentrations of serotonin caused relaxation of the contracted artery. Extracellular calcium was shown to be an absolute requirement for serotonin-induced contractions. Extracellular magnesium, in contrast, was shown to inhibit serotonin-induced contractions. PMID:1262918

  2. Encephalopathy in an infant with infantile spasms: possible role of valproate toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sivathanu, Shobhana; Sampath, Sowmya; Veerasamy, Madhubala; Sunderkumar, Satheeshkumar

    2014-01-01

    An infant presented with global developmental delay and infantile spasms. EEG was suggestive of hypsarrhythmia. She was started on sodium valproate, clonazepam and adrenocorticotropic hormone injection. After an initial improvement the child developed vomiting, altered sensorium and increase in frequency of seizures suggestive of encephalopathy. Valproate-induced hyperammonaemia or hepatic encephalopathy was considered and the drug was withheld following which there was a dramatic improvement. Paradoxically, the liver function tests and serum ammonia were normal. However, a complete reversal of encephalopathy, on withdrawal of the drug, strongly suggested an adverse drug reaction (ADR) due to valproic acid. Marginal elevation of serum valproic acid prompted us to use the Naranjo ADR probability score to confirm the diagnosis. This case highlights the fact that valproate toxicity can manifest with normal liver function and serum ammonia levels. This is the youngest reported case with this rare form of valproate-induced encephalopathy. PMID:24810446

  3. Red wine polyphenols induce EDHF-mediated relaxations in porcine coronary arteries through the redox-sensitive activation of the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ndiaye, Mamadou; Chataigneau, Thierry; Chataigneau, Marta; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2004-01-01

    Red wine polyphenolic compounds (RWPCs) are potent inducers of endothelium-dependent relaxations of coronary arteries, which involve both nitric oxide and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). The EDHF-mediated relaxation to RWPCs is critically dependent on the formation of reactive oxygen species by a flavin-dependent enzyme. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of redox-sensitive protein kinases including p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and PI3-kinase/Akt in RWPCs-induced EDHF-mediated relaxation. Porcine coronary artery rings were suspended in organ chambers for measurement of changes in isometric tension. Confluent cultures of porcine coronary artery endothelial cells were used to determine the phosphorylation level of p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and Akt by Western blot analysis. All experiments were performed in the presence of indomethacin and N?-nitro-L-arginine. RWPCs caused pronounced endothelium-dependent relaxations, which were significantly reduced by wortmannin and LY294002, two inhibitors of PI3-kinase, and not affected by PD98059 (an inhibitor of ERK1/2 kinase kinase) and SB203580 (an inhibitor of p38 MAPK). In contrast, wortmannin did not affect relaxations to bradykinin or levcromakalim. RWPCs elicited within minutes a sustained and concentration-dependent phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and Akt in endothelial cells. The phosphorylation of Akt in response to RWPCs was abolished by wortmannin and LY294002, and by the membrane-permeant analogue of superoxide dismutase Mn(III)tetrakis(1-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin. The present findings demonstrate that RWPCs cause EDHF-mediated relaxations of coronary arteries; these responses are critically dependent on the redox-sensitive activation of the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway in endothelial cells. PMID:15249422

  4. A role for the sodium pump in H2O2-induced vasorelaxation in porcine isolated coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Wong, P S; Garle, M J; Alexander, S P H; Randall, M D; Roberts, R E

    2014-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been proposed to act as a factor for endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH) and EDH may act as a 'back up' system to compensate the loss of the NO pathway. Here, the mechanism of action of H2O2 in porcine isolated coronary arteries (PCAs) was investigated. Distal PCAs were mounted in a wire myograph and pre-contracted with U46619 (1nM-50?M), a thromboxane A2-mimetic or KCl (60mM). Concentration-response curves to H2O2(1?M-1mM), bradykinin (0.01nM-1?M), sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (10nM-10?M), verapamil (1nM-10?M), KCl (0-20mM) or Ca(2+)-reintroduction (1?M-10mM) were constructed in the presence of various inhibitors. Activity of the Na(+)/K(+)-pump was measured through rubidium-uptake using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. H2O2 caused concentration-dependent vasorelaxations with a maximum relaxation (Rmax) of 100±16% (mean±SEM), pEC50=4.18±0.20 (n=4) which were significantly inhibited by PEG-catalase at 0.1-1.0mM H2O2 (P<0.05). 10mM TEA significantly inhibited the relaxation up to 100?M H2O2 (P<0.05). 60mM K(+) and 500nM ouabain significantly inhibited H2O2-induced vasorelaxation producing a relaxation of 40.8±8.5% (n=5) and 47.5±8.6% (n=6) respectively at 1mM H2O2 (P<0.0001). H2O2-induced vasorelaxation was unaffected by the removal of endothelium, inhibition of NO, cyclo-oxygenase, gap junctions, SKCa, IKCa, BKCa Kir, KV, KATP or cGMP. 100?M H2O2 had no effects on the KCl-induced vasorelaxation or Ca(2+)-reintroduction contraction. 1mM H2O2 inhibited both KCl-induced vasorelaxation and rubidium-uptake consistent with inhibition of the Na(+)/K(+)-pump activity. We have shown that the vascular actions of H2O2 are sensitive to ouabain and high concentrations of H2O2 are able to modulate the Na(+)/K(+)-pump. This may contribute towards its vascular actions. PMID:25258292

  5. Adrenocorticotropic hormone versus prednisolone in the treatment of infantile spasms post vigabatrin failure.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kevin; Snead, O Carter; Boyd, Jennifer; Go, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    The Child Neurology Society/American Academy of Neurology practice parameter has recommended adrenocorticotropic hormone or vigabatrin in the short-term treatment of infantile spasms. When vigabatrin is unavailable or ineffective and adrenocorticotropic hormone is not a treatment option because of the prohibitive cost, other forms of corticosteroids have been considered in the treatment of infantile spasms. This retrospective study reviewed the Hospital for Sick Children's experience with the short-term effectiveness of prednisolone versus adrenocorticotropic hormone in patients with infantile spasms who have failed vigabatrin. The results showed that while adrenocorticotropic hormone was more likely to lead to short-term spasm freedom, there was no difference in the likelihood of longer-term spasm resolution without relapse. These findings can guide clinicians in the treatment of infantile spasms post vigabatrin failure. PMID:24965788

  6. Topiramate and Adrenal Cortico-tropic Hormone as Initial Treatment of Infantile Spasms

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Bradley; Alonso, William D.; Porter, Brenda E.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, adrenal cortico-tropic hormone (ACTH) was used as first line treatment for infantile spasms, however there has been increasing use of topiramate as initial therapy. Here we report a retrospective study of ACTH and topiramate as initial treatment of infantile spasms. The neurology patient database at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia was searched using the ICD-9 code for infantile spasms, and 50 patients were randomly chosen for chart review. We identified thirty-one patients receiving either ACTH or topiramate monotherapy (ACTH, n = 12, topiramate n = 19) as a first line treatment for infantile spasms. Twenty-six patients were symptomatic and five cryptogenic. Six patients treated with ACTH had resolution of clinical spasms and hypsarrhithmia within a month, but three relapsed. Four of the nineteen patients treated with topiramate eventually, though over a period of 0,1,8 or 69 months, had resolution of spasms and hypsarrhythmia. PMID:19225138

  7. The relationship between serum hypoxia-inducible factor 1? and coronary artery calcification in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis, is a heterodimer consisting of HIF-1? and HIF-1? subunits, and is implicated in calcification of cartilage and vasculature. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between serum HIF-1? with coronary artery calcification (CAC) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods The subjects were 405 (262 males, 143 females, age 51.3?±?6.4 years) asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Serum HIF-1? and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were measured by ELISA. CAC scores were assessed by a 320-slice CT scanner. The subjects were divided into 4 quartiles depending on serum HIF-1? levels. Results Average serum HIF-1? was 184.4?±?66.7 pg/ml. Among patients with higher CAC scores, HIF-1? levels were also significantly increased (p <0.001). HIF-1? levels positively correlated with CRP, IL-6, UKPDS risk score, HbA1c, FBG, and CACS, but did not correlate with diabetes duration, age, and LDL. According to the multivariate analysis, HIF-1? levels significantly and independently predict the presence of CAC. ROC curve analysis showed that the serum HIF-1? level can predict the extent of CAC, but the specificity was lower than the traditional risk factors UKPDS and HbA1c. Conclusion As a marker of hypoxia, serum HIF-1? level may be an independent risk factor for the presence of CAC. These findings indicate that elevated serum HIF-1? may be involved in vascular calcification in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:24564828

  8. Teaching neuroimages: infant with glutaric aciduria type 1 presenting with infantile spasms and hypsarrhythmia.

    PubMed

    Young-Lin, Nichole; Shalev, Sarah; Glenn, Orit A; Gardner, Marisa; Lee, Chung; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony; Gelfand, Amy A

    2013-12-10

    A 7-month-old boy with glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) presented with 1 week of clustered flexor spasms. Examination revealed mild axial hypotonia without encephalopathy. Video-EEG monitoring revealed hypsarrhythmia and infantile spasms (figure, A). MRI showed acute basal ganglia injury (figure, B). After 3 weeks of prednisolone treatment, 5-month follow-up showed continued resolution of hypsarrhythmia and spasms. PMID:24323445

  9. Hemifacial spasm due to vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    AbdelHamid, Mustafa; John, Kuruvilla; Rizvi, Tanvir; Huff, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Hemifacial spasm (HFS) happens because of vascular compression of the facial nerve at the root exit zone. Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD) is a very rare cause of HFS. VBD is diagnosed by computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Here, we report a case of 65-year-old female patient with HFS due to VBD. We discuss the complications and the treatment options for the case. PMID:26649123

  10. Hemifacial spasm: 20-year surgical experience, lesson learned

    PubMed Central

    Soriano-Baron, Hector; Vales-Hidalgo, Olivia; Arvizu-Saldana, Emiliano; Moreno-Jimenez, Sergio; Revuelta-Gutierrez, Rogelio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hemifacial spasm is characterized by unilateral, paroxysmal, and involuntary contractions. It is more common in women on the left side. Its evolution is progressive, and it rarely improves without treatment. Methods: Microvascular decompressions (N = 226) were performed in 194 Hispanic patients (May 1992–May 2011). Outcomes were evaluated on a 4-point scale: Excellent (complete remission); good (1–2 spasms/day); bad (>2 spasms/day); and recurrence (relapse after initial excellent/good response). Results: Most patients were female (n = 123); 71 were male. Mean (±SD) age was 49.4 (±11.7) years; age at onset, 43.9 (±11.9) years; time to surgery, 5.7 (±4.7) years. The left side was affected in 114 patients. Typical syndrome occurred in 177 (91.2%); atypical in 17 (8.8%). Findings were primarily vascular compression (n = 185 patients): Anterior inferior cerebellar artery (n = 147), posterior inferior cerebellar artery (n = 12), basilar artery (n = 10), superior cerebellar artery (n = 8), and 2 vessels (n = 8); 9 had no compression. Postsurgical results were primarily excellent (79.9% [n = 155]; good, 4.6% [n = 9]; bad, 15.5% [n = 30]), with recurrence in 21 (10.8%) at mean 51-month (range, 1–133 months) follow-up. Complications included transient hearing loss and facial palsy. Conclusions: The anterior inferior cerebellar artery is involved in most cases of hemifacial spasm. Failure to improve postsurgically after 1 week warrants reoperation. Sex, side, and onset are unrelated to treatment response. Microvascular decompression is the preferred treatment. It is minimally invasive, nondestructive, and achieves the best long-term results, with minor morbidity. To our knowledge, this series is the largest to date on a Hispanic population. PMID:26015871

  11. Infantile spasms are associated with abnormal copy number variations.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vijay N; Sundaram, Senthil K; Chugani, Harry T; Huq, A H M M

    2013-10-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that de novo copy number variations (CNVs) implicated in known genomic disorders ("pathogenic CNVs") are significant predisposing factors of infantile spasms. The authors performed a genome-wide analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping microarray data to identify the role of de novo/known pathogenic large CNVs in 13 trios of children affected by infantile spasms. A rare, large (4.8 Mb) de novo duplication was detected in the 15q11-13 region of 1 patient. In addition, 3 known pathogenic CNVs (present in the patient as well as 1 of the parents) were detected in total. In 1 patient, a known pathogenic deletion was detected in the region of 2q32.3. Similarly, in 1 other patient, 2 known pathogenic deletions in the regions of 16p11.2 and Xp22.13 (containing CDKL5) were detected. These findings suggest that some specific pathogenic CNVs predispose to infantile spasms and may be associated with different phenotypes. PMID:22914377

  12. Low-fat diet and regular, supervised physical exercise in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease: reduction of stress-induced myocardial ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Schuler, G.; Schlierf, G.; Wirth, A.; Mautner, H.P.; Scheurlen, H.; Thumm, M.; Roth, H.; Schwarz, F.; Kohlmeier, M.; Mehmel, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of physical exercise and normalization of serum lipoproteins on stress-induced myocardial ischemia were studied in 18 patients with coronary artery disease, stable angina pectoris, and mild hypercholesterolemia (total serum cholesterol 242 +/- 32 mg/dl). These patients underwent a combined regimen of low-fat/low-cholesterol diet and regular, supervised physical exercise at high intensity for 12 months. At 1 year serum lipoproteins has been lowered to ideal levels (serum cholesterol 202 +/- 31 mg/dl, low-density lipoproteins 130 +/- 30 mg/dl, very low-density lipoproteins 22 +/- 15 mg/dl, serum triglycerides 105 (69 to 304) mg/dl) and physical work capacity was improved by 21% (p less than .01). No significant effect was noted on high-density lipoproteins, probably as a result of the low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet. Stress-induced myocardial ischemia, as assessed by thallium-201 scintigraphy, was decreased by 54% (p less than .05) despite higher myocardial oxygen consumption. Eighteen patients matched for age and severity of coronary artery disease served as a control group and ''usual medical care'' was rendered by their private physicians. No significant changes with respect to serum lipoproteins, physical work capacity, maximal rate-pressure product, or stress-induced myocardial ischemia were observed in this group. These data indicate that regular physical exercise at high intensity, lowered body weight, and normalization of serum lipoproteins may alleviate compromised myocardial perfusion during stress.

  13. LOX-1 receptor blockade abrogates oxLDL-induced oxidative DNA damage and prevents activation of the transcriptional repressor Oct-1 in human coronary arterial endothelium.

    PubMed

    Thum, Thomas; Borlak, Jürgen

    2008-07-11

    Activation of the lectin-like oxLDL receptor (LOX-1) promotes atherosclerosis. Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) increases production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and leads to the development of endothelial dysfunction. The molecular causes for oxLDL to induce oxidative DNA damage and metabolic dysfunction remain uncertain. Here we report treatment of cultured human coronary arterial endothelial cells (HCAEC) with oxLDL to cause oxidative DNA damage as determined by a 3-fold increase in 8-OH-desoxyguanosine adduct formation and a 4-fold induction of the growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible transcripts GADD45 and GADD153. Oxidative stress resulted in activation of Oct-1, a transcriptional repressor of various vascular cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenases. Activation of Oct-1 was protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated. Binding of Oct-1 to promoter sequences of CYP monooxygenases was increased upon treatment of HCAEC with oxLDL. This resulted in repressed production of endothelium-derived hyperpolarization factor 11,12-epoxyeicosatrieonic acid. Small interference RNA-mediated functional knockdown of Oct-1 prevented oxLDL-mediated silencing of CYP expression. Inhibition of LOX-1 attenuated oxLDL-mediated endothelial DNA damage, Oct-1/DNA binding, and reversed impaired production of EDHF. Taken collectively, oxLDL induced oxidative DNA damage and activation of Oct-1 to result in metabolic dysfunction of coronary arterial endothelium. PMID:18390905

  14. Coronary heart disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States for men and women. Coronary ...

  15. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is ... bypass multiple coronary arteries during one surgery. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Figure A shows the location of ...

  16. Coronary Angioplasty

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Are the Risks Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis Cardiac Catheterization Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack Stents ... up inside your arteries. This condition is called atherosclerosis (ath-er-o-skler-O-sis). Atherosclerosis can ...

  17. A Pulse Rapamycin Therapy for Infantile Spasms and Associated Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Raffo, Emmanuel; Coppola, Antonietta; Ono, Tomonori; Briggs, Stephen W.; Galanopoulou, Aristea S.

    2011-01-01

    Infantile spasms are seizures manifesting within a spectrum of epileptic encephalopathies of infancy that often lead to cognitive impairment. Their current therapies, including adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), high dose steroids, or vigabatrin, are not always effective and may be associated with serious side effects. Overactivation of the TORC1 complex of the mTOR pathway is implicated in the pathogenesis of certain genetic and acquired disorders that are linked with infantile spasms, like tuberous sclerosis. Here, we tested the therapeutic potential of rapamycin, a TORC1 inhibitor, as a potential treatment for infantile spasms in the multiple-hit rat model of ACTH-refractory symptomatic infantile spasms, which is not linked to tuberous sclerosis. Rapamycin or vehicle were given after spasms appeared. Their effects on spasms, other seizures, performance in Barnes maze, and expression of the phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein (pS6: a TORC1 target) in the cortex, using immunofluorescence, were compared. Rapamycin suppressed spasms dose-dependently and improved visuospatial learning, although it did not reduce the frequency of other emerging seizures. High-dose pulse rapamycin effected acute and sustained suppression of spasms and improved cognitive outcome, without significant side effects. Therapeutically effective rapamycin doses normalized the pS6 expression, which was increased in perilesional cortical regions of pups with spasms. These findings support that pathological overactivation of TORC1 may be implicated in the pathogenesis of infantile spasms, including those that are not linked to tuberous sclerosis. Furthermore, a high-dose, pulse rapamycin treatment is a promising, well tolerated and disease-modifying new therapy for infantile spasms, including those refractory to ACTH. PMID:21504792

  18. Single Coronary Artery with Prepulmonic Coursing Left Main Coronary Artery Manifesting as Prinzmetal's Angina

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, Garrett B.; Molavi, Behzad; Sinha, Anjan K.; Garza, Luis; Angelini, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    We report the case of a 32-year-old man who presented at the emergency department with severe chest pressure, left arm pain, and dizziness. These symptoms were described as intermittent, occurring after exercise and at rest. He had undergone several stress tests during the past 8 years, but no objective evidence of ischemia was produced. His history of hyperlipidemia and increasing frequency of symptoms prompted us to perform coronary angiography, which showed a single coronary artery with an ostium at the right sinus of Valsalva. The vessel had an initial, mixed common trunk that gave rise to both the right coronary artery proper and to the left coronary artery. The left main trunk followed a prepulmonic course. The anatomic features were eventually confirmed by computed tomographic angiography. The left main stem had a fixed 50% to 60% area narrowing, at baseline study. A treadmill stress myocardial perfusion study showed no evidence of ischemia. The patient was referred to a 2nd facility, where intravascular ultrasonography, at baseline, revealed 63% left main narrowing without evidence of atherosclerosis. Acetylcholine provocation demonstrated worsening of the stenosis to about 80%, with reproduction of angina and ST-segment depression, which indicated that medical management of spasm might provide symptomatic relief. PMID:18172528

  19. The effects of ATP-dependent potassium channel opener; pinacidil, and blocker; glibenclamide, on the ischemia induced arrhythmia in partial and complete ligation of coronary artery in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ya?ar, Selçuk; Bozdo?an, Ömer; Kaya, Salih Tunç; Orallar, Hayriye Soytürk

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Electrical inhomogeneity between ischemic and non ischemic myocardium is the basis of arrhythmia which occurs following coronary artery occlusion. The leakage of potassium from the ischemic region to the non ischemic region is very effective in the generation of these arrhythmias. The aim of this study is to research the effect of ATP-dependent potassium (KATP) channel blocker (glibenclamide) and opener (pinacidil) on ischemia induced arrhythmia in the presence of small and large infarct sizes. Materials and Methods: In this study Sprague-Dawley male rats of 8-9 months of age were used. Ischemia was produced by the partial ligation of left coronary artery ramus descending (PL) for smaller infarct and complete ligation of this artery (CL) for larger infarct for 30 min. The arrhythmia score which was calculated from the duration and type of arrhythmia was significantly higher in animals which had a larger infarct area than the animals which had a smaller infarct. Results: Glibenclamide increased the rate of arrhythmia in animals having smaller infarct but not in animals having larger infarct. Pinacidil did not affect the occurrence of arrhythmia in either group. There was a significant difference in the infarct size and risk of infarct zone between animals which had small and large infarct sizes. The effect of glibenclamide and pinacidil on the arrhythmias differed depend on decrease of infarct size. Conclusion: Glibenclamide is not effective to decrease ischemia induced arrhythmia in the presence of small and pinacidil in large ischemic zone. PMID:25810894

  20. Association analysis of polymorphisms of the CRHR1 gene with infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Zou, Li-Ping; Wang, Jing; Shi, Xiu-Yu; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Bin; Liu, Yu-Jie; Sun, Yan-Hong; Jia, Fei-Yong

    2015-08-01

    While >200 types of etiologies have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of infantile spasms, the pathophysiology of infantile spasms remains largely elusive. Pre-natal stress and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction were shown to be involved in the development of infantile spasms. To test the genetic association between the CRHR1 gene, which encodes the corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptor, and infantile spasms, five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CRHR1 gene were genotyped in a sample set of 128 cases with infantile spasms and 131 healthy controls. Correlation analysis was performed on the genotyped data. Under the assumption of the dominant model, the selected five SNPs, rs4458044, rs171440, rs17689966, rs28364026 and rs242948, showed no association with the risk of infantile spasms and the effectiveness of adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment. In addition, subsequent haplotype analysis suggested none of them was associated with infantile spasms. In conclusion, the experimental results of the present study suggested no association between the CRHR1 gene and infantile spasms in a Chinese population. PMID:25954915

  1. Systematic Literature Review of AbobotulinumtoxinA in Clinical Trials for Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm

    PubMed Central

    Dashtipour, Khashayar; Chen, Jack J.; Frei, Karen; Nahab, Fatta; Tagliati, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim was to elucidate clinical trial efficacy, safety, and dosing practices of abobotulinumtoxinA (ABO) treatment in adult patients with blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. To date, most literature reviews for blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm have examined the effectiveness of all botulinum neurotoxin type A products as a class. However, differences in dosing units and recommended schemes provide a clear rationale for reviewing each product separately. Methods A systematic literature review was performed to identify randomized controlled trials and other comparative clinical studies of ABO in the treatment of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm published in English between January 1991 and March 2015. Medical literature databases (PubMed, Cochrane library, EMBASE) were searched. A total of five primary publications that evaluated ABO for the management of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm were identified and summarized. Results Data included 374 subjects with blepharospasm and 172 subjects with hemifacial spasm treated with ABO. Total ABO doses ranged between 80 and 340 U for blepharospasm and 25 and 85 U for hemifacial spasm, depending on the severity of the clinical condition. All studies showed statistically significant benefits for the treatment of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. ABO was generally well tolerated across the individual studies. Adverse events considered to be associated with ABO treatment included: ptosis, tearing, blurred vision, double vision, dry eyes, and facial weakness. Discussion These data from 5 randomized clinical studies represents the available evidence base of ABO in blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. Future studies in this area will add to this evidence base. PMID:26566457

  2. Association analysis of polymorphisms of the CRHR1 gene with infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    YANG, GUANG; ZOU, LI-PING; WANG, JING; SHI, XIU-YU; YANG, XIAO-FAN; WANG, BIN; LIU, YU-JIE; SUN, YAN-HONG; JIA, FEI-YONG

    2015-01-01

    While >200 types of etiologies have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of infantile spasms, the pathophysiology of infantile spasms remains largely elusive. Pre-natal stress and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction were shown to be involved in the development of infantile spasms. To test the genetic association between the CRHR1 gene, which encodes the corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptor, and infantile spasms, five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CRHR1 gene were genotyped in a sample set of 128 cases with infantile spasms and 131 healthy controls. Correlation analysis was performed on the genotyped data. Under the assumption of the dominant model, the selected five SNPs, rs4458044, rs171440, rs17689966, rs28364026 and rs242948, showed no association with the risk of infantile spasms and the effectiveness of adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment. In addition, subsequent haplotype analysis suggested none of them was associated with infantile spasms. In conclusion, the experimental results of the present study suggested no association between the CRHR1 gene and infantile spasms in a Chinese population. PMID:25954915

  3. Tryptase and Coronary Heart Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-23

    Acute Coronary Syndrome With ST Elevation on Electrocardiogram; Acute Coronary Syndrome Without ST Elevation on Electrocardiogram; Noncritical Coronary Artery Disease With Coronary Stenosis <50%; Aortic Aneurysms

  4. Infantile spasms syndrome, West syndrome and related phenotypes: what we know in 2013.

    PubMed

    Pavone, Piero; Striano, Pasquale; Falsaperla, Raffaele; Pavone, Lorenzo; Ruggieri, Martino

    2014-10-01

    The current spectrum of disorders associated to clinical spasms with onset in infancy is wider than previously thought; accordingly, its terminology has changed. Nowadays, the term Infantile spasms syndrome (ISs) defines an epileptic syndrome occurring in children younger than 1 year (rarely older than 2 years), with clinical (epileptic: i.e., associated to an epileptiform EEG) spasms usually occurring in clusters whose most characteristic EEG finding is hypsarrhythmia [the spasms are often associated with developmental arrest or regression]. The term West syndrome (WS) refers to a form (a subset) of ISs, characterised by the combination of clustered spasms and hypsarrhythmia on an EEG and delayed brain development or regression [currently, it is no longer required that delayed development occur before the onset of spasms]. Less usually, spasms may occur singly rather than in clusters [infantile spasms single-spasm variant (ISSV)], hypsarrhythmia can be (incidentally) recorded without any evidence of clinical spasms [hypsarrhythmia without infantile spasms (HWIS)] or typical clinical spasms may manifest in absence of hypsarrhythmia [infantile spasms without hypsarrhythmia (ISW)]. There is a growing evidence that ISs and related phenotypes may result, besides from acquired events, from disturbances in key genetic pathways of brain development: specifically, in the gene regulatory network of GABAergic forebrain dorsal-ventral development, and abnormalities in molecules expressed at the synapse. Children with these genetic associations also have phenotypes beyond epilepsy, including dysmorphic features, autism, movement disorders and systemic malformations. The prognosis depends on: (a) the cause, which gives origin to the attacks (the complex malformation forms being more severe); (b) the EEG pattern(s); (c) the appearance of seizures prior to the spasms; and (d) the rapid response to treatment. Currently, the first-line treatment includes the adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH and vigabatrin. In the near future the gold standard could be the development of new therapies that target specific pathways of pathogenesis. In this article we review the past and growing number of clinical, genetic, molecular and therapeutic discoveries on this expanding topic. PMID:24268986

  5. Interictal High Frequency Oscillations in an Animal Model of Infantile Spasms

    PubMed Central

    Frost, James D.; Lee, Chong L.; Le, John T.; Hrachovy, Richard A.; Swann, John W.

    2012-01-01

    While infantile spasms is the most common catastrophic epilepsy of infancy and early-childhood, very little is known about the basic mechanisms responsible for this devastating disorder. In experiments reported here, spasms were induced in rats by the chronic infusion of TTX into the neocortex beginning on postnatal day 10–12. Studies of focal epilepsy suggest that high frequency EEG oscillations (HFOs) occur interictally at sites that are most likely responsible for seizure generation. Thus, our goal was to determine if HFOs occurred and where they occurred in cortex in the TTX model. We also undertook multiunit recordings to begin to analyze the basic mechanisms responsible for HFOs. Our results show that HFOs occur most frequently during hypsarrhythmia and NREM sleep and are most prominent contralateral to the TTX infusion site in the homotopic cortex and anterior to this region in frontal cortex. While HFOs were largest and most frequent in these contralateral regions, they were also commonly recorded synchronously across multiple and widely-spaced recordings sites. The amplitude and spatial distribution of interictal HFOs were found to be very similar to the high frequency bursts seen at seizure onset. However, the latter differed from the interictal events in that the high frequency activity was more intense at seizure onset. Microwire recordings showed that neuronal unit firing increased abruptly with the generation of HFOs. A similar increase in neuronal firing occurred at the onset of the ictal events. Taken together, results suggest that neocortical networks are abnormally excitable, particularly contralateral to TTX infusion, and that these abnormalities are not restricted to small areas of cortex. Multiunit firing coincident with HFOs are fully consistent with a neocortical hyperexcitability hypothesis particularly since they both occur at seizure onset. PMID:22342513

  6. Motoneuron excitability and muscle spasms are regulated by 5-HT2B and 5-HT2C receptor activity.

    PubMed

    Murray, Katherine C; Stephens, Marilee J; Ballou, Edmund W; Heckman, Charles J; Bennett, David J

    2011-02-01

    Immediately after spinal cord injury (SCI), a devastating paralysis results from the loss of brain stem and cortical innervation of spinal neurons that control movement, including a loss of serotonergic (5-HT) innervation of motoneurons. Over time, motoneurons recover from denervation and function autonomously, exhibiting large persistent calcium currents (Ca PICs) that both help with functional recovery and contribute to uncontrolled muscle spasms. Here we systematically evaluated which 5-HT receptor subtypes influence PICs and spasms after injury. Spasms were quantified by recording the long-lasting reflexes (LLRs) on ventral roots in response to dorsal root stimulation, in the chronic spinal rat, in vitro. Ca PICs were quantified by intracellular recording in synaptically isolated motoneurons. Application of agonists selective to 5-HT(2B) and 5-HT(2C) receptors (including BW723C86) significantly increased the LLRs and associated Ca PICs, whereas application of agonists to 5-HT(1), 5-HT(2A), 5-HT(3), or 5-HT(4/5/6/7) receptors (e.g., 8-OH-DPAT) did not. The 5-HT(2) receptor agonist-induced increases in LLRs were dose dependent, with doses for 50% effects (EC(50)) highly correlated with published doses for agonist receptor binding (K(i)) at 5-HT(2B) and 5-HT(2C) receptors. Application of selective antagonists to 5-HT(2B) (e.g., RS127445) and 5-HT(2C) (SB242084) receptors inhibited the agonist-induced increase in LLR. However, antagonists that are known to specifically be neutral antagonists at 5-HT(2B/C) receptors (e.g., RS127445) had no effect when given by themselves, indicating that these receptors were not activated by residual 5-HT in the spinal cord. In contrast, inverse agonists (such as SB206553) that block constitutive activity at 5-HT(2B) or 5-HT(2C) receptors markedly reduced the LLRs, indicating the presence of constitutive activity in these receptors. 5-HT(2B) or 5-HT(2C) receptors were confirmed to be on motoneurons by immunolabeling. In summary, 5-HT(2B) and 5-HT(2C) receptors on motoneurons become constitutively active after injury and ultimately contribute to recovery of motoneuron function and emergence of spasms. PMID:20980537

  7. Vigabatrin therapy implicates neocortical high frequency oscillations in an animal model of infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Frost, James D; Le, John T; Lee, Chong L; Ballester-Rosado, Carlos; Hrachovy, Richard A; Swann, John W

    2015-10-01

    Abnormal high frequency oscillations (HFOs) in EEG recordings are thought to be reflections of mechanisms responsible for focal seizure generation in the temporal lobe and neocortex. HFOs have also been recorded in patients and animal models of infantile spasms. If HFOs are important contributors to infantile spasms then anticonvulsant drugs that suppress these seizures should decrease the occurrence of HFOs. In experiments reported here, we used long-term video/EEG recordings with digital sampling rates capable of capturing HFOs. We tested the effectiveness of vigabatrin (VGB) in the TTX animal model of infantile spasms. VGB was found to be quite effective in suppressing spasms. In 3 of 5 animals, spasms ceased after a daily two week treatment. In the other 2 rats, spasm frequency dramatically decreased but gradually increased following treatment cessation. In all animals, hypsarrhythmia was abolished by the last treatment day. As VGB suppressed the frequency of spasms, there was a decrease in the intensity of the behavioral spasms and the duration of the ictal EEG event. Analysis showed that there was a burst of high frequency activity at ictal onset, followed by a later burst of HFOs. VGB was found to selectively suppress the late HFOs of ictal complexes. VGB also suppressed abnormal HFOs recorded during the interictal periods. Thus VGB was found to be effective in suppressing both the generation of spasms and hypsarrhythmia in the TTX model. Vigabatrin also appears to preferentially suppress the generation of abnormal HFOs, thus implicating neocortical HFOs in the infantile spasms disease state. PMID:26026423

  8. Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kocas, Cuneyt; Yildiz, Ahmet; Abaci, Okay; Karaca, Osman Sukru; Firdin, Nur; Dalgic, Yalcin; Bostan, Cem; Ersanli, Murat

    2015-11-01

    We assessed the relation between platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) on admission and contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). A total of 488 patients with NSTE-ACS who underwent urgent coronary angiography were enrolled. Levels of PLR and creatinine were measured before angiography and at 72 hours after angiography. Patients were divided into 2 groups, namely, the CIN group, 80 patients (16.3%; age 65.3 ± 12.5years; 66.7% men) and the non-CIN group, 408 patients (83.7%; age 61.2 ± 12.3 years; 72.5% men). Patients in the CIN group had significantly higher PLR than those in the non-CIN group (152.9 ± 99.6 vs 120.4 ± 66.1, P < .001). In logistic regression analysis, PLR (odds ratio [OR] 1.004, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.001-1.007, P = .02), diabetes mellitus (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.02-2.98, P = .03), and ST-segment depression on admission electrocardiogram (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.00-2.81, P = .04) were independent predictors of CIN. The PLR was an independent predictor of CIN after angiography in patients with NSTE-ACS. PMID:25852211

  9. Quality-of-care indicators for infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Wang, C Jason; Jonas, Rinat; Fu, Chong Min; Ng, Chun Y; Douglass, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    We developed a comprehensive set of quality-of-care indicators for the management of children with infantile spasms in the United States, encompassing evaluation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention and management of side effects and comorbidities. The indicators were developed using the RAND/UCLA Modified Delphi Method. After a focused review of the literature and guidelines by the study team, an expert panel (nominated by leaders of Child Neurology Society, American Epilepsy Society, and National Institute for Neurologic Disorders) rated the draft indicators anonymously, met face-to-face to discuss each indicator, and rerated the revised indicators on validity, feasibility, and importance. The panel recommended 21 indicators, of which 8 were identified as most likely to have a large positive impact on improving quality of life and/or health outcomes for children with infantile spasms. The proposed indicators can be used to assess and document variations and gaps in quality-of-care and inform future research and quality improvement interventions. PMID:22566712

  10. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Enhances Accelerative Wave Intensity in Coronary Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Om; Leung, Michael C. H.; Wong, Dennis T. L.; Meredith, Ian T.; Cameron, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The systolic forward travelling compression wave (sFCW) and diastolic backward travelling decompression waves (dBEW) predominantly accelerate coronary blood flow. The effect of a coronary stenosis on the intensity of these waves in the distal vessel is unknown. We investigated the relationship between established physiological indices of hyperemic coronary flow and the intensity of the two major accelerative coronary waves identified by Coronary Wave Intensity analysis (CWIA). Methodology / Principal Findings Simultaneous intracoronary pressure and velocity measurement was performed during adenosine induced hyperemia in 17 patients with pressure / Doppler flow wires positioned distal to the target lesion. CWI profiles were generated from this data. Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) and Coronary Flow Velocity Reserve (CFVR) were calculated concurrently. The intensity of the dBEW was significantly correlated with FFR (R = -0.70, P = 0.003) and CFVR (R = -0.73, P = 0.001). The intensity of the sFCW was also significantly correlated with baseline FFR (R = 0.71, p = 0.002) and CFVR (R = 0.59, P = 0.01). Stenting of the target lesion resulted in a median 178% (interquartile range 55–280%) (P<0.0001) increase in sFCW intensity and a median 117% (interquartile range 27–509%) (P = 0.001) increase in dBEW intensity. The increase in accelerative wave intensity following PCI was proportionate to the baseline FFR and CFVR, such that stenting of lesions associated with the greatest flow limitation (lowest FFR and CFVR) resulted in the largest increases in wave intensity. Conclusions Increasing ischemia severity is associated with proportionate reductions in cumulative intensity of both major accelerative coronary waves. Impaired diastolic microvascular decompression may represent a novel, important pathophysiologic mechanism driving the reduction in coronary blood flow in the setting of an epicardial stenosis. PMID:26658896

  11. Great heterogeneity of commercial fruit juices to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated porcine coronary arteries: role of the phenolic content and composition.

    PubMed

    Auger, Cyril; Pollet, Brigitte; Arnold, Cécile; Marx, Céline; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2015-01-01

    Since polyphenol-rich products such as red wine, grape juice, and grape extracts have been shown to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, we have evaluated whether commercial fruit juices such as those from berries are also able to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations of isolated coronary arteries and, if so, to determine whether this effect is related to their phenolic content. Among the 51 fruit juices tested, 2/12 grape juices, 3/7 blackcurrant juices, 4/5 cranberry juices, 1/6 apple juices, 0/5 orange juices, 2/6 red fruit and berry juices, 3/6 blends of red fruit juices, and 0/4 non-red fruit juices were able to induce relaxations achieving more than 50% at a volume of 1%. The active fruit juices had phenolic contents ranging from 0.31 to 1.86?g GAE/L, which were similar to those of most of the less active juices with the exception of one active grape juice (2.14?g GAE/L) and one active blend of red fruit juices (3.48?g GAE/L). Altogether, these findings indicate that very few commercial fruit juices have the ability to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, and that this effect is not related to their quantitative phenolic content, but rather to their qualitative phenolic composition. PMID:25009961

  12. Inhibitory Effect of a French Maritime Pine Bark Extract-Based Nutritional Supplement on TNF-?-Induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Kristine C. Y.; Li, Xiao-Hong; McRobb, Lucinda S.; Heather, Alison K.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation, leading to endothelial dysfunction, contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The popularity of natural product supplements has increased in recent years, especially those with purported anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant effects. The efficacy and mechanism of many of these products are not yet well understood. In this study, we tested the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of a supplement, HIPER Health Supplement (HIPER), on cytokine-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). HIPER is a mixture of French maritime pine bark extract (PBE), honey, aloe vera, and papaya extract. Treatment for 24 hours with HIPER reduced TNF-?-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation that was associated with decreased NADPH oxidase 4 and increased superoxide dismutase-1 expression. HIPER inhibited TNF-? induced monocyte adhesion to HCAECs that was in keeping with decreased expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and decreased nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) activation. Further investigation of mechanism showed HIPER reduced TNF-? induced I?B? and p38 and MEK1/2 MAP kinases phosphorylation. Our findings show that HIPER has potent inhibitory effects on HCAECs inflammatory and oxidative stress responses that may protect against endothelial dysfunction that underlies early atherosclerotic lesion formation. PMID:26664450

  13. Pathophysiology of Massive Infantile Spasms: Perspective on the Putative Role of the Brain Adrenal Axis

    PubMed Central

    Baram, Tallie Z.

    2013-01-01

    Massive infantile spasms are an age-specific seizure syndrome of infancy. Uniquely, the spasms respond to hormonal manipulation using adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or glucocorticoids. A hypothesis explaining the efficacy of hormonal therapy, age-specificity, multiple causative factors, and spontaneous resolution of infantile spasms is presented. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), an excitant neuropeptide suppressed by ACTH/steroids, is implicated. Evidence for the age-specific convulsant properties of CRH is presented, and a putative scenario in which a stressinduced enhancement of endogenous CRH-mediated seizures is discussed. Clinical testing of the CRH-excess theory and its therapeutic implications are suggested. PMID:8388675

  14. Hemifacial spasm caused by a cerebellopontine angle arachnoid cyst. Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Juretschke, Fernando; Vargas, Antonio; González-Rodrigalvarez, Rosario; Garcia-Leal, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Arachnoid cysts involving the cerebellopontine angle are an unusual cause of hemifacial spasm. The case is reported of a 71-year old woman presenting with a right hemifacial spasm and an ipsilateral arachnoid cyst. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging findings suggested a neurovascular compression caused by displacement of the facial-acoustic complex and the anterior inferior cerebellar artery by the cyst. Cyst excision and microvascular decompression of the facial nerve achieved permanent relief. The existing cases of arachnoid cysts causing hemifacial spasm are reviewed and the importance of a secondary neurovascular conflict identification and decompression in these cases is highlighted. PMID:26165486

  15. Reperfusion?induced sustained ventricular tachycardia, leading to ventricular fibrillation, in chronically instrumented, intact, conscious mice

    PubMed Central

    Lujan, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Reperfusion?induced lethal ventricular arrhythmias are observed during relief of coronary artery spasm, with unstable angina, exercise?induced ischemia, and silent ischemia. Accordingly, significant efforts are underway to understand the mechanisms responsible for reperfusion?induced lethal arrhythmias and mice have become increasingly important in these efforts. However, although reperfusion?induced sustained ventricular tachycardia leading to ventricular fibrillation (VF) has been recorded in many models, reports in mice are sparse and of limited success. Importantly, none of these studies were conducted in intact, conscious mice. Accordingly, a chronically instrumented, intact, conscious murine model of reperfusion?induced lethal arrhythmias has the potential to be of major importance for advancing the concepts and methods that drive cardiovascular therapies. Therefore, we describe, for the first time, the use of an intact, conscious, murine model of reperfusion?induced lethal arrhythmias. Male mice (n = 9) were instrumented to record cardiac output and the electrocardiogram. In addition, a snare was placed around the left main coronary artery. Following recovery, the susceptibility to sustained ventricular tachycardia produced by 3 min of occlusion and reperfusion of the left main coronary artery was determined in conscious mice by pulling on the snare. Reperfusion culminated in sustained ventricular tachycardia, leading to VF, in all nine conscious mice. The procedures conducted in conscious C57BL/6J mice, a strain commonly used in transgenic studies, can be utilized in genetically modified models to enhance our understanding of single gene defects on reperfusion?induced lethal ventricular arrhythmias in intact, conscious, and complex animals. PMID:24973331

  16. Parry-Romberg syndrome with hemimasticatory spasm in pregnancy; A dystonia mimic.

    PubMed

    Panda, Akhila Kumar; Gopinath, Godhavarma; Singh, Shaily

    2014-04-01

    Parry-Romberg syndrome (PRS) with hemimasticatory spasm (HMS) is quite an uncommon overlapping phenomenon which very often mimics jaw closing dystonia. A previously healthy 35-year-old female, during her 5(th) month of pregnancy started developing intermittent unilateral painful spasms of jaw while conversation, clinching of teeth, or eating, which led to frequent tongue bites. The spasms were worsened during pregnancy. She used to do certain manoeuvre like sensory tricks in form of touching involved side of the face to relieve the symptoms. Apart from this, she developed progressive hemifacial and hemitongue atrophy. Other medical and neurological examinations were normal. Laboratory investigations as well as neuroimaging were noncontributory. The spasm responded to carbamazepine but hemifacial atrophy persists. To our best knowledge, onset and worsening of this syndrome in pregnancy has not been described earlier which might be correlated either with some hormonal imbalance or some unknown mechanisms. PMID:24966565

  17. Coronary Artery Disease - Coronary Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Coronary Artery Disease - Coronary Heart Disease Updated:Aug 7,2015 ... for the buildup of plaque in the heart’s arteries that could lead to heart attack. But what ...

  18. Development and validation of a pre-percutaneous coronary intervention risk model of contrast-induced acute kidney injury with an integer scoring system.

    PubMed

    Inohara, Taku; Kohsaka, Shun; Abe, Takayuki; Miyata, Hiroaki; Numasawa, Yohei; Ueda, Ikuko; Nishi, Yutaro; Naito, Kotaro; Shibata, Masaru; Hayashida, Kentaro; Maekawa, Yuichiro; Kawamura, Akio; Sato, Yuji; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2015-06-15

    Previous models for contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) include procedure-related variables in addition to pre-procedural variables. We sought to develop a risk model for CI-AKI based on pre-procedural variables and compare its predictability with a conventional risk model and also to develop an integer score system based on selected variables. A total of 5,936 consecutive PCIs registered in the Japanese Cardiovascular Database were analyzed (derivation cohort, n = 3,957; validation cohort, n = 1,979). CI-AKI was defined as an increase in serum creatinine of 50% or 0.3 mg/dl compared with baseline. From the derivation cohort, 2 different CI-AKI risk models were generated using logistic regression analyses: a pre-procedural model and a conventional model including both pre-procedural and procedure-related variables. The predictabilities of the models were compared by c-statistics. An integer score was assigned to each variable in proportion to each estimated regression coefficient for the final model. In our derivation cohort, the proportion of CI-AKI was 9.0% (n = 358). Predictors for CI-AKI included older age, heart failure, diabetes, previous PCI, hypertension, higher baseline creatinine level, and acute coronary syndrome. Presence of procedure-related complications and insertion of intra-aortic balloon pumping were included as procedure-related variables in the conventional model. Both the conventional model (c-statistics 0.789) and the pre-procedural model (c-statistics 0.799) demonstrated reasonable discrimination. The integer risk-scoring method demonstrated good agreement between the expected and observed risks of CI-AKI in the validation cohort. In conclusion, the pre-procedural risk model for CI-AKI had acceptable discrimination compared with the conventional model and may aid in risk stratification of CI-AKI before PCI. PMID:25891989

  19. Safety and Efficacy of Vigabatrin for the Treatment of Infantile Spasms

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, Michele A.; Tolman, Justin A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, vigabatrin became the first FDA approved medication for the treatment of infantile spasms in the United States. There are few well-designed prospective studies comparing the drug to placebo or other modalities used in the treatment of infantile spasms. The available data have demonstrated that vigabatrin is efficacious in the treatment of infantile spasms regardless of underlying etiology, but that it is particularly beneficial in patients with a diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), the only other medication with robust efficacy data, has been used as first line therapy for infantile spasms associated with other etiologies, and in general controls spasms sooner than vigabatrin, though relapse is common with both therapies. Vigabatrin is generally well tolerated. However, use has been associated with permanent loss of peripheral vision in some patients. In children with tuberous sclerosis, vigabatrin should be considered as initial therapy for infantile spasms. It is a viable alternative for patients with suboptimal response, contraindications or intolerance to ACTH. PMID:23861649

  20. Detection of global DNA hypomethylation of peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Jing; Shi, Xiu-Yu; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Ju, Jun; Liu, Yu-Jie; Li, Zhi-Fang; Li, Yu-Fen; Zou, Li-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of infantile spasms remains unclear. DNA methylation may play a pivotal role in the development of some types of neurological diseases, such as epilepsy. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between global DNA methylation of peripheral blood leukocytes and cryptogenic infantile spasms. DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes was extracted from 20 patients with cryptogenic infantile spasms and 20 gender and age matched healthy controls. Global DNA methylation percentage of peripheral blood leukocytes was measured using a global DNA methylation quantification kit. Global DNA methylation levels of peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with cryptogenic infantile spasms (23.4 ± 20.0%) were significantly lower than those in healthy controls (46.8 ± 8.4%). Furthermore, we did not find any association between the levels of DNA methylation and effectiveness of Adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment. Our study demonstrates that global DNA hypomethylation of peripheral blood lymphocytes is correlated with infantile spasms. This finding provides information for better understanding of the pathogenesis of infantile spasms. PMID:25524839

  1. Positron emission tomography findings in children with infantile spasms and autism.

    PubMed

    Dilber, Cengiz; Cal??kan, Mine; Sönmezo?lu, Kerim; Ni?li, Serap; Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli; Tatl?, Burak; Ayd?nl?, Nur; Ekici, Bar??; Özmen, Meral

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate positron emission tomography (PET) findings in patients diagnosed with infantile spasms and autism. This study includes 90 patients who were diagnosed with infantile spasms at the Department of Pediatric Neurology in the Istanbul University Medical Faculty between 1995 and 2007. Of the 90 patients, 15 patients who were diagnosed with autism using the Autism Behaviour Checklist and Childhood Autism Rating Scale and a control group of nine patients without autism but with infantile spasms underwent PET examination. Mean patient age (± standard error, SE) varied between 3 years and 16 years (7.8 ± 4 years), while the mean follow-up time (±SE) varied between 2 years and 16 years (average: 7.1 ± 4 years). Autism was present in 11 patients with symptomatic spasms and in four patients with cryptogenic spasms (p=0.009). On the PET scans of the 15 patients with autism, 13 (86.7%) had significantly decreased metabolic activity in the temporal lobe (p<0.001), nine (60%) had significantly decreased activity in the frontal lobe (p=0.004), and seven (46.7%) had significantly decreased activity in the parietal lobe (p=0.022). In our opinion, hypometabolism in the frontal and parietal lobes, in addition to that previously reported in the temporal lobe, plays a role in the development of autism in patients with infantile spasms. PMID:23219829

  2. MRI findings in infants with infantile spasms after neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Dawn, Gano; Sargent, Michael A.; Miller, Steven P.; Connolly, Mary B.; Wong, Peter; Glass, Hannah C.; Poskitt, Kenneth J.; Chau, Vann

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate the predominant pattern of brain injury and the anatomic areas of injury in children with infantile spasms following neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Methods A nested case-control study of infantile spasms in children with term neonatal HIE was performed. All patients had T1/T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) performed on the third day of life. Using a validated scoring system, the MRI was classified as: normal, watershed, basal ganglia/thalamus, total, or focal-multifocal. Two study investigators scored additional anatomic areas of injury (cortical extent, levels of the brainstem, hypothalamus) on T1/T2-weighted MRI and DWI blinded to the outcome. The predominant pattern of brain injury and anatomic areas of injury were compared between patients who developed infantile spasms and randomly selected controls. Results Eight patients who developed infantile spasms were identified among a cohort of 176 term newborns with HIE (4.5%). There were no significant differences in the perinatal and neonatal course between newborns who developed infantile spasms and controls who did not. The development of infantile spasms after neonatal HIE was significantly associated with basal ganglia/thalamus and total brain injury (P=.001), extent of cortical injury greater than 50% (odds ratio [OR]=11.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.1-158.5, P=.01), injury to the midbrain (OR=13, 95% CI=1.3 to 172, P=.007) and hypothalamic abnormalities (P=.01). Conclusions The development of infantile spasms after HIE is associated with injury to the basal ganglia and thalami on neonatal MRI, particularly when extensive cortical injury and/or injury to the midbrain is present. PMID:24095571

  3. Adrenergic receptors modulate motoneuron excitability, sensory synaptic transmission and muscle spasms after chronic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Rank, M M; Murray, K C; Stephens, M J; D'Amico, J; Gorassini, M A; Bennett, D J

    2011-01-01

    The brain stem provides most of the noradrenaline (NA) present in the spinal cord, which functions to both increase spinal motoneuron excitability and inhibit sensory afferent transmission to motoneurons (excitatory postsynaptic potentials; EPSPs). NA increases motoneuron excitability by facilitating calcium-mediated persistent inward currents (Ca PICs) that are crucial for sustained motoneuron firing. Spinal cord transection eliminates most NA and accordingly causes an immediate loss of PICs and emergence of exaggerated EPSPs. However, with time PICs recover, and thus the exaggerated EPSPs can then readily trigger these PICs, which in turn produce muscle spasms. Here we examined the contribution of adrenergic receptors to spasms in chronic spinal rats. Selective activation of the ?(1A) adrenergic receptor with the agonists methoxamine or A61603 facilitated Ca PIC and spasm activity, recorded both in vivo and in vitro. In contrast, the ?(2) receptor agonists clonidine and UK14303 did not facilitate Ca PICs, but did decrease the EPSPs that trigger spasms. Moreover, in the absence of agonists, spasms recorded in vivo were inhibited by the ?(1) receptor antagonists WB4010, prazosin, and REC15/2739, and increased by the ?(2) receptor antagonist RX821001, suggesting that both adrenergic receptors were endogenously active. In contrast, spasm activity recorded in the isolated in vitro cord was inhibited only by the ?(1) antagonists that block constitutive receptor activity (activity in the absence of NA; inverse agonists, WB4010 and prazosin) and not by the neutral antagonist REC15/2739, which only blocks conventional NA-mediated receptor activity. RX821001 had no effect in vitro even though it is an ?(2) receptor inverse agonist. Our results suggest that after chronic spinal cord injury Ca PICs and spasms are facilitated, in part, by constitutive activity in ?(1) adrenergic receptors. Additionally, peripherally derived NA (or similar ligand) activates both ?(1) and ?(2) adrenergic receptors, controlling PICs and EPSPs, respectively. PMID:21047936

  4. Arrhythmia and acute coronary syndrome suppression and cardiac resuscitation management with bretylium.

    PubMed

    Bacaner, Marvin; Dembo, Donald H

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that electric shock can both initiate and terminate ventricular fibrillation. Refractory ventricular fibrillation (RVF) may often be an iatrogenic paradoxical result of early, frequent, excessive salvos of DC current countershocks and inappropriate off-label drug use, particularly aggressive epinephrine administration. Evidence suggests that the current advanced cardiac life support pharmacology protocol for cardiac resuscitation may contribute to disappointing survival in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Controlled studies and new theoretical consideration suggest the protocol may induce RVF. In contrast, studies suggest that immediate adequate intravenous bretylium administration therapy together with sustained effective chest compressions can induce chemical defibrillation or facilitate electrical defibrillation as well as reduce the intensity, or even need for potentially heart-damaging countershock, where early frequent excessive current shocks are likely to increase refractory arrhythmia as demonstrated in animals and in humans. Salvos of shocks do not allow time between shocks for uniform recovery of normal electrical parameters needed to restore a stable heart rhythm. This may occur by inadvertently administering shock during the vulnerable period of the cardiac cycle. There are compelling existing data to demonstrate that bretylium and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) delivered before initiating shock therapy is likely to provide the best outcome in cardiac arrest. But, most importantly, adequate CPR chest compressions administered while bretylium is being infused also provide the opportunity to wash out electrically destabilizing electrolytes that have leaked from or are abnormally transported by functionally damaged membranes of fibrillation-induced ischemic myocytes. This may cause abnormal compartment redistribution of electrolytes that may facilitate RVF by heterogeneously partially depolarizing ischemic myocytes. Although efforts have been made to provide hard science for advanced life support, the guidelines are a product of consensus, the give and take of collegiality and intuition rather than rigorous controlled studies. Bretylium has a direct antifibrillatory action normalizing myocyte membrane currents, which restores intracompartmental normal electrolyte balance. In addition, adrenergic blockade by bretylium dilates coronary arteries, increasing effective O2 delivery by CPR. The free and aggressive use of epinephrine is toxic. Catechalomines cause coronary spasm and puts myocardial metabolism into damaging hypermetabolic overdrive to support the "fight or flight reflex" rapidly depleting adenosine triphosphate needed for cardiac electrical and mechanical recovery. Moreover, the value of epinephrine to resuscitation has never been demonstrated in a controlled human study, whereas its potential damage has been largely ignored. Epinephrine's potential deleterious actions that might compromise resuscitation are well established and reviewed here. PMID:19542875

  5. Prevention of experimental coronary thrombosis by hirudin.

    PubMed

    Bucha, E; Nowak, G; Markwardt, F

    1988-01-01

    The antithrombotic activity of hirudin was studied in a rat coronary thrombosis model. The thrombus formation was induced by external application of silver nitrate solution onto the left anterior descending coronary artery. Following subcutaneous injection, hirudin in doses of 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg reduced the development of coronary thrombosis in a dose-dependent manner. The most pronounced antithrombotic effect of hirudin in the described model was related with plasma concentrations between 0.20 and 0.35 microgram hirudin/ml. PMID:2459032

  6. Coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Peter A

    2007-05-01

    Coronary heart disease is the most common cause of death in the general population and in patients with ESRD. The principles of cardiovascular risk assessment and management apply to both populations. Advances in noninvasive coronary artery imaging have improved early detection of subclinical disease. The goals of medical management of coronary disease are to modify the natural history of disease and to improve the symptoms of angina. Coronary revascularization poses a different risk and benefit equation in the ESRD population. In stable ESRD with multivessel coronary artery disease, coronary bypass surgery, despite the upfront risks of stroke, myocardial infarction, and chest wound infection, seems to be a favored approach. In patients with ESRD and acute coronary syndromes, percutaneous coronary intervention on the target vessel has been associated with the most favorable outcomes. This article explores the clinical issues with respect to coronary artery disease in patients with ESRD. PMID:17699471

  7. A solute carrier family 22 member 3 variant rs3088442 G?A associated with coronary heart disease inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Li, Lu; He, Meian; Zhou, Li; Miao, Xiaoping; Wu, Fangqing; Huang, Suli; Dai, Xiayun; Wang, Tian; Wu, Tangchun

    2015-02-27

    Recent genome-wide association studies have identified single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) within the SLC22A3 (solute carrier family 22 member 3) gene associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in the Caucasian population. We performed molecular analysis to investigate the potential role of SLC22A3 variants in CHD. Our study showed that the common polymorphism rs3088442 G?A, which is localized in the 3' UTR of the SLC22A3 gene, was associated with a decreased risk of CHD in the Chinese population by a case control study. In silico analysis indicated that G?A substitution of SNP rs3088442 created a putative binding site for miR-147 in the SLC22A3 mRNA. By overexpressing miR-147 or inhibiting endogenous miR-147, we demonstrated that SNP rs3088442 G?A recruited miR-147 to inhibit SLC22A3 expression. Moreover, SLC22A3 deficiency significantly decreased LPS-induced monocytic inflammatory response by interrupting NF-?B and MAPK signaling cascades in a histamine-dependent manner. Notably, the expression of SLC22A3(A) was also suppressed by LPS stimulus. Our findings might indicate a negative feedback mechanism against inflammatory response by which SLC22A3 polymorphisms decreased the risk of CHD. PMID:25561729

  8. The role of nitric oxide in testosterone-induced vasodilation in pig coronary arteries and rat thoracic aorta 

    E-print Network

    Piefer, Jason William

    2013-02-22

    - induced but not metabolic vasodilation in biological males. American Journal of Physiology 272 (Heart and Circulatory Physiology 6): H2341-H2347, 1999. 7. Paudey KN, Oliver PM, Maeda N, Smithies O. Hypertension associated with decreased testosterone...

  9. Neurodevelopmental outcomes in children with Down syndrome and infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    Tapp, Sarah; Anderson, Tovi; Visootsak, Jeannie

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability in the United States. The prevalence of seizure in individuals with DS is 1–13%, and infantile spasm (IS) occurs in 6–32% of those with seizures. Since IS is relatively common in children with DS, it is important to understand the impact IS has on the neurodevelopmental outcomes in order to provide appropriate anticipatory guidance to help maximize the potential of these children. Our study is the first to compare the neurodevelopmental outcomes of children with DS and IS (DS + IS) to children with DS and no history of seizures (DS ? IS). Using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III, we assessed the neurodevelopment of 29 subjects (eight DS + IS and 21 DS ? IS). Neurodevelopmental outcome was poor in the DS + IS cohort, but the delay in treatment does not appear to contribute to any differences in their developmental scores. However, when compared to children with DS ? IS, the DS + IS cohort scored approximately 20 points less in all domains including cognitive, motor, and language (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that IS may impact the neurodevelopmental outcomes of children with DS + IS; thus, it is important to provide ongoing developmental and educational assessments and potentially additional therapies for children with DS + IS. PMID:26523121

  10. The relation of infantile spasms, tubers, and intelligence in tuberous sclerosis complex

    PubMed Central

    O'Callaghan, F; Harris, T; Joinson, C; Bolton, P; Noakes, M; Presdee, D; Renowden, S; Shiell, A; Martyn, C; Osborne, J

    2004-01-01

    Background: The aetiology of the learning difficulty in tuberous sclerosis is debated. It may be related to the amount of tubers in the brain or caused by the infantile spasms that occur in early life. Aims: To examine the relative contributions to final intelligence (IQ) made by both cerebral tubers and infantile spasms. Methods: As part of an epidemiological study of tuberous sclerosis in the south of England, patients were recruited who were able to undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without the need for an anaesthetic. Epilepsy history was determined by interview and review of clinical records. IQ was assessed using either Wechsler intelligence scales or Raven's matrices. Results: A total of 41 patients consented to have an MRI scan. IQ scores were normally distributed about a mean of 91. Twenty six patients had a positive history of epilepsy, and 11 had suffered from infantile spasms. There was a significant relation between the number of tubers and IQ. Infantile spasm status partly confounded the relation between tubers and IQ, but did not render the relation statistically insignificant. The relation between infantile spasms and learning difficulty remained strong even when controlling for the number of tubers. PMID:15155396

  11. The response to ACTH is determined early in the treatment of infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Mytinger, John R; Weber, Amanda; Heyer, Geoffrey L

    2015-03-01

    Although adrenocorticotropic hormone is the most commonly used treatment for infantile spasms in the United States, the optimal regimen for this indication is not known. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the optimal adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment duration. We conducted a retrospective chart review of response to adrenocorticotropic hormone among all patients with infantile spasms managed at our institution from January 2009 to September 2013. Treatment response was defined as clinical remission for greater than or equal to 28 days starting at any point within the adrenocorticotropic hormone course and remission of hypsarrhythmia (or definite EEG improvement if hypsarrhythmia was absent at baseline). For responders, the diagnostic and post-treatment EEG tracings were reviewed. Electroclinical remission was achieved in 21 of 39 patients (54%) receiving adrenocorticotropic hormone, including 11/25 (44%) receiving a long course (typically 12 weeks) and 10/14 (71%) receiving a short course (typically four weeks). The mean time to clinical remission was 5.8 days (median: 5 days; range: 1-20 days). Only one patient responded beyond two weeks of treatment. This study provides Class IV evidence that among patients with infantile spasms, the response to adrenocorticotropic hormone is most often determined early in the treatment course. Given the importance of rapid remission, clinicians should consider adding or changing treatment if infantile spasms do not resolve within two weeks of adrenocorticotropic hormone initiation. Further study is needed to determine the optimal adrenocorticotropic hormone regimen for infantile spasms. PMID:25644547

  12. The Effect of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Blockade Medications on Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhijun; Zhang, Huan; Jin, Wei; Liu, Yan; Lu, Lin; Chen, Qiujing; Zhang, Ruiyan

    2015-01-01

    Background Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is the main complication of contrast media administration (CM) in patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). There are inconsistent results in the literature regarding the effect of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockers (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors [ACEIs] and angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]) on CIN. We evaluated the association between the administration of ACEI/ARBs and CIN, as well as the effect of ACEI/ARBs on post-procedural changes in renal function index, in patients undergoing CAG. Methods We searched Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and ClinicalTrials.gov for relevant studies. The primary search generated 893 potentially relevant articles. A total of 879 studies were excluded because they did not meet the selection criteria. Finally, 14 studies were eligible for inclusion. There were 7,288 patients that received ACEI/ARBs and 8,159 patients that received placebo or naive to ACEI/ARBs in the study. A random or a fixed effect model was used to calculate the pooled odd ratios (ORs). Results The risk of CIN was significantly increased in the ACEI/ARBs group compared to the control group (OR= 1.50, 95%CI: 1.03-2.18, P =0.03). The magnitude of association was significantly reinforced in the observational studies (OR=1.84, 95%CI 1.19-2.85, P=0.006) but not in the randomized controlled trials (OR=0.88, 95%CI 0.41-1.90 P=0.74). The summary adjusted OR of 4 observational studies was 1.56 (95%CI 1.25-1.94, P<0.0001) and was weaker than the unadjusted OR. Conclusions Although there is some evidence to suggest that the administration of RAAS blockers was associated with the increased risk of CIN in patients undergoing CAG, the robustness of our study remains weak. The results are based on small observational studies and need further validation. PMID:26083525

  13. Infantile spasms and early immunization against whooping cough. Danish survey from 1970 to 1975.

    PubMed Central

    Melchior, J C

    1977-01-01

    113 cases of infantile spasms were diagnosed in the period 1 April 1970 to 31 March 1975 after Denmark changed her immunization programme. Previously whooping cough vaccine was given as the triple combination at 5, 6, and 15 months of age. From 1 April 1970 it was given as a monovalent vaccine at 5 and 9 weeks of age and at 10 months of age. A comparison with previous material of 86 cases of infantile spasms from 1957 to 1967 showed no change in the age at onset. Though there may be an occasional connection between immunization and infantile spasms, the most important factor is a time-coincidence between any immunization given at a certain age with the neurological disorders which are natural for that age. PMID:836065

  14. The coronary circulation in exercise training

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Douglas K.; Duncker, Dirk J.

    2012-01-01

    Exercise training (EX) induces increases in coronary transport capacity through adaptations in the coronary microcirculation including increased arteriolar diameters and/or densities and changes in the vasomotor reactivity of coronary resistance arteries. In large animals, EX increases capillary exchange capacity through angiogenesis of new capillaries at a rate matched to EX-induced cardiac hypertrophy so that capillary density remains normal. However, after EX coronary capillary exchange area is greater (i.e., capillary permeability surface area product is greater) at any given blood flow because of altered coronary vascular resistance and matching of exchange surface area and blood flow distribution. The improved coronary capillary blood flow distribution appears to be the result of structural changes in the coronary tree and alterations in vasoreactivity of coronary resistance arteries. EX also alters vasomotor reactivity of conduit coronary arteries in that after EX, ?-adrenergic receptor responsiveness is blunted. Of interest, ?- and ?-adrenergic tone appears to be maintained in the coronary microcirculation in the presence of lower circulating catecholamine levels because of increased receptor responsiveness to adrenergic stimulation. EX also alters other vasomotor control processes of coronary resistance vessels. For example, coronary arterioles exhibit increased myogenic tone after EX, likely because of a calcium-dependent PKC signaling-mediated alteration in voltage-gated calcium channel activity in response to stretch. Conversely, EX augments endothelium-dependent vasodilation throughout the coronary arteriolar network and in the conduit arteries in coronary artery disease (CAD). The enhanced endothelium-dependent dilation appears to result from increased nitric oxide bioavailability because of changes in nitric oxide synthase expression/activity and decreased oxidant stress. EX also decreases extravascular compressive forces in the myocardium at rest and at comparable levels of exercise, mainly because of decreases in heart rate and duration of systole. EX does not stimulate growth of coronary collateral vessels in the normal heart. However, if exercise produces ischemia, which would be absent or minimal under resting conditions, there is evidence that collateral growth can be enhanced. While there is evidence that EX can decrease the progression of atherosclerotic lesions or even induce the regression of atherosclerotic lesions in humans, the evidence of this is not strong due to the fact that most prospective trials conducted to date have included other lifestyle changes and treatment strategies by necessity. The literature from large animal models of CAD also presents a cloudy picture concerning whether EX can induce the regression of or slow the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Thus, while evidence from research using humans with CAD and animal models of CAD indicates that EX increases endothelium-dependent dilation throughout the coronary vascular tree, evidence that EX reverses or slows the progression of lesion development in CAD is not conclusive at this time. This suggests that the beneficial effects of EX in CAD may not be the result of direct effects on the coronary artery wall. If this suggestion is true, it is important to determine the mechanisms involved in these beneficial effects. PMID:21984538

  15. Coronary Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Heart Disease? Español Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a ... the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Celebrating American Heart Month: NIH Advancing Heart Research 02/07/2014 ...

  16. Counseling the Coronary Patient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmler, Caryl; Semmler, Maynard

    1974-01-01

    The article discusses counseling sessions designed to a) help the coronary patient adjust to cardiovascular disease, b) diminish patient anxieties and fears, and c) educate the patient and family members on controlling risk factors to deter another coronary attack. (JS)

  17. Coronary artery disease

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... heart muscle itself. Damage to or blockage of a coronary artery can result in injury to the heart. Normally, blood flows through a coronary artery unimpeded. However, a process called atherosclerosis ...

  18. Clinical profile and treatment of infantile spasms using vigabatrin and ACTH - a developing country perspective

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Infantile spasms represent a serious epileptic syndrome that occurs in the early infantile age. ACTH and Vigabatrin are actively investigated drugs in its treatment. This study describes the comparison of their efficacy in a large series of patients with infantile spasms from Pakistan. Methods All patients with infantile spasms who presented to Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan from January, 2006 to April, 2008 were included in this study. Inclusion criteria were clinical symptoms of infantile spasms, hypsarrythmia or modified hyparrythmia on electroencephalography, at least six months of follow-up period and receipt of any of the two drugs mentioned above. The type of drug distribution was random according to the availability, cost and ease of administration. Results Fifty six cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria. 62.5% were males. Mean age at onset of seizures was 5 ± 1.4 months. Fifty two (92.8%) patients demonstrated hypsarrythmia on electroencephalography. 64.3% cases were identified as symptomatic while 19.6% were cryptogenic and 16.1% were idiopathic. Eighteen patients received ACTH while 38 patients received Vigabatrin as first line therapy. Initial response to first line therapy was similar (50% for ACTH and 55.3% for Vigabatrin). Overall, the symptomatic and idiopathic groups responded better to Vigabatrin. The relapse rate was higher for ACTH as compared to Vigabatrin (55.5% vs. 33.3%) when considering the first line therapy. Four patients evolved to Lennox-Gastaut variant; all of these patients had initially received Vigabatrin and then ACTH. Conclusion Vigabatrin and ACTH showed no significant difference in the initial treatment of infantile spasms. However, patients receiving ACTH were 1.2 times more likely to relapse as compared to the patients receiving Vigabatrin when considering monotherapy. We suggest that Vigabatrin should be the initial drug of choice in patients presenting with infantile spasms. However, larger studies from developing countries are required to validate the therapeutic trends observed in this study. PMID:20078871

  19. Screening of Inherited Metabolic Disorders in Infants with Infantile Spasms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Ming; Li, Rui; Chen, Sheng-Zhi; Sang, Yan; Chen, Jiao; Fan, Cong-Hai

    2014-11-23

    The objective of this study is to explore the incidence of inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) in infants with infantile spasms (IS), with an attempt to improve the early diagnosis and etiological and symptomatic treatment. Urine and blood samples were collected from 60 IS patients and analyzed for the quantification of amino acids, organic acids, and fatty acids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrum. Routine urine tests, hepatic function tests, blood biochemistry, brain imaging, as well as examinations of the brain stem auditory/visual evoked potentials were also examined. In addition to antiepileptic therapy, etiological and symptomatic treatments were also conducted in infants with confirmed IMD and the follow-up lasted for 6 months in these pediatric patients. Metabolic disorders were found in 28 (46.67 %) of 60 IS infants, among them 13 (21.67 %) were confirmed to be with IMD. Twelve of these 13 IS patients with definite IMD diagnoses (92.31 %) experienced varying degrees of delayed development of intelligence and motor function, 8 patients (61.54 %) had abnormal cranial CT or MRI findings, 11 patients (84.61 %) had abnormal brain stem evoked potentials, 4 patients (30.77 %) had abnormal hepatic functions, 3 patients (23.07 %) had abnormal blood biochemistry, 2 patients (15.38 %) had positive (+ to ++) results for routine urine ketones, and 2 patients (15.38 %) had skin lesions. After treatment in children who were diagnosed IMD, the well controlled epileptic seizures and the satisfactory developments in mental and motor were found in 4 cases of methylmalonic acidemia, 2 cases of classical phenylketonuria, and one case of biotin deficiency disease, glutaric acidemia type I, and 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria in each. IMD is a key biological cause in IS. Early screening for IMD is warranted in IS infants to facilitate the improvement for the prognosis and an early etiological treatment. PMID:25417060

  20. Contrast Sensitivity Is Reduced in Children with Infantile Spasms

    PubMed Central

    Mirabella, Giuseppe; Morong, Sharon; Buncic, J. Raymond; Snead, O. Carter; Logan, William J.; Weiss, Shelly K.; Abdolell, Mohamed; Westall, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether visual deficits in children with infantile spasm (IS) are the result of seizure activity or of treatment with the anticonvulsant drug vigabatrin (VGB). Methods Vision function was determined in three experiments by determining peak contrast sensitivity (CS) and grating acuity (GA) with the sweep visual evoked potential. Cross-sectional study A: 34 children, including 11 patients with childhood epilepsy with exposure to VGB for at least 6 months, 10 with childhood epilepsy exposed to antiepileptic drugs other than VGB, and 13 normally developing children. Cross-sectional study B: 32 children, including 16 with IS naïve to VGB and 16 normally developing children. Longitudinal study: seven children with IS naïve to VGB, with subsequent follow-up 5 to 10 months after starting VGB. Results In cross-sectional study A, the median CS was reduced by 0.5 log units (P = 0.025) in children with epilepsy exposed to VGB compared with those exposed to other antiepileptic drugs and normally developing children. In cross-sectional study B, the median CS was reduced by 0.25 log units (P = 0.0015) in children with IS (VGB naïve) compared with normally developing children. Longitudinal assessment showed no decrease in CS in children with IS who were followed up 5 to 10 months after starting VGB. There was no difference in GA among groups in any of the experiments. Conclusions Patients with IS have CS deficits, but a sparing of GA. This deficit is present before VGB treatment and does not worsen with treatment onset. Results suggest that visual dysfunction is largely the result of the seizures themselves. PMID:17652730

  1. Mechanism of programmed cell death factor 4/nuclear factor-?B signaling pathway in porcine coronary micro-embolization-induced cardiac dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Su, Qiang; Li, Lang; Wang, Jiangyou; Zhou, You; Liu, Yangchun

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the programmed cell death factor 4 (PDCD4)/nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) signaling pathway in coronary micro-embolism (CME)-induced inflammatory responses and cardiac dysfunction in a porcine model. Bama miniature pigs were randomly divided into four groups (n?=?5 per group). Micro-embolization balls or saline were infused through a microcatheter in the left anterior descending (LAD) artery in the CME and Sham groups, respectively. PDCD4 siRNA or control siRNA mixed with transfection reagent was infused via the LAD artery 72?h before CME induction in the CME + siRNA-PDCD4 and siRNA-control groups, respectively. Cardiac function was evaluated with ultrasound. Tissue biopsy was stained with hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and hematoxylin basic fuchsin picric acid (HBFP) to measure infarction area. Myocardial PDCD4 and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) mRNA and protein expression were analyzed by quantitative PCR and Western blotting. NF-?B activity was evaluated in gel electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Echocardiographic parameters showed that compared with the sham group, the CME group had impaired heart function, manifested as systolic dysfunction and left ventricular dilatation (reduced left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF], left ventricular fractional shortening [FS], and cardiac output [CO] [P?induced cardiac function damage (increased LVEF, FS and CO [P?induced cardiac dysfunction, suggesting that inhibition of PDCD4/NF-?B signaling pathway may be a potential target for the prevention and treatment of CME. PMID:25769315

  2. [Two catheters for one coronary perforation].

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Lucia; Verdoia, Monica; Schaffer, Alon; Marino, Paolo; De Luca, Giuseppe

    2015-02-01

    Coronary perforation is a severe complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with high mortality and morbidity. The incidence of coronary perforation in patients undergoing PCI ranges from 0.1% to 0.5%. The use of long balloon inflation and reversal anticoagulation is associated with high mortality, periprocedural myocardial infarction and emergency coronary bypass surgery. We present a case of severe coronary perforation treated with the dual catheter technique through the radial and femoral approach. The dual catheter technique enabled rapid delivery of a covered stent without losing control of the perforation site. Our patient did not show pericardial effusion, hemodynamic instability or need for emergency bypass surgery. About 1h after PCI, he developed acute stent thrombosis treated with thromboaspiration and biolimus-eluting stent implantation. At 2 years of follow-up, he was asymptomatic without evidence of exercise-induced ischemia. We conclude that the dual catheter technique is a safe and effective approach to treat PCI-induced severe coronary perforation, and may significantly improve patient outcome compared to historical series. PMID:25805096

  3. Mechanisms of myocardium-coronary vessel interaction

    PubMed Central

    Algranati, Dotan; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the contracting myocardium exerts extravascular forces (intramyocardial pressure, IMP) on coronary blood vessels and by which it affects the coronary flow remain incompletely understood. Several myocardium-vessel interaction (MVI) mechanisms have been proposed, but none can account for all the major flow features. In the present study, we hypothesized that only a specific combination of MVI mechanisms can account for all observed coronary flow features. Three basic interaction mechanisms (time-varying elasticity, myocardial shortening-induced intracellular pressure, and ventricular cavity-induced extracellular pressure) and their combinations were analyzed based on physical principles (conservation of mass and force equilibrium) in a realistic data-based vascular network. Mechanical properties of both vessel wall and myocardium were coupled through stress analysis to simulate the response of vessels to internal blood pressure and external (myocardial) mechanical loading. Predictions of transmural dynamic vascular pressure, diameter, and flow velocity were determined under each MVI mechanism and compared with reported data. The results show that none of the three basic mechanisms alone can account for the measured data. Only the combined effect of the cavity-induced extracellular pressure and the shortening-induced intramyocyte pressure provides good agreement with the majority of measurements. These findings have important implications for elucidating the physical basis of IMP and for understanding coronary phasic flow and coronary artery and microcirculatory disease. PMID:19966048

  4. Defining the at risk patients for contrast induced nephropathy after coronary angiography; 24-h urine creatinine versus Cockcroft-Gault equation or serum creatinine level

    PubMed Central

    Assareh, Ahmadreza; Yazdankhah, Saeed; Ahmadzadeh, Ahmad; Yadollahzadeh, Mahdi; Nasehi, Nasim; Haybar, Habib

    2012-01-01

    Background: Definitions of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in many catheterization laboratories have relied on the serum creatinine (Scr) rather than glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Regarding that CKD is the primary predisposing factor for contrast induced nephropathy (CIN), we compared the sensitivity of calculated GFR by 24-h Urine creatinine with Cockcroft-Gault (CG) equation and Scr level to define at risk patients for CIN who were undergone coronary angiography (CAG). Materials and Methods: Two hundred fifty four subjects who were candidate for CAG and had normal creatinine level were enrolled. Before CAG, GFR was calculated from a 24-h urine collection, CG equation and a single Scr sample regarding to previously described protocol. Contrast volume used for each case <100 ml. CIN was defined as a 0.5 mg/dL or 25% elevation in the Scr. Results: CIN occurred in 10.6%. Baseline GFR, the volume of contrast agent, and diabetes were the independent risk factors for CIN. GFR was less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 in 28% and 23.2% of patients regarding to 24-h urine creatinine and CG equation, respectively. In CIN prediction, 24-h urine creatinine estimated GFR had 85.2%, 59.3% and CG equation GFR had 78.9%, 81.1% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Conclusion: Although, GFR estimated by CG equation has less sensitivity than GFR calculated from 24-h creatinine in CIN probability, but it is better than Scr alone and because of cost-effectiveness and convenience using of this method, we suggest at least using CG equation for GFR calculation before CIN, especially in diabetic and/or older than 60 years cases. PMID:23826014

  5. Diagnostic Ultrasound Induced Inertial Cavitation to Non-Invasively Restore Coronary and Microvascular Flow in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Feng; Gao, Shunji; Wu, Juefei; Lof, John; Radio, Stanley; Vignon, Francois; Shi, William; Powers, Jeffry; Unger, Evan; Everbach, E. Carr; Liu, Jinjin; Porter, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound induced cavitation has been explored as a method of dissolving intravascular and microvascular thrombi in acute myocardial infarction. The purpose of this study was to determine the type of cavitation required for success, and whether longer pulse duration therapeutic impulses (sustaining the duration of cavitation) could restore both microvascular and epicardial flow with this technique. Accordingly, in 36 hyperlipidemic atherosclerotic pigs, thrombotic occlusions were induced in the mid-left anterior descending artery. Pigs were then randomized to either a) ½ dose tissue plasminogen activator (0.5 mg/kg) alone; or same dose plasminogen activator and an intravenous microbubble infusion with either b) guided high mechanical index short pulse (2.0 MI; 5 usec) therapeutic ultrasound impulses; or c) guided 1.0 mechanical index long pulse (20 usec) impulses. Passive cavitation detectors indicated the high mechanical index impulses (both long and short pulse duration) induced inertial cavitation within the microvasculature. Epicardial recanalization rates following randomized treatments were highest in pigs treated with the long pulse duration therapeutic impulses (83% versus 59% for short pulse, and 49% for tissue plasminogen activator alone; p<0.05). Even without epicardial recanalization, however, early microvascular recovery occurred with both short and long pulse therapeutic impulses (p<0.005 compared to tissue plasminogen activator alone), and wall thickening improved within the risk area only in pigs treated with ultrasound and microbubbles. We conclude that although short pulse duration guided therapeutic impulses from a diagnostic transducer transiently improve microvascular flow, long pulse duration therapeutic impulses produce sustained epicardial and microvascular re-flow in acute myocardial infarction. PMID:23922797

  6. Idiopathic carotid and coronary vasospasm: A case treated by carotid artery stenting

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimoto, Haruko; Asakuno, Keizo; Matsuo, Seigo; Ishida, Atsushi; Shiramizu, Hideki; Niimura, Kaku; Yuzawa, Miki; Yamagishi, Yasumichi; Munakata, Takehiko; Moriyama, Takashi; Hori, Tomokatsu

    2014-01-01

    Background: We previously reported a case of cerebral infarction complicated by myocardial infarction. The pathogenesis of both infarctions was thought to be vasospasm; thus, we named this condition ‘idiopathic carotid and coronary vasospasm’. Various medical treatments for the prevention of carotid vasospasm have been unsuccessfully tried. Thus, other effective treatments should be established for patients who frequently suffer cerebral ischemic attacks. Case Description: We treated the present case of ‘idiopathic carotid and coronary vasospasm’ by carotid artery stenting (CAS). The first stenting, of the carotid bifurcation, failed to prevent internal carotid artery (ICA) vasospasm. However, after an additional stent placement to the prepetrous portion, ischemic attacks were dramatically reduced. Conclusion: The effect of CAS for extracranial ICA vasospasm was dramatic and control of the spasm at the prepetrous portion seems to be essential. Further validation of the effectiveness and safety of CAS for ICA vasospasm will be necessary. PMID:25422789

  7. Infantile spasms and 15q11.2q13.1 chromosome duplication in two successive generations.

    PubMed

    Riikonen, Raili Sylvia; Wallden, Tiina; Kokkonen, Hannaleena

    2016-01-01

    Familial cases of West syndrome have been reported only in Japan. In that study no chromosomal analyses were made. It has been suggested that microarray analysis should be included in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with infantile spasms and developmental delay, when an evaluation for structural brain lesions and metabolic disorders reveal no abnormal findings. We report here the first case of infantile spasms and 15q11.2q13.1 chromosome duplication in two successive generations. The daughter and mother with infantile spasms, and the autistic son had the duplication. The clinical course of infantile spasms was very similar in the mother and daughter. The spasms were primarily considered to be of unknown aetiology. Chromosomal microarray analysis revealed a 6.2 Mb size 15q11.2q13.1 duplication. The duplication belongs to the 15q11q13 duplication syndrome (OMIM 608636) which when maternally derived is characterised by neuro-behavioural disorders like autism, hypotonia, cognitive deficit, language delay and epilepsy. The proportion of patients with unknown aetiology for infantile spasms will decrease when more careful chromosomal studies are made. Our report expands the phenotype of chromosome 15q duplication syndrome and is the first report of this abnormality in two successive generations of infantile spasms. PMID:26685108

  8. Prenatal corticosteroids modify glutamatergic and GABAergic synapse genomic fabric: Insights from a novel animal model of infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    Iacobas, D.A.; Iacobas, S.; Chachua, T.; Goletiani, C.; Sidyelyeva, G.; Velíšková, J.; Velíšek, L.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Prenatal exposure to corticosteroids has long-term postnatal somatic and neurodevelopmental consequences. Animal studies indicate that corticosteroid exposure-associated alterations in the nervous system include hypothalamic function. Infants with infantile spasms, a devastating epileptic syndrome of infancy with characteristic spastic seizures, chaotic irregular waves on interictal electroencephalogram (EEG; hypsarhythmia) and mental deterioration, have decreased concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol in cerebrospinal fluid strongly suggesting hypothalamic dysfunction. We have exploited this feature to develop a model of human infantile spasms by using repeated prenatal exposure to betamethasone and postnatal trigger of developmentally relevant spasms with N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA). The spasms triggered in prenatally primed rats are more severe compared to prenatally saline-injected ones and respond to ACTH, a treatment of choice for infantile spasms in humans. Using autoradiography and immunohistochemistry, we have identified a link between the spasms in our model and hypothalamus, especially the arcuate nucleus. Transcriptomic analysis of the arcuate nucleus after prenatal priming with betamethasone but before trigger of spasms indicates that prenatal betamethasone exposure down-regulates genes encoding several important proteins participating in glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission. Interestingly, there were significant sex-specific alterations after prenatal betamethasone in synapse-related gene expression but no such sex differences were found in prenatally saline-injected controls. A pair-wise relevance analysis revealed that, although the synapse gene expression in controls was independent of sex, these genes form topologically distinct gene fabrics in males and females and these fabrics are altered by betamethasone in a sex-specific manner. These findings may explain the sex differences in both normal behaviour and occurrence and severity of infantile spasms. Changes in transcript expression and their coordination may contribute to a molecular substrate of permanent neurodevelopmental changes (including infantile spasms) found after prenatal exposure to corticosteroids. PMID:23763471

  9. Prenatal corticosteroids modify glutamatergic and GABAergic synapse genomic fabric: insights from a novel animal model of infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Iacobas, D A; Iacobas, S; Chachua, T; Goletiani, C; Sidyelyeva, G; Velíšková, J; Velíšek, L

    2013-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to corticosteroids has long-term postnatal somatic and neurodevelopmental consequences. Animal studies indicate that corticosteroid exposure-associated alterations in the nervous system include hypothalamic function. Infants with infantile spasms, a devastating epileptic syndrome of infancy with characteristic spastic seizures, chaotic irregular waves on interictal electroencephalogram (hypsarhythmia) and mental deterioration, have decreased concentrations of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol in cerebrospinal fluid, strongly suggesting hypothalamic dysfunction. We have exploited this feature to develop a model of human infantile spasms by using repeated prenatal exposure to betamethasone and a postnatal trigger of developmentally relevant spasms with NMDA. The spasms triggered in prenatally primed rats are more severe compared to prenatally saline-injected ones and respond to ACTH, a treatment of choice for infantile spasms in humans. Using autoradiography and immunohistochemistry, we have identified a link between the spasms in our model and the hypothalamus, especially the arcuate nucleus. Transcriptomic analysis of the arcuate nucleus after prenatal priming with betamethasone but before trigger of spasms indicates that prenatal betamethasone exposure down-regulates genes encoding several important proteins participating in glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission. Interestingly, there were significant sex-specific alterations after prenatal betamethasone in synapse-related gene expression but no such sex differences were found in prenatally saline-injected controls. A pairwise relevance analysis revealed that, although the synapse gene expression in controls was independent of sex, these genes form topologically distinct gene fabrics in males and females and these fabrics are altered by betamethasone in a sex-specific manner. These findings may explain the sex differences with respect to both normal behaviour and the occurrence and severity of infantile spasms. Changes in transcript expression and their coordination may contribute to a molecular substrate of permanent neurodevelopmental changes (including infantile spasms) found after prenatal exposure to corticosteroids. PMID:23763471

  10. Randomised Clinical Efficacy Trial of Topiramate and Nitrazepam in Treatment of Infantile Spasms

    PubMed Central

    FALLAH, Razieh; SALOR, Fahimah; AKHAVAN KARBASI, Sedighah; MOTAGHIPISHEH, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Infantile spasms (IS) are among the most catastrophic epileptic syndromes of infancy. The purpose of this study was to compare efficacy and safety of topiramate (TPM) and nitrazepam (NZP) as first-line drugs in the treatment of IS. Materials & Methods In a parallel single-blinded randomized clinical trial, 50 patients with IS referred to Pediatric Neurology Clinic of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran, were evaluated from September 2008 to March 2010. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups to be treated with TPM or with NZP for 6 months. The primary endpoint was efficacy in cessation of all spasms or reduction of more than 50% in weekly seizure frequency, which was evaluated before and 6 months after the drug use. Secondary outcome was clinical sideeffects of the drugs. Results Twenty boys (40%) and 30 girls (60%) with the mean age of 9.4±3.8 months were evaluated. Cessation of all spasms occurred in 12 (48%) infants in TPM group and 4(16%) in NZP group. Eight (32%) children in TPM group and 7 (28%) in NZP group had more than 50% reduction in spasms frequency. So, TPM was more effective. Side effects were seen in 32% of TPM and in 36% of NZP groups. Conclusion Topiramate is an effective and safe drug, which might be considered as the firstline drug for the treatment of ISs. PMID:24665322

  11. Optimizing Care With a Standardized Management Protocol for Patients With Infantile Spasms.

    PubMed

    Fedak, Erin M; Patel, Anup D; Heyer, Geoffrey L; Wood, Eric G; Mytinger, John R

    2015-09-01

    The primary aim of this quality improvement initiative was to increase the number of patients receiving first-line therapy (adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosteroids, vigabatrin) as the initial treatment for infantile spasms. We implemented a standardized management protocol for infantile spasms based on the best available data and expert consensus. To assess the impact of this intervention, we compared the 3-month remission rates between prestandardization (January 2009 to August 2012) and poststandardization (September 2012 to May 2014) cohorts. We found that the percentage of patients receiving first-line therapy as the initial treatment was 57% (31/54) in the prestandardization cohort and 100% (35/35) in the poststandardization cohort (P < .001). The rate of infantile spasms remission was higher poststandardization compared to prestandardization (78.8% vs 30.6%, P < .001). Management standardization led to all patients receiving first-line therapy as the initial treatment and was associated with a significantly improved rate of infantile spasms remission 3 months after diagnosis. PMID:25535057

  12. Treatment of infantile spasms with very high dose prednisolone before high dose ACTH

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Shaun A.; Shinnar, Shlomo; Kwong, Grace; Lerner, Jason T.; Matsumoto, Joyce H.; Wu, Joyce Y.; Shields, W. Donald; Sankar, Raman

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objective This study investigated the short-term response to a standardized hormonal therapy protocol for treatment of infantile spasms. Methods Twenty-seven children with video-EEG confirmed infantile spasms received very high dose (8 mg/kg/day, max 60 mg/day) oral prednisolone for 2 weeks. Response (absence of both hypsarrhythmia and spasms) to prednisolone was ascertained by repeat overnight video-EEG. Responders were tapered off over 2 weeks and non-responders were immediately transitioned to high dose (150 IU/m2/day) intramuscular ACTH for 2 additional weeks. Response was again determined by overnight video-EEG after ACTH therapy. Results Sixty-three percent (17/27) of patients responded completely to prednisolone. Subsequently, 40% (4/10) of prednisolone non-responders exhibited a complete response after an additional 2-week course with ACTH. Among 27 subjects with median follow-up of 13.5 months (interquartile range 4.8-25.9), 12% (2/17) of prednisolone responders and 50% (2/4) of ACTH responders experienced a relapse between 2 and 9 months after initial response. Significance Very high dose prednisolone demonstrated significantly higher efficacy than previously reported for lower doses in prior studies. High dose ACTH may be superior to very high dose prednisolone, and in lieu of a definitive clinical trial, the choice between prednisolone and ACTH for initial treatment of infantile spasms remains controversial. PMID:24446954

  13. Massive expansion of SCA2 with autonomic dysfunction, retinitis pigmentosa, and infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    Shafrir, Y.; Hrivnak, J.; Patterson, M.C.; Tennison, M.B.; Clark, H.B.; Gomez, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide clinical data on a cohort of 6 patients with massive expansion (>200 CAG repeats) of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) and investigate possible pathways of pathogenesis using bioinformatics analysis of ATXN2 networks. Methods: We present data on 6 patients with massive expansion of SCA2 who presented in infancy with variable combinations of hypotonia, global developmental delay, infantile spasms, and retinitis pigmentosa. ATXN2 is known to interact with a network of synaptic proteins. To investigate pathways of pathogenesis, we performed bioinformatics analysis on ATXN2 combined with known genes associated with infantile spasms, retinitis pigmentosa, and synaptic function. Results: All patients had a progressive encephalopathy with autonomic dysfunction, 4 had retinitis pigmentosa, and 3 had infantile spasms. The bioinformatics analysis led to several interesting findings. First, an interaction between ATXN2 and SYNJ1 may account for the development of retinitis pigmentosa. Second, dysfunction of postsynaptic vesicle endocytosis may be important in children with this progressive encephalopathy. Infantile spasms may be associated with interactions between ATXN2 and the postsynaptic structural proteins MAGI2 and SPTAN1. Conclusions: Severe phenotype in children with massive expansion of SCA2 may be due to a functional deficit in protein networks in the postsynapse, specifically involving vesicle endocytosis. PMID:21880993

  14. Reduced Visual Function Associated with Infantile Spasms in Children on Vigabatrin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hammoudi, Dena S.; Lee, Sophia S. F.; Madison, Adena; Mirabella, Giuseppe; Buncic, J. Raymond; Logan, William J.; Snead, O. Carter; Westall, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To use visual evoked potential (VEP) testing to determine whether visual deficits are present in children with a history of vigabatrin use. Methods Contrast sensitivity and visual acuity were assessed by visual evoked potential testing and compared between 28 children (mean age, 4.90 ± 4.92 years) with seizure disorders who had taken vigabatrin and 14 typically developing children (mean age, 3.14 ± 1.70 years). Exclusion criteria were heritable eye disease, suspected cortical visual impairment, nystagmus, and prematurity >2 weeks. The effects of the following factors on contrast sensitivity and visual acuity were examined: type of seizure (infantile spasms versus other), ERG result, duration of vigabatrin therapy, cumulative dosage of vigabatrin, and other seizure medications (other versus no other medication). Results Contrast sensitivity and visual acuity were reduced in vigabatrin-treated children with infantile spasms compared with vigabatrin-treated children with other seizure disorders and typically developing control subjects. The other factors examined had no significant effect on contrast sensitivity or visual acuity, with adjustment for seizure type. Conclusions Children with infantile spasms on vigabatrin may have compromised visual function, even in the absence of suspected cortical visual impairment. The children tested in the present study have reduced vision, probably associated with infantile spasms rather than vigabatrin. PMID:15671276

  15. Severe spasm of the renal artery after blunt abdominal trauma simulating end-organ infarction.

    PubMed

    Ucar, Adem; Yahyayev, Aghakishi; Agayev, Ayaz; Yanar, Fatih; Bakan, Selim; Bulakci, Mesut; Akman, Tolga; Yekeler, Ensar

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic occlusion of the renal artery is a serious injury. Management differs according to the grade of injury. In most circumstances, emergency surgical revascularization or endovascular intervention is required. We describe the case of a child with multiorgan injuries and spasm of the main renal artery after blunt trauma simulating arterial occlusion or end-organ infarction. PMID:21209808

  16. Severe Spasm of the Renal Artery after Blunt Abdominal Trauma Simulating End-Organ Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ucar, Adem; Yahyayev, Aghakishi; Agayev, Ayaz; Yanar, Fatih; Bakan, Selim; Bulakci, Mesut; Akman, Tolga; Yekeler, Ensar

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic occlusion of the renal artery is a serious injury. Management differs according to the grade of injury. In most circumstances, emergency surgical revascularization or endovascular intervention is required. We describe the case of a child with multiorgan injuries and spasm of the main renal artery after blunt trauma simulating arterial occlusion or end-organ infarction. PMID:21209808

  17. Catheter-induced dissection of the left main coronary artery, the nemesis of an invasive cardiologist A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jain, Deepak; Kurowski, Volkhard; Katus, Hugo A; Richardt, Gert

    2002-10-01

    An elderly gentleman had a dissection of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) during coronary angiography. There were critical lesions in the left anterior descending (LAD) and left circumflex arteries. Both the LMCA and the LAD lesions were successfully stented in the same sitting. Thereafter the patient remained symptom free and the six-month follow-up angiogram revealed good angioplasty results in both lesions. We report this case for two reasons - first, acute dissection of the LMCA is a rare but devastating complication of selective coronary angiography and the situation becomes graver if the branch vessels have critical stenosis; that this could be managed percutaneously needs to be highlighted, and second, the case offers an opportunity to review literature pertinent to this awesome occurrence in the catheterization laboratory. PMID:12395225

  18. A systematic review of the pathophysiology of 5-fluorouracil-induced cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiotoxicity is a serious side effect to treatment with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the pathophysiology of 5-FU- induced cardiotoxicity. Methods We systematically searched PubMed for articles in English using the search terms: 5-FU OR 5-fluorouracil OR capecitabine AND cardiotoxicity. Papers evaluating the pathophysiology of this cardiotoxicity were included. Results We identified 27 articles of 26 studies concerning the pathophysiology of 5-FU-induced cardiotoxicity. The studies demonstrated 5-FU-induced: hemorrhagic infarction, interstitial fibrosis and inflammatory reaction in the myocardium; damage of the arterial endothelium followed by platelet aggregation; increased myocardial energy metabolism and depletion of high energy phosphate compounds; increased superoxide anion levels and a reduced antioxidant capacity; vasoconstriction of arteries; changes in red blood cell (RBC) structure, function and metabolism; alterations in plasma levels of substances involved in coagulation and fibrinolysis and increased endothelin-1 levels and N-terminal-pro brain natriuretic peptide levels. Based on these findings the proposed mechanisms are: endothelial injury followed by thrombosis, increased metabolism leading to energy depletion and ischemia, oxidative stress causing cellular damage, coronary artery spasm leading to myocardial ischemia and diminished ability of RBCs to transfer oxygen resulting in myocardial ischemia. Conclusions There is no evidence for a single mechanism responsible for 5-FU-induced cardiotoxicity, and the underlying mechanisms might be multifactorial. Further research is needed to elucidate the pathogenesis of this side effect. PMID:25186061

  19. What Causes Coronary Microvascular Disease?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Angina Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors ... Microvascular Disease? The same risk factors that cause atherosclerosis may cause coronary microvascular disease. Atherosclerosis is a ...

  20. Predictive Value of Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase Levels for Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Who Underwent Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Oksuz, Fatih; Yarlioglues, Mikail; Cay, Serkan; Celik, Ibrahim Ethem; Mendi, Mehmet Ali; Kurtul, Alparslan; Cankurt, Tayyar; Kuyumcu, Serdar; Canpolat, U?ur; Turak, Osman

    2015-09-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is associated with adverse short- and long-term outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) for risk of CIN in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who underwent PPCI. A total of 473 patients were enrolled in the study. A relative increase in serum creatinine ?25%, or an absolute increase ?0.5 mg/dl, from the baseline within 72 hours of contrast exposure was defined as CIN. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to GGT tertiles (tertile 1, GGT <19 U/L; tertile 2, GGT 19 to 33 U/L; and tertile 3, GGT >33 U/L) on admission. Demographics, clinical risk factors, laboratory parameters, CIN incidence, and other inhospital clinical outcomes were compared among GGT tertiles. CIN incidence was significantly higher in tertile 3 (29%) compared with tertiles 1 (11%) and 2 (11%, p <0.001). Inhospital death incidence was significantly increased across tertiles (from tertile 1 to tertiles 2 and 3, 1%, 4%, and 5%, respectively, p <0.05). In receiver operating characteristic analysis, a threshold value of GGT >26.5 U/L had 70% sensitivity and 60% specificity for CIN. After including variables found significant in univariate analysis, the presence of diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR] 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22 to 2.31, p <0.001), C-reactive protein (for each 1 mg/L increase; OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.02, p = 0.007), contrast volume (for each 1-ml increase; OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.02, p = 0.012), and GGT >26.5 U/L (OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.48 to 4.53, p <0.001) were found as independent associates of CIN in multivariate regression analysis. Each 1 U/L increase in GGT was also associated with CIN risk (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.06, p <0.001). In conclusion, GGT on admission was a significant and independent predictor of CIN after PPCI in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. PMID:26116992

  1. ACTH TREATMENT OF INFANTILE SPASMS: MECHANISMS OF ITS EFFECTS IN MODULATION OF NEURONAL EXCITABILITY

    PubMed Central

    Brunson, K. L.; Avishai-Eliner, S.; Baram, T. Z.

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of ACTH, particularly in high doses, for rapid and complete elimination of infantile spasms (IS) has been demonstrated in prospective controlled studies. However, the mechanisms for this efficacy remain unknown. ACTH promotes the release of adrenal steroids (glucocorticoids), and most ACTH effects on the central nervous system have been attributed to activation of glucocorticoid receptors. The manner in which activation of these receptors improves IS and the basis for the enhanced therapeutic effects of ACTH — compared with steroids — for this disorder are the focus of this chapter. First, a possible “common excitatory pathway,” which is consistent with the many etiologies of IS and explains the confinement of this disorder to infancy, is proposed. This notion is based on the fact that all of the entities provoking IS activate the native “stress system” of the brain. This involves increased synthesis and release of the stress-activated neuropeptide, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), in limbic, seizure-prone brain regions. CRH causes severe seizures in developing experimental animals, as well as limbic neuronal injury. Steroids, given as therapy or secreted from the adrenal gland upon treatment with ACTH, decrease the production and release of CRH in certain brain regions. Second, the hypothesis that ACTH directly influences limbic neurons via the recently characterized melanocortin receptors is considered, focusing on the effects of ACTH on the expression of CRH. Experimental data showing that ACTH potently reduces CRH expression in amygdala neurons is presented. This downregulation was not abolished by experimental elimination of steroids or by blocking their receptors and was reproduced by a centrally administered ACTH fragment that does not promote steroid release. Importantly, selective blocking of melanocortin receptors prevented ACTH-induced downregulation of CRH expression, providing direct evidence for the involvement of these receptors in the mechanisms by which ACTH exerts this effect. Thus, ACTH may reduce neuronal excitability in IS by two mechanisms of action: (1) by inducing steroid release and (2) by a direct, steroid-independent action on melanocortin receptors. These combined effects may explain the robust established clinical effects of ACTH in the therapy of IS. PMID:12040892

  2. Assessment of coronary thrombolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Geltman, E.M.; Abendschein, D.R.; Devries, S.R.

    1987-02-01

    The efficacy of coronary thrombolysis may be assessed by several invasive and noninvasive means, including coronary angiography, contrast and radionuclide angiography, thallium 201 or /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate scintigraphy, positron emission tomography, cardiac ultrasonography, electrocardiography, and analysis of plasma creatine kinase activity. Each technique has its own strengths and limitations, but when used in concert these methods may provide insight into the physiology of coronary reperfusion and the efficacy of reperfusion in individual patients and populations. 104 references.

  3. Functional contribution of P2Y1 receptors to the control of coronary blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Berwick, Zachary C.; Laughlin, M. Harold; Tune, Johnathan D.

    2011-01-01

    Activation of ADP-sensitive P2Y1 receptors has been proposed as an integral step in the putative “nucleotide axis” regulating coronary blood flow. However, the specific mechanism(s) and overall contribution of P2Y1 receptors to the control of coronary blood flow have not been clearly defined. Using vertically integrative studies in isolated coronary arterioles and open-chest anesthetized dogs, we examined the hypothesis that P2Y1 receptors induce coronary vasodilation via an endothelium-dependent mechanism and contribute to coronary pressure-flow autoregulation and/or ischemic coronary vasodilation. Immunohistochemistry revealed P2Y1 receptor expression in coronary arteriolar endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. The ADP analog 2-methylthio-ADP induced arteriolar dilation in vitro and in vivo that was abolished by the selective P2Y1 antagonist MRS-2179 and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester. MRS-2179 did not alter baseline coronary flow in vivo but significantly attenuated coronary vasodilation to ATP in vitro and in vivo and the nonhydrolyzable ATP analog ATP?S in vitro. Coronary blood flow responses to alterations in coronary perfusion pressure (40–100 mmHg) or to a brief 15-s coronary artery occlusion were unaffected by MRS-2179. Our data reveal that P2Y1 receptors are functionally expressed in the coronary circulation and that activation produces coronary vasodilation via an endothelium/nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. Although these receptors represent a critical component of purinergic coronary vasodilation, our findings indicate that P2Y1 receptor activation is not required for coronary pressure-flow autoregulation or reactive hyperemia. PMID:21940850

  4. Acute Coronary Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Take note of these common signs of an acute coronary syndrome: Chest pain or discomfort, which may involve pressure, tightness ... 9-1-1. They’re not being alarmist.” Chest pain caused by acute coronary syndromes can come on suddenly, as is the case ...

  5. Acute coronary syndromes in young women – the scale of the problem and the associated risks

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of the cardiovascular system mainly affect elderly patients, but they are increasingly often encountered in young individuals. It is estimated that 1 in 20 patients with ischemic heart disease is under the age of 45 years. Only 20% of them are women. According to the PL-ACS register, cases of acute coronary syndromes in young women represent 0.6% of all acute coronary syndrome cases. The most common etiology is atherosclerosis (80%). Other causes include dissections and spasms of the coronary arteries as well as clotting disorders. Smoking tobacco is the most important risk factor, followed by hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. The long-term prognosis is usually favorable, but it deteriorates significantly in the event of complications. The literature on this subject is not extensive. Most data come from non-randomized studies of young patients conducted regardless of sex. The purpose of this paper is to present the problem posed by acute coronary syndromes in young women. PMID:26336495

  6. Clinical profile of vigabatrin as monotherapy for treatment of infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Jason T; Salamon, Noriko; Sankar, Raman

    2010-01-01

    Vigabatrin, the first therapeutic agent to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of infantile spasms, as well as for adjunctive use in the treatment of refractory complex partial epilepsy, represents an important advance for patients with difficult-to-manage epilepsy. This review summarizes the complex history, chemistry, and pharmacology, as well as the clinical data leading to the approval of vigabatrin for infantile spasms in the US. The long path to its approval reflects the visual system and white matter toxicity concerns with this agent. This review provides a brief description of these concerns, and the regulatory safety monitoring and mitigation systems that have been put in place to enhance benefit over risk. PMID:21127692

  7. CDKL5/STK9 is mutated in Rett syndrome variant with infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    Scala, E; Ariani, F; Mari, F; Caselli, R; Pescucci, C; Longo, I; Meloni, I; Giachino, D; Bruttini, M; Hayek, G; Zappella, M; Renieri, A

    2005-01-01

    Background: Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder, almost exclusively affecting females and characterised by a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Both the classic form and preserved speech variant of Rett syndrome are due to mutations in the MECP2 gene. Several other variants of Rett syndrome have been described. In 1985, Hanefeld described a variant with the early appearance of convulsions. In this variant, the normal perinatal period is soon followed by the appearance of seizures, usually infantile spasms. We have observed two patients with signs of Rett syndrome showing acquired microcephaly and stereotypic midline hand movements. The disease started with generalised convulsions and myoclonic fits at 1.5 months in the first patient and with spasms at 10 days in the other, suggesting a diagnosis of the Hanefeld variant. In these patients, MECP2 point mutations and gross rearrangements were excluded by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography and real time quantitative PCR. The ARX and CDKL5 genes have been associated with West syndrome (infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia, and mental retardation). Methods: Based on the clinical overlap between the Hanefeld variant and West syndrome, we analysed ARX and CDKL5 in the two girls. Results: We found frameshift deletions in CDKL5 in both patients; one in exon 5 (c.163_166delGAAA) and the other in exon 18 (c.2635_2636delCT). CDKL5 was then analysed in 19 classic Rett and 15 preserved speech variant patients, all MECP2 negative, but no mutations were found. Conclusion: Our results show that CDKL5 is responsible for a rare variant of Rett syndrome characterised by early development of convulsions, usually of the spasm type. PMID:15689447

  8. SCN2A mutation is associated with infantile spasms and bitemporal glucose hypometabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Senthil K; Chugani, Harry T; Tiwari, Vijay N; Huq, AHM M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Genetic mutations play crucial role in the etiology of cryptogenic infantile spasms but the cause is still unknown in a significant proportion of patients. Whole exome sequencing technology shows great promise in identifying genetic causes of infantile spasms. METHODS We performed whole exome sequencing and 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography scan of a male child with infantile spasms. Exome sequencing was also performed in parents to identify any de novo mutations. RESULTS The positron emission tomography scan showed a pattern of bilateral symmetric temporal lobe glucose hypometabolism. A total of 8171 non-synonymous variants were identified in the child. Despite the large number of nonsynonymous variants, there was only a single de novo missense mutation in SCN2A in the child (NCBI hg19 assembly, position: Chr2:166234116, K1422E). Subsequent Sanger sequencing confirmed the de novo status of this variant. This mutation has never been reported in 6500 individuals of the exome variant server database. Similarly, this variant is not reported in online mendelian inheritance in man database or human gene mutation database. It has previously been shown that SCN2A mutations are associated with hippocampal hyperexcitability. Therefore, we speculate that IS and bitemporal hypometabolism in our patient might have been caused by hippocampal hyperexcitability due to SCN2A mutation. CONCLUSIONS The simultaneous presence of an SCN2A mutation and bitemporal hypometabolism in this patient with infantile spasms suggests a plausible hippocampal origin. However, additional mechanistic and clinical studies are required to validate this link. PMID:23827426

  9. High-dose Corticotropin (ACTH) Versus Prednisone for Infantile Spasms: A Prospective, Randomized, Blinded Study

    PubMed Central

    Baram, Tallie Z.; Mitchell, Wendy G.; Tournay, Anne; Snead, O. Carter; Hanson, Rebecca A.; Horton, E. J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of corticotropin (ACTH) (150 U/m2/day) and prednisone (2 mg/kg/day), given for 2 weeks, in suppressing clinical spasms and hypsarrhythmic electroencephalogram (EEG) in infantile spasms (IS). ACTH and prednisone are standard treatments for IS. ACTH at high doses causes severe dose- and duration-dependent side effects, but may be superior to prednisone, based on retrospective or uncontrolled studies. Blinded prospective studies have shown equal efficacy of prednisone and low-dose ACTH, and low versus high-dose ACTH. Design A prospective, randomized, single-blinded study. Subjects and Methods Patient population consisted of consecutive infants fulfilling entry criteria, including the presence of clinical spasms, hypsarrhythmia (or variants) during a full sleep cycle video-EEG, and no prior steroid/ACTH treatment. Response required both cessation of spasms and elimination of hypsarrhythmia by the end of the 2-week treatment period, as determined by an investigator “blinded” to treatment. Treatment of re-sponders was tapered off over 12 days; those failing one hormone were crossed-over to the other. Results Of 34 eligible infants, 29 were enrolled. Median age of patients was 6 months. Twenty-two infants were “symptomatic” with known or suspected cause, and seven were cryptogenic (two normal). Of 15 infants randomized to ACTH, 13 responded by both EEG and clinical criteria (86.6%); seizures stopped in an additional infant, but EEG remained hypsarrhythmic (considered a failure). Four of 14 patients given prednisone responded (28.6%, with complete clinical-EEG correlation), significantly less than with ACTH, (?2 test). Conclusions Using a prospective, randomized approach, a 2-week course of high-dose ACTH is superior to 2 weeks of prednisone for treatment of IS, as assessed by both clinical and EEG criteria. PMID:8604274

  10. Occurrence of bilaterally independent epileptic spasms after a corpus callosotomy in West syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Endoh, Fumika; Toda, Yoshihiro; Oka, Makio; Baba, Hiroshi; Ohtsuka, Yoko; Yoshinaga, Harumi

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with intractable West syndrome whose epileptic spasms (ESs) were initially bilaterally synchronous, as is typical; after a complete corpus callosotomy, however, bilaterally independent ESs originated in either hemisphere. Activity of probable cortical origin associated with ESs was detected by observing ictal gamma oscillations. Brain MRI revealed no structural abnormality before surgery. This case suggests that ESs with a hemispheric origin may appear generalized because of synchronizing effects in the corpus callosum in some patients. PMID:25998967

  11. Low-dose copper infusion into the coronary circulation induces acute heart failure in diabetic rats: New mechanism of heart disease.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Carlos Chun Ho; Soon, Choong Yee; Chuang, Chia-Lin; Phillips, Anthony R J; Zhang, Shaoping; Cooper, Garth J S

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes impairs copper (Cu) regulation, causing elevated serum Cu and urinary Cu excretion in patients with established cardiovascular disease; it also causes cardiomyopathy and chronic cardiac impairment linked to defective Cu homeostasis in rats. However, the mechanisms that link impaired Cu regulation to cardiac dysfunction in diabetes are incompletely understood. Chronic treatment with triethylenetetramine (TETA), a Cu²?-selective chelator, improves cardiac function in diabetic patients, and in rats with heart disease; the latter displayed ?3-fold elevations in free Cu²? in the coronary effluent when TETA was infused into their coronary arteries. To further study the nature of defective cardiac Cu regulation in diabetes, we employed an isolated-perfused, working-heart model in which we infused micromolar doses of Cu²? into the coronary arteries and measured acute effects on cardiac function in diabetic and non-diabetic-control rats. Infusion of CuCl? solutions caused acute dose-dependent cardiac dysfunction in normal hearts. Several measures of baseline cardiac function were impaired in diabetic hearts, and these defects were exacerbated by low-micromolar Cu²? infusion. The response to infused Cu²? was augmented in diabetic hearts, which became defective at lower infusion levels and underwent complete pump failure (cardiac output = 0 ml/min) more often (P < 0.0001) at concentrations that only moderately impaired function of control hearts. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the acute effects on cardiac function of pathophysiological elevations in coronary Cu²?. The effects of Cu²? infusion occur within minutes in both control and diabetic hearts, which suggests that they are not due to remodelling. Heightened sensitivity to the acute effects of small elevations in Cu²? could contribute substantively to impaired cardiac function in patients with diabetes and is thus identified as a new mechanism of heart disease. PMID:26208785

  12. Effect of Price Increase of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone on Treatment Practices of Infantile Spasms

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Carter D.; Benke, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    Intramuscular adrenocorticotropic hormone putatively constitutes the most efficacious treatment for infantile spasms. Adrenocorticotropic hormone in the United States is an “orphan drug,” made by a single manufacturer. The price of adrenocorticotropic hormone increased almost 14-fold on August 27, 2007. We sought to evaluate the impact of this price increase on treatment practices at our institution, using a retrospective chart review of all children with infantile spasms treated during 2007-2009. We identified 97 patients whose spasms were treated using antiepileptic drugs, and we determined the length of stay for those hospitalized to initiate adrenocorticotropic hormone. Patients before the price increase were more likely to have been treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone as first medication, and were hospitalized 2.2 ± 0.5 S.D. days for initiation. Patients after the price increase were more likely to have been treated initially with oral antiepileptic drugs rather than adrenocorticotropic hormone (P < 0.002). Those commencing adrenocorticotropic hormone after the price increase were hospitalized significantly longer (5.1 ± 0.6 days S.D., P < 0.001). Treatment choices need to be evidence-based, but other factors often influence them. PMID:20691936

  13. Reduced Grating Acuity Associated with Retinal Toxicity in Children with Infantile Spasms on Vigabatrin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Durbin, Sivan; Mirabella, Giuseppe; Buncic, J. Raymond; Westall, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether visual functions are decreased in children with infantile spasms and vigabatrin-attributed retinal toxicity. Methods Contrast sensitivity and grating acuity were measured by using sweep visual evoked potential (VEP) testing in 42 children with infantile spasms (mean age, 29.23 ± 18.31 months). All children had been exposed to vigabatrin (VGB) for a minimum of 1 month. These children were divided into retinal toxicity and no toxicity groupings based on 30-Hz flicker amplitude reductions on the full-field electroretinogram. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) compared visual functions between children with and without retinal toxicity. Results The MANOVA showed that visual function was significantly affected by VGB retinal toxicity. Further univariate analysis revealed that grating acuity was significantly reduced in children with toxicity. No differences in contrast sensitivity were found between children with toxicity and those without. Conclusions Reduced visual functions from VGB-attributed retinal toxicity can be detected in children with infantile spasms with the sweep VEP. PMID:19279311

  14. A Case of Hemifacial Spasm Caused by an Artery Passing Through the Facial Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang Hyun; Shim, Yu Shik; Park, Hyeonseon

    2015-01-01

    Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a clinical syndrome characterized by unilateral facial nerve dysfunction. The usual cause involves vascular compression of the seventh cranial nerve, but compression by an artery passing through the facial nerve is very unusual. A 20-year-old man presented with left facial spasm that had persisted for 4 years. Compression of the left facial nerve root exit zone by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) was revealed on magnetic resonance angiography. During microvascular decompression surgery, penetration of the distal portion of the facial nerve root exit zone by the AICA was observed. At the penetrating site, the artery was found to have compressed the facial nerve and to be immobilized. The penetrated seventh cranial nerve was longitudinally split about 2 mm. The compressing artery was moved away from the penetrating site and the decompression was secured by inserting Teflon at the operative site. Although the facial spasm disappeared in the immediate postoperative period, the patient continued to show moderate facial weakness. At postoperative 12 months, the facial weakness had improved to a mild degree. Prior to performing microvascular decompression of HFS, surgeons should be aware of a possibility for rare complex anatomy, such as compression by an artery passing through the facial nerve, which cannot be observed by modern imaging techniques. PMID:25810866

  15. Autism spectrum disorders in children with a history of infantile spasms: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Saemundsen, Evald; Ludvigsson, Petur; Rafnsson, Vilhjalmur

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this article is to describe autistic spectrum disorders in children diagnosed with infantile spasms in the first year of life. The source of data was the records of all 3 pediatric departments in Iceland. Twenty children born between 1981 and 1998 who had infantile spasms were invited to participate. When appropriate, the parents of these children were asked to complete the Social Communication Questionnaire. Children scoring 10 points or higher on the questionnaire were selected for further examination using the Autism Diagnostic Interview- Revised and either the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule or the Childhood Autism Rating Scale. All participants were given appropriate cognitive tests or measures of adaptive behavior. The parents of 17 children (10 boys, 7 girls) agreed to participate in the study. Age at assessment ranged from 5 to 19 years with a mean age of 11 years and 6 months. Fourteen children had at least one neurodevelopmental disorder. Six (6/17), or 35.3%, were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (3 boys, 3 girls), five of these had a history of symptomatic infantile spasms, and four were profoundly mentally retarded (IQ/DQ<20). If the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder was restricted to children with a developmental age of 24 months or more (3 cases), the prevalence was 17.6%. The estimates found in this study exceed the estimated prevalence of autism spectrum disorder in the general population. PMID:17890408

  16. [Pregnancy and coronary artery dissection].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2015-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction during pregnancy is associated with high maternal and fetal mortality. Coronary atherosclerosis is the most common cause due to an increase in the age of the patients and the association with cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, and the existence of family history of coronary disease. However, thrombosis, coronary dissection or coronary vasospasms are other causes that may justify it. We report the case of a 33 weeks pregnant first-time mother, without cardiovascular risk factors, who presented an acute coronary event in the context of atherosclerotic disease and coronary dissection after percutaneous coronary intervention. PMID:25795261

  17. (1) Coronary Events Caused by Myocardial Bridge

    PubMed Central

    Yoko, Kawawa; Ehiichi, Kohda; Toshiharu, Ishii

    2009-01-01

    Myocardial bridge (MB), which covers a part of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), is a normal anatomical variant structure (45% in frequency by autopsy) in LAD. MB contraction plays the role of a “double-edged sword” on the coronary events, suppressing coronary atherosclerosis under the MB, yet generating abnormal blood flow associated with coronary heart diseases (CHDs). High shear stress driven by MB compression causes the suppression of vascular permeability and vasoactive protein expression such as e-NOS and endothelin-1, which leads to the suppression of atherosclerosis in the LAD segment under the MB. However, despite the prevalent view of MB as benignancy by conventional coronary angiography (5-6% in frequency), with advance of imaging technique such as multislice spiral computed tomography [(MSCT); 16% in frequency], cardiologists are now frequently aware of symptomatic MB occurring not only in hospitalized patients, but also in young athletes free from atherosclerosis. Moreover, the large mass volume of MB muscle induces atherosclerosis evolution at the settled site in LAD proximal to MB and contributes to the occurrence of myocardial infarction. These events upon the coronary events result from the different pathophysiological mechanisms induced by contractile force of MB, which is solely determined just by the integration of anatomical properties of MB, such as the location, length and thickness of MB in an individual LAD. A recent MSCT provides the objective quantification of the anatomical variables that correlate with the histopathological results in relation to the occurrence of CHD. In this review, we therefore discuss the necessity to explore MB as a inherent chance anatomical risk factor for CHD. PMID:23555365

  18. A case of coronary spasm with resultant acute myocardial infarction: likely the result of an allergic reaction.

    PubMed

    Yurtda?, Mustafa; Aydin, Mehmet Kasim

    2012-01-01

    Kounis syndrome has been known as allergenic angina and/or allergenic myocardial infarction following an allergic reaction. Probable allergic insults usually include drugs, latex, and food. Although ceftriaxone administration has been associated with various allergic reactions such as urticaria, angioedema, erythema, rash and anaphylactic shock, as far as we know, there is no published report that has shown an association between ceftriaxone use and Kounis syndrome. Here, we describe the first report of allergic vasospasm, culminating in acute inferior myocardial infarction, probably as the result of an acute allergenic reaction, after ceftriaxone use. PMID:22892496

  19. CDKL5 mutations cause infantile spasms, early onset seizures, and severe mental retardation in female patients

    PubMed Central

    Archer, H L; Evans, J; Edwards, S; Colley, J; Newbury?Ecob, R; O'Callaghan, F; Huyton, M; O'Regan, M; Tolmie, J; Sampson, J; Clarke, A; Osborne, J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To determine the frequency of mutations in CDKL5 in both male and female patients with infantile spasms or early onset epilepsy of unknown cause, and to consider whether the breadth of the reported phenotype would be extended by studying a different patient group. Methods Two groups of patients were investigated for CDKL5 mutations. Group 1 comprised 73 patients (57 female, 16 male) referred to Cardiff for CDKL5 analysis, of whom 49 (42 female, 7 male) had epileptic seizure onset in the first six months of life. Group 2 comprised 26 patients (11 female, 15 male) with infantile spasms previously recruited to a clinical trial, the UK Infantile Spasms Study. Where a likely pathogenic mutation was identified, further clinical data were reviewed. Results Seven likely pathogenic mutations were found among female patients from group 1 with epileptic seizure onset in the first six months of life, accounting for seven of the 42 in this group (17%). No mutations other than the already published mutation were found in female patients from group 2, or in any male patient from either study group. All patients with mutations had early signs of developmental delay and most had made little developmental progress. Further clinical information was available for six patients: autistic features and tactile hypersensitivity were common but only one had suggestive Rett?like features. All had a severe epileptic seizure disorder, all but one of whom had myoclonic jerks. The EEG showed focal or generalised changes and in those with infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia. Slow frequencies were seen frequently with a frontal or fronto?temporal predominance and high amplitudes. Conclusions The spectrum of the epileptic seizure disorder, and associated EEG changes, in those with CDKL5 mutations is broader than previously reported. CDKL5 mutations are a significant cause of infantile spasms and early epileptic seizures in female patients, and of a later intractable seizure disorder, irrespective of whether they have suspected Rett syndrome. Analysis should be considered in these patients in the clinical setting. PMID:16611748

  20. [Coronary thrombosis--pathogenic basis of acute coronary syndromes].

    PubMed

    Dúbrava, J; Cagán, S

    1994-02-01

    Acute coronary syndromes (unstable angina pectoris, acute myocardial infarction, sudden heart death) present an important part of cardiovascular and total morbidity and mortality. The common pathogenetic mechanism of them is the break of integrity of "stable" atherosclerotic plaque through fissure or rupture with following dynamic occlusion of coronary artery. In dynamic occlusion take part coronary vasoconstriction and dominant coronary thrombogenesis. Summary review of pathogenesis of coronary thrombosis aimed at origin of "unstable" atherosclerosis plaque, importance of vessel wall factors, rheologic factors and thrombocytes is presented in the paper. Morphologic and structural characteristics of "primary" atherosclerotic plaque and of coronary artery lesions in concrete acute coronary syndromes are described. From the point of view of clinical practice the authors draw attention to the basic importance of thrombin and residual thrombosis in acute coronary syndromes. Presented pathogenetic aspects of coronary thrombogenesis justify newer therapeutic approaches, which are in the phase of intensive research. PMID:8140759

  1. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... t help, you may need coronary artery bypass surgery. The surgery creates a new path for blood to flow ... more than one bypass. The results of the surgery usually are excellent. Many people remain symptom-free ...

  2. Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death ... both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become hardened ...

  3. A novel mutation in STXBP1 causing epileptic encephalopathy (late onset infantile spasms) with partial respiratory chain complex IV deficiency.

    PubMed

    Barcia, G; Barnerias, C; Rio, M; Siquier-Pernet, K; Desguerre, I; Colleaux, L; Munnich, A; Rotig, A; Nabbout, R

    2013-12-01

    STXBP1 (MUNC18.1), encoding syntaxin binding protein 1, has been reported in Ohtahara syndrome, a rare epileptic encephalopathy with suppression burst pattern on EEG, in patients with infantile spasms and in a few patients with nonsyndromic mental retardation without epilepsy. We report a patient who presented late onset infantile spasms. Epilepsy was controlled but the patient developed severe mental delay. A first diagnosis of mitochondrial disease was based on clinical presentation and on a partial deficit of respiratory chain complex IV, but molecular screening for mitochondrial genes was negative. The sequencing of STXBP1 gene found a de novo nonsense mutation (c.585C>G/p.Tyr195X). This observation widens the clinical spectrum linked to STXBP1 mutations with the description of a patient with late onset infantile spasms. It raises the question of the value of epilepsy genes screening in patients with uncertain, partial or unconfirmed mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:24095819

  4. Molecular characterization of a cohort of 73 patients with infantile spasms syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boutry-Kryza, Nadia; Labalme, Audrey; Ville, Dorothee; de Bellescize, Julitta; Touraine, Renaud; Prieur, Fabienne; Dimassi, Sarra; Poulat, Anne-Lise; Till, Marianne; Rossi, Massimiliano; Bourel-Ponchel, Emilie; Delignières, Aline; Le Moing, Anne-Gaelle; Rivier, Clotilde; des Portes, Vincent; Edery, Patrick; Calender, Alain; Sanlaville, Damien; Lesca, Gaetan

    2015-02-01

    Infantile Spasms syndrome (ISs) is a characterized by epileptic spasms occurring in clusters with an onset in the first year of life. West syndrome represents a subset of ISs that associates spasms in clusters, a hypsarrhythmia EEG pattern and a developmental arrest or regression. Aetiology of ISs is widely heterogeneous including many genetic causes. Many patients, however, remain without etiological diagnosis, which is critical for prognostic purpose and genetic counselling. In the present study, we performed genetic screening of 73 patients with different types of ISs by array-CGH and molecular analysis of 5 genes: CDKL5, STXBP1, KCNQ2, and GRIN2A, whose mutations cause different types of epileptic encephalopathies, including ISs, as well as MAGI2, which was suggested to be related to a subset of ISs. In total, we found a disease-causing mutation or CNV (Copy Number Variation) in 15% of the patients. These included 6 point mutations found in CDKL5 (n = 3) and STXBP1 (n = 3), 3 microdeletions (10 Mb in 2q24.3, 3.2 Mb in 5q14.3 including the region upstream to MEF2C, and 256 kb in 9q34 disrupting EHMT1), and 2 microduplications (671 kb in 2q24.3 encompassing SCN2A, and 11.93 Mb in Xq28). In addition, we discuss 3 CNVs as potential risk factors, including one 16p12.1 deletion, one intronic deletion of the NEDD4 gene, and one intronic deletion of CALN1 gene. The present findings highlight the efficacy of combined cytogenetic and targeted mutation screening to improve the diagnostic yield in patient with ISs. PMID:25497044

  5. Adrenal Function Testing Following Hormone Therapy for Infantile Spasms: Case Series and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mytinger, John R.; Bowden, Sasigarn A.

    2015-01-01

    Prednisolone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) are “hormone” therapies for infantile spasms. There is limited data on the occurrence of decreased adrenal reserve or signs of clinical adrenal insufficiency after hormone therapy. This is a retrospective medical record review of patients referred to our Infantile Spasms Program. Our standardized infantile spasms management guideline began in September 2012 and initially included a post-hormone laboratory assessment of adrenal function. Medical records were assessed for hormone treatments, adrenal function testing, and signs of adrenal insufficiency. Forty-two patients who received one or both hormone therapies met inclusion criteria. A post-hormone laboratory assessment of adrenal function was done in 14 patients. Of these 14 patients, 2 had an abnormal laboratory assessment of adrenal function, both by adrenal stimulation testing?–?one after ACTH and one after prednisolone. One patient received hydrocortisone replacement and the other received stress dose hydrocortisone as needed; neither patient developed signs of adrenal insufficiency. Another patient treated with both types of hormone therapy in tandem, who did not have a post-hormone laboratory assessment, developed signs of mild adrenal insufficiency and required replacement hydrocortisone. Our study suggests that adrenal suppression can occur after modern hormone therapy regimens. We found two patients with abnormal adrenal function testing after hormone therapy and another patient with signs adrenal insufficiency. Given the seriousness of adrenal crisis, caregiver education on the signs of adrenal insufficiency is critical. Greater vigilance may be indicated in patients receiving both types of hormone therapy in tandem. Although a routine post-hormone laboratory assessment of adrenal function may not be feasible in all patients, replacement or stress dose hydrocortisone is necessary for all patients with suspected adrenal insufficiency. PMID:26696958

  6. Failed microvascular decompression surgery for hemifacial spasm due to persistent neurovascular compression: an analysis of reoperations.

    PubMed

    Bigder, Mark Gregory; Kaufmann, Anthony M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT Microvascular decompression (MVD) surgery for hemifacial spasm (HFS) is potentially curative. The findings at repeat MVD in patients with persistent or recurrent HFS were analyzed with the aim to identify factors that may improve surgical outcomes. METHODS Intraoperative findings were determined from review of dictated operative reports and operative diagrams for patients who underwent repeat MVD after prior surgery elsewhere. Clinical follow-up was obtained from the hospital and clinic records, as well as telephone questionnaires. RESULTS Among 845 patients who underwent MVD performed by the senior author, 12 had been referred after prior MVD for HFS performed elsewhere. Following repeat MVD, all patients improved and complete spasm resolution was described by 11 of 12 patients after a mean follow-up of 91 ± 55 months (range 28-193). Complications were limited to 1 patient with aggravation of preexisting hearing loss and mild facial weakness and 1 patient with aseptic meningitis without sequelae. Significant factors that may have contributed to the failure of the first surgery included retromastoid craniectomies that did not extend laterally to the sigmoid sinus or inferiorly to the posterior fossa floor in 11 of 12 patients and a prior surgical approach that focused on the cisternal portion of the facial nerve in 9 of 12 patients. In all cases, significant persistent neurovascular compression (NVC) was evident and alleviated more proximally on the facial root exit zone (fREZ). CONCLUSIONS Most HFS patients will achieve spasm relief with thorough alleviation of NVC of the fREZ, which extends from the pontomedullary sulcus root exit point to the Obersteiner-Redlich transition zone. PMID:26295916

  7. Hypofibrinogenemia caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone for infantile spasms: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Atsushi; Araya, Nami; Akasaka, Manami; Mizuma, Kanako; Asami, Maya; Tanifuji, Sachiko; Chida, Shoichi

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 7-month-old boy who developed hypofibrinogenemia (66.6 mg/dL; reference value, 170-405 mg/dL) during adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy for infantile spasms. Although the patient showed no clinical signs of a bleeding diathesis, we recommend that plasma fibrinogen levels should be monitored during ACTH therapy, which should be discontinued when fibrinogen levels fall below hemostatic levels (60.0mg/dL) or when bleeding tendencies are recognized. PMID:24735983

  8. Tonic spasms and short myelitis in an elderly woman-unique onset of neuromyelitis optica.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Shahd; Elsone, Liene; Mutch, Kerry; Hunt, David P J; Murray, Katy; Reid, John M; Jacob, Anu

    2015-12-01

    Neuromyelitis optica typically presents at a median age of 40-50?years. The myelitis is usually of acute onset, long (>3 vertebral segments) and causes severe sensorimotor and bladder and bowel disturbances. We describe a 73-year-old Caucasian woman with aquaporin-4 antibody-positive neuromyelitis optica whose index event was intermittent paroxysmal tonic spasms (and no other myelitis features) that recurred for 6?months and was associated with a short spinal cord lesion on MRI. This case reiterates recent observations that neuromyelitis optica can occur in older persons, and its myelitis can be 'short' and clinically mild. PMID:26245509

  9. Functional Testing Underlying Coronary Revascularisation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-08

    Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease; Vessel Disease; Stable Angina; Unstable Angina or Stabilized Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction; Patients With ST-elevated Myocardial Infarction; Revascularization of Culprit Coronary Artery

  10. Integrative physiology of coronary microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Kajiya, F; Goto, M

    1999-06-01

    Coronary microvessels play a crucial role for mechanoenergetic interaction between blood flow and myocardial function, which is not uniform transmurally. Thus, highly organized vascular regulations are required for matching local blood flow with myocardial energy requirement. Recently, new technologies to investigate in vivo coronary microcirculation with new knowledge of the signaling molecules for vascular regulation have revolutionized our abilities to understand the integrative regulation of coronary microcirculation. In this review, the mechanical aspects of the interaction between coronary blood flow and myocardium, coronary arte-rial tree and its roles in myocardial blood flow regulation, hierarchical and dynamic control of coronary flow, capillary network and function, function of venous drainage system, and molecular and cellular aspects of integrative coronary blood flow regulation are discussed, focusing on their integrational roles in maintaining coronary microvascular function and cell signaling. PMID:10529484

  11. Factors influencing the functional significance in intermediate coronary stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li-Jie; Wang, Gui-Song; Cui, Ming; Guo, Li-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Zhen; Zhang, Fu-Chun; Niu, Jie; Han, Jiang-Li; Xu, Wei-Xian; Zhu, Dan; Gao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the influencing factors of the functional significance determined by fractional flow reserve (FFR) in intermediate coronary artery stenosis. Methods The study enrolled 143 patients with 203 intermediate coronary lesions. Pressure-derived FFR of these lesions was gained at maximal hyperemia induced by intravenous adenosine infusion. An FFR < 0.80 was considered as abnormal functional significance. Anatomic parameters at the lesion sites were obtained by off-line quantitative coronary angiography analysis (QCA). The predictive value of the demographic characteristics and anatomic parameters for FFR in these intermediate lesions was assessed using multiple linear and binary logistic regression analysis. Results Overall, FFR < 0.8 was found in 70 (34%) of the total 203 intermediate coronary lesions. FFR values were positively correlated with QCA-measured minimum lumen diameters (MLD, r = 0.372, P = 0.000) and the reference vessel diameters (RVD, r = 0.217, P = 0.002) were negatively correlated with percent area stenosis (AS, r = ?0.251, P = 0.000) and percent diameter stenosis (DS, r = ?0.210, P = 0.000). Age, MLD and the lesion location in different coronary arteries were the independent determinants of FFR < 0.8. Conclusions MLD can predict the functional significance of intermediate coronary stenosis, while age and the lesion location in different coronary arteries should be taken into account as important influencing factors of FFR values. PMID:25870612

  12. Effects of the Selective Stretch-Activated Channel Blocker GsMtx4 on Stretch-Induced Changes in Refractoriness in Isolated Rat Hearts and on Ventricular Premature Beats and Arrhythmias after Coronary Occlusion in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Barrabés, José A.; Inserte, Javier; Agulló, Luis; Rodríguez-Sinovas, Antonio; Alburquerque-Béjar, Juan J.; Garcia-Dorado, David

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical factors may contribute to ischemic ventricular arrhythmias. GsMtx4 peptide, a selective stretch-activated channel blocker, inhibits stretch-induced atrial arrhythmias. We aimed to assess whether GsMtx4 protects against ventricular ectopy and arrhythmias following coronary occlusion in swine. First, the effects of 170-nM GsMtx4 on the changes in the effective refractory period (ERP) induced by left ventricular (LV) dilatation were assessed in 8 isolated rat hearts. Then, 44 anesthetized, open-chest pigs subjected to 50-min left anterior descending artery occlusion and 2-h reperfusion were blindly allocated to GsMtx4 (57 ?g/kg iv. bolus and 3.8 ?g/kg/min infusion, calculated to attain the above concentration in plasma) or saline, starting 5-min before occlusion and continuing until after reflow. In rat hearts, LV distension induced progressive reductions in ERP (35±2, 32±2, and 29±2 ms at 0, 20, and 40 mmHg of LV end-diastolic pressure, respectively, P<0.001) that were prevented by GsMTx4 (33±2, 33±2, and 32±2 ms, respectively, P=0.002 for the interaction with LV end-diastolic pressure). Pigs receiving GsMtx4 had similar number of ventricular premature beats during the ischemic period as control pigs (110±28 vs. 103±21, respectively, P=0.842). There were not significant differences among treated and untreated animals in the incidence of ventricular fibrillation (13.6 vs. 22.7%, respectively, P=0.696) or tachycardia (36.4 vs. 50.0%, P=0.361) or in the number of ventricular tachycardia episodes during the occlusion period (1.8±0.7 vs. 5.5±2.6, P=0.323). Thus, GsMtx4 administered under these conditions does not suppress ventricular ectopy following coronary occlusion in swine. Whether it might protect against malignant arrhythmias should be tested in studies powered for these outcomes. PMID:25938516

  13. [Coronary revascularization during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The bridge code].

    PubMed

    Serrano Moraza, A; Del Nogal Sáez, F; Alfonso Manterola, F

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac arrest is one of the major current challenges, due to both its high incidence and mortality and the fact that it leads to severe brain dysfunction in over half of the survivors. The so-called coronary origin Bridge Code is presented, based on the international resuscitation recommendations (2005, 2010). In accordance with a series of strict predictive criteria, this code makes it possible to: (1) select refractory CPR patients with a high or very high presumption of underlying coronary cause; (2) evacuate the patient using mechanical chest compressors [LucasTM, Autopulse®], maintaining coronary and brain perfusion pressures; (3) allow coronary revascularization access during resuscitation maneuvering (PTCA during ongoing CPR); (4) induce early hypothermia; and (5) facilitate post-cardiac arrest intensive care. In the case of treatment failure, the quality of hemodynamic support makes it possible to establish a second bridge to non-heart beating organ donation. PMID:22402193

  14. A Triplet Repeat Expansion Genetic Mouse Model of Infantile Spasms Syndrome, Arx(GCG)10+7, with Interneuronopathy, Spasms in Infancy, Persistent Seizures, and Adult Cognitive and Behavioral Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Price, Maureen G.; Yoo, Jong W.; Burgess, Daniel L.; Deng, Fang; Hrachovy, Richard A.; Frost, James D.; Noebels, Jeffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Infantile spasms syndrome (ISS) is a catastrophic pediatric epilepsy with motor spasms, persistent seizures, mental retardation, and in some cases, autism. One of its monogenic causes is an insertion mutation (c.304ins (GCG)7) on the X chromosome, expanding the first polyalanine tract of the interneuron-specific transcription factor ARX from 16 to 23 alanine codons. Null mutation of the Arx gene impairs GABA- and cholinergic interneuronal migration but results in a neonatal lethal phenotype. We developed the first viable genetic mouse model of ISS that spontaneously recapitulates salient phenotypic features of the human triplet-repeat expansion mutation. Arx (GCG)10+7 (“Arx Plus7”) pups display abnormal spasm-like myoclonus and other key EEG features, including multifocal spikes, electrodecremental episodes, and spontaneous seizures persisting into maturity. The neurobehavioral profile of Arx mutants was remarkable for lowered anxiety, impaired associative learning, and abnormal social interaction. Laminar decreases of Arx+ cortical interneurons and a selective reduction of calbindin-, but not parvalbumin- or calretinin-expressing interneurons in neocortical layers and hippocampus indicate that specific classes of synaptic inhibition are missing from the adult forebrain, providing a basis for the seizures and cognitive disorder. A significant reduction of calbindin, NPY-expressing and cholinergic interneurons in the mutant striatum suggest that dysinhibition within this network may contribute to the dyskinetic motor spasms. This mouse model narrows the range of critical pathogenic elements within brain inhibitory networks essential to recreate this complex neurodevelopmental syndrome. PMID:19587282

  15. Disturbed calcium and phosphate homeostasis during treatment with ACTH of infantile spasms.

    PubMed Central

    Riikonen, R; Simell, O; Jääskeläinen, J; Rapola, J; Perheentupa, J

    1986-01-01

    Kidney histology of five infants who died during or immediately after treatment with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) showed severe tubular and interstitial calcinosis. We therefore studied serum concentrations of calcium, inorganic phosphate, and parathormone, serum activities of alkaline phosphatase, and urinary excretion of calcium, inorganic phosphate, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in 16 other children with infantile spasms before, during, and after 6 weeks of treatment with ACTH. During the treatment the following observations were made: hypocalcaemia developed in three infants; the mean daily urinary excretion of calcium in the group increased threefold and seven infants had hypercalciuria; the excretion of phosphate increased but its tubular reabsorption remained stable; and in most infants serum parathormone and urinary cAMP excretion increased, and in four infants they increased to supranormal concentrations. These biochemical changes were reversible in most infants. Radiographs suggested loss of bone mass by 3-4 weeks of treatment, with rapid recovery after treatment. We conclude that infants treated with ACTH for infantile spasms are at risk of suffering disturbance in calcium and phosphate homeostasis, which leads to nephrocalcinosis. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3017235

  16. The Significance of Intraoperative Electromyographic “Lateral Spread” in Predicting Outcome of Microvascular Decompression for Hemifacial Spasm

    PubMed Central

    Eckardstein, Kajetan von; Harper, Charles; Castner, Marina; Link, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives?During microvascular decompression (MVD) of the facial nerve for hemifacial spasm (HFS), an abnormal muscle response can be recorded upon stimulation of the facial nerve, also known as the lateral spread response. This response may vanish after MVD and has been associated with a successful outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine if resolution of lateral spread correlated with the elimination of HFS in a single surgeon's experience. Design and Setting?(1) Retrospective analysis of 38 patients undergoing MVD with intraoperative electromyography for HFS. (2) Meta-analysis of studies from the literature. Main Outcome Measure?Presence or absence of HFS and any complications. Results?Lateral spread response was seen in 36 patients; 20 patients had full resolution. Of these, 15 patients became HFS free, and 5 five patients still had some degree of HFS. Sixteen patients had a persistent lateral spread response despite a technically successful MVD; 11 of these became spasm free, and 5 still suffered from some degree of facial twitching. Analyzing 16 studies reporting a total of 1301 patients, a significant correlation (p?

  17. Coronary Sinus Lead Positioning.

    PubMed

    Roka, Attila; Borgquist, Rasmus; Singh, Jagmeet

    2015-12-01

    Although cardiac resynchronization therapy improves morbidity and mortality in patients with cardiomyopathy, heart failure, and electrical dyssynchrony, the rate of nonresponders using standard indications and implant techniques is still high. Optimal coronary sinus lead positioning is important to increase the chance of successful resynchronization. Patient factors such as cause of heart failure, type of dyssynchrony, scar burden, coronary sinus anatomy, and phrenic nerve capture may affect the efficacy of the therapy. Several modalities are under investigation. Alternative left ventricular lead implantation strategies are occasionally required when the transvenous route is not feasible or would result in a suboptimal lead position. PMID:26596808

  18. Evolution of Coronary Flow in an Experimental Slow Flow Model in Swines: Angiographic and Pathological Insights

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yupeng; Hu, Liqun; Yu, Delong; Peng, Sheng; Liu, Xiaogang; Zhang, Mingjing; Gu, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Pathomechanism of coronary slow flow phenomenon remains largely unclear now. Present study observed the pathological and angiographic evolution in a pig model of coronary slow flow. Methods. Coronary slow flow was induced by repeat coronary injection of small doses of 40?µm microspheres in 18 male domestic pigs and angiographic and pathological changes were determined at 3 hours, 7 days, and 28 days after microspheres injection. Results. Compared to control group treated with coronary saline injection (n = 6) and baseline level, coronary flow was significantly reduced at 3 hours and 7 days but completely recovered at 28 days after coronary microsphere injection in slow flow group. Despite normal coronary flow at 28 days after microsphere injection, enhanced myocardial cytokine expression, left ventricular dysfunction, adverse remodelling, and ischemia/microembolism related pathological changes still persisted or even progressed from 3 hours to 28 days after coronary microsphere injection. Conclusions. Our results show that this large animal slow flow model could partly reflect the chronic angiographic, hemodynamic, and pathological changes of coronary slow flow and could be used to test new therapy strategies against the slow flow phenomenon. PMID:26539516

  19. Protective and Therapeutic Effects of Chinese Medicine Formula Jiajian Yunvjian on Experimental Cardiac Remodeling after Myocardial Infarction Induced by Coronary Artery Ligation

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jun; Gu, Wei-liang; Chen, Chang-xun; Wang, Ying; Lv, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. This study was designed to explore the effect and mechanism of a classic Chinese medicine formula Jiajian Yunvjian (JJYNJ) on cardiac remodeling. Cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI) model was achieved by coronary artery ligation (CAL). Methodology. When dosed orally once daily, the effects of JJYNJ on hemodynamics, left ventricular weight index (LVWI), heart weight index (HWI), concentration, and gene expression of neuroendocrine factors as well as the histomorphological observation were determined. Results. After 4 weeks, mild cardiac remodeling in CAL group was characterized compared with sham group, but after 4 weeks of treatment of JJYNJ, hemodynamics improved, HWI reduced, and circulating angiotensin II (Ang II), endothelin-1 (ET-1), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and hydroxyproline (Hyp) concentrations as well as Ang II receptor type 1 (AT1R) mRNA, transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) mRNA, and TNF-? mRNA levels in myocardium were lower than in CAL group. Decreased plasma aldosterone (ALD) concentration, cross-sectional area of cardiomyocyte, collagen volume fraction (CVF), collagen types I and III, perivascular collagen area (PVCA), and upregulated nitric oxide (NO) levels were observed at the same time. Conclusions. These findings suggest that JJYNJ may have a protective and therapeutic function on cardiac remodeling related to MI. PMID:26185521

  20. Practice of coronary angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Ischinger, T.

    1986-01-01

    This book is written for the cardiologist who performs invasive procedures. Although the book is not meant to substitute for onsite training, the content includes indications, techniques, risks, limitations, complications, and useful tips. The illustrations are good, and include well-reproduced coronary angiograms and angioplasty images, thoughtfully prepared graphics, and tables that summarize large amounts of data in understandable form.

  1. Impact of smoking on coronary microcirculatory resistance in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Toru; Ashikaga, Takashi; Ohigashi, Hirokazu; Komura, Masatoshi; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between coronary microvascular function and smoking using the 3 parameters fractional flow reserve (FFR), coronary flow reserve (CFR(thermo)), and index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). A total of 97 CAD patients with 148 intermediate stenotic lesions were divided into two groups: current and former smokers (Smokers: n = 54), and those who had never smoked (Non-smokers: n = 43). Coronary physiology measurements were made following coronary angiography at rest and during hyperemia induced with intravenous adenosine triphosphate. If a patient had several intermediate lesions, the lesion producing the largest IMR value and minimum FFR(myo) and CFR(thermo) value was selected. Averaged over all patients, the FFR(myo), CFR(thermo), and IMR values were 0.86 ± 0.10, 2.66 ± 1.50, and 20.8 ± 10.7, respectively. There was no significant correlation between FFR(myo) and IMR. There were no significant differences between smokers and non-smokers in FFR(myo) value (median: 0.85 [IQR: 0.74-0.90] versus 0.87 [IQR: 0.83-0.90], P = 0.15) and CFR(thermo) value (median: 1.90 [IQR: 1.56-3.16] versus 2.10 [IQR: 1.50-2.67] U, P = 0.95). The IMR value was significantly greater in smokers (median: 24.2 [IQR: 16.8-32.5] U versus 18.5 [IQR: 15.4-27.0] U, P = 0.04). In multivariate analysis, smoking was an independent predictor of increased IMR. Smoking appears to have a detrimental effect on coronary microvascular function as measured by IMR. PMID:25503655

  2. Types of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting There are several types of coronary ... for you based on your needs. Traditional Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Traditional CABG is used when at ...

  3. Revascularization Options: Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Kappetein, A Pieter; van Mieghem, Nicolas M; Head, Stuart J

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CAGB) is superior to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in reducing mortality in certain patients and improving the composite end points of angina, recurrent myocardial infarction, and repeat revascularization procedures. However, CABG is associated with a higher perioperative stroke risk. For patients with less complex disease or left main coronary disease, PCI is an acceptable alternative to CABG. Lesion complexity is an essential consideration for stenting, whereas patient comorbidity is an essential consideration for CABG. All patients with complex multivessel coronary artery disease should be reviewed by a heart team including a cardiac surgeon and interventional cardiologist. PMID:26567980

  4. Brain-adrenal axis hormones are altered in the CSF of infants with massive infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    Baram, T.Z.; Mitchell, W.G.; Snead, O.C.; Horton, E.J.; Saito, M.

    2011-01-01

    Massive infantile spasms (MIS), a seizure disorder unique to infants, is considered an age-dependent response of the immature brain to various insults and stressors. The seizures improve with ACTH and glucocorticoids, both major components of the brain-adrenal axis. We hypothesized that CNS levels of these hormones are abnormal in infants with MIS and studied CSF from 14 infants with MIS and 13 age-matched controls by analysis for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), ACTH, cortisol, and interleukin-1-beta. ACTH levels in CSF of patients were significantly lower than those of controls, but differences in cortisol levels between patients and controls were not statistically significant. CRH levels in both groups were similar and fluctuated diurnally. These results indicate an alteration of specific CNS components of the brain-adrenal axis in MIS. PMID:1318521

  5. Late-onset epileptic spasms in a patient with 22q13.3 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Nobutsune; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Fujii, Yuji; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Patients with 22q13.3 deletion syndrome present with diverse neurological problems such as global developmental delays, hypotonia, delayed or absent speech, autistic behavior, and epilepsy. Seizures occur in up to one-third of patients with 22q13.3 deletion syndrome; however, only a few reports have provided details regarding the seizure manifestations. The present report describes a patient with 22q13.3 deletion syndrome who presented with late-onset epileptic spasms (ES) and electroencephalography features like Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. An array comparative genomic hybridization analysis revealed that a chromosomal deletion of this patient included SHANK3. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first confirmed case of late-onset ES occur in patients with 22q13.3 deletion syndrome with a SHANK3 deletion. PMID:26094094

  6. Infantile Spasms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a specific type of seizure seen in an epilepsy syndrome of infancy and childhood known as West ... supports broad and varied programs of research on epilepsy and other seizure disorders. This research is aimed ...

  7. Transient left temporal lobe lesion in Menkes disease may influence the generation of tonic spasms.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiromichi; Mori, Kenji; Sakata, Miho; Naito, Etsuo; Harada, Masafumi; Kagami, Shoji

    2011-04-01

    We report a 7-month-old boy with Menkes disease who presented West syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed atrophy of the frontal and parietal lobes, subdural hematoma on the right side, and left temporal lobe lesion (low intensity in T1-weighted imaging (T1-WI), high intensity in T2-weighted imaging (T2-WI) and low intensity in diffusion-weighted imaging (DW-I)) at 7 months of age. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was 1.68×10(-3)mm(2)/s in the left temporal lobe lesion and 1.15×10(-3)mm(2)/s on the contralateral side. (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) revealed a decrease in N-acetylaspartate/(creatine+phosphocreatine) (NAA/Cr) (0.71) and a lactate peak in the left temporal lobe lesion. At 8 months of age, the left temporal lobe lesion disappeared, the ADC of this lesion was within the normal range (1.10×10(-3)mm(2)/s), and (1)H-MRS revealed a slight increase in NAA/Cr (1.12) and disappearance of the lactate peak. We suspected that the transient temporal lobe lesion in Menkes disease was mainly vasogenic edema. Electroencephalography (EEG) revealed left hemisphere dominant hypsarrhythmia and slowing in the left hemisphere. Ictal EEG revealed generalized slow wave burst with P3, T3 spike antecedence and the antecedent spike was consistent with left temporal lobe lesion. After disappearance of the left temporal lobe lesion, tonic spasms disappeared and EEG findings improved. In this case, the clinical course and ictal EEG suggested that epileptic activity from the left temporal lobe lesion may have given rise to tonic spasms. PMID:21382542

  8. Injection of botulinum toxin for the treatment of post-laryngectomy pharyngoesophageal spasm-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Lightbody, K A; Wilkie, M D; Kinshuck, A J; Gilmartin, E; Lewis-Jones, H; Jones, T M; Lancaster, J

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Pharyngoesophageal spasm (PES) can cause dysphagia, central valve leak (CVL), and dypshonia in post-laryngectomy patients. Botulinum toxin has been used effectively for the treatment of PES, but data regarding patient-reported outcomes and efficacy for CVL are limited. We evaluated the results of botox injection for PES spasm using subjective and objective measures. Methods Data were collected prospectively (February 2010 to August 2013) on 13 patients undergoing botox injection for PES as identified by video fluoroscopy. We collected digital voice recordings, air-pressure measurements (APMs) for speech, and quality of life (QoL) data before and after the procedure: University of Washington QoL questionnaire (UW-QoL), MD Anderson Swallowing Inventory (MDADI) and the Voice Handicap Index (VHI-30). Results APMs for a sustained vowel decreased by 18% after botox injection, whereas maximum phonatory times increased by 63% (mean increase, 8 to 13 seconds). Sustained vowel amplitude decreased (mean, 87db to 83db) with an associated reduction in sustained vowel frequency (117Hz to 77Hz). MDADI scores improved by 10.2% overall, and UW-QoL scores showed an improvement in score of 7.6%. Mean scores for VHI-30 deteriorated by 2% overall but, when considering only those patients experiencing dysphonia, an improvement of 9.4% was seen. There was an overall net reduction for the CVL cohort of 12 speech valves in the year after injection. Conclusions Our series confirm the safety and objective efficacy of botox injection for PES. QoL measurements were less convincing, and this disparity between subjective and objective measurements must be considered when treating such patients. PMID:26414361

  9. Secondary prevention following coronary artery bypass surgery: a pilot study for improved patient education

    E-print Network

    Kramer, Jeffrey B.; Howard, Patricia A.; Barnes, Brian Joseph; Ababneh, Bashar; Mukhopadhyay, Purna; Biria, Mazda; Muehlebach, Gregory F.; Daon, Emmanuel; Zorn, George L.; Reed, William A.; Vacek, James

    2012-07-01

    of statin induced rhabdomyolysis ? Severe co-morbid illness /end of life status Box 1. Indications and contraindications to secondary pre- vention medications after coronary artery bypass graft sur- gery (CABG). 100 to obtain a survey score for both...

  10. Transcatheter Coronary Artery Diagnostic Techniques including Impedance-Catheter and Impedance-Guidewire Measurement of Absolute Coronary Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Robert A.; Martin, Lisa W.

    1989-01-01

    Interventional cardiology requires precise assessment of coronary anatomy and physiology. Unfortunately, however, important interventional decisions are frequently made on the basis of arteriographic data alone. Increasing evidence suggests that visual interpretation of coronary arteriographic studies is irreproducible, inaccurate, and poorly predictive of coronary physiology. Moreover, arteriography is of little value in assessing endothelial ulceration and mural thrombus, which are important pathophysiologic features of unstable angina and acute myocardial infarction. In response to these limitations, several diagnostic transcatheter techniques have been developed that allow more complete assessment of coronary physiology and function. These include fiberoptic angioscopy, reflection spectroscopy (which can combine automated laser therapy with diagnosis), ultrasonic catheterization, and translesional gradient determination. Doppler catheterization permits the assessment of overall coronary flow reserve with the aid of induced hyperemia, whereas subselective digital radiography allows the evaluation of regional coronary flow reserve. The coronary flow reserve, however, may be falsely lowered immediately after balloon dilation, because of endothelial injury, repeated ischemia, or the administration of vasoactive drugs. To circumvent this problem, we have developed impedance-catheter and impedance-guidewire systems that, by applying impedance technology and the principles of indicator dilution, are capable of measuring absolute coronary blood flow. For a flow indicator, we use 0.5 mL of glucose solution (D5W), which has little effect on intrinsic blood flow. The validity of this approach has been demonstrated in experimental and clinical studies. The impedance guidewire is less obstructive than the catheter system, so it probably will become the method with clinical application. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1989;16:195-203) Images PMID:15227207

  11. XIENCE PRIME Everolimus Eluting Coronary Stent System (EECSS) China Single-Arm Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-31

    Angioplasty; Cardiovascular Disease; Chronic Coronary Occlusion; Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG); Coronary Artery Disease; Coronary Heart Disease; Coronary Restenosis; Myocardial Infarction; Myocardial Ischemia; Stent Thrombosis; Vascular Disease

  12. Depression and Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Karina W.

    2012-01-01

    There are exciting findings in the field of depression and coronary heart disease. Whether diagnosed or simply self-reported, depression continues to mark very high risk for a recurrent acute coronary syndrome or for death in patients with coronary heart disease. Many intriguing mechanisms have been posited to be implicated in the association between depression and heart disease, and randomized controlled trials of depression treatment are beginning to delineate the types of depression management strategies that may benefit the many coronary heart disease patients with depression. PMID:23227360

  13. Limitations of marathon running in the rehabilitation of coronary patients: anatomic and physiologic determinants.

    PubMed

    Hellerstein, H K

    1977-01-01

    Prescribed, supervised exercise training has proved valuable in the rehabilitation of selected coronary patients. However, long distance (marathon) running has limited cardiovascular value in the rehabilitation of patients for a majority of occupations, which involve predominantly upper extremity effort. The age of patients with coronary heart disease and the severity of the lesions preclude the wide application of marathon running to the general coronary heart disease population. Less than 6/1000 subjects with coronary heart disease have been estimated as potentially being able to achieve by high-level training a maximum Vo2 sufficient to complete a marathon race in 5 hours. The hazards of high-level-activity-induced cardiac arrest that is reversible mandates the availability of CPR equipment and personnel in the immediate vicinity of all coronary patients and most coronary-prone patients who are undertaking such heroic activity. Over-publicized marathon running by a few subjects has aroused unrealistic expectations for the majority of coronary heart disease subjects and probably similarly for a considerable number of coronary-prone subjects, many of whom have "silent" coronary disease. PMID:270935

  14. Indications and Timings of Re-operation for Residual or Recurrent Hemifacial Spasm after Microvascular Decompression: Personal Experience and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    HATAYAMA, Toru; KONO, Takuji; HARADA, Yoichi; YAMASHITA, Keiichi; UTSUNOMIYA, Toshifumi; HAYASHI, Mototaka; NAKAJIMA, Hiroyuki; HATANAKA, Ryo; SHIMADA, Daisuke; TAKEMURA, Atsuhito; TABATA, Hidefumi; TOBISHIMA, Hana

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed reports about the postoperative course of hemifacial spasm (HFS) after microvascular decompression (MVD), including in our own patients, and investigated treatment for delayed resolution or recurrence of HFS. Symptoms of HFS disappear after surgery in many patients, but spasm persists postoperatively in about 10–40%. Residual spasm also gradually decreases, with rates of 1–13% at 1 year postoperatively. However, because delayed resolution is uncommon after 1 year postoperatively, the following is advised: (1) In patients with residual spasms after 1 year postoperatively (incomplete cure) or who again experience spasm ? 1 year postoperatively (recurrence), re-operation is recommended if the spasms are worse than before MVD. (2) When re-operation is considered, preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and intraoperative videos should be reviewed to ensure that no compression due to a small artery or vein was missed, and to confirm that adhesions with the prosthesis are not causing compression. If any suspicious findings are identified, the cause must be eliminated. Moreover, because of the risk of nerve injury, decompression of the distal portion of the facial nerve should be performed only in patients in whom distal compression is strongly suspected to be the cause of symptoms. (3) Cure rates after re-operation are high, but complications such as hearing impairment and facial weakness have been reported in 10–20% of cases, so surgery must be performed with great care. PMID:26226977

  15. 11,12,20-Trihydroxy-eicosa-8(Z)-enoic acid: a selective inhibitor of 11,12-EET-induced relaxations of bovine coronary and rat mesenteric arteries

    PubMed Central

    Bukhari, Ishfaq A.; Shah, Abdul Jabbar; Gauthier, Kathryn M.; Walsh, Katherine A.; Koduru, Sreenivasulu Reddy; Imig, John D.; Falck, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Arachidonic acid is metabolized to four regioisomeric epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) by cytochrome P-450. 5,6-, 8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15-EET are equipotent in relaxing bovine coronary arteries (BCAs). Vasorelaxant effects of EETs are nonselectively antagonized by 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid. The 11,12-EET analogs, 20-hydroxy-11,12-epoxyeicosa-8(Z)-enoic acid (20-H-11,12-EE8ZE) and 11,12,20-trihydroxyeicosa-8(Z)-enoic acid (11,12,20-THE8ZE) were synthesized and tested for antagonist activity against EET-induced relaxations in BCAs. In U-46619-preconstricted arterial rings, 5,6-, 8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15-EET caused concentration-dependent relaxations with maximal relaxations ranging from 80 to 96%. Preincubation of arteries with 20-H-11,12-EE8ZE (10?5 M) inhibited relaxations to 14,15- and 11,12-EET, but not 5,6- and 8,9-EET; however, greatest inhibitory effect was against 11,12-EET (maximal relaxation = 80.6 ± 4.6 vs. 26.7 ± 7.4% without and with 20-H-11,12-EE8ZE, respectively). Preincubation with the soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor (tAUCB, 10?6 M) significantly enhanced the antagonist effect of 20-H-11,12-EE8ZE against 14,15-EET-induced relaxations (maximal relaxation = 86.6 ± 4.4 vs. 27.8 ± 3.3%, without and with 20-H-11,12-EE8ZE and tAUCB) without any change in its effect against 11,12-EET-induced relaxations. In contrast to the parent compound, the metabolite, 11,12,20-THE8ZE (10?5 M), significantly inhibited relaxations to 11,12-EET and was without effect on other EET regioisomers. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed conversion of 20-H-11,12-EE8ZE to 11,12,20-THE8ZE by incubation with BCA. The conversion was blocked by tAUCB. 14,15-Dihydroxy-eicosa-5Z-enoic acid (a 14,15-EET antagonist), but not 11,12,20-THE8ZE (an 11,12-EET antagonist), inhibited BCA relaxations to arachidonic acid and flow-induced dilation in rat mesenteric arteries. These results indicate that 11,12,20-THE8ZE is a selective antagonist of 11,12-EET relaxations and a useful pharmacological tool to elucidate the function of 11,12-EET in the cardiovascular system. PMID:22307677

  16. Coronary artery compression three months after transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Payam; Kraushaar, Greg; Taylor, Dylan A

    2015-03-01

    We report a case of a 29-year-old man who developed exercised-induced myocardial infarction 3 months post Melody valve implantation. We introduce the concept of ruling out dynamic coronary artery compression by simulating transcatheter pulmonary valve implant while increasing cardiac output and thus aortic dimensions in the catheterization laboratory. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25115934

  17. Technique of Coronary Transfer for TGA with Single Coronary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Ho; Jung, Jae Jun; Kim, Yong Han; Yang, Ji-Hyuk; Jun, Tae-Gook

    2014-01-01

    An eight-day-old neonate was diagnosed with dextro-transposition of the great arteries, atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, and a single sinus origin of the coronary arteries. The single coronary artery originated from the left sinus (sinus 2), had a proximal left circumflex arterial branch, and passed anteriorly to the right side of the aorta, further branching into the right coronary and left anterior descending arteries. We successfully performed an arterial switch operation and coronary transfer by tube graft reconstruction with autologous aortic tissue to treat the dextro-transposition of the great arteries and atrial septal defect with a single-sinus origin of the coronary arteries. PMID:25551074

  18. The Coronary Patient in Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, B.

    1971-01-01

    The coronary patient, as he pertains to industry particularly NASA, is discussed. Concepts of precoronary care, acute attacks which may develop while on the job, and the return of the cardiac patient to work are covered. Major emphasis was on the prevention of sudden death due to coronary disease.

  19. Living with Coronary Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and obesity, and others. Living With and Managing Coronary Artery Disease 08/13/2011 This video—presented by the ... part of the National Institutes of Health—describes coronary artery disease (CAD), its symptoms and complications, and ways to ...

  20. Disruption of the Serine/Threonine Kinase 9 Gene Causes Severe X-Linked Infantile Spasms and Mental Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Kalscheuer, Vera M.; Tao, Jiong; Donnelly, Andrew; Hollway, Georgina; Schwinger, Eberhard; Kübart, Sabine; Menzel, Corinna; Hoeltzenbein, Maria; Tommerup, Niels; Eyre, Helen; Harbord, Michael; Haan, Eric; Sutherland, Grant R.; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Gécz, Jozef

    2003-01-01

    X-linked West syndrome, also called “X-linked infantile spasms” (ISSX), is characterized by early-onset generalized seizures, hypsarrhythmia, and mental retardation. Recently, we have shown that the majority of the X-linked families with infantile spasms carry mutations in the aristaless-related homeobox gene (ARX), which maps to the Xp21.3-p22.1 interval, and that the clinical picture in these patients can vary from mild mental retardation to severe ISSX with additional neurological abnormalities. Here, we report a study of two severely affected female patients with apparently de novo balanced X;autosome translocations, both disrupting the serine-threonine kinase 9 (STK9) gene, which maps distal to ARX in the Xp22.3 region. We show that STK9 is subject to X-inactivation in normal female somatic cells and is functionally absent in the two patients, because of preferential inactivation of the normal X. Disruption of the same gene in two unrelated patients who have identical phenotypes (consisting of early-onset severe infantile spasms, profound global developmental arrest, hypsarrhythmia, and severe mental retardation) strongly suggests that lack of functional STK9 protein causes severe ISSX and that STK9 is a second X-chromosomal locus for this disorder. PMID:12736870

  1. Responses of coronary arteries of cardiac transplant patients to acetylcholine.

    PubMed Central

    Fish, R D; Nabel, E G; Selwyn, A P; Ludmer, P L; Mudge, G H; Kirshenbaum, J M; Schoen, F J; Alexander, R W; Ganz, P

    1988-01-01

    Accelerated coronary atherosclerosis is a major cause of graft failure after heart transplantation. Graft atherosclerosis is typically diffuse and difficult to detect even with coronary arteriography. Recently, acetylcholine was shown to dilate blood vessels by releasing a vasorelaxant substance from the endothelium (endothelium-derived relaxing factor). We have demonstrated paradoxical vasoconstriction induced by acetylcholine both early and late in the course of coronary atherosclerosis in patients, suggesting an association of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. In this report, we tested the hypothesis that coronary arteries of heart transplant patients can show endothelial dysfunction before or in the early stages of angiographically evident coronary atherosclerosis. Acetylcholine was infused into the left anterior descending artery of 13 heart transplant patients at 12 (n = 9) and 24 (n = 4) mo after transplantation. Vascular responses were evaluated by quantitative angiography. Among patients with angiographically smooth coronary arteries, relatively few (6/25) arterial segments had preserved vasodilator responses, while the majority failed to dilate (10/25) or paradoxically constricted (9/25). Angiographically irregular coronary arteries were present in three patients, in whom 8/10 segments showed marked paradoxical constriction and the remaining 2/10 failed to dilate. Only 1 of 13 patients retained appropriate dilation to acetylcholine in all segments. Nitroglycerin, which acts directly on vascular smooth muscle, dilated nearly all segments. No clinical features of the patients, including myocardial rejection appeared to correlate with the impaired functional response of vessels. Thus impaired response to acetylcholine is a common early finding in heart transplant patients and emphasizes the potential importance of endothelial dysfunction in the development of atherosclerosis. Images PMID:3121675

  2. Coronary revascularization: 2011.

    PubMed

    Butman, Samuel M

    2011-03-01

    Coronary revascularization is a proven method to alleviate the symptoms of ischemic heart disease and improve survival. There have been many improvements in surgical revascularization since its advent > 40 years ago and in balloon angioplasty since its first usage > 30 years ago. Patients will continue to benefit as these surgical techniques continue to undergo further improvements. This article is a testament to the many physicians, surgeons, scientists, industry leaders, and insurers who continue to reinvent how we provide cutting-edge procedures in the most cost-effective manner for our patients. PMID:21474897

  3. Coronary Sinus Lead Extraction.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Edmond M; Wilkoff, Bruce L

    2015-12-01

    Expanded indications for cardiac resynchronization therapy and the increasing incidence of cardiac implantable electronic device infection have led to an increased need for coronary sinus (CS) lead extraction. The CS presents unique anatomical obstacles to successful lead extraction. Training and facility requirements for CS lead extraction should mirror those for other leads. Here we review the indications, technique, and results of CS lead extraction. Published success rates and complications are similar to those reported for other leads, although multiple techniques may be required. Re-implantation options may be limited, which should be incorporated into pre-procedural decision making. PMID:26596810

  4. Hypsarrhythmia paroxysm index: A tool for early prediction of infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Altunel, Attila; Sever, Ali; Altunel, Emine Özlem

    2015-03-01

    Recurrence of infantile spasms (ISs) is common subsequent to treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) for West syndrome, and prolonged hypsarrhythmia results in psychomotor deterioration. The evolution to hypsarrhythmia involves conversion of prehypsarrhythmic EEG findings to sporadic hypsarrhythmia paroxysms (HPs), and when paroxysms reach a certain frequency, ISs begin to occur. This retrospective chart study aimed to determine the HP threshold frequency after which ISs begin. Recorded either prior (Group A) or subsequent (Group B) to IS relapse, 248 EEGs were examined in 42 patients. The number of HPs in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep divided by NREM duration constituted the countable hypsarrhythmia paroxysms index (cHPI). After reaching a rate of approximately 10/min, the cHPI lost its feasibility due to the merging of HPs. The durational HPI (dHPI) was also calculated (total duration of HPs during NREM/NREM sleep time×100). ACTH treatment was administered if cHPI was ?2/min, with the aim of preventing relapse. The mean cHPI value without a concomitant spasm relapse (in Group A) was 1.20/min. Following relapse, this value rose to 4.10/min. EEGs performed subsequent to relapse (in Group B) were classified into three subgroups (B1, B2, and B3) according to the duration of the time interval between IS relapse and the succeeding EEG recording. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that cHPI values differed significantly between the Group B subgroups. In subgroups B2 and B3, a higher number of EEGs were evaluated via dHPI. Linear regression analysis established that the interval between recurrence and the succeeding EEG recording significantly predicted cHPI values and accounted for 54.2% of the explained variability in cHPI values. Therefore, use of the cHPI for early recognition and intervention may aid in preventing the onset and recurrence of ISs and further deterioration of psychomotor development. PMID:25769373

  5. Oxidative Stress-Dependent Coronary Endothelial Dysfunction in Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gamez-Mendez, Ana María; Vargas-Robles, Hilda; Ríos, Amelia; Escalante, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is involved in several cardiovascular diseases including coronary artery disease and endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial Endothelium vasodilator and vasoconstrictor agonists play a key role in regulation of vascular tone. In this study, we evaluated coronary vascular response in an 8 weeks diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice model. Coronary perfusion pressure in response to acetylcholine in isolated hearts from obese mice showed increased vasoconstriction and reduced vasodilation responses compared with control mice. Vascular nitric oxide assessed in situ with DAF-2 DA showed diminished levels in coronary arteries from obese mice in both basal and acetylcholine-stimulated conditions. Also, released prostacyclin was decreased in heart perfusates from obese mice, along with plasma tetrahydrobiopterin level and endothelium nitric oxide synthase dimer/monomer ratio. Obesity increased thromboxane A2 synthesis and oxidative stress evaluated by superoxide and peroxynitrite levels, compared with control mice. Obese mice treated with apocynin, a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, reversed all parameters to normal levels. These results suggest that after 8 weeks on a high-fat diet, the increase in oxidative stress lead to imbalance in vasoactive substances and consequently to endothelial dysfunction in coronary arteries. PMID:26381906

  6. Coronary vascular and myocardial effects of substance P in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Maley, R H; Vrettos, A M; Arden, W A; Chein, S; Salley, R K; Gross, D R

    1994-08-01

    Age-matched male New Zealand white rabbits (n = 16) were allocated to two groups: group 1 (n = 8) received a standard rabbit diet; group 2 (n = 8) received a 2% cholesterol-enriched diet. After 8 weeks of prescribed diet, hearts were excised and placed on a constant perfusion pressure Langendorff-type apparatus. Coronary flow, left ventricular pressure, and isovolumic dP/dt were continuously measured. Baseline recordings were made and then a single 5 nmol bolus dose of substance P was delivered into the coronary perfusate. Mean serum cholesterol levels in group 1 were 53 +/- 17 (SEM) mg.dl-1, in group 2 1438 +/- 143 mg.dl-1. In group 1, the injection of substance P caused mean coronary flow to increase 39 +/- 6%, mean coronary vascular resistance to decrease 28 +/- 3%, and mean dP/dt to increase 11 +/- 4%. In group 2, coronary flow increased 57 +/- 13%, coronary vascular resistance decreased 33 +/- 5%, and dP/dt increased 17 +/- 4%. Within groups, values changed significantly from baseline but these changes were not significantly different between groups. The duration of coronary flow response was 113 +/- 20 s in group 1 and 63 +/- 8 s in group 2. Substance P is a potent dilator of coronary resistance vessels and has positive inotropic effects in the rabbit. High levels of cholesterol exposure do not alter the magnitude of substance P-induced vasodilation, but the duration of the response is shortened. PMID:7527507

  7. Central TSC2 missense mutations are associated with a reduced risk of infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    van Eeghen, Agnies M; Nellist, Mark; van Eeghen, Elmer E; Thiele, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant syndrome with a variable neurocognitive phenotype. Recently, different intelligence profiles were observed for distinct mutation types and locations, suggesting that individuals with missense mutations represent a subgroup with milder neurocognitive outcomes. We applied these recent insights to the analysis of the epilepsy phenotype in a large cohort of patients with TSC. Associations between genotype and a history of epilepsy and/or infantile spasms (IS) were explored retrospectively, using data from 478 TSC patients from the databases of the Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance and the Herscot Center at Massachusetts General Hospital. Absolute and relative risks for IS and other types of epilepsy were calculated for various mutation classes, selected according to type and location. As expected, TSC2 mutations were associated with a significantly higher occurrence of IS and other epilepsy types. However, missense mutations located in the central region of TSC2 (exons 23-33) were associated with a significantly reduced incidence of IS. Our study further delineates the epilepsy phenotype in TSC patients. Identifying distinct epilepsy phenotypes for specific mutation subgroups may help identify relevant biomarkers and assist clinicians in making treatment decisions. PMID:22867869

  8. A Case of Infantile Alexander Disease Accompanied by Infantile Spasms Diagnosed by DNA Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Mu; Kim, Ae Suk; Lee, Sun Ju; Cho, Sung Min; Lee, Dong Seok; Choi, Sung Min; Ki, Chang Seok; Kim, Jong Won

    2006-01-01

    Alexander disease (AD) is a rare leukodystrophy of the central nervous system of unknown etiology. AD is characterized by progressive failure of central myelination and the accumulation of Rosenthal fibers in astrocytes, and is inevitably lethal in nature. Symptomatically, AD is associated with leukoencephalopathy with macrocephaly, seizures, and psychomotor retardation in infants, and usually leads to death within the first decade. Its characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings have been described as demyelination predominantly in the frontal lobe. Moreover, dominant mutations in the GFAP gene, coding for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a principal astrocytic intermediate filament protein, have been shown to lead to AD. The disease can now be detected by genetic diagnosis. We report the Korean case of an 8-month-old male patient with AD. He was clinically characterized due to the presence of psychomotor retardation, megalencephaly, spasticity, and recurrent seizures including infantile spasms which is a remarkable presentation. Demyelination in the frontal lobe and in a portion of the temporal lobe was demonstrated by brain MRI. Moreover, DNA analysis of peripheral blood showed the presence of a R239L mutation in the GFAP gene, involving the replacement of guanine with thymine. PMID:17043438

  9. Developing an animal model for infantile spasms: pathogenesis, problems and progress

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Eric D.; Golden, Jeffrey A.

    2009-01-01

    Infantile spasms (IS), the most common of the early epileptic encephalopathies, afflicts thousands of children each year and results in significant disability. Also known as West syndrome, IS is characterized by intractable stereotyped seizures, poor developmental outcome and a characteristic electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern. IS often progresses into another epileptic encephalopathy known as Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, and continues with the patient being burdened by lifelong epilepsy and varying degrees of mental retardation. Little is known about the biological basis of IS. As the etiologies of IS are diverse, the multiple causes must converge into a final common pathway that results in this specific epilepsy phenotype. Finding a model or models to test this final pathway is necessary both to understand why the greatest susceptibility to seizure development occurs during infancy and early childhood, and what underlies the decreased cognitive potential associated with IS. Furthermore, appropriate models would permit better testing of potential therapies directed specifically at IS. This review will describe the clinical features and etiologies of IS; the ideal features that IS models should contain; and the IS models that exist currently. Finally, we will discuss the limitations of these models and the potential avenues for future research on IS. PMID:19553693

  10. The Incidence of Early Postoperative Conductive Hearing Loss after Microvascular Decompression of Hemifacial Spasm.

    PubMed

    Ying, Tingting; Thirumala, Parthasarathy; Gardner, Paul; Habeych, Miguel; Crammond, Donald; Balzer, Jeffrey

    2015-12-01

    Objectives?To evaluate the incidence and discuss the pathogenesis of early postoperative conductive hearing loss (CHL) after microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm (HFS). Design?Pre- and postoperative audiogram data and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) from patients who had underwent MVD for HFS were analyzed. Setting?The study was conducted at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. Participants?MVD for HFS patients who had pre- and postoperative audiogram data, BAEP data, and normal structure of the external and middle ear were included in the study. Main Outcome Measures?CHL was diagnosed if there was an air-bone gap in pure tone audiometry of at least 10?dB at 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 kHz. Results?The incidence of early postoperative CHL in the ipsilateral ear was 18.7% postoperatively. No CHL was observed in the contralateral side. No significant relationship between CHL and intraoperative BAEP changes was found. Demographic parameters were not significantly different between groups with and without CHL. Conclusions?Early postoperative CHL is a significant complication after MVD. Fluid entering the mastoid air cells and/or bone-dust deposition during craniotomy may result in CHL. Long-term audiograms will be needed to evaluate the risk factors that lead to permanent CHL. PMID:26682118

  11. Pathophysiology of coronary artery disease leading to acute coronary syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Manmeet

    2015-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and sudden cardiac death (SCD) are among the most serious and catastrophic of acute cardiac disorders, accounting for hundreds of thousands of deaths each year worldwide. Although the incidence of AMI has been decreasing in the US according to the American Heart Association, heart disease is still the leading cause of mortality in adults. In most cases of AMI and in a majority of cases of SCD, the underlying pathology is acute intraluminal coronary thrombus formation within an epicardial coronary artery leading to total or near-total acute coronary occlusion. This article summarizes our current understanding of the pathophysiology of these acute coronary syndromes and briefly discusses new approaches currently being researched in an attempt to define and ultimately reduce their incidence. PMID:25705391

  12. [Acute coronary syndromes with ST-segment elevation and anomalous connections of the coronary arteries].

    PubMed

    Aubry, P; Halna du Fretay, X; Dibon, O; Dupouy, P; Juliard, J-M

    2015-12-01

    Acute coronary syndrome with ST-segment elevation associated with an anomalous connection of a coronary artery, when the latter is the culprit, may be problematic. Anatomic and radiologic knowledge of major congenital coronary abnormalities and some catheterization skills can help the operators not to delay a beneficial coronary reperfusion. The relationship between acute coronary syndromes with ST-segment elevation and anomalous connections of the coronary arteries needs to be analyzed with a large number of cases because the coronary artery disease frequency may vary with the type of coronary anomaly. PMID:26482632

  13. Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors, Coronary Artery Calcification and Coronary Bypass Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ulusoy, Fatih Rifat; Ipek, Emrah; Korkmaz, Ali Fuat; Gurler, Mehmet Yavuz; Gulbaran, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Atherosclerosis is an intimal disease which affects large and medium size arteries including aorta and carotid, coronary, cerebral and radial arteries. Calcium accumulated in the coronary arterial plaques have substantial contribution to the plaque volume. The aim of our study is to investigate the relationship between coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors and coronary arterial calcification, and to delineate the importance of CACS in coronary artery bypass surgery. Materials and Methods The current study is retrospective and 410 patients admitted to our clinic with atypical chest pain and without known CAD were included. These individuals were evaluated by 16 slice electron beam computed tomography with suspicion of CAD and their calcium scores were calculated. Detailed demographic and medical history were obtained from all of the patients. Results In our study, we employed five different analyses using different coronary arterial calcification score (CACS) thresold levels reported in previous studies. All of the analyses, performed according to the previously defined thresold levels, showed that risk factors had strong positive relationship with CACS as mentioned in previous studies. Conclusion Coronary arterial calcification is part of the athero-sclerotic process and although it can be detected in atherosclerotic vessel, it is absent in a normal vessel. It can be concluded that the clinical scores, even they are helpful, have some limitations in a significant part of the population for cardiovascular risk determination. It is important for an anastomosis region to be noncalcified in coronary bypass surgery. In a coronary artery, it will be helpness for showing of calcific field and anostomosis spot. PMID:26155507

  14. A lotus root-like appearance in both the left anterior descending and right coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Hiromu; Taguchi, Eiji; Kotono, Yoshihiro; Suzuyama, Hiroto; Yoshida, Masayoshi; Miyamoto, Shinzo; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Nishigami, Kazuhiro; Nakao, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    A 60-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of dyspnea on exertion. He was diagnosed with heart failure due to an old myocardial infarction. Myocardial stress perfusion scintigraphy revealed inducible myocardial ischemia. Coronary angiography revealed hazy slit lesions in both the left anterior descending (LAD) and right coronary arteries (RCA). We first performed percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on the LAD lesion. Subsequently, we performed PCI for the RCA lesion using multiple imaging modalities. We observed a lotus root-like appearance in both the LAD and RCA, and PCI was successful for both vessels. We describe this rare case in detail. PMID:25142445

  15. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Coronary Heart Disease?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Coronary Heart Disease? A common symptom of coronary heart disease ( ... narrow the coronary arteries. Signs and Symptoms of Heart Problems Related to Coronary Heart Disease Some people ...

  16. Coronary microvascular dysfunction: an update

    PubMed Central

    Crea, Filippo; Camici, Paolo G.; Bairey Merz, Cathleen Noel

    2014-01-01

    Many patients undergoing coronary angiography because of chest pain syndromes, believed to be indicative of obstructive atherosclerosis of the epicardial coronary arteries, are found to have normal angiograms. In the past two decades, a number of studies have reported that abnormalities in the function and structure of the coronary microcirculation may occur in patients without obstructive atherosclerosis, but with risk factors or with myocardial diseases as well as in patients with obstructive atherosclerosis; furthermore, coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) can be iatrogenic. In some instances, CMD represents an epiphenomenon, whereas in others it is an important marker of risk or may even contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and myocardial diseases, thus becoming a therapeutic target. This review article provides an update on the clinical relevance of CMD in different clinical settings and also the implications for therapy. PMID:24366916

  17. [Coronary intervention. 2012 update].

    PubMed

    Rittger, H; Arnold, M; Schmid, M; Zimmermann, S; Daniel, W G

    2012-03-01

    In-stent restenosis and stent thrombosis are still the main topics of any update on coronary intervention. One of the challenging issues in the past year lay in answering the question of whether the data on first-generation drug-eluting stents are still relevant in the light of newer stent designs and drugs. Other issues include new strategies in antiplatelet therapy, treatment of in-stent restenosis, particularly drug-eluting stent restenosis, treatment of multivessel and left-main disease, as well as the latest developments in bioresorbable polymers and "scaffolds". In the light of demographic changes, the main challenge for the interventional community is to build an evidence base for the adequate treatment of elderly patients in order to resolve uncertainties in the treatment of this challenging patient group. PMID:22382138

  18. The Coronary Baroreflex in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kincaid, K.; Ward, M.; Nair, U.; Hainsworth, R.; Drinkhill, M.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Previous studies have identified the presence of coronary baroreceptors in animal models. We set up a study to explore the presence of coronary baroreceptors in humans, which was performed with isolated, graded aortic root perfusion in patients during cardiopulmonary bypass. With ethical approval 12 patients with normal coronary arteries, aged 58–75 (mean 69) years undergoing mitral valve surgery were recruited to the study with informed consent. Those with aortic valve incompetence, coronary, or peripheral artery disease and diabetes mellitus were excluded. They were randomized to have their coronary perfusion pressure set low at 50 mmHg for 90 seconds and then adjusted high to 80 mmHg for 90 seconds (group L–H) or the reverse sequence (group H–L). Average arterial pressure and approximately constant systemic flow over 30-second periods were used to calculate vascular resistance (SVR). The first six experiments followed initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic clamping but before the delivery of cold blood cardioplegia; the blood temperature for these experiments was kept at 32°C. The remaining six were conducted prior to removal of the aortic cross clamp at 37°C. Coronary sinus blood samples were analyzed to exclude myocardial ischemia. Coronary sinus blood samples showed insignificant variation in oxygen saturation, lactate, and troponin T. Three patients were excluded because of unstable blood pressure. In the (L–H) group SVR reduced in 4 of 4 remaining patients (mean ?9.4%, range ?3.9 to ?19.6%). In the (H–L) group SVR increased in three patients (mean +2.0%, range 1.1 to 3.7%) but decreased in two (?8.9% and ?15.8%). These preliminary results, although not statistically different, suggest the presence of coronary baroreceptors in humans. The reflex vascular responses are similar to those previously reported in animal models. PMID:16350386

  19. Coronary heart disease at altitude.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, J K

    1994-01-01

    In the past, it has been assumed that some basic physiologic responses to altitude, exposure in coronary patients are comparable to those in normal young subjects. In fact there are similar changes in sympathetic activation, heart rate, and blood pressure early after ascent, with decrements in plasma volume, cardiac output, and stroke volume as acclimatization proceeds. These responses are described, and experience with coronary patients is reviewed. During the 1st 2 to 3 days at altitude, coronary patients are at greatest risk of untoward events. Gradual rather than abrupt ascent, a moderate degree of physical conditioning, early limitation of activity to a level tolerated at low altitude for somewhat less), and attention to blood pressure control all appear to have protective effects. Ascent to moderate altitude appears to entail little risk in coronary patients who are asymptomatic or have moderate exercise tolerance, provided that the above precautions are observed and that activity does not exceed levels at lower altitude. If activity is to be increased, pre-ascent treadmill exercise testing or Holter monitor data secured under conditions comparable to those anticipated at altitude may provide reasonable guidelines. For coronary patients previously evaluated and known to be in a high-risk category, indications for ascent should be examined more critically, and precautionary measures should be more rigorous. Advice for patients with known coronary disease who may desire to trek at very high altitude must involve individual evaluation, and guidelines remain elusive. PMID:7888800

  20. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase increases coronary perfusion in mice

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jun; Sun, Dong; Jiang, Houli; Kandhi, Sharath; Froogh, Ghezal; Hwang, Sung Hee; Hammock, Bruce D; Wolin, Michael S; Thompson, Carl I; Hintze, Thomas H; Huang, An

    2015-01-01

    Roles of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), the enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to their diols (DHETs), in the coronary circulation and cardiac function remain unknown. We tested the hypothesis that compromising EET hydrolysis/degradation, via sEH deficiency, lowers the coronary resistance to promote cardiac perfusion and function. Hearts were isolated from wild type (WT), sEH knockout (KO) mice and WT mice chronically treated with t-TUCB (sEH inhibitor), and perfused with constant flow at different pre-loads. Compared to WT controls, sEH-deficient hearts required significantly greater basal coronary flow to maintain the perfusion pressure at 100 mmHg and exhibited a greater reduction in vascular resistance during tension-induced heart work, implying a better coronary perfusion during cardiac performance. Cardiac contractility, characterized by developed tension in response to changes in preload, was potentially increased in sEH-KO hearts, manifested by an enlarged magnitude at each step-wise increase in end-diastolic to peak-systolic tension. 14,15-EEZE (EET antagonist) prevented the adaptation of coronary circulation in sEH null hearts whereas responses in WT hearts were sensitive to the inhibition of NO. Cardiac expression of EET synthases (CYP2J2/2C29) was comparable in both genotypic mice whereas, levels of 14,15-, 11,12- and 8,9-EETs were significantly higher in sEH-KO hearts, accompanied with lower levels of DHETs. In conclusion, the elevation of cardiac EETs, as a function of sEH deficiency, plays key roles in the adaptation of coronary flow and cardiac function. PMID:26071213

  1. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase increases coronary perfusion in mice.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jun; Sun, Dong; Jiang, Houli; Kandhi, Sharath; Froogh, Ghezal; Hwang, Sung Hee; Hammock, Bruce D; Wolin, Michael S; Thompson, Carl I; Hintze, Thomas H; Huang, An

    2015-06-01

    Roles of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), the enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to their diols (DHETs), in the coronary circulation and cardiac function remain unknown. We tested the hypothesis that compromising EET hydrolysis/degradation, via sEH deficiency, lowers the coronary resistance to promote cardiac perfusion and function. Hearts were isolated from wild type (WT), sEH knockout (KO) mice and WT mice chronically treated with t-TUCB (sEH inhibitor), and perfused with constant flow at different pre-loads. Compared to WT controls, sEH-deficient hearts required significantly greater basal coronary flow to maintain the perfusion pressure at 100 mmHg and exhibited a greater reduction in vascular resistance during tension-induced heart work, implying a better coronary perfusion during cardiac performance. Cardiac contractility, characterized by developed tension in response to changes in preload, was potentially increased in sEH-KO hearts, manifested by an enlarged magnitude at each step-wise increase in end-diastolic to peak-systolic tension. 14,15-EEZE (EET antagonist) prevented the adaptation of coronary circulation in sEH null hearts whereas responses in WT hearts were sensitive to the inhibition of NO. Cardiac expression of EET synthases (CYP2J2/2C29) was comparable in both genotypic mice whereas, levels of 14,15-, 11,12- and 8,9-EETs were significantly higher in sEH-KO hearts, accompanied with lower levels of DHETs. In conclusion, the elevation of cardiac EETs, as a function of sEH deficiency, plays key roles in the adaptation of coronary flow and cardiac function. PMID:26071213

  2. Facial Weakness, Otalgia, and Hemifacial Spasm: A Novel Neurological Syndrome in a Case-Series of 3 Patients With Rheumatic Disease.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Julius

    2015-10-01

    Bell palsy occurs in different rheumatic diseases, causes hemifacial weakness, and targets the motor branch of the 7th cranial nerve. Severe, persistent, and refractory otalgia having features of neuropathic pain (ie, burning and allodynic) does not characteristically occur with Bell palsy. Whereas aberrant regeneration of the 7th cranial nerve occurring after a Bell palsy may lead to a variety of clinical findings, hemifacial spasm only rarely occurs. We identified in 3 rheumatic disease patients (2 with Sjögren syndrome, 1 with rheumatoid arthritis) a previously unreported neurological syndrome of facial weakness, otalgia with neuropathic pain features, and hemifacial spasm.We characterized symptoms, examination findings, and response to therapy. All 3 patients experienced vertigo, as well as severe otalgia which persisted after mild facial weakness had completely resolved within 1 to 4 weeks. The allodynic nature of otalgia was striking. Two patients were rendered homebound, as even the barest graze of outdoor breezes caused intolerable ear pain. Patients developed hemifacial spasm either at the time of or within 3 months of facial weakness. Two patients had a polyphasic course, with recurrent episodes of facial weakness and increased otalgia. In all cases, otalgia and hemifacial spasm were unresponsive to neuropathic pain regimens, but responded in 1 case to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. No patients had vesicles or varicella zoster virus in spinal-fluid studies.We have defined a novel neurological syndrome in 3 rheumatic disease patients, characterized by facial weakness, otalgia, and hemifacial spasm. As described in infectious disorders, the combination of otalgia, facial weakness, and 8th cranial nerve deficits suggests damage to the geniculate ganglia (ie, the sensory ganglia of the 7th cranial nerve), with contiguous involvement of other cranial nerves causing facial weakness and vertigo. However, the relapsing nature and association with hemifacial spasm constitute a unique part of this neurological syndrome. PMID:26447997

  3. Facial Weakness, Otalgia, and Hemifacial Spasm: A Novel Neurological Syndrome in a Case-Series of 3 Patients With Rheumatic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bell palsy occurs in different rheumatic diseases, causes hemifacial weakness, and targets the motor branch of the 7th cranial nerve. Severe, persistent, and refractory otalgia having features of neuropathic pain (ie, burning and allodynic) does not characteristically occur with Bell palsy. Whereas aberrant regeneration of the 7th cranial nerve occurring after a Bell palsy may lead to a variety of clinical findings, hemifacial spasm only rarely occurs. We identified in 3 rheumatic disease patients (2 with Sjögren syndrome, 1 with rheumatoid arthritis) a previously unreported neurological syndrome of facial weakness, otalgia with neuropathic pain features, and hemifacial spasm. We characterized symptoms, examination findings, and response to therapy. All 3 patients experienced vertigo, as well as severe otalgia which persisted after mild facial weakness had completely resolved within 1 to 4 weeks. The allodynic nature of otalgia was striking. Two patients were rendered homebound, as even the barest graze of outdoor breezes caused intolerable ear pain. Patients developed hemifacial spasm either at the time of or within 3 months of facial weakness. Two patients had a polyphasic course, with recurrent episodes of facial weakness and increased otalgia. In all cases, otalgia and hemifacial spasm were unresponsive to neuropathic pain regimens, but responded in 1 case to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. No patients had vesicles or varicella zoster virus in spinal-fluid studies. We have defined a novel neurological syndrome in 3 rheumatic disease patients, characterized by facial weakness, otalgia, and hemifacial spasm. As described in infectious disorders, the combination of otalgia, facial weakness, and 8th cranial nerve deficits suggests damage to the geniculate ganglia (ie, the sensory ganglia of the 7th cranial nerve), with contiguous involvement of other cranial nerves causing facial weakness and vertigo. However, the relapsing nature and association with hemifacial spasm constitute a unique part of this neurological syndrome. PMID:26447997

  4. Transient global amnesia and cortical blindness after vertebral angiography: further evidence for the role of arterial spasm.

    PubMed

    Jackson, A; Stewart, G; Wood, A; Gillespie, J E

    1995-04-01

    We describe a series of six patients who experienced severe retrograde amnesia (five cases) or cortical blindness (one case) during selective vertebral angiography. All angiograms were obtained with the same nonionic contrast medium. Analysis of the contrast batch demonstrated no abnormalities, but investigation of the angiographic suite revealed a faulty contrast warming cabinet resulting in injection of contrast material above body temperature. The warming cabinet was withdrawn, and the complication has not recurred. We believe that these symptoms reflect ischemia caused by vertebral arterial spasm. PMID:7611084

  5. High Frequency EEG Activity Associated With Ictal Events in an Animal Model of Infantile Spasms

    PubMed Central

    Frost, James D.; Lee, Chong L.; Hrachovy, Richard A.; Swann, John W.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY PURPOSE To describe high frequency (HF) electrographic activity accompanying ictal discharges in the tetrodotoxin (TTX) model of infantile spasms. Previous studies of HF oscillations in humans and animals suggest that they arise at sites of seizure onset. We compared HF oscillations at several cortical sites to determine regional differences. METHODS TTX was infused for 4 weeks into the neocortex of rats beginning on postnatal days 11 or 12. EEG electrodes were implanted two weeks later and Video/EEG recordings were analyzed between postnatal days 31–47. EEGs were digitally sampled at 2048 Hz. HF EEG activity (20–900 Hz) was quantified using compressed spectral arrays and band-pass filtering. RESULTS Multiple seizures were analyzed in 10 rats. Ictal onset was associated with multiple bands of rhythmic HF activity that could extend to 700 Hz. The earliest and most intense discharging typically occurred contralaterally to where TTX was infused. HF activity continued to occur throughout the seizure (even during the electrodecrement that is recorded with more traditional filter settings), although there was a gradual decrease of the intensity of the highest frequency components as the amplitude of lower frequency oscillations increased. Higher frequencies sometimes reappeared in association with spike/sharp waves at seizure termination. DISCUSSION The findings show that HF EEG activity accompanies ictal events in the TTX model. Results also suggest that the seizures in this model do not originate from the TTX infusion site. Instead HF discharges are usually most intense and occur earliest contralaterally, suggesting that these homologous regions may be involved in seizure generation. PMID:21204817

  6. Infantile spasms (West syndrome): update and resources for pediatricians and providers to share with parents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Infantile spasms (IS; West syndrome) is a severe form of encephalopathy that typically affects infants younger than 2?years old. Pediatricians, pediatric neurologists, and other pediatric health care providers are all potentially key early contacts for families who have an infant with IS. The objective of this article is to assist pediatric health care providers in the detection of the disease and in the counseling and guidance of families who have an infant with IS. Methods Treatment guidelines, consensus reports, and original research studies are reviewed to provide an update regarding the diagnosis and treatment of infants with IS. Web sites were searched for educational and supportive resource content relevant to providers and families of patients with IS. Results Early detection of IS and pediatrician referral to a pediatric neurologist for further evaluation and initiation of treatment may improve prognosis. Family education and the establishment of a multidisciplinary continuum of care are important components of care for the majority of patients with IS. The focus of the continuum of care varies across diagnosis, initiation of treatment, and short- and long-term needs. Several on-line educational and supportive resources for families and caregivers of patients with IS were identified. Conclusions Given the possibility of poor developmental outcomes in IS, including the emergence of other seizure disorders and cognitive and developmental problems, early recognition, referral, and treatment of IS are important for optimal patient outcomes. Dissemination of and access to educational and supportive resources for families and caregivers across the lifespan of the child with IS is an urgent need. Pediatric health care providers are well positioned to address these needs. PMID:22830456

  7. MPST but not CSE is the primary regulator of hydrogen sulfide production and function in the coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Maggie M; Kim, Dae Hee; Jandu, Sandeep; Bergman, Yehudit; Tan, Siqi; Wang, Huilei; Pandey, Deepesh R; Abraham, Theodore P; Shoukas, Artin A; Berkowitz, Dan E; Santhanam, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as an important gasotransmitter in the vasculature. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that H2S contributes to coronary vasoregulation and evaluated the physiological relevance of two sources of H2S, namely, cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE) and 3-mercaptypyruvate sulfertransferase (MPST). MPST was detected in human coronary artery endothelial cells as well as rat and mouse coronary artery; CSE was not detected in the coronary vasculature. Rat coronary artery homogenates produced H2S through the MPST pathway but not the CSE pathway in vitro. In vivo coronary vasorelaxation response was similar in CSE knockout mice, wild-type mice (WT), and WT mice treated with the CSE inhibitor propargylglycine, suggesting that CSE-produced H2S does not have a significant role in coronary vasoregulation in vivo. Ex vivo, the MPST substrate 3-mercaptopyruvate (3-MP) and H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) elicited similar coronary vasoreactivity responses. Pyruvate did not have any effects on vasoreactivity. The vasoactive effect of H2S appeared to be nitric oxide (NO) dependent: H2S induced coronary vasoconstriction in the presence of NO and vasorelaxation in its absence. Maximal endothelial-dependent relaxation was intact after 3-MP and NaHS induced an increase in preconstriction tone, suggesting that endothelial NO synthase activity was not significantly inhibited. In vitro, H2S reacted with NO, which may, in part explain the vasoconstrictive effects of 3-MP and NaHS. Taken together, these data show that MPST rather than CSE generates H2S in coronary artery, mediating its effects through direct modulation of NO. This has important implications for H2S-based therapy in healthy and diseased coronary arteries. PMID:26519030

  8. Coronary artery balloon angioplasty - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... muscle (the coronary arteries) can be narrowed or blocked by this accumulation. If the narrowing is small, ... is a minimally invasive procedure to open up blocked coronary arteries, allowing blood to circulate unobstructed to ...

  9. Screening for Coronary Heart Disease with Electrocardiography

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Force Recommendations Screening for Coronary Heart Disease with Electrocardiography The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) ... recommendations on Screening for Coronary Heart Disease with Electrocardiography . These recommendations are for adult men and women ...

  10. How Is Coronary Heart Disease Treated?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Coronary Heart Disease Treated? Treatments for coronary heart disease include ... plaque Relieving symptoms Widening or bypassing clogged arteries Heart-Healthy Lifestyle Changes Your doctor may recommend heart- ...

  11. Who Needs Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Who Needs Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is used to treat people ... or after a heart attack to treat blocked arteries. Your doctor may recommend CABG if other treatments, ...

  12. POST CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFT STUDY (CABG)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Relative effectiveness of moderate versus more aggressive lipid lowering, and of low dose anticoagulation versus placebo, in delaying saphenous vein coronary bypass graft atherosclerosis and preventing occlusion of saphenous grafts of patients with saphenous vein coronary bypass ...

  13. Coronary hemodynamics in elasmobranchs and teleosts.

    PubMed

    Franklin, C E; Axelsson, M

    1994-09-01

    Until recently, direct measurements of coronary blood flow in fishes had not been made. This review presents and compares in vivo measurements of coronary flow recorded from the school shark, Galeorhinus australis, and the coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch. In both species, the coronary blood flow was phasic and strongly influenced by the cardiac cycle. Coronary blood flow in the school shark was more severely compromised by the cardiac cycle with a short retrograde flow occurring during systole. In the coho salmon, there was an anterograde coronary blood flow throughout the cardiac cycle. Differences in coronary hemodynamics are discussed in relation to differences in the myoarchitecture of the school shark and coho salmon hearts. The regulation of coronary blood flow through changes in vascular resistance (vasoactivity of the coronary vessels) is also discussed. PMID:7827251

  14. Structural remodeling of coronary resistance arteries: effects of age and exercise training

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Mina A.; Taylor, Curtis R.; Chen, Bei; La, Hae-Sun; Maraj, Joshua J.; Kilar, Cody R.; Behnke, Bradley J.; Delp, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Age is known to induce remodeling and stiffening of large-conduit arteries; however, little is known of the effects of age on remodeling and mechanical properties of coronary resistance arteries. We employed a rat model of aging to investigate whether 1) age increases wall thickness and stiffness of coronary resistance arteries, and 2) exercise training reverses putative age-induced increases in wall thickness and stiffness of coronary resistance arteries. Young (4 mo) and old (21 mo) Fischer 344 rats remained sedentary or underwent 10 wk of treadmill exercise training. Coronary resistance arteries were isolated for determination of wall-to-lumen ratio, effective elastic modulus, and active and passive responses to changes in intraluminal pressure. Elastin and collagen content of the vascular wall were assessed histologically. Wall-to-lumen ratio increased with age, but this increase was reversed by exercise training. In contrast, age reduced stiffness, and exercise training increased stiffness in coronary resistance arteries from old rats. Myogenic responsiveness was reduced with age and restored by exercise training. Collagen-to-elastin ratio (C/E) of the wall did not change with age and was reduced with exercise training in arteries from old rats. Thus age induces hypertrophic remodeling of the vessel wall and reduces the stiffness and myogenic function of coronary resistance arteries. Exercise training reduces wall-to-lumen ratio, increases wall stiffness, and restores myogenic function in aged coronary resistance arteries. The restorative effect of exercise training on myogenic function of coronary resistance arteries may be due to both changes in vascular smooth muscle phenotype and expression of extracellular matrix proteins. PMID:25059239

  15. Structural remodeling of coronary resistance arteries: effects of age and exercise training.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Mina A; Taylor, Curtis R; Chen, Bei; La, Hae-Sun; Maraj, Joshua J; Kilar, Cody R; Behnke, Bradley J; Delp, Michael D; Muller-Delp, Judy M

    2014-09-15

    Age is known to induce remodeling and stiffening of large-conduit arteries; however, little is known of the effects of age on remodeling and mechanical properties of coronary resistance arteries. We employed a rat model of aging to investigate whether 1) age increases wall thickness and stiffness of coronary resistance arteries, and 2) exercise training reverses putative age-induced increases in wall thickness and stiffness of coronary resistance arteries. Young (4 mo) and old (21 mo) Fischer 344 rats remained sedentary or underwent 10 wk of treadmill exercise training. Coronary resistance arteries were isolated for determination of wall-to-lumen ratio, effective elastic modulus, and active and passive responses to changes in intraluminal pressure. Elastin and collagen content of the vascular wall were assessed histologically. Wall-to-lumen ratio increased with age, but this increase was reversed by exercise training. In contrast, age reduced stiffness, and exercise training increased stiffness in coronary resistance arteries from old rats. Myogenic responsiveness was reduced with age and restored by exercise training. Collagen-to-elastin ratio (C/E) of the wall did not change with age and was reduced with exercise training in arteries from old rats. Thus age induces hypertrophic remodeling of the vessel wall and reduces the stiffness and myogenic function of coronary resistance arteries. Exercise training reduces wall-to-lumen ratio, increases wall stiffness, and restores myogenic function in aged coronary resistance arteries. The restorative effect of exercise training on myogenic function of coronary resistance arteries may be due to both changes in vascular smooth muscle phenotype and expression of extracellular matrix proteins. PMID:25059239

  16. Coronary endothelial dysfunction and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species in type 2 diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young-Eun; Basu, Aninda; Dai, Anzhi; Heldak, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction is implicated in cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes. The decrease in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is the hallmark of endothelial dysfunction, and it leads to attenuated vascular relaxation and atherosclerosis followed by a decrease in blood flow. In the heart, decreased coronary blood flow is responsible for insufficient oxygen supply to cardiomyocytes and, subsequently, increases the incidence of cardiac ischemia. In this study we investigate whether and how reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria contribute to coronary endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetic (T2D) mice. T2D was induced in mice by a high-fat diet combined with a single injection of low-dose streptozotocin. ACh-induced vascular relaxation was significantly attenuated in coronary arteries (CAs) from T2D mice compared with controls. The pharmacological approach reveals that NO-dependent, but not hyperpolarization- or prostacyclin-dependent, relaxation was decreased in CAs from T2D mice. Attenuated ACh-induced relaxation in CAs from T2D mice was restored toward control level by treatment with mitoTempol (a mitochondria-specific O2? scavenger). Coronary ECs isolated from T2D mice exhibited a significant increase in mitochondrial ROS concentration and decrease in SOD2 protein expression compared with coronary ECs isolated from control mice. Furthermore, protein ubiquitination of SOD2 was significantly increased in coronary ECs isolated from T2D mice. These results suggest that augmented SOD2 ubiquitination leads to the increase in mitochondrial ROS concentration in coronary ECs from T2D mice and attenuates coronary vascular relaxation in T2D mice. PMID:23986204

  17. The ASSURE ROT Registry: Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold Following Rotablation for Complex Coronary Lesions

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-05

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Artery Disease; Myocardial Ischemia; Coronary Disease; Coronary Restenosis; Heart Diseases; Coronary Stenosis; Arteriosclerosis; Arterial Occlusive Diseases; Vascular Diseases

  18. [Single coronary artery and right aortic arch].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2015-01-01

    Coronary anomalies are mostly asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally during coronary angiography or echocardiography. However, they must be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of angina, dyspnea, syncope, acute myocardial infarction or sudden death in young patients. The case is presented of two rare anomalies, single coronary artery originating from right sinus of Valsalva and right aortic arch, in a 65 year-old patient with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease treated percutaneously. PMID:25304052

  19. Coronary physiology assessment in the catheterization laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Díez-delhoyo, Felipe; Gutiérrez-Ibañes, Enrique; Loughlin, Gerard; Sanz-Ruiz, Ricardo; Vázquez-Álvarez, María Eugenia; Sarnago-Cebada, Fernando; Angulo-Llanos, Rocío; Casado-Plasencia, Ana; Elízaga, Jaime; Fernández Avilés Diáz, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Physicians cannot rely solely on the angiographic appearance of epicardial coronary artery stenosis when evaluating patients with myocardial ischemia. Instead, sound knowledge of coronary vascular physiology and of the methods currently available for its characterization can improve the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of invasive assessment of the coronary circulation, and help improve clinical decision-making. In this article we summarize the current methods available for a thorough assessment of coronary physiology. PMID:26413229

  20. Coronary physiology assessment in the catheterization laboratory.

    PubMed

    Díez-Delhoyo, Felipe; Gutiérrez-Ibañes, Enrique; Loughlin, Gerard; Sanz-Ruiz, Ricardo; Vázquez-Álvarez, María Eugenia; Sarnago-Cebada, Fernando; Angulo-Llanos, Rocío; Casado-Plasencia, Ana; Elízaga, Jaime; Fernández Avilés Diáz, Francisco

    2015-09-26

    Physicians cannot rely solely on the angiographic appearance of epicardial coronary artery stenosis when evaluating patients with myocardial ischemia. Instead, sound knowledge of coronary vascular physiology and of the methods currently available for its characterization can improve the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of invasive assessment of the coronary circulation, and help improve clinical decision-making. In this article we summarize the current methods available for a thorough assessment of coronary physiology. PMID:26413229

  1. Congenital coronary arteriovenous fistula presenting with syncope.

    PubMed

    Braden, D S; O'Neal, K R; McMullan, M R; Ebeid, M R

    2002-01-01

    Previous reports of syncope in patients with coronary arteriovenous fistula (CAVF) have theorized that it occurs secondary to a coronary steal phenomenon. We present a case of syncope in a young woman with a CAVF and no anatomic substrate for coronary steal. PMID:11889541

  2. Assessment of coronary bypass surgery and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Preston, T A

    1989-01-01

    Coronary bypass surgery developed as another in a line of surgical procedures dating back more than 60 years. The medical profession at first assessed this procedure with time-honored anecdotal techniques. Gradually, for a variety of reasons, improved methods of comparisons worked their way into assessments of bypass surgery. Randomized controlled trials met resistance but have been very influential. Assessment of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty has benefited from the knowledge generated during the last 25 years, but clinicians have been slower to apply the most advanced techniques. PMID:10313785

  3. Cineangiography of the Coronary Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Gerard M.; Charland, Raymond; Roy, Paul; Primeau, Robert; Nadeau, Reginald

    1971-01-01

    Fifty French-Canadian patients presenting with typical or atypical anginal pain were studied by selective cinearteriography and coronary sinus catheterization, with measurement of myocardial function, oxygen and lactate extraction at rest and during isoproterenol infusion. In 28 of 42 patients all three coronary arteries were involved, but angina pectoris also occurred in patients with single mildly stenotic arterial lesions and even in eight patients with normal cinearteriograms. All patients with severe arterial lesions had typical angina, and the longer the duration of angina, the greater the extent, usually, of anatomic disease. Seventy-nine percent of resting electrocardiograms of patients with documented coronary artery disease were abnormal, with recognizable prior infarction in 18. Two-thirds of the patients experiencing pain during the stressful state had abnormal ventricular function. An abnormal arteriovenous lactate difference in response to isoproterenol occurred in patients in all groups. PMID:5563346

  4. Resting angina due to papillary fibroelastoma of the right coronary cusp.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Eiji; Nakao, Koichi; Sassa, Toshiharu; Kamio, Takihiro; Sakanashi, Mina; Miyamoto, Shinzo; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Nishigami, Kazuhiro; Uesugi, Hideyuki; Hirayama, Touitsu

    2016-01-01

    A 63-year-old man with chest pain at rest was referred to our hospital. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a mobile ball-like mass at the top of the right coronary cusp. Subsequently, transesophageal echocardiography also showed a mobile mass at the right coronary cusp. Aortic valve replacement with a mechanical valve was performed under general anesthesia. We diagnosed this condition as papillary fibroelastoma based upon the pathological findings with hematoxylin and eosin staining, and Elastica van Gieson staining. Coronary angiography revealed no organic lesions. The operation was successful, and the patient remains asymptomatic. We speculate that the resting chest pain was induced by transient occlusion of the right coronary orifice by the tumor. We describe this rare case in detail including a review of the literature. PMID:25081095

  5. Efficacy of Gastric Balloon Dilatation and/or Retrievable Stent Insertion for Pyloric Spasms after Pylorus-Preserving Gastrectomy: Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jae Seok; Kim, Se Hyung; Shin, Cheong-il; Joo, Ijin; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Yang, Han-Kwang; Baek, Jee Hyun; Kim, Tae Han; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We retrospectively investigated the feasibility and clinical efficacy of balloon dilatation and subsequent retrievable stent insertion, when necessitated, for pyloric spasms after pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG). Materials and Methods Forty-five patients experiencing pyloric spasms after PPG underwent fluoroscopic balloon dilations to alleviate obstructive symptoms due to delayed gastric emptying. Patients showing poor response to balloon dilation underwent subsequent retrievable stent insertion. Safety of the procedures was analyzed, and subjective symptoms and objective signs of pyloric spasms were analyzed and compared before and after treatment. Results Thirty-three patients (73.3%, 33/45) showed good response to balloon dilatation requiring no further treatment (balloon group). Conversely, 12 patients (26.7%, 12/45) showed poor or no response after balloon dilation requiring subsequent stent insertion (stent group). Balloon dilations and/or stent insertions were safely performed in all patients except one patient who suffered a transmural tear after balloon dilatation. In both groups, mean subjective symptom score was significantly improved and mean pyloric canal-to-height of the adjacent vertebral body ratio was significantly increased after the procedures (P <.05). Conclusion Balloon dilation is a safe and effective treatment for patients with pyloric spasms after PPG. In patients refractory to balloon dilations, retrievable stent placement can be a safe alternative tool. PMID:26657405

  6. New Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Tsunenori; Kikuchi, Makoto; Mizuno, Kyoichi; Arakawa, Ko; Shibuya, Toshio; Horiuchi, Kenji; Okamoto, Yasuyuki; Miyamoto, Akira; Isojima, Kazushige; Kurita, Akira

    1988-06-01

    A new thin coronary angioscope which has a inflatable balloon at its distal tip is described in this paper. This angioscope is formed into very thin flexible catheter, less than 4F(1.33mm) in sheath outer diameter at the catheter tip. The angioscope contains two penetrated lumina which utilize for either flushing blood or manipulating of a guiding wire. A selective intracoronary visualization in left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and circumuflex(CX) of dogs up to 15kg in their weight were carried out during up to 20s until occurring of ST segment change of the electro-cardiogram(ECG).

  7. [Non-ST acute coronary syndromes].

    PubMed

    Collet, J Ph; Choussat, R; Montalescot, G

    2002-11-01

    Acute coronary syndromes are the first cause of death in France. Unstable angina is the most frequent acute coronary syndrome. Risk stratification to predict morbimortality and the risk of major hemorrhage is the key step of the medical approach. Combined antithrombotic therapy (aspirine + clopidogrel + LMWH) has led to a substantial reduction of major coronary events with a good tolerance because of the short duration of such aggressive strategy. This combined antithrombotic also allowed to increase the benefit of an early invasive strategy including coronary angiogram with stent percutaneous coronary intervention. PMID:12500603

  8. Occlusion of left and right coronary arteries and coronary sinus following blunt chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Mastroroberto, Pasquale; Di Mizio, Giulio; Colosimo, Federica; Ricci, Pietrantonio

    2011-09-01

    Blunt chest trauma from rapid automobile airbag deployment causing coronary artery occlusion and myocardial infarction is a rare but potentially fatal condition. We present the case of a 37-year-old man who developed extensive anterior and inferior myocardial infarction because of occlusion of both left anterior and right coronary arteries following blunt injury to the chest in a car accident. The patient was scheduled for emergency coronary angiography but left and right coronary ostia were not cannulated because of thrombus formation probably. The patient died, and the autopsy revealed external compression by epicardial hematomas involving separately left and right coronary arteries and the coronary sinus without signs of coronary and/or aortic dissection. To our knowledge, this is the first case presenting occlusion of both coronary arteries secondary to blunt chest trauma causing acute myocardial infarction in a young man without signs of prior coronary artery disease. PMID:21644989

  9. Evaluation of the fetal coronary circulation.

    PubMed

    Baschat, A A; Gembruch, U

    2002-10-01

    Prenatal ultrasound today allows the detailed study of small caliber vascular beds including the fetal coronary arteries and the coronary sinus. The coronary circulation is unique because of its critical role in myocardial metabolism and function and its ability to adapt in many fetal conditions. The ultrasound examination techniques for the evaluation of the fetal coronary circulation are presented. Evaluation of the coronary arteries is primarily achieved by color flow imaging and pulsed wave Doppler. Conditions such as fetal growth restriction, anemia, ductus arteriosus constriction and bradycardia are associated with evidence of enhanced coronary blood flow. These findings suggest that short-term autoregulation and long-term alterations in myocardial flow reserve are present in the human fetus. At present, examination of coronary sinus blood flow has limited clinical utility, while increases of the coronary sinus diameter or attenuation of coronary sinus dynamics may provide useful markers of abnormalities of central venous drainage. Abnormal vascular connections between the coronary arteries and the ventricular cavities may be observed in outflow tract obstructive cardiac lesions. In these conditions prenatal detection of coronary fistulae may have a potential impact on outcome and therefore counseling and perinatal management. PMID:12383329

  10. Constraint-induced movement therapy promotes brain functional reorganization in stroke patients with hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenqing; Wang, Aihui; Yu, Limin; Han, Xuesong; Jiang, Guiyun; Weng, Changshui; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2012-11-15

    Stroke patients with hemiplegia exhibit flexor spasms in the upper limb and extensor spasms in the lower limb, and their movement patterns vary greatly. Constraint-induced movement therapy is an upper limb rehabilitation technique used in stroke patients with hemiplegia; however, studies of lower extremity rehabilitation are scarce. In this study, stroke patients with lower limb hemiplegia underwent conventional Bobath therapy for 4 weeks as baseline treatment, followed by constraint-induced movement therapy for an additional 4 weeks. The 10-m maximum walking speed and Berg balance scale scores significantly improved following treatment, and lower extremity motor function also improved. The results of functional MRI showed that constraint-induced movement therapy alleviates the reduction in cerebral functional activation in patients, which indicates activation of functional brain regions and a significant increase in cerebral blood perfusion. These results demonstrate that constraint-induced movement therapy promotes brain functional reorganization in stroke patients with lower limb hemiplegia. PMID:25337108

  11. Coronary Artery Fistula with Giant Aneurysm and Coronary Stenosis Treated by Transcatheter Embolization and Stent

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Zhe Hao; Jeong, Hae Chang; Park, Keun Ho; Sim, Doo Sun; Hong, Young Joon; Kim, Ju Han; Ahn, Youngkeun

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery fistula (CAF) with giant aneurysm and accompanied by coronary artery stenosis is a very rare disease. Herein, we report a case of a 76-year-old woman having a complex coronary-to-pulmonary artery fistula associated with a giant aneurysm and accompanied by coronary artery stenosis. The patient was successfully treated using transcatheter coil embolization and coronary stent implantation. Eight years later, we performed a follow-up coronary angiogram, which revealed the CAF and the aneurysm were completely occluded and previous stent patency. PMID:26023314

  12. Impact of maternal dexamethasone on coronary PGE2 production and prostaglandin-dependent coronary reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Volk, Kenneth A.; Lamb, Fred S.; Segar, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with increased fetal glucocorticoid exposure and an increased risk of adult coronary artery disease. Coronary arteries from sheep exposed to early gestation dexamethasone (Dex) have increased constriction to angiotensin II (ANG II). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) helps maintain coronary dilation, but PGE2 production is acutely decreased by Dex administration. We hypothesized early gestation Dex exposure impairs adult coronary PGE2 production with subsequent increases in coronary reactivity. Dex was administered to ewes at 27–28 days gestation (term 145 days). Coronary reactivity was assessed by wire myography in offspring at 4 mo of age (N = 5 to 7). Coronary smooth muscle cells were cultured and prostaglandin production was measured after 90 min incubation with radiolabeled arachidonate. Coronary myocytes from Dex-exposed lambs had a significant decrease in PGE2 production that was reversed with ANG II incubation. Dex-exposed coronary arteries had increased constriction to ANG II and attenuated dilatation to arachidonic acid, with the greatest difference seen after the endothelium was inactivated by rubbing. Preincubation with the cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor indomethacin altered control responses and recapitulated the heightened coronary tone seen following Dex exposure. We conclude that impaired coronary smooth muscle COX-mediated PGE2 production contributes to the coronary dysfunction elicited by early gestation Dex. Programmed inhibition of vasodilatory prostanoid production may link an adverse intrauterine environment with adult coronary artery disease. PMID:22832534

  13. Coronary Artery Disease | Coronary Artery Disease | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Coronary Artery Disease Coronary Artery Disease Past Issues / Fall 2010 Table of Contents ... exercise routine produced a strong heart!" Fast Facts Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood ...

  14. Mechanisms of epileptogenesis in pediatric epileptic syndromes: Rasmussen encephalitis, infantile spasms, and febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES).

    PubMed

    Pardo, Carlos A; Nabbout, Rima; Galanopoulou, Aristea S

    2014-04-01

    The mechanisms of epileptogenesis in pediatric epileptic syndromes are diverse, and may involve disturbances of neurodevelopmental trajectories, synaptic homeostasis, and cortical connectivity, which may occur during brain development, early infancy, or childhood. Although genetic or structural/metabolic factors are frequently associated with age-specific epileptic syndromes, such as infantile spasms and West syndrome, other syndromes may be determined by the effect of immunopathogenic mechanisms or energy-dependent processes in response to environmental challenges, such as infections or fever in normally-developed children during early or late childhood. Immune-mediated mechanisms have been suggested in selected pediatric epileptic syndromes in which acute and rapidly progressive encephalopathies preceded by fever and/or infections, such as febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome, or in chronic progressive encephalopathies, such as Rasmussen encephalitis. A definite involvement of adaptive and innate immune mechanisms driven by cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes and neuroglial responses has been demonstrated in Rasmussen encephalitis, although the triggering factor of these responses remains unknown. Although the beneficial response to steroids and adrenocorticotropic hormone of infantile spasms, or preceding fever or infection in FIRES, may support a potential role of neuroinflammation as pathogenic factor, no definite demonstration of such involvement has been achieved, and genetic or metabolic factors are suspected. A major challenge for the future is discovering pathogenic mechanisms and etiological factors that facilitate the introduction of novel targets for drug intervention aimed at interfering with the disease mechanisms, therefore providing putative disease-modifying treatments in these pediatric epileptic syndromes. PMID:24639375

  15. Diagnosis and therapy of coronary artery disease: Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, P.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 18 selections. Some of the titles are: Nuclear cardiology; Diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction; Therapy of angina pectoris; Psychosocial aspects of coronary artery disease; Nonatherosclerotic coronary artery disease; and The epidemiology of coronary artery disease.

  16. Successful percutaneous coronary intervention for chronic total occlusion of right coronary artery in patient with dextrocardia.

    PubMed

    Munawar, Muhammad; Hartono, Beny; Iskandarsyah, Kurniawan; Nguyen, Thach N

    2013-07-01

    Situs inversus with dextrocardia is rare congenital anomaly. Coronary artery disease in such patients is quite rare. We reported a 52-year-old man with dextrocardia and chronic total occlusion at the proximal right coronary artery just after conus branch and severe stenosis at the proximal left anterior descending artery. He underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention with stenting of total occluded right coronary artery and simultaneously stenting of the proximal left anterior descending artery. PMID:23456428

  17. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection with Cardiac Tamponade

    PubMed Central

    Lundstrom, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome. Clinical presentation ranges from chest pain alone to ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, ventricular fibrillation, and sudden death. The treatment of patients with spontaneous coronary artery dissection is challenging because the disease pathophysiology is unclear, optimal treatment is unknown, and short- and long-term prognostic data are minimal. We report the case of a 70-year-old woman who presented with an acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction secondary to a spontaneous dissection of the left anterior descending coronary artery. She was treated conservatively. Cardiac tamponade developed 16 hours after presentation. Repeat coronary angiography revealed extension of the dissection. Medical therapy was continued after the hemopericardium was aspirated. The patient remained asymptomatic 3 years after hospital discharge. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of spontaneous coronary artery dissection in association with cardiac tamponade that was treated conservatively and had a successful outcome. PMID:26504447

  18. Coronary artery disease in the military patient.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Iain; White, S; Gill, R; Gray, H H; Rees, P

    2015-09-01

    Ischaemic heart disease is the most common cause of sudden death in the UK, and the most common cardiac cause of medical discharge from the Armed Forces. This paper reviews current evidence pertaining to the diagnosis and management of coronary artery disease from a military perspective, encompassing stable angina and acute coronary syndromes. Emphasis is placed on the limitations inherent in the management of acute coronary syndromes in the deployed environment. Occupational issues affecting patients with coronary artery disease are reviewed. Consideration is also given to the potential for coronary artery disease screening in the military, and the management of modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors, to help decrease the prevalence of coronary artery disease in the military population. PMID:26246347

  19. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mokhberi, Vahid; Bagheri, Babak; Navidi, Seyfollah; Amini, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare and important cause of acute coronary syndrome and sudden cardiac death. Various etiologies are thought to be responsible for this condition, among which underlying atherosclerosis seems to be the most common. SCAD is predominant in women and is usually diagnosed via coronary artery angiography. Therapeutic interventions include medical therapy, percutaneous coronary artery intervention, and surgery based on lesion characteristics. We describe a 36-year-old woman with SCAD presenting with acute chest pain to Fatemeh-Zahra Hospital, Sari, Iran. The patient had no current atherosclerosis risk factors and had given birth 6 months previously. Coronary angiography was performed due to the persistence of the chest pain after initial management, and a spontaneous dissection of the left anterior descending artery was observed. She underwent coronary artery bypass graft and was discharged in good condition. PMID:26697091

  20. Coronary Cineangiographic Study of Intravenously Administered Isoptin

    PubMed Central

    de L. Mignault, J.

    1966-01-01

    Since Isoptin increases coronary blood flow in the dog and improves patients with angina pectoris, the drug was studied by coronary cineangiography (Sones' technique) to determine the degree of vasodilatation so produced. When Isoptin, 5 mg. in 2 ml. of solvent, was injected intravenously into five patients with coronary disease and five without coronary disease, there was no change in the size of the main coronary vessels or in the degree of impregnation of the heart muscle, and no new vessels appeared. Isoptin produced a constant decrease in systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure and a constant increase in heart rate. The clinical improvement in patients taking the drug may be independent of coronary vasodilatation. The drug may act by antagonizing ?-adrenergic effects. PMID:5954491

  1. Spontaneous Coronary Dissection Masquerading as Benign Fascicular Ventricular Tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Sara Wei-Fen; Lin, Weiqin; Chan, Koo Hui; Seow, Swee-Chong

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is an uncommon cause of acute coronary syndrome. Diagnosis of coronary artery dissection is made on coronary angiogram and prompt revascularisation is the key in management. We present a case of coronary artery dissection with an atypical presentation of cardiac arrhythmia mimicking benign fascicular ventricular tachycardia. A high index of suspicion and early coronary angiogram allowed us to diagnose and treat this potentially life-threatening disease. PMID:26475648

  2. Behavior patterns and coronary heart disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, J. C.; Cronin, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    The relationships between two behavioral patterns, cardiac risk factors, and coronary heart disease are investigated. Risk factors used in the analysis were family history of coronary disease, smoking, cholesterol, obesity, systotic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, blood sugar, uric acid, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and white blood unit. It was found that conventional, non-behavioral pattern risk factors alone were not significantly related to coronary heart disease.

  3. Radiation dose measurements in coronary CT angiography

    PubMed Central

    Sabarudin, Akmal; Sun, Zhonghua

    2013-01-01

    Coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography is associated with high radiation dose and this has raised serious concerns in the literature. Awareness of various parameters for dose estimates and measurements of coronary CT angiography plays an important role in increasing our understanding of the radiation exposure to patients, thus, contributing to the implementation of dose-saving strategies. This article provides an overview of the radiation dose quantity and its measurement during coronary CT angiography procedures. PMID:24392190

  4. Left main percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Teirstein, Paul S; Price, Matthew J

    2012-10-23

    The introduction of drug-eluting stents and advances in catheter techniques have led to increasing acceptance of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a viable alternative to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) for unprotected left main disease. Current guidelines state that it is reasonable to consider unprotected left main PCI in patients with low to intermediate anatomic complexity who are at increased surgical risk. Data from randomized trials involving patients who are candidates for either treatment strategy provide novel insight into the relative safety and efficacy of PCI for this lesion subset. Herein, we review the current data comparing PCI with CABG for left main disease, summarize recent guideline recommendations, and provide an update on technical considerations that may optimize clinical outcomes in left main PCI. PMID:23021329

  5. Complex robotic-enhanced percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Vishal; Smilowitz, Nathaniel R; Weisz, Giora

    2014-05-01

    A remote-controlled, robotic system was developed to address procedural challenges and occupational hazards associated with traditional percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The PRECISE (Percutaneous Robotically Enhanced Coronary Intervention) Study demonstrated the safety and feasibility of the robotic system. We report four cases of complex coronary interventions demonstrating the capabilities of robotic-enhanced PCI to treat multilesion, multivessel coronary disease, saphenous venous graft disease, and an ST-elevation myocardial infarction. The robotic system offers enhanced visibility, precise measurement, accurate stent positioning, improved ergonomics, and superior operator protection from radiation. PMID:24167108

  6. Patient-specific coronary territory maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beliveau, Pascale; Setser, Randolph; Cheriet, Farida; O'Donnell, Thomas

    2007-03-01

    It is standard practice for physicians to rely on empirical, population based models to define the relationship between regions of left ventricular (LV) myocardium and the coronary arteries which supply them with blood. Physicians use these models to infer the presence and location of disease within the coronary arteries based on the condition of the myocardium within their distribution (which can be established non-invasively using imaging techniques such as ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging). However, coronary artery anatomy often varies from the assumed model distribution in the individual patient; thus, a non-invasive method to determine the correspondence between coronary artery anatomy and LV myocardium would have immediate clinical impact. This paper introduces an image-based rendering technique for visualizing maps of coronary distribution in a patient-specific approach. From an image volume derived from computed tomography (CT) images, a segmentation of the LV epicardial surface, as well as the paths of the coronary arteries, is obtained. These paths form seed points for a competitive region growing algorithm applied to the surface of the LV. A ray casting procedure in spherical coordinates from the center of the LV is then performed. The cast rays are mapped to a two-dimensional circular based surface forming our coronary distribution map. We applied our technique to a patient with known coronary artery disease and a qualitative evaluation by an expert in coronary cardiac anatomy showed promising results.

  7. Coronary Artery Disease and Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Doron; Edelman, Elazer R

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Near-normal glycemic control does not reduce cardiovascular events. For many patients with 1- or 2-vessel coronary artery disease, there is little benefit from any revascularization procedure over optimal medical therapy. For multivessel coronary disease, randomized trials demonstrated the superiority of coronary artery bypass grafting over multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with treated DM. However, selection of the optimal myocardial revascularization strategy requires a multidisciplinary team approach ('heart team'). This review summarizes the current evidence regarding the effectiveness of various medical therapies and revascularization strategies in patients with DM. PMID:26567979

  8. Cardiac CT: atherosclerosis to acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Munnur, Ravi Kiran; Cameron, James D.; Ko, Brian S.; Meredith, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) is a robust non-invasive method to assess coronary artery disease (CAD). Qualitative and quantitative assessment of atherosclerotic coronary stenosis with CCTA has been favourably compared with invasive coronary angiography (ICA) and intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Importantly, it allows the study of preclinical stages of atherosclerotic disease, may help improve risk stratification and monitor the progressive course of the disease. The diagnostic accuracy of CCTA in the assessment of coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG) is excellent and the constantly improving technology is making the evaluation of stents feasible. Novel techniques are being developed to assess the functional significance of coronary stenosis. The excellent negative predictive value of CCTA in ruling out disease enables early and safe discharge of patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in the Emergency Department (ED). In addition, CCTA is useful in predicting clinical outcomes based on the extent of coronary atherosclerosis and also based on individual plaque characteristics such as low attenuation plaque (LAP), positive remodelling and spotty calcification. In this article, we review the role of CCTA in the detection of coronary atherosclerosis in native vessels, stented vessels, calcified arteries and grafts; the assessment of plaque progression, evaluation of chest pain in the ED, assessment of functional significance of stenosis and the prognostic significance of CCTA. PMID:25610801

  9. Coronary artery disease in women.

    PubMed Central

    Chiamvimonvat, V.; Sternberg, L.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review and recognize how presentation, investigation, risk factor modification, and treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD) is different for women than for men. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiologic data are from well-recognized, peer-reviewed medical journals. Most data on treatment are from randomized controlled trials. MAIN FINDINGS: Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality in women, with incidence after menopause equal to that of men. Diabetes and postmenopausal status without hormone replacement therapy are the strongest risk factors. Women with CAD are more likely to have atypical symptoms, including nonexertional chest pain; pain in other locations, such as jaw, arms, shoulder, back, and epigastrium; and angina-equivalents, such as dyspnea, palpitations, and presyncope. Because women have atypical symptoms, physicians should maintain a high level of suspicion. Although newer nonivasive stress imaging modalities provide greater diagnostic accuracy than traditional exercise stress testing, the tests are still less accurate for women. A safe and cost-effective approach to investigation can be guided by clinical likelihood for CAD based on patients' age, chest pain quality, and risk factors. Treatment and preventive strategies are generally similar for women and men. CONCLUSION: Coronary artery disease is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in women and will continue to gain importance as women's life expectancy increases. Important differences in presentation, risk factors, investigation, and treatment of women exist and should be recognized. PMID:9870124

  10. Arterial and venous coronary pressure-flow relations in anesthetized dogs. Evidence for a vascular waterfall in epicardial coronary veins.

    PubMed

    Uhlig, P N; Baer, R W; Vlahakes, G J; Hanley, F L; Messina, L M; Hoffman, J I

    1984-08-01

    The coronary circulation of anesthetized dogs was tested for the presence of vascular waterfalls by manipulating coronary arterial and coronary venous pressures. The left main coronary artery and the coronary sinus were cannulated, and relationships between coronary artery pressure, coronary sinus pressure, and coronary flow were studied. Experiments were conducted during diastolic arrests, under steady state conditions, in the absence of autoregulation. Relations of coronary flow to coronary sinus pressure at constant coronary artery pressure were consistent with the presence of a vascular waterfall in the coronary sinus. When the great cardiac vein was cannulated, relations of great vein flow to great vein pressure at constant coronary artery pressure were consistent with the presence of a vascular waterfall in the great vein, indicating that waterfall behavior can occur in epicardial veins other than the coronary sinus. In dogs on right heart bypass, with the coronary sinus and great vein uncannulated, the relationship between right atrial pressure and coronary sinus pressure showed a waterfall pattern, indicating that the waterfall is not an artifact of venous cannulation. In the right heart bypass experiments, venous waterfall behavior was seen in beating hearts as well as during diastolic arrests. We conclude that a vascular waterfall is present in epicardial coronary veins which can significantly influence coronary blood flow. PMID:6611215

  11. Cerebral arterial spasm. Part 5: in vitro contractile activity of vasoactive agents including human CSF on human basilar and anterior cerebral arteries.

    PubMed

    Allen, G S; Gross, C J; French, L A; Chou, S N

    1976-05-01

    In vitro experiments were performed with a small volume chamber to determine the contractile activity of various vasoactive agents on human basilar and anterior cerebral arteries. Cumulative log-dose response curves were obtained for most of the agents tested including serotonin and three different prostaglandins; many of these curves were found to be similar to curves previously obtained with canine cerebral arteries. It was concluded from these similarities that canine cerebral arteries are a good in vitro model for studying human cerebral arterial spasm. It was also demonstrated that human cerebrospinal fluid, collected up to 17 days after a subarachnoid hemorrhage from patients with clinical and angiographic evidence of cerebral arterial spasm, would cause large, dose-dependent contractions in human anterior cerebral arteries. PMID:1262919

  12. ABSORB: Postmarketing Surveillance Registry to Monitor the Everolimus-eluting Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-03-20

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Artery Disease; Myocardial Ischemia; Coronary Disease; Coronary Restenosis; Heart Diseases; Coronary Stenosis; Arteriosclerosis; Arterial Occlusive Diseases; Vascular Diseases

  13. Coronary vascular morphology in pressure-overload left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Bishop, S P; Powell, P C; Hasebe, N; Shen, Y T; Patrick, T A; Hittinger, L; Vatner, S F

    1996-01-01

    To attempt to explain the loss of subendocardial coronary reserve in chronic pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy on a morphologic basis, we measured capillary capacity and coronary artery and arteriole medial wall area in dogs with moderately severe chronic (1 year) left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Aortic bands were placed on the ascending aorta of 8-10-week-old puppies of either sex, and hearts were perfusion fixed with 2% glutaraldehyde 8-16 months later after hemodynamic study while fully conscious. Left ventricular (LV) mass/body weight ratio in 11 banded dogs with LV end-diastolic pressure < 12 mmHg was 72% greater than in 15 controls (C). There was a decrease in subendocardial coronary reserve during adenosine-induced vasodilation with a shift away from the subendocardium (endo/epi flow ratio: C = 0.68 +/- 0.05; LVH = 0.34 +/- 0.06; P < 0.05). In spite of the extensive hypertrophy, image analysis revealed capillary density to be equally reduced by only 10-15% in endo, mid and epicardial LV regions compared to control dogs, while increased capillary cross-sectional area resulted in no change in capillary surface area/myocyte volume or volume percentage capillary space. In addition to these data suggesting capillary angiogenesis, there was no reduction in arteriolar density, indicating transmural increase in arteriolar number, and, as a consequence, increased total length of the resistance vessels. Medial area of arterioles and arteries showed a graduated increase according to size. We concluded that due to the lack of transmural difference in vascular morphology in chronic (1 year) moderately severe LVH, these anatomic bases do not play a major role as a cause for the loss of coronary reserve. Regional functional differences as a consequence of the morphologic alterations, however, cannot be excluded. PMID:8745222

  14. X linked mental retardation and infantile spasms in a family: new clinical data and linkage to Xp11.4-Xp22.11

    PubMed Central

    Stromme, P.; Sundet, K.; Mork, C.; Cassiman, J.; Fryns, J.; Claes, S.

    1999-01-01

    In order to describe the neurological abnormalities and to identify the gene localisation, we re-evaluated a previously reported family with X linked mental retardation (XLMR). Reliable data were obtained for six of the seven affected males, of whom two had had infantile spasms. Profound MR (IQ<20) was found in one and mild MR (IQ 50-70) in five males. No dysmorphic features, except for macrocephaly in one male, were found. Neurological abnormalities included varying degrees of spinocerebellar involvement. Neuroimaging studies showed abnormalities, such as cerebellar atrophy or corpus callosum hypoplasia or both, in three of the six males. Several affected and unaffected subjects suffered from hyperhidrosis, which appeared to segregate independently as an autosomal dominant trait. Genetic linkage analysis localised the XLMR disease gene to Xp11.4-Xp22.11 with a maximum multipoint lod score of 3.57, overlapping the candidate region recently found in two Belgian XLMR-infantile spasm families. Compared to the Belgian patients, the majority of the affected males in this report had a considerably milder phenotype.???Keywords: infantile spasms; mental retardation; spinocerebellar ataxia; X linked recessive PMID:10353782

  15. Experiments On Flow In A Coronary Artery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, Lloyd H.; Kwack, Eug-Yon; Liem, Timothy K.; Crawford, Donald W.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes experiments on simulated flow of blood in atherosclerotic human coronary artery. Experiments performed on polyurethane cast made from S-shaped coronary artery of cadaver. Sucrose solution with viscosity of blood pumped through cast at physiologically realistic rates, and flow made pulsatile by mechanism alternately compressing and releasing elastic tube just upstream of cast.

  16. Progress and Current State of Coronary CT

    PubMed Central

    Jinzaki, Masahiro; Tanami, Yutaka; Yamada, Minoru; Kuribayashi, Sachio

    2011-01-01

    The recent appearance of multislice computed tomography (CT) has enabled noninvasive imaging of the coronary artery. Particularly, the appearance of 64-row CT has rapidly promoted its spread into routine medical practice. In this report, progress and current state of coronary CT employing multislice CT are outlined. PMID:23555421

  17. Postpartum Coronary Vasospasm with Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Koneru, Jayanth; Alattar, Fadi; Alqaqa, Ashraf; Virk, Hirtaj; Shamoon, Fayez; Bikkina, Mahesh

    2014-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction during pregnancy or the postpartum period is rare. We report a case of a 39-year-old postpartum woman who developed non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction due to severe diffuse coronary vasospasm. To our knowledge, this is the first case of angiographically evidenced coronary vasospasm, in a postpartum woman, with resistance to intracoronary nitroglycerin. PMID:25105029

  18. Effect of High-Calcium Diet on Coronary Artery Disease in Ossabaw Miniature Swine With Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Phillips-Eakley, Alyssa K; McKenney-Drake, Mikaela L; Bahls, Martin; Newcomer, Sean C; Radcliffe, John S; Wastney, Meryl E; Van Alstine, William G; Jackson, George; Alloosh, Mouhamad; Martin, Berdine R; Sturek, Michael; Weaver, Connie M

    2015-01-01

    Background Calcium is a shortfall essential nutrient that has been a mainstay of osteoporosis management. Recent and limited findings have prompted concern about the contribution of calcium supplementation to cardiovascular risk. A proposed mechanism is through the acceleration of coronary artery calcification. Determining causality between calcium intake and coronary artery calcification has been hindered by a lack of sensitive methodology to monitor early vascular calcium accumulation. The primary study aim was to assess the impact of high calcium intake on coronary artery calcification using innovative calcium tracer kinetic modeling in Ossabaw swine with diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Secondary end points (in vitro wire myography, histopathology, intravascular ultrasound) assessed coronary disease. Methods and Results Pigs (n =24; aged ?15 months) were fed an atherogenic diet with adequate calcium (0.33% by weight) or high calcium (1.90% from calcium carbonate or dairy) for 6 months. Following 5 months of feeding, all pigs were dosed intravenously with 41Ca, a rare isotope that can be measured in serum and tissues at a sensitivity of 10?18 mol/L by accelerator mass spectrometry. Kinetic modeling evaluated early coronary artery calcification using 41Ca values measured in serial blood samples (collected over 27 days) and coronary artery samples obtained at sacrifice. Serum disappearance of 41Ca and total coronary artery 41Ca accumulation did not differ among groups. Secondary end points demonstrated no treatment differences in coronary artery disease or function. Conclusion There was no detectable effect of high calcium diets (from dairy or calcium carbonate) on coronary artery calcium deposition in metabolic syndrome swine. PMID:26272654

  19. [Psychological adaptation in coronary patients].

    PubMed

    Egger, J

    1984-08-31

    Summarizing some essential results from empirical investigations about the individual adaptation and coping with coronary heart diseases five principles are formulated: It ist not possible to predict the individual reactions to a coronary disease from the knowledge of the pathophysiological aspects. The behaviour pattern of these patients are different and complex determined. The individual reactions to the outbreak of the disease equally depend on familial, occupational, social and public health care factors on one side and on intrapsychical factors of the patient on the other side (i.e. personality structure, psychological status before the event etc.). The fact of a coronary or myocardial disease does not necessarily lead to a life-crisis or maladaptation. For the patient's style of life positive and/or negative effects of the disease can be differentiated. The patient's appraisal of a therapeutic success depends therefore on the intraindividual reinforcement-value of such a success. Adaptation and coping strategies are not uniform in phenomenological or time aspects. The emotional, cognitive and behavioural patterns primarily tend to help to cope with anxiety and uncertainty (f.i. denial, depression, aggression, building up a new identity). In the patient's mind a myocardial infarction is not necessarily the most important event in his actual life-situation. Concerning the heart disease fears about the own capacity of work and financial outcome are dominant. They are followed by concerns about the medical prognosis or course of disease, family life and partnership, satisfaction with future life and its meaning, and aspects of the social or ecological environment. Over all these patients show relatively optimistic prospects to their own future. PMID:6495749

  20. Venous waterfalls in coronary circulation.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, R E; Kaplow, S M

    1991-03-21

    Several studies of flow through collapsible tubing deformed by external pressures have led to a concept known as the "vascular waterfall". One hallmark of this state is a positive zero-flow pressure intercept (Pe) in flow-pressure curves. This intercept is commonly observed in the coronary circulation, but in blood-perfused beating hearts a vascular waterfall is not the only putative cause. To restrict the possibilities, we have measured flow-pressure curves in excised non-beating rabbit hearts in which the coronary arteries were perfused in a non-pulsatile way with a newtonian fluid (Ringers solution) containing potent vasodilator drugs. Under these circumstances, vascular waterfalls are believed to be the only tenable explanation for Pe. In physical terms the waterfall is a region where the vessel is in a state of partial collapse with a stabilized intraluminal fluid pressure (Pw). It is argued that the most probable site of this collapse was the intramural veins just before they reached the epicardial surface. In accord with the waterfall hypothesis, Pe increased as the heart became more edematous, but flow-pressure curves also became flatter, implying multiple waterfalls with differing Pws, leading to complete collapse of some of the venous channels. The principal compressive force is believed to have been the interstitial fluid pressure as registered through a needle (Pn) implanted in the left ventricular wall, but a small additional force (Ps) was probably due to swelling of interstitial gels. A method is presented for estimating Ps and Pw. Unlike rubber tubing, blood vessels are both collapsible and porous. Apparently because of increased capillary filtration, Pn was found to increase linearly with the perfusion pressure. Thus, Pw was not the same at all points on the flow-pressure curve. This finding has interesting implications with respect to the concept of coronary resistance. PMID:2062096

  1. Divergent effects of aging and sex on vasoconstriction to endothelin in coronary arterioles

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, AJ; Chen, B; Dougherty, PJ; Reyes, RA; Shipley, RD; Korzick, DH; Muller-Delp, JM

    2012-01-01

    The risk for cardiovascular disease increases with advancing age; however, the chronological development of heart disease differs in males and females. The purpose of this study was to determine whether age-induced alterations in responses of coronary arterioles to the endogenous vasoconstrictor, endothelin, are sex-specific. Coronary arterioles were isolated from young and old male and female rats to assess vasoconstrictor responses to endothelin (ET), and ETa and ETb receptor inhibitors were used to assess receptor-specific signaling. In intact arterioles from males, ET-induced vasoconstriction was reduced with age, whereas age increased vasoconstrictor responses to ET in intact arterioles from female rats. In intact arterioles from both sexes, blockade of either ETa or ETb eliminated age-related differences in responses to ET; however, denudation of arterioles from both sexes revealed age-related differences in ETa-mediated vasoconstriction. In arterioles from male rats, ETa receptor protein decreased, whereas ETb receptor protein increased with age. In coronary arterioles from females, neither ETa nor ETb receptor protein changed with age, suggesting age-related changes in ET signaling occur downstream of ET receptors. Thus, aging-induced alterations in responsiveness of the coronary resistance vasculature to endothelin are sex-specific, possibly contributing to sexual dimorphism in the risk of cardiovascular disease with advancing age. PMID:23198990

  2. Low-intensity interval exercise training attenuates coronary vascular dysfunction and preserves Ca2+-sensitive K+ current in miniature swine with LV hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Tharp, Darla L.; Ivey, Jan R.; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K.; Bowles, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    Coronary vascular dysfunction has been observed in several models of heart failure (HF). Recent evidence indicates that exercise training is beneficial for patients with HF, but the precise intensity and underlying mechanisms are unknown. Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy can play a significant role in the development of HF; therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effects of low-intensity interval exercise training on coronary vascular function in sedentary (HF) and exercise trained (HF-TR) aortic-banded miniature swine displaying LV hypertrophy. Six months postsurgery, in vivo coronary vascular responses to endothelin-1 (ET-1) and adenosine were measured in the left anterior descending coronary artery. Baseline and maximal coronary vascular conductance were similar between all groups. ET-1-induced reductions in coronary vascular conductance (P < 0.05) were greater in HF vs. sedentary control and HF-TR groups. Pretreatment with the ET type A (ETA) receptor blocker BQ-123 prevented ET-1 hypersensitivity in HF animals. Whole cell voltage clamp was used to characterize composite K+ currents (IK+) in coronary smooth muscle cells. Raising internal Ca2+ from 200 to 500 nM increased Ca2+-sensitive K+ current in HF-TR and control, but not HF animals. In conclusion, an ETA-receptor-mediated hypersensitivity to ET-1, elevated resting LV wall tension, and decreased coronary smooth muscle cell Ca2+-sensitive IK+ was found in sedentary animals with LV hypertrophy. Low-intensity interval exercise training preserved normal coronary vascular function and smooth muscle cell Ca2+-sensitive IK+, illustrating a potential mechanism underlying coronary vascular dysfunction in a large-animal model of LV hypertrophy. Our results demonstrate the potential clinical impact of exercise on coronary vascular function in HF patients displaying pathological LV hypertrophy. PMID:21841018

  3. Chemokines in patients with ischaemic heart disease and the effect of coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Economou, E; Tousoulis, D; Katinioti, A; Stefanadis, C; Trikas, A; Pitsavos, C; Tentolouris, C; Toutouza, M G; Toutouzas, P

    2001-08-01

    Percutaneous coronary transluminal angioplasty (PTCA) may release inflammatory mediators such as chemokines. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and eotaxin (EOX) are monocyte- and eosinophil-specific chemokines involved in the inflammation and pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis. A total of 28 patients undergoing elective PTCA, 20 coronary artery disease (CAD) patients undergoing coronary angiography and 28 healthy controls were studied. In PTCA patients before the procedure, MCP-1 plasma levels (441+/-64 pg/ml) were similar to those of CAD patients (430+/-24 pg/ml), and significantly higher compared with controls (145+/-17 pg/ml, P<0.01). MCP-1 rose significantly after 3 and 6 months following PTCA (696+/-89 and 876+/-86 pg/ml, respectively, P<0.01 vs. before PTCA). EOX plasma levels (155+/-14 pg/ml) were similar to those of CAD patients (157+/-14 pg/ml), but significantly higher compared with controls (83.2+/-10 pg/ml, P<0.05). EOX rose significantly 24 h (273+/-41 pg/ml, P<0.05) but not 3 months after PTCA (160+/-20 and 158+/-19 pg/ml, respectively). These findings indicate that chemokine-induced monocyte- and eosinophil-specific chemoattraction is stimulated in patients with coronary artery disease. MCP-1 levels remain significantly elevated for at least 6 months following elective PTCA, suggesting an inflammatory stimulation. PMID:11532547

  4. Multiple Coronary Artery Microfistulas Associated with Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Left and Right Coronary Artery to the Left Ventricle

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Kyehwan; Kang, Min Gyu; Koh, Jin-Sin; Park, Jeong Rang; Hwang, Jin-Yong

    2015-01-01

    A 76-year-old woman underwent coronary angiography for chest pain. On the coronary angiogram, no significant coronary artery atherosclerotic stenosis was observed. Multiple coronary artery microfistulas, draining from the left anterior descending artery to the left ventricle and from the posterior descending artery of the right coronary artery to the left ventricle, were observed. Apical wall thickening and fistula flow from the left anterior descending artery were demonstrated by using transthoracic echocardiography. We describe a rare case of multiple coronary artery microfistulas from the left and right coronary artery to the left ventricle combined with apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. PMID:26640718

  5. Autosomal recessive mutations in nuclear transport factor KPNA7 are associated with infantile spasms and cerebellar malformation

    PubMed Central

    Paciorkowski, Alex R; Weisenberg, Judy; Kelley, Joshua B; Spencer, Adam; Tuttle, Emily; Ghoneim, Dalia; Thio, Liu Lin; Christian, Susan L; Dobyns, William B; Paschal, Bryce M

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear import receptors of the KPNA family recognize the nuclear localization signal in proteins and together with importin-? mediate translocation into the nucleus. Accordingly, KPNA family members have a highly conserved architecture with domains that contact the nuclear localization signal and bind to importin-?. Here, we describe autosomal recessive mutations in KPNA7 found by whole exome sequencing in a sibling pair with severe developmental disability, infantile spasms, subsequent intractable epilepsy consistent with Lennox–Gastaut syndrome, partial agenesis of the corpus callosum, and cerebellar vermis hypoplasia. The mutations mapped to exon 7 in KPNA7 result in two amino-acid substitutions, Pro339Ala and Glu344Gln. On the basis of the crystal structure of the paralog KPNA2 bound to a bipartite nuclear localization signal from the retinoblastoma protein, the amino-acid substitutions in the affected subjects were predicted to occur within the seventh armadillo repeat that forms one of the two nuclear localization signal-binding sites in KPNA family members. Glu344 is conserved in all seven KPNA proteins, and we found that the Glu354Gln mutation in KPNA2 is sufficient to reduce binding to the retinoblastoma nuclear localization signal to approximately one-half that of wild-type protein. Our data show that compound heterozygous mutations in KPNA7 are associated with a human neurodevelopmental disease, and provide the first example of a human disease associated with mutation of a nuclear transport receptor. PMID:24045845

  6. Autosomal recessive mutations in nuclear transport factor KPNA7 are associated with infantile spasms and cerebellar malformation.

    PubMed

    Paciorkowski, Alex R; Weisenberg, Judy; Kelley, Joshua B; Spencer, Adam; Tuttle, Emily; Ghoneim, Dalia; Thio, Liu Lin; Christian, Susan L; Dobyns, William B; Paschal, Bryce M

    2014-05-01

    Nuclear import receptors of the KPNA family recognize the nuclear localization signal in proteins and together with importin-? mediate translocation into the nucleus. Accordingly, KPNA family members have a highly conserved architecture with domains that contact the nuclear localization signal and bind to importin-?. Here, we describe autosomal recessive mutations in KPNA7 found by whole exome sequencing in a sibling pair with severe developmental disability, infantile spasms, subsequent intractable epilepsy consistent with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, partial agenesis of the corpus callosum, and cerebellar vermis hypoplasia. The mutations mapped to exon 7 in KPNA7 result in two amino-acid substitutions, Pro339Ala and Glu344Gln. On the basis of the crystal structure of the paralog KPNA2 bound to a bipartite nuclear localization signal from the retinoblastoma protein, the amino-acid substitutions in the affected subjects were predicted to occur within the seventh armadillo repeat that forms one of the two nuclear localization signal-binding sites in KPNA family members. Glu344 is conserved in all seven KPNA proteins, and we found that the Glu354Gln mutation in KPNA2 is sufficient to reduce binding to the retinoblastoma nuclear localization signal to approximately one-half that of wild-type protein. Our data show that compound heterozygous mutations in KPNA7 are associated with a human neurodevelopmental disease, and provide the first example of a human disease associated with mutation of a nuclear transport receptor. PMID:24045845

  7. Coronary Obstruction Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Henrique Barbosa; Sarmento-Leite, Rogério; Siqueira, Dimytri A. A.; Carvalho, Luiz Antônio; Mangione, José Armando; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Perin, Marco A.; de Brito, Fábio Sandoli

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) was established as an important alternative for high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. However, there are few data in the literature regarding coronary obstruction, that although rare, is a potentially fatal complication. Objective Evaluate this complication in Brazil. Methods We evaluated all patients presenting coronary obstruction from the Brazilian Registry of TAVI. Main baseline and procedural characteristics, management of the complication, and clinical outcomes were collected from all patients. Results From 418 consecutive TAVI procedures, coronary obstruction occurred in 3 cases (incidence of 0.72%). All patients were women, without prior coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and with mean age of 85 ± 3 years, logistic EuroSCORE of 15 ± 6% and STS-PROM score of 9 ± 4%. All of the cases were performed with balloon-expandable Sapien XT prosthesis. In one patient, with pre-procedural computed tomography data, coronary arteries presented a low height and a narrow sinus of Valsalva. All patients presented with clinically significant severe maintained hypotension, immediately after valve implantation, and even though coronary angioplasty with stent implantation was successfully performed in all cases, patients died during hospitalization, being two periprocedurally. Conclusion Coronary obstruction following TAVI is a rare but potentially fatal complication, being more frequent in women and with the balloon-expandable prosthesis. Anatomical factors might be related with its increased occurrence, highlighting the importance of a good pre-procedural evaluation of the patients in order to avoid this severe complication. PMID:24652089

  8. Unusual Malignant Coronary Artery Anomaly: Results of Coronary Angiography, MR Imaging, and Multislice CT

    SciTech Connect

    Apitzsch, Jonas; Kuehl, Harald P.; Muehlenbruch, Georg; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2010-04-15

    We report the case of a man with an uncommon anomaly of the origin and course of the left coronary artery. Clinical, coronary angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and multislice computed tomography findings of this intermittently symptomatic 49 year-old patient with the rare anomaly of his left coronary artery stemming from the right sinus of Valsalva and taking an interarterial and intraseptal course are presented. The diagnostic value of the different imaging modalities is discussed.

  9. Accelerated coronary vascular disease in the heart transplant patient: coronary arteriographic findings.

    PubMed

    Gao, S Z; Alderman, E L; Schroeder, J S; Silverman, J F; Hunt, S A

    1988-08-01

    Annual coronary arteriograms have been obtained from all heart transplant recipients at Stanford University Medical Center since 1969. Angiographic lesions in 81 transplant patients exhibiting coronary vascular disease were classified into three categories: type A, discrete or tubular stenoses; type B, diffuse concentric narrowing; and type C, narrowed irregular vessels with occluded branches. The 81 arteriograms showing transplant coronary vascular disease were contrasted with 32 from nontransplant patients with coronary artery disease analyzed in a similar fashion. The nontransplant angiograms showed 178 lesions, all of type A (discrete or tubular) morphology, 75% of which were located in primary epicardial coronary vessels and 25% in secondary branch vessels. In the patients with transplant coronary vascular disease, 349 (76%) of 461 lesions were type A: 57% in primary vessels, 42% in secondary branches and 1.4% in tertiary branches. Of the 112 type B and C lesions (diffuse narrowing, tapering and obliteration), 25% were in primary vessels, 44% in secondary vessels and 31% in tertiary branches (p less than 0.05 for patients with transplant coronary vascular disease versus patients with nontransplant coronary artery disease). Total vessel occlusion was found in proximal or middle vessel segments in 96% and distally in 4% of patients with "ordinary" coronary artery disease versus 49% distally in patients with transplant coronary disease (p less than 0.002). In the presence of total vessel occlusion, collateral vessels were poor or absent in 92% of transplant versus 7% of nontransplant patients with coronary disease (p less than 0.002). Therefore, coronary artery disease in transplant patients represents a mixture of typical atheromatous lesions and unique transplant-related progressive distal obliterative disease that occurs without collateral vessel development. PMID:3292629

  10. Emergency polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent implantation to treat right coronary artery perforation during percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Yorgun, Hikmet; Canpolat, Ugur; Aytemir, Kudret; Oto, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Coronary artery perforations are life-threatening complications with a poor outcome. Historically, if the perforation was not controlled using conservative methods such as prolonged balloon inflation and protamine administration, emergency cardiac surgery has been performed. However, several percutaneous methods including covered stents and embolization materials have emerged as therapeutic options to manage coronary perforations. We report a case of right coronary artery perforation after high pressure stent post-dilatation that was successfully sealed with a polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent. PMID:23224929

  11. [Coronary vessel ectasia: coronary artery disease with a high thromboembolic risk].

    PubMed

    Bernard, F; Revel, F; Monsegu, J; Duriez, P; Langlade, S; Ollivier, J P

    1998-03-01

    Coronary dystrophy is characterized by the presence of successively stenotic and ectatic or even aneurysmal zones in the coronary network. The authors report a new case of coronary ectatic dystrophy presenting in with myocardial infarction. They review the literature and suggest the various aetiologies, the main one being atherosclerosis. The management of this particular form of atherosclerosis is dominated by the thromboembolic risk related to these aneurysmal zones responsible for myocardial infarction, justifying long-term anticoagulant therapy. PMID:9772942

  12. Adolescent with occluded left main coronary artery

    PubMed Central

    Wieman, R.; Beelen, D.; van der Zwaan, C.; Lahpor, J.; de Vos, A.M.; Doevendans, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Here we report unexpected findings in a 17-year-old female patient referred for coronary angiography and percutaneous intervention. During the angiography we observed a complete occlusion of the left main coronary artery (LMCA). The occurrence of coronary abnormalities at this age is extremely rare and mostly caused by congenital abnormalities. The diagnosis of premature atherosclerosis at this age is unlikely unless the patient suffers from severe lipoprotein disease. Here we describe a rare case of LMCA occlusion, the most likely cause of the disease and the potential implications for therapy. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:25696498

  13. Prevalence and outcomes of coronary artery ectasia associated with isolated congenital coronary artery fistula.

    PubMed

    Vinograd, Cheryl A; Ostermayer, Stefan; Lytrivi, Irene D; Ko, H Helen; Parness, Ira; Geiger, Miwa; Panesar, Laurie E; Love, Barry; Srivastava, Shubhika

    2014-07-01

    Isolated congenital coronary artery fistula (CAF) is rare and varies with respect to size and hemodynamic significance. The prevalence of coronary artery ectasia in association with isolated congenital CAF, regardless of size, and after closure of large fistulae has not been systematically evaluated in the literature. This study aimed to characterize the demographic and echocardiographic differences between patients with large and small fistulae and to describe outcomes with respect to coronary ectasia in those who underwent closure. This is a retrospective review of an echocardiographic database that identified patients coded for CAF (1995 to 2012) and excluded those associated with complex cardiac disease and/or coronary anomalies and cardiomyopathy. Small fistulae were noted to arise mostly from the left anterior descending artery, drain into the pulmonary artery, and have a very low incidence of ectasia (n = 3 of 92), with a mean coronary artery diameter z score in these 3 patients of 3.45 ± 1.15. Larger fistulae had a female predominance, with most originating from the right coronary artery and draining into the right atrium; among the 12 patients who underwent procedural closure of large CAF, all feeding coronary arteries remained ectatic after closure, with a mean coronary artery diameter z score of 9.54 ± 5.66 after a total mean follow-up time of 3.95 ± 4.07 years. In conclusion, the occurrence of coronary dilatation justifies long-term follow-up irrespective of fistula size and successful closure of large CAF. PMID:24819906

  14. Antiplatelet Therapy and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome and Thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Yusuf, Syed Wamique; Iliescu, Cezar; Bathina, Jaya D.; Daher, Iyad N.; Durand, Jean-Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Platelets are crucial in the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndrome. Treatment for acute coronary syndrome usually involves antiplatelet, anticoagulant, and antithrombotic therapy, and the performance of percutaneous coronary intervention. All of the medications are associated with bleeding sequelae and are typically withheld from patients who have thrombocytopenia. The safety of antiplatelet therapy and percutaneous coronary intervention in patients who have acute coronary syndrome and thrombocytopenia is unknown, and there are no guidelines or randomized studies to suggest a treatment approach in such patients. Acute coronary syndrome is uncommon in patients who have thrombocytopenia; however, it occurs in up to 39% of patients who have both thrombocytopenia and cancer. Herein, we present the cases of 5 patients with acute coronary syndrome, thrombocytopenia, and cancer who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention with stenting. Before intervention, their platelet counts ranged from 17 to 72 × 109/L. One patient underwent preprocedural platelet transfusion. All were given aspirin, alone or with clopidogrel. One patient experienced melena (of colonic origin). No other patient experienced bleeding sequelae. Aside from the occasional use of antiplatelet and thrombolytic agents in patients with thrombocytopenia, no therapeutic recommendation can be made until data are available on a larger patient population. Until then, treatment should conform to specific clinical circumstances. Approaches to the treatment of acute coronary syndrome in patients with thrombocytopenia might be better directed toward the evaluation of platelet function rather than toward absolute platelet count, and the risk–benefit equation of invasive procedures and antithrombotic therapies may need to incorporate this information. PMID:20548817

  15. Coronary flow reserve during dobutamine stress in Takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Collste, Olov; Tornvall, Per; Alam, Mahbubul; Frick, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy (TSC) is an increasingly recognised and diagnosed disease, although the underlying pathophysiology is still unknown. Our aim was to investigate the effect of the catecholamine dobutamine on coronary flow reserve (CFR) measured non-invasively in patients with TSC and controls. Our hypothesis was that dobutamine stress can induce microvascular dysfunction in patients with a previous episode of TSC. Setting This is a case–control study and a substudy of the Stockholm Myocardial Infarction with Normal Coronaries (SMINC) study. Elective dobutamine investigations were performed focusing on non-invasive measurements of CFR. The investigations were performed more than 6?months after the acute event. Participants 22 patients with a previous episode of TSC and 22 sex-matched and age-matched controls were recruited from the SMINC study. All patients with TSC had a previous normal cardiovascular MR investigation. Results CFR at low-dose dobutamine was significantly lower in the TSC group compared with controls, 1.51 and 1.72, respectively (p=0.017). At high-dose dobutamine, CFR was 1.95 and 2.21 in the TSC group and controls, respectively (p=0.098). Conclusions We could not confirm that the catecholamine dobutamine induced microvascular dysfunction in patients with TSC. However, we found a small but significant difference in CFR at low-dose dobutamine, which implies that the role of microvascular function in TSC needs to be further explored. PMID:26185178

  16. Site-Specific Secretome Map Evidences VSMC-Related Markers of Coronary Atherosclerosis Grade and Extent in the Hypercholesterolemic Swine

    PubMed Central

    Rocchiccioli, Silvia; Cecchettini, Antonella; Ucciferri, Nadia; Terreni, Marianna; Viglione, Federica; Trivella, Maria Giovanna; Citti, Lorenzo; Parodi, Oberdan; Pelosi, Gualtiero

    2015-01-01

    A major drawback in coronary atherosclerosis (ATS) research is the difficulty of investigating early phase of plaque growth and related features in the clinical context. In this study, secreted proteins from atherosclerotic coronary arteries in a hypercholesterolemic swine model were characterized by a proteomics approach and their expression was correlated to site-specific ATS stage and extent. A wide coronary artery map of secreted proteins has been obtained in high fat (HF) diet induced ATS swine model and a significantly different expression of many proteins related to vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) activation/migration has been identified. Significant associations with ATS stage of HF coronary lesions were found for several VSMC-derived proteins and validated for chitinase 3 like protein 1 (CHI3L1) by tissue immunoexpression. A direct correlation (R2 = 0.85) was evidenced with intima to media thickness ratio values and ELISA confirmed the higher blood concentrations of CHI3L1 in HF cases. These findings confirmed the pivotal role of VSMCs in coronary plaque development and demonstrated a strong site-specific relation between VSMC-secreted CHI3L1 and lesion grade, suggesting that this protein could be proposed as a useful biomarker for diagnosing and staging of atherosclerotic lesions in coronary artery disease. PMID:26379359

  17. Extent and severity of myocardial hypoperfusion as predictors of prognosis in patients with suspected coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Ladenheim, M.L.; Pollock, B.H.; Rozanski, A.; Berman, D.S.; Staniloff, H.M.; Forrester, J.S.; Diamond, G.A.

    1986-03-01

    The ability of exercise-induced myocardial hypoperfusion on thallium scintigraphy to predict coronary events was assessed in 1,689 patients with symptoms suggestive of coronary artery disease but without prior myocardial infarction or coronary artery bypass surgery. A total of 74 patients had a coronary event in the year after testing (12 cardiac deaths, 20 nonfatal infarctions and 42 referrals for bypass surgery more than 60 days after testing). Stepwise logistic regression identified only three independent predictors: the number of myocardial regions with reversible hypoperfusion (an index of the extent of hypoperfusion), the maximal magnitude of hypoperfusion (an index of the severity of hypoperfusion) and the achieved heart rate (an index of exercise performance). Both extent and severity were exponentially correlated with event rate (r greater than 0.97 and p less than 0.01 for each), whereas achieved heart rate was linearly correlated with event rate (r = 0.79 and p less than 0.05). On the basis of these data, a prognostic model was defined that employs extent and severity as stress-dependent orthogonal variables. Using this model, the predicted coronary event rate ranged over two orders of magnitude--from a low of 0.4% in patients able to exercise adequately without developing severe and extensive hypoperfusion at a low heart rate (less than 85% of their maximal predicted heart rate). Extent and severity of myocardial hypoperfusion, therefore, are important independent variables of prognosis in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.

  18. Multimodality Imaging Atlas of Coronary Atherosclerosis

    E-print Network

    Donnelly, Patrick

    NEW HIGH-RESOLUTION IMAGING TECHNOLOGIES HAVE ENHANCED OUR UNDERSTANDING OF THE CORONARY atherosclerotic disease process, and this atlas provides a multimodality pictorial review of the development of histologically verified ...

  19. TECAB - Totally Endoscopic Coronary Artery Bypass

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... completely endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting procedure using robotics. We call this operation a “TECAB,” “Totally Endoscopic ... scrub nurse, also a lot of experience with robotics now. And Dr. Atiq Rahman, fellow here for ...

  20. Computer quantitation of coronary angiograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledbetter, D. C.; Selzer, R. H.; Gordon, R. M.; Blankenhorn, D. H.; Sanmarco, M. E.

    1978-01-01

    A computer technique is being developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to automate the measurement of coronary stenosis. A Vanguard 35mm film transport is optically coupled to a Spatial Data System vidicon/digitizer which in turn is controlled by a DEC PDP 11/55 computer. Programs have been developed to track the edges of the arterial shadow, to locate normal and atherosclerotic vessel sections and to measure percent stenosis. Multiple frame analysis techniques are being investigated that involve on the one hand, averaging stenosis measurements from adjacent frames, and on the other hand, averaging adjacent frame images directly and then measuring stenosis from the averaged image. For the latter case, geometric transformations are used to force registration of vessel images whose spatial orientation changes.

  1. [Coronary artery disease in diabetic patients].

    PubMed

    Henry, Patrick

    2008-09-30

    It is possible to decrease the rate of progression of coronary artery disease in diabetic patients by controlling all risk factors including hyperglycemia and by the prescription of statin and aspirin in high risk patients. After a coronary event, the management of the patient must be as optimal as possible in terms of pharmacological treatment and revascularization. "Ever more" is the key line in these patients. PMID:18839684

  2. [Coronary disease: should images be treated?].

    PubMed

    Geschwind, H J

    1994-10-22

    Precise digitized images of the coronary arteries displaying the dimensions of high risk stenoses and giving objective measurements of their contours and density can be provided by coronarography. On-line angioscopic images of tissue flaps floating in the lumen, recent or structured thrombi, artery wall dissections, plaque ruptures, deep fissurations and sub-intimal haemorrhages demonstrate, in live colour, the pathophysiological mechanisms of coronary artery stenosis. Histological sections of the artery wall, without biopsy, can be visualized with endocoronary echography offering a global view of the wall and differentiating all the physiological layers including the intima and the internal elastic lamina, the blood-wall interface, the media and the adventitia. Our technical imaging capacity is impressive, but is anatomic imaging synonymous with coronary circulation? Certainly not. Sophisticated imaging techniques have led us to associate the severity of the stenosis with its effect on myocardial irrigation, but today therapeutic decisions require not only considering coronary anatomy but also downstream consequences which can be evaluated by measuring coronary artery flow on both sides of the stenosis. Carried on the tip of the angioplasty guide, a piezo-electric crystal emits and receives a Doppler signal. The data is processed in real time giving a complete pattern of blood flow velocity and describing diastolic and systolic flow, differences between upstream and downstream flow, and the effect of pharmacological or physiological tests such as maximal dilatation to measure coronary vascular reserve. Transstenosic pressure measurements complete the diagnostic armentorium. Thus therapeutic decisions can now be made not only on the basis of precise anatomic imaging, but also on functional imaging, giving a complete view of the pathophysiology of the coronary arteries and the effect of disease on myocardial blood supply. It is now up to us to optimize these imaging techniques and to propose treatments which provide patients with coronary artery disease with the best benefit-risk-cost ratio. PMID:7824464

  3. Quantitative coronary and left ventricular cineangiography

    SciTech Connect

    Reiber, J.H.C.; Serruys, P.W.; Slager, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    The first section, with 12 chapters, deals with the detailed methods of computer analysis of images obtained from coronary vessels and the left ventricle. Basic principles of x-ray image formation are described, followed by details of the computer-based Cardiovascular Angiography Analysis system (CAAs) and the left-ventricular angioprocessing system (Contouromat), with their degree of validity. Other chapters discuss contour analysis, edge detection, densitometry, digital image processing, three-dimensional reconstruction, and the current status of structural analysis of the entire coronary tree. The second edition section contains 11 chapters, each exemplifying the application of these computer-based systems to almost the entire sphere of interventional cardiac imaging. Applications include intracoronary effects of nifedipine on coronary motility, left-ventricular function and myocardial oxygen consumption, various aspects of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (including left-ventricular wall stiffness), adjuvant thrombolysis, comparison of contour versus densitometric area measurements of coronary obstructions before and after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, and left-ventricular performance including lactate metabolism during vessel occlusion.

  4. Coronary artery disease and diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, Doron; Edelman, Elazer R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major determinant of the long-term prognosis among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). DM is associated with a 2 to 4-fold increased mortality risk from heart disease. Furthermore, in patients with DM there is an increased mortality after MI, and worse overall prognosis with CAD. Near-normal glycemic control for a median of 3.5 to 5 years does not reduce cardiovascular events. Thus, the general goal of HbA1c <7% appears reasonable for the majority of patients. Iatrogenic hypoglycemia is the limiting factor in the glycemic management of diabetes, and is an independent cause of excess morbidity and mortality. Statins are effective in reducing major coronary events, stroke, and the need for coronary revascularization. Selection of the optimal myocardial revascularization strategy for patients with DM and multivessel coronary artery disease is crucial and requires a multidisciplinary team approach (‘heart team’). Large scale clinical trials have shown that for many patients with 1- or 2-vessel coronary artery disease, there is little prognostic benefit from any intervention over optimal medical therapy (OMT). PCI with drug-eluting or bare metal stents is appropriate for patients who remain symptomatic with OMT. Randomized trials comparing multivessel PCI to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) have consistently demonstrated the superiority of CABG in reducing mortality, myocardial infarctions and need for repeat revascularizations. PMID:25091969

  5. Myocardial perfusion echocardiography and coronary microvascular dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Barletta, Giuseppe; Del Bene, Maria Riccarda

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of coronary syndromes has evolved in the last two decades out of the obstructive atherosclerosis of epicardial coronary arteries paradigm to include anatomo-functional abnormalities of coronary microcirculation. No current diagnostic technique allows direct visualization of coronary microcirculation, but functional assessments of this circulation are possible. This represents a challenge in cardiology. Myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) was a breakthrough in echocardiography several years ago that claimed the capability to detect myocardial perfusion abnormalities and quantify coronary blood flow. Research demonstrated that the integration of quantitative MCE and fractional flow reserve improved the definition of ischemic burden and the relative contribution of collaterals in non-critical coronary stenosis. MCE identified no-reflow and low-flow within and around myocardial infarction, respectively, and predicted the potential functional recovery of stunned myocardium using appropriate interventions. MCE exhibited diagnostic performances that were comparable to positron emission tomography in microvascular reserve and microvascular dysfunction in angina patients. Overall, MCE improved echocardiographic evaluations of ischemic heart disease in daily clinical practice, but the approval of regulatory authorities is lacking.

  6. Assessment of hydroalcoholic extract of seeds and leaves of Moringa peregrina on ileum spasm.

    PubMed

    Sadraei, H; Asghari, G; Farahnaki, F

    2015-01-01

    Seeds of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. (Moringaceae) is widely used in south east of Iran for gastrointestinal disorders. However, so far there is no pharmacological evidence for antispasmodic activity of this plant extract. Therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate antispasmodic activity of M. peregrina on rat isolated ileum contraction. Hydroalcoholic extract was obtained by percolation method from seeds and leaves of M. peregrina collected from Baluchestan province of Iran. A portion of isolated rat ileum was suspended under 1 g tension in Tyrode's solution at 37 °C and gassed with O2. Effects of seeds and leaves extracts of M. peregrina were studied on ileum contractions induced by KCl (80 mM), acetylcholine (ACh, 250 ?M) and electrical field stimulation (EFS). The seed extract of M. peregrina concentration dependently inhibited the response to KCl (IC50=87 ± 18 ?g/ml), ACh (IC50=118 ± 18 ?g/ml) and EFS (IC50=230 ± 51 ?g/ml). The extract of M. peregrina leaves also had inhibitory effect of ileum contraction induced by KCl (IC50=439 ± 108 ?g/ml), ACh (IC50=365 ± 61 ?g/ml) or EFS (IC50=314 ± 92 ?g/ml). From these experiments it was concluded that M. peregrina extract mainly had an inhibitory effect on ileum contractions but the seed extract was more potent than the leave extract in inhibiting KCl and ACh contractile responses. PMID:26600852

  7. Assessment of hydroalcoholic extract of seeds and leaves of Moringa peregrina on ileum spasm

    PubMed Central

    Sadraei, H.; Asghari, G.; Farahnaki, F.

    2015-01-01

    Seeds of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori. (Moringaceae) is widely used in south east of Iran for gastrointestinal disorders. However, so far there is no pharmacological evidence for antispasmodic activity of this plant extract. Therefore, the aim of this research was to investigate antispasmodic activity of M. peregrina on rat isolated ileum contraction. Hydroalcoholic extract was obtained by percolation method from seeds and leaves of M. peregrina collected from Baluchestan province of Iran. A portion of isolated rat ileum was suspended under 1 g tension in Tyrode's solution at 37 °C and gassed with O2. Effects of seeds and leaves extracts of M. peregrina were studied on ileum contractions induced by KCl (80 mM), acetylcholine (ACh, 250 ?M) and electrical field stimulation (EFS). The seed extract of M. peregrina concentration dependently inhibited the response to KCl (IC50=87 ± 18 ?g/ml), ACh (IC50=118 ± 18 ?g/ml) and EFS (IC50=230 ± 51 ?g/ml). The extract of M. peregrina leaves also had inhibitory effect of ileum contraction induced by KCl (IC50=439 ± 108 ?g/ml), ACh (IC50=365 ± 61 ?g/ml) or EFS (IC50=314 ± 92 ?g/ml). From these experiments it was concluded that M. peregrina extract mainly had an inhibitory effect on ileum contractions but the seed extract was more potent than the leave extract in inhibiting KCl and ACh contractile responses. PMID:26600852

  8. Oxidized LDL and Fructosamine Associated with Severity of Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis in Insulin Resistant Pigs Fed a High Fat/High NaCl Diet

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Timothy C.; Merricks, Elizabeth P.; Bellinger, Dwight A.; Raymer, Robin A.; Yu, Jing; Lam, Diana; Koch, Gary G.; Busby, Walker H.; Clemmons, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Insulin-resistant subjects develop more severe and diffuse coronary artery atherosclerosis than insulin-sensitive controls but the mechanisms that mediate this atherosclerosis phenotype are unknown. Research Objective To determine the metabolic parameters that associate with the severity of coronary atherosclerosis in insulin resistant pigs fed a high fat/high NaCl diet. Key Methods The primary endpoint was severity of coronary atherosclerosis in adult pigs (Sus scrofa, n = 37) fed a high fat diet that also contained high NaCl (56% above recommended levels) for 1 year. Principal Findings Twenty pigs developed severe and diffuse distal coronary artery atherosclerosis (i.e., severe = intimal area as a percent medial area > 200% in at least 2 coronary artery cross sections and diffuse distal = intimal area as a percent medial area ? 150% over 3 sections separated by 2 cm in the distal half of the coronary artery). The other 17 pigs had substantially less coronary artery atherosclerosis. All 37 pigs had blood pressure in a range that would be considered hypertensive in humans and developed elevations in total and LDL and HDL cholesterol, weight gain, increased backfat, and increased insulin resistance (Bergman Si) without overt diabetes. Insulin resistance was not associated with atherosclerosis severity. Five additional pigs fed regular pig chow also developed increased insulin resistance but essentially no change in the other variables and little to no detectible coronary atherosclerosis. Most importantly, the 20 high fat/high NaCl diet -fed pigs with severe and diffuse distal coronary artery atherosclerosis had substantially greater increases (p< 0.05) in oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and fructosamine consistent with increased protein glycation. Conclusion In pigs fed a high fat/high NaCl diet, glycated proteins are induced in the absence of overt diabetes and this degree of increase is associated with the development of severe and diffuse distal coronary artery atherosclerosis. PMID:26147990

  9. Copy number variants and infantile spasms: evidence for abnormalities in ventral forebrain development and pathways of synaptic function

    PubMed Central

    Paciorkowski, Alex R; Thio, Liu Lin; Rosenfeld, Jill A; Gajecka, Marzena; Gurnett, Christina A; Kulkarni, Shashikant; Chung, Wendy K; Marsh, Eric D; Gentile, Mattia; Reggin, James D; Wheless, James W; Balasubramanian, Sandhya; Kumar, Ravinesh; Christian, Susan L; Marini, Carla; Guerrini, Renzo; Maltsev, Natalia; Shaffer, Lisa G; Dobyns, William B

    2011-01-01

    Infantile spasms (ISS) are an epilepsy disorder frequently associated with severe developmental outcome and have diverse genetic etiologies. We ascertained 11 subjects with ISS and novel copy number variants (CNVs) and combined these with a new cohort with deletion 1p36 and ISS, and additional published patients with ISS and other chromosomal abnormalities. Using bioinformatics tools, we analyzed the gene content of these CNVs for enrichment in pathways of pathogenesis. Several important findings emerged. First, the gene content was enriched for the gene regulatory network involved in ventral forebrain development. Second, genes in pathways of synaptic function were overrepresented, significantly those involved in synaptic vesicle transport. Evidence also suggested roles for GABAergic synapses and the postsynaptic density. Third, we confirm the association of ISS with duplication of 14q12 and maternally inherited duplication of 15q11q13, and report the association with duplication of 21q21. We also present a patient with ISS and deletion 7q11.3 not involving MAGI2. Finally, we provide evidence that ISS in deletion 1p36 may be associated with deletion of KLHL17 and expand the epilepsy phenotype in that syndrome to include early infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Several of the identified pathways share functional links, and abnormalities of forebrain synaptic growth and function may form a common biologic mechanism underlying both ISS and autism. This study demonstrates a novel approach to the study of gene content in subjects with ISS and copy number variation, and contributes further evidence to support specific pathways of pathogenesis. PMID:21694734

  10. A computational fluid-structure interaction model for plaque vulnerability assessment in atherosclerotic human coronary arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Razaghi, Reza; Haghpanahi, Mohammad

    2014-04-01

    Coronary artery disease is responsible for a third of global deaths worldwide. Computational simulations of blood flow can be used to understand the interactions of artery/plaque and blood in coronary artery disease and to better predict the rupture of atherosclerotic plaques. So far, the mechanical properties of animals' coronary artery have been mostly used for hemodynamic simulation of atherosclerotic arteries. The mechanical properties of animals' coronary arteries are often not accurate enough and can be only used for an approximate estimation and comparative assessment of the cognate parameters in human. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid-structure interactions model with three different plaque types is presented to perform a more accurate plaque vulnerability assessment for human atherosclerotic plaques. The coronary arteries of twenty-two male individuals were removed during autopsy and subjected to uniaxial tensile loading. The hyperelastic material coefficients of coronary arteries were calculated and implemented to the computational model. The fully coupled fluid and structure models were solved using the explicit dynamics finite element code LS-DYNA. The normal and shear stresses induced within the plaques were significantly affected by different plaque types. The highest von Mises (153 KPa) and shear (57 KPa) stresses were observed for hypocellular plaques, while the lowest von Mises (70 KPa) and shear (39 KPa) stresses were observed on the stiffer calcified plaques. The results suggest that the risk of plaque rupture due to blood flow is lower for cellular and hypocellular plaques, while higher for calcified plaques with low fracture stresses.

  11. Effect of trapidil on regional myocardial function during acute coronary occlusion in the dog.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, M; Sasayama, S; Nakamura, M; Hirose, K; Kawai, C

    1982-01-01

    The effects of an antianginal agent, N,N-diethyl-5-methyl[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-7-amine (trapidil, Rocornal) (5-10 mg/kg), on regional myocardial function were studied in 17 open-chest dogs. The animals were instrumented with a micromanometer for measurement of left ventricular pressure, an electromagnetic flow probe around the left circumflex coronary artery, and 3 pairs of ultrasonic crystals in control, marginal and ischemia-induced segments. In cases of an intact coronary artery, trapidil increased peak dP/dt by 48%, heart rate by 19%, and coronary blood flow by 40%. End-diastolic segment length decreased by 7% with an increase of 17% in shortening. Coronary occlusion increased end-diastolic length of all three segments. In the ischemic segment, active shortening was rapidly replaced by systolic expansion. In the marginal segment, percent shortening decreased by 58%, while in the control segment, shortening was augmented by 11%. Trapidil administered during coronary occlusion significantly improved the shortening of control and marginal segments, as associated with a reduction in end-diastolic length. There was no significant change in function of the ischemic segment. These effects of tripidil during coronary occlusion were not blocked by propranolol (0.5-1.0 mg/kg). These data suggest that trapidil may be an effective treatment for left ventricular failure due to myocardial ischemia by virtue of its potent positive inotropic effects associated with substantial increases in myocardial blood supply sufficient to counteract the increase in oxygen consumption. PMID:7200778

  12. Relation of coronary flow reserve and diastolic function to fractional pulse pressure in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Mahfouz, Ragab A

    2013-10-01

    Fractional pulse pressure (PPf), is thought to more directly reflect arterial stiffness than pulse pressure. Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between coronary flow reserve (CFR), left ventricular diastolic function (LVDf) and PPf in hypertensive patients with normal coronary arteries. Out of 109 hypertensive patients (aged 52.8 ± 9.4 years), with normal coronary angiography, CFR was calculated successfully in 106 patients. CFR was calculated using transthoracic echo Doppler assessment with hyperemia induced by infusion of dipyridamole at a rate of 0.56 mg/kg over 4 minutes, while diastolic function was evaluated by means of transmitral flow and tissue Doppler imaging. PPf was calculated as pulse pressure divided by mean arterial pressure [Systolic blood pressure - Diastolic blood pressure/Mean arterial pressure (SBP - DBP/MAP)], Hypertensive patients with low CFR (n = 54) compared with those with normal CFR (n = 52) exhibited significantly increased PPf (75.2 ± 11.4 vs. 61.5 ± 6.7 P < 0.001). Moreover, patients with higher PPf had significantly decreased transmitral E/A ratio (P < 0.01), as well as increased E/Em ratio (P < 0.01). In hypertensives with low CFR, PPf was negatively correlated with CFR (r = -0.815, P < 0.0001). After applying multivariate linear regression analysis, PPf turned out to be a powerful independent predictor of CFR. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that a PPf of ?0.63 was the best cutoff value for prediction of CFR <2.0 and E/Em ? 8 (AUC = 0.916 and 0.929 respectively; P < 0.001). Increased PPf was associated with impaired CFR and diastolic dysfunction in hypertensive patients with normal coronary arteries. PPf could be used as a simple non-invasive index for assessment of coronary microcirculation in hypertensives with normal coronary arteries. PMID:23659386

  13. Woven Coronary Artery Disease Successfully Managed with Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A New Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Alsancak, Yakup; Sezenoz, Burak; Turkoglu, Sedat; Abac?, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    Woven coronary artery is relatively rare and can be complicated in both acute and chronic phases. A few case reports have been published until now. Herein we report a case with right woven coronary artery managed with drug-eluted stent implantation without complication. PMID:26491572

  14. Oxidative stress improves coronary endothelial function through activation of the pro-survival kinase AMPK

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuhong; Feng, Jun; Cordeiro, Brenda; Lyra, Arthur; Arafah, Mohammed; Yassin-Kassab, Abdulmounem; Zanetti, Arthus V.D.; Clements, Richard T.; Bianchi, Cesario; Benjamin, Laura E.; Sellke, Frank W.; Abid, Ruhul

    2013-01-01

    Age-associated decline in cardiovascular function is believed to occur from the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, failure of recent clinical trials using antioxidants in patients with cardiovascular disease, and the recent findings showing paradoxical role for NADPH oxidase-derived ROS in endothelial function challenge this long-held notion against ROS. Here, we examine the effects of endothelium-specific conditional increase in ROS on coronary endothelial function. We have generated a novel binary (Tet-ON/OFF) conditional transgenic mouse (Tet-Nox2:VE-Cad-tTA) that induces endothelial cell (EC)-specific overexpression of Nox2/gp91 (NADPH oxidase) and 1.8±0.42-fold increase in EC-ROS upon tetracycline withdrawal (Tet-OFF). We examined ROS effects on EC signaling and function. First, we demonstrate that endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation was significantly improved in Tet-OFF Nox2 compared to Tet-ON (control) littermates. Using EC isolated from mouse heart, we show that endogenous ROS increased eNOS activation and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis through activation of the survival kinase AMPK. Coronary vasodilation in Tet-OFF Nox2 animals was CaMKK?-AMPK-dependent. Finally, we demonstrate that AMPK activation induced autophagy and thus, protected ECs from oxidant-induced cell death. Together, these findings suggest that increased ROS levels, often associated with cardiovascular conditions in advanced age, play a protective role in endothelial homeostasis by inducing AMPK-eNOS axis. PMID:24018842

  15. Oxidative stress improves coronary endothelial function through activation of the pro-survival kinase AMPK.

    PubMed

    Shafique, Ehtesham; Choy, Wing C; Liu, Yuhong; Feng, Jun; Cordeiro, Brenda; Lyra, Arthur; Arafah, Mohammed; Yassin-Kassab, Abdulmounem; Zanetti, Arthus V D; Clements, Richard T; Bianchi, Cesario; Benjamin, Laura E; Sellke, Frank W; Abid, Md Ruhul

    2013-07-01

    Age-associated decline in cardiovascular function is believed to occur from the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, failure of recent clinical trials using antioxidants in patients with cardiovascular disease, and the recent findings showing paradoxical role for NADPH oxidase-derived ROS in endothelial function challenge this long-held notion against ROS. Here, we examine the effects of endothelium-specific conditional increase in ROS on coronary endothelial function. We have generated a novel binary (Tet-ON/OFF) conditional transgenic mouse (Tet-Nox2:VE-Cad-tTA) that induces endothelial cell (EC)-specific overexpression of Nox2/gp91 (NADPH oxidase) and 1.8?0.42-fold increase in EC-ROS upon tetracycline withdrawal (Tet-OFF). We examined ROS effects on EC signaling and function. First, we demonstrate that endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation was significantly improved in Tet-OFF Nox2 compared to Tet-ON (control) littermates. Using EC isolated from mouse heart, we show that endogenous ROS increased eNOS activation and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis through activation of the survival kinase AMPK. Coronary vasodilation in Tet-OFF Nox2 animals was CaMKK?-AMPK-dependent. Finally, we demonstrate that AMPK activation induced autophagy and thus, protected ECs from oxidant-induced cell death. Together, these findings suggest that increased ROS levels, often associated with cardiovascular conditions in advanced age, play a protective role in endothelial homeostasis by inducing AMPK-eNOS axis. PMID:24018842

  16. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood perfusing the coronary arteries. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  17. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood perfusing the coronary arteries. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  18. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood perfusing the coronary arteries. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  19. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood perfusing the coronary arteries. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  20. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood perfusing the coronary arteries. (b) Classification. Class II (performance...

  1. Interposition vein graft for giant coronary aneurysm repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firstenberg, M. S.; Azoury, F.; Lytle, B. W.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Coronary aneurysms in adults are rare. Surgical treatment is often concomitant to treating obstructing coronary lesions. However, the ideal treatment strategy is poorly defined. We present a case of successful treatment of a large coronary artery aneurysm with a reverse saphenous interposition vein graft. This modality offers important benefits over other current surgical and percutaneous techniques and should be considered as an option for patients requiring treatment for coronary aneurysms.

  2. Advanced Glycation End Products Impair Voltage-Gated K+ Channels-Mediated Coronary Vasodilation in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Su, Wen; Li, Weiping; Chen, Hui; Liu, Huirong; Huang, Haixia; Li, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Background We have previously reported that high glucose impairs coronary vasodilation by reducing voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channel activity. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are potent factors that contribute to the development of diabetic vasculopathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of AGEs in high glucose-induced impairment of Kv channels-mediated coronary vasodilation. Methods Patch-clamp recording and molecular biological techniques were used to assess the function and expression of Kv channels. Vasodilation of isolated rat small coronary arteries was measured using a pressurized myograph. Treatment of isolated coronary vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with aminoguanidine, the chemical inhibitor of AGEs formation, was performed to determine the contribution of AGEs. Results Incubation of VSMCs with high glucose reduced Kv current density by 60.4 ± 4.8%, and decreased expression of Kv1.2 and Kv1.5 both at the gene and protein level, whereas inhibiting AGEs formation or blocking AGEs interacting with their receptors prevented high glucose-induced impairment of Kv channels. In addition, diabetic rats manifested reduced Kv channels-mediated coronary dilation (9.3 ± 1.4% vs. 36.9 ± 1.4%, P < 0.05), which was partly corrected by the treatment with aminoguanidine (24.4 ± 2.2% vs. 9.3 ± 1.4%, P < 0.05). Conclusions Excessive formation of AGEs impairs Kv channels in VSMCs, then leading to attenuation of Kv channels-mediated coronary vasodilation. PMID:26562843

  3. Toxic epidermal necrolysis after percutaneous coronary intervention: which drug is the culprit?

    PubMed

    Hou, Xu-Min; Wu, Wen-Yu

    2011-02-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a serious, usually drug-induced, dermatosis characterized by extensive erythema, necrosis, bullous detachment of the epidermis, constitutional symptoms, and visceral involvement. We report a 62-year-old man who was diagnosed TEN after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). After consulting with a cardiologist, all pre-hospital medication was discontinued except clopidogrel. With supportive care, the patient recovered. PMID:21362353

  4. O-GlcNAcase overexpression reverses coronary endothelial cell dysfunction in type 1 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Makino, Ayako; Dai, Anzhi; Han, Ying; Youssef, Katia D; Wang, Weihua; Donthamsetty, Reshma; Scott, Brian T; Wang, Hong; Dillmann, Wolfgang H

    2015-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetes, and endothelial dysfunction is commonly seen in these patients. Increased O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) protein modification is one of the central pathogenic features of diabetes. Modification of proteins by O-GlcNAc (O-GlcNAcylation) is regulated by two key enzymes: ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase [O-GlcNAcase (OGA)], which catalyzes the reduction of protein O-GlcNAcylation, and O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), which induces O-GlcNAcylation. However, it is not known whether reducing O-GlcNAcylation can improve endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. To examine the effect of endothelium-specific OGA overexpression on protein O-GlcNAcylation and coronary endothelial function in diabetic mice, we generated tetracycline-inducible, endothelium-specific OGA transgenic mice, and induced OGA by doxycycline administration in streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice. OGA protein expression was significantly decreased in mouse coronary endothelial cells (MCECs) isolated from diabetic mice compared with control MCECs, whereas OGT protein level was markedly increased. The level of protein O-GlcNAcylation was increased in diabetic compared with control mice, and OGA overexpression significantly decreased the level of protein O-GlcNAcylation in MCECs from diabetic mice. Capillary density in the left ventricle and endothelium-dependent relaxation in coronary arteries were significantly decreased in diabetes, while OGA overexpression increased capillary density to the control level and restored endothelium-dependent relaxation without changing endothelium-independent relaxation. We found that connexin 40 could be the potential target of O-GlcNAcylation that regulates the endothelial functions in diabetes. These data suggest that OGA overexpression in endothelial cells improves endothelial function and may have a beneficial effect on coronary vascular complications in diabetes. PMID:26269457

  5. [Calcifying coronary sclerosis. Incidence and clinical importance of radiographically visible coronary sclerosis in the light of new study methods].

    PubMed

    Dietz, A

    1978-11-23

    Since introduction of the new image intensifier generation coronary calcification has become a common finding during fluoroscopy. Nearly one quarter of all patients over 40 years have calcified coronary vessels, men twice as often as women. More than two thirds of all these patients have coronary heart disease. Patients with coronary calcification suffer more often than those without from risk diseases of atherosclerosis, especially of coronary heart disease. The calcification means in most cases a lumen reduction of the vessel and is predominantly located in the left coronary artery. Other uncalcified stenoses exist very often, i.e. multiple vessel disease is a very common finding in these patients. The x-ray sign confirms the diagnosis "coronary heart disease" if there are other suspicious findings but it has not rarely its own value in comparison with other non-invasive examination methods in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease. PMID:309426

  6. Multivessel transradial percutaneous coronary angioplasty in a single coronary artery originating from the right sinus of Valsalva

    PubMed Central

    Madhavan, Suresh; Kumary, V. Sudha; Akhil, P. C.; Cardoz, Joseph; George, Raju

    2015-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with an anomalous coronary artery is technically challenging. Selective cannulation and coaxial positioning in the anomalous artery and optimum stability during the procedure are pivotal for successful completion of the procedure. Selection of the appropriate guide catheter is of paramount importance in these situations. In patients with congenital coronary artery anomalies, increasing use of multidetector computed tomography for cardiac imaging may yield diagnostic information not obtained with coronary angiography. Axial, multiplanar, and three-dimensional volume-rendered reconstructions aid in detecting and interpreting such anomalies and in selecting appropriate hardware during percutaneous coronary intervention in these patients. We report a case of successful stent implantation in the right coronary artery and proximal circumflex coronary artery in a patient with a single coronary artery arising from the right sinus of Valsalva. PMID:26424956

  7. Anomalous Right Coronary Artery: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Keswani, Amit N.; Dann, Kristen; Ramee, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Background Anomalous coronary arteries (ACAs) are rare but potentially life-threatening abnormalities of coronary circulation. Most variations are benign; however, some may lead to myocardial ischemia and/or sudden cardiac arrest. Case Report We present the case of a patient with a significant medical history of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and gastroesophageal reflux disease who presented to the emergency department with atypical chest pain. She underwent a cardiac catheterization that showed an anomalous right coronary artery originating near the anterior left coronary artery sinus and coursing between the pulmonary artery and aorta. The patient was deemed a poor surgical candidate, was discharged home on medical management with beta blocker therapy, and was instructed to restrict her physical activity. Conclusion Treatment of significant anomalies should be guided by the nature of the anomalous vessel. Symptomatic patients with ACAs have 3 treatment options: medical management, coronary angioplasty and stent deployment, or surgical correction. These treatment options remain controversial. Some clinicians advocate revascularization, but the long-term benefits of revascularization therapies have not yet been demonstrated. PMID:24940145

  8. Apelin Levels In Isolated Coronary Artery Ectasia

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, ?brahim; Y?ld?z, Abdulkadir; Ak?l, Mehmet Ata; Acet, Halit; Yüksel, Murat; Polat, Nihat; Ayd?n, Mesut; Oylumlu, Mustafa; Erta?, Faruk; Kaya, Hasan; Alan, Sait

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives The etiopathogenesis of coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is not known completely. In most of the cases, CAE is associated with atherosclerosis; however, isolated CAE has a nonatherosclerotic mechanism. The association between atherosclerotic coronary artery disease and apelin has been examined in previous studies. However, the role of plasma apelin in isolated coronary artery ectasia has not been studied. In this study, we investigated the relationship between plasma apelin levels and isolated coronary artery ectasia. Subjects and Methods The study population included a total of 54 patients. Twenty-six patients had isolated CAE (53.6±8.1 years); 28 patients with normal coronary arteries (51.6±8.8 years) and with similar risk factors and demographic characteristics served as the control group. Apelin levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay kit. Results Apelin level in the CAE group was significantly lower (apelin=0.181±0.159 ng/mL) than that in the control group (apelin=0.646±0.578 ng/mL) (p=0.033). Glucose, creatinine, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion In this study, we showed that patients with isolated CAE have decreased plasma apelin levels compared with the control group. Based on the data, a relationship between plasma apelin and isolated CAE was determined. PMID:26413106

  9. Biomarkers in Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Loria, Valentina; Leo, Milena; Biasillo, Gina; Dato, Ilaria; Biasucci, Luigi M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Evaluation of patients who present to the hospital with acute undifferentiated chest pain or other symptoms and signs suggestive of Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) is often a clinical challenge. The initial assessment, requiring a focused history (including risk factors analysis), a physical examination, an electrocardiogram (EKG) and serum cardiac marker determination, is time-consuming and troublesome. Recent investigations have indicated that increases in biomarkers of necrosis, inflammation, ischemia and myocardial stretch may provide earlier assessment of overall patient risk, help in identifying the adequate diagnostic and therapeutic management for each patient and allow for prevention of substantial numbers of new events. Approach and Content The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the characteristics of several biomarkers that may have potential clinical utility to identify ACS patients. Patho-physiology, analytical and clinical characteristics have been evaluated for each marker, underlying the properties for potential routine clinical use. Summary The biomarkers discussed in this review are promising and might lead to improved diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with ACS, however their clinical application requires further studies. It is important to define their clinical role as diagnostic markers, their predictive value and the specificity, standardization and detection limits of the assays. PMID:19578525

  10. TRACKING OF CORONARY ARTERIES IN ANGIOGRAM SEQUENCE BY STRUCTURAL

    E-print Network

    Leow, Wee Kheng

    TRACKING OF CORONARY ARTERIES IN ANGIOGRAM SEQUENCE BY STRUCTURAL MATCHING OF JUNCTIONS WANG YUMEI NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF SINGAPORE 2011 #12;TRACKING OF CORONARY ARTERIES IN ANGIOGRAM SEQUENCE BY STRUCTURAL;Abstract Coronary artery disease is the most common form of heart disease and is a lead- ing cause of death

  11. Coronary arteries form by developmental reprogramming of venous cells

    E-print Network

    Krasnow, Mark A.

    ARTICLES Coronary arteries form by developmental reprogramming of venous cells Kristy Red-Horse1 , Hiroo Ueno2 , Irving L. Weissman2 & Mark A. Krasnow1 Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Determining the coronary artery developmental program could aid understanding

  12. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge... Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood...

  13. Cigarette Smoking and Coronary Johannes Czernin and Christian Waldherr

    E-print Network

    Cooper, Robin L.

    Cigarette Smoking and Coronary Blood Flow Johannes Czernin and Christian Waldherr Cigarette smoking is associated with an increased risk for vascular disease. The effects of smoking and nicotine on coronary. Finally, it summarizes research addressing the effects of smoking on coronary and peripheral arterial

  14. Clinical efficacy and scintigraphic evaluation of post-coronary bypass patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for recurrent angina pectoris

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.C.; Beller, G.A.; Nygaard, T.W.; Tedesco, C.; Watson, D.D.; Burwell, L.R.

    1989-01-01

    The efficacy of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty in improving recurrent anginal symptoms and myocardial perfusion after coronary artery bypass graft surgery was assessed prospectively in 55 patients, of whom 50 had an initial angiographic and clinical success. Although 80% of those successfully dilated were initially free of angina at 23 +/- 11 months of follow-up, one half of these patients had recurrent angina. Although only 48% of the patient cohort had complete relief of angina, 94% had less angina than before dilatation and 86% were able to decrease antianginal medications. Fifteen patients with persistent or recurrent angina had from one to five repeat dilatations. After angioplasty, lung thallium uptake, the extent of abnormal scan segments, and the magnitude of redistribution in dilated lesions were significantly reduced (n = 24 patients). Redistribution defects were seen in 38% of patients on postangioplasty scans. All were associated with subsequent angina. Of various clinical, angiographic, exercise, and thallium-201 scan variables, only the presence of delayed redistribution was an independent predictor of recurrent angina. Restenosis was the most common underlying cause for this exercise-induced perfusion defect. Thus percutaneous coronary angioplasty performed as primary therapy for recurrent angina after bypass surgery is moderately successful in long-term follow-up for the amelioration of symptoms and enhancement of regional myocardial perfusion.

  15. Rest period duration of the coronary arteries: Implications for magnetic resonance coronary angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Shechter, Guy; Resar, Jon R.; McVeigh, Elliot R.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography coronary imaging is susceptible to artifacts caused by motion of the heart. The presence of rest periods during the cardiac and respiratory cycles suggests that images free of motion artifacts could be acquired. In this paper, we studied the rest period (RP) duration of the coronary arteries during a cardiac contraction and a tidal respiratory cycle. We also studied whether three MR motion correction methods could be used to increase the respiratory RP duration. Free breathing x-ray coronary angiograms were acquired in ten patients. The three-dimensional (3D) structure of the coronary arteries was reconstructed from a biplane acquisition using stereo reconstruction methods. The 3D motion of the arterial model was then recovered using an automatic motion tracking algorithm. The motion field was then decomposed into separate cardiac and respiratory components using a cardiac respiratory parametric model. For the proximal-to-middle segments of the right coronary artery (RCA), a cardiac RP (<1 mm 3D displacement) of 76{+-}34 ms was measured at end systole (ES), and 65{+-}42 ms in mid-diastole (MD). The cardiac RP was 80{+-}25 ms at ES and 112{+-}42 ms at MD for the proximal 5 cm of the left coronary tree. At end expiration, the respiratory RP (in percent of the respiratory period) was 26{+-}8% for the RCA and 27{+-}17% for the left coronary tree. Left coronary respiratory RP (<0.5 mm 3D displacement) increased with translation (32% of the respiratory period), rigid body (51%), and affine (79%) motion correction. The RCA respiratory RP using translational (27%) and rigid body (33%) motion correction were not statistically different from each other. Measurements of the cardiac and respiratory rest periods will improve our understanding of the temporal and spatial resolution constraints for coronary imaging.

  16. [Acute coronary syndromes with ST elevation and angiographically normal culprit coronary arteries: Case report and update].

    PubMed

    Halna du Fretay, X; Dibon, O; Naël, J

    2015-12-01

    Acute coronary syndrome results in most cases of atherosclerotic plaque rupture. In a few cases, the physiopathological mechanism is different. This does not necessarily change the initial strategy but the subsequent treatments. We report three cases of clinical presentations of acute coronary syndrome whose pathophysiological mechanism is not or not mainly due to atherosclerotic lesions. Based on these cases and a review of the literature, two topics will be tackled: the diagnostic and therapeutic strategy in the management of Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathies and also acute coronary syndromes due to vasospastic angina. PMID:26525680

  17. Global developmental delay with sodium valproate-induced gingival hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Patil, Ravi B; Urs, Pallavi; Kiran, Shital; Bargale, Seema Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Global developmental delay (GDD) refers to a disturbance in an individual child across one or more developmental domains, which include motor, cognition, daily activities, speech and language. The present case discusses a 5-year-old child with GDD associated with infantile spasms treated with sodium valproate. Delay in the widespread acquisition of skills, epilepsy and poor oral hygiene with gingival enlargement was the main concern to seek medical aid. This case is special as the child was suffering from GDD associated with sodium valproate-induced gingival enlargement. PMID:24451230

  18. Visualization of Coronary Arteries from Intravenous Angiograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selzer, Robert H.

    1985-01-01

    Under most circumstances, the coronary arteries are not satisfactorily visualized in intravenous angiograms. The objective of this study is to develop computer image enhancement methods that will improve the quality of the latent coronary images to a degree sufficient to detect an obstructive lesion. Such a technique, if successful, could be used as a first step alternative to conventional coronary angiography for individuals with ambiguous noninvasive cardiac tests. The determination of no lesion from the intravenous procedure would relieve the need for the conventional angiogram, while verification of an obstructive lesion could be followed by a conventional angiogram. The nature of the imaging problem and a description of the methods and initial processing results are described in this paper.

  19. Current and Novel Imaging Techniques in Coronary CT.

    PubMed

    Machida, Haruhiko; Tanaka, Isao; Fukui, Rika; Shen, Yun; Ishikawa, Takuya; Tate, Etsuko; Ueno, Eiko

    2015-01-01

    Multidetector coronary computed tomography (CT), which is widely performed to assess coronary artery disease noninvasively and accurately, provides excellent image quality. Use of electrocardiography (ECG)-controlled tube current modulation and low tube voltage can reduce patient exposure to nephrotoxic contrast media and carcinogenic radiation when using standard coronary CT with a retrospective ECG-gated helical scan. Various imaging techniques are expected to overcome the limitations of standard coronary CT, which also include insufficient spatial and temporal resolution, beam-hardening artifacts, limited coronary plaque characterization, and an inability to allow functional assessment of coronary stenosis. Use of a step-and-shoot scan, iterative reconstruction, and a high-pitch dual-source helical scan can further reduce radiation dose. Dual-energy CT can improve contrast medium enhancement and reasonably reduce the contrast dose when combined with noise reduction with the use of iterative reconstruction. High-definition CT can improve spatial resolution and diagnostic evaluation of small or peripheral coronary vessels and coronary stents. Dual-source CT and a motion correction algorithm can improve temporal resolution and reduce coronary motion artifacts. Whole-heart coverage with 320-detector CT and an intelligent boundary registration algorithm can eliminate stair-step artifacts. By decreasing beam hardening and enabling material decomposition, dual-energy CT is expected to remove or reduce the depiction of coronary calcification to improve intraluminal evaluation of calcified vessels and to provide detailed analysis of coronary plaque components and accurate qualitative and quantitative assessment of myocardial perfusion. Fractional flow reserve derived from coronary CT is a state-of-the-art noninvasive technique for accurately identifying myocardial ischemia beyond coronary CT. Understanding these techniques is important to enhance the value of coronary CT for assessment of coronary artery disease. PMID:26046942

  20. Absence of Bacteria on Coronary Angioplasty Balloons from Unselected Patients: Results with Use of a High Sensitivity Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Gorm Mørk; Nilsson, Martin; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Holmstrup, Palle; Helqvist, Steffen; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael; Hansen, Peter Riis

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic, bacterially-induced inflammatory disease of the tooth-supporting tissues, which may result in transient bacteremia and a systemic inflammatory response. Periodontitis is associated with coronary artery disease independently of established cardiovascular risk factors, and translocation of bacteria from the oral cavity to the coronary arteries may play a role in the development of coronary artery disease. Very few studies have used angioplasty balloons for in vivo sampling from diseased coronary arteries, and with varying results. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess if bacterial DNA from primarily oral bacteria could be detected on coronary angioplasty balloons by use of an optimized sampling process combined with an internally validated sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Coronary angioplasty balloons and control samples from a total of 45 unselected patients with stable angina, unstable angina/non-ST elevation myocardial infarction, and ST-elevation myocardial infarction (n = 15 in each group) were collected and analyzed using a PCR assay with high sensitivity and specificity for 16S rRNA genes of the oral microbiome. Despite elimination of extraction and purification steps, and demonstration of sensitivity levels of 25-125 colony forming units (CFU), we did not detect bacterial DNA from any of the coronary angioplasty balloons. A subsequent questionnaire indicated that the prevalence of periodontitis in the study cohort was at least 39.5%. Although coronary angioplasty balloons are unlikely to be useful for detection of bacteria with current PCR techniques in unselected patients with coronary artery disease, more studies are warranted to determine the extent to which bacteria contribute to atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations and whether the presence of bacteria in the arteries is a transient phenomenon. PMID:26695491

  1. Absence of Bacteria on Coronary Angioplasty Balloons from Unselected Patients: Results with Use of a High Sensitivity Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Gorm Mørk; Nilsson, Martin; Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Holmstrup, Palle; Helqvist, Steffen; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael; Hansen, Peter Riis

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic, bacterially-induced inflammatory disease of the tooth-supporting tissues, which may result in transient bacteremia and a systemic inflammatory response. Periodontitis is associated with coronary artery disease independently of established cardiovascular risk factors, and translocation of bacteria from the oral cavity to the coronary arteries may play a role in the development of coronary artery disease. Very few studies have used angioplasty balloons for in vivo sampling from diseased coronary arteries, and with varying results. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess if bacterial DNA from primarily oral bacteria could be detected on coronary angioplasty balloons by use of an optimized sampling process combined with an internally validated sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Coronary angioplasty balloons and control samples from a total of 45 unselected patients with stable angina, unstable angina/non-ST elevation myocardial infarction, and ST-elevation myocardial infarction (n = 15 in each group) were collected and analyzed using a PCR assay with high sensitivity and specificity for 16S rRNA genes of the oral microbiome. Despite elimination of extraction and purification steps, and demonstration of sensitivity levels of 25–125 colony forming units (CFU), we did not detect bacterial DNA from any of the coronary angioplasty balloons. A subsequent questionnaire indicated that the prevalence of periodontitis in the study cohort was at least 39.5%. Although coronary angioplasty balloons are unlikely to be useful for detection of bacteria with current PCR techniques in unselected patients with coronary artery disease, more studies are warranted to determine the extent to which bacteria contribute to atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations and whether the presence of bacteria in the arteries is a transient phenomenon. PMID:26695491

  2. Maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy impairs an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-like pathway in sheep fetal coronary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Praveen; Ghatta, Srinivas; Dubey, Nidhi; Lemley, Caleb O.; Johnson, Mary Lynn; Modgil, Amit; Vonnahme, Kimberly; Caton, Joel S.; Reynolds, Lawrence P.; Sun, Chengwen

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying developmental programming are poorly understood but may be associated with adaptations by the fetus in response to changes in the maternal environment during pregnancy. We hypothesized that maternal nutrient restriction during pregnancy alters vasodilator responses in fetal coronary arteries. Pregnant ewes were fed a control [100% U.S. National Research Council (NRC)] or nutrient-restricted (60% NRC) diet from days 50 to 130 of gestation (term = 145 days); fetal tissues were collected at day 130. In coronary arteries isolated from control fetal lambs, relaxation to bradykinin was unaffected by nitro-l-arginine (NLA). Iberiotoxin or contraction with KCl abolished the NLA-resistant response to bradykinin. In fetal coronary arteries from nutrient-restricted ewes, relaxation to bradykinin was fully suppressed by NLA. Large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channel (BKCa) currents did not differ in coronary smooth muscle cells from control and nutrient-restricted animals. The BKCa openers, BMS 191011 and NS1619, and 14,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid [a putative endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)] each caused fetal coronary artery relaxation and BKCa current activation that was unaffected by maternal nutrient restriction. Expression of BKCa-channel subunits did not differ in fetal coronary arteries from control or undernourished ewes. The results indicate that maternal undernutrition during pregnancy results in loss of the EDHF-like pathway in fetal coronary arteries in response to bradykinin, an effect that cannot be explained by a decreased number or activity of BKCa channels or by decreased sensitivity to mediators that activate BKCa channels in vascular smooth muscle cells. Under these conditions, bradykinin-induced relaxation is completely dependent on nitric oxide, which may represent an adaptive response to compensate for the absence of the EDHF-like pathway. PMID:24816259

  3. Bioresorbable scaffolds for percutaneous coronary interventions

    PubMed Central

    Gogas, Bill D.

    2014-01-01

    Innovations in drug-eluting stents (DES) have substantially reduced rates of in-segment restenosis and early stent thrombosis, improving clinical outcomes following percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). However a fixed metallic implant in a vessel wall with restored patency and residual disease remains a precipitating factor for sustained local inflammation, in-stent neo-atherosclerosis and impaired vasomotor function increasing the risk for late complications attributed to late or very late stent thrombosis and late target lesion revascularization (TLR) (late catch-up). The quest for optimal coronary stenting continues by further innovations in stent design and by using biocompatible materials other than cobalt chromium, platinum chromium or stainless steel for engineering coronary implants. Bioresorbable scaffolds made of biodegradable polymers or biocorrodible metals with properties of transient vessel scaffolding, local drug-elution and future restoration of vessel anatomy, physiology and local hemodynamics have been recently developed. These devices have been utilized in selected clinical applications so far providing preliminary evidence of safety showing comparable performance with current generation drug-eluting stents (DES). Herein we provide a comprehensive overview of the current status of these technologies, we elaborate on the potential benefits of transient coronary scaffolds over permanent stents in the context of vascular reparation therapy, and we further focus on the evolving challenges these devices have to overcome to compete with current generation DES. Condensed Abstract:: The quest for optimizing percutaneous coronary interventions continues by iterative innovations in device materials beyond cobalt chromium, platinum chromium or stainless steel for engineering coronary implants. Bioresorbable scaffolds made of biodegradable polymers or biocorrodible metals with properties of transient vessel scaffolding; local drug-elution and future restoration of vessel anatomy, physiology and local hemodynamics were recently developed. These devices have been utilized in selected clinical applications providing preliminary evidence of safety showing comparable intermediate term clinical outcomes with current generation drug-eluting stents. PMID:25780795

  4. Dyspnoea management in acute coronary syndrome patients treated with ticagrelor

    PubMed Central

    Parodi, Guido; Storey, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of dyspnoea in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients has always been considered a challenging diagnostic and therapeutic clinical scenario. P2Y12 platelet receptor inhibitors (i.e., clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor) are currently the cornerstone of treatment of ACS patients. Thus, in the last few years, the potential association between ACS and dyspnoea has also become more challenging with the increasing use of ticagrelor in these patients due to its beneficial effects on ischaemic event prevention and mortality, since ticagrelor can induce dyspnoea as a side effect. The present article is intended to review the current literature regarding dyspnoea occurrence in ACS patients, especially those treated with ticagrelor, and to propose ticagrelor-associated dyspnoea management recommendations based on current knowledge. PMID:25267878

  5. Ivabradine, coronary artery disease, and heart failure: beyond rhythm control

    PubMed Central

    Scicchitano, Pietro; Cortese, Francesca; Ricci, Gabriella; Carbonara, Santa; Moncelli, Michele; Iacoviello, Massimo; Cecere, Annagrazia; Gesualdo, Michele; Zito, Annapaola; Caldarola, Pasquale; Scrutinio, Domenico; Lagioia, Rocco; Riccioni, Graziano; Ciccone, Marco Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Elevated heart rate could negatively influence cardiovascular risk in the general population. It can induce and promote the atherosclerotic process by means of several mechanisms involving endothelial shear stress and biochemical activities. Furthermore, elevated heart rate can directly increase heart ischemic conditions because of its skill in unbalancing demand/supply of oxygen and decreasing the diastolic period. Thus, many pharmacological treatments have been proposed in order to reduce heart rate and ameliorate the cardiovascular risk profile of individuals, especially those suffering from coronary artery diseases (CAD) and chronic heart failure (CHF). Ivabradine is the first pure heart rate reductive drug approved and currently used in humans, created in order to selectively reduce sinus node function and to overcome the many side effects of similar pharmacological tools (ie, ?-blockers or calcium channel antagonists). The aim of our review is to evaluate the role and the safety of this molecule on CAD and CHF therapeutic strategies. PMID:24940047

  6. Dyspnoea management in acute coronary syndrome patients treated with ticagrelor.

    PubMed

    Parodi, Guido; Storey, Robert F

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of dyspnoea in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients has always been considered a challenging diagnostic and therapeutic clinical scenario. P2Y12 platelet receptor inhibitors (i.e., clopidogrel, prasugrel and ticagrelor) are currently the cornerstone of treatment of ACS patients. Thus, in the last few years, the potential association between ACS and dyspnoea has also become more challenging with the increasing use of ticagrelor in these patients due to its beneficial effects on ischaemic event prevention and mortality, since ticagrelor can induce dyspnoea as a side effect. The present article is intended to review the current literature regarding dyspnoea occurrence in ACS patients, especially those treated with ticagrelor, and to propose ticagrelor-associated dyspnoea management recommendations based on current knowledge. PMID:25267878

  7. Coronary CT Angiography in Heavily Calcified Coronary Arteries: Improvement of Coronary Lumen Visualization and Coronary Stenosis Assessment With Image Postprocessing Methods

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhonghua; Ng, Curtise K.C.; Xu, Lei; Fan, Zhanming; Lei, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To compare the diagnostic value of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) with use of 2 image postprocessing methods (CCTA_S) and (CCTA_OS) and original data (CCTA_O) for the assessment of heavily calcified plaques. Fifty patients (41 men, 9 women; mean age 61.9 years?±?9.1) with suspected coronary artery disease who underwent CCTA and invasive coronary angiography (ICA) examinations were included in the study. Image data were postprocessed with “sharpen” and smooth reconstruction algorithms in comparison with the original data without undergoing any image postprocessing to determine the effects on suppressing blooming artifacts due to heavy calcification in the coronary arteries. Minimal lumen diameter and degree of stenosis were measured and compared between CCTA_S, CCTA_OS, and CCTA_O with ICA as the reference method. The area under the curve (AUC) by receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis (ROC) was also compared among these 3 CCTA techniques. On a per-vessel assessment, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value, and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 100% (95% CI: 89%, 100%), 33% (95% CI: 22%, 45%), 41% (95% CI: 30%, 53%), 100% (95% CI: 85%, 100%) for CCTA_O, 94% (95% CI: 79%, 99%), 66% (95% CI: 54%, 77%), 57% (95% CI: 43%, 70%), and 95% (95% CI: 85%, 99%) for CCTA_S, 94% (95% CI: 79%, 99%), 44% (95% CI: 32%, 57%), 44% (95% CI: 32%, 57%), and 97% (95% CI: 79%, 99%) for CCTA_OS, respectively. The AUC by ROC curve analysis for CCTA_S showed significant improvement for detection of >50% coronary stenosis in left anterior descending coronary artery compared to that of CCTA_OS and CCTA_O methods (P?coronary stenosis in the left circumflex and right coronary arteries (P?>?0.05). CCTA with “sharpen” reconstruction reduces blooming artifacts from heavy calcification, thus, leading to significant improvement of specificity and positive predictive value of CCTA in patients with heavily calcified plaques. However, specificity is still moderate and additional functional imaging may be needed. PMID:26632895

  8. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection—A review

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Amelia

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an infrequent and often missed diagnosis among patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Unfortunately, SCAD can result in significant morbidities such as myocardial ischemia and infarction, ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Lack of angiographic recognition from clinicians is a major factor of under-diagnosis. With the advent of new imaging modalities, particularly with intracoronary imaging, there has been improved diagnosis of SCAD. The aim of this paper is to review the epidemiology, etiology, presentation, diagnosis and management of SCAD. PMID:25774346

  9. Noninvasive Stress Testing for Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Miller, Todd D; Askew, J Wells; Anavekar, Nandan S

    2016-01-01

    Stress testing remains the cornerstone for noninvasive assessment of patients with possible or known coronary artery disease (CAD). The most important application of stress testing is risk stratification. Most patients who present for evaluation of stable CAD are categorized as low risk by stress testing. These low-risk patients have favorable clinical outcomes and generally do not require coronary angiography. Standard exercise treadmill testing is the initial procedure of choice in patients with a normal or near-normal resting electrocardiogram who are capable of adequate exercise. Stress imaging is recommended for patients with prior revascularization, uninterpretable electrocardiograms, or inability to adequately exercise. PMID:26567975

  10. Coronary CT Angiography in Heavily Calcified Coronary Arteries: Improvement of Coronary Lumen Visualization and Coronary Stenosis Assessment With Image Postprocessing Methods.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhonghua; Ng, Curtise K C; Xu, Lei; Fan, Zhanming; Lei, Jing

    2015-12-01

    To compare the diagnostic value of coronary CT angiography (CCTA) with use of 2 image postprocessing methods (CCTA_S) and (CCTA_OS) and original data (CCTA_O) for the assessment of heavily calcified plaques.Fifty patients (41 men, 9 women; mean age 61.9 years?±?9.1) with suspected coronary artery disease who underwent CCTA and invasive coronary angiography (ICA) examinations were included in the study. Image data were postprocessed with "sharpen" and smooth reconstruction algorithms in comparison with the original data without undergoing any image postprocessing to determine the effects on suppressing blooming artifacts due to heavy calcification in the coronary arteries. Minimal lumen diameter and degree of stenosis were measured and compared between CCTA_S, CCTA_OS, and CCTA_O with ICA as the reference method. The area under the curve (AUC) by receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis (ROC) was also compared among these 3 CCTA techniques.On a per-vessel assessment, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value, and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 100% (95% CI: 89%, 100%), 33% (95% CI: 22%, 45%), 41% (95% CI: 30%, 53%), 100% (95% CI: 85%, 100%) for CCTA_O, 94% (95% CI: 79%, 99%), 66% (95% CI: 54%, 77%), 57% (95% CI: 43%, 70%), and 95% (95% CI: 85%, 99%) for CCTA_S, 94% (95% CI: 79%, 99%), 44% (95% CI: 32%, 57%), 44% (95% CI: 32%, 57%), and 97% (95% CI: 79%, 99%) for CCTA_OS, respectively. The AUC by ROC curve analysis for CCTA_S showed significant improvement for detection of >50% coronary stenosis in left anterior descending coronary artery compared to that of CCTA_OS and CCTA_O methods (P?coronary stenosis in the left circumflex and right coronary arteries (P?>?0.05).CCTA with "sharpen" reconstruction reduces blooming artifacts from heavy calcification, thus, leading to significant improvement of specificity and positive predictive value of CCTA in patients with heavily calcified plaques. However, specificity is still moderate and additional functional imaging may be needed. PMID:26632895

  11. Lifesaving Embolization of Coronary Artery Perforation

    SciTech Connect

    Katsanos, Konstantinos; Patel, Sundip; Dourado, Renato; Sabharwal, Tarun

    2009-09-15

    Coronary artery perforation remains one of the most fearsome complications during cardiac catheterization procedures. Although emergent bypass surgery is the preferred treatment for cases with uncontrollable perforation, endovascular vessel sealing and arrest of bleeding with a combination of balloons, covered stents, or embolic materials have also been proposed. The authors describe a case of emergent lifesaving microcoil embolization of the distal right coronary artery in a patient with uncontrollable grade III guidewire perforation resulting in cardiac tamponade. The relevant literature is reviewed and the merits and limitations of the endovascular approach are highlighted.

  12. Modifications of Coronary Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Albu, Jeanine; Gottlieb, Sheldon H.; August, Phyllis; Nesto, Richard W.; Orchard, Trevor J.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to the revascularization and glycemic management interventions assigned at random, the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes (BARI 2D) design includes the uniform control of major coronary artery disease risk factors, including dyslipidemia, hypertension, smoking, central obesity, and sedentary lifestyle. Target levels for risk factors were adjusted throughout the trial to comply with changes in recommended clinical practice guidelines. At present, the goals are low-density lipoprotein cholesterol <2.59 mmol/L (<100 mg/dL) with an optional goal of <1.81 mmol/L (<70 mg/dL); plasma triglyceride level <1.70 mmol/L (<150 mg/dL); blood pressure level <130 mm Hg systolic and <80 mm Hg diastolic; and smoking cessation treatment for all active smokers. Algorithms were developed for the pharmacologic management of dyslipidemia and hypertension. Dietary prescriptions for the management of glycemia, plasma lipid profiles, and blood pressure levels were adapted from existing clinical practice guidelines. Patients with a body mass index >25 were prescribed moderate caloric restriction; after the trial was under way, a lifestyle weight-management program was instituted. All patients were formally prescribed both endurance and resistance/flexibility exercises, individually adapted to their level of disability and fitness. Pedometers were distributed as a biofeedback strategy. Strategies to achieve the goals for risk factors were designed by BARI 2D working groups (lipid, cardiovascular and hypertension, and nonpharmacologic intervention) and the ongoing implementation of the strategies is monitored by lipid, hypertension, and lifestyle intervention management centers. PMID:16813737

  13. Exercise-induced bronchospasm - pathophysiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Shephard, R J

    1981-09-01

    The practical importance, prevalence, typical features, physiopathology and therapy of exercise-induced bronchospasm (E.I.B.) are briefly reviewed. The condition is common, especially in children. Prevalence is influenced by the mode, intensity and duration of exercise, the age and possibly the sex of the subjects, the number of test repetitions, and the criterion for presence of spasm. The main site of obstruction is in the large airways. Symptoms appear a few minutes post-effort, peaking 10-15 minutes after exercise. At different times, spasm may arise in the vagal reflex arc, from alterations of sympathetic balance, prostaglandin release, and sensitization of the mast cell. Until recently, the main basis of prophylaxis has been inhalation of sodium cromoglycate (20 mg, 60 minutes prior to competition). Beta agonists have until recently been prohibited in international competitions. However, the use of selective beta agonists such as salbutamol and terbutaline was allowed in the 1978 World Swimming Championship and the 1980 World Cross-Country Championship with a supporting medical letter. The Medical Commission of the International Olympic Committee has also moved recently to sanction the use of salbutamol and terbutaline. Future prophylaxis will thus be based on combinations of selective beta agonists and sodium cromoglycate. PMID:6794921

  14. Coronary Flow Impacts Aortic Leaflet Mechanics and Aortic Sinus Hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brandon L; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

    2015-09-01

    Mechanical stresses on aortic valve leaflets are well-known mediators for initiating processes leading to calcific aortic valve disease. Given that non-coronary leaflets calcify first, it may be hypothesized that coronary flow originating from the ostia significantly influences aortic leaflet mechanics and sinus hemodynamics. High resolution time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were conducted to map the spatiotemporal characteristics of aortic sinus blood flow and leaflet motion with and without physiological coronary flow in a well-controlled in vitro setup. The in vitro setup consists of a porcine aortic valve mounted in a physiological aorta sinus chamber with dynamically controlled coronary resistance to emulate physiological coronary flow. Results were analyzed using qualitative streak plots illustrating the spatiotemporal complexity of blood flow patterns, and quantitative velocity vector and shear stress contour plots to show differences in the mechanical environments between the coronary and non-coronary sinuses. It is shown that the presence of coronary flow pulls the classical sinus vorticity deeper into the sinus and increases flow velocity near the leaflet base. This creates a beneficial increase in shear stress and washout near the leaflet that is not seen in the non-coronary sinus. Further, leaflet opens approximately 10% farther into the sinus with coronary flow case indicating superior valve opening area. The presence of coronary flow significantly improves leaflet mechanics and sinus hemodynamics in a manner that would reduce low wall shear stress conditions while improving washout at the base of the leaflet. PMID:25636598

  15. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Single Coronary Artery from Right Sinus: Radial Route is Right

    PubMed Central

    Mahla, Rakesh; Mahla, Himanshu; Choudhary, Dinesh; Nahata, Pintu

    2015-01-01

    We present percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using radial approach in a rare case of single coronary artery originating from the right sinus. Although these anomalies and stenosis of anomalous vessels have been described previously, treatment of atherosclerotic lesions by PCI has rarely been reported. There is a definite procedural risk during PCI in patients with a single ostium because dissection with the guiding catheter would result in a catastrophic event. Additionally, technical difficulties may occur due to the ostial configuration and course of the branch to be stented. The patient suffered an acute coronary syndrome-inferior wall STEMI, and was thrombolysed elsewhere within a window period of 4 h. He had post myocardial infarction (MI) angina and was referred to our center after 3 days of thrombolysis. We present this technically challenging and rare case in which PCI of right coronary artery was performed through the radial route. PMID:26713181

  16. Serum protein profiles predict coronary artery disease in symptomatic patients referred for coronary angiography

    E-print Network

    LaFramboise, William A

    Background: More than a million diagnostic cardiac catheterizations are performed annually in the US for evaluation of coronary artery anatomy and the presence of atherosclerosis. Nearly half of these patients have no ...

  17. A Giant Coronary Artery Aneurysm with Coronary Arteriovenous Fistula in Asymptomatic Elderly Patient

    PubMed Central

    Milici, Caterina; Bovelli, Daniella; Borghetti, Valentino; Khoury, Georgette; Principi, Massimo; Boschetti, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Coronary Arteriovenous Fistula (CAF) is a rare defect that occurs in 0.1-0.2% of patients undergoing coronary angiography; Coronary Artery Aneurism (CAA) also occurs in approximately 15–19% of patients with CAF. It is usually congenital, but in rare occasions it occurs after chest trauma, cardiac surgery, or coronary interventions. The case described is that of a 72-year-old woman, without previous history of cardiovascular disease, who presented a huge cardiac mass. A multimodal approach was necessary to diagnose a giant CAA with CAF responsible for compression and displacement of cardiac structures. Due to likely congenitally origin of the lesion and the absence of symptoms correlated to the CAA and to the CAF we decided to avoid invasive interventions and to treat the patient with medical therapy. PMID:24324914

  18. An isolated single L-II type coronary artery anomaly: A rare coronary anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Ermis, Emrah; Demirelli, Selami; Korkmaz, Ali Fuat; Sahin, Bingul Dilekci; Kantarci, Abdulmecit

    2015-01-01

    Summary The incidence of congenital artery anomalies is 0.2–1.4%, and most are benign. Single coronary artery (SCA) anomalies are very rare. The right coronary artery (RCA) originating from the left coronary system is one such SCA anomaly, and the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) increases if it courses between the pulmonary artery and aorta and coexists with other congenital heart diseases. Additionally, coursing of the RCA between the great vessels increases the risk of atherosclerosis. We herein present the case of a 57 year-old man who was admitted to our cardiology outpatient clinic and diagnosed with an SCA anomaly in which the RCA arose from the left main coronary artery (LMCA) and coursed between the pulmonary artery and aorta. However a critical stenosis was not detected in imaging techniques, and myocardial perfusion scintigraphic evidence of ischaemia was found in a small area. Therefore, he was managed with conservative medical therapy. PMID:26668781

  19. [Noninvasive diagnostic of coronary artery disease].

    PubMed

    Zuber, Michel; Zellweger, Michael; Bremerich, Jens; Auf der Mauer, Christoph; Buser, Peter T

    2009-04-01

    Noninvasive imaging of coronary artery disease has extensively evolved during the last decade. Today, at least four imaging techniques with excellent image quality such as echocardiography, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and PET, cardiac magnetic resonance and cardiac CT are widely available in order to estimate the risk for future ischemic events, to corroborate the suspected diagnosis of coronary artery disease, to demonstrate the extent and localisation of myocardial ischemia, to diagnose myocardial infarction and measure it's size, to identify the myocardium at risk during acute ischemia, to differentiate between viable and nonviable myocardium and thereby provide the basis for indications of revascularisations, to follow revascularized patients over long time, to assess the risk for sudden cardiac death and the development of heart failure after myocardial infarction and to depict atheromatosis and atherosclerosis of the coronary artery tree. Echocardiography is the most widely used imaging method in cardiology. It provides excellent information on morphology and function of nearly all cardiac structures. Stress echocardiography has been proven to be a reliable tool for the demonstration of myocardial ischemia and for the acquisition of prognostic data. Newer ultrasound techniques may further improve investigator dependence and thereby reproducibility. The completeness of echocardiography will always depend on acoustic windows, which are given in a specific patient. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy provides the largest database especially on prognosis in coronary artery disease. It has been the for the depictions of ischemic and infarcted myocardium. Radiation exposure will always be an issue. Newer hybrid techniques combining nuclear methods with cardiac CT may add arguments, which will be needed for clinical decision-making. Cardiac magnetic resonance has evolved as an important tool in the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. It is investigator independent, does not apply any biologically hazardous energy and has the largest potential for tissue characterization due to its high contrast resolution. It therefore is an excellent technique to investigate all the aspects of coronary artery disease. Its availability is increasing, however in order to fully utilize its large potential an optimal collaboration among -specialist (cardiologists, radiologists, physicists) is mandatory. Cardiac CT has evolved as an excellent method for the depiction of the coronary arteries. Due to its high spatial and time resolution it provides high quality luminography of the coronaries and newer technique are also -investigating plaque composition of diseased coronary arteries. Overestimation of coronary artery stenosis in calcified vessels is an inherent problem of the technique and the risk of radiation exposure has to be weighted against the benefit of non-invasively depicting the coronary arteries. It will be the future task of all specialists in this field to define the most efficient and cost-effective way to apply these excellent techniques for the investigation of all the different aspects of patients with coronary artery disease. PMID:19358135

  20. Obesity, body fat distribution, and coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Brochu, M; Poehlman, E T; Ades, P A

    2000-01-01

    Obesity is an independent risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). Obesity also increases risk for CAD indirectly through its association with insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. An increased accumulation of fat in the intraabdominal cavity, termed visceral adiposity, is highly correlated with an adverse coronary risk profile. In patients at risk for coronary artery disease, the treatment of obesity results in an improved coronary risk profile. The prevalence of obesity is extremely high in coronary populations, yet the effect of weight loss on cardiovascular outcomes in CAD patients has received relatively little attention. Observational studies in the cardiac rehabilitation setting showed that patients who lose weight and exercise show an improvement in coronary risk profile. Further research is needed to better define the clinical effectiveness of weight loss programs and their benefits in coronary patients. PMID:10763157

  1. Coronary anatomy, anatomic variations and anomalies: a retrospective coronary angiography study

    PubMed Central

    Altin, Cihan; Kanyilmaz, Suleyman; Koc, Sahbender; Gursoy, Yusuf Cemil; Bal, U?ur; Aydinalp, Alp; Yildirir, Aylin; Muderrisoglu, Haldun

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The incidence of coronary artery anomalies (CAAs) varies from 0.2% to 8.4%. Knowledge of such anatomical variations is important as coronary procedures are regularly performed these days. We aimed to find the coronary dominance pattern, intermediate artery (IMA) frequency and CAA incidence in our clinic, and compare them to those in the literature. METHODS The medical reports of 5,548 patients who had undergone coronary angiography (CAG) between 2005 and 2009 were retrospectively investigated. Dominance pattern and presence of IMA and CAA were recorded. CAAs were described using two different classifications: Angelini and Khatami’s classification, and a new modified classification that was derived from Angelini and Khatami’s classification. Some procedural details and clinical features of the patients with CAA were also investigated. RESULTS Coronary dominance pattern was: 81.6% right coronary artery, 12.2% circumflex artery and 6.2% co-dominant. IMA was present in 613 (11.0%) patients. The incidences of overall anomaly were 2.7% and 1.4%, according to the different classifications. Absent left main coronary artery, which was the most common anomaly in the present study, was found in 51 (0.9%) patients. Incidences of myocardial bridge, coronary arteriovenous fistulae and aneurysms were 1.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%, respectively. CONCLUSION CAAs are generally asymptomatic, isolated lesions. Some may lead to anginal symptoms, myocardial infarction or sudden death. We found that CAA was associated with increased radiation and contrast exposure in patients who underwent CAG. This risk could be reduced if appropriate catheters were designed and training programmes on ostial cannulation were developed. PMID:25502334

  2. Catheter ablation of accessory pathways near the coronary sinus: Value of defining coronary arterial anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jessica; Moriarty, John M.; Mandapati, Ravi; Boyle, Noel G.; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Vaseghi, Marmar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Accessory pathways can lie near or within the coronary sinus (CS). Radiofrequency catheter ablation of accessory pathways is a well-established treatment option, but this procedure can cause damage to adjacent coronary arteries. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anatomic relationship between the coronary arteries and the CS. METHODS Retrospective data of patients who underwent catheter ablation of supraventricular tachycardia between June 2011 and August 2013 was reviewed. In addition, detailed analysis of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) data from 50 patients was performed. RESULTS Between June 2011 and August 2013, 427 patients underwent catheter ablation of supraventricular tachycardia, of whom 105 (age 28 ± 17 years, 60% male) had accessory pathway–mediated tachycardia. Of these, 23 patients had accessory pathways near the CS, and 60% (N = 14) underwent concurrent coronary angiography. In 4 patients, the posterolateral (inferolateral) branch (PLA) of the right coronary artery was in close proximity to the CS, and 2 patients (18%) had stenosis of the PLA at the site of ablation. On CTA at their closest proximity, the PLA was 1.9 ± 1.3 mm and the left circumflex artery (LCx) was 2.0 ± 0.8 mm from the body of the CS, in right and left coronary artery–dominant patients, respectively. CS ostium and PLA were 3.6 ± 1.9 mm apart. In left-dominant patients, LCx and CS ostium were 3.8 ± 1.2 mm apart. CONCLUSION The PLA and LCx are in close proximity to the anteroinferior aspect of the CS ostium and proximal CS. The relationship of the CS and coronary arteries should be evaluated before ablation at these sites. PMID:25485779

  3. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Coronary Thrombo-embolism during Balloon Mitral Valvuloplasty in a Pregnant Woman.

    PubMed

    Chikkabasavaiah, Nagamani; Rajendran, Ravindran; P, Beeresha; B, Ramesh

    2016-02-01

    Coronary embolism as a cause of acute myocardial infarction is considered rarer than it actually is because of the difficulties associated with its documentation. Equally rare is the event of a clot embolising to the coronary artery during balloon mitral valvuloplasty (BMV). We had a unique and a rare opportunity to encounter, recognise, document and successfully manage this rare complication during BMV in a pregnant woman. PMID:26602228

  4. Intrauterine growth restriction delays cardiomyocyte maturation and alters coronary artery function in the fetal sheep

    PubMed Central

    Bubb, Kristen J; Cock, Megan L; Black, M Jane; Dodic, Miodrag; Boon, Wee-Ming; Parkington, Helena C; Harding, Richard; Tare, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    There is now extensive evidence suggesting that intrauterine perturbations are linked with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Human epidemiological studies, supported by animal models, have demonstrated an association between low birth weight, a marker of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), and adult cardiovascular disease. However, little is known of the early influence of IUGR on the fetal heart and vessels. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of late gestational IUGR on coronary artery function and cardiomyocyte maturation in the fetus. IUGR was induced by placental embolization in fetal sheep from 110 to 130 days of pregnancy (D110–130); term ?D147; control fetuses received saline. At necropsy (D130), wire and pressure myography was used to test endothelial and smooth muscle function, and passive mechanical wall properties, respectively, in small branches of left descending coronary arteries. Myocardium was dissociated for histological analysis of cardiomyocytes. At D130, IUGR fetuses (2.7 ± 0.1 kg) were 28% lighter than controls (3.7 ± 0.3 kg; P = 0.02). Coronary arteries from IUGR fetuses had enhanced responsiveness to the vasoconstrictors, angiotensin II and the thromboxane analogue U46619, than controls (P < 0.01). Endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxations were not different between groups. Coronary arteries of IUGR fetuses were more compliant (P = 0.02) than those of controls. The incidence of cardiomyocyte binucleation was lower in the left ventricles of IUGR fetuses (P = 0.02), suggestive of retarded cardiomyocyte maturation. We conclude that late gestational IUGR alters the reactivity and mechanical wall properties of coronary arteries and cardiomyocyte maturation in fetal sheep, which could have lifelong implications for cardiovascular function. PMID:17124269

  5. Coronary atheroma regression and plaque characteristics assessed by grayscale and radiofrequency intravascular ultrasound after aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Madssen, Erik; Moholdt, Trine; Videm, Vibeke; Wisløff, Ulrik; Hegbom, Knut; Wiseth, Rune

    2014-11-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of aerobic interval training (AIT) versus moderate continuous training (MCT) on coronary atherosclerosis in patients with significant coronary artery disease on optimal medical treatment. Thirty-six patients were randomized to AIT (intervals at ? 90% of peak heart rate) or MCT (continuous exercise at ? 70% of peak heart rate) 3 times a week for 12 weeks after intracoronary stent implantation. Grayscale and radiofrequency intravascular ultrasounds (IVUS) were performed at baseline and follow-up. The primary end point was the change in plaque burden, and the secondary end points were change in necrotic core and plaque vulnerability. Separate lesions were classified using radiofrequency IVUS criteria. We demonstrated that necrotic core was reduced in both groups in defined coronary segments (AIT -3.2%, MCT -2.7%, p <0.05) and in separate lesions (median change -2.3% and -0.15 mm(3), p <0.05). Plaque burden was reduced by 10.7% in separate lesions independent of intervention group (p = 0.06). No significant differences in IVUS parameters were found between exercise groups. A minority of separate lesions were transformed in terms of plaque vulnerability during follow-up with large individual differences between and within patients. In conclusion, changes in coronary artery plaque structure or morphology did not differ between patients who underwent AIT or MCT. The combination of regular aerobic exercise and optimal medical treatment for 12 weeks induced a moderate regression of necrotic core and plaque burden in IVUS-defined coronary lesions. PMID:25248813

  6. Fate of Patients With Coronary Perforation Complicating Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (from the Euro Heart Survey Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Registry).

    PubMed

    Bauer, Timm; Boeder, Niklas; Nef, Holger M; Möllmann, Helge; Hochadel, Matthias; Marco, Jean; Weidinger, Franz; Zeymer, Uwe; Gitt, Anselm K; Hamm, Christian W

    2015-11-01

    Coronary perforation (CP) is a life-threatening complication that can occur during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Little is known, however, about the incidence and clinical outcome of CP. We sought to investigate the occurrence of CP and its determinants and risk profile in a large-scale, prospective registry. From 2005 to 2008, unselected patients (n = 42,068) from 175 centers in 33 countries who underwent a PCI procedure were prospectively enrolled in the PCI registry of the Euro Heart Survey program. For the present analysis, patients experiencing CP during PCI (n = 124, 0.3%) were compared with those who underwent PCI without CP. Patients with CP were older, more often women, had more severe coronary disease, and underwent more complex types of coronary intervention. Independent factors associated with CP were the use of rotablation, intravascular ultrasound-guided PCI, bypass PCI, a totally occluded vessel, a type C lesion, peripheral arterial disease, and body mass index <25. More than 10% of the patients developed cardiac tamponade. In a small minority (3.3%), emergency bypass surgery had to be performed. The inhospital death rate was markedly elevated in patients with CP (7.3% vs 1.5%, p <0.001). After adjustment for the EuroHeart score, CP remained a strong predictor of hospital mortality (odds ratio 5.21, 95% confidence interval 2.34 to 11.60). In conclusion, in this real world, all-comers registry, the incidence of CP was low, occurred more often in patients who underwent more complex coronary interventions, and was associated with a fivefold higher hospital mortality. PMID:26341189

  7. High-risk percutaneous coronary intervention in a patient with a single coronary artery presenting as STEMI and cardiogenic shock.

    PubMed

    Abdelsalam, Murad; Krishnan, Mrinalini; Banga, Sandeep; Bachinsky, William B

    2015-01-01

    Cardiogenic shock due to ST elevation myocardial infarction in a patient with a single coronary artery involving the sole vessel is a rare presentation. This can be clinically and angiographically challenging. Proper recognition of the topography of diseased vessels and a systematic guarded approach can lead to procedural success. We report a case of an 81-year-old woman who presented with chest pain followed by a near syncope associated with an acute myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography revealed a single proximally occluded right coronary artery and an anomalous left main coronary artery (originating from the proximal right coronary artery) and occluded distal left circumflex artery. The right coronary artery was successfully stented following predilation without compromising the anomalous left main origin. The flow in the chronically occluded left circumflex artery (originating from the anomalous left main) which was depended on the retrograde supply from right coronary artery through collaterals, was also re-established. PMID:26275407

  8. Coronary Artery Disease in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Alkhawam, Hassan; Zaiem, Feras; Sogomonian, Robert; El-Hunjul, Mohammed; Al-Kateb, Mohamad; Bakhsh, M Umair; Madanieh, Raef

    2015-12-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) sustains a significant negative impact on hospital admissions and deaths worldwide. The prevalence of CHD in young adults is difficult to establish accurately, as these asymptomatic patients typically do not undergo diagnostic studies. In this article, the authors will focus on young adults with CHD emphasizing common and uncommon risk factors, current management and review of previous studies. PMID:26445306

  9. [Peripheral artery disease and acute coronary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease is a common manifestation of systemic atherosclerosis that is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. When presented in the context of an acute coronary syndrome a differential diagnosis with aorta dissection should be made, because peripheral arterial disease may be asymptomatic despite the absence or asymmetry of femoral pulses. PMID:25795260

  10. Coronary involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dendramis, Gregory; Paleologo, Claudia; Piraino, Davide; Arrotti, Salvatore; Assennato, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases are themselves a relevant and independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and coronary ectasia. We describe a case of a 58-year-old Caucasian man who was admitted to our department for unstable angina. History of asthma, paranasal sinus abnormality, and peripheral eosinophilia given a high suspicion of Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS). Diagnosis was performed with 5 of the 6 American College of Rheumatology criteria. The knowledge that CSS is often associated with significant coronary artery involvement and the persistence of chest pain led us to performing immediately a coronary angiography. Coronary angiography showed diffuse ectasic lesions, chronic occlusion of left anterior descending artery with homocoronary collateral circulation from left circumflex artery and subocclusive stenosis in the proximal tract of posterior descending artery. The early recognition of CSS, an aggressive invasive diagnostic approach, and an early appropriate therapy are important to prevent the progressive and permanent cardiac damage in these patients. In the setting of a multidisciplinary approach, careful cardiac assessment is an essential step in CSS, even in mildly symptomatic patients. PMID:26702692

  11. Smoking, Stress, and Coronary Heart Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Leonard H.; Perkins, Kenneth A.

    1988-01-01

    Focuses on the interrelation between stressors and smoking, and on its potential impact on coronary heart disease risk beyond that due to stressors or to smoking alone. Reviews evidence supporting the stress-smoking interrelationship, its relevance to the risk of heart disease, and mechanisms explaining why smokers smoke more during stress and why…

  12. Polyploidy of smooth myocytes in coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Gansburgskii, A N; Yal'tsev, A V

    2004-11-01

    Study of smooth myocytes in coronary arteries of dogs with experimental coarctation of the aorta revealed increased DNA content in myocyte nuclei and increased percentage of binucleated cells. Polyploidy of vascular myocytes did not disappear after correction of the aortal defect. PMID:15723142

  13. Infantile Spasms Is Associated with Deletion of the MAGI2 Gene on Chromosome 7q11.23-q21.11

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Christian R.; Young, Edwin J.; Pani, Ariel M.; Freckmann, Mary-Louise; Lacassie, Yves; Howald, Cédric; Fitzgerald, Kristi K.; Peippo, Maarit; Morris, Colleen A.; Shane, Kate; Priolo, Manuela; Morimoto, Masafumi; Kondo, Ikuko; Manguoglu, Esra; Berker-Karauzum, Sibel; Edery, Patrick; Hobart, Holly H.; Mervis, Carolyn B.; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Reymond, Alexandre; Kaplan, Paige; Tassabehji, May; Gregg, Ronald G.; Scherer, Stephen W.; Osborne, Lucy R.

    2008-01-01

    Infantile spasms (IS) is the most severe and common form of epilepsy occurring in the first year of life. At least half of IS cases are idiopathic in origin, with others presumed to arise because of brain insult or malformation. Here, we identify a locus for IS by high-resolution mapping of 7q11.23-q21.1 interstitial deletions in patients. The breakpoints delineate a 500 kb interval within the MAGI2 gene (1.4 Mb in size) that is hemizygously disrupted in 15 of 16 participants with IS or childhood epilepsy, but remains intact in 11 of 12 participants with no seizure history. MAGI2 encodes the synaptic scaffolding protein membrane-associated guanylate kinase inverted-2 that interacts with Stargazin, a protein also associated with epilepsy in the stargazer mouse. PMID:18565486

  14. Infantile spasms in a boy with an abnormal karyotype (46, XY, der(9)t(7;9)(p15;p22)pat).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Min; Dong, Yanling; Li, Mei; Yao, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Infantile spasm (IS) is an epilepsy syndrome affecting infants and young toddlers and many causes have been reported, including occasional chromosomal abnormalities. We describe a 6-month-oldboy who experienced his first seizure at 5 months of age. The seizures were characterized by brief head nods and forceful flexion of the trunk and limbs. The patient has been developmentally delayed since birth and had deteriorated remarkably in the last month. Interictal electroencephalography showed modified hypsarrhythmia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed delayed myelination and widened brain extracellular space. Chromosomal analysis revealed the karyotype 46, XY, der(9) t(7;9)(p15;p22) pat. His father has the asymptomatic reciprocal translocation t(7;9)(p15;p22). This chromosomal abnormality is probably the etiology for the ISs and severe developmental anomalies in this patient. Chromosomal analysis may be done in patients with IS with no obvious cause. PMID:24823731

  15. A new mutation in MT-ND1 m.3928G>C p.V208L causes Leigh disease with infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Wray, Carter D; Friederich, Marisa W; du Sart, Desiree; Pantaleo, Sarah; Smet, Joél; Kucera, Cathlin; Fenton, Laura; Scharer, Gunter; Van Coster, Rudy; Van Hove, Johan L K

    2013-11-01

    New mutations in mitochondrial DNA encoded genes of complex I are rarely reported. An infant developed Leigh disease with infantile spasms. Complex I enzyme activity was deficient and response to increasing coenzyme Q concentrations was reduced. Complex I assembly was intact. A new mutation in MT-ND1 m.3928G>C p.V208L, affecting a conserved amino acid in a critical domain, part of the coenzyme Q binding pocket, was present at high heteroplasmy. The unaffected mother did not carry measurable mutant mitochondrial DNA, but concern remained for gonadal mosaicism. Prenatal testing was possible for a subsequent sibling. The ND1 p.V208L mutation causes Leigh disease. PMID:24063851

  16. Infantile Spasms: Hypothesis-Driven Therapy and Pilot Human Infant Experiments Using Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Baram, Tallie Z.; Mitchell, Wendy G.; Brunson, Kristen; Haden, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Background and Rationale Infantile spasms (IS) are an age-specific seizure disorder occurring in 1:2,000 infants and associated with mental retardation in ~90% of affected individuals. The costs of IS in terms of loss of lifetime productivity and emotional and financial burdens on families are enormous. It is generally agreed that the seizures associated with IS respond poorly to most conventional anticonvulsants. In addition, in the majority of patients, a treatment course with high-dose corticotropin (ACTH) arrests the seizures completely within days, often without recurrence on discontinuation of the hormone. However, the severe side effects of ACTH require development of better treatments for IS. Based on the rapid, all-or-none and irreversible effects of ACTH and on the established physiological actions of this hormone, it was hypothesized that ACTH eliminated IS via an established neuroendocrine feedback mechanism involving suppression of the age-specific endogenous convulsant neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). Indeed, IS typically occur in the setting of injury or insult that activate the CNS stress system, of which CRH is a major component. CRH levels may be elevated in the IS brain, and the neuropeptide is known to cause seizures in infant rats, as well as neuronal death in brain regions involved in learning and memory. If ‘excess’ CRH is involved in the pathogenesis of IS, then blocking CRH receptors should eliminate both seizures and the excitotoxicity of CRH-receptor-rich neurons subserving learning and memory. Patients and Methods With FDA approval, ?-helical CRH, a competitive antagonist of the peptide, was given as a phase I trial to 6 infants with IS who have either failed conventional treatment or who have suffered a recurrence. The study was performed at the Clinical Research Center of the Childrens Hospital, Los Angeles. The effects of ?-helical CRH on autonomic parameters (blood pressure, pulse, temperature, respiration) were determined. In addition, immediate and short-term effects on ACTH and cortisol and on electrolytes and glucose were examined. The potential efficacy of ?-helical CRH for IS was studied, using clinical diaries and video EEG. Results ?-Helical CRH, a peptide, did not alter autonomic or biochemical parameters. Blocking peripheral CRH receptors was evident from a transient reduction in plasma ACTH and cortisol. No evidence for the compound’s penetration of the blood-brain barrier was found, since no central effects on arousal, activity or seizures and EEG patterns were observed. In addition, a striking resistance of the patients’ plasma ACTH to the second infusion of ?-helical CRH was noted. Conclusions Peptide analogs of CRH do not cross the blood-brain barrier, and their effects on peripheral stress hormones are transient and benign. Nonpeptide compouds that reach CNS receptors are required to test the hypothesis that blocking CRH receptors may ameliorate IS and its cognitive consequencs. PMID:10575251

  17. Clinical and electrophysiological studies of botulinum toxin type A to treat hemifacial spasm complicated with auricular symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Bin; Dong, Hongjuan; Chu, Hong; Zhang, Shenqi; Lu, Zuneng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the involvement of posterior auricular muscle (PAM) and the effect of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injection into PAM in patients with hemifacial spasm (HFS) complicated with auricular symptoms. Methods: Sixty-three consecutive HFS patients complicated with auricular symptoms such as tinnitus or murmur, “ticking” or a “clicking” sound and discomfort on the same side, who were referred to our department between July 2009 and January 2010, were enrolled. The diagnosis of idiopathic HFS was made clinically. The patients were largely randomized into two BTX-A treatment groups according to the order of referral. The first group included 33 cases where the injection sites were routinely located at the frontal, orbicularis oculi, zygomaticus and buccinator muscles while the other was the PAM group, which included 30 cases, where 4 units of BTX-A were additionally injected into the PAM prior to injection at other sites. A test of blink reflex was performed and the lateral spread of blink reflex to the orbicularis oris (OO) and PAM, i.e. abnormal muscle response (AMR), was recorded and the peak-peak amplitude of AMR was measured. The patients were followed up clinically and electrophysiologically for at least 4 weeks (29.47 ± 2.53 days). Results: 1) Before injection, the latencies of R1, R2, R2’ were normal, there was no significant difference between uninjured and affected side; The amplitudes of R1, R2, R2’ in affected side were higher. 2) After injection, there was no significant change of the R1, R2 and R2’ latencies; The amplitudes of R1, R2 and R2’ decreased significantly. 3) Patients reported that their auricular symptoms subsided after injection in both groups; The remission rate was 45.5% (15/33) and 76.7% (23/30) in the regular and PAM group, respectively, with a higher rate in the PAM group (?2 = 6.40, P = 0.011). 4) In both groups the AMR amplitude decreased significantly after injection. In the regular group, the respective OO amplitudes (?V) before and after injection were 304.00 ± 30.34 and 129.33 ± 9.59 (t = 5.820, P = 0.000), and for PAM the amplitudes were 298.00 ± 33.28 and 184.67 ± 20.21 (t = 2.818, P = 0.014); in the PAM group, the before and after injection OO amplitudes were 405.33 ± 66.71 and 116.00 ± 9.99 (t = 4.214, P = 0.001), and for PAM they were 390.00 ± 53.58 and 72.00 ± 9.67 (t = 6.011, P = 0.000), respectively. 5) PAM amplitudes in the PAM group decreased more significantly after BTX-A injection compared with those in the regular group (t = 4.237, P = 0.001). Conclusions: The treatment on HFS with local injection of BTX-A is very effective. In HFS complicated with auricular symptoms patients, electrophysiological studies are helpful for guiding treatment plans, and the auricular symptoms could be improved by BTX-A injection into the PAM in addition to the regular injection sites. PMID:26309655

  18. Impaired Coronary Endothelial Vasorelaxation in a Preclinical Model of Peripheral Arterial Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Arce-Esquivel, A.A; Bunker, A.K; Simmons, G.H; Yang, H.T; Laughlin, M.H; Terjung, R.L

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether adult swine with peripheral artery insufficiency (PAI) would exhibit vascular dysfunction in vessels distinct from the affected distal limbs, the coronary conduit arteries. Moreover, we sought to evaluate the effect of exercise training on coronary vasomotor function in PAI. Eighteen female healthy young Yucatan miniature swine were randomly assigned to either occluded exercise trained (Occl-Ex, n=7), or occluded-sedentary (Occl-Sed, n=5), or non-occluded, non-exercised control (Non-Occl-Con, n=6) groups. Occl-Ex pigs were progressively trained by running on a treadmill (5days/week, 12 weeks). The left descending artery (LAD) and left circumflex (LCX) coronary arteries were harvested. Vasorelaxation to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), bradykinin (BK), and sodium nitro-prusside (SNP) were assessed in LAD’s; while constrictor responses to phenylephrine (PE), angiotensin II (Ang II), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were assessed in LCX’s. Vasorelaxation to ADP was reduced in LADs from Occl-Sed and Occl-Ex pigs (P<0.001) as compared to Non-Occl-Con pigs; however, Occl-Ex pigs exhibited partial recovery (P<0.001) intermediate to the other two groups. BK induced relaxation was reduced in LADs from Occl-Ex and Occl-Sed pigs (P<0.001), compared to Non-Occl-Con, and exercise modestly increased responses to BK (P<0.05). In addition, SNP, PE, Ang II, and ET-1 responses were not significantly different among the groups. Our results indicate that ‘simple’ occlusion of the femoral arteries induces vascular dysfunction in conduit vessels distinct from the affected hindlimbs, as evident in blunted coronary vasorelaxation responses to ADP and BK. These findings imply that PAI, even in the absence of frank atherogenic vascular disease, contributes to vascular dysfunction in the coronary arteries that could exacerbate disease outcome in patients with peripheral artery disease. Further, regular daily physical activity partially recovered the deficit observed in the coronary arteries.

  19. Disruption of canonical TGF?-signaling in murine coronary progenitor cells by low level arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, Patrick; Huang, Tianfang; Broka, Derrick; Parker, Patti; Barnett, Joey V.; Camenisch, Todd D.

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to arsenic results in several types of cancers as well as heart disease. A major contributor to ischemic heart pathologies is coronary artery disease, however the influences by environmental arsenic in this disease process are not known. Similarly, the impact of toxicants on blood vessel formation and function during development has not been studied. During embryogenesis, the epicardium undergoes proliferation, migration, and differentiation into several cardiac cell types including smooth muscle cells which contribute to the coronary vessels. The TGF? family of ligands and receptors is essential for developmental cardiac epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and differentiation into coronary smooth muscle cells. In this in vitro study, 18 hour exposure to 1.34 ?M arsenite disrupted developmental EMT programming in murine epicardial cells causing a deficit in cardiac mesenchyme. The expression of EMT genes including TGF?2, TGF? receptor-3, Snail, and Has-2 are decreased in a dose-dependent manner following exposure to arsenite. TGF?2 cell signaling is abrogated as detected by decreases in phosphorylated Smad2/3 when cells are exposed to 1.34 ?M arsenite. There is also loss of nuclear accumulation pSmad due to arsenite exposure. These observations coincide with a decrease in vimentin positive mesenchymal cells invading three-dimensional collagen gels. However, arsenite does not block TGF?2 mediated smooth muscle cell differentiation by epicardial cells. Overall these results show that arsenic exposure blocks developmental EMT gene programming in murine coronary progenitor cells by disrupting TGF?2 signals and Smad activation, and that smooth muscle cell differentiation is refractory to this arsenic toxicity. - Highlights: • Arsenic blocks TGF?2 induced expression of EMT genes. • Arsenic blocks TGF?2 triggered Smad2/3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. • Arsenic blocks epicardial cell differentiation into cardiac mesenchyme. • Arsenic does not block TGF?2 induced smooth muscle cell differentiation.

  20. Analysis of high risk factors and characteristics of coronary artery in premenopausal women with coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhijuan; Cheng, Jianxin; Wang, Liping; Yan, Peng; Liu, Xiangyong; Zhao, Debao

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the high risk factors and coronary lesion features in premenopausal women with coronary artery disease (CAD) and provide guideline for diagnosis and therapy. Methods: 114 premenopausal women and 134 postmenopausal women were conducted coronary angiography in our hospital from September, 2012 to September, 2014. According to the results of coronary angiography, premenopausal and postmenopausal women with coronary artery disease were divided into two groups respectively, including 48 premenopausal women with CAD group, 66 premenopausal women with normal coronary artery group, 76 postmenopausal women with CAD group and 58 postmenopausal women with normal coronary artery group. Clinical characteristics and coronary lesion features were analyzed. Results: Incidence rates of hypertension disease and diabetes were higher in premenopausal women with CAD group than control group. Most of premenopausal women suffered from single vessel lesion and the length of impaired vessel was less than 20 mm, meanwhile, postmenopausal women easily confronted from double vessels or mutivessle lesion and the length of impaired vessel was more than 20 mm. Left anterior descending coronary artery lesion was common for premenopausal women. Conclusion: Hypertension disease and diabetes were the main high risk factors for premenopausal women and high triglyceride was the optimal predictable factor, furthermore, single vessel lesion and short artery lesion were common in premenopausal women, which often happened in the anterior descending coronary artery.

  1. SUSCEPTIBILITY TO ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN AORTAS AND CORONARY ARTERIES OF SWINE WITH VON WILLEBRAND'S DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The development of coronary and aortic atherosclerosis was determined after balloon catheter injury of coronary arteries and administration of an atherogenic diet in normal pigs and pigs that were homozygous and heterozygous for von Willebrand's disease. Coronary atherosclerosis ...

  2. Systemic chemokine levels, coronary heart disease, and ischemic stroke events

    PubMed Central

    Canouï-Poitrine, F.; Luc, G.; Mallat, Z.; Machez, E.; Bingham, A.; Ferrieres, J.; Ruidavets, J.-B.; Montaye, M.; Yarnell, J.; Haas, B.; Arveiler, D.; Morange, P.; Kee, F.; Evans, A.; Amouyel, P.; Ducimetiere, P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To quantify the association between systemic levels of the chemokine regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES/CCL5), interferon-?-inducible protein-10 (IP-10/CXCL10), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2), and eotaxin-1 (CCL11) with future coronary heart disease (CHD) and ischemic stroke events and to assess their usefulness for CHD and ischemic stroke risk prediction in the PRIME Study. Methods: After 10 years of follow-up of 9,771 men, 2 nested case-control studies were built including 621 first CHD events and 1,242 matched controls and 95 first ischemic stroke events and 190 matched controls. Standardized hazard ratios (HRs) for each log-transformed chemokine were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Results: None of the 4 chemokines were independent predictors of CHD, either with respect to stable angina or to acute coronary syndrome. Conversely, RANTES (HR = 1.70; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–2.74), IP-10 (HR = 1.53; 95% CI 1.06–2.20), and eotaxin-1 (HR = 1.59; 95% CI 1.02–2.46), but not MCP-1 (HR = 0.99; 95% CI 0.68–1.46), were associated with ischemic stroke independently of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, hs-CRP, and fibrinogen. When the first 3 chemokines were included in the same multivariate model, RANTES and IP-10 remained predictive of ischemic stroke. Their addition to a traditional risk factor model predicting ischemic stroke substantially improved the C-statistic from 0.6756 to 0.7425 (p = 0.004). Conclusions: In asymptomatic men, higher systemic levels of RANTES and IP-10 are independent predictors of ischemic stroke but not of CHD events. RANTES and IP-10 may improve the accuracy of ischemic stroke risk prediction over traditional risk factors. PMID:21849651

  3. Pressure-flow relations in coronary circulation.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, J I; Spaan, J A

    1990-04-01

    The blood vessels that run on the surface of the heart and through its muscle are compliant tubes that can be affected by the pressures external to them in at least two ways. If the pressure outside these vessels is higher than the pressure at their downstream ends, the vessels may collapse and become Starling resistors or vascular waterfalls. If this happens, the flow through these vessels depends on their resistance and the pressure drop from their inflow to the pressure around them and is independent of the actual downstream pressure. In the first part of this review, the physics of collapsible tubes is described, and the possible occurrences of vascular waterfalls in the body is evaluated. There is good evidence that waterfall behavior is seen in collateral coronary arteries and in extramural coronary veins, but the evidence that intramural coronary vessels act like vascular waterfalls is inconclusive. There is no doubt that in systole there are high tissue pressures around the intramyocardial vessels, particularly in the subendocardial muscle of the left ventricle. The exact nature and values of the forces that act at the surface of the small intramural vessels, however, are still not known. We are not certain whether radial (compressive) or circumferential and longitudinal (tensile) stresses are the major causes of vascular compression; the role of collagen struts in modifying the reaction of vessel walls to external pressures is unknown but possibly important; direct examination of small subepicardial vessels has failed to show vascular collapse. One of the arguments in favor of intramyocardial vascular waterfalls has been that during a long diastole the flow in the left coronary artery decreases and reaches zero when coronary arterial pressure is still high: it can be as much as 50 mmHg in the autoregulating left coronary arterial bed and approximately 15-20 mmHg even when the vessels have been maximally dilated. These high zero flow pressures, especially during maximal vasodilatation, have been regarded as indicating a high back pressure to flow that is due to waterfall behavior of vessels that are exposed to tissue pressures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2181499

  4. Percutaneous Closure of a Coronary Artery-to-Vein Graft Anastomotic Pseudoaneurysm Presenting as Acute Coronary Syndrome after Recent Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Suresh; Gupta, Kamal; Wiley, Mark; Parashara, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysm formation has been reported in degenerated coronary artery saphenous vein bypass grafts, as well as in native coronary arteries after interventional procedures or blunt trauma. In contrast, pseudoaneurysm formation arising from the anastomotic site of native coronary vessels soon after coronary artery bypass grafting is rare, and neither the clinical presentation of this phenomenon nor its treatment is well described. We present the case of a 63-year-old man, a recent coronary artery bypass grafting patient, who presented with acute coronary syndrome due to a large and expanding pseudoaneurysm of the saphenous vein-to-ramus intermedius artery graft anastomosis. After several attempts, we successfully treated the pseudoaneurysm by means of percutaneous coil embolization. To our knowledge, this is the first report of acute coronary syndrome secondary to a pseudoaneurysm at the coronary artery–saphenous vein graft anastomosis. In addition, this appears to be the first report of the percutaneous treatment of such a pseudoaneurysm by means of coil embolization. PMID:26175645

  5. Vascular control in humans: focus on the coronary microcirculation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanping; Gutterman, David D.

    2011-01-01

    Myocardial perfusion is regulated by a variety of factors that influence arteriolar vasomotor tone. An understanding of the physiological and pathophysiological factors that modulate coronary blood flow provides the basis for the judicious use of medications for the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. Vasomotor properties of the coronary circulation vary among species. This review highlights the results of recent studies that examine the mechanisms by which the human coronary microcirculation is regulated in normal and disease states, focusing on diabetes. Multiple pathways responsible for myogenic constriction and flow-mediated dilation in human coronary arterioles are addressed. The important role of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors, their interactions in mediating dilation, as well as speculation regarding the clinical significance are emphasized. Unique properties of coronary arterioles in human vs. other species are discussed. PMID:19190954

  6. Coronary Plaque Burden at Coronary CT Angiography in Asymptomatic Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Karen; Kwan, Alan C; Lai, Shenghan; Lima, João A C; Vigneault, Davis; Sandfort, Veit; Pattanayak, Puskar; Ahlman, Mark A; Mallek, Marissa; Sibley, Christopher T; Bluemke, David A

    2015-10-01

    Purpose To assess the relationship between total, calcified, and noncalcified coronary plaque burdens throughout the entire coronary vasculature at coronary computed tomographic (CT) angiography in relationship to cardiovascular risk factors in asymptomatic individuals with low-to-moderate risk. Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant study had institutional review board approval, and written informed consent was obtained. Two hundred two subjects were recruited to an ongoing prospective study designed to evaluate the effect of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors on atherosclerosis. Eligible subjects were asymptomatic individuals older than 55 years who were eligible for statin therapy. Coronary CT angiography was performed by using a 320-detector row scanner. Coronary wall thickness and plaque were evaluated in all epicardial coronary arteries greater than 2 mm in diameter. Images were analyzed by using dedicated software involving an adaptive lumen attenuation algorithm. Total plaque index (calcified plus noncalcified plaque) was defined as plaque volume divided by vessel length. Multivariable regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between risk factors and plaque indexes. Results The mean age of the subjects was 65.5 years ± 6.9 (standard deviation) (36% women), and the median coronary artery calcium (CAC) score was 73 (interquartile range, 1-434). The total coronary plaque index was higher in men than in women (42.06 mm(2) ± 9.22 vs 34.33 mm(2) ± 8.35; P < .001). In multivariable analysis controlling for all risk factors, total plaque index remained higher in men than in women (by 5.01 mm(2); P = .03) and in those with higher simvastatin doses (by 0.44 mm(2)/10 mg simvastatin dose equivalent; P = .02). Noncalcified plaque index was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure (? = 0.80 mm(2)/10 mm Hg; P = .03), diabetes (? = 4.47 mm(2); P = .03), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level (? = 0.04 mm(2)/mg/dL; P = .02); the association with LDL cholesterol level remained significant (P = .02) after additional adjustment for the CAC score. Conclusion LDL cholesterol level, systolic blood pressure, and diabetes were associated with noncalcified plaque burden at coronary CT angiography in asymptomatic individuals with low-to-moderate risk. (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26035436

  7. Coronary computed tomographic angiographic findings in patients with Kawasaki disease.

    PubMed

    Han, B Kelly; Lesser, Andrew; Rosenthal, Kristi; Dummer, Kirsten; Grant, Katharine; Newell, Marc

    2014-12-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is the leading cause of acquired coronary disease in children and may lead to subsequent myocardial ischemia and infarction. Because coronary computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is the most sensitive noninvasive test in patients with atherosclerosis, the aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate coronary CTA performed in patients with KD for aneurysm, stenosis, and calcified and noncalcified coronary artery disease (CAD). Clinical histories and prior stress and imaging test results were reviewed. Thirty-two patients underwent coronary CTA for KD, and 385 coronary segments were evaluated. Twenty-three of 32 patients had ?1 diseased coronary segment. There were 20 aneurysms, 7 lesions, and 75 segments (20%) with nonobstructive CAD (16% noncalcified, 2% calcified, and 2% mixed). All nonobstructive and obstructive CAD was in patients with histories of acute-phase coronary artery dilatation or aneurysm (echocardiographic z score 4 to 44), and were almost always associated with normal stress imaging test results on follow-up. No lesion or CAD was found in coronary computed tomographic angiographic studies performed in a control group referred for other indications (n = 32, 422 segments evaluated). The median coronary computed tomographic angiographic dose-length product was 59 mGy cm (interquartile range 32 to 131), the median unadjusted radiation dose was 0.8 mSv (interquartile range 0.4 to 1.8), and the median age- and size-adjusted radiation dose was 1.3 mSv (interquartile range 0.7 to 2.3). In conclusion, high-risk patients with histories of KD had nonobstructive and obstructive CAD not visualized by other noninvasive imaging tests. In properly selected high-risk patients with KD, coronary CTA may identify a subset at increased risk for future coronary pathology who may benefit from medical therapy. PMID:25307199

  8. Successful Coronary Stent Retrieval From a Pedal Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Mariano, Enrica Versaci, Francesco; Gandini, Roberto; Simonetti, Giovanni; Di Vito, Livio; Romeo, Francesco

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of this article is to report complications from a coronary drug-eluting stent lost in the peripheral circulation. We report the case of successful retrieval of a sirolimus coronary stent from a pedal artery in a young patient who underwent coronary angiography for previous anterior myocardial infarction. Recognition of stent embolization requires adequate removal of the device to avoid unwelcome clinical sequelae.

  9. Epicardial adipose tissue thickness is an indicator for coronary artery stenosis in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients: its assessment by cardiac magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We used cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to investigate the association between epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) thickness and silent myocardial ischemia, as well as coronary artery stenosis, in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients. Methods The study included 100 type 2 diabetic subjects (51 male and 49 female; mean age: 56 ± 7 years). Silent myocardial ischemia, as determined by CMR, was defined as evidence of inducible ischemia or myocardial infarction. Signal reduction or stenosis of ? 50% in the vessel diameter was used as the criteria for significant coronary artery stenosis on coronary magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. Results EAT thickness was positively correlated with body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, postprandial glucose, fasting/postprandial triglyceride (TG), serum glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) score. Significant coronary artery stenosis was found in 24 patients, while 14 patients had silent myocardial ischemia in CMR (1 with silent myocardial infarction, 11 with inducible ischemia, and 2 with both). EAT thickness was greater in patients who had coronary artery stenosis (13.0 ± 2.6 mm vs. 11.5 ± 2.1 mm, p = 0.01), but did not differ between the subjects with or without silent myocardial ischemia on CMR images (12.8 ± 2.1 vs. 11.7 ± 2.3 mm, p = 0.11). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that EAT thickness was an independent indicator for significant coronary artery stenosis after adjusting for traditional risk factors (OR 1.403, p = 0.026). Conclusions Increased EAT thickness assessed by CMR is an independent risk factor for significant coronary artery stenosis in asymptomatic type 2 diabetes. However, EAT thickness was not associated with silent myocardial ischemia. PMID:22809408

  10. Coronary Microvascular Dysfunction, Microvascular Angina, and Management.

    PubMed

    Löffler, Adrián I; Bourque, Jamieson M

    2016-01-01

    Recent analyses have found that coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) portends a poor prognosis in patients with and without obstructive epicardial coronary artery disease (CAD). Chest pain in the absence of epicardial CAD is a common entity. Angina caused by CMD, microvascular angina (MVA), is often indistinguishable from that caused by obstructive epicardial CAD. The recent emergence of noninvasive techniques that can identify CMD, such as stress positron-emission tomography (PET) and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) myocardial perfusion imaging, allow improved identification of MVA. Using these tools, higher risk patients with MVA can be differentiated from those at lower risk in the heterogeneous population historically labeled as cardiac syndrome X. Likewise, MVA can be diagnosed in those with obstructive epicardial CAD who have persistent angina despite successful revascularization. There is little evidence to support current treatment strategies for MVA and current literature has not clearly defined CMD or whether therapy improves prognosis. PMID:26694723

  11. Intravascular photoacoustic imaging of human coronary atherosclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Krista; van der Steen, Antonius F. W.; Springeling, Geert; van Beusekom, Heleen M. M.; Oosterhuis, J. Wolter; van Soest, Gijs

    2011-03-01

    We demonstrate intravascular photoacoustic imaging of human coronary atherosclerotic plaque. We specifically imaged lipid content, a key factor in vulnerable plaques that may lead to myocardial infarction. An integrated intravascular photoacoustics (IVPA) and ultrasound (IVUS) catheter with an outer diameter of 1.25 mm was developed. The catheter comprises an angle-polished optical fiber adjacent to a 30 MHz single-element transducer. The ultrasonic transducer was optically isolated to eliminate artifacts in the PA image. We performed measurements on a cylindrical vessel phantom and isolated point targets to demonstrate its imaging performance. Axial and lateral point spread function widths were 110 ?m and 550 ?m, respectively, for PA and 89 ?m and 420 ?m for US. We imaged two fresh human coronary arteries, showing different stages of disease, ex vivo. Specific photoacoustic imaging of lipid content, is achieved by spectroscopic imaging at different wavelengths between 1180 and 1230 nm.

  12. Comprehensive assessment of coronary fractional flow reserve

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xiaolong; Fan, Guoxin; Zhu, Deqiu; Ma, Wanrong

    2015-01-01

    Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is considered nowadays as the gold standard for invasive assessment of physiologic stenosis significance and an indispensable tool for decision-making in coronary revascularization. Robust studies have shown that FFR is more effective in accurately identifying which lesions should be stented, and revascularization guided by FFR improves the outcome of coronary artery disease in patients. Therefore, FFR has been upgraded to a class A recommendation in current guidelines when the ischemic potential for specific target lesions is controversial. This article reviews the laboratory practice, functional evaluation of FFR as a gold standard and its emerging clinical application. In addition, novel noninvasive technologies of FFR measurement are discussed in depth. PMID:26170840

  13. Coronary Artery Disease - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ???? ???????? ??????? - ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Heart Cath and Heart Angioplasty (Arabic) ?????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? - ??????? Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Bosnian (Bosanski) Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) Bolest koronarnih ( ...

  14. Relationship between plaque development and local hemodynamics in coronary arteries

    E-print Network

    Wahle, Andreas

    , intravascular ultrasound, x-ray angiography, 3-D multimodality fusion 1. INTRODUCTION Coronary atherosclerosis through the early atherosclerosis process due to compensatory enlargement. Luminal narrowing, demonstrated

  15. Practical application of coronary imaging devices in cardiovascular intervention.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yun-Kyeong; Hur, Seung-Ho

    2015-03-01

    The significant morbidity and mortality associated with coronary artery disease has spurred the development of intravascular imaging devices to optimize the detection and assessment of coronary lesions and percutaneous coronary interventions. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) uses reflected ultrasound waves to quantitatively and qualitatively assess lesions; integrated backscatter and virtual histology IVUS more precisely characterizes plaque composition; angioscopy directly visualize thrombus and plaque; optical coherence tomography using near-infrared (NIR) light with very high spatial resolution provides more accurate images; and the recently introduced NIR spectroscopy identifies chemical components in coronary artery plaques based on differential light absorption in the NIR spectrum. This article reviews usefulness of these devices and hybrids thereof. PMID:25810728

  16. Physiologic determinants of coronary blood flow during external cardiac massage.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, J A; Maier, G W; Newton, J R; Glower, D D; Tyson, G S; Spratt, J A; Rankin, J S; Olsen, C O

    1988-03-01

    Adequate coronary blood flow is a major determinant for successful resuscitation from cardiopulmonary arrest. To develop compression techniques that optimize coronary blood flow, we implanted in eight dogs electromagnetic flow probes that measured circumflex coronary blood flow and ascending aortic blood flow. Micromanometers measured left ventricular and aortic pressures. Each dog was anesthetized and intubated, and the heart was fibrillated electrically. High-impulse manual chest compressions were performed with the dog in the supine position, and compression rate was varied from 60/min to 150/min. Antegrade coronary blood flow occurred primarily during artificial diastole, and there was a brief period of retrograde coronary blood flow with compression during artificial systole. Cardiac output and diastolic aortic pressure increased with compression rate, significantly augmenting peak coronary blood flow velocity. However, diastolic perfusion time decreased linearly with compression rate and limited coronary perfusion at rates greater than 120/min. As a result, net coronary blood flow during high-impulse manual chest compression was determined primarily by diastolic aortic pressure and diastolic perfusion time. Coronary blood flow was optimized in this model at a compression rate of 120/min. PMID:3343860

  17. Coronary flow and left ventricular function during environmental stress.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, H. H.; Adams, J. D.; Stone, H. L.; Sandler, H.

    1972-01-01

    A canine model was used to study the effects of different environmental stresses on the heart and coronary circulation. The heart was surgically instrumented to measure coronary blood flow, left ventricular pressure, and other cardiovascular variables. Coronary flow was recorded by telemetry. Physiologic data were processed and analyzed by analog and digital computers. By these methods the physiologic response to altitude hypoxia, carbon monoxide, hypercapnia, acceleration, exercise, and the interaction of altitude hypoxia and carbon monoxide were described. The effects of some of these stresses on the heart and coronary circulation are discussed.

  18. Practical Application of Coronary Imaging Devices in Cardiovascular Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yun-Kyeong

    2015-01-01

    The significant morbidity and mortality associated with coronary artery disease has spurred the development of intravascular imaging devices to optimize the detection and assessment of coronary lesions and percutaneous coronary interventions. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) uses reflected ultrasound waves to quantitatively and qualitatively assess lesions; integrated backscatter and virtual histology IVUS more precisely characterizes plaque composition; angioscopy directly visualize thrombus and plaque; optical coherence tomography using near-infrared (NIR) light with very high spatial resolution provides more accurate images; and the recently introduced NIR spectroscopy identifies chemical components in coronary artery plaques based on differential light absorption in the NIR spectrum. This article reviews usefulness of these devices and hybrids thereof. PMID:25810728

  19. Translational Coronary Atherosclerosis Imaging with PET.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Philip D; Newby, David E; Dweck, Marc R

    2016-02-01

    Although still in its infancy, coronary atherosclerosis imaging with PET holds promise in improving understanding of the pathophysiologic processes that underlie plaque progression and adverse cardiovascular events. Fludeoxyglucose F 18 offers the potential to measure inflammatory activity within the plaque itself whereas fluoride F 18 allows detection of microcalcification, both of which are key characteristics of plaques at risk of rupture. Further work is required to improve these imaging techniques and to assess their ability to predict cardiac events prospectively. PMID:26590788

  20. Multimodality imaging for assessment of coronary embolus.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Ayyaz; Goela, Aashish; Tweedie, Edward; Awan, Kokab; Lavi, Shahar

    2015-03-01

    Caseous mitral annulus calcification involving aortomitral curtain is a rare occurrence. We report a case of a 64-year-old woman with end-stage renal failure and a candidate for renal transplant who presented with late ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Intracoronary imaging, computed tomography cardiac imaging, and histopathology confirmed coronary embolus into the left main stem artery from an extensive caseous mitral annulus calcification. PMID:25746026

  1. Hyperglycemia in acute coronary syndromes: from mechanisms to prognostic implications.

    PubMed

    Angeli, Fabio; Reboldi, Gianpaolo; Poltronieri, Cristina; Lazzari, Ludovico; Sordi, Martina; Garofoli, Marta; Bartolini, Claudia; Verdecchia, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Hyperglycemia is a frequent condition in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Hyperglycemia during ACS is caused by an inflammatory and adrenergic response to ischemic stress, when catecholamines are released and glycogenolysis induced. Although the involved pathophysiological mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated, it is believed that hyperglycemia is associated with an increase in free fat acids (which induce cardiac arrhythmias), insulin resistance, chemical inactivation of nitric oxide and the production of oxygen reactive species (with consequent microvascular and endothelial dysfunction), a prothrombotic state, and vascular inflammation. It is also related to myocardial metabolic disorders, leading to thrombosis, extension of the damaged area, reduced collateral circulation, and ischemic preconditioning. In the last few years, several observational studies demonstrated that hyperglycemia in ACS is a powerful predictor of survival, increasing the risk of immediate and long-term complications in patients both with and without previously known diabetes mellitus. Glucose management strategies in ACS may improve outcomes in patients with hyperglycemia, perhaps by reducing inflammatory and clotting mediators, by improving endothelial function and fibrinolysis and by reducing infarct size. Recent clinical trials of insulin in ACS have resulted in varying levels of benefit, but the clinical benefit of an aggressive treatment with insulin is yet unproved. PMID:26194489

  2. Cangrelor: A Review in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2015-08-01

    Cangrelor (Kengrexal(®), Kengreal(™)) is an intravenously administered P2Y12 receptor inhibitor. It is direct-acting and reversible, with a very rapid onset and offset of action. The randomized, double-blind, multinational, phase III CHAMPION PHOENIX trial compared the efficacy of intravenous cangrelor with that of oral clopidogrel in patients requiring percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for stable angina pectoris, a non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome or ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI). The primary composite efficacy endpoint of death from any cause, MI, ischaemia-drive revascularization or stent thrombosis in the 48 h following randomization occurred in significantly fewer cangrelor than clopidogrel recipients. The rate of severe or life-threatening non-coronary artery bypass graft-related, GUSTO-defined bleeding at 48 h did not significantly differ between cangrelor and clopidogrel recipients. In conclusion, intravenous cangrelor is an important new option for use in patients undergoing PCI who have not been treated with oral P2Y12 inhibitors. PMID:26201463

  3. Lifestyle Factors and Coronary Artery Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chong-Do; Jae, Sae Young

    2014-01-01

    The effective prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a global health challenge. Adopting a combined primary (prevention of the first episode of coronary heart disease or stroke) and primordial (prevention of the causal risk factors of CVD) prevention strategy is the best approach to prevent CVD. Most importantly, the primordial prevention strategy should in the first place be to promote cardiovascular health across individual and population levels by improving the underlying causal risk factors for CVD (i.e., unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, obesity, and cigarette smoking). Epidemiological evidence indicates that maintaining favorable underlying risk factors (lifestyle factors) is associated with a lower risk of incident CVD. Prevention of early atherosclerotic vascular disease is also an important strategy to prevent CVD. However, there has been limited research on the association between lifestyle factors and early atherosclerotic vascular disease (i.e., coronary or carotid atherosclerosis) across race and gender groups in population-based studies. This article briefly reviews whether lifestyle factors relate to subclinical atherosclerosis as assessed by coronary artery calcification in asymptomatic individuals.

  4. Contrast agent choice for intravenous coronary angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Zeman, H.D.; Siddons, D.P.

    1989-01-01

    The screening of the general population for coronary artery disease would be practical if a method existed for visualizing the extent of occlusion after an intravenous injection of contrast agent. Measurements performed with monochromatic synchrotron radiation x-rays and an iodine containing contrast agent at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory have shown that such an intravenous angiography procedure would be possible with an adequately intense monochromatic x-ray source. Because of the size and cost of synchrotron radiation facilities it would be desirable to make the most efficient use of the intensity available, while reducing as much as possible the radiation dose experienced by the patient. By choosing contrast agents containing elements with a higher atomic number than iodine, it is possible to both improve the image quality and reduce the patient radiation dose, while using the same synchrotron source. By using Si monochromator crystals with a small mosaic spread, it is possible to increase the x-ray flux available for imaging by over an order of magnitude, without any changes in the storage ring or wiggler magnet. The most critical imaging task for intravenous coronary angiography utilizing synchrotron radiation x-rays is visualizing a coronary artery through the left ventricle or aorta which also contains a contrast agent. Calculations have been made of the signal to noise ratio expected for this imaging task for various contrast agents with atomic numbers between that of iodine and bismuth.

  5. Angiogenesis in human coronary atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, E. R.; Garvin, M. R.; Dev, R.; Stewart, D. K.; Hinohara, T.; Simpson, J. B.; Schwartz, S. M.

    1994-01-01

    Neovascularization in the walls of coronary arteries is associated with the presence of atherosclerotic plaque. The mechanisms responsible for the formation of these intraplaque microvessels are not understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of endothelial cell replication in plaque microvessels. Two hundred and one primary and restenotic coronary atherectomy specimens were analyzed for the presence of microvessels and proliferation as reflected by positive immunolabeling for Ulex agglutinin and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen, respectively. In primary but not restenotic specimens, proliferation of any cell type was associated with the detection of microvessels on the same slide. However, intraplaque microvessels were more commonly found in restenotic compared to primary specimens (P = 0.004). Twelve highly vascularized specimens with evidence of replication were subjected to detailed histomorphological and quantitative image analyses. At 200 x, the most vascular optical field of each slide was identified and consistently included plaque macrophages. Total slide endothelial cell replication indices for these specimens varied, but in some instances were remarkably elevated (eg, 43.5%). The role of intraplaque angiogenesis may be analogous to that of tumor or wound angiogenesis and be important in development and progression of coronary artery lesions and restenosis. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7524331

  6. Detection of coronary calcifications from computed tomography scans for automated risk assessment of coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Isgum, Ivana; Rutten, Annemarieke; Prokop, Mathias; Ginneken, Bram van

    2007-04-15

    A fully automated method for coronary calcification detection from non-contrast-enhanced, ECG-gated multi-slice computed tomography (CT) data is presented. Candidates for coronary calcifications are extracted by thresholding and component labeling. These candidates include coronary calcifications, calcifications in the aorta and in the heart, and other high-density structures such as noise and bone. A dedicated set of 64 features is calculated for each candidate object. They characterize the object's spatial position relative to the heart and the aorta, for which an automatic segmentation scheme was developed, its size and shape, and its appearance, which is described by a set of approximated Gaussian derivatives for which an efficient computational scheme is presented. Three classification strategies were designed. The first one tested direct classification without feature selection. The second approach also utilized direct classification, but with feature selection. Finally, the third scheme employed two-stage classification. In a computationally inexpensive first stage, the most easily recognizable false positives were discarded. The second stage discriminated between more difficult to separate coronary calcium and other candidates. Performance of linear, quadratic, nearest neighbor, and support vector machine classifiers was compared. The method was tested on 76 scans containing 275 calcifications in the coronary arteries and 335 calcifications in the heart and aorta. The best performance was obtained employing a two-stage classification system with a k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classifier and a feature selection scheme. The method detected 73.8% of coronary calcifications at the expense of on average 0.1 false positives per scan. A calcium score was computed for each scan and subjects were assigned one of four risk categories based on this score. The method assigned the correct risk category to 93.4% of all scans.

  7. Efficacy of Patient Selection for Diagnostic Coronary Angiography in Suspected Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Costa Filho, Francisco Flávio; Chaves, Áurea Jacob; Ligabó, Lourenço Teixeira; dos Santos, Eduardo Moreira; da Silva, Danillo Taiguara; Puzzi, Marcelo Aguiar; Braga, Sérgio Luiz; Abizaid, Alexandre; Sousa, Amanda GMR

    2015-01-01

    Background Guidelines recommend that in suspected stable coronary artery disease (CAD), a clinical (non-invasive) evaluation should be performed before coronary angiography. Objective We assessed the efficacy of patient selection for coronary angiography in suspected stable CAD. Methods We prospectively selected consecutive patients without known CAD, referred to a high-volume tertiary center. Demographic characteristics, risk factors, symptoms and non-invasive test results were correlated to the presence of obstructive CAD. We estimated the CAD probability based on available clinical data and the incremental diagnostic value of previous non-invasive tests. Results A total of 830 patients were included; median age was 61 years, 49.3% were males, 81% had hypertension and 35.5% were diabetics. Non-invasive tests were performed in 64.8% of the patients. At coronary angiography, 23.8% of the patients had obstructive CAD. The independent predictors for obstructive CAD were: male gender (odds ratio [OR], 3.95; confidence interval [CI] 95%, 2.70 - 5.77), age (OR for 5 years increment, 1.15; CI 95%, 1.06 - 1.26), diabetes (OR, 2.01; CI 95%, 1.40 - 2.90), dyslipidemia (OR, 2.02; CI 95%, 1.32 - 3.07), typical angina (OR, 2.92; CI 95%, 1.77 - 4.83) and previous non-invasive test (OR 1.54; CI 95% 1.05 - 2.27). Conclusions In this study, less than a quarter of the patients referred for coronary angiography with suspected CAD had the diagnosis confirmed. A better clinical and non-invasive assessment is necessary, to improve the efficacy of patient selection for coronary angiography. PMID:26312552

  8. Improvement in coronary haemodynamics after percutaneous coronary intervention: assessment using instantaneous wave-free ratio

    PubMed Central

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder S; Sen, Sayan; Petraco, Ricardo; Sachdeva, Rajesh; Cuculi, Florim; Escaned, Javier; Broyd, Christopher; Foin, Nicolas; Hadjiloizou, Nearchos; Foale, Rodney A; Malik, Iqbal; Mikhail, Ghada W; Sethi, Amarjit S; Al-Bustami, Mahmud; Kaprielian, Raffi R; Khan, Masood A; Baker, Christopher S; Bellamy, Michael F; Hughes, Alun D; Mayet, Jamil; Kharbanda, Rajesh K; Di Mario, Carlo; Davies, Justin E

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) can detect improvement in stenosis significance after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and compare this with fractional flow reserve (FFR) and whole cycle Pd/Pa. Design A prospective observational study was undertaken in elective patients scheduled for PCI with FFR ?0.80. Intracoronary pressures were measured at rest and during adenosine-mediated vasodilatation, before and after PCI. iFR, Pd/Pa and FFR values were calculated using the validated fully automated algorithms. Setting Coronary catheter laboratories in two UK centres and one in the USA. Patients 120 coronary stenoses in 112 patients were assessed. The mean age was 63±10?years, while 84% were male; 39% smokers; 33% with diabetes. Mean diameter stenosis was 68±16% by quantitative coronary angiography. Results Pre-PCI, mean FFR was 0.66±0.14, mean iFR was 0.75±0.21 and mean Pd/Pa 0.83±0.16. PCI increased all indices significantly (FFR 0.89±0.07, p<0.001; iFR 0.94±0.05, p<0.001; Pd/Pa 0.96±0.04, p<0.001). The change in iFR after intervention (0.20±0.21) was similar to ?FFR 0.22±0.15 (p=0.25). ?FFR and ?iFR were significantly larger than resting ?Pd/Pa (0.13±0.16, both p<0.001). Similar incremental changes occurred in patients with a higher prevalence of risk factors for microcirculatory disease such as diabetes and hypertension. Conclusions iFR and FFR detect the changes in coronary haemodynamics elicited by PCI. FFR and iFR have a significantly larger dynamic range than resting Pd/Pa. iFR might be used to objectively document improvement in coronary haemodynamics following PCI in a similar manner to FFR. PMID:24047640

  9. Computer-aided CT coronary artery stenosis detection: comparison with human reading and quantitative coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Rief, Matthias; Kranz, Anisha; Hartmann, Lisa; Roehle, Robert; Laule, Michael; Dewey, Marc

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate computer-aided stenosis detection for computed tomography coronary angiography (CTA) in comparison with human reading and conventional coronary angiography (CCA) as the reference standard. 50 patients underwent CTA and CCA and out of these 44 were evaluable for computer-aided stenosis detection. The diagnostic performance of the software and of human reading were compared and quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) served as the reference standard for the detection of significant stenosis (>50 %). Overall, three readers with high (reader 1), intermediate (reader 2) and low (reader 3) experience in cardiac CT imaging performed the manual CTA evaluation on a commercially available workstation, whereas the automated software processed the datasets without any human interaction. The prevalence of coronary artery disease was 41 % (18/44) and QCA indicated significant stenosis (>50 %) in 33 coronary vessels. The automated software accurately diagnosed 18 individuals with significant coronary artery disease (CAD), and correctly ruled out CAD in 10 patients. In summary the sensitivity of computer-aided detection was 100 %/94 % (per-patient/per-vessel) and the specificity was 38 %/70 %, the positive predictive value (PPV) was 53 %/42 % and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 100 %/98 %. In comparison, reader 1-3 showed per-patient sensitivities of 100/94/89 %, specificities of 73/69/50 %, PPVs of 72/68/55 % and NPVs of 100/95/87 %. Computer-aided detection yields a high NPV that is comparable to more experienced human readers. However, PPV is rather low and in the range of an unexperienced reader. PMID:25117643

  10. Cirsoid Aneurysm of Coronary Arteries Associated with Arterioventricular Fistula Evaluated by 64-Multidetector CT Coronary Angiography: Depiction of a Case

    SciTech Connect

    Marrone, Gianluca Mamone, Giuseppe; Milazzo, Mariapina; Caruso, Settimo; Baravoglia, Cesar Hernandez; Vitulo, Patrizio; Gridelli, Bruno; Luca, Angelo

    2009-05-15

    A female patient with severe pulmonary hypertension was admitted for lung transplant evaluation. As an incidental finding, the chest CT showed diffuse and dilated coronaries, not detected at previous echocardiography. A coronary CT angiography was then performed using a 64-multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanner to better evaluate the coronary tree. The images obtained after postprocessing demonstrated tremendously aneurysmatic and tortuous coronary arteries and the presence of a septal branch deepening into the myocardium and penetrating the right ventricle cavity, forming an abnormal arterioventricular fistula. A causal relation between the aneurysms and the fistula is suspected.

  11. Serum protein profiles predict coronary artery disease in symptomatic patients referred for coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background More than a million diagnostic cardiac catheterizations are performed annually in the US for evaluation of coronary artery anatomy and the presence of atherosclerosis. Nearly half of these patients have no significant coronary lesions or do not require mechanical or surgical revascularization. Consequently, the ability to rule out clinically significant coronary artery disease (CAD) using low cost, low risk tests of serum biomarkers in even a small percentage of patients with normal coronary arteries could be highly beneficial. Methods Serum from 359 symptomatic subjects referred for catheterization was interrogated for proteins involved in atherogenesis, atherosclerosis, and plaque vulnerability. Coronary angiography classified 150 patients without flow-limiting CAD who did not require percutaneous intervention (PCI) while 209 required coronary revascularization (stents, angioplasty, or coronary artery bypass graft surgery). Continuous variables were compared across the two patient groups for each analyte including calculation of false discovery rate (FDR ? 1%) and Q value (P value for statistical significance adjusted to ? 0.01). Results Significant differences were detected in circulating proteins from patients requiring revascularization including increased apolipoprotein B100 (APO-B100), C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), myeloperoxidase (MPO), resistin, osteopontin, interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, IL-10 and N-terminal fragment protein precursor brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pBNP) and decreased apolipoprotein A1 (APO-A1). Biomarker classification signatures comprising up to 5 analytes were identified using a tunable scoring function trained against 239 samples and validated with 120 additional samples. A total of 14 overlapping signatures classified patients without significant coronary disease (38% to 59% specificity) while maintaining 95% sensitivity for patients requiring revascularization. Osteopontin (14 times) and resistin (10 times) were most frequently represented among these diagnostic signatures. The most efficacious protein signature in validation studies comprised osteopontin (OPN), resistin, matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7) and interferon ? (IFN?) as a four-marker panel while the addition of either CRP or adiponectin (ACRP-30) yielded comparable results in five protein signatures. Conclusions Proteins in the serum of CAD patients predominantly reflected (1) a positive acute phase, inflammatory response and (2) alterations in lipid metabolism, transport, peroxidation and accumulation. There were surprisingly few indicators of growth factor activation or extracellular matrix remodeling in the serum of CAD patients except for elevated OPN. These data suggest that many symptomatic patients without significant CAD could be identified by a targeted multiplex serum protein test without cardiac catheterization thereby eliminating exposure to ionizing radiation and decreasing the economic burden of angiographic testing for these patients. PMID:23216991

  12. Omacor and omega-3 fatty acids for treatment of coronary artery disease and the pleiotropic effects.

    PubMed

    Kar, Subrata

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are found in fish oil and they have been shown to mitigate the risk of cardiovascular disease. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential fatty acids because they cannot be synthesized de novo and must be consumed from dietary sources such as marine fish. It reduces fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary artery disease, sudden cardiac death, and all-cause mortality. It also has beneficial effects in mortality reduction after a myocardial infarction. Omacor is a highly potent form of Omega-3 fatty acids that lowers plasma triglycerides. In patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia who are refractory to statins, it helps augment triglyceride reduction. Omacor also increases high-density lipoprotein and decreases low-density lipoprotein levels. It is well tolerated with minimal adverse effects and no known interactions causing rhabdomyolysis. In high doses, Omacor has pronounced cardiovascular benefits with improvement of triglycerides and various lipid parameters. Omega-3 fatty acids have also been shown to have beneficial effects on arrhythmias, inflammation, and heart failure. It may also decrease platelet aggregation and induce vasodilation. Omega-3 fatty acids also reduce atherosclerotic plaque formation and stabilize plaques preventing plaque rupture leading to acute coronary syndrome. Moreover, omega-3 fatty acids may have antioxidant properties that improve endothelial function and may contribute to its antiatherosclerotic benefits. In this review, we sought to provide the current literature on the use of omega-3 fatty acids and the potent formulation Omacor in the treatment of coronary artery disease. PMID:21975796

  13. A mechanical argument for the differential performance of coronary artery grafts.

    PubMed

    Prim, David A; Zhou, Boran; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Uline, Mark J; Shazly, Tarek; Eberth, John F

    2016-02-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) acutely disturbs the homeostatic state of the transplanted vessel making retention of graft patency dependent on chronic remodeling processes. The time course and extent to which remodeling restores vessel homeostasis will depend, in part, on the nature and magnitude of the mechanical disturbances induced upon transplantation. In this investigation, biaxial mechanical testing and histology were performed on the porcine left anterior descending artery (LAD) and analogs of common autografts, including the internal thoracic artery (ITA), radial artery (RA), great saphenous vein (GSV) and lateral saphenous vein (LSV). Experimental data were used to quantify the parameters of a structure-based constitutive model enabling prediction of the acute vessel mechanical response pre-transplantation and under coronary loading conditions. A novel metric ? was developed to quantify mechanical differences between each graft vessel in situ and the LAD in situ, while a second metric ? compares the graft vessels in situ to their state under coronary loading. The relative values of these metrics among candidate autograft sources are consistent with vessel-specific variations in CABG clinical success rates with the ITA as the superior and GSV the inferior graft choices based on mechanical performance. This approach can be used to evaluate other candidate tissues for grafting or to aid in the development of synthetic and tissue engineered alternatives. PMID:26437296

  14. Coronary Computed Tomographic Angiography in the Evaluation of Liver Transplant Candidates.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Marie-France; Chan, Edie Y; Doukky, Rami

    2015-10-01

    The feasibility, safety, and value of coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) in evaluating orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) candidates are unknown. We studied a cohort of consecutive OLT candidates with intermediate-to-high risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). Intermediate risk candidates received CCTA, and those at high risk or with abnormal noninvasive testing underwent invasive coronary angiography (ICA). One hundred consecutive patients were evaluated. Fifty patients underwent a CCTA, 71.4% were ?-blocked, the image quality was "good" or "excellent" in 71.4% of cases, and there was no event of significant contrast-induced nephropathy. Twenty (20%) patients were found to have severe CAD (?70% stenosis) by CCTA and/or ICA. Independent predictors of severe CAD were age (odds ratio [OR] = 5.4 per 10-year increment, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.7-17.0; P = .004), dyslipidemia (OR = 12.3, 95% CI = 2.6-57.6; P = .001), and chest pain (OR = 6.0, 95% CI = 1.2-29.1; P = .03). Implementing CCTA in the evaluation of intermediate/high CAD risk OLT candidates is challenging but feasible and seems safe. PMID:25520410

  15. Intake of cooked tomato sauce preserves coronary endothelial function and improves apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein J protein profile in high-density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Vilahur, Gemma; Cubedo, Judit; Padró, Teresa; Casaní, Laura; Mendieta, Guiomar; González, Alicia; Badimon, Lina

    2015-07-01

    Intake of tomatoes has been linked with healthy diets (eg, Mediterranean diet). However, it remains unknown whether tomato intake exerts protective effects on the vasculature. The aim of this study was to determine whether medium-term supplementation with cooked tomato sauce (CTS) Mediterranean style (sofrito) attenuates diet-induced coronary endothelial dysfunction in an animal model with clinical impact and explore the mechanisms behind the effects. Pigs (N = 18) were fed a 10-day hypercholesterolemic diet. Half of the animals were given a supplement of 100 g/d of CTS (21.5 mg lycopene per day). Coronary responses to escalating doses of vasoactive drugs (acetylcholine, calcium ionophore, and sodium nitroprusside) and L-NG-monomethylarginine (endothelial nitric oxide synthase [eNOS] inhibitor) were measured using flow Doppler. In the coronary arteries, we investigated eNOS gene expression and activation, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) expression, and oxidative DNA damage. In the circulation, we investigated lipoprotein resistance to oxidation and the differential proteomic protein profile. In dyslipidemic animals, CTS intake prevented diet-induced impairment of receptor-operated and nonreceptor-operated endothelial-dependent coronary vasodilation. These beneficial effects were associated with enhanced eNOS transcription and activation and diminished DNA damage in the coronary arteries. CTS-fed animals showed lower lipid peroxidation, higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) antioxidant potential and plasma lycopene levels of 0.16 mg/L. Interestingly, improved HDL functionality was associated with protein profile changes in apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein J. Lipids levels and MCP-1 expression were not affected by CTS. We report that CTS intake protects against low-density lipoprotein-induced coronary endothelial dysfunction by reducing oxidative damage, enhancing eNOS expression and activity, and improving HDL functionality. PMID:25514506

  16. CYP450- and COMT-derived estradiol metabolites inhibit activity of human coronary artery SMCs.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Raghvendra K; Gillespie, Delbert G; Zacharia, Lefteris C; Barchiesi, Federica; Imthurn, Bruno; Jackson, Edwin K

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that the inhibitory effects of estradiol in human coronary vascular smooth muscle cells are mediated via local conversion to methoxyestradiols via specific cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). The inhibitory effects of estradiol on serum-induced cell activity (DNA synthesis, cell number, collagen synthesis, and cell migration) were enhanced by 3-methylcholantherene, phenobarbital (broad-spectrum CYP450 inducers), and beta-naphthoflavone (CYP1A1/1A2 inducer) and were blocked by 1-aminobenzotriazole (broad-spectrum CYP450 inhibitor). Ellipticine, alpha-naphthoflavone (selective CYP1A1 inhibitors), and pyrene (selective CYP1B1 inhibitor), but not ketoconazole (selective CYP3A4 inhibitor) or furafylline (selective CYP1A2 inhibitor), abrogated the inhibitor effects of estradiol on cell activity, a profile consistent with a CYP1A1/CYP1B1-mediated mechanism. The inhibitory effects of estradiol were blocked by the COMT inhibitors OR486 and quercetin. The estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780 blocked the inhibitory effects of estradiol, but only at concentrations that also blocked the metabolism of estradiol to hydroxyestradiols (precursors of methoxyestradiols). Western blot analysis revealed that coronary smooth muscle cells expressed CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. Moreover, these cells metabolized estradiol to hydroxyestradiols and methoxyestradiols, and the conversion of 2-hydroxyestradiol to 2-methoxyestradiol was blocked by OR486 and quercetin. These findings provide evidence that the inhibitory effects of estradiol on coronary smooth muscle cells are largely mediated via CYP1A1- and CYP1B1-derived hydroxyestradiols that are converted to methoxyestradiols by COMT. PMID:12624000

  17. Limitations of Chest Pain Categorization Models to Predict Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Rovai, Daniele; Neglia, Danilo; Lorenzoni, Valentina; Caselli, Chiara; Knuuti, Juhani; Underwood, S Richard

    2015-08-15

    We aimed to evaluate how chest pain categorization, currently used to assess the pretest probability of coronary artery disease (CAD), predicts the actual presence of CAD in a population of patients with stable symptoms. We studied 475 consecutive patients enrolled in the Evaluation of Integrated Cardiac Imaging for the Detection and Characterization of Ischemic Heart Disease study based on possible symptoms of CAD. Chest pain or discomfort was categorized as typical angina, atypical angina, or as nonanginal according to the guidelines. Exertional dyspnea and fatigue suspected to be angina equivalents were classified as atypical angina. Patients with a probability of CAD <20 or >90% based on age, gender, and symptoms were excluded. The end points of this substudy were significant CAD (defined by invasive coronary angiography as >50% reduction in lumen diameter in the left main stem or >70% stenosis in a major coronary vessel or 30% to 70% stenosis with fractional flow reserve ?0.8), inducible myocardial ischemia at noninvasive stress imaging, and their association. Patients' symptoms had limited ability to predict the presence of significant CAD, global chi-square being 5.0. The inclusion of age increased global chi-square to 18.7 and gender increased it further to 51.1. Using inducible myocardial ischemia or the association of CAD with inducible ischemia as end points, the ability to predict these end points was again better for patient demographics than for patient symptoms. Thus, the ability of current models based on symptoms, age, and gender to predict the presence of CAD is mainly based on patient demographics as opposed to symptoms. PMID:26081064

  18. Coronary artery dissection following blunt chest trauma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Swinkels, B.M.; Hoedemaker, G.; Peters, R.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Coronary artery dissection following blunt chest trauma is rare. We report the case of a 43-year-old woman who was admitted with a subacute inferior myocardial infarction due to dissection of the right coronary artery. Ten days earlier, she had sustained a minimal chest trauma. The literature is reviewed and management is discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:25696487

  19. Transesophageal echocardiography assessment of severe ostial left main coronary stenosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firstenberg, M. S.; Greenberg, N. L.; Lin, S. S.; Garcia, M. J.; Alexander, L. A.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Doppler echocardiography is commonly used in the assessment of stenotic valvular orifices. We describe the application of transesophageal echocardiography for the detection of a critical ostial left main coronary stenosis. Because preoperative coronary angiography often is not routinely performed in young patients undergoing valve surgery, application of Doppler echocardiography can potentially prevent catastrophic complications, particularly in atypical cases.

  20. Hemodynamics in coronary arteries with overlapping stents Farhad Rikhtegar a

    E-print Network

    Daraio, Chiara

    Hemodynamics in coronary arteries with overlapping stents Farhad Rikhtegar a , Christophe Wyss b Hemodynamics Wall shear stress Restenosis a b s t r a c t Coronary artery stenosis is commonly treated by stent to play a role therein, hemodynamics in arteries with overlapping stents remain poorly understood

  1. Coronary artery surgery: now and in the next decade.

    PubMed

    Ennker, J C; Ennker, I C

    2012-01-01

    In coronary artery surgery the superiority of the internal mammary artery graft in 10-year survival was documented in 1986. In 1999 it was demonstrated that death, reoperation and percutaneous transluminary coronary angioplasty were more frequent in patients undergoing single rather than bilateral internal mammary artery grafting. Today coronary artery bypass grafting surgery is challenged by the success story of modern interventional cardiology. The Syntax Study, however, clearly underlined the better outcome for patients with triple-vessel and/or left main disease undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting in terms of repeat revascularization. Another point of ongoing discussion is the comparison between on-pump and off-pump coronary artery revascularization techniques. Even if mixed results exists in the literature, in experienced hands the combination of aortic no-touch and total arterial revascularization, probably leads to the superiority in off pump coronary artery bypass grafting in terms of significantly decreased rates of mortality, stroke, major adverse cardiac and cerebral vascular events. Coronary artery surgery in the next decade will be influenced by the further progression of minimally invasive surgical principles and by a variety of other factors. The role of robotics and hybrid surgery has yet to be defined. Alternatives within surgery will not only need to move to a less disruptive strategy (e.g. from on-pump to off-pump bypass) but also have to secure sustained innovation, as we can be sure that the current coronary artery bypass grafting activity will change substantially. PMID:23439278

  2. Ultrasound imaging versus morphopathology in cardiovascular diseases. Coronary atherosclerotic plaque

    PubMed Central

    Baroldi, Giorgio; Bigi, Riccardo; Cortigiani, Lauro

    2004-01-01

    This review article is aimed at comparing the results of histopathological and clinical imaging studies to assess coronary atherosclerotic plaques in humans. In particular, the gap between the two techniques and its effect on the understanding of the pathophysiological basis of coronary artery disease is critically discussed. PMID:15598352

  3. The coronary circulation in cardioprotection: more than just one confounder.

    PubMed

    Heusch, Gerd; Kleinbongard, Petra; Skyschally, Andreas; Levkau, Bodo; Schulz, Rainer; Erbel, Raimund

    2012-05-01

    Cardioprotection, i.e. the reduction in infarct size by pre-, post-, or remote conditioning, has originally been characterized in young and healthy experimental animals. Over the last two decades many signalling steps of cardioprotection have been identified, again in young and healthy animals. Although proof-of-concept studies unequivocally demonstrated the recruitment of all forms of cardioprotection in humans, the translation of cardioprotection to clinical routine has been poor. The apparent lack of translation has been attributed to poor design of clinical trials, but also to the neglect of confounders, such as age, sex, comorbidities, and comedications, in experimental studies. The present opinionated review focuses on the coronary circulation as a major determinant of cardioprotection. Coronary occlusion and the restoration of coronary blood flow are the causes of myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion injury from which protection is sought. On the other hand, brief cycles of coronary occlusion and reperfusion are also the stimulus for protection from myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury. The recruitment of collateral blood flow also contributes to protection from infarction. Finally, the coronary microcirculation is also a target of both injury by myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion and protection from it. Different manifestations of coronary artery disease, such as coronary stenosis or coronary microembolization, impact on both injury and protection. PMID:22002502

  4. Coronary blood flow in the anesthetized American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bjarke; Elfwing, Magnus; Elsey, Ruth M; Wang, Tobias; Crossley, Dane A

    2016-01-01

    Coronary circulation of the heart evolved early within ectothermic vertebrates and became of vital importance to cardiac performance in some teleost fish, mammals and birds. In contrast, the role and function of the coronary circulation in ectothermic reptiles remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the systemic and coronary arterial responses of five anesthetized juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) to hypoxia, acetylcholine, adenosine, sodium nitroprusside, isoproterenol, and phenylephrine. We recorded electrocardiograms, monitored systemic blood pressure, blood flows in both aortae, and blood flow in a major coronary artery supplying most of the right ventricle. Coronary arterial blood flow was generally forward, but there was a brief retrograde flow during a ventricular contraction. Blood pressure was significantly changed in all conditions. Acetylcholine decreased coronary forward flow, but this response was confounded by the concomitant lowered work of the ventricles due to decreased heart rate and blood pressure. Coronary forward flow was poorly correlated with heart rate and mean arterial pressure across treatments. Overall changes in coronary forward flow, significant and not significant, were generally in the same direction as mean arterial pressure and ventricular power, approximated as the product of systemic cardiac output and mean arterial pressure. PMID:26436857

  5. How Can Coronary Heart Disease Be Prevented or Delayed?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and obesity, and others. Living With and Managing Coronary Artery Disease 08/13/2011 This video—presented by the ... part of the National Institutes of Health—describes coronary artery disease (CAD), its symptoms and complications, and ways to ...

  6. ORIGINAL PAPER 3D fusion of intravascular ultrasound and coronary

    E-print Network

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    be applied for shear stress analysis in human coronary arteries. Keywords Coronary Á CT Á IVUS Á Wall shear-vivo wall shear stress analysis: a feasibility study Alina G. van der Giessen · Michiel Schaap · Frank J. H+Business Media, B.V. 2009 Abstract Wall shear stress, the force per area acting on the lumen wall due

  7. ORIGINAL PAPER 3D fusion of intravascular ultrasound and coronary

    E-print Network

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    in human coronary arteries. Keywords Coronary Á CT Á IVUS Á Wall shear stress Á Registration Á-vivo wall shear stress analysis: a feasibility study Alina G. van der Giessen · Michiel Schaap · Frank J. H stress, the force per area acting on the lumen wall due to the blood flow, is an important biomechanical

  8. Prognostic Value of Coronary Computed Tomography (CT) Angiography and Coronary Artery Calcium Score Performed Before Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Shinichiro; Kondo, Takeshi; Kumamaru, Kanako K; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Takamura, Kazuhisa; Kawaguchi, Yuko; Matsumori, Rie; Hiki, Makoto; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Daida, Hiroyuki; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiac events after revascularization are equally attributable to recurrence at site of culprit lesions and development of nonculprit lesions. We evaluated the hypothesis that coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) performed before revascularization predicts cardiac events after treatment. Methods and Results Among 2238 consecutive patients without known coronary artery disease who underwent coronary CT angiography and CACS, 359 patients underwent revascularization within 30 days after CT; in 337 of 359 (93.9%) follow-up clinical information was available. In addition to known cardiac risk factors, CT findings were evaluated as predictors of cardiac events after revascularization: CACS and the presence of CT-verified high-risk plaque (CT-HRP). Improvement of predictive accuracy by including CT findings was evaluated from a discrimination (Harrell’s C-statistics) standpoint. During the follow-up period (median: 673, interquartile range: 47 to 1529 days), a total of 98 cardiac events occurred. Cox proportional hazard model revealed that age, diabetes, triglyceride, CACS, and nonculprit CT-HRP were significant predictors of overall cardiac events. Although not statistically significant, discriminatory power was greater for the model with CACS (C-stat: 63.2%) and the model with both CACS and CT-HRP (65.8%) compared to the model including neither CACS nor CT-HRP (60.7%). Conclusions High CACS and the presence of nonculprit CT-HRP performed before revascularization are significant predictors of cardiac events after revascularization. PMID:26296858

  9. Three dimensional quantitative coronary angiography can detect reliably ischemic coronary lesions based on fractional flow reserve.

    PubMed

    Chung, Woo-Young; Choi, Byoung-Joo; Lim, Seong-Hoon; Matsuo, Yoshiki; Lennon, Ryan J; Gulati, Rajiv; Sandhu, Gurpreet S; Holmes, David R; Rihal, Charanjit S; Lerman, Amir

    2015-06-01

    Conventional coronary angiography (CAG) has limitations in evaluating lesions producing ischemia. Three dimensional quantitative coronary angiography (3D-QCA) shows reconstructed images of CAG using computer based algorithm, the Cardio-op B system (Paieon Medical, Rosh Ha'ayin, Israel). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether 3D-QCA can reliably predict ischemia assessed by myocardial fractional flow reserve (FFR) < 0.80. 3D-QCA images were reconstructed from CAG which also were evaluated with FFR to assess ischemia. Minimal luminal diameter (MLD), percent diameter stenosis (%DS), minimal luminal area (MLA), and percent area stenosis (%AS) were obtained. The results of 3D-QCA and FFR were compared. A total of 266 patients was enrolled for the present study. FFR for all lesions ranged from 0.57 to 1.00 (0.85 ± 0.09). Measurement of MLD, %DS, MLA, and %AS all were significantly correlated with FFR (r = 0.569, 0609, 0.569, 0.670, respectively, all P < 0.001). In lesions with MLA < 4.0 mm(2), %AS of more than 65.5% had a 80% sensitivity and a 83% specificity to predict FFR < 0.80 (area under curve, AUC was 0.878). 3D-QCA can reliably predict coronary lesions producing ischemia and may be used to guide therapeutic approach for coronary artery disease. PMID:26028923

  10. Treatment strategies in the left main coronary artery disease associated with acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Karabulut, Ahmet; Cakmak, Mahmut

    2015-10-01

    Significant left main coronary artery (LMCA) stenosis is not rare and reported 3 to 10% of patients undergoing coronary angiography. Unprotected LMCA intervention is a still clinical challenge and surgery is still going to be a traditional management method in many cardiac centers. With a presentation of drug eluting stent (DES), extensive use of IVUS and skilled operators, number of such interventions increased rapidly which lead to change in recommendation in the guidelines regarding LMCA procedures in the stable angina (Class 2a recommendation for ostial and shaft lesion and class 2b recommendation for distal bifurcation lesion). However, there was not clear consensus about the management of unprotected LMCA lesion associated with acute myocardial infarction (MI) with a LMCA culprit lesion itself or distinct culprit lesion of other major coronary arteries. Surgery could be preferred as an obligatory management strategy even in the high risk patients. With this review, we aimed to demonstrate treatment strategies of LMCA disease associated with acute coronary syndrome, particularly acute myocardial infarction (MI). In addition, we presented a short case series with LMCA lesion and ST elevated acute MI in which culprit lesion placed either in the left anterior descending artery or circumflex artery. We reviewed the current medical literature and propose simple algorithm for management. PMID:26557745

  11. Ventricular tachycardic storm with a chronic total coronary artery occlusion treated with percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Mixon, Timothy A

    2015-04-01

    A 66-year-old man with a history of coronary artery disease was evaluated due to ventricular tachycardic (VT) storm. The patient continued to have frequent recurrences of VT despite treatment with amiodarone and lidocaine. Since the ventricular arrhythmia could be related to myocardial ischemia related to a chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the right coronary artery, the patient underwent successful percutaneous coronary intervention of the CTO, followed by implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation. He had no further episodes of VT during his hospital stay. After 9 months of follow-up, he had no further chest pain or clinically apparent recurrent ischemia. Interrogation of his defibrillator has shown brief nonsustained episodes of ventricular tachycardia, but the patient has not required delivery of a shock. The temporal association between treatment of the CTO and resolution of the VT, as well as the lack of recurrence of sustained VT, suggest a causative link between underlying ischemia produced by a chronically occluded coronary artery and provocation of VT and lend supportive evidence to this treatment approach. PMID:25829653

  12. Treatment strategies in the left main coronary artery disease associated with acute coronary syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Karabulut, Ahmet; Cakmak, Mahmut

    2015-01-01

    Significant left main coronary artery (LMCA) stenosis is not rare and reported 3 to 10% of patients undergoing coronary angiography. Unprotected LMCA intervention is a still clinical challenge and surgery is still going to be a traditional management method in many cardiac centers. With a presentation of drug eluting stent (DES), extensive use of IVUS and skilled operators, number of such interventions increased rapidly which lead to change in recommendation in the guidelines regarding LMCA procedures in the stable angina (Class 2a recommendation for ostial and shaft lesion and class 2b recommendation for distal bifurcation lesion). However, there was not clear consensus about the management of unprotected LMCA lesion associated with acute myocardial infarction (MI) with a LMCA culprit lesion itself or distinct culprit lesion of other major coronary arteries. Surgery could be preferred as an obligatory management strategy even in the high risk patients. With this review, we aimed to demonstrate treatment strategies of LMCA disease associated with acute coronary syndrome, particularly acute myocardial infarction (MI). In addition, we presented a short case series with LMCA lesion and ST elevated acute MI in which culprit lesion placed either in the left anterior descending artery or circumflex artery. We reviewed the current medical literature and propose simple algorithm for management. PMID:26557745

  13. Robotically assisted totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Canale, Leonardo Secchin; Mick, Stephanie; Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Nair, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Robotically assisted totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass surgery has emerged as a feasible and efficient alternative to conventional full sternotomy coronary artery bypass graft surgery in selected patients. This minimally invasive approach using the daVinci robotic system allows fine intrathoracic maneuvers and excellent view of the coronary arteries. Both on-pump and off-pump operations can be performed to treat single and multivessel disease. Hybrid approaches have the potential of offering complete revascularization with the “best of both worlds” from surgery (internal mammary artery anastomosis in less invasive fashion) and percutaneous coronary intervention (least invasive approach). In this article we review the indications, techniques, short and long term results, as well as current developments in totally endoscopic robotic coronary artery bypass operations. PMID:24251021

  14. Patent Ductus Arteriosus Associated with Congenital Anomaly of Coronary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Majid; Azizian, Nassrin; Esmaeilzadeh, Maryam; Moradi, Bahieh

    2013-01-01

    We reported a case of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) with congenital anomaly of coronary arteries as abnormal origin of right coronary artery (RCA) and left coronary artery (LCA) from a single ostium of the right coronary sinus. A 21-year-old man referred to our institution for evaluation of cardiac murmur. He has suffered from palpitation and atypical chest pain for three months. On physical examination, a continuous murmur was heard in the second left parasternal space. Transthoracic echocardiography showed normal left and right ventricular size and systolic function (LVEF = 55%). Main pulmonary artery (PA) and left pulmonary artery (LPA) branch were considerably dilated. Considering normal coronary flow, lack of clinical evidence of myocardial ischemia and echocardiography findings, patient underwent surgical closure of PDA via left thoracotomy and after five days discharged uneventfully. PMID:25478523

  15. [High-frequency rotational atherectomy in coronary heart disease].

    PubMed

    Erbel, R; O'Neil, W; Auth, D; Haude, M; Nixdorff, U; Dietz, U; Rupprecht, H J; Tschollar, W; Meyer, J

    1989-03-31

    Percutaneous high frequency coronary rotational ablation (PTCR) was used in 10 patients with significant coronary artery disease. PTCR removes arteriosclerotic material from the vessel wall. A diamond-coated (60-80 micron) brass burr-drill, fastened to a flexible drive shaft rotating and tracking along a central coaxial guide wire, was used. The turbine rotates the drive shaft in excess of 150,000-190,000 revolutions per minute. PTCR was successful in all patients, but in three additional percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) was then successfully performed. Coronary dissection occurred only once, requiring surgery which was successful. No vessel perforation was observed. All vessels were open on the coronary angiograms performed after 24 hours. The main indication for PTCR seems to be a rigid and longer lesion which can not be dilated with the balloon catheter. PMID:2522386

  16. Recent improvement in coronary computed tomography angiography diagnostic accuracy.

    PubMed

    Alani, Anas; Nakanishi, Rine; Budoff, Matthew J

    2014-07-01

    Although invasive coronary angiography has been the gold standard for evaluating coronary artery disease (CAD), it should not be routinely performed as an initial test to assess CAD in subjects with suspected CAD by the recent guidelines, due to cost, invasiveness, and measurable risk. Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) is a rapidly growing, noninvasive imaging modality that developed quickly over the last decade, and its role for evaluation of CAD becomes of great promise with high diagnostic accuracy. Although artifact issues have created some challenges for CCTA, recent advances-including the introduction of more detectors, leading to broader coverage, and faster and higher-definition scanners-allow improved precision and fewer uninterpretable studies. This review article summarizes the current key literature regarding the diagnostic accuracy of CCTA in native coronary arteries, stents, coronary artery bypass grafts, lesions with high calcification, and the functional assessment of CAD. PMID:24756932

  17. Hybrid coronary revascularization: promising, but yet to take off.

    PubMed

    Panoulas, Vasileios F; Colombo, Antonio; Margonato, Alberto; Maisano, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid coronary revascularization (HCR) combines arterial coronary artery bypass surgery (most commonly minimally invasive) and percutaneous coronary intervention in the treatment of a particular subset of multivessel coronary artery disease. It was first introduced in the mid-1990s, and aspired to bring together the "best of both worlds": the excellent patency rates and survival benefits associated with the durable left internal mammary artery graft to the left anterior descending artery alongside the good patency rates of drug-eluting stents, which outlive saphenous vein grafts to non-left anterior descending vessels. Although in theory this is a very attractive revascularization strategy, several years later, only one small randomized controlled trial comparing HCR with coronary artery bypass grafting has recently emerged in the medical literature, raising concerns regarding HCR's role and generalizability. In the current review, we discuss HCR's rationale, the current evidence behind it, its limitations and procedural challenges. PMID:25572514

  18. Assessment of Silent Neuronal Injury Following Coronary Angiography and Intervention in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Aykan, Ahmet Ça?r?; Gökdeniz, Tayyar; Bekta?, Hüseyin; Boyac?, Faruk; Gül, ?lker; Hatem, Engin; Kalayc?o?lu, Ezgi; Turan, Turhan; Çevirme, Deniz; Çelik, ?ükrü

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence and predictors of silent neuronal injury (SNI) after coronary angiography (CAG) and intervention by serial measurement of serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in patients presented with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Ninety-eight consecutive patients presented with ACS and underwent CAG and intervention were included in the study. The NSE levels significantly increased after CAG and intervention compared to baseline levels (22.03 ± 27.70 and 10.08 ± 3.15 consecutively). Left ventricular ejection fraction in the SNI+ group was significantly lower than that in the SNI- group (43.71% ± 12.51%, 50.84% ± 9.34%, P = .002). Maximal creatinine kinase myocardial band, troponin I, and SYNTAX score of the SNI+ group were significantly higher than those of the SNI- group (103.83 ± 99.22, 51.92 ± 78.33, P = .006; 50.04 ± 66.18, 19.18 ± 30.50, P = .002; 103.83 ± 99.22, 51.92 ± 78.33, P = .006; and 50.04 ± 66.18, 19.18 ± 30.50, P = .002 successively). SYNTAX score and performing percutaneous coronary intervention were the independent predictors of SNI (P = .009, odds ratio [OR] = 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.014-1.107, P = .036, OR = 4.262, 95% CI = 1.097-16.56). Percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery lesion complexity may increase the risk of SNI in patients with ACS. PMID:24798685

  19. Diagnostic accuracy of coronary angiography using 64-slice computed tomography in coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fu-Bin; Guo, Wan-Liang; Sheng, Mao; Sun, Ling; Ding, Yue-Yue; Xu, Qiu-Qin; Xu, Ming-Guo; Lv, Hai-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To conduct a meta-analysis and investigate the diagnostic value of 64-slice computed tomography (CT) angiography for diagnosing coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients. Methods: A comprehensive literature search from March 2005 to August 2014 was performed on the following databases: Cochrane Library; Medline; EmBase; PubMed; and BioMed Central database. As a reference standard, studies that assessed 64-slice CT angiography in detecting coronary artery stenosis (CAS) with invasive coronary angiography were included. Coronary artery stenosis was defined as ?50% diameter stenosis. Diagnostic value was determined by pooling sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR) and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) values at segment-level analysis. Diagnostic accuracy was undertaken using area under the curve (AUC) value and summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves. Publication bias was examined by Deek’s funnel plot asymmetry test. Results: Eight studies were included in the analysis, enrolling a total of 579 patients (7,407 segment coronary vessels). At segment-level, pooled sensitivity value was 90% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 83-95%), specificity was 91% (95% CI: 61-98%), PLR value was 9.7 (95% CI: 1.8-53.3), and NLR value was 0.11 (95% CI: 0.05-0.22) for CAS. Optimal cut-off point of sensitivity was 90%, and specificity under the SROC curve was 91%. The AUC value was 0.94. Conclusion: The 64-slice CT angiography is a reliable tool for detection of CAD when using a cut-off of ?50% diameter stenosis in elderly population. PMID:26446324

  20. Prevalence of Coronary Artery Disease Evaluated by Coronary CT Angiography in Women with Mammographically Detected Breast Arterial Calcifications

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Leila; Marfori, Wanda; Arellano, Cesar; Tognolini, Alessia; Speier, William; Adibi, Ali; Ruehm, Stefan G.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the correlation between breast arterial calcifications (BAC) on digital mammography and the extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) diagnosed with dual source coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) in a population of women both symptomatic and asymptomatic for coronary artery disease. 100 consecutive women (aged 34 – 86 years) who underwent both coronary CTA and digital mammography were included in the study. Health records were reviewed to determine the presence of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus, and smoking. Digital mammograms were reviewed for the presence and degree of BAC, graded in terms of severity and extent. Coronary CTAs were reviewed for CAD, graded based on the extent of calcified and non-calcified plaque, and the degree of major vessel stenosis. A four point grading scale was used for both coronary CTA and mammography. The overall prevalence of positive BAC and CAD in the studied population were 12% and 29%, respectively. Ten of the 12 patients with moderate or advanced BAC on mammography demonstrated moderate to severe CAD as determined by coronary CTA. For all women, the positive predictive value of BAC for CAD was 0.83 and the negative predictive value was 0.78. The presence of BAC on mammography appears to correlate with CAD as determined by coronary CTA (Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient = 0.48, p<.000001). Using logistic regression, the inclusion of BAC as a feature in CAD predication significantly increased classification results (p=0.04). PMID:25856075