Adenosine is commonly used as a pharmacological agent in myocardial perfusion imaging, as an antiarrhythmic agent, and in Cath Lab. during PCI for treating no reflow phenomenon. Coronary spasm has been reported following adenosine injection during stress imaging. We report a rare complication with ST segment elevation, following adenosine injection, given for treatment of supraventricular tachycardia. PMID:24581102
Arora, P.; Bhatia, V.; Arora, M.; Kaul, U.
Angiographic studies have shown that coronary artery spasm can be induced with ergonovine maleate. Coronary artery spasm induced by ergonovine maleate in these studies was nearly always accompanied by chest pain and electrocardiographic changes of myocardial ischemia. This report demonstrates that coronary artery spasm induced by ergonovine maleate may be diagnosed by angiography in the absence of these signs or symptoms.
There is no published registry for drug-induced acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with subsequent patent coronary angiogram in teenagers. To highlight the mechanism and impact of drug-induced MI with patent coronary arteries among teenagers who have relatively few coronary risk factors in comparison with older patients, we conducted a review of the literature. In this review most of the pertinent published (English and non-English) articles through the Medline, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and EBSCO Host research databases from 1970 to 2005 have been revised. Teenagers and young adults with AMI and subsequent patent coronary angiogram were included. In those cases drug-induced coronary spasm was highlighted. Among 220 articles (>12000 cases) related with AMI with normal coronary angiogram, 50 articles (approximately 100 cases) reported the role of drug in AMI secondary to coronary artery spasm (CAS). There is no well-conducted trial for AMI secondary to CAS in young adults but only a series of case reports and the diagnosis in most of cases was based on the clinical and laboratory findings without provocation. CAS was associated with 12 illicit substances in teenagers (i.e, cocaine, marijuana, alcohol, butane and amphetamine). Smoking is not only the initiative but also might harbor other illicit substances that increase the risk for CAS. Cocaine-associated AMI is the most frequent in various research papers. CAS was reported with 19 types of medications (i.e, over-the-counter, chemotherapy, antimigraine and antibiotics) without strong relation to age. Despite drug-induced AMI being not a common event, attention to smoking and drugs in teenagers and young adults will have major therapeutic and prognostic implications. PMID:16534169
El Menyar, Ayman A
We observed four transient episodes of marked ST-segment elevation in a 58-yr-old man with no history of coronary artery disease undergoing resection of a metastatic neck mass under general anaesthesia. Elevations of the ST segment were abrupt, with no change in arterial pressure or heart rate, and resolved spontaneously. When the carotid sinus was compressed directly, ST-segment elevation was noted 1 min after the onset of stimulation. After surgery, coronary angiography showed diffuse, slight narrowing of the distal bed of the posterolateral branch of the right coronary artery. Ergonovine caused total occlusion of the posterolateral branch of the right coronary artery with chest pain and ST-segment elevation, confirming the diagnosis of variant angina. The coronary artery spasm seems to have been provoked by vagal activation from carotid sinus stimulation during general anaesthesia. PMID:12594158
Choi, S S; Lim, Y-J; Bahk, J-H; Do, S-H; Ham, B-M
This study was performed to determine the sensitivity of thallium imaging vs ECG monitoring for detecting coronary artery spasm noninvasively following intravenous ergonovine administration as compared to simultaneous coronary angiography. Thirty-two patients with insignificant coronary artery disease and chest pain underwent 12-lead ECG monitoring, thallium imaging, and coronary arteriography following the administration of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mg of ergonovine given 5 minutes apart or until chest pain occurred. One minute following the last dose of ergonovine, 2.5 mCi of thallium-201 was injected intravenously, and a final ECG was recorded and repeat coronary arteriography performed. Within 10 minutes following the injection of thallium, imaging was performed in the 40-degree and 70-degree left anterior oblique and anterior projections. The ECG, thallium study, and coronary arteriogram were read blindly and results were compared. The ECG, angiogram, and thallium study were read as positive if the following occurred, respectively: greater than or equal to 1 mm ST segment elevation, depression, or T wave reversal; greater than 50% vessel narrowing,; and reversible perfusion defect. Five patients were excluded from analysis because of either catheter-induced spasm, suboptimal thallium studies, or protocol violations. Of the 27 patients included for analysis, six had chest pain, five had a positive angiogram, five had a positive thallium study, and one had a positive ECG. The sensitivity of thallium vs ECG monitoring was 80% vs 25%, and the accuracy was 92% vs 80%. We conclude that thallium imaging greatly increases the noninvasive detection of ergonovine-induced coronary spasm as compared with the ECG with no loss of accuracy.
Shanes, J.G.; Pavel, D.; Blend, M.; Olea, E.; Krone, R.; Lacny, K.; Marmulstein, M.; Malik, R.; Meyer, C.; Kondos, G.T.
A 69-year-old woman was admitted for further examinations and treatment of chest pain. Emergency cardiac catheterization showed no significant stenosis on coronary angiograms; however, diffuse wall hypokinesis was observed on a left ventriculogram. After treating the patient's heart failure, cardiac catheterization was performed again. A spasm provocation test showed coronary spasms of the right and left coronary arteries. A right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy revealed denaturation and fibrosis of the myocardium under the endocardium, thus suggesting the presence of myocardial ischemia. This case highlights coronary spasms as a cause of heart failure. PMID:24492691
Oda, Shinsuke; Fujii, Yuichi; Takemoto, Hiroaki; Nomura, Shuichi; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Toyota, Yasushi; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Teragawa, Hiroki
BACKGROUND Coronary artery spasm is a transient narrowing of coronary arteries that slows or stops blood flow through the artery. CASE REPORT We present a 42-year-smoker man without any medical problem who developed syncope. Coronary angiography revealed diffuse significant narrowing of proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD), 90% osteal stenosis of large obtuse marginal (OM), 90% diffuse narrowing of proximal right coronary artery (RCA), which was relieved by intracoronary administration of nitrate. He was discharged on calcium channel blockers and nitrates but one month later developed syncope again and died. CONCLUSION Multivessel coronary artery spasm should be considered in young smoker patients without any other coronary risk factors who present with syncope. PMID:23970922
Falsoleiman, Homa; Bayani, Baktash; Dehghani, Mashalla; Moohebati, Mohsen; Rohani, Atoosheh
Diffuse refractory vascular spasms associated with coronary bypass artery grafting (CABG) are rare but devastating. A 42-year-old male patient with a past history of stent insertion was referred for the surgical treatment of a recurrent left main coronary artery disease. A hemodynamic derangement developed during graft harvesting, necessitating a hurried initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Although CABG was carried out as planned, the patient could not be weaned from the bypass. An emergency coronary angiography demonstrated a diffuse spasm of both native coronary arteries and grafts. CPB was switched to the femorofemoral extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO). Although he managed to recover from heart failure, his discharge was delayed due to the ischemic injury of the lower limb secondary to cannulation for ECMO. We reviewed the case and literature, placing emphasis on the predisposing factors and appropriate management.
Kim, Young Sam; Yoon, Yong Han; Kim, Jeoung Taek; Shinn, Helen Ki; Woo, Seong Ill; Baek, Wan Ki
A 24-year-old healthy man consulted to our center because of typical on-and-off chest-pain and an electrocardiogram showing ST-segment elevation in inferior leads. An urgent coronary angiography showed angiographically normal coronary arteries. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging confirmed acute myocarditis. Although acute myocarditis triggering coronary spasm is an uncommon association, it is important to recognize it, particularly for the management for those patients presenting with ST-segment elevation and suspect myocardial infarction and angiographically normal coronary arteries. The present report highlights the role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging to identify acute myocarditis as the underlying cause. PMID:25276306
Kumar, Andreas; Bagur, Rodrigo; Beliveau, Patrick; Potvin, Jean-Michel; Levesque, Pierre; Fillion, Nancy; Tremblay, Benoit; Larose, Eric; Gaudreault, Valerie
Background Angina without significant stenosis, or nonobstructive coronary artery disease, attracts clinical attention. Microvascular coronary artery spasm (microvascular CAS) can cause nonobstructive coronary artery disease. We investigated the clinical features of microvascular CAS and the therapeutic efficacy of calcium channel blockers. Methods and Results Three hundred seventy consecutive, stable patients with suspected angina presenting nonobstructive coronary arteries (<50% diameter) in coronary angiography were investigated with the intracoronary acetylcholine provocation test, with simultaneous measurements of transcardiac lactate production and of changes in the quantitative coronary blood flow. We diagnosed microvascular CAS according to lactate production and a decrease in coronary blood flow without epicardial vasospasm during the acetylcholine provocation test. We prospectively followed up the patients with calcium channel blockers for microvascular coronary artery disease. We identified 50 patients with microvascular CAS who demonstrated significant impairment of the endothelium-dependent vascular response, which was assessed by coronary blood flow during the acetylcholine provocation test. Administration of isosorbide dinitrate normalized the abnormal coronary flow pattern in the patients with microvascular CAS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that female sex, a lower body mass index, minor–borderline ischemic electrocardiogram findings at rest, limited–baseline diastolic-to-systolic velocity ratio, and attenuated adenosine triphosphate–induced coronary flow reserve were independently correlated with the presence of microvascular CAS. Receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis revealed that the aforementioned 5-variable model showed good correlation with the presence of microvascular CAS (area under the curve: 0.820). No patients with microvascular CAS treated with calcium channel blockers developed cardiovascular events over 47.8±27.5 months. Conclusions Microvascular CAS causes distinctive clinical features and endothelial dysfunction that are important to recognize as nonobstructive coronary artery disease so that optimal care with calcium channel blockers can be provided. Clinical Trial Registration URL: www.umin.ac.jp/ctr. Unique identifier: UMIN000003839. PMID:23316292
Ohba, Keisuke; Sugiyama, Seigo; Sumida, Hitoshi; Nozaki, Toshimitsu; Matsubara, Junichi; Matsuzawa, Yasushi; Konishi, Masaaki; Akiyama, Eiichi; Kurokawa, Hirofumi; Maeda, Hirofumi; Sugamura, Koichi; Nagayoshi, Yasuhiro; Morihisa, Kenji; Sakamoto, Kenji; Tsujita, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Yamamuro, Megumi; Kojima, Sunao; Kaikita, Koichi; Tayama, Shinji; Hokimoto, Seiji; Matsui, Kunihiko; Sakamoto, Tomohiro; Ogawa, Hisao
A 30 year old man had an acute anterolateral myocardial infarction following which he developed unstable angina requiring percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. He subsequently developed further angina with recurrence of coronary artery lesions that were reversed by intracoronary nitrate. A diagnosis of prinzmetal (vasospastic) angina was made and this had been the apparent cause of his myocardial infarction. He was
G Y H Lip; K K Ray; M F Shiu
Radial artery spasm occurs frequently during the transradial approach for coronary catheterization. Premedications with nitroglycerin and verapamil have been documented to be effective in preventing radial spasms. Verapamil is relatively contraindicated for some patients with left ventricular dysfunction, hypotension and bradycardia. We would like to know whether nitroglycerin alone is sufficient for the prevention of radial artery spasm. We conducted
Chih-Wei Chen; Chin-Lon Lin; Tin-Kwang Lin; Chih-Da Lin
Abstract Background: Senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) decreases with aging, and SMP30 knockout (KO) mice show a short life with increased oxidant stress. Aims: We assessed the effect of oxidant stress with SMP30 deficiency in coronary artery spasm and clarify its underlying mechanisms. Results: We measured vascular responses to acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) of isolated coronary arteries from SMP30 KO and wild-type (WT) mice. In SMP30 KO mice, ACh-induced vasoconstriction occurred, which was changed to vasodilation by dithiothreitol (DTT), a thiol-reducing agent. However, N?-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester, nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, or tetrahydrobiopterin did not change the ACh response. In isolated coronary arteries of WT mice, ACh-induced vasodilation occurred. Inhibition of glutathione reductase by 1, 3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea decreased ACh-induced vasodilation (n=10, p<0.01), which was restored by DTT. To evaluate the thiol oxidation, we measured the fluorescence of monochlorobimane (MCB) in coronary arteries, which covalently labels the total. The fluorescence level to MCB decreased in SMP30 KO mice, but with DTT treatment restored to a level comparable to that of WT mice. The reduced glutathione and total thiol levels were also low in the aorta of SMP30 KO mice compared with those of WT mice. Administration of ACh into the aortic sinus in vivo of SMP30 KO mice induced coronary artery spasm. Innovation: The thiol redox state is a key regulator of endothelial NO synthase activity, and thiol oxidation was associated with endothelial dysfunction in the SMP30 deficiency model. Conclusion: These results suggest that chronic thiol oxidation by oxidant stress is a trigger of coronary artery spasm, resulting in impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1063–1073. PMID:23320823
Yamada, Shinya; Machii, Hirofumi; Mizukami, Hiroyuki; Hoshino, Yasuto; Misaka, Tomofumi; Ishigami, Akihito; Takeishi, Yasuchika
We administered ergonovine and used both electrocardiographic monitoring and thallium-/sup 201/ (/sup 201/Tl) imaging to detect reversible ischemia in 100 patients. Patients already established as having coronary artery spasm and those with nonbypassed, proximal, high-grade coronary artery stenosis were excluded. No complication occurred in any patient. The use of thallium imaging in addition to electrocardiographic monitoring resulted in a higher degree of sensitivity than did ECG monitoring alone. Fourteen patients demonstrated evidence of coronary artery spasm as documented by /sup 201/Tl imaging but of the 14, significant ECG changes occurred in only 50%, and classic ST segment elevation in 21%. Thus, in carefully selected patients the noninvasive provocation of coronary spasm can be accomplished safely, but ECG monitoring must be combined with thallium-/sup 201/ imaging to achieve an acceptable degree of sensitivity.
Shanes, J.G.; Krone, R.J.; Fisher, K.; Shah, B.; Eisenkramer, G.; Humphrey, J.R.
A 66-year-old man with no history of ischemic heart disease underwent cervical lymph node dissection. General anesthesia was induced and maintained with remifentanil, along with propofol. With manipulation of the neck and a subcutaneous injection of lidocaine supplemented with adrenaline before the operation, a sudden decrease in blood pressure (BP) and elevation of the ST-T segment appeared on the monitoring electrocardiogram (ECG). Ephedrine, phenylephrine, adrenaline, and nitroglycerin were administered; however, the hypotension was sustained and the ECG abnormalities progressed, along with further elevation of the ST-T segment and a complete atrioventricular block. Following an injection of atropine, the changes in ECG and BP were attenuated. Heart rate variability (HRV) was analyzed using fully recorded monitor variables, and revealed an increase in the high-frequency domain at the time of the cervical manipulation, suggesting simultaneous vagal stimulation and coronary artery spasm. We concluded that the cervical manipulation had increased the vagal tone and we note that HRV analysis was useful to interpret this coronary event. PMID:22802101
Miyoshi, Hirotsugu; Saeki, Noboru; Nakamura, Ryuji; Kurita, Shigeaki; Kawamoto, Masashi
Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy with quantitative analysis of emission computed tomography was performed during episodes of angina in 19 patients with variant angina and nearly normal coronary arteriographic findings. Eleven patients (group I) were shown by arteriography to have spasm in 2 or more large coronary arteries. Eight patients (group II) had spasm in only 1 coronary artery. In 7 patients in group I, significant diffuse perfusion defects simultaneously appeared in multiple coronary artery regions on the scintigram (group IA). The extent and severity of the perfusion defect as measured by thallium-201 tomography were significantly greater in group IA than in group II (p less than 0.001 and p less than 0.01, respectively). The duration of transient ST-segment elevation during the attack in group IA was significantly longer than in group II (p less than 0.001). The incidence of ventricular arrhythmias, including ventricular tachycardia, or complete atrioventricular block during the anginal attack was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) in group IA than in group II. In all study patients, neither attack nor scintigraphic perfusion defect appeared on the repeat test after oral administration of nifedipine. In conclusion, multivessel coronary artery spasm simultaneously appears and causes the attack in many patients with variant angina and nearly normal coronary arteriographic findings, and myocardial ischemia due to simultaneous multivessel coronary spasm is likely to be more extensive and severe, persist longer and have a higher frequency of potentially dangerous arrhythmias than that due to spasm of only 1 coronary artery.
Kugiyama, K.; Yasue, H.; Okumura, K.; Minoda, K.; Takaoka, K.; Matsuyama, K.; Kojima, A.; Koga, Y.; Takahashi, M.
Multivessel coronary spasm resulting to cardiogenic shock and malignant ventricular arrhythmias though rare has been reported in the literature. The disease seems to be more prevalent in Asians. There have been isolated reports of coronary spasm in patients with reactive airway disease. We report the first case of spontaneous multivessel spasm in a male patient with bronchial asthma of Arab ethnicity resulting in acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock, recurrent ventricular arrhythmias, and transient complete heart block. Literature review of similar cases suggests a strong association with bronchial asthma and a more malignant course in patients with reactive airway disease. The role of intracoronary nitroglycerin in proving the diagnosis even in patients in shock on maximal inotropic supports and intra-aortic balloon pump is highlighted and the importance of considering multivessel coronary spasm as a cause for acute coronary syndrome even in patients with conventional risk factors for atherosclerotic coronary artery disease is reinforced in the discussion of this case. PMID:25170414
Thomson, Viji S; Tariq, Osama; Al Hadhi, Hafidh
Several lines of evidence have shown that viral infections are capable of causing coronary spasm and precipitating or mimicking clinical myocardial infarction. Here we report the case of a 41-year-old woman with recurrent angina who was admitted to our hospital because of ventricular tachycardia. Laboratory examination revealed positive IgM titers against Coxsackie B virus. Coronary angiography showed normal coronary arteries,
Werner Haberbosch; Norbert Roerich; Joerg Neuzner
Vasoreactivity of laser-treated coronary artery was investigated in canine left circumflex coronary artery (LCx). Excimer laser (XeCl 308 nm, 50 mJ/mm2), holmium YAG laser (2.1 micrometers , 150 mJ/pulse), or argon laser (488 nm, 3 W), were used through a single optical fiber. Two 3-mm long segments were obtained from the treated segments and controls in Krebs-bicarbonate buffer. Contraction of LCx was induced with KCl at 30 mM or 3,4 DAP and expressed as developed tension (gram; g). Eighteen dogs were used. Reduction of vasocontactility was observed in excimer treated vessels (0.17 +/- 0.24 g with KCl and 0.34 +/- 0.55 g with 3,4 DAP vs 2.13 +/- 0.85 with KCl and 3.1 +/- 1.9 with 3,4 DAP in control, P < 0.001 respectively), holmium YAG treated vessels (0.43 +/- 0.48 g with KCl and 0.46 +/- 0.24 with 3,4 DAP vs 2.42 +/- 0.49 g with KCl and 3.2 +/- 0.46 with 3,4 DAP in control, P < 0.001 respectively) and argon treated vessels (0.48 +/- 0.79 g vs 4.4 +/- 0.88 in control, P < 0.001). Either pulsed or argon laser irradiation results in loss of vasoreactivity to either constrictive or relaxation agent.
Tomaru, Takanobu; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Miwa, Atsuko; Fujimori, Yoshiharu; Uchida, Yasumi
In normal rats, the media of small arteries (0.4--0.2 mm in diameter) previously was shown to contain intracellular vacuoles, identified ultrastructurally as herniations of one smooth muscle cell into another. The hypothesis that intense vasoconstriction would increase the number of such vacuoles has been tested. In the media of the saphenous artery and its distal branch, vasoconstriction induced by L-norepinephrine produced many cell-to-cell hernias within 15 minutes. At 1 day their number was reduced to about 1/10 of the original number. By 7 days the vessel was almost restored to normal. Triple stimulation over 1 day induced more severe changes in the media. These findings suggest that smooth muscle cells are susceptible to damage in the course of their specific function. The experimental data are discussed in relation to medial changes observed in other instances of arterial spasm. Endothelial changes that developed in the same experimental model were described in a previous paper. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7315949
Joris, I.; Majno, G.
A 68-yr-old man with a 9-yr history of hypertension presented for hemiglossectomy, segmental resection of the mandible, and the radial forearm free flap grafting. Intraoperatively, facial artery spasm was observed during microvascular suturing of the radial artery to the facial artery. Simultaneously, systolic blood pressure decreased from 100 to 80 torr and the ST segment elevated to 15 mm from the base line. The possible mechanisms responsible for vasospasm in coronary as well as in peripheral arteries under sevoflurane anesthesia are discussed. PMID:10356436
Yoshida, K; Murata, Y; Takano, H; Furuya, M; Ohsawa, A
Twenty-six patients with known benign coronary anatomic characteristics and atypical chest pain syndromes were evaluated for the possibility of coronary spasm. Incremental intravenous ergonovine maleate infusions were administered, and thallium-201 scintigraphy was performed at the peak dosage and during recovery in the coronary care unit. With ergonovine therapy, 4 patients (16%) had chest pain associated with electrocardiographic (ECG) or scintigraphic changes. Nine patients (35%) had chest pain without associated ECG or scintigraphic changes, and 13 patients did not have chest pain in response to ergonovine administration, although 2 (8%) had ergonovine-induced scintigraphic defects. All 4 patients with ergonovine-induced chest pain and associated ECG or scintigraphic abnormalities had resolution or reduction of chest pain after medical treatment. However, 7 of the 9 patients with ergonovine-induced chest pain in the absence of ECG or scintigraphic abnormalities continued to have symptoms despite medical treatment a mean of 18 months later. In this limited study of a select group, bedside ergonovine provocation appeared safe. Many patients had chest pain, but few showed ECG or scintigraphic evidence of ischemia. Perfusion scintigraphy appears to have potential complementary value for the identification of an ischemic cardiac cause of atypical chest pain and provides a rationale for appropriate therapy.
DiCarlo, L.A. Jr.; Botvinick, E.H.; Canhasi, B.S.; Schwartz, A.S.; Chatterjee, K.
There is a paucity of information on radiation-induced coronary heart disease. A young patient with myocardial infarction following mediastinal irradiation is described. The role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy on the subsequent development of coronary heart disease is discussed.
Mittal, B.; Deutsch, M.; Thompson, M.; Dameshek, H.L.
Duplication of MECP2 causes a recently described X-linked mental retardation syndrome, of which the typical features are infantile hypotonia, poor speech development, recurrent infections, epilepsy, and progressive spasticity. Recently, the associated seizure semiology and interictal EEG features have been increasingly described, whereas ictal electroclinical features remain poorly defined. We report the case of a boy carrying a maternally-inherited MECP2 duplication and describe the video-EEG sequence of a cluster of eating-induced spasms, the only epileptic manifestation of the patient. This report expands our knowledge of the epileptic phenotype of MECP2 duplication syndrome and may contribute to a better definition and comprehension of the electroclinical spectrum of patients affected by this disease. It also supports the hypothesis that in some genetic epilepsies, the electro-clinical profile can correlate with the dysfunction of limited cortical regions despite the presence of a genetic mutation over the entire brain. [Published with video sequences]. PMID:23248047
de Palma, Luca; Boniver, Clementina; Cassina, Matteo; Toldo, Irene; Nosadini, Margherita; Clementi, Maurizio; Sartori, Stefano
Myocardial infarction has been reported with ephedrine and pseudoephedrine use. It has been sug- gested that these agents may induce coronary artery spasm, hypercoagulable states, or oxygen demand imbalance. We report a 25-year-old male with my- ocardial infarction after receiving a diet pill contain- ing ephedra. Coronary angiography revealed normal coronary arteries with very slow flow, suggestive of microcirculation abnormalities.
Shereif H. Rezkalla; Juan Mesa; Param Sharma; Robert A. Kloner
Infantile spasms is an age-specific epileptic syndrome associated with poor developmental outcomes and poor response to nearly all traditional antiepileptic drugs except adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). We investigated the protective mechanism of ACTH against brain damage. An infantile spasm rat model induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) in neonate rats was used. Pregnant rats were randomly divided into the stress-exposed and the non-stress exposed groups, and their offspring were randomly divided into ACTH-treated spasm model, untreated spasm model, and control groups. A proteomics-based approach was used to detect the proteome differences between ACTH-treated and untreated groups. Gel image analysis was followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric protein identification and bioinformatics analysis. Prenatal stress exposure resulted in more severe seizures, and ACTH treatment reduced and delayed the onset of seizures. The most significantly up-regulated proteins included isoform 1 of tubulin ?-5 chain, cofilin-1 (CFL1), synaptosomal-associated protein 25, malate dehydrogenase, N(G),N(G)-dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1, annexin A3 (ANXA3), and rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 1 (ARHGDIA). In contrast, tubulin ?-1A chain was down-regulated. Three of the identified proteins, ARHGDIA, ANXA3, and CFL1, were validated using western blot analysis. ARHGDIA expression was assayed in the brain samples of five infantile spasm patients. These proteins are involved in the cytoskeleton, synapses, energy metabolism, vascular regulation, signal transduction, and acetylation. The mechanism underlying the effects of ACTH involves the molecular events affected by these proteins, and protein acetylation is the mechanism of action of the drug treatment. PMID:23028951
Wang, Jing; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Ying; Yang, Guang; Zhou, Wen-Jing; Shang, Ai-Jia; Zou, Li-Ping
Maternal immunoglobulin G (IgG) was derived from Wistar rats that just delivered the new offsprings. We examined the effect of this maternal IgG on infantile spasms induced by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) in immature rats. Pup animals were treated subcutaneously with 10 mg\\/kg\\/day maternal IgG from day 11 to day 15 after birth followed by a single intraperitoneal dose of NMDA (15 mg\\/kg). Administration
Li-Ping Zou; Wei-Hua Zhang; Hong-Mei Wang; Min Zen; Kesi Chen; Eilhard Mix
Recent pathological studies of coronary arteries from humans with suspected coronary spasm have revealed an augmented intramural burden of inflammatory cells. To test the hypothesis than inappropriate activation of inflammatory cells participates in the evolution of coronary vasospasm, the present experiment employed a newly developed coronary arteriographic technique for use in pentobarbital-anesthetized rabbits to evaluate the coronary vasomotor actions of the nonselective inflammatory cell stimulant, N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP). In 10 of 10 animals, selective left intracoronary injection of 200 ng fMLP evoked profound left coronary narrowing accompanied in all cases by ST segment deviation and dysrhythmias. Thallium-201 scintigraphy demonstrated hypoperfusion of the left ventricular free wall and septum supplied by the spastic coronary artery. The fMLP-induced epicardial vasoconstriction, ischemic electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, and thallium perfusion defects were reversed by intravenous nitroglycerin. Neither the right coronary artery nor its distribution were influenced by left coronary injection of fMLP. Additional experiments in isolated, salt solution-perfused rabbit hearts demonstrated that fMLP failed to exert direct coronary vasoconstrictor effects. These observations indicate that the nonselective inflammatory cell stimulant, fMLP, provokes arteriographically demonstrable coronary spasm with attendant myocardial hypoperfusion and ischemic ECG changes in anesthetized rabbits. Such a model may be useful in exploring the dynamic role of inflammatory cells in development of coronary spasm.
Gillespie, M.N.; Booth, D.C.; Friedman, B.J.; Cunningham, M.R.; Jay, M.; De Maria, A.N. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (USA))
A 62-year-old lady was admitted with clinical and electrocardiograph features of acute myocardial infarction. Urgent coronary arteriography was performed, demonstrating a single discrete stenosis of one coronary artery. Following intracoronary injection of GTN, this stenosis completely resolved, as the symptoms did. The causes of acute myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries are reviewed. PMID:20368774
Gosai, J.; Malkin, C. J.; Grech, E. D.
A 42-year-old woman with a history of aspirin-induced asthma was admitted with severe chest pain. Emergency coronary angiography revealed coronary artery spasms. The administration of vasodilators did not suppress the anginal symptoms, and the differential white blood cell count continued to show eosinophilia. The patient's symptoms of aspirin-induced asthma, eosinophilia and other allergic states led to the diagnosis of Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS). After starting betamethasone therapy, the eosinophilia and cardiac symptoms rapidly disappeared. Although coronary vasospasms related to CSS are rare, the present case suggests that a differential white blood cell count should be obtained in patients with refractory coronary vasospasms. PMID:24694483
Suzuki, Yuji; Nishiyama, Osamu; Sakai, Toshiaki; Niiyama, Masanobu; Itoh, Tomonori; Nakamura, Motoyuki
1. In order to elucidate the physiological and potential pathological roles of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in coronary artery contraction and relaxation, we undertook the present study to examine the action of ET-1 itself, and the combined effects of ET-1 with vasoconstrictor agonists such as acetylcholine (ACh), histamine, and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), all of which have been implicated in the genesis of coronary spasm. 2. Isometric tension and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in a ring segment of porcine coronary artery loaded with fura-2 were measured simultaneously. 3. ET-1 contracted the artery in a concentration-dependent manner; and nisoldipine, a Ca2+ channel blocking drug of the 1,4-dihydropyridine type, antagonized the ET-1 action non-competitively. A radio-receptor binding assay also indicated the mutually exclusive binding of ET-1 and (+)-[3H]-PN200-110, a Ca2+ channel ligand, to the membrane fraction of porcine coronary artery. 4. ET-1 (10-100 pM) increased tension and [Ca2+]i in a parallel manner, while at higher concentrations (1-10 nM) it produced further contraction with a small increase in [Ca2+]i. 5. ET-1 (30-100 pM) selectively potentiated the 5-HT-induced contraction 1.5 to 2 times over the control without causing a significant increase in [Ca2+]i, which seems to be qualitatively similar to a tumour promoting phorbol ester, 12-deoxyphorbol 13-isobutylate (DPB). Bay K 8644 (10 nM), on the other hand, potentiated the contraction in response to practically all agonists used and affected a concomitant increase in [Ca2+]i.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1810605
Nakayama, K.; Ishigai, Y.; Uchida, H.; Tanaka, Y.
Two patients aged 21 and 50 years presented with facial hemiatrophy and unilateral spasms of the masticatory muscles. Masticatory muscle biopsy showed normal findings in both patients and facial skin biopsy specimens only showed atrophy, although morphoea (localised facial scleroderma) had been diagnosed nine years previously in the second patient. The involuntary movements consisted of brief twitches and prolonged contractions clinically and electromyographically similar to those of hemifacial spasm and cramps. The jaw jerk and the silent periods were absent in the affected muscles. Direct stimulation of the muscle nerve and transcranial stimulation of the trigeminal root demonstrated slowing of conduction and after-activity due to autoexcitation. Observations in other reported cases and these two patients suggest that hemimasticatory spasm is produced by ectopic activity secondary to focal demyelination of the trigeminal motor nerve fibres. The proposed cause of the neuropathy is focal damage to the masticatory nerves caused by compression, possibly resulting from the deep tissue changes that occur in facial hemiatrophy. Images PMID:8301304
Cruccu, G; Inghilleri, M; Berardelli, A; Pauletti, G; Casali, C; Coratti, P; Frisardi, G; Thompson, P D; Manfredi, M
Transient apical cardiomyopathy, also known as Takot-tsubo-like left ventricular dysfunction, is a clinical syndrome characterized by reversible left ventricular dysfunction at the apex with preserved basal contractility, in the setting of new ST and T wave changes suggestive of ischemia but no evidence of obstructive coronary artery disease on angiography. The main mechanism appears to be intense neuroadrenergic myocardial stimulation with endothelial dysfunction of the coronary vasculature. It has been noted that patients with esophageal spasms also have a tendency for coronary spasms. We present the case of a postmenopausal female with documented severe esophageal spasms who presented with atypical angina and recurrent Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy. PMID:24695751
Brenes Salazar, Jorge A
This report describes three patients who developed myocardial infarction at an untimely age, 4 to 12 years after radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease. These cases lend credence to the cause and effect relation of such therapy to coronary artery disease.
Dunsmore, L.D.; LoPonte, M.A.; Dunsmore, R.A.
Smoking cannabis is a rare cause of myocardial infarction. We report a 29-year-old man who presented with acute coronary syndrome following consumption of a type of cannabis with the street name 'Kerala Ganja'. KG is smuggled into Sri Lanka from India; it is grown in the south Indian state of Kerala and is much more potent than the local ganja (marijuana). The patient developed dynamic ST-segment elevations in different leads in sequential ECGs, corresponding to different coronary artery territories. Coronary angiogram did not demonstrate evidence of occlusive atherosclerotic disease, but showed slow flow down the left anterior descending artery, which improved with administration of intracoronary nitrates. The patient's cardiac biomarkers were significantly elevated. A diagnosis was made of vasospasm causing myocardial infarction, most likely to have been triggered by cannabis consumption. We highlight the importance of considering this possible aetiology, particularly in patients with ACS with a susceptible social profile. PMID:25391827
Gunawardena, Mudalige Don Vajira Malin; Rajapakse, Senaka; Herath, Jagath; Amarasena, Naomali
Infantile spasms constitute significant burden of refractory epilepsy in children. The first line treatment choice varies at different centres. The author presents concise evidence based update on medical management of infantile spasms. PMID:24986193
Sahu, Jitendra Kumar
A new method for producing arteriosclerosis with coronary insufficiency in rabbits by means of immobilization is described and discussed. The experimentally induced atherosclerosis develops due to hypodynamics imposed by the reduced muscular activity without overloading with exogenous cholesterol. The atherosclerosis and coronary insufficiency are associated. With variations in the duration and extent of immobilization, coronary insufficiency alone or with atherosclerosis can be produced.
Tyavokin, V. V.; Tjawokin, W. W.
Objective Infantile spasm (IS) is a convulsive disease characterized by brief, symmetric axial muscle contraction (neck, trunk, and/or extremities). IS is a type of seizure that was first described by West in 1841, who witnessed the seizure in his own son. West’s syndrome refers to the classic triad of spasms, characteristic EEG, and neurodevelopmental regression. Most cases involve flexors and extensors, but either of the types may be involved independently. IS, as its name implies, most often occurs during the first year of life with an incidence of approximately 1 per 2000-4000 live births. Most, but not all, patients with this disorder have severe EEG abnormalities; this pattern was originally referred to as hypsarrhythmia by Gibbs and Gibbs. Cases with known etiology or signs of brain damage are considered as symptomatic. The Overall prognosis of the disease is poor. Peak onset age of the epileptic syndrome is 3 to 7 months, which mainly occurs before 2 years of age in 93% of patients. Hypsarrhythmia is the EEG hallmark of IS, which comprised a chaotic, bilaterally asynchronous high-voltage polyspike, and slow wave discharges interspersed with multifocal spikes and slow waves. Etiological classification is as follows: 1) Symptomatic: with identifiable prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal causes with developmental delay at the presentation time; 2) Cryptogenic: unknown underlying cause, normal development at the onset of spasms, normal neurological exam and neuroimaging, and no abnormality in the metabolic evaluation; 3) Idiopathic: pure functional cerebral dysfunction with complete recovery, no residual dysfunction, normal neuroimaging and normal etiologic evaluation, and normal neurodevelopment. PMID:25143766
TAGHDIRI, Mohammad Mahdi; NEMATI, Hamid
Stress-induced cardiomyopathy is frequently confused with acute coronary syndromes. We encountered a 64-year old female patient with panhypopituitarism initially suspected as atypical stress-induced cardiomyopathy due to her history and initial echocardiographic findings. She was finally diagnosed as non ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction based on the findings of coronary angiogram, intravascular ultrasound and subsequent echocardiogram. PMID:20661331
Park, Chan Seok; Yun, Yu-Seon; Kim, Yoon Ji; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Cho, Eun-Joo; Ihm, Sang-Hyun; Jung, Hae-Ok; Jeon, Hui-Kyung; Youn, Ho-Joong
We describe a patient with acute myocardial infarction, which was thought to result from plaque rupture or thrombosis because of coronary artery spasm. The vasospasm was most likely induced by stimulation of the ?-adrenergic receptors during alternating heat exposure during sauna bathing and rapid cooling during cold water bathing. This report emphasizes the dangers of rapid cooling after sauna bathing
Yukiko Imai; Sachihiko Nobuoka; Junzo Nagashima; Toru Awaya; Jiro Aono; Fumihiko Miyake; Masahiro Murayma
Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is characterized by involuntary unilateral contractions of the muscles innervated by the ipsilateral facial nerve, usually starting around the eyes before progressing inferiorly to the cheek, mouth, and neck. Its prevalence is 9.8 per 100,000 persons with an average age of onset of 44 years. The accepted pathophysiology of HFS suggests that it is a disease process of the nerve root entry zone of the facial nerve. HFS can be divided into two types: primary and secondary. Primary HFS is triggered by vascular compression whereas secondary HFS comprises all other causes of facial nerve damage. Clinical examination and imaging modalities such as electromyography (EMG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful to differentiate HFS from other facial movement disorders and for intraoperative planning. The standard medical management for HFS is botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injections, which provides low-risk but limited symptomatic relief. The only curative treatment for HFS is microvascular decompression (MVD), a surgical intervention that provides lasting symptomatic relief by reducing compression of the facial nerve root. With a low rate of complications such as hearing loss, MVD remains the treatment of choice for HFS patients as intraoperative technique and monitoring continue to improve.
Lu, Alex Y.; Yeung, Jacky T.; Gerrard, Jason L.; Michaelides, Elias M.; Sekula, Raymond F.; Bulsara, Ketan R.
Objectives: Surgical radiofrequency ablation is increasingly used during open heart surgery for the treatment of chronic atrial fibrillation. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of application of radiofrequency on coronary endothelial function and structure and establish the relationship between coronary lesions and distance of radiofrequency application. Methods: Six Landrace swine (25.9±2.0 kg) were included in the
Roland G Demaria; Pierre Pagé; Tack Ki Leung; Marc Dubuc; Olivier Malo; Michel Carrier; Louis P Perrault
Objectives: Surgical radiofrequency ablation is increasingly used during open heart surgery for the treatment of chronic atrial fibrillation. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of application of radiofrequency on coronary endothelial function and structure and establish the relationship between coronary lesions and distance of radiofrequency application. Methods: Six Landrace swine (25.9 ^ 2.0 kg) were included
Roland G. Demaria; Tack Ki Leung; Marc Dubuc; Olivier Malo; Michel Carrier; Louis P. Perrault
Severe and often fatal cardiac complications have been reported in cocaine users with narrowed coronary arteries caused by atherosclerosis as well as in young adults with normal coronaries. The authors have found that in normal dogs cocaine induces severe temporary hypoperfusion of the left ventricle as indicated by a significantly lower 201Tl concentration compared to the baseline state. The most significant decrease in uptake occurred 5 min after injection and was more pronounced in the septal and apical segments. Following intravenous administration of cocaine, instead of gradual disappearance of 201Tl from the left ventricle, there was continuous increase in 201Tl concentration in the left ventricle. These imaging experiments indicate that the deleterious effects of cocaine on the heart are probably due to spasm of the coronaries and decreased myocardial perfusion. Since spasm of the large subpericardial vessels does not seem to explain the magnitude of the increased coronary resistance and decreased coronary flow after cocaine as described in the literature, it is suggested that microvascular spasm of smaller vessels plays a major role in the temporary decrease in perfusion. The data may also suggest that severe temporary myocardial ischemia is probably the initiating factor for the cardiac complications induced by cocaine.
Oster, Z.H.; Som, P.; Wang, G.J.; Weber, D.A. (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Medical Department, Upton, New York (USA))
The outflow tract myocardium and other regions corresponding to the location of the major coronary vessels of the developing chicken heart, display a high level of hypoxia as assessed by the hypoxia indicator EF5. The EF5 positive tissues were also specifically positive for nuclear-localized hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1?), the oxygen-sensitive component of the hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) heterodimer. This led to our hypothesis that there is a “template” of hypoxic tissue that determines the stereotyped pattern of the major coronary vessels. In this study we disturbed this template by altering ambient oxygen levels (hypoxia 15%; hyperoxia 75-40%) during the early phases of avian coronary vessel development, in order to alter tissue hypoxia, HIF-1? protein expression and its downstream target genes without high mortality. We also altered HIF-1? gene expression in the embryonic outflow tract cardiomyocytes by injecting an adenovirus containing a constitutively active form of HIF-1? (AdCA5). We assayed for coronary anomalies using anti-alpha-smooth muscle actin immunohistology. When incubated under abnormal oxygen levels or injected with a low titer of the AdCA5, coronary arteries displayed deviations from their normal proximal connections to the aorta. These deviations were similar to known clinical anomalies of coronary arteries. These findings indicated that developing coronary vessels may be subject to a level of regulation that is dependent on differential oxygen levels within cardiac tissues and subsequent HIF-1 regulation of gene expression. PMID:19777592
Wikenheiser, Jamie; Wolfram, Julie A.; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Yang, Ke; Karunamuni, Ganga; Wilson, David L.; Semenza, Gregg L.; Agani, Faton; Fisher, Steven A.; Ward, Nicole; Watanabe, Michiko
Infantile spasms are a catastrophic form of pediatric epilepsy with inadequate treatment. In patients, mutation of ARX, a transcription factor selectively expressed in neuronal precursors and adult inhibitory interneurons, impairs cell migration and causes a major inherited subtype of the disease X-linked infantile spasms syndrome. Using an animal model, the Arx((GCG)10+7) mouse, we determined that brief estradiol (E2) administration during early postnatal development prevented spasms in infancy and seizures in adult mutants. E2 was ineffective when delivered after puberty or 30 days after birth. Early E2 treatment altered mRNA levels of three downstream targets of Arx (Shox2, Ebf3, and Lgi1) and restored depleted interneuron populations without increasing GABAergic synaptic density. Postnatal E2 treatment may induce lasting transcriptional changes that lead to enduring disease modification and could potentially serve as a therapy for inherited interneuronopathies. PMID:24452264
Olivetti, Pedro R; Maheshwari, Atul; Noebels, Jeffrey L
Prolonged arterial constriction can cause damage to the artery itself. The purpose of this study was to define the intimal changes. Two muscular arteries of the rat were studied by electron microscopy 15 minutes to 7 days after L-norepinephrine had been dripped over the vessels. Endothelial damage was caused by the tight folding of the internal elastic lamina, which mechanically squeezed the cells. As the artery relaxed, the endothelium showed gaps, patches of thinned cytoplasm, and many adhesions between cells on opposite sides of intimal folds. The adhesions involved whole cells of cytoplasmic bridges stretched across the intimal "valleys." They were present up to one day; later they seemed to snap and disappear without causing further cellular damage. A survey of the literature shows that such adhesions can also develop in collapsed arteries postmortem. They explain the endothelial "bridges" previously described by others as a normal intimal structure. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:7212018
Joris, I.; Majno, G.
Chlamydia pneumoniae is frequently found in atherosclerotic lesions, and high titers of specific antibodies are associated with increased risk for acute myocardial infarction. However, a causative relation has not been established yet. We performed a prospective study of 93 patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) to investigate whether angioplasty influences Chlamydia-specific antibody titers and whether there is an association
ANDREAS TIRAN; RENE A. TIO; JACOBUS M. OSSEWAARDE; BEATE TIRAN; PETER DEN HEIJER; T. HAUW; MARTIE M. WILDERS-TRUSCHNIG
Sunitinib malate is a multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor used in the treatment of human malignancies. A substantial number of sunitinib-treated patients develop cardiac dysfunction, but the mechanism of sunitinib-induced cardiotoxicity is poorly understood. We show that mice treated with sunitinib develop cardiac and coronary microvascular dysfunction and exhibit an impaired cardiac response to stress. The physiological changes caused by treatment with sunitinib are accompanied by a substantial depletion of coronary microvascular pericytes. Pericytes are a cell type that is dependent on intact PDGFR signaling but whose role in the heart is poorly defined. Sunitinib-induced pericyte depletion and coronary microvascular dysfunction are recapitulated by CP-673451, a structurally distinct PDGFR inhibitor, confirming the role of PDGFR in pericyte survival. Thalidomide, an anti-cancer agent that is known to exert beneficial effects on pericyte survival and function, prevents sunitinib-induced pericyte cell death in vitro and prevents sunitinib-induced cardiotoxicity in vivo in a mouse model. Our findings suggest that pericytes are the primary cellular target of sunitinib-induced cardiotoxicity and reveal the pericyte as a cell type of concern in the regulation of coronary microvascular function. Furthermore, our data provide preliminary evidence that thalidomide may prevent cardiotoxicity in sunitinib-treated cancer patients. PMID:23720580
Chintalgattu, Vishnu; Rees, Meredith L.; Culver, James C.; Goel, Aditya; Jiffar, Tilahu; Zhang, Jianhu; Dunner, Kenneth; Pati, Shibani; Bankson, James A.; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih; Bryan, Nathan S.; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Langley, Robert R.; Yao, Hui; Kupferman, Michael E.; Entman, Mark L.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Khakoo, Aarif Y.
Sunitinib malate is a multitargeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor used in the treatment of human malignancies. A substantial number of sunitinib-treated patients develop cardiac dysfunction, but the mechanism of sunitinib-induced cardiotoxicity is poorly understood. We show that mice treated with sunitinib develop cardiac and coronary microvascular dysfunction and exhibit an impaired cardiac response to stress. The physiological changes caused by treatment with sunitinib are accompanied by a substantial depletion of coronary microvascular pericytes. Pericytes are a cell type that is dependent on intact platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) signaling but whose role in the heart is poorly defined. Sunitinib-induced pericyte depletion and coronary microvascular dysfunction are recapitulated by CP-673451, a structurally distinct PDGFR inhibitor, confirming the role of PDGFR in pericyte survival. Thalidomide, an anticancer agent that is known to exert beneficial effects on pericyte survival and function, prevents sunitinib-induced pericyte cell death in vitro and prevents sunitinib-induced cardiotoxicity in vivo in a mouse model. Our findings suggest that pericytes are the primary cellular target of sunitinib-induced cardiotoxicity and reveal the pericyte as a cell type of concern in the regulation of coronary microvascular function. Furthermore, our data provide preliminary evidence that thalidomide may prevent cardiotoxicity in sunitinib-treated cancer patients. PMID:23720580
Chintalgattu, Vishnu; Rees, Meredith L; Culver, James C; Goel, Aditya; Jiffar, Tilahu; Zhang, Jianhu; Dunner, Kenneth; Pati, Shibani; Bankson, James A; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih; Bryan, Nathan S; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Langley, Robert R; Yao, Hui; Kupferman, Michael E; Entman, Mark L; Dickinson, Mary E; Khakoo, Aarif Y
The study's purpose was to investigate if physical activity initiated with the start of high-fat feeding would oppose development of endothelial dysfunction, and if it does, then to determine some potential mechanisms. C57BL/6 female mice were randomly divided into three groups: (1) control low-fat diet (LF-SED; 15% of calories from fat), (2) high-fat diet (HF-SED; 45% of calories from fat), and (3) HF diet given access to a voluntary running wheel (HF-RUN). Our hypothesis was that HF-RUN would differ in multiple markers of endothelial dysfunction from HF-SED after 10 weeks of 45%-fat diet, but would not differ from LF-SED. HF-RUN differed from HF-SED in nine determinations in which HF-SED either had decreases in (1) acetylcholine (ACh)-induced and flow-induced vasodilatations in isolated, pressurized coronary arterioles, (2) heart phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS/eNOS) protein, (3) coronary arteriole leptin (ob) receptor protein, (4) phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3/STAT3) protein, and (5) coronary arteriole superoxide dismutase 1 protein; or had increases in (6) percentage body fat, (7) serum leptin, (8) coronary arteriole suppressor of cytokine signalling 3 (SOCS3) protein, and (9) coronary arteriole gp91phox protein. Higher endothelium-dependent vasodilatation by ACh or leptin was abolished with incubation of NOS inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine-methyl ester (l-NAME) in LF-SED and HF-RUN groups. Further, impaired ACh-induced vasodilatation in HF-SED was normalized by apocynin or TEMPOL to LF-SED and HF-RUN. These findings demonstrate multiple mechanisms (eNOS, leptin and redox balance) by which voluntary running opposes the development of impaired coronary arteriolar vasodilatation during simultaneous high-fat feeding. PMID:22674721
Park, Yoonjung; Booth, Frank W; Lee, Sewon; Laye, Mathew J; Zhang, Cuihua
Increased aortic stiffness (AS) has been shown to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in renal failure and was also found to be associated with even mild renal insufficiency. We investigated the relationship between contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) and AS parameters such as pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx). Patients (n = 440) with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were included prospectively (mean age: 60.3 ± 10.3 years). The PWV and AIx were calculated using the single-point method. The PWV, age, diabetes, SYNTAX score, and contrast media dose were independent predictors for CIN (P < .05, for all). The cutoff value for PWV obtained by the receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis was 10.35 m/s for the prediction of CIN (95% confidence interval: 0.838-0.916, sensitivity: 82.1%, specificity: 77.9%, and P < .001). In conclusion, a greater AS pre-PCI may predict CIN development in patients with stable CAD. PMID:24078516
Uçar, Hakan; Gür, Mustafa; Y?ld?r?m, Arafat; Börekçi, Abdürrezzak; Gözükara, Mehmet Yavuz; Seker, Taner; Kaypakl?, Onur; Türko?lu, Caner; Ozaltun, Betül; Akyol, Selehattin; Harbal?o?lu, Hazar; Sahin, Durmu? Y?ld?ray; Elbasan, Zafer; Cayl?, Murat
The sensitivity gain of ultrahigh field Magnetic Resonance (UHF-MR) holds the promise to enhance spatial and temporal resolution. Such improvements could be beneficial for cardiovascular MR. However, intracoronary stents used for treatment of coronary artery disease are currently considered to be contra-indications for UHF-MR. The antenna effect induced by a stent together with RF wavelength shortening could increase local radiofrequency (RF) power deposition at 7.0 T and bears the potential to induce local heating, which might cause tissue damage. Realizing these constraints, this work examines RF heating effects of stents using electro-magnetic field (EMF) simulations and phantoms with properties that mimic myocardium. For this purpose, RF power deposition that exceeds the clinical limits was induced by a dedicated birdcage coil. Fiber optic probes and MR thermometry were applied for temperature monitoring using agarose phantoms containing copper tubes or coronary stents. The results demonstrate an agreement between RF heating induced temperature changes derived from EMF simulations versus MR thermometry. The birdcage coil tailored for RF heating was capable of irradiating power exceeding the specific-absorption rate (SAR) limits defined by the IEC guidelines by a factor of three. This setup afforded RF induced temperature changes up to +27 K in a reference phantom. The maximum extra temperature increase, induced by a copper tube or a coronary stent was less than 3 K. The coronary stents examined showed an RF heating behavior similar to a copper tube. Our results suggest that, if IEC guidelines for local/global SAR are followed, the extra RF heating induced in myocardial tissue by stents may not be significant versus the baseline heating induced by the energy deposited by a tailored cardiac transmit RF coil at 7.0 T, and may be smaller if not insignificant than the extra RF heating observed under the circumstances used in this study. PMID:23185498
Santoro, Davide; Winter, Lukas; Muller, Alexander; Vogt, Julia; Renz, Wolfgang; Ozerdem, Celal; Grassl, Andreas; Tkachenko, Valeriy; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Niendorf, Thoralf
for the quantitative analysis of collagen content in the peristent and in-stent artery segments of both pig groupsJournal of Biomedical Optics 16(2), 021110 (February 2011) Stent-induced coronary artery stenosis to the interrogation of stented coronary arteries under different diet and stent deployment conditions. Bare metal
Myocardial infarction occurring in young people with angiographically normal coronary arteries is well described but the pathophysiology of this condition remains unknown. Coronary artery spasm in association with thrombus formation and minimal atheromatous disease or spontaneous coronary artery dissection are possible causes. Two young men presented with severe chest pain after acute alcohol intoxication and each sustained an extensive anterior myocardial infarction. Investigations including intravascular ultrasound showed no evidence of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. Coronary artery spasm associated with acute alcohol intoxication as well as a prothrombotic state and endothelial damage related to cigarette smoking may be mechanisms leading to acute myocardial infarction in these cases. Acute myocardial infarction occurs in young persons with normal coronary arteries and the diagnosis should be considered in young patients presenting with severe chest pain, particularly those abusing cocaine or alcohol, so that reperfusion therapy can be initiated promptly.?? Keywords: myocardial infarction; coronary vasospasm; alcohol; intravascular ultrasound PMID:9538315
Williams, M; Restieaux, N; Low, C
From 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2004, 22 patients (13 males, nine females; age range 2-12mo) with infantile spasms and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection were treated with intravenous ganciclovir (GCV) and antiepileptic drugs. GCV was given for 3 to 12 weeks with a 1-month interval (one, two, or three courses). Epileptic spasms occurred before…
Dunin-Wasowicz, Dorota; Kasprzyk-Obara, Jolanta; Jurkiewicz, Elzbieta; Kapusta, Monika; Milewska-Bobula, Bogumila
Infantile spasms (IS) is a devastating epilepsy syndrome of childhood. They occur in 3-12 month old infants and are characterized by spasms, interictal EEG hypsarrhythmia and profound mental retardation. Hormonal therapy (ACTH, corticosteroids) are frequently used, their efficacy is however tainted by severe side effects. For research of novel therapies, a validated animal model of IS is required. We propose the model of spastic seizures triggered by NMDA in infant rats prenatally exposed to betamethasone. The spasms have remarkable similarity to human IS, including motor flexion spasms, ictal EEG electrodecrement, and responsiveness to ACTH. Interestingly, the spasms do not involve the hippocampus. Autoradiographic metabolic mapping as well as tagging the areas of neuronal excitation with c-fos indicate a strong involvement of hypothalamic structures such as the arcuate nucleus, which has significant bilateral connections with other hypothalamic nuclei as well as with the brainstem. PMID:20618421
Velisek, Libor; Chachua, Tamar; Yum, Mi-Sun; Poon, Ka-Lai; Veliskova, Jana
Introduction: HIV protease inhibitor ritonavir (RTV) may induce vascular dysfunction through oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to determine whether a dietary antioxidant curcumin could prevent coronary arteries from RTV-induced injury.Methods: Porcine coronary arteries were incubated with RTV and\\/or curcumin for 24 hours. Vasomotor function was studied with a myograph tension system in response to thromboxane A2 analogue
Changyi J. Chen; Hong Chai; Shaoyu Yan; Peter Lin; Alan Lumsden; Qizhi Yao
Coronary arteriography (CA) can be used to delineate the abnormal anatomy in coronary artery disease (CAD), but the degree of the impairment of coronary blood flow (CBF) cannot be predicted precisely by CA. As a reduction in maximal hyperemic blood flow (MHBF) characterizes a functionally significant coronary lesion, the ratio of contrast-induced MHBF to basal CBF: the coronary flow reserve (CFR) reflects the physiologic significance of a coronary lesion. Recent developments in digital coronary angiography allow CFR to be measured at CA. To assess the relationship of CFR to other noninvasive tests of myocardial perfusion and function the results of stress T1 and RNV were compared to those of CA and CFR for the distribution of 48 arteries in 20 patients. Seven patients had normal CA without spasm: 3 with abnormal CFR had a discrete T1 defect or global RNV dysfunction. The remaining 4 had normal CFR, T1 and RNV. Thirteen had CAD without prior infarction. Segmental T1 and RNV were compared to CA and CFR. Normal CFR was seen in patients with both normal T1 and RNV; while T1 was best associated with abnormal CFR in CAD and may be the preferable noninvasive modality to identify physiologically significant, abnormal CBF in suspected cases of CAD.
Le Grand, V.; Vogel, R.; Gross, M.D.; Mancini, J.
Involuntary movement disorders are not a common presentation of basal ganglia ischemia which may be induced by cerebral hemodynamic insufficiency. In secondary causes of movements disorders cerebrovascular diseases represent up to 22% and involuntary movements develop after 1–4% of strokes. We describe a case of a middle-aged woman who presented with intermittent involuntary tonic spasms or seizure-like episodes followed by weakness due to contralateral putaminal infarction. Initially thought to have Todd’s paralysis she was not thrombolysed, but later she developed dense hemiplegia. Flexor spasms are generally thought to occur in lesions of the spinal cord but they can also occur in cerebral lesion, may be because of disinhibition of the spinal cord. Certain other theories also have been narrated, but this field still needs to be worked upon. PMID:24624049
Malik, Yasir Mehmood; Almadani, Abubaker Abdulrahman; Dar, Jaeed Ahmed
X-linked Infantile Spasms Syndrome (ISSX) is a catastrophic epilepsy of early childhood with intractable seizures, intellectual disability, and poor prognosis. A spectrum of mutations in the Aristaless-Related Homeobox gene (ARX) has been linked to ISSX, and downstream targets of this interneuron-expressed transcription factor are being defined. Recent advances combining in vitro and in vivo methods have unveiled complex interactions between Arx and its binding partners and their effects on cell migration and maturation that can help explain the diversity of ARX phenotypes. New mutant mouse models of Arx-induced pathology, including a recent human triplet-repeat expansion mutation with a phenotype of infantile spasms and electrographic seizures, provide valuable tools for exploring the pathophysiology of Arx and substrates for testing novel therapies. PMID:22565167
Olivetti, Pedro R; Noebels, Jeffrey L
OBJECTIVE--To investigate the release of chemoattractants after myocardial ischaemia during balloon angioplasty. DESIGN--Sampling of femoral arterial and coronary sinus blood before and immediately after the first balloon inflation during angioplasty. In a study group of 16 patients the balloon was kept expanded for two minutes, whereas in a control group of eight patients the first balloon inflation was brief (< 10 s). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Chemotaxis of neutrophils from healthy donors towards patient plasma (Boyden chamber), superoxide anion production by normal neutrophils after incubation with patient plasma (cytochrome C reduction). RESULTS--In the study group, coronary sinus plasma after balloon deflation was more chemoattractive to normal neutrophils (median relative increase 24% (quartiles: 4%, 45%), p = 0.008) and induced a higher superoxide anion production in normal neutrophils (44% (10%, 97%), p = 0.013) than arterial plasma. Concomitantly, the degree of activation of patient neutrophils was increased in coronary sinus blood compared with arterial blood, as shown by an increased proportion of neutrophils reducing nitro-blue tetrazolium (21% (9%, 38%), p = 0.006) and a decreased neutrophil filter-ability (-16%(-3%, -40%), p = 0.003) in coronary sinus blood. In the study group before balloon inflation and in the control group before and after balloon inflation differences between arterial and coronary sinus blood were not significant. Signs of ischaemia (lactate release, ST segment changes) were only detected in the study group. CONCLUSION--After transient myocardial ischaemia during balloon angioplasty there is a local release of chemoattractants, associated with neutrophil activation. PMID:8037995
Neumann, F J; Richardt, G; Schneider, M; Ott, I; Haupt, H M; Tillmanns, H; Schomig, A; Rauch, B
Postoperative upper airway obstruction during recovery from general anaesthesia may have several causes. This is a report of a young girl who developed laryngeal spasm as a result of an ectopic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides. PMID:23679043
Finsnes, K D
Epileptic spasms, or seizures marked by flexor, extensor, or flexor-extensor spasms, are not always responsive to medical management. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the outcome of epilepsy surgery in children with medically intractable epileptic spasms. We identified 11 children with epileptic spasms who underwent lesionectomy (36%), lobectomy (27%), multi-lobectomy (9%), hemispherectomy (18%), or corpus callosotomy (9%). At the time of surgery, 6 children had developed other concurrent seizure type(s), including simple partial (9%), complex partial (27%), partial undifferentiated (9%), primary generalized tonic clonic (9%), tonic (9%), atonic (27%), and myoclonic (9%) seizures. Six children (55%) were seizure free at last follow-up from initial surgery. Predictors of favorable outcome included lack of focal slowing and the presence of less than 2 interictal epileptiform abnormalities on postoperative electroencephalogram (P = .035 and .035, respectively). Favorable outcome was significantly associated with parent/caregiver report of improved postoperative developmental outcomes (P = .026). PMID:22123426
Moseley, Brian D; Nickels, Katherine; Wirrell, Elaine C
The incidence of cocaine-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in pregnancy is unknown. During the peripartum period, cocaine-abusing women are highly susceptible to MI caused by the effect of cocaine on a heart that is already stressed by hemodynamic changes of pregnancy. MI is an infrequent event during pregnancy and the peripartum period, with an estimated rate of 1 in 16,000 patients. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) can account for up to 27% of pregnancy-related MIs. We describe a case of MI diagnosed by increased troponin I levels in a postpartum patient with recent crack cocaine use in the setting of SCAD that required percutaneous coronary intervention of the left anterior descending and diagonal arteries. We also provide a comprehensive review of published literature related to this clinical entity. PMID:23913612
Katikaneni, Pavan K; Akkus, Nuri I; Tandon, Neeraj; Modi, Kalgi
Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) has gained increasing attention in clinical practice, particularly during coronary angiography (CAG). However, some "bioequivalent" generic (GE) drugs are less effective than the innovator (IN) drug. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare contrast media (IN drug)-induced renal dysfunction with contrast media (GE drug)-induced dysfunction. We enrolled 44 patients who underwent elective CAG or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and randomly divided them into two groups that received contrast media (Iohexol, nonionic and low-osmolality contrast agent) containing either IN drug (Omnipaque) or GE drug (Iopaque). Blood and urine sampling were performed before and after (24 and 48 h) CAG or PCI. Biochemical parameters in blood (serum creatinine, cystatin C, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and pentraxin-3) and urine (urinary albumin/Cr and liver-type fatty acid binding protein/Cr) were measured. There were no significant differences in the biochemical parameters at baseline between the groups. In addition, there were no differences in changes in biochemical parameters in blood and urine before and after CAG or PCI between the groups, although one patient in the GE group had CIN. The degree of contrast in Iopaque-induced renal dysfunction was comparable with that in Omnipaque-induced dysfunction. PMID:24072136
Nakamura, Ayumi; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Sugihara, Makoto; Miyase, Yuiko; Norimatsu, Kenji; Shiga, Yuhei; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Saku, Keijiro
The pathophysiological mechanisms of epileptic spasms are still poorly understood. The role of subcortical structures has been suggested on the basis of non-localized EEG features and from experimental data. The description of asymmetric spasms associated with lateralized EEG patterns has challenged this view and raises the possibility of a cortical origin. This study investigated the cortical organization of partial seizures associated with epileptic spasms in children undergoing intracerebral EEG recordings for presurgical evaluation. Eleven children with drug resistant epileptic spasms and for whom depth electrode recordings were performed were retrospectively studied. In all children several features suggested a focal origin. Cortical involvement was studied using the "Epileptogenicity Index" (EI). A focal origin was finally demonstrated in 10/11 patients. Seven patients demonstrated pre-ictal changes in the seizure onset zone area. EI analysis showed maximal values in the temporal (n=5), parietal (n=1) or frontal (n=5) cortices. EEG changes were also observed in the premotor cortex during spasms in patients with frontal or parietal seizures and in 3/5 patients with temporal lobe seizures. Good surgical outcome (class I or II) was obtained in 7/10 patients. Seizures associated with epileptic spasms may originate from various cortical regions. Premotor/motor cortices are probably involved in determining ictal clinical changes. PMID:25212728
de la Vaissière, Sabine; Milh, Mathieu; Scavarda, Didier; Carron, Romain; Lépine, Anne; Trébuchon, Agnes; Gavaret, Martine; Hewett, Russell; Laguitton, Virginie; Daquin, Géraldine; Villeneuve, Nathalie; Bartolomei, Fabrice
Single photon emission computed tomography with thallium-201 during adenosine-induced coronary hyperemia: Correlation with coronary arteriography, exercise thallium imaging and two-dimensional echocardiography
The feasibility, safety and diagnostic accuracy of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with thallium-201 imaging during adenosine-induced coronary hyperemia were evaluated in 53 patients with and 7 without coronary artery disease proved by coronary angiography. Adenosine was infused intravenously at a dose of 0.14 mg/kg body weight per min for 6 min and thallium was injected at 3 min. Adenosine caused an increase in heart rate (68 +/- 12 at baseline versus 87 +/- 18 beats/min at peak effect, p less than 0.0001) but no change in blood pressure. The sensitivity and specificity were 92% (95% confidence intervals 81% to 98%) and 100% (95% confidence intervals 59% to 100%), respectively; 20 (61%) of 33 patients with multivessel coronary artery disease were also correctly identified. In 30 patients, the predictive accuracy of adenosine thallium imaging was slightly higher than that of exercise SPECT thallium imaging (90% versus 80%, p = NS) (95% confidence intervals 72% to 97% and 61% to 92%, respectively). In 25 patients, two-dimensional echocardiography during adenosine infusion disclosed a new wall motion abnormality in 2 (10%) of 20 patients with coronary artery disease; 80% of these patients had reversible thallium defects (p less than 0.001). Side effects were mild and transient; aminophylline was used in only three patients. Thus, adenosine SPECT thallium imaging provides a high degree of accuracy in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. The results are comparable with those of exercise SPECT thallium imaging. Most reversible defects in the adenosine study are not associated with any transient wall motion abnormality.
Nguyen, T.; Heo, J.; Ogilby, J.D.; Iskandrian, A.S. (Philadelphia Heart Institute, PA (USA))
The effects of single-vessel coronary occlusion on simultaneously evaluated right (RV) and left ventricular (LV) performance were assessed and compared with LV perfusion patterns in 25 patients with variant angina. Coronary spasm involved the right coronary artery in 15 patients (group 1) and the left anterior descending coronary artery in 10 patients (group 2). Biventricular function was assessed by radionuclide angiography under basal conditions, during spontaneous or ergonovine-induced ischemia, and after resolution of the ischemic attack. Myocardial perfusion was assessed by thallium 201 scintigraphy in 21 patients of this series during superimposable ischemic episodes. In group 1, ischemia caused RV (14 of 15 patients) and LV (13 of 15 patients) regional dysfunction with significant reduction in RV and LV ejection fractions. The interventricular spetum was involved in six of 15 patients, causing a more pronounced LV impairment. In group 2, all patients showed septal dyssynergies associated with a reduction of LV ejection fraction; absent or trivial RV involvement was observed. In both groups, LV perfusion defects were present in all patients with LV wall motion abnormalities during ischemia, matching the site of regional dyssynergies. Thus, in a group of patients with variant angina and single-vessel disease, transient occlusion of the right coronary artery directly caused RV and LV impairment; in these patients, the extent of LV but not RV dysfunction appeared related to the presence of septal ischemia. Vasospasm of the left anterior descending coronary artery consistently caused LV dysfunction not associated with secondary effects on RV systolic function.
Neglia, D.; Parodi, O.; Marzullo, P.; Sambuceti, G.; Marcassa, C.; Michelassi, C.; L'Abbate, A. (CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy))
Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), oral corticosteroids and vigabatrin are now first-line treatments for infantile spasms in the US and Europe. There is now increased knowledge regarding the role of ACTH, corticosteroids and vigabatrin (e.g. efficacy, doses, side effects, treatment in specific aetiological subtypes of infantile spasms), and other antiepileptic drugs (i.e. topiramate, valproate, zonisamide, sulthiame, levetiracetam, lamotrigine, pyridoxine, ganaxolone), as well as adjunctive flunarizine and novel drugs not yet in clinical use for infantile spasms (i.e. pulse rapamycin and melanocortin receptor agonists). The existence of a latent period, weeks to months following a precipitating brain insult, raises the possibility of preventive interventions. Recent experimental data emerging from animal models of infantile spasms have provided optimism that new and innovative treatments can be developed, and knowledge that drug treatment can affect long-term cognitive outcome is increasing. The aim of this article is to review recent developments in the pharmacotherapy of infantile spasms and to highlight the practical implications of the latest research. PMID:24504827
Dipyridamole-thallium-201 imaging is often performed in patients unable to exercise because of peripheral vascular disease. Many of these patients are taking pentoxifylline (Trental), a methylxanthine derivative which may improve intermittent claudication. Whether pentoxifylline inhibits dipyridamole-induced coronary hyperemia like other methylxanthines such as theophylline and should be stopped prior to dipyridamole-thallium-201 imaging is unknown. Therefore, we studied the hyperemic response to dipyridamole in seven open-chest anesthetized dogs after pretreatment with either pentoxifylline (0, 7.5, or 15 mg/kg i.v.) or theophylline (3 mg/kg i.v.). Baseline circumflex coronary blood flows did not differ significantly among treatment groups. Dipyridamole significantly increased coronary blood flow before and after 7.5 or 15 mm/kg i.v. pentoxifylline (p less than 0.002). Neither dose of pentoxifylline significantly decreased the dipyridamole-induced hyperemia, while peak coronary blood flow was significantly lower after theophylline (p less than 0.01). We conclude that pentoxyifylline does not inhibit dipyridamole-induced coronary hyperemia even at high doses.
Brown, K.A.; Slinker, B.K. (Univ. of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington (USA))
The author has produced a reference and teaching book on balloon angioplasty. Because it borders in surgery and is performed on an awake patient without circulatory assistance, it is a complex and demanding procedure that requires thorough knowledge before it is attempted. The text is divided into seven sections. The first section describes coronary anatomy and pathophysiology, defines the objectives and mechanisms of the procedure and lists four possible physiologic results. The next section describes equipment in the catheterization laboratory, catheters, guidewires and required personnel. The following section is on the procedure itself and includes a discussion of examination, testing, technique and follow-up. The fourth section details possible complications that can occur during the procedure, such as coronary spasms, occlusion, thrombosis, perforations and ruptures, and also discusses cardiac surgery after failed angioplasty. The fifth section details complex or unusual cases that can occur. The sixth and seventh sections discuss radiation, alternative procedures and the future of angioplasty.
The effectiveness of topical peppermint oil added to barium sulphate suspension in relieving colonic muscle spasm during double contrast barium enema examination was assessed in a double blind study. 141 patients were randomized either to a control group (71 patients) examined with standard barium suspension or to the treatment group which received peppermint oil mixed with the barium preparation. No residual spasm was evident in a significant proportion of patients in the treated group (60%) compared with the control group (35%) (p < 0.001). The patients' acceptability of the procedure was good and there were no adverse effects on the overall quality of the examination. In conclusion, the addition of peppermint oil to the barium suspension seems to reduce the incidence of colonic spasm during the examination. The technique is simple, safe, cheap and it may lessen the need for intravenous administration of spasmolytic agents. PMID:7551780
Sparks, M J; O'Sullivan, P; Herrington, A A; Morcos, S K
Background Cocaine is a major cause of acute coronary syndrome (ACS), especially in young adults; however, the mechanistic underpinning of cocaine-induced ACS remains limited. Previous studies in animals and in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization suggest that cocaine constricts coronary microvessels, yet direct evidence is lacking. Methods and Results We used myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) to test the hypothesis that cocaine causes vasoconstriction in the human coronary microcirculation. Measurements were performed at baseline and after a low non-intoxicating dose of intranasal cocaine (2 mg/kg) in 10 healthy cocaine-naïve young men (median age 32 years). Post-destruction time-intensity MCE kinetic data were fit to the equation: y = A(1-e- ? t) to quantify functional capillary blood volume (A), microvascular flow velocity (?), and myocardial perfusion (A × ?). Heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and LV work (two-dimensional echocardiography) were measured before and 45 minutes after cocaine. Cocaine increased MAP (+14±2 mmHg; mean ± SE), HR (+8±3 beats/min), and LV work (+50±18 mmHg·mL-1·bpm-1). Despite increasing these determinants of myocardial oxygen demand, myocardial perfusion decreased by 30% (103.7±9.8 to 75.9±10.8 a.u/s, p<0.01) due mainly to decreased capillary blood volume (133.9±5.1 to 111.7±7.7 a.u., p<.05) with no significant change in microvascular flow velocity (0.8±0.1 to 0.7±0.1 a.u.). Conclusions In healthy cocaine-naïve young adults, a low-dose cocaine challenge evokes a sizeable decrease in myocardial perfusion. Moreover, the predominant effect is to decrease myocardial capillary blood volume rather than microvascular flow velocity, suggesting a specific action of cocaine to constrict terminal feed arteries. PMID:23812179
Gurudevan, Swaminatha V.; Nelson, Michael D.; Rader, Florian; Tang, Xiu; Lewis, Joshua; Johannes, Jimmy; Belcik, J. Todd; Elashoff, Robert M.; Lindner, Jonathan R.; Victor, Ronald G.
Radiocontrast-induced nephropathy (RCIN) is an acute and severe complication after coronary angiography, particularly for patients with pre-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD). It has been associated with both short- and long-term adverse outcomes, including the need for renal replacement therapy, increased length of hospital stay, major cardiac adverse events, and mortality. RCIN is generally defined as an increase in serum creatinine concentration of 0.5 mg/dL or 25% above baseline within 48 h after contrast administration. There is no effective therapy once injury has occurred, therefore, prevention is the cornerstone for all patients at risk for acute kidney injury (AKI). There is a small but growing body of evidence that prevention of AKI is associated with a reduction in later adverse outcomes. The optimal strategy for preventing RCIN has not yet been established. This review discusses the principal risk factors for RCIN, evaluates and summarizes the evidence for RCIN prophylaxis, and proposes recommendations for preventing RCIN in CKD patients undergoing coronary angiography. PMID:22655164
Hung, Yao-Min; Lin, Shoa-Lin; Hung, Shih-Yuan; Huang, Wei-Chun; Wang, Paul Yung-Pou
Infantile spasms (IS, West syndrome) represent a difficult to treat and sometimes not immediately recognized form of epilepsy which is relatively rare. West Syndrome or IS is one of the most recognized types of epileptic encephalopathy, a form of epilepsy usually associated with developmental regression and delay, frequently difficult to treat and…
We present the case of a Japanese male infant with Alexander disease who developed infantile spasms at 8 months of age. The patient had a cluster of partial seizures at 4 months of age. He presented with mild general hypotonia and developmental delay. Macrocephaly was not observed. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings fulfilled all MRI-based criteria for the diagnosis of Alexander disease and revealed mild atrophy of the dorsal pons and medulla oblongata with abnormal intensities. DNA analysis disclosed a novel heterozygous missense mutation (c.1154 C>T, p.S385F) in the glial fibrillary acidic protein gene. At 8 months of age, tonic spasms occurred, and electroencephalography (EEG) revealed hypsarrhythmia. Lamotrigine effectively controlled the infantile spasms and improved the abnormal EEG findings. Although most patients with infantile Alexander disease have epilepsy, infantile spasms are rare. This comorbid condition may be associated with the distribution of the brain lesions and the age at onset of Alexander disease. PMID:22818990
Torisu, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Yoko; Yamaguchi-Takada, Yui; Yano, Tamami; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Sawaishi, Yukio; Hara, Toshiro
To compare the efficacy of emergency percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and intracoronary streptokinase in preventing exercise-induced periinfarct ischemia, 28 patients presenting within 12 hours of the onset of symptoms of acute myocardial infarction were prospectively randomized. Of these, 14 patients were treated with emergency angioplasty and 14 patients received intracoronary streptokinase. Recatheterization and submaximal exercise thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography were performed before hospital discharge. Periinfarct ischemia was defined as a reversible thallium defect adjacent to a fixed defect assessed qualitatively. Successful reperfusion was achieved in 86% of patients treated with emergency angioplasty and 86% of patients treated with intracoronary streptokinase (p = NS). Residual stenosis of the infarct-related coronary artery shown at predischarge angiography was 43.8 +/- 31.4% for the angioplasty group and 75.0 +/- 15.6% for the streptokinase group (p less than 0.05). Of the angioplasty group, 9% developed exercise-induced periinfarct ischemia compared with 60% of the streptokinase group (p less than 0.05). Thus, patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with emergency angioplasty had significantly less severe residual coronary stenosis and exercise-induced periinfarct ischemia than did those treated with intracoronary streptokinase. These results suggest further application of coronary angioplasty in the management of acute myocardial infarction.
Fung, A.Y.; Lai, P.; Juni, J.E.; Bourdillon, P.D.; Walton, J.A. Jr.; Laufer, N.; Buda, A.J.; Pitt, B.; O'Neill, W.W.
The effects of various selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors on muscle contractility and cyclic nucleotide content in the porcine coronary artery were investigated. Various selective PDE inhibitors, vinpocetine (type 1), erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine (EHNA, type 2), milrinone (type 3), rolipram (type 4), Ro20-1724 (type 4), and zaprinast (type 5), inhibited U46619-induced contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. The rank order of potency for the porcine coronary artery was rolipram > Ro20-1724 >milrinone > vinpocetine > zaprinast > EHNA, which was different from that of both the porcine carotid artery and aorta. Rolipram inhibited the U46619-induced muscle tension with a decreased [Ca(2+)](i) level, but inhibited the high K(+)-induced contraction without a change in [Ca(2+)](i) level. Rolipram increased cAMP but not cGMP content. Iberiotoxin restored the inhibition of muscle tension and the [Ca(2+)](i) levels induced by rolipram. U46619 and caffeine induced a transient increase in the [Ca(2+)](i) levels in a Ca(2+)-free solution, but rolipram only inhibited the U46619-induced Ca(2+) transient. In conclusion, rolipram is the most potent inhibitor in the porcine coronary artery, but not in the carotid artery and aorta. Moreover it is suggested that the mechanism by which rolipram causes relaxation is due to a decrease in the [Ca(2+)](i) levels and of the Ca(2+) sensitivity of the contractile elements to cAMP. PMID:20383031
Kaneda, Takeharu; Kubota, Takashi; Fujimoto, Kenji; Urakawa, Norimoto; Nakajyo, Shinjiro; Shimizu, Kazumasa
Several studies in the last years have shown that a dysfunction of coronary microcirculation may be responsible for abnormalities in coronary blood flow and some clinical pictures. Coronary microvascular dysfunction, in absence of other coronary artery abnormalities, can cause anginal symptoms, resulting in a condition named microvascular angina (MVA). MVA can occur in a chronic form, predominantly related to effort (stable MVA), more frequently referred as cardiac syndrome X, or in an acute form, most frequently ensuing at rest, which simulates an acute coronary syndrome (unstable MVA). The main abnormalities characterizing these two forms of MVA consist of an impaired vasodilation and an increased vasoconstriction of small resistive coronary arteries, respectively. The mechanisms responsible for stable MVA are still unclear, but seem to include, together with the known traditional cardiovascular risk factors, an abnormally increased cardiac adrenergic activity. The prognosis of stable MVA is good, but some patients have progressive worsening of symptoms. Clinical outcome of patients with unstable MVA is substantially unknown, as there are no specific studies about this population. Treatment of stable MVA includes traditional anti-ischemic drugs as first step; in case of persisting symptoms several other drugs have been proposed, including xanthine derivatives, ACE-inhibitors, statins and, in women, estrogens. Severe forms of intense constriction (or spasm) of small coronary arteries may cause transmural myocardial ischemia, as the microvascular form of variant angina and the tako-tsubo syndrome. PMID:21947187
Lamendola, Priscilla; Di Franco, Antonino; Tarzia, Pierpaolo; Milo, Maria; Laurito, Marianna; Lanza, Gaetano A
False positive ST-segment depression during exercise in subjects with short PR segment and angiographically normal coronaries: Correlation with exercise-induced ST depression in subjects with normal PR and normal coronaries
The aim of this study was to investigate exercise-induced ST-segment depression in subjects with a 120-ms or shorter PR segment and normal coronary arteries. A population of 86 individuals who demonstrated ST-segment depression of 1.5 mm or more on treadmill testing and had a subsequent normal coronary arteriography was classified into two groups. Group A (n = 71) comprised those
Michael M Myrianthefs; Evagoras P Nicolaides; Damianos Pitiris; Evros I Demetriades; Costakis M Zambartas
Objectives The goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of mental stress–induced myocardial ischemia. Background Mental stress–induced myocardial ischemia is prevalent and a risk factor for poor prognosis in patients with coronary heart disease, but past studies mainly studied patients with exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. Methods Eligible patients with clinically stable coronary heart disease, regardless of exercise stress testing status, underwent a battery of 3 mental stress tests followed by a treadmill test. Stress-induced ischemia, assessed by echocardiography and electrocardiography, was defined as: 1) development or worsening of regional wall motion abnormality; 2) left ventricular ejection fraction reduction ?8%; and/or 3) horizontal or downsloping ST-segment depression ?1 mm in 2 or more leads lasting for ?3 consecutive beats during at least 1 mental test or during the exercise test. Results Mental stress–induced ischemia occurred in 43.45%, whereas exercise-induced ischemia occurred in 33.79% (p = 0.002) of the study population (N = 310). Women (odds ratio [OR]: 1.88), patients who were not married (OR: 1.99), and patients who lived alone (OR: 2.24) were more likely to have mental stress–induced ischemia (all p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that compared with married men or men living with someone, unmarried men (OR: 2.57) and married women (OR: 3.18), or living alone (male OR: 2.25 and female OR: 2.72, respectively) had higher risk for mental stress-induced ischemia (all p < 0.05). Conclusions Mental stress-induced ischemia is more common than exercise-induced ischemia in patients with clinically stable coronary heart disease. Women, unmarried men, and individuals living alone are at higher risk for mental stress-induced ischemia. (Responses of Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram Treatment [REMIT]; NCT00574847) PMID:23410543
Jiang, Wei; Samad, Zainab; Boyle, Stephen; Becker, Richard C.; Williams, Redford; Kuhn, Cynthia; Ortel, Thomas L.; Rogers, Joseph; Kuchibhatla, Maragatha; O’Connor, Christopher; Velazquez, Eric J.
Background and Objectives Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This observational, non-randomized study evaluated the effect of rosuvastatin loading before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on the incidence of CIN in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Subjects and Methods A total of 824 patients who underwent PCI for ACS were studied (408 patients in the statin group=40 mg rosuvastatin loading before PCI; 416 patients of control group=no statin pretreatment). Serum creatinine concentrations were measured before and 24 and 48 hours after PCI. The primary endpoint was development of CIN defined as an increase in serum creatinine concentration of ?0.5 mg/dL or ?25% above baseline within 72 hours after PCI. Results The incidence of CIN was significantly lower in the statin group than that in the control group (18.8% vs. 13.5%, p=0.040). The maximum percent changes in serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate in the statin group within 48 hours were significantly lower than those in the control group (5.84±22.59% vs. 2.43±24.49%, p=0.038; -11.44±14.00 vs. -9.51±13.89, p=0.048, respectively). The effect of rosuvastatin on preventing CIN was greater in the subgroups of patients with diabetes, high-dose contrast medium, multivessel stents, high baseline C-reactive protein, and myocardial infarction. A multivariate analysis revealed that rosuvastatin loading was independently associated with a decreased risk for CIN (odds ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.43-0.95, p=0.026). Conclusion High-dose rosuvastatin loading before PCI was associated with a significantly lower incidence of CIN in patients with ACS. PMID:25278982
Lim, Jae Hong; Hwang, Kyo Bum; Woo, Sun Ho; Jeong, Jin Woo; Kim, Yong Cheol; Joe, Dai-Yeol; Ko, Jum Suk; Rhee, Sang Jae; Lee, Eun Mi; Oh, Seok Kyu
It has been reported that repeated brief balloon inflation during coronary angioplasty (PTCA) alleviates myocardial dysfunction. However, it has also been reported that PTCA does not induce ischemic tolerance. Six patients with stable angina pectoris were recruited for this study. They were scheduled for PTCA to a significant stenosis of the proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD). All patients had single-vessel coronary artery disease without angiographic evidence of collateral circulation and with normal wall motion. After the stenosis of LAD was dilated by a 30-s inflation, 60 s of balloon inflation was performed five times at 60-s intervals. Left ventricular regional work was determined in the first and fifth inflations, and the data were compared. Regional work of the interventricular septum decreased immediately after the balloon inflation (the first inflation: 5.3 +/- 1.0 --> 0.6 +/- 0.2 mJ/cm3; fifth inflation; 5.3 +/- 1.0 --> 0.6 +/- 0.3 mJ/cm3) and no statistically significant differences were found between the first and fifth inflations. After balloon deflation, the time required for the recovery of regional work was 30s in the fifth inflation, compared with 40 s in the first inflation (at 30 s after deflation, first inflation: 3.6 +/- 1.3 mJ/cm3; fifth inflation: 5.2 +/- 1.2 mJ/cm3). Although repeated balloon inflation did not change the amount of reduction in regional work, it improved the postischemic recovery of regional work. These results suggest ischemic tolerance. PMID:11289499
Isobe, N; Oshima, S; Taniguchi, K; Hoshizaki, H; Adachi, H; Toyama, T; Naito, S; Nogami, A; Sugawara, M
Many previous studies have shown diffuse esophageal spasm (DES) to be an infrequent clinical disorder. Over a 15-month period, 122 patients were evaluated by low-compliance pneumohydrolic esophageal manometry. The patients were referred for obscure undiagnosed chest pain. Diffuse esophageal spasm or its variance was found in 22 patients (18%). All patients had chest pain and 77% had associated solid and liquid food dysphagia. Medical therapy included treatment with a combination of anticholinergic medications, short- and long-acting nitrates, mild sedatives, and dietary adjustments. Follow-up clinical evaluation have been obtained in 73% of patients: medical treatment alone has been successful in impressively relieving symptoms in 10 patients, two have benefited from repeat pneumatic dilatations, and one patient has improved after pneumatic dilatation and subsequent Heller myotomy. A combination of accurate clinical history, endoscopy, barium swallow, and esophageal manometry should allow a reliable diagnosis of DES with a good chance of successful medical therapy. PMID:7175146
Patterson, D R
Background. Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) limits the outcome of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Objective. To investigate whether pretreatment with Compound Danshen Dripping Pills (CDDP) will decrease the incidence of CIN after PCI. Methods. A total of 229 patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing PCI were divided into the control group (n = 114) and the CDDP (containing salvia miltiorrhiza and sanqi) group (n = 115; given 20 CDDP pills, three times daily before PCI). Serum creatinine, creatinine clearance (CrCl), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), P-selectin, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were measured at admission and 24 and 48?h after PCI. Results. CrCl decreased after PCI but recovered after 48 h. In the CDDP group, CrCl recovered more rapidly (P < 0.05). The procedure increased the hsCRP, P-selectin, and ICAM-1 levels, but these levels were less in the CDDP group (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Pretreatment with CDDP can decrease the occurrence of CIN in patients undergoing PCI, suggesting that the early use of CDDP is an appropriate adjuvant pharmacological therapy before PCI. PMID:25386219
Yang, Rong; Chang, Liang; Guo, Bing-yan; Wang, Yan-wei; Wang, Ya-ling; Jin, Xin; Liu, Su-yun; Li, Yong-jun
Dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is very rare, acquired lesion that may present with intracranial hemorrhage or neurological deficits. The etiology is not completely understood but dural AVF often has been associated with thrombosis of the involved dural sinuses. To our knowledge, this is the first well documented intracranial hemorrhage case caused by dural AVF following microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm. A 49-year-old male patient had left microvascular decompression of anterior inferior cerebellar artery via retrosigmoid suboccipital craniotomy. The patient was in good condition without any residual spasm or surgery-related complications. However, after 10 months, he suffered sudden onset of amnesia and dysarthria. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of dural AVF around the left transverse-sigmoid sinus. The dural AVF was treated with Onyx® (ev3) embolization. At the one-year follow up visit, there were no evidence of recurrence and morbidity related to dural AVF and its treatment. This case confirms that the acquired etiology of dural AVF may be associated with retrosigmoid suboccipital craniotomy for hemifacial spasm, even though it is an extremely consequence of this procedure. PMID:25328659
Kim, Sung Han; Chang, Won Seok; Jung, Hyun Ho
Triorganotins, such as tributyltin (TBT), are environmental contaminants that are commonly used as antifouling agents for boats. However, TBT is also known to alter mammalian reproductive functions. Although the female sex hormones are primarily involved in the regulation of reproductive functions, 17?-estradiol also protects against cardiovascular diseases, in that this hormone reduces the incidence of coronary artery disease via coronary
Roger Lyrio dos Santos; Priscila Lang Podratz; Gabriela Cavati Sena; Vicente Sathler Delgado Filho; Pedro Francisco Iguatemy Lopes; Washington Luiz Silva Gonçalves; Leandro Miranda Alves; Vivian Yochiko Samoto; Christina Maeda Takiya; Emilio de Castro Miguel; Margareth Ribeiro Moysés; Jones Bernardes Graceli
Objective: After coronary microembolization (ME) adenosine is released from ischemic areas of the microembolized myocardium. This adenosine dilates vessels in adjacent nonembolized myocardium and increases coronary blood flow. For ischemic preconditioning (IP) to protect the myocardium against infarction, an increase in the interstitial adenosine concentration (iADO) prior to the subsequent ischemia\\/reperfusion is necessary. We hypothesized that the adenosine release after
Andreas Skyschally; Rainer Schulz; Petra Gres; Ina Konietzka; Claus Martin; Michael Haude; Raimund Erbel; Gerd Heusch
We present the case of a 50-year-old female patient with Friedreich ataxia (FA) who was treated successfully with an intrathecal baclofen (ITB)-delivering pump for painful spasms. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case of FA where ITB relieved painful and disabling spasms. We suggest that ITB should be considered in the treatment of disabling spasms in patients with FA. PMID:24348400
Berntsson, Shala Ghaderi; Holtz, Anders; Melberg, Atle
Myocardial perfusion imaging of /sup 201/TI injected during maximum exercise has been an important diagnostic tool for coronary artery disease. Pharmacologic coronary vasodilation by i.v. infusion of dipyridamole may be used in lieu of exercise stress for purposes of diagnostic perfusion imaging. However, i.v. dipyridamole is not currently available from commercial sources for widespread routine use. Accordingly, this study was carried out in order to determine whether high dose, oral dipyridamole would be useful as a coronary vasodilator for purposes of diagnostic perfusion imaging. Fifty-eight patients undergoing diagnostic coronary arteriography also had myocardial perfusion imaging with 201TI under conditions of rest, maximum exercise stress, and high dose oral dipyridamole. Of those patients who had a defect on exercise thallium images, 75% also had a perfusion defect on thallium images after high dose oral dipyridamole. These results indicate that oral dipyridamole causes sufficient coronary arteriolar vasodilation and increase of coronary flow in nonstenotic arteries to identify perfusion defects comparable to those seen on maximum exercise stress in at least 75% of cases. In 25% of patients with exercise defects, no perfusion defect was seen after oral dipyridamole. Thus, oral dipyridamole is a potent coronary vasodilator, comparable to exercise stress in most cases, but in a minority of patients may not be comparable to exercise stress.
Gould, K.L.; Sorenson, S.G.; Albro, P.; Caldwell, J.H.; Chaudhuri, T.; Hamilton, G.W.
This experimental study was designed to clarify the relationship between cardiomyocyte apoptosis and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) expression, and confirm the effect of TNF-? on cardiac dysfunction after coronary microembolization (CME) in mini-pigs. Nineteen mini-pigs were divided into three groups: sham-operation group (n = 5), CME group (n = 7) and adalimumab pre-treatment group (n = 7; TNF-? antibody, 2 mg/kg intracoronary injection before CME). Magnetic resonance imaging (3.0-T) was performed at baseline, 6th hour and 1 week after procedure. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was detected by cardiac-TUNEL staining, and caspase-3 and caspase-8 were detected by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, serum TNF-?, IL-6 and troponin T were analysed, while myocardial expressions of TNF-? and IL-6 were detected. Both TNF-? expression (serum level and myocardial expression) and average number of apoptotic cardiomyocyte nuclei were significantly increased in CME group compared with the sham-operation group. Six hours after CME, left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) was increased and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was decreased in CME group. Pre-treatment with adalimumab not only significantly improved LVEF after CME (6th hour: 54.9 ± 2.3% versus 50.4 ± 3.9%, P = 0.036; 1 week: 56.7 ± 4.2% versus 52.7 ± 2.9%, P = 0.041), but also suppressed cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-8. Meanwhile, the average number of apoptotic cardiomyocytes nuclei was inversely correlated with LVEF (r = -0.535, P = 0.022). TNF-?-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis is likely involved in cardiac dysfunction after CME. TNF-? antibody therapy suppresses cardiomyocyte apoptosis and improves early cardiac function after CME. PMID:25130514
Chen, Zhang-Wei; Qian, Ju-Ying; Ma, Jian-Ying; Chang, Shu-Fu; Yun, Hong; Jin, Hang; Sun, Ai-Jun; Zou, Yun-Zeng; Ge, Jun-Bo
Background Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The aim of this study is to evaluate the collective probability of CIN in Indian population by developing a scoring system of several identified risk factors in patients undergoing PCI. Methods This is a prospective single center study of 1200 consecutive patients who underwent PCI from 2008 to 2011. Patients were randomized in 3:1 ratio into development (n = 900) and validation (n = 300) groups. CIN was defined as an increase of ?25% and/or ?0.5 mg/dl in serum creatinine at 48 hours after PCI when compared to baseline value. Seven independent predictors of CIN were identified using logistic regression analysis - amount of contrast, diabetes with microangiopathy, hypotension, peripheral vascular disease, albuminuria, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and anemia. A formula was then developed to identify the probability of CIN using the logistic regression equation. Results The mean (±SD) age was 57.3 (±10.2) years. 83.6% were males. The total incidence of CIN was 9.7% in the development group. The total risk of renal replacement therapy in the study group is 1.1%. Mortality is 0.5%. The risk scoring model correlated well in the validation group (incidence of CIN was 8.7%, sensitivity 92.3%, specificity 82.1%, c statistic 0.95). Conclusion A simple risk scoring equation can be employed to predict the probability of CIN following PCI, applying it to each individual. More vigilant preventive measures can be applied to the high risk candidates.
Victor, Suma M.; Gnanaraj, Anand; S., VijayaKumar; Deshmukh, Rajendra; Kandasamy, Mani; Janakiraman, Ezhilan; Pandurangi, Ulhas M.; Latchumanadhas, K.; Abraham, Georgi; Mullasari, Ajit S.
Summary We show evidence that the motonucleus of the facial nerve is involved in producing the synkinesis in patients with hemifacial spasm. These results were obtained by recording from the intracranial portion of the facial nerve and from the orbicularis oculi muscle in patients operated upon for hemifacial spasm during electrical stimulation of the mandibular branch of the facial nerve.
A. R. Møller; P. J. Jannetta
Background. Mental stress-induced ischemia, as detected by radionuclide studies, has yielded reversible ischemia in only 30%\\u000a to 60% of patients with exercise-induced ischemia. Little is known about the reproducibility of myocardial perfusion imaging\\u000a in detecting mental stress-induced ischemia. The purpose of this study was to further evaluate the occurrence and reproducibility\\u000a of mental stress-induced ischemia in patients with coronary artery
Chin K. Kim; Beth A. Bartholomew; Suzanne T. Mastin; Vicente C. Taasan; Kimberly M. Carson; David S. Sheps
Background and objectives Restenosis is a complication of interventional procedures such as angioplasty and stenting, often limiting the success of these procedures. Knowledge regarding the relative behaviour of different arteries after these procedures is limited, despite the extensive use of different vascular models. Although the results from studies using different vessels are analysed to predict the behaviour of coronary arteries and other vasculature, direct controlled comparisons between different arteries are necessary for a better understanding of the differential response to restenosis. Methods This study examines the response to stenting in coronary and internal iliac arteries as characterised by intimal hyperplasia and restenosis. In a swine model of in?stent stenosis, coronary arteries exhibited higher levels of intimal hyperplasia and per cent stenosis than internal iliac arteries. Results After normalisation for injury score, coronary arteries were found to undergo 47% more intimal hyperplasia (p<0.05), whereas per cent stenosis normalised for injury score tended to be higher (p?=?0.01). Other measurements reflecting post?stenting intimal hyperplasia (maximal intimal thickness, medial area) did not exhibit significant differences between the artery groups. Conclusions These results show that coronary vessels are more prone to develop significant intimal hyperplasia and subsequent restenosis than internal iliac vessels. A better insight into how different arteries and arterial components behave is important in understanding and developing newer and better therapeutic measures for restenosis. PMID:16473929
Krueger, K D; Mitra, A K; DelCore, M G; Hunter, W J; Agrawal, D K
The authors studied autopsy protocols, microscopic and histochemical data on the heart for miners who had died suddenly. No positive trend in the sudden coronary death incidence in miners was reported. A great number of sudden deaths were registered in mines. The deaths are attributed to severe atherosclerosis responsible for irreversible changes in the myocardium, coronary vascular spasms, emergence of pathological agitation triggering lethal ischemia. PMID:8303594
Kopytina, R A; Cherkesov, V V; Kobets, G P; Danilik, V M; Zorin, B N; Tsygankov, V A; Fufaeva, I G; Kamkov, V P
Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) frequently result from the rupture or erosion of a vulnerable coronary plaque, with associated intracoronary thrombosis. ACS also may occur in patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries. Some of these patients, however, still have angiographically silent underlying coronary artery disease. In this setting, subtle atherosclerotic changes frequently associated with unstable morphologic features or residual intracoronary thrombus may be detected with intracoronary imaging techniques. Nevertheless, other patients develop ACS as a result of nonatherosclerotic coronary artery disease (NA-CAD). ACS in patients with NA-CAD may be the consequence of coronary spasm or transient coronary embolic phenomena. In these patients, after the initial ischemic insult, late coronary angiography usually reveals normal epicardial coronary vessels. Kounis syndrome is a type of ACS generated by allergic reactions. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is characterized by normal coronary arteries with a distinct pattern of transient left ventricular wall motion abnormalities. ACS also may occur in young patients following illicit drug use. Finally, spontaneous coronary artery dissection and intramural hematoma represent other etiologies of NA-CAD. In this review, we discuss current evidence regarding diagnostic and treatment strategies in patients presenting with ACS as a result of NA-CAD. PMID:25308305
Bastante, Teresa; Rivero, Fernando; Cuesta, Javier; Benedicto, Amparo; Restrepo, Jorge; Alfonso, Fernando
In this report, the case of a 40-year-old patient with chronic total occlusion of the left main coronary artery is discussed. Total occlusion of the left main coronary artery is a rare finding at coronary angiography. When present, patients most often have extensive collateral circulation from the right coronary artery. The mainstay of treatment is surgical with coronary artery bypass grafting. PMID:18388044
Koster, Nancy K; White, Michael
1. Class I antiarrhythmic drugs (e.g. Na+ channel blockers) such as propafenone and quinidine also inhibit voltage-gated Ca2+ and K+ channels. In the present paper the voltage- and time-dependent inhibitory effects of propafenone and quinidine were studied on depolarization-induced vascular contractions and 45Ca2+ uptake in isolated endothelium denuded rat aorta and pig left descending coronary artery. 2. Quinidine and propafenone (10(-7) M -5 x 10(-5) M) produced a concentration-dependent relaxation of the contractions induced by 80 mM KCl. Propafenone was significantly more potent (P < 0.05) than quinidine in both rat aorta and pig coronary arteries but both drugs more potent (P < 0.05) in relaxing rat aorta than pig coronary arteries. In rat aortic rings, the relaxant effects of propafenone were unaffected by pretreatment with the Na+ channel blocker, tetrodotoxin. 3. The degree of inhibition produced after prolonged exposure (40 min) to propafenone and quinidine differed as the time of depolarization with 80 mM KCl was increased. Quinidine (3 x 10(-6) M, 10(-5) M and 3 x 10(-5) M) not only produced an inhibition at the very early stage of contraction, but also a time-dependent inhibition was observed. In contrast, propafenone (10(-6) M, 3 x 10(-6) M and 10(-5) M) produced a more marked concentration-dependent early block but only a mild time-dependent inhibition.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7889284
Perez-Vizcaino, F; Fernandez del Pozo, B; Zaragoza, F; Tamargo, J
Chest pain is often seen alongside with panic attacks. Moreover, panic disorder has been suggested as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and even a trigger for acute coronary syndrome. Patients with coronary artery disease may have myocardial ischemia in response to mental stress, in which panic attack is a strong component, by an increase in coronary vasomotor tone or sympathetic hyperactivity setting off an increase in myocardial oxygen consumption. Indeed, coronary artery spasm was presumed to be present in cases of cardiac ischemia linked to panic disorder. These findings correlating panic disorder with coronary artery disease lead us to raise questions about the favorable prognosis of chest pain in panic attack. To investigate whether myocardial ischemia is the genesis of chest pain in panic attacks, we developed a myocardial perfusion study through research by myocardial scintigraphy in patients with panic attacks induced in the laboratory by inhalation of 35% carbon dioxide. In conclusion, from the data obtained, some hypotheses are discussed from the viewpoint of endothelial dysfunction and microvascular disease present in mental stress response. PMID:24188891
Soares-Filho, Gastão L F; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Santulli, Gaetano; Mesquita, Claudio T; Cosci, Fiammetta; Silva, Adriana C; Nardi, Antonio E
Seven boys aged between 14 months and 13 years with focal or multifocal partial epilepsy had very unusual seizures, characterized by series of periodic bilateral spasms. These consisted of a brief, complex movement of slight to severe intensity, mainly involving the axial muscles, with raising of the shoulders, adversion of the eyes and head, often with rictus-type facial grimaces and occasional stretching of the legs and emission of a guttural sound. The ictal EEG showed a pattern of periodic complexes, characterized by a slow wave with superimposed fast activity. This form of epileptic seizure is resistant to treatment and is found only in patients affected by a brain disease consisting of a fixed or progressive encephalopathy. These observations document the existence of a rare form of seizure or epileptic event, not yet included in the International Classification of epileptic seizures and clinically relevant because of its diagnostic and prognostic implications. PMID:3121418
Gobbi, G; Bruno, L; Pini, A; Giovanardi Rossi, P; Tassinari, C A
Hemifacial spasm is a syndrome of intermittent and tonic unilateral facial muscular contraction; mild facial weakness on the same side is also frequently present. Hemifacial spasm can be differentiated clinically from habit spasms, blepharospasm, facial synkinesis following Bell's palsy, facial myokymia, and masticatory spasm. The syndrome of hemifacial spasm is caused by a variety of lesions; the common feature appears to be compression of the facial nerve at the pons. Diagnostic studies do not usually add significant information to that gained from the history and physical examination. The best current treatment (aside from removing an etiologic lesion such as a posterior fossa tumor in the small percentage of cases with such lesions) is microvascular decompression of the facial nerve at the pons through a retromastoid craniectomy. Of 30 patients treated in this manner, 28 have been satisfied with the results. On the most recent follow-up examination, 16 had no hemifacial spasm, nine had only slight periodic twitching about the eye, and three had occasional mild episodes of hemifacial spasm. PMID:7313739
Wilkins, R H
We report four patients with infantile spasms and the congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome. Onset of spasms occurred during the first 6 months of life. Response to corticotropin treatment was prompt and resulted in resolution of seizures in all patients. Epilepsy developed in the four children after an interval of 2 to 12 years. Developmental outcome was variable; three were severely restricted and one was married and lived independently. Imaging studies revealed bilateral perisylvian lesions characteristic of polymicrogyria. Infantile spasms may be the presenting seizure type in some patients with the congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome. PMID:7822736
Kuzniecky, R; Andermann, F; Guerrini, R
The QRS axis of 130 consecutive patients with coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) were measured before balloon inflation and just before balloon deflation. Patients were divided into two groups. Group A (103) had angina pectoris and/or non-transmural old myocardial infarction with no abnormal Q waves; group B (27) had an old transmural myocardial infarction with abnormal Q waves. In group A, the QRS axis had significantly shifted to the left in patients with left anterior descending artery (LAD) occlusion (from 68.0 +/- 42.7 degrees to 40.2 +/- 44.6 degrees, P < 0.001); however in those patients without involvement of the major septal branch, significant axis changes were not observed (from 53.6 +/- 34.1 degrees to 49.8 +/- 33.1 degrees). When the right coronary artery (RCA) was occluded in group A, the QRS axis shifted to the right significantly (from 63.2 +/- 40.0 degrees to 89.8 +/- 30.1 degrees. P < 0.01); during left circumflex artery (LCX) occlusion, no significant axis shift was observed. In group B, no significant axis shift was observed either in patients with occlusion of the LAD or the RCA. It is concluded that transient left axis deviation reflects an obstructive lesion of the proximal portion of the LAD with involvement of the major septal branch, and transient right axis deviation reflects an obstructive lesion of the RCA. PMID:7821318
Shirota, K; Ogino, K; Hoshio, A; Kasahara, T; Kotake, H; Endo, S; Mashiba, H
Diffuse oesophageal spasm is a functional oesophageal motility disorder of unknown aetiology, which appears to be due to a disturbance of the normal pharmacological timing of propulsive contraction occurring in the oesophageal body after swallowing. The lack of pathophysiological understanding may be due to the fact that there is more than one pathophysiological pathway causing symptoms of diffuse oesophageal spasm. Barium studies, oesophageal scintigraphy and fiberoptic examination can be helpful in finding the correct diagnosis, but manometry is still the gold standard of diagnostic procedures. Similar to other spastic oesophageal motility disorders, pharmacological treatment of diffuse oesophageal spasm includes nitrates, calcium antagonists, anticholinergics and antidepressants with varying beneficial effects. Botulinum toxin, which provides sufficient treatment as measured by symptom score and manometric patterns in patients with achalasia, was recently evaluated for the treatment of diffuse oesophageal spasm in small patient selections with promising results. PMID:11368284
Storr, M; Allescher, H D; Classen, M
Blepharospasm, the most frequent feature of cranial dystonia, and hemifacial spasm are two involuntary movement disorders that affect facial muscles. The cause of blepharospasm and other forms of cranial dystonia is not known. Hemifacial spasm is usually due to compression of the seventh cranial nerve at its exit from the brain stem. Cranial dystonia may result in severe disability. Hemifacial spasm tends to be much less disabling but may cause considerable distress and embarrassment. Patients affected with these disorders are often mistakenly considered to have psychiatric problems. Although the two disorders are quite distinct pathophysiologically, therapy with botulinum toxin has proven very effective in both. We review the clinical features, proposed pathophysiologic features, differential diagnosis and treatment, including the use of botulinum toxin, of cranial dystonia and hemifacial spasm. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:3052771
Kraft, S P; Lang, A E
Trisomy 21, leading to Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability. Approximately 1–13% of children with DS have co-morbid seizures, with infantile spasm being the most frequent type of seizure identified. Although the clinical and electroencephalography findings of infantile spasm are similar between children with DS and typically developing children, there is often a delay in the diagnosis of these seizures in children with DS. We present the case of a male infant with DS, where the diagnosis of infantile spasm was delayed by 5 mo. His case was associated with developmental regression and intractable seizure activity following diagnosis. The case highlights the implications of delayed diagnosis on treatment strategies and developmental outcomes. Keywords: Down syndrome, infantile spasm, delayed diagnosis PMID:25309120
Buterbaugh, Allison; Visootsak, Jeannie
A 32-year-old man presented with atypical left hemifacial spasm (HFS) with MRI showing compression of left facial nerve at the root exit zone. HFS rarely presents atypically with onset in orbicularis oris and later spreading upward to involve the orbicularis oculi as was seen in our case. Atypical presentation of hemifacial spasm is rare and vertebral artery dolichoectasia as the underlying aetiology, like in our case is even rarer and has not been described in literature so far. PMID:23845680
Mathur, Tarun; Srivastava, Trilochan; Sardana, Vijay; Jain, Rahul
Background—Ischemia during laboratory mental stress tests has been linked to significantly higher rates of adverse cardiac events. Previous studies have not been designed to detect differences in mortality rates. Methods and Results—To determine whether mental stress-induced ischemia predicts death, we evaluated 196 patients from the Psychophysiological Investigations of Myocardial Ischemia (PIMI) study who had documented coronary artery disease and exercise-induced
David S. Sheps; Robert P. McMahon; Lewis Becker; Robert M. Carney; Kenneth E. Freedland; Jerome D. Cohen; David Sheffield; A. David Goldberg; Mark W. Ketterer; Carl J. Pepine; James M. Raczynski; Kathleen Light; David S. Krantz; Peter H. Stone; Genell L. Knatterud; Peter G. Kaufmann; Triggering' Adverse; Holly R. Middlekauff; Alison H. Nguyen; Carlos E. Negrao; Egbert U. Nitzsche; Carl K. Hoh; Barbara A. Natterson; Michele A. Hamilton; Gregg C. Fonarow; Antoine Hage; Jaime D. Moriguchi
Multivascular preventive and therapeutic approaches are necessary in patients with coronary artery disease because atherosclerosis has a common systemic pathogenesis. We present a rare case of sudden cardiac arrest with acute myocardial infarction induced by the total occlusion of left subclavian artery (LSCA) in a patient with a history of previous coronary artery bypass surgery using the left internal mammary artery. We initially performed blind-puncture of left brachial artery, attempting percutaneous coronary intervention because pulses were absent in both upper and lower extremities. However, the cause of sudden cardiac arrest was atherosclerotic total occlusion of LSCA. The patient was stabilized after successful revascularization of LSCA by percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stent insertion. PMID:23323128
Won, Ki-Bum; Cho, Yun-Hyeong
In 2009, vigabatrin became the first FDA approved medication for the treatment of infantile spasms in the United States. There are few well-designed prospective studies comparing the drug to placebo or other modalities used in the treatment of infantile spasms. The available data have demonstrated that vigabatrin is efficacious in the treatment of infantile spasms regardless of underlying etiology, but that it is particularly beneficial in patients with a diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), the only other medication with robust efficacy data, has been used as first line therapy for infantile spasms associated with other etiologies, and in general controls spasms sooner than vigabatrin, though relapse is common with both therapies. Vigabatrin is generally well tolerated. However, use has been associated with permanent loss of peripheral vision in some patients. In children with tuberous sclerosis, vigabatrin should be considered as initial therapy for infantile spasms. It is a viable alternative for patients with suboptimal response, contraindications or intolerance to ACTH. PMID:23861649
Faulkner, Michele A.; Tolman, Justin A.
In 2009, vigabatrin became the first FDA approved medication for the treatment of infantile spasms in the United States. There are few well-designed prospective studies comparing the drug to placebo or other modalities used in the treatment of infantile spasms. The available data have demonstrated that vigabatrin is efficacious in the treatment of infantile spasms regardless of underlying etiology, but that it is particularly beneficial in patients with a diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), the only other medication with robust efficacy data, has been used as first line therapy for infantile spasms associated with other etiologies, and in general controls spasms sooner than vigabatrin, though relapse is common with both therapies. Vigabatrin is generally well tolerated. However, use has been associated with permanent loss of peripheral vision in some patients. In children with tuberous sclerosis, vigabatrin should be considered as initial therapy for infantile spasms. It is a viable alternative for patients with suboptimal response, contraindications or intolerance to ACTH. PMID:23861649
Faulkner, Michele A; Tolman, Justin A
Surgical treatment of hemifacial spasm associated with tortuous vertebrobasilar system was reported. A patient was 63-year-old female, who first experienced mild and intermittent muscle twitching around her left eye twenty years prior to admission. Five years later, the twitching extended to all the facial muscles on the left side. She was treated with facial nerve block, which resulted in facial palsy for about one year. Because of recurrence of the hemifacial spasm, she was admitted to the Neurosurgical Department of Bokuto Municipal Hospital on October 12, 1977. Neurological examination revealed no abnormalities except for left hemifacial spasm with slight muscular weakness. Electromyogram showed severe twitching and synkinesis of all the muscles of facial expression. Vertebral angiogram on the left side disclosed pronounced elongation of the vertebral and basilar arteries, which extended into the left cerebellopontine angle. Compression of the facial nerve root exit zone at the brainstem by the vertebral artery was considered to be the cause of the hemifacial spasm. Suboccipital craniectomy was carried out on November 29, 1977. The vertebral artery extended into the cerebellopontine angle, and adhered to the facial nerve. After mobilization of the vertebral artery from the facial nerve, a small prosthesis of non-absorbable spongy material (Teflon felt) was interposed between the vertebral artery and brainstem. Postoperatively, the hemifacial spasm disappeared, but the facial palsy, which had been observed preoperatively probably due to previous facial nerve block and long-standing hemifacial spasm, remained. The function of the acoustic nerve was preserved. Recently vascular compression of the facial nerve root exit zone has been reported as a major cause of hemifacial spasm, but such abnormal vessels are rarely demonstrated angiographically. PMID:215927
Suzuki, I; Sasaki, A; Yanagibashi, K; Tsuchida, T; Hayakawa, I; Kobayashi, T
Objective To investigate if Lactobacillus casei cell wall extract (LCWE)-induced Kawasaki Disease (KD) accelerates atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic mice. Method and Resuslts Apoe?/? or Ldlr?/? mice were injected with LCWE (KD mice) or PBS, fed high fat diet for 8 weeks, and atherosclerotic lesions in aortic sinuses (AS), arch (AC) and whole aorta were assessed. KD mice had larger, more complex aortic lesions with abundant collagen, and both extracellular and intracellular lipid and foam cells, compared to lesions in control mice despite similar cholesterol levels. Both Apoe?/? KD and Ldlr?/? KD mice showed dramatic acceleration in atherosclerosis vs. controls, with increases in en face aortic atherosclerosis and plaque size in both the AS and AC plaques. Accelerated atherosclerosis was associated with increased circulating IL-12p40, IFN-?, TNF-?, and increased macrophage, DC, and T cell recruitment in lesions. Furthermore, daily injections of the IL-1Ra, which inhibits LCWE induced KD vasculitis, prevented the acceleration of atherosclerosis. Conclusions Our results suggest an important pathophysiologic link between coronary arteritis/vasculitis in the KD mouse model and subsequent atherosclerotic acceleration, supporting the concept that a similar relation may also be present in KD patients. These results also suggest that KD in childhood may predispose to accelerated and early atherosclerosis as adults. PMID:22628430
Chen, Shuang; Lee, Young Ho; Crother, Timothy R.; Fishbein, Michael; Zhang, Wenxuan; Yilmaz, Atilla; Shimada, Kenichi; Schulte, Danica J; Lehman, Thomas J.A.; Shah, Prediman K.; Arditi, Moshe
Exposure to environmental pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in coal tar mixtures and tobacco sources, is considered a significant risk factor for the development of heart disease in humans. The goal of this study was to determine the influence of PAHs present at a Superfund site on human coronary artery endothelial cell (HCAEC) phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activity and apoptosis. Extremely high levels of 12 out of 15 EPA high-priority PAHs were present in both the streambed and floodplain sediments at a site where an urban creek and its adjacent floodplain were extensively contaminated by PAHs and other coal tar compounds. Nine of the 12 compounds and a coal tar mixture (SRM 1597A) activated group IVC PLA(2) in HCAECs, and activation of this enzyme was associated with histone fragmentation and poly (ADP) ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Genetic silencing of group IVC PLA(2) inhibited both (3)H-fatty acid release and histone fragmentation by PAHs and SRM 1597A, indicating that individual PAHs and a coal tar mixture induce apoptosis of HCAECs via a mechanism that involves group IVC PLA(2). Western blot analysis of aortas isolated from feral mice (Peromyscus leucopus) inhabiting the Superfund site showed increased PARP and caspase-3 cleavage when compared to reference mice. These data suggest that PAHs induce apoptosis of HCAECs via activation of group IVC PLA(2). PMID:21132278
Tithof, Patricia K; Richards, Sean M; Elgayyar, Mona A; Menn, Fu-Minn; Vulava, Vijay M; McKay, Larry; Sanseverino, John; Sayler, Gary; Tucker, Dawn E; Leslie, Christina C; Lu, Kim P; Ramos, Kenneth S
Contrast-induced nephropathy is the third most common cause of acute renal failure in hospitalized patients. The purpose of this study was to compare three supportive treat-ments for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in high-risk patients undergoing coronary angiography. In this randomized clinical trial study, 150 patients with at least one risk factor, such as, congestive heart failure, history of diabetes mellitus, age >65 years or renal failure were randomly assigned to three equal groups: First group (Sodium (Na) bicarbonate infusion), second group [(N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) + Sodium Chloride (Nacl)], third group (Nacl). Angiography was performed with 350 mgI/mL of Iohexol (Omnipaque). Serum creatinine (Cr), blood blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and urine pH were measured at the start of angiography and 48 hours later. The three groups had no significant difference in demographic characteristics or other risk factors before intervention (P >0.05). Forty eight hours after exposure, the Cr level increased signi-ficantly in the Nacl group (P = 0.039), while these changes were not significant in the other groups (P >0.05). The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy was not statistically significant between all the groups (P = 0.944). Although the Cr clearance had no statistically significant difference, it was lower in the NaCl group. Therefore, Na bicarbonate may be the treatment of choice in the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy, because of less prescribed fluid volume and a lesser time required for infusion of the fluid. PMID:25394438
Yeganehkhah, Mohammad Reza; Iranirad, Leili; Dorri, Farshad; Pazoki, Soheila; Akbari, Hossein; Miryounesi, Masoumeh; Vahedian, Mostafa; Nazeri, Azam; Hosseinzadeh, Fatemeh; Vafaeimanesh, Jamshid
Quercetin is one of the most common flavonoids in the human daily diet. Its affects the coronary artery, especially L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and voltage-gated K+ channels in the arterial smooth muscle cells, which are poorly understood. The present experiments were designed to study the myogenic effect of quercetin and its possible underlying mechanisms in the rat coronary artery. A wire myograph was used to observe the myogenic effects. Arterial smooth muscle cells were freshly isolated from the rat coronary artery and the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration was measured with molecular probe fluo-4-AM. The effects of quercetin on L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and voltage-gated K+ channels were studied using a whole-cell patch clamp. Quercetin (3-30?µM) produced a depression and relaxation on the contraction induced by KCl or the thromboxane A2 analog 9,11-Dideoxy-9?,11?-methanoepoxy prostaglandin F 2? . The vasorelaxation was attenuated by 4-aminopyridine, a specific voltage-gated K+ channel inhibitor, but was not affected by the NG-nitro-L-arginine methylester ester (a nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor), glibenclamide (a ATP-activated K+ channel inhibitor), iberiotoxin (a Ca2+-activated K+ channel inhibitor), BaCl2 (an inward rectifier K+ channel inhibitor), or by endothelium denudation. At the same concentrations, quercetin reduced the KCl-induced elevation of the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration, inhibited the inward Ca2+ currents through L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, and increased the outward K+ currents through voltage-gated K+ channels in the rat coronary artery smooth muscle cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that quercetin possesses vasospasmolytic effects in RCA and suggest that depression of the Ca2+ influx through L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and augmentation of voltage-gated K+ channel activity in the myocytes may underlie coronary relaxation. PMID:24710898
Hou, Xiaomin; Liu, Yu; Niu, Longgang; Cui, Lijuan; Zhang, Mingsheng
OBJECTIVETo relate QT parameters to infarct size and inducibility during electrophysiological studies.DESIGNAnalysis of a prospective register.SETTINGUniversity hospital.PATIENTS64 patients with coronary artery disease and documented life threatening ventricular arrhythmias.INTERVENTIONSMeasurements of QT-max, QTc-max, and QT dispersion (QT-d) on a simultaneous 12 lead ECG (50 mm\\/s). Estimation of myocardial infarct size with radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), echocardiography (left ventricular end diastolic
J De Sutter; R Tavernier; C Van de Wiele; J De Backer; J Kazmierczak; G De Backer; R Dierckx; L Jordaens
Summary The lowering of blood pressure with beta-blocking drugs has had a low impact on coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and the question has been raised whether adverse changes in plasma lipoproteins offset the benefits of blood pressure reduction. Comparison of plasma lipoprotein concentrations in hypertensive patients treated with commonly used beta-blockers with lipoprotein concentrations in patients with coronary heart
B. G. Woodcock; N. Rietbrock
OBJECTIVESOur intent was to investigate the effect of the dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker amlodipine on restenosis and clinical outcome in patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA).BACKGROUNDAmlodipine has sustained vasodilatory effects and relieves coronary spasm, which may reduce luminal loss and clinical complications after PTCA.METHODSIn a prospective, double-blind design, 635 patients were randomized to 10 mg of amlodipine or placebo.
Bjørn Jørgensen; Svein Simonsen; Knut Endresen; Kolbjørn Forfang; Karleif Vatne; James Hansen; John Webb; Christopher Buller; Gilles Goulet; Jan Erikssen; Erik Thaulow
Heart failure is one of the fastest-growing epidemics worldwide in health care today. Although a wide variety of animal models exist to create chronic heart failure, there are few truly successful, reproducible models with ischemic dilation and mitral regurgitation. Six healthy sheep (36 ± 5 kg) underwent multiple, strategic coronary artery ligations on the left ventricle (LV). Six to eight ligations were performed transmurally on three of four segments of the LV: anterior, lateral, and posterior. Side branches of the left anterior descending and circumflex arteries were ligated to create multiple, patchy areas of myocardial infarction. Cardiac global and regional systolic function was assessed by echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The extent, the characteristics, and the location of the myocardial infarction were qualitatively and quantitatively assessed by late gadolinium enhancement imaging. The overall mortality rate was 16.7% (1/6 animals). Animals who survived showed a significantly reduced ejection fraction (mean 60 ± 5% to 28 ± 7%; P < 0.05); additionally, two out of the remaining five (40%) animals developed mild to moderate mitral regurgitation quantified by cardiac MRI. Furthermore, each animal developed clinical signs of heart failure (tachycardia, dyspnea, and tachypnea) consistent with global, dilated cardiomyopathy noted on MRI. Creating and reproducing a model of global, ischemic cardiomyopathy with functional mitral regurgitation is an arduous task. We have developed a promising model of ischemic heart failure using multiple ligations, which mimics the sequelae of human cardiomyopathy. Our proposed model is highly effective, reproducible, and may be used for experimental research on heart failure (cardiac assist devices, heart transplant, etc.). PMID:21137156
Schmitto, Jan D.; Mokashi, Suyog A.; Lee, Lawrence S.; Laurence, Rita; Schotola, Hanna; Coelho-Filho, Otavio; Rajab, Taufiek K.; Kwong, Raymond; Bolman, R. Morton; Quintel, Michael; Cohn, Lawrence H.; Chen, Frederick Y.
SUMMARY Purpose We assessed 636 epileptic spasms seen in 11 children (median: 44 spasms per child) and determined the spatial and temporal characteristics of ictal high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) in relation to the onset of spasms. Methods Electrocorticography (ECoG) signals were sampled from 104 to 148 cortical sites per child, and the dynamic changes of ictal HFOs were animated on each individual's three-dimensional MR image surface. Results Visual assessment of ictal ECoG recordings revealed that each spasm event was characterized by augmentation of HFOs. Time-frequency analysis demonstrated that ictal augmentation of HFOs at 80–200Hz was most prominent and generally preceded those at 210–300Hz and at 70Hz and slower. Recruitment of HFOs in the Rolandic cortex preceded the clinical onset objectively visualized as electromyographic deflection. The presence or absence of ictal motor symptoms was related more to the amplitude of HFOs in the Rolandic cortex than in the seizure onset zone. In a substantial proportion of epileptic spasms, seizure termination began at the seizure onset zone and propagated to the surrounding areas; we referred to this observation as the “ictal doughnut phenomenon”. Univariate analysis suggested that complete resection of the sites showing the earliest augmentation of ictal HFOs was associated with a good surgical outcome. Discussion Recruitment of HFOs at 80–200Hz in the Rolandic area may play a role in determining seizure semiology in epileptic spasms. Our study using macro-electrodes demonstrated that ictal HFOs at 80–200Hz preceded those at 210–300Hz. PMID:21087245
Nariai, Hiroki; Nagasawa, Tetsuro; Juhasz, Csaba; Sood, Sandeep; Chugani, Harry T; Asano, Eishi
Involuntary contractions of paralyzed muscles (spasms) commonly disrupt daily activities and rehabilitation after human spinal cord injury (SCI). Our aim was to examine the recruitment, firing rate modulation, and derecruitment of motor units that underlie spasms of thenar muscles after cervical SCI. Intramuscular electromyographic activity (EMG), surface EMG, and force were recorded during thenar muscle spasms that occurred spontaneously or that were triggered by movement of a shoulder or leg. Most spasms were submaximal (mean: 39%, SD: 33 of the force evoked by median nerve stimulation at 50 Hz) with strong relationships between EMG and force (R2 > 0.69). Unit recruitment occurred over a wide force range (0.2–103% of 50 Hz force). Significant unit rate modulation occurred during spasms (frequency at 25% maximal force: 8.8 Hz, 3.3 SD; at maximal force: 16.1 Hz, 4.1 SD). Mean recruitment frequency (7.1 Hz, 3.2 SD) was significantly higher than derecruitment frequency (5.4 Hz, 2.4 SD). Coactive unit pairs that fired for more than 4 s showed high (R2 > 0.7, n = 4) or low (R2:0.3–0.7, n = 12) rate-rate correlations, and derecruitment reversals (21 pairs, 29%). Later recruited units had higher or lower maximal firing rates than lower threshold units. These discrepant data show that coactive motoneurons are drive both by common inputs and by synaptic inputs from different sources during muscle spasms. Further, thenar motoneurons can still fire at high rates in response to various peripheral inputs after SCI, supporting the idea that low maximal voluntary firing rates and forces in thenar muscles result from reduced descending drive.
Zijdewind, Inge; Bakels, Rob; Thomas, Christine K.
Cardiac catheterization and coronary intervention via the radial approach is increasingly adopted as the preferred vascular access to avoid transfemoral vascular complications. Recent clinical trials have confirmed that radial access reduces vascular complications and local bleeding with similar procedural efficacy. Transradial access has inherent technical challenges, including smaller vessel size of the radial artery, arterial spasm and tortuosity involving the radial and subclavian arteries, which may undermine the procedural success of this approach. A number of strategies have been reported to minimize complications of radial access, including the use of hydrophilic introducer sheaths and smaller sheath sizes, administration of nitroglycerin and unfractionated heparin during the procedure, patent hemostasis of the radial artery and careful patient selection. Operators experienced in transradial percutaneous coronary intervention can achieve comparable clinical outcomes to the transfemoral approach and minimize vascular complications. Radial artery access is likely to become widely accepted as the preferred percutaneous coronary intervention approach. PMID:24236557
Hsieh, Victar; Jolly, Sanjit
To evaluate the mechanism of organophosphate's possible acetylcholine (ACh) mediated vasospasm, studies were conducted on sixteen, Yorkshire swine. In one group of eight pigs, a dose of two LD-50s of soman (4.6 Kg/kg 205 JIG) was given at 102.5 microgram/second in the femoral vein. These experiments demonstrated that following soman injection coronary blood flow decreased, with an increase in acetylcholine levels and coronary vascular resistance. The fall in coronary blood flow was accompanied by concomitant decreases in acetyl-cholinesterase levels, hemodynamic function, S-T segment elevation and ventricular fibrillation. In eight additional pigs intracoronary saline or ACh (1.05 + or - 0.39 micrometers) infusions tested coronary vasoactivity in the resting condition. Following the sedentary experiments the same pigs underwent six treadmill exercise studies:(1) Exer. Cont., 1 ml/min saline, i.c.;(2) Exer.+ 0.10 + or - 0.02 micrometers ACh, i.c.; (3) Exer. + 0.52 + or - 0.20 micrometers ACh, i.c.; (4) Exer. + 1.05 + or - 0.39 micrometers ACh, i.c.; (5) Exer.+ ACh-atropine, 1.05 + or - 0.39 micrometers ACh, i.c., atropine 28 microgram/kg, i.v.; or (6) Atropine, 1 ml/min saline, i.c., atropine 28 microgram/kg i.v. At rest ACh decreased coronary blood flow by 28%. Exercise increased coronary blood flow by 77% while exercise plus ACh infusions reduced coronary blood flow by 19%, 261/, and 31% for Exer.+0.10, Exer.+0.5, and Ex+1.05 JIM ACh, respectively. In addition, ACh infusion during exercise decreased the lactate consumption and at Exer.+1.05 micrometer ACh there was a lactate production with a reduction in Mv02. These data support ACh mediated coronary vasospasm in the swine.
McKenzie, J.E.; Bellamy, R.F.
To elucidate the mechanism of the relaxation mediated by endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs), the effect of brefeldin A, a membrane transport blocker, on cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and tension was determined in the porcine coronary arterial strips. We also examined the effect of brefeldin A on [Ca2+]i in the endothelial cells of the porcine aortic valve. In the presence of 10??M indomethacin and 30??M NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG), both bradykinin and substance P induced a transient decrease in [Ca2+]i and tension in arterial strips contracted with 100?nM U46619 (thromboxane A2 analogue). A 6?h pre-treatment with 20??g?ml?1 brefeldin A abolished the bradykinin-induced relaxation, while it had no effect on the substance P-induced relaxation. In the absence of indomethacin and L-NOARG, brefeldin A had no effect on the bradykinin-induced relaxation during the contraction induced by U46619 or 118?mM K+. The indomethacin/L-NOARG-resistant relaxation induced by bradykinin was completely inhibited by 3?mM tetrabutylammonium (non-specific Ca2+-activated K+ channel blocker), while that induced by substance P was not inhibited by 3?mM tetrabutylammonium or 1?mM 4-aminopyridine (voltage-dependent K+ channels blocker) alone, but completely inhibited by their combination. Brefeldin A had no effect on the [Ca2+]i elevation in endothelial cells induced by bradykinin or substance P. In conclusion, bradykinin produce EDHF in a brefeldin A-sensitive mechanism in the porcine coronary artery. However, this mechanism is not active in a substance P-induced production of EDHF, which thus suggests EDHF to be more than a single entity. PMID:11522609
Ohnishi, Yoshinori; Hirano, Katsuya; Nishimura, Junji; Furue, Masutaka; Kanaide, Hideo
A 17-month-old child had typical infantile spasms (IS) in association with a frontal lobe tumor. EEG showed hypsarrthmia, and typical IS were documented by video-EEG monitoring (no focal features were identified). Seizures ceased after surgical removal of the tumor, a ganglioglioma. We investigated the role of surgery in infants with West syndrome (WS) and lesions of various types.
Prakash Kotagal; Bruce H. Cohen; Joseph F. Hahn
Summary There is considerable evidence that primary Hemi-Facial Spasm (HFS) is in almost all cases related to a vascular compression of the facial nerve at its Root Exit Zone (REZ) from brainstem, and that Micro-Vascular Decompression (MVD) constitutes its curative treatment. Clinical as well as electrophysiological features plead for mechanisms of the disease in structural lesions at the neural fibers
M. P. Sindou
Two boys are described with congenital microcephaly, infantile spasms, psychomotor retardation and an early-onset nephrotic syndrome. The autopsy findings of one patient are described in detail. Polymicrogyria was the most prominent feature and the kidneys showed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. These findings have been described as a clinical entity, the leading symptoms being congenital microcephaly, early-onset nephrotic syndrome and mental retardation,
R. A. C. Roos; P. D. Maaswinkel-Mooy; E. M. Loo; H. H. H. Kanhai
Nine patients with severe symptoms of diffuse esophageal spasm and lower esophageal sphincter dysfunction who were unresponsive to medical therapy and bougienage dilatation were treated by forceful pneumatic dilatation. Treatment with pneumatic dilatation in eight of the nine patients produced a marked improvement in dysphagia and regurgitation (average follow-up of 37.4 months). Esophageal motility performed up to three years (average
E. C. Ebert; A. Ouyang; S. H. Wright; S. Cohen; W. H. Lipshutz
Intramuscular injection of botulinum neurotoxin A is a relatively new method for treating spastic movement disorders in children. One major goal of any therapy for patients with movement disorders is to improve gross motor function. In this study, 18 patients with adductor spasm were treated with botulinum neurotoxin A. Treatment effect was determined with the Gross Motor Function Measure, a
Volker Mall; Florian Heinen; Janbernd Kirschner; Michaela Linder; Sabine Stein; Ulla Michaelis; Peter Bernius; Rudolf Korinthenberg
Communication HyperSPASM NMR: A new approach to single-shot 2D correlations on DNP-enhanced samples Available online 29 October 2012 Keywords: 2D NMR Dissolution DNP Hyperpolarization Heteronuclear connectivity, two-dimensional (2D) NMR conveys unique information about a molecule's struc- ture and dynamics
FTY720, an analogue of sphingosine-1-phosphate, is cardioprotective during acute injury. Whether long-term FTY720 affords cardioprotection is unknown. Here, we report the effects of oral FTY720 on ischemia/reperfusion injury and in hypomorphic apoE mice deficient in SR-BI receptor expression (ApoeR61(h/h)/SRB1(-/- mice), a model of diet-induced coronary atherosclerosis and heart failure. We added FTY720 (0.3 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) to the drinking water of C57BL/6J mice. After ex vivo cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury, these mice had significantly improved left ventricular (LV) developed pressure and reduced infarct size compared with controls. Subsequently, ApoeR61(h/h)/SRB1(-/-) mice fed a high-fat diet for 4 weeks were treated or not with oral FTY720 (0.05 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)). This sharply reduced mortality (P < 0.02) and resulted in better LV function and less LV remodeling compared with controls without reducing hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Oral FTY720 reduced the number of blood lymphocytes and increased the percentage of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the circulation, spleen, and lymph nodes. FTY720-treated mice exhibited increased TGF-? and reduced IFN-? expression in the heart. Also, CD4 expression was increased and strongly correlated with molecules involved in natural Treg activity, such as TGF-? and GITR. Our data suggest that long-term FTY720 treatment enhances LV function and increases longevity in mice with heart failure. These benefits resulted not from atheroprotection but from systemic immunosuppression and a moderate reduction of inflammation in the heart. PMID:24508946
Wang, Guanying; Kim, Roy Y; Imhof, Isabella; Honbo, Norman; Luk, Fu S; Li, Kang; Kumar, Nikit; Zhu, Bo-Qing; Eberlé, Delphine; Ching, Daniel; Karliner, Joel S; Raffai, Robert L
This study examined the ability of Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry) juice, a rich source of polyphenols, to cause NO-mediated endothelium-dependent relaxations of isolated coronary arteries and, if so, to determine the underlying mechanism and the active polyphenols. A. melanocarpa juice caused potent endothelium-dependent relaxations in porcine coronary artery rings. Relaxations to A. melanocarpa juice were minimally affected by inhibition of the formation of vasoactive prostanoids and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor-mediated responses, and markedly reduced by N(?)-nitro-l-arginine (endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) inhibitor), membrane permeant analogs of superoxide dismutase and catalase, PP2 (Src kinase inhibitor), and wortmannin (PI3-kinase inhibitor). In cultured endothelial cells, A. melanocarpa juice increased the formation of NO as assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy using the spin trap iron(II)diethyldithiocarbamate, and reactive oxygen species using dihydroethidium. These responses were associated with the redox-sensitive phosphorylation of Src, Akt and eNOS. A. melanocarpa juice-derived fractions containing conjugated cyanidins and chlorogenic acids induced the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS. The present findings indicate that A. melanocarpa juice is a potent stimulator of the endothelial formation of NO in coronary arteries; this effect involves the phosphorylation of eNOS via the redox-sensitive activation of the Src/PI3-kinase/Akt pathway mostly by conjugated cyanidins and chlorogenic acids. PMID:23973200
Kim, Jong Hun; Auger, Cyril; Kurita, Ikuko; Anselm, Eric; Rivoarilala, Lalainasoa Odile; Lee, Hyong Joo; Lee, Ki Won; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B
Triptans are agonists at 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D (where 5-HT is 5-hydroxytryptamine; serotonin) receptors and cause vasoconstriction of isolated blood vessels. The aim of the present study was to determine vasoconstrictor potency (EC50) of triptans in human coronary and cerebral arteries and to examine whether there was any relationship with the maximal plasma concentrations (Cmax; nM) of the drugs achieved following oral administration of clinically relevant doses to man using values reported in the literature. We also examined the expression of 5-HT1B receptors in atherosclerotic and normal coronary arteries. The vasocontractile responses to sumatriptan, rizatriptan or eletriptan were characterized by in vitro pharmacology. The ratio of Cmax/EC50 was calculated. 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors were visualized by immunohistochemical techniques in coronary arteries. Sumatriptan, rizatriptan and eletriptan were powerful vasoconstrictors in cerebral artery. The rank order of agonist potency was eletriptan=rizatriptan=sumatriptan. In the coronary artery, the triptans were weaker vasoconstrictors. The rank order of potency was similar. In cerebral artery the ratio of Cmax/EC50 was not significantly different from unity, indicating a relationship between these two parameters. In general for the coronary artery, the ratios were significantly less than unity, indicating no direct relationship. Immunohistochemistry showed expression of 5-HT1B receptors in the medial layer, but did not reveal any obvious difference in 5-HT1B receptor expression between normal and atherosclerotic coronary arteries. The results support the notion that triptans are selective vasoconstrictors of cerebral arteries over coronary arteries and that there is a relationship between vasoconstrictor potency in cerebral arteries and clinically relevant plasma levels. PMID:15853772
Edvinsson, Lars; Uddman, Erik; Wackenfors, Angelica; Davenport, Anthony; Longmore, Jenny; Malmsjö, Malin
To characterize the sequential changes of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) after complete revascularization, 43 patients underwent exercise thallium-201 (/sup 201/Tl) myocardial perfusion scintigraphy before and at 9 +/- 5 days, 3.3 +/- 0.6, and 6.8 +/- 1.2 months after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Only patients with single-vessel CAD, without previous myocardial infarction, and without evidence of restenosis at 6 to 9 months after PTCA were included. Perfusion scans were analyzed blindly with the use of a new quantitative method to define regional myocardial perfusion in the topographic distribution of each coronary artery, which was shown to be reproducible (r = .94 or higher and SEE of 7% or less, between repeated measures by one and two operators). At 4 to 18 days after PTCA, the mean treadmill walking time increased by 123 +/- 42 sec, mean exercise-induced ST segment depression decreased by 0.6 +/- 0.3 mm, group maximal heart rate increased by 20 +/- 9 beats/min, and group systolic blood pressure at peak exercise increased by 24 +/- 10 mm Hg, compared with pre-PTCA values (p less than .001). However, no group differences were noted in these variables between the three post-PTCA stages. Myocardial perfusion in the distribution of the affected (dilated) coronary artery, on the other hand, improved progressively. In the 45 degree left anterior oblique view for instance, myocardial perfusion increased at 9 days after PTCA (from 68 +/- 24% before PTCA to 91 +/- 9%, p less than .001) and at 3.3 months after PTCA (101 +/- 8%, p less than .05 vs 9 days after PTCA), but no further significant changes were seen at 6.8 months after PTCA (102 +/- 8%). Similar changes were noted in the other two views. No relationship between minor complications during PTCA and delayed improvement on the /sup 201/Tl was observed.
Manyari, D.E.; Knudtson, M.; Kloiber, R.; Roth, D.
This study examined the implications of left ventricular (LV) dilatation and increased pulmonary thallium uptake during adenosine-induced coronary hyperemia. The lung-to-heart thallium ratio in the initial images was significantly higher in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) than normal subjects; 0.48 +/- 0.16 in 3-vessel disease (n = 16), 0.43 +/- 0.10 in 2-vessel disease (n = 20), 0.43 +/- 0.08 in 1-vessel disease (n = 16) and 0.36 +/- 0.05 in normal subjects (n = 7) (p less than 0.001, 0.09 and 0.06, respectively). There was a significant correlation between the severity and the extent of the perfusion abnormality (determined from the polar maps) and the lung-to-heart thallium ratio (r = 0.51 and 0.52, respectively, p less than 0.0002). There was also a significant correlation between lung thallium washout and lung-to-heart thallium ratio (r = 0.42, p = 0.0009) and peak heart rate (r = -0.49, p less than 0.0001). The LV dilatation was mostly due to an increase in cavity dimension (30% increase) and to a lesser extent (6% increase) due to increase in LV size. (The cavity dimensions were measured from the short-axis slices at the midventricular level in the initial and delayed images). The dilation was seen in patients with CAD but not in the normal subjects. These changes correlated with the extent and severity of the thallium perfusion abnormality. Thus, adenosine-induced coronary hyperemia may cause LV dilation and increased lung thallium uptake on the basis of subendocardial ischemia.
Iskandrian, A.S.; Heo, J.; Nguyen, T.; Lyons, E.; Paugh, E. (Philadelphia Heart Institute, PA (USA))
. Coronary angiography (CA) is presently considered the gold standard for the assessment of the coronary arteries. However,\\u000a the presence of ionizing radiation, its invasiveness and the small associated risk of morbidity prompted long ago the development\\u000a of more patient-friendly imaging modalities. A promising technique, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has been regarded as\\u000a the major modality in the coming decade.
P. A. Wielopolski; R. J. M. van Geuns; P. J. de Feyter; M. Oudkerk
Background The best method for measuring the degree of platelet inhibition with glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa antagonists during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and the optimal degree of periprocedural inhibition is uncertain. Low molecular weight heparins have been reported to cause less platelet activation than unfractionated heparin. Therefore, compared with unfractionated heparin (UHF), a low molecular weight heparin could enhance measured platelet
Mark I. Furman; Dean J. Kereiakes; Lori A. Krueger; Michele N. Mueller; Thomas M. Broderick; John F. Schneider; Wendy L. Howard; Marsha L. Fox; Marc R. Barnard; A. L. Frelinger; Alan D. Michelson
Background The best method for measuring the degree of platelet inhibition with glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa antago- nists during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and the optimal degree of periprocedural inhibition is uncertain. Low molecular weight heparins have been reported to cause less platelet activation than unfractionated heparin. There- fore, compared with unfractionated heparin (UHF), a low molecular weight heparin could enhance
Mark I. Furman; Dean J. Kereiakes; Lori A. Krueger; Michele N. Mueller; Thomas M. Broderick; John F. Schneider; Wendy L. Howard; Marsha L. Fox; Marc R. Barnard; A. L. Frelinger; Alan D. Michelson
We examined involvement of the polyol pathway in high glucose-induced human coronary artery smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration using Boyden's chamber method. Chronic glucose treatment for 72 hours potentiated, in a concentration-dependent manner (5.6 to 22.2 mol/L), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) BB-mediated SMC migration. This potentiation was accompanied by an increase in PDGF BB binding, because of an increased number of PDGF-beta receptors, and this potentiation was blocked by the aldose reductase inhibitor epalrestat. Epalrestat at concentrations of 10 and 100 nmol/L inhibited high glucose-potentiated (22.2 mmol/L), PDGF BB-mediated migration. Epalrestat at 100 nmol/L inhibited a high glucose-induced increase in the reduced/oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide ratio and membrane-bound protein kinase C (PKC) activity in SMCs. PKC inhibitors calphostin C (100 nmol/L) and chelerythrine (1 micromol/L) each inhibited high glucose-induced, PDGF BB-mediated SMC migration. High glucose-induced suppression of insulin-mediated [(3)H]-deoxyglucose uptake, which was blocked by both calphostin C (100 nmol/L) and chelerythrine (1 micromol/L), was decreased by epalrestat (100 nmol/L). Chronic high glucose treatment for 72 hours increased intracellular oxidative stress, which was directly measured by flow cytometry using carboxydichlorofluorescein diacetate bis-acetoxymethyl ester, and this increase was significantly suppressed by epalrestat (100 nmol/L). Antisense oligonucleotide to PKC-beta isoform inhibited high glucose-mediated changes in SMC migration, insulin-mediated [(3)H]-deoxyglucose uptake, and oxidative stress. These findings suggest that high glucose concentrations potentiate SMC migration in coronary artery and that the aldose reductase inhibitor epalrestat inhibits high glucose-potentiated, PDGF BB-induced SMC migration, possibly through suppression of PKC (PKC-beta), impaired insulin-mediated glucose uptake, and oxidative stress. PMID:10818070
Yasunari, K; Kohno, M; Kano, H; Minami, M; Yoshikawa, J
Background Arachidonic acid (AA) and/or its enzymatic metabolites are important lipid mediators contributing to endothelium?derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)–mediated dilation in multiple vascular beds, including human coronary arterioles (HCAs). However, the mechanisms of action of these lipid mediators in endothelial cells (ECs) remain incompletely defined. In this study, we investigated the role of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channel in AA?induced endothelial Ca2+ response and dilation of HCAs. Methods and Results AA induced concentration?dependent dilation in isolated HCAs. The dilation was largely abolished by the TRPV4 antagonist RN?1734 and by inhibition of endothelial Ca2+?activated K+ channels. In native and TRPV4?overexpressing human coronary artery ECs (HCAECs), AA increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), which was mediated by TRPV4?dependent Ca2+ entry. The AA?induced [Ca2+]i increase was inhibited by cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibitors. Surprisingly, the CYP metabolites of AA, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), were much less potent activators of TRPV4, and CYP inhibitors did not affect EET production in HCAECs. Apart from its effect on [Ca2+]i, AA induced endothelial hyperpolarization, and this effect was required for Ca2+ entry through TRPV4. AA?induced and TRPV4?mediated Ca2+ entry was also inhibited by the protein kinase A inhibitor PKI. TRPV4 exhibited a basal level of phosphorylation, which was inhibited by PKI. Patch?clamp studies indicated that AA activated TRPV4 single?channel currents in cell?attached and inside?out patches of HCAECs. Conclusions AA dilates HCAs through a novel mechanism involving endothelial TRPV4 channel?dependent Ca2+ entry that requires endothelial hyperpolarization, PKA?mediated basal phosphorylation of TRPV4, and direct activation of TRPV4 channels by AA. PMID:23619744
Zheng, Xiaodong; Zinkevich, Natalya S.; Gebremedhin, Debebe; Gauthier, Kathryn M.; Nishijima, Yoshinori; Fang, Juan; Wilcox, David A.; Campbell, William B.; Gutterman, David D.; Zhang, David X.
Vigabatrin, the first therapeutic agent to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of infantile spasms, as well as for adjunctive use in the treatment of refractory complex partial epilepsy, represents an important advance for patients with difficult-to-manage epilepsy. This review summarizes the complex history, chemistry, and pharmacology, as well as the clinical data leading to the approval of vigabatrin for infantile spasms in the US. The long path to its approval reflects the visual system and white matter toxicity concerns with this agent. This review provides a brief description of these concerns, and the regulatory safety monitoring and mitigation systems that have been put in place to enhance benefit over risk. PMID:21127692
Lerner, Jason T; Salamon, Noriko; Sankar, Raman
Coronary microvessels play a pivotal role in determining the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the myocardium by regulating the coronary flow conductance and substance transport. Direct approaches analyzing the coronary microvessels have provided a large body of knowledge concerning the physiological and pharmacological characteristics of the coronary circulation, as has the rapid accumulation of biochemical findings about the substances that mediate vascular functions. Myogenic and flow-induced intrinsic vascular controls that determine basal tone have been observed in coronary microvessels in vitro. Coronary microvascular responses during metabolic stimulation, autoregulation, and reactive hyperemia have been analyzed in vivo, and are known to be largely mediated by metabolic factors, although the involvement of other factors should also be taken into account. The importance of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels in the metabolic control has been increasingly recognized. Furthermore, many neurohumoral mediators significantly affect coronary microvascular control in endothelium-dependent and -independent manners. The striking size-dependent heterogeneity of microvascular responses to all of these intrinsic, metabolic, and neurohumoral factors is orchestrated for optimal perfusion of the myocardium by synergistic and competitive interactions. The regulation of coronary microvascular permeability is another important factor for the nutrient supply and for edema formation. Analyses of collateral microvessels and subendocardial microvessels are important for understanding the pathophysiology of ischemic hearts and hypertrophied hearts. Studies of the microvascular responses to drugs and of the impairment of coronary microvessels in diseased conditions provide useful information for treating microvascular dysfunctions. In this article, the endogenous regulatory system and pharmacological responses of the coronary circulation are reviewed from the microvascular point of view. PMID:10882810
Komaru, T; Kanatsuka, H; Shirato, K
ObjectiveTo determine whether monitoring facial nerve motor-evoked potentials (FNMEPs) elicited by transcranial electrical stimulation during microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm (HFS) is useful for predicting postoperative outcome.MethodsThe authors analysed FNMEP findings in 25 patients with HFS. Corkscrew electrodes positioned at C3 or C4 and Cz were used to deliver supramaximal stimuli (152–450 V). FNMEPs were recorded from the orbicularis
Masafumi Fukuda; Makoto Oishi; Tetsuya Hiraishi; Yukihiko Fujii
Before ten years, radial artery was discovered as a useful vascular access site for percutaneous coronary procedures. It has the advantage of reduced access site complications but is associated with specific technical challenges in comparison with the transfemoral approach. Although earlier data from a meta-analysis indicated higher procedure failure rates with radial--as compared to femoral access (7.2 vs. 2.4%), more recent data from prospective multicenter studies and large meta analysis showed significantly better outcomes with radial access versus femoral access in contemporary, real-world clinical settings of percutaneous cardiovascular procedures (e.g. PREVAIL-, PRESTO-ACS-studies). This includes also challenging coronary procedures in acute coronary syndromes (NSTEMI and STEMI) where the radial access was associated with fewer bleeding complications leading to better long-term outcomes. Transradial procedure failures can sometimes be due to variation in radial artery anatomy (e.g. vessel diameter, anomalous branching patterns, tortuosity) or risk factors for radial spasms (e.g. smoking, anxiety, vessel diameter, age, gender). Postprocedural radial occlusions (0.6-1.2%) seems strongly be related to these anatomical variances, which possibly may be reduced by the use of smaller catheter, however 5 French lumen diameter guiding catheter include limitations regarding treating options in complex coronary lesion. In conclusion, the transradial access for coronary angiography and interventions is not only to enhance patients comfort, but shows significant better long-term results due to less bleeding complications as compared to the femoral access. PMID:21275296
Dahm, Johannes B; van Buuren, Frank
Continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) is a renal replacement therapy that has been successfully used in patients with severe chronic renal failure to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). In this study, we present a consecutive experience using a new CVVH protocol that has also been applied to patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). CVVH was performed in consecutive patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate <30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (mean ± SD, 21.1 ± 7.3 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) undergoing diagnostic or interventional coronary procedures starting after the angiographic procedures. Iopamidol was used as a contrast agent. In the first 6 patients, iopamidol removal by the CVVH hemofilter and kidney was calculated by measuring iopamidol concentrations in the blood, urine, and ultrafiltrate collected during the 6-hour CVVH session. In the second phase, the protocol was applied to 47 additional patients meeting the inclusion criteria. Six-hour CVVH resulted in iopamidol removal comparable with that of 12-hour diuresis (43 ± 12% vs 42 ± 15% of administered, p = NS). CI-AKI occurred in 7.5% of patients in the whole population and no patients had acute pulmonary edema, need for dialysis, or any major bleeding. In conclusion, in a population including patients with ACS with severe chronic renal failure undergoing coronary angiographic procedures, 6-hour CVVH performed only after contrast medium exposure was able to remove an amount of contrast medium similar to that removed by the kidneys in 12 hours and resulted in a low rate of CI-AKI. PMID:24321895
Guastoni, Carlo; Bellotti, Nicoletta; Poletti, Fabrizio; Covella, Patrizia; Gidaro, Barbara; Stasi, Antonella; Seveso, Giovanni; D'Urbano, Maurizio; Mariani, Matteo; De Servi, Stefano
Senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) decreases with aging. Mice with SMP30 deficiency, a model of aging, have a short lifespan with increased oxidant stress. To elucidate SMP30’s effect on coronary circulation derived from myocytes, we measured the changes in the diameter of isolated coronary arterioles in wild-type (WT) mice exposed to supernatant collected from isolated paced cardiac myocytes from SMP30 KO or WT mice. Pacing increased hydrogen peroxide in myocytes, and hydrogen peroxide was greater in SMP30 KO myocytes compared to WT myocytes. Antimycin enhanced and FCCP (oxidative phosphorylation uncoupler in mitochondria) decreased superoxide production in both groups. Addition of supernatant from stimulated myocytes, either SMP30 KO or WT, caused vasodilation. The degree of the vasodilation response to supernatant was smaller in SMP30 KO mice compared to WT mice. Administration of catalase to arterioles eliminated vasodilation in myocyte supernatant of WT mice and converted vasodilation to vasoconstriction in myocyte supernatant of SMP30 KO mice. This vasoconstriction was eliminated by olmesartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Thus, SMP30 deficiency combined with oxidant stress increases angiotensin and hydrogen peroxide release from cardiac myocytes. SMP30 plays an important role in the regulation of coronary vascular tone by myocardium. PMID:23629672
Mizukami, Hiroyuki; Saitoh, Shu-ichi; Machii, Hirofumi; Yamada, Shinya; Hoshino, Yasuto; Misaka, Tomofumi; Ishigami, Akihito; Takeishi, Yasuchika
Abstract Reperfusion?induced lethal ventricular arrhythmias are observed during relief of coronary artery spasm, with unstable angina, exercise?induced ischemia, and silent ischemia. Accordingly, significant efforts are underway to understand the mechanisms responsible for reperfusion?induced lethal arrhythmias and mice have become increasingly important in these efforts. However, although reperfusion?induced sustained ventricular tachycardia leading to ventricular fibrillation (VF) has been recorded in many models, reports in mice are sparse and of limited success. Importantly, none of these studies were conducted in intact, conscious mice. Accordingly, a chronically instrumented, intact, conscious murine model of reperfusion?induced lethal arrhythmias has the potential to be of major importance for advancing the concepts and methods that drive cardiovascular therapies. Therefore, we describe, for the first time, the use of an intact, conscious, murine model of reperfusion?induced lethal arrhythmias. Male mice (n = 9) were instrumented to record cardiac output and the electrocardiogram. In addition, a snare was placed around the left main coronary artery. Following recovery, the susceptibility to sustained ventricular tachycardia produced by 3 min of occlusion and reperfusion of the left main coronary artery was determined in conscious mice by pulling on the snare. Reperfusion culminated in sustained ventricular tachycardia, leading to VF, in all nine conscious mice. The procedures conducted in conscious C57BL/6J mice, a strain commonly used in transgenic studies, can be utilized in genetically modified models to enhance our understanding of single gene defects on reperfusion?induced lethal ventricular arrhythmias in intact, conscious, and complex animals. PMID:24973331
Lujan, Heidi L.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.
This is the third in a series on coronary artery bypass which reviews three alternative arterial conduits. The radial artery has become the most widely used of the three and accumulating experience demonstrates better patency at 10 years versus saphenous vein. Drawbacks are a long incision on the forearm, the propensity for spasm and persistent sensory disturbance in about 10%. The first is answered by endoscopic harvest which may yield a shorter conduit but reduces sensory nerve injury. Spasm is managed pharmacologically and by less harvest trauma. The gastroepiploic artery is used in situ and free and although the abdominal cavity is entered complications are minimal and patency compares favorably with the radial artery. Use of the inferior epigastric artery remains minimal and its similar length often requires composite use but limited patency data are supportive. Other arteries have had rare use and this is unlikely to change because the three presented here have significant advantages and acceptance. PMID:23772403
/sup 201/Tl myocardial scintigraphy was performed during cold pressor stimulation in 36 patients aged 36 to 69 years. Thirty-one patients had coronary artery disease and 5 patients did not, as confirmed by coronary cineangiography. /sup 201/Tl (1.5 to 2 mCi) was injected at 30 seconds of the cold pressor stimulation. The product of systolic pressure X heart rate increased from a baseline of 77.4 +/- 16 (standard deviation (SD)) to 103.6 +/- 17 at 30 seconds of the cold pressor test (p less than 0.0005). Transient perfusion deficits developed in 24 of 31 patients with coronary artery disease (sensitivity 77%), and all 5 patients without coronary artery disease had normal scintigrams. The sensitivity in detecting coronary artery disease was 40% in patients with 1 vessel disease, 91% in patients with 2 vessel disease, and 100% in patients with 3 vessel disease. Exercise electrocardiograms (available in 29 of 36 patients) were positive for ischemia in 18 of 24 patients with coronary artery disease and in 1 of 5 patients without coronary artery disease (sensitivity 75% and specificity less than 80%). Exercise /sup 201/Tl scintigrams, obtained in 16 patients, were positive in 11 patients with coronary artery disease and positive cold pressor /sup 201/Tl scintigrams. Five patients without coronary artery disease and with normal cold pressor /sup 201/Tl scintigrams had normal exercise /sup 201/Tl scintigrams. Coronary cineangiography performed during cold pressor stimulation in 6 patients who had positive cold pressor and exercise /sup 201/Tl scintigrams did not show coronary spasm. Our data indicate that cold pressor thallium-201 scintigraphy offers promise as a noninvasive test in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease and may be used in patients in whom exercise testing is not feasible.
Ahmad, M.; Dubiel, J.P.; Haibach, H.
A female in her forties with advanced incurable rectal cancer presented to our emergency department after loss of consciousness followed by brief myoclonic jerks in her legs.A cerebral MRI was normal. Her electrocardiogram showed a prolonged QTc interval of 596 milliseconds and hypokalemia was present. She had no family history of congenital long QT syndrome or of cardiovascular disease. She was not on any medication apart from having ingested 100 g caesium carbonate over the previous 11 days as an alternative cancer treatment. Caesium chloride is postulated to increase pH and thereby induce apoptosis in cancer cells. In treatment doses caesium competes with potassium for membrane transport proteins in the cardiac cell membrane and in the reabsorption tubuli of the kidneys. A result is hypokalemia shortly after depolarization during the cardiomyocytes' repolarisation phase or delayed post-depolarisation. Torsade de pointes ventricular arrhythmias, ventricular tachycardia, pump failure and death can follow. A few case reports of adverse effects from caesium ingestion have been published, as well as reports on how caesium is used in animal models to induce ventricular tachycardia, but the hazards of caesium ingestion and its long half-life are not well known in the medical care profession or among patients. As this patient's QTc interval normalised slowly to 413 milliseconds 60 days after stopping caesium ingestion, we consider caesium intoxication and convulsive syncope from a self-terminating ventricular tachycardia as the most probable aetiology. The main message from this case is that alternative medicine can have life-threatening side effects. PMID:25314987
Warsame, Mahad Omar; Gamboa, Danil; Nielsen, Erik Waage
With the introduction of 64- and post-64 slice computed tomography (CT) technology, coronary CT angiography has been increasingly used as a less invasive modality for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Despite its high diagnostic value and promising results compared to invasive coronary angiography, coronary CT angiography is associated with high radiation dose, leading to potential risk of radiation-induced cancer. A variety of dose-reduction strategies have been reported recently to reduce radiation dose with effective outcomes having been achieved. This article presents an overview of the various methods currently used for radiation dose reduction. PMID:24392191
Sabarudin, Akmal; Sun, Zhonghua
This book explores biomedical radiography of the heart. Topics considered include six bench marks in the history of cardiac catheterization; normal coronary anatomy; anomalies of the coronary arteries; pathoanotomy of the coronary arteries and complications; indications, limitations, and risks of coronary arteriography and left ventriculography; catheterization techniques in coronary arteriography and left ventriculography: the Sones technique; catheterization techniques in coronary arteriography and left ventriculography: the Judkins technique; modification of Judkins catheters; catheterization techniques in coronary arteriography and left ventriculography multipurpose technique; new views in coronary arteriography; quantitative evaluation of left ventricular function; complications of coronary arteriography: management during and following the procedure; interpretation of coronary arteriograms and left ventriculograms; prevalence and distribution of disease in patients catheterized for suspected coronary disease at Emory University Hospital; the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory; selection for surgery or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty; intracoronary thrombolysis; and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.
King, S.B.; Douglas, J.S.
Plasma chromogranin-A (CgA) concentrations correlate with severe cardiovascular diseases, whereas CgA-derived vasostatin-I and catestatin elicit cardiosuppression via an antiadrenergic/nitric oxide-cGMP mediated mechanism. Whether these phenomena are related is unknown. We here investigated whether and to what extent full-length CgA directly influences heart performance and may be subjected to stimulus-elicited intracardiac processing. Using normotensive and hypertensive rats, we evaluated the following: 1) direct myocardial and coronary effects of full-length CgA; 2) the signal-transduction pathway involved in its action mechanism; and 3) CgA intracardiac processing after ?-adrenergic [isoproterenol (Iso)]- and endothelin-1(ET-1)-dependent stimulation. The study was performed by using a Langendorff perfusion apparatus, Western blotting, affinity chromatography, and ELISA. We found that CgA (1-4 nM) dilated coronaries and induced negative inotropism and lusitropism, which disappeared at higher concentrations (10-16 nM). In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), negative inotropism and lusitropism were more potent than in young normotensive rats. We found that perfusion itself, Iso-, and endothelin-1 stimulation induced intracardiac CgA processing in low-molecular-weight fragments in young, Wistar Kyoto, and SHR rats. In young normotensive and adult hypertensive rats, CgA increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation and cGMP levels. Analysis of the perfusate from both Wistar rats and SHRs of untreated and treated (Iso) hearts revealed CgA absence. In conclusion, in normotensive and hypertensive rats, we evidenced the following: 1) full-length CgA directly affects myocardial and coronary function by AkT/nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide/cGMP/protein kinase G pathway; and 2) the heart generates intracardiac CgA fragments in response to hemodynamic and excitatory challenges. For the first time at the cardiovascular level, our data provide a conceptual link between systemic and intracardiac actions of full-length CgA and its fragments, expanding the knowledge on the sympathochromaffin/CgA axis under normal and physiopathological conditions. PMID:23751870
Pasqua, Teresa; Corti, Angelo; Gentile, Stefano; Pochini, Lorena; Bianco, Mimma; Metz-Boutigue, Marie-Hélène; Cerra, Maria Carmela; Tota, Bruno; Angelone, Tommaso
We report on the clinical and cytogenetic findings and on the array-based characterization of an interstitial 7q11.21-q11.23 deletion initially recognized by standard karyotyping in a 15-month-old female patient. Beginning at the age of 3 months and 2 weeks the patient had severe infantile spasms. Recently, it was reported that infantile spasms are associated with deletion of the MAGI2 gene on chromosome 7q11.23. Nevertheless, not all patients reported with deletions of MAGI2 developed infantile spasms and at least one reported patient with a deletion 7q11.23 without missing the MAGI2 gene was diagnosed with infantile spasms. Molecular karyotyping of our patient confirmed a large 13 Mb deletion encompassing the 7q11.21-q11.23 region without involvement of MAGI2. Critical review of published data and the results of our patient underline the importance to map precisely the deletion boundaries of further patients to reevaluate the significance of MAGI2 hemizygosity in the pathogenesis of infantile spasms. PMID:20101691
Röthlisberger, Benno; Hoigné, Irène; Huber, Andreas R; Brunschwiler, Wolfgang; Capone Mori, Andrea
BACKGROUND: Coronary angiography may not reliably predict whether a stenosis causes exercise-induced ischemia. Intracoronary Doppler ultrasound may enhance diagnostic accuracy by providing a physiological assessment of stenosis severity. The goal of this study was to compare intracoronary Doppler ultrasound with both 201Tl imaging and coronary angiography.\\u000aMETHODS AND RESULTS: Fifty-five patients with 67 stenotic coronary arteries underwent coronary angiography with
Louis I. Heller; Christopher Cates; Jeffrey Popma; Lawrence I. Deckelbaum; James D. Joye; Seth T. Dahlberg; Bernard J. Villegas; Anita Arnold; Robert Kipperman; W. Carter Grinstead; Sharon Balcom; Yunsheng Ma; Michael Cleman; Richard M. Steingart; Jeffrey A. Leppo
Left main coronary artery (LMCA) dissection occurs very rarely following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). It caused major consequences with no flow in coronary artery and requires immediate surgical or percutaneous intervention. We are reporting a case of 42-year-male patient who presented with effort angina. Coronary angiogram revealed significant stenosis in left anterior descending (LAD) and left circumflex (LCX) coronary artery. During removal of angioplasty balloon and guide wire after successfully stenting in LAD and balloon angioplasty in LCX, guiding catheter induced dissection of LMCA was happened. Subsequently, LMCA was stented; kissing balloon dilatation was done at carina & TIMI III flow re-established. PMID:24027361
Badnur, Srinivas C.; Nagesh, Chamrajnagar Mahadevappa; Patra, Soumya; Reddy, Babu; Manjunath, Cholenahally Nanjappa
Background Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) particularly in high risk patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), increases morbidity and mortality. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a protein excreted by the kidney during AKI. There are no urine (u) NGAL data as an early CI-AKI marker in CKD patients undergoing coronary procedures. Methods This prospective study enrolled 130 patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 undergoing elective coronary procedures. Serial urine samples, obtained at baseline and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h post contrast administration were analyzed by NGAL ELISA kit. AKI was defined as an increase in serum creatinine (SCr) of???0.3 mg/dl or???1.5 times baseline SCr within 48 h per 2012 KDIGO guidelines. Receiver operator characteristic curve analyses identified optimal uNGAL and delta of uNGAL values for diagnosing CI-AKI. Results The uNGAL was significantly and inverse correlated with eGFR (R =?0.25, P 0.005). CI-AKI developed in 16/130 (12.31%) patients: 13 and 3 in CI-AKI stages I and II, respectively. uNGAL and delta of uNGAL were significantly higher in the CI-AKI group when compared with the No CI-AKI group (P 0.05). The best uNGAL cut-off for optimal sensitivity 94%, specificity 78%, and area under the curve 0.84 for predicting CI-AKI was 117 ng/mL at 6 h, respectively. Corresponding values for predicting CI-AKI stage II were 100%, 87% and 0.9 when using an uNGAL of 264 ng/mL at 6 h. Conclusions Monitoring of uNGAL levels not only provide the early detecting CI-AKI but also predict the severity of CI-AKI in CKD patients undergoing elective coronary procedures. PMID:24305547
Diminished levels of L-arginine and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling through deficiency of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) may contribute to endothelial dysfunction. We investigated the effect of L-arginine and BH(4) administration on ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD). Forearm blood flow was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography in 12 patients with type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance and CAD. Forearm ischemia was induced for 20 min, followed by 60 min of reperfusion. The patients received a 15 min intra-brachial infusion of L-arginine (20 mg/min) and BH(4) (500 microg/min) or 0.9% saline starting at 15 min of ischemia on two separate study occasions. Compared with pre-ischemia the endothelium-dependent vasodilatation (EDV) induced by acetylcholine was significantly reduced at 15 and 30 min of reperfusion when saline was infused (P<0.001), but not following L-arginine and BH(4) infusion. EDV was also significantly less reduced at 15 and 30 min of reperfusion following L-arginine and BH(4) infusion, compared to saline infusion (P<0.02). Endothelium-independent vasodilatation (EIDV) induced by nitroprusside was unaffected by I/R. Venous total biopterin levels in the infused arm increased from 37+/-7 at baseline to 6644+/-1240 nmol/l during infusion of L-arginine and BH(4) (P<0.0001), whereas there was no difference in biopterin levels during saline infusion. In conclusion L-arginine and BH(4) supplementation reduces I/R-induced endothelial dysfunction, a finding which may represent a novel treatment strategy to limit I/R injury in patients with type 2 diabetes and CAD. PMID:18849028
Settergren, M; Böhm, F; Malmström, R E; Channon, K M; Pernow, J
Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder presenting with an elfin-like face, supravalvular aortic stenosis, a specific cognitive-behavioral profile, and infantile hypercalcemia. We encountered two WBS patients presenting with infantile spasms, which is extremely rare in WBS. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses revealed atypical 5.7-Mb and 4.1-Mb deletions at 7q11.23 in the two patients, including the WBS critical region and expanding into the proximal side and the telomeric side, respectively. On the proximal side, AUTS2 and CALN1 may contribute to the phenotype. On the telomeric side, there are two candidate genes HIP1 and YWHAG. Because detailed information of them was unavailable, we investigated their functions using gene knockdowns of zebrafish. When zebrafish ywhag1 was knocked down, reduced brain size and increased diameter of the heart tube were observed, indicating that the infantile spasms and cardiomegaly seen in the patient with the telomeric deletion may be derived from haploinsufficiency of YWHAG. PMID:20146355
Komoike, Yuta; Fujii, Katsunori; Nishimura, Akira; Hiraki, Yoko; Hayashidani, Michiko; Shimojima, Keiko; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Higashi, Kouji; Yasukawa, Kumi; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Miyake, Noriko; Mizuguchi, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Naomichi; Osawa, Makiko; Kohno, Yoichi; Higashinakagawa, Toru; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki
Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI) is a leading cause of hospital-acquired acute kidney injury, and pretreatment with hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) have shown promise in prevention. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed including randomized controlled trials of short-term high-dose statins (compared with either low-dose statin or placebo) for CIAKI prevention in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) were calculated, and between-study heterogeneity was assessed using the I(2) statistic. We used a random-effects model meta-analysis to pool the OR. Twelve RCTs, including 5,564 patients, were included. CIAKI occurred in 94 of 2,769 patients (3.4%) pretreated with high-dose statins and 213 of 2,795 patients (7.6%) in the low-dose or no-statin group (OR 0.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.33 to 0.55, I(2) = 19%, p <0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that the occurrence of CIAKI did not differ in patients with diabetes (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.85, I(2) = 0%, p = 0.004) or in patients with documented renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance <60 ml/min/m(2); OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.96, I(2) = 0%, p = 0.03). In conclusion, pretreatment with high-dose statins, compared with low-dose statins or placebo, in patients undergoing coronary angiography reduces the incidence of CIAKI. This benefit was seen irrespective of the presence of diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Future studies should identify optimum dosing protocols for each statin. PMID:25239829
Ukaigwe, Anene; Karmacharya, Paras; Mahmood, Maryam; Pathak, Ranjan; Aryal, Madan Raj; Jalota, Leena; Donato, Anthony A
The radial artery (RA) can be used as part of an arterial revascularization strategy in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). It is easy to harvest and several randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses have reported superior long-term patency over saphenous vein grafts. However, the RA is not used as frequently as the saphenous vein and questions remain regarding its optimum use as a conduit. This article comprehensively appraises current evidence surrounding outcomes, patient selection, harvesting technique, intraoperative strategy, and graft spasm prophylaxis to provide a contemporary review of the use of the RA as a conduit in CABG. PMID:24090580
Rehman, Syed M; Yi, Gijong; Taggart, David P
Diffuse esophageal spasm is an uncommon esophageal motor disorder characterized clinically by chest pain and difficulty swallowing. A case is described in which failure of conventional medical treatment in the face of continued weight loss led to consideration for surgery. The need for surgery was obviated by the successful application of relaxation training, which resulted in a significant reduction in
Paul R. Latimer
It is not known whether or not muscle spasm of the back muscles presented in patients with sciatic scoliosis caused by lumbar disc herniation produces muscle pain and\\/or tenderness. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) of the lower back and low-back pain were examined in 52 patients (13 of 52 presenting sciatic scoliosis) with lumbar disc herniation who complained of radicular pain
Jiro Hirayama; Masatsune Yamagata; Satoshi Ogata; Koh Shimizu; Yoshikazu Ikeda; Kazuhisa Takahashi
Infantile spasms (ISS) are an epilepsy disorder frequently associated with severe developmental outcome and have diverse genetic etiologies. We ascertained 11 subjects with ISS and novel copy number variants (CNVs) and combined these with a new cohort with deletion 1p36 and ISS, and additional published patients with ISS and other chromosomal abnormalities. Using bioinformatics tools, we analyzed the gene content
Alex R Paciorkowski; Liu Lin Thio; Jill A Rosenfeld; Marzena Gajecka; Christina A Gurnett; Shashikant Kulkarni; Wendy K Chung; Eric D Marsh; Mattia Gentile; James D Reggin; James W Wheless; Sandhya Balasubramanian; Ravinesh Kumar; Susan L Christian; Carla Marini; Renzo Guerrini; Natalia Maltsev; Lisa G Shaffer; William B Dobyns
This study is aimed at investigating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in three groups of patients matched for age and gender; namely, focal dystonia (FD), hemifacial spasm (HFS), and healthy-control subjects (HC). All subjects were investigated with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-I, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Symptom Checklist-90, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, and the Structured Clinical Interview for Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Self-Report, Lifetime Version (SCI-OBS-SR-LT). The prevalence of OCD was significantly higher in both FD and HFS than in HC participants. On the SCI-OBS, HFS patients showed higher scores than FD or HC for "contamination" and "aggressiveness." Despite the different pathophysiology, OCD is highly represented in both FD and HFS, with different thematic content characterizing the two conditions. PMID:22450617
Mula, Marco; Strigaro, Gionata; Marotta, Antonella E; Ruggerone, Simona; Tribolo, Antonella; Monaco, Roberto; Cantello, Francesco
Several studies have provided evidence that the administration of testosterone to vascular tissue causes vasodilation (Costarella, Yue). This study examines the role of nitric oxide (NO) as a potential mechanism of testosterone-induced vasodilation...
Piefer, Jason William
The ability of exercise-induced myocardial hypoperfusion on thallium scintigraphy to predict coronary events was assessed in 1,689 patients with symptoms suggestive of coronary artery disease but without prior myocardial infarction or coronary artery bypass surgery. A total of 74 patients had a coronary event in the year after testing (12 cardiac deaths, 20 nonfatal infarctions and 42 referrals for bypass
Marc L. Ladenheim; Brad H. Pollock; Alan Rozanski; Daniel S. Berman; Howard M. Staniloff; James S. Forrester; George A. Diamond
Major coronary artery anomalies are extremely rare in childhood. We wanted to assess the historical and diagnostic features and the therapeutic options of three distinct types of coronary artery anomalies: abnormal origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA), coronary fistula and coronary stenosis. In a retrospective study, 33 children with these types of coronary artery disease
Daniël Wolf; Tom Vercruysse; Bert Suys; Nico Blom; Dirk Matthys; Jaap Ottenkamp
Background: We previously reported a case of cerebral infarction complicated by myocardial infarction. The pathogenesis of both infarctions was thought to be vasospasm; thus, we named this condition ‘idiopathic carotid and coronary vasospasm’. Various medical treatments for the prevention of carotid vasospasm have been unsuccessfully tried. Thus, other effective treatments should be established for patients who frequently suffer cerebral ischemic attacks. Case Description: We treated the present case of ‘idiopathic carotid and coronary vasospasm’ by carotid artery stenting (CAS). The first stenting, of the carotid bifurcation, failed to prevent internal carotid artery (ICA) vasospasm. However, after an additional stent placement to the prepetrous portion, ischemic attacks were dramatically reduced. Conclusion: The effect of CAS for extracranial ICA vasospasm was dramatic and control of the spasm at the prepetrous portion seems to be essential. Further validation of the effectiveness and safety of CAS for ICA vasospasm will be necessary.
Yoshimoto, Haruko; Asakuno, Keizo; Matsuo, Seigo; Ishida, Atsushi; Shiramizu, Hideki; Niimura, Kaku; Yuzawa, Miki; Yamagishi, Yasumichi; Munakata, Takehiko; Moriyama, Takashi; Hori, Tomokatsu
The article discusses counseling sessions designed to a) help the coronary patient adjust to cardiovascular disease, b) diminish patient anxieties and fears, and c) educate the patient and family members on controlling risk factors to deter another coronary attack. (JS)
Semmler, Caryl; Semmler, Maynard
The pathophysiology of impaired hemodynamic and nonhemodynamic responses to anemia in patients with coronary artery disease is discussed. In animals, experimentally induced coronary artery disease significantly inhibits the hemodynamic response to surgical blood loss; anecdotal evidence in humans corroborates these findings. Erythropoietic response to surgical blood loss may also be blunted in patients with coronary artery disease. Regardless of whether anemia is the result of a preexisting condition or surgical blood loss, its presence worsens outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease who undergo cardiac surgery. The combination of coronary artery disease and anemia has resulted in acute myocardial infarction as well. Finally, anemia after noncardiac surgery is associated with an increased risk of myocardial ischemia, potentially creating a cycle in which blood loss and myocardial ischemia exacerbate each other. Oral iron replacement therapy after elective cardiac surgery increases adverse events without significantly improving hematocrit and hemoglobin levels or iron stores. Allogeneic blood transfusions are less than ideal, and autologous blood transfusion with erythropoietin administration is only possible before elective procedures. New procedures and medications have reduced the blood loss associated with percutaneous coronary intervention, and minimization of blood loss during percutaneous coronary intervention has potentially major clinical and economic implications. PMID:12908376
Objectives We prospectively compared the preventive effects of rosuvastatin and atorvastatin on contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods We enrolled 1078 consecutive patients with CKD undergoing elective PCI. Patients in Group 1 (n?=?273) received rosuvastatin (10 mg), and those in group 2 (n?=?805) received atorvastatin (20 mg). The primary end-point was the development of CIN, defined as an absolute increase in serum creatinine ?0.5 mg/dL, or an increase ?25% from baseline within 48–72 h after contrast medium exposure. Results CIN was observed in 58 (5.4%) patients. The incidence of CIN was similar in patients pretreated with either rosuvastatin or atorvastatin (5.9% vs. 5.2%, p?=?0.684). The same results were also observed when using other definitions of CIN. Clinical and procedural characteristics did not show significant differences between the two groups (p>0.05). Additionally, there were no significant inter-group differences with respect to in-hospital mortality rates (0.4% vs. 1.5%, p?=?0.141), or other in-hospital complications. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that rosuvastatin and atorvastatin demonstrated similar efficacies for preventing CIN, after adjusting for potential confounding risk factors (odds ratio?=?1.17, 95% confidence interval, 0.62–2.20, p?=?0.623). A Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed that patients taking either rosuvastatin or atorvastatin had similar incidences of all-cause mortality (9.4% vs. 7.1%, respectively; p?=?0.290) and major adverse cardiovascular events (29.32% vs. 23.14%, respectively; p?=?0.135) during follow-up. Conclusions Rosuvastatin and atorvastatin have similar efficacies for preventing CIN in patients with CKD undergoing PCI. PMID:25357250
Tan, Ning; Chen, Ji-yan; Zhou, Ying-ling; Li, Li-wen; Duan, Chong-yang; Chen, Ping-Yan; Luo, Jian-fang; Li, Hua-long; Wei-Guo
Objectives Reduced number and impaired function of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in patients with chronic kidney disease have been reported. However, there is little data about the association between circulating EPC levels and risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between circulating EPCs and CIN in patients after angiography. Methods and Results A total of 77 consecutive patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) were enrolled. Flow cytometry with quantification of EPC markers (defined as CD34+, CD34+KDR+, and CD34+KDR+CD133+) in peripheral blood samples was used to assess EPC number before the procedure. CIN was defined as an absolute increase ?0.5 mg/dl or a relative increase ?25% in the serum creatinine level at 48 hours after the procedure. Eighteen (24%) of the study subjects developed CIN. Circulating EPC levels were significantly lower in patients who developed CIN than in those without CIN (CD34+KDR+, 4.11±2.59 vs. 9.25±6.30 cells/105 events, P<0.001). The incidence of CIN was significantly greater in patients in the lowest EPC tertile (CD34+KDR+; from lowest to highest, 52%, 15%, and 4%, P<0.001). Using univariate logistic regression, circulating EPC number (CD34+KDR+) was a significant negative predictor for development of CIN (odds ratio 0.69, 95% CI 0.54–0.87, P?=?0.002). Over a two-year follow-up, patients with CIN had a higher incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events including myocardial infarction, stroke, revascularization of treated vessels, and death (66.7% vs. 25.4%, P?=?0.004) than did patients without CIN. Conclusions Decreased EPC level is associated with a greater risk of CIN, which may explain part of the pathophysiology of CIN and the poor prognosis in CIN patients. PMID:24646509
Chiang, Chia-Hung; Huang, Po-Hsun; Chiu, Chun-Chih; Hsu, Chien-Yi; Leu, Hsin-Bang; Huang, Chin-Chou; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Lin, Shing-Jong
Preprocedural statin administration may reduce contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI), but current evidence is controversial. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing preprocedural statin administration before coronary catheterization with standard strategies were searched in MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect databases. The outcome of interest was the incidence of postprocedural CI-AKI. Prespecified subgroup analyses were performed according to baseline glomerular filtration rate (GFR), statin type, and N-acetylcysteine use. Eight RCTs were included for a total of 4,984 patients. The incidence of CI-AKI was 3.91% in the statin group (n = 2,480) and 6.98% in the control group (n = 2,504). In the pooled analysis using a random-effects model, patients receiving statins had 46% lower relative risk (RR) of CI-AKI compared with the control group (RR 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.38 to 0.78, p = 0.001). A moderate degree of non-significant heterogeneity was present (I(2) = 41.9%, chi-square = 12.500, p = 0.099, ?² = 0.100). In the subanalysis based on GFR, the pooled RR indicated a persistent benefit with statins in patients with GFR <60 ml/min (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.00, p = 0.050) and a highly significant benefit in patients with GFR ?60 ml/min (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.61, p <0.0001). Statin type and N-acetylcysteine or hydration did not significantly influence the results. In conclusion, preprocedural statin use leads to a significant reduction in the pooled RR of CI-AKI. PMID:25001154
Giacoppo, Daniele; Capodanno, Davide; Capranzano, Piera; Aruta, Patrizia; Tamburino, Corrado
Vascular complications after liver transplantation include occlusion or stenosis near the sites of anastomosis in the hepatic artery, portal vein, and vena cava. Balloon angioplasty of these stenoses carries little risk and is a useful procedure for the treatment of these problems. Here we describe the case of a liver transplant patient who underwent balloon angioplasty for stenosis of the hepatic artery and who developed spasms of the hepatic artery which were aggravated following intraarterial administration of Tolazoline.
Propst, Albert [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Waldenberger, Peter [Department of Radiology, University of Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Propst, Theresa; Vogel, Wolfgang [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Koenigsrainer, Alfred [Department of Surgery/Transplantation, University of Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Jaschke, Werner [Department of Radiology, University of Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECT: There was no Chinese questionnaire to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with hemifacial spasm (HFS). In this study, we aimed to validate a new disease-specific HRQoL scale for HFS (HFS-36) in Chinese version, and compared it to SF-36, a generic HRQoL scale. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The HFS-36 Chinese version was modified from English
Yen-Chu Huang; Jun-Yu Fan; Long-Sun Ro; Rong-Kuo Lyu; Hong-Shiu Chang; Sien-Tsong Chen; Wen-Chuin Hsu; Chiung-Mei Chen; Yih-Ru Wu
A comparative assessment of regional coronary flow reserve, quantitative percent diameter coronary stenosis and exercise-induced perfusion and wall motion abnormalities was performed in 39 patients with coronary artery disease. Coronary flow reserve was determined by a digital angiographic technique utilizing contrast medium as the hyperemic agent. Percent diameter stenosis was calculated by an automated quantification program applied to orthogonal cineangiograms. Thallium-201 scintigraphy and radionuclide ventriculography were used to assess regional perfusion and wall motion abnormalities, respectively, at rest and during exercise. In Group A, 19 patients without transmural infarction or collateral vessels, coronary flow reserve was inversely related to percent diameter stenosis (r = -0.61, p less than 0.0001), and scintigraphic abnormalities occurred only in vascular distributions with a coronary flow reserve of less than 2.00. There was a strong relation among abnormal regional exercise results, stenoses greater than 50% and reactive hyperemia of less than 2.00. Patients with multivessel disease, however, often had normal exercise scintigrams in regions associated with greater than 50% stenosis and low coronary flow reserve when other regions had a lower coronary flow reserve or higher grade stenosis, or both. In Group B, 20 patients with angiographically visible collateral vessels, 12 of whom had prior myocardial infarction, coronary flow reserve correlated less well with percent diameter stenosis than in Group A (r = -0.47, p less than 0.004). As in Group A patients, there was a significant relation between abnormal exercise test results and stenoses greater than 50%. However, reactive hyperemia values were generally lower than in Group A, and positive exercise stress results were strongly correlated only with highly impaired flow reserves of 1.3 or less.
Legrand, V.; Mancini, G.B.; Bates, E.R.; Hodgson, J.M.; Gross, M.D.; Vogel, R.A.
A 17-year-old man underwent clinical evaluation of exercise-induced syncope. Routine exercise stress test did not show any myocardial ischaemic changes or arrhythmias on the ECG recording. However, multidetector CT (MDCT) angiography of the coronary arteries revealed an abnormal origin of the left coronary artery from the right coronary sinus. The participants' symptoms were diagnosed as cardiogenic syncope possibly due to transient stenosis of the left main coronary artery caught between the functionally distended aortic root and the pulmonary trunk during exercise. After successful patch coronary angioplasty, his symptoms disappeared completely even during a similar degree of strenuous exercise. It is important for clinicians not to overlook possible coronary artery anomalies during management of patients with exercise-induced syncope. MDCT coronary angiography may be a useful and non-invasive tool to establish diagnosis and a surgical approach to rectify congenital coronary artery anomalies. PMID:25150237
Ishisone, Takenori; Satoh, Mamoru; Okabayashi, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Motoyuki
AIM: To assess coronary endothelial function of conduit and resistance vessels in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS). METHODS: Seventy-eight men (mean age, 57 years) with chest pain and angiographically normal coronary arteries were included in the study. Patients with coronary spastic angina were excluded. Changes in coronary artery diameter and coronary blood flow (CBF) in response to acetylcholine (ACh) were determined using quantitative coronary angiography and Doppler velocity measurements. Coronary flow reserve was calculated as the ratio of coronary blood velocity after adenosine triphosphate infusion relative to baseline values. Patients were divided into two groups based on the presence or absence of MS. RESULTS: There were 24 patients in the MS group (31%). The increase in CBF in response to ACh infusion was impaired in the MS group (P < 0.0001) compared to the non-MS group, whereas changes in coronary artery diameter in response to ACh infusion did not differ between the two groups. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that MS was a significant factor associated with the lesser change in CBF induced by ACh infusion at 30 ?g/min (P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.46). CONCLUSION: Coronary endothelial dysfunction was present at the level of resistance vessels but not conduit vessels in the MS patients included in our study. PMID:21160752
Teragawa, Hiroki; Mitsuba, Naoya; Nishioka, Kenji; Ueda, Kentaro; Kono, Shingo; Higashi, Yukihito; Chayama, Kazuaki; Kihara, Yasuki
Coronary transport capacity was estimated in eight sedentary control and eight exercise-trained anesthetized dogs by determining the differences between base line and the highest coronary blood flow and permeability-surface area product (PS) obtained during maximal adenosine vasodilation with coronary perfusion pressure constant. The anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery was cannulated and pump- perfused under constant-pressure conditions (approximately equal to 100 Torr) while aortic, central venous, and coronary perfusion pressures, heart rate, electrocardiogram, and coronary flow were monitored. Myocardial extraction and PS of /sup 51/Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid were determined with the single-injection indicator-diffusion method. The efficacy of the 16 +/- 1 wk exercise training program was shown by significant increases in the succinate dehydrogenase activities of the gastrocnemius, gluteus medialis, and long head of triceps brachii muscles. There were no differences between control and trained dogs for either resting coronary blood flow or PS. During maximal vasodilation with adenosine, the trained dogs had significantly lower perfusion pressures with constant flow and, with constant-pressure vasodilation, greater coronary blood flow and PS. It is concluded that exercise training in dogs induces an increased coronary transport capacity that includes increases in coronary blood flow capacity (26% of control) and capillary diffusion capacity (82% of control).
Objectives: The effect of preconditioning before hyperkalemic cardioplegia on the coronary smooth muscle remains to be elucidated. We tested the hypothesis that hypoxic preconditioning could protect coronary smooth muscle against subsequent hyperkalemic cardioplegia-induced coronary vasospasm and that this preconditioning effect could be mediated by KATP channels. Methods: Rat coronary arterioles (endothelium-denuded) were studied in a pressurized, no-flow, normothermic state. Simultaneous
Naruto Matsuda; Kathleen G. Morgan; Frank W. Sellke
Mentalis muscle responses to electrical stimulation of the zygomatic branch of the facial nerve are considered abnormal muscle responses (AMRs) and can be used to monitor the success of decompression in microvascular decompression (MVD) surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the long-term outcome of MVD surgery in which the AMR disappeared to the outcome of surgery in which the AMR persisted. From 2005 to 2009, 131 patients with hemifacial spasm received MVD surgery with intraoperative monitoring of AMR. At 1 week postsurgery, spasms had resolved in 82% of cases in the AMR-disappearance group and 46% of cases in the persistent-AMR group, mild spasms were present in 10% of cases in the AMR-disappearance group and 31% of cases in the persistent-AMR group, and moderate were present spasms in 8% of cases in the AMR-disappearance group and 23% of cases in the persistent-AMR group (P < 0.05). At 1 year postsurgery, spasms had resolved in 92% of cases in the AMR-disappearance group and 84% of cases in the persistent-AMR group, mild spasms were present in 6% of cases in the AMR-disappearance group and 8% of cases in the persistent-AMR group, and moderate spasms were present in 3% of cases in the AMR-disappearance group and 8% of the cases in the persistent-AMR group (P = 0.56). These results indicate that the long-term outcome of MVD surgery in which the AMR persisted was no different to that of MVD surgery in which the AMR disappeared. PMID:24305017
Tobishima, Hana; Hatayama, Toru; Ohkuma, Hiroki
We report a 63-year-old man with stiff-person syndrome, who dramatically responded to the treatment with high dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). He developed stiffness of the right leg and low back five years ago. He was treated with oral diazepam 6 mg/day and showed a marked improvement. He had been maintained on the same dose since then. In 2000, he began to have episodic generalized spasm and painful spasm of his left leg as well as persistent stiffness of his legs and low back. Findings on the physical examination were normal except for a prominent hyperlordosis with co-contracture of the lumbar paraspinal and abdominal muscles. Neurologic examination revealed stiffness in the lower limbs, more marked on the left side, and lower truncal muscles. The left leg had painful spasm, which was provoked by tactile stimuli. There was severe generalized spasm which made him suddenly bend backward. These backward-bending attacks were provoked spontaneously or reflexively by sudden tactile stimuli. He was unable to arise from a chair or stand without assistance. His deep tendon reflexes on both legs were brisk and Babinski sign was negative. He had no diabetes mellitus and thyroid function was normal. Antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase(GAD), antinuclear antibody, thyroid peroxidase autoantibody and antithyroglobulin autoantibody in the serum were present. His painful spasm was disappeared and muscle stiffness was moderately improved by treatment with oral diazepam and clonazepam, but backward-bending attacks due to generalized spasms were not controlled. He received IVIG. Three days after the administration of IVIG, these attacks disappeared completely. Subsequently muscle stiffness improved. One week after, he was able to walk without assistance. IVIG may be useful for treatment of generalized spasm, which had no response to treatment with diazepam or clonazepam. PMID:12684995
Wada, Yuko; Suenaga, Toshihiko; Hashimoto, Shuji
Objective We evaluated the safety of coronary reactivity testing (CRT) in symptomatic women with evidence of myocardial ischemia and no obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). Background Microvascular coronary dysfunction (MCD) in women with no obstructive CAD portends an adverse prognosis of 2.5% annual major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) rate. The diagnosis of MCD is established by invasive CRT, yet the risk of CRT is unknown. Methods We evaluated 293 symptomatic women with ischemia and no obstructive CAD, who underwent CRT at three experienced centers. Microvascular function was assessed using a Doppler wire and injections of adenosine, acetylcholine, and nitroglycerin in the left coronary artery. CRT-related serious adverse events (SAE), adverse events (AE), and follow-up MACE (death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), nonfatal stroke, or hospitalization for heart failure) were recorded. Results CRT-SAEs occurred in 2 women (0.7%) during the procedure: one had coronary artery dissection, and one developed MI associated with coronary spasm. CRT-AEs occurred in 2 women (0.7%) and included one transient air microembolism and one deep venous thrombosis. There was no CRT-related mortality. In the mean follow-up period of 5.4 years, the MACE rate was 8.2%, including 5 deaths (1.7%), 8 non-fatal MIs (2.7%), 8 nonfatal strokes (2.7%), and 11 hospitalizations for heart failure (3.8%). Conclusions In women undergoing CRT for suspected MCD, contemporary testing carries a relatively low risk compared to the MACE rate in these women. These results support the use of CRT by experienced operators for establishing definitive diagnosis and assessing prognosis in this at-risk population. PMID:22721660
Wei, Janet; Mehta, Puja K.; Johnson, B. Delia; Samuels, Bruce; Kar, Saibal; Anderson, R. David; Azarbal, Babak; Petersen, John; Sharaf, Barry; Handberg, Eileen; Shufelt, Chrisandra; Kothawade, Kamlesh; Sopko, George; Lerman, Amir; Shaw, Leslee; Kelsey, Sheryl F.; Pepine, Carl J.; Bairey Merz, C. Noel
Background and Objectives To avoid the risk of developing contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), it has been suggested that patients be subjected to a minimal necessary dose of contrast medium (CM-dose). However, often it is not easy to determine such a dose. This study assessed the usefulness of the ratio of CM-dose to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in predicting the risks of CIN and sought to determine the safe level of CM-dose/eGFR in patients undergoing non-emergent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Subjects and Methods We enrolled a total of 226 patients and calculated the ratio of CM-dose using grams of iodine (g-I) to eGFR, thus expressing it as g-I/eGFR. Among the CIN patients, those with ne-phropathy requiring dialysis (NRD) were also evaluated. Results Overall, there were 16 cases (7.1%) of CIN. On univariate and multivariate regression analysis, g-I/eGFR alone was found to be an independent predictor for CIN (hazard ratio=10.73, p<0.001). In an receiver operating characteristic analysis, fair discrimination for CIN was found at a g-I/eGFR level of 1.42 (C statics=0.867), and at this value, the sensitivity and specificity were 81.3% and 80%, respectively. Of patients (n=51) with g-I/eGFR ?1.42, 23.6% (13/51) and 7.8% (4/51) developed, while those with g-I/eGFR <1.42 (n=171) had a lower incidences of CIN (1.8%, 2/171, p<0.001) and NRD (0%, 0/171, p<0.001). Conclusion It can be concluded that a g-I/eGFR <1.42 is a simple, useful indicator for determining the safe CM-dose based on the pre-PCI eGFR values. Furthermore, g-I/eGFR might have a close relationship with the development of NRD as well as CIN. PMID:21731568
Background Infantile spasms (IS; West syndrome) is a severe form of encephalopathy that typically affects infants younger than 2?years old. Pediatricians, pediatric neurologists, and other pediatric health care providers are all potentially key early contacts for families who have an infant with IS. The objective of this article is to assist pediatric health care providers in the detection of the disease and in the counseling and guidance of families who have an infant with IS. Methods Treatment guidelines, consensus reports, and original research studies are reviewed to provide an update regarding the diagnosis and treatment of infants with IS. Web sites were searched for educational and supportive resource content relevant to providers and families of patients with IS. Results Early detection of IS and pediatrician referral to a pediatric neurologist for further evaluation and initiation of treatment may improve prognosis. Family education and the establishment of a multidisciplinary continuum of care are important components of care for the majority of patients with IS. The focus of the continuum of care varies across diagnosis, initiation of treatment, and short- and long-term needs. Several on-line educational and supportive resources for families and caregivers of patients with IS were identified. Conclusions Given the possibility of poor developmental outcomes in IS, including the emergence of other seizure disorders and cognitive and developmental problems, early recognition, referral, and treatment of IS are important for optimal patient outcomes. Dissemination of and access to educational and supportive resources for families and caregivers across the lifespan of the child with IS is an urgent need. Pediatric health care providers are well positioned to address these needs. PMID:22830456
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Exposure to ambient particles has been shown to be responsible for cardiovascular effects, especially in elderly with cardiovascular disease. The study assessed the association between deceleration capacity (DC) as well as heart rate variability (HRV) and ambient particulate matter (PM) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: A prospective study with up to 12 repeated measurements
Alexandra Schneider; Regina Hampel; Angela Ibald-Mulli; Wojciech Zareba; Georg Schmidt; Raphael Schneider; Regina Rückerl; Jean Philippe Couderc; Betty Mykins; Günter Oberdörster; Gabriele Wölke; Mike Pitz; H-Erich Wichmann; Annette Peters
OBJECTIVESWe examined whether enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) improves myocardial ischemia, exercise tolerance and cardiac function in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).BACKGROUNDEnhanced external counterpulsation reduces angina and improves exercise tolerance in patients with CAD. Some objective improvements of ischemia by EECP have been reported, but they should be confirmed further. Detailed hemodynamic effects of EECP have been less well documented.METHODSEnhanced
Hisashi Urano; Hisao Ikeda; Takafumi Ueno; Takahiro Matsumoto; Toyoaki Murohara; Tsutomu Imaizumi
... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Coronary Heart Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) can cause serious complications. However, if you ... changes and medicines, go to "How Is Coronary Heart Disease Treated?" Work closely with your doctor to control ...
The efficacy of coronary thrombolysis may be assessed by several invasive and noninvasive means, including coronary angiography, contrast and radionuclide angiography, thallium 201 or /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate scintigraphy, positron emission tomography, cardiac ultrasonography, electrocardiography, and analysis of plasma creatine kinase activity. Each technique has its own strengths and limitations, but when used in concert these methods may provide insight into the physiology of coronary reperfusion and the efficacy of reperfusion in individual patients and populations. 104 references.
Geltman, E.M.; Abendschein, D.R.; Devries, S.R.
The technique of selective coronary arteriography, as described originally by Sones, was employed in 255 patients. Successful catheterization of both coronary arteries was carried out in 88% of these patients, and in the last 100 examinations both coronary arteries were entered in 95 patients. Selective coronary arteriography is a useful diagnostic tool but is a potentially hazardous form of examination as we encountered four episodes of ventricular fibrillation in the present series. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Figs. 3A-DFig. 3EFig. 3FFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:5902704
Parker, John O.; Challis, Thomas W.; West, Roxroy O.
Objective We investigated the locations of compressing vessels in hemifacial spasm. To approach compression sites, we described and evaluated the efficacy of the infranuchal infrafloccular (INIF) approach. Methods A retrospective review of 31 consecutive patients who underwent microvascular decompression (MVD) through INIF with a minimum follow-up of 1 year was performed. Along the intracranial facial nerve, we classified the compression sites into the transitional zone (TRZ), the central nervous system (CNS) segment and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) segment. The INIF approach was used to inspect the CNS segment and the TRZ. Subdural patch graft technique was used in order to achieve watertight dural closure. The cranioplasty was performed using polymethylmethacrylate. The outcome and procedure-related morbidities were evaluated. Results Twenty-nine patients (93%) showed complete disappearance of spasm. In two patients, the spasm was resolved gradually in 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. Late recurrence was noted in one patient (3%). The TRZ has been identified as the only compression site in 19 cases (61.3%), both the TRZ and CNS segment in 11 (35.5%) and the CNS segment only in 1 (3.2%). There was no patient having a compressing vessel in the PNS segment. Infection as a result of cerebrospinal fluid leak occurred in one patient (3%). Delayed transient facial weakness occurred in one patient. Conclusion The TRZ and the CNS segment were more vulnerable area to the compression of vessels. We suggest that surgical avenue with the INIF approach provides early identification of this area.c PMID:19893723
Park, Heung-Sik; Chang, Dong Kyu
1. Rings of bovine left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) were contracted with the thromboxane A2-mimetic, U46619 (1-30 nM), to approximately 40% of their maximum contraction to 125 mM KCl Krebs solution (KPSSmax) for comparison of responses to the B1 and B2 kinin receptor agonists, des-Arg9-bradykinin (des-Arg9-BK) and bradykinin (BK), respectively. Relaxation responses were normalized as percentages of the initial U46619-induced contraction level, while contractile responses were expressed as percentages of KPSSmax. 2. After 6 h of in vitro incubation in Krebs solution at 37 degrees C, des-Arg9-BK (pEC50, 8.00 +/- 0.08; maximum response (Rmax), 93.9 +/- 1.9%) and BK (pEC50, 9.75 +/- 0.07; Rmax, 100.1 +/- 0.7%) caused endothelium-dependent relaxations in precontracted rings of bovine LAD which were competitively and selectively antagonized by the B1 receptor antagonist, des-Arg9-[Leu8]-BK (pA2, 6.27 +/- 0.11) and the B2 receptor antagonist Hoc-140 (pA2, 9.63 +/- 0.14), respectively. 3. At 3 h of in vitro incubation, the sensitivity (pEC50, 7.45 +/- 0.10) and Rmax (84.6 +/- 3.3%) to des-Arg9-BK were significantly less than those obtained in the same tissues at 6 h (pEC50, 7.94 +/- 0.06; Rmax, 91.4 +/- 2.5%), whereas endothelium-dependent relaxations to BK and ACh were unaffected by incubation time. 4. Relaxation responses to des-ARg9-BK, but not BK, at both 3 h and 6 h were significantly attenuated by the protein synthesis inhibitors, cycloheximide (30 and 100 microM) and actinomycin D (2 microM). 5. At 6 h, the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG, 100 microM), caused a significant 2 fold decrease in pEC50 (9.58 +/- 0.03) but had no effect on Rmax for BK. For des-Arg9-BK, L-NOARG (100 microM) caused a marked and significant decrease in both the pEC50 and Rmax and revealed contractions to low concentrations of des-Arg9-BK. In both cases, L-NOARG inhibition was reversed in the presence of L-arginine (10 mM). 6. At 6 h removal of the endothelium abolished relaxation responses to des-Arg9-BK and BK, and for des-Arg9-BK, but not BK, unmasked concentration-dependent contractions (pEC50, 7.57 +/- 0.09; Rmax, 83.4 +/- 9.1%). The sensitivity of contractions to des-Arg9-BK increased slightly from 3 h (pEC50, 7.37 +/- 0.08) to 6 h (pEC50, 7.62 +/- 0.12) of in vitro incubation; however, there was a small but significant depression in the maximum response over this time (Rmax, 126.8 +/- 8.5% and 103.3 +/- 8.6% for 3 h and 6 h of incubation respectively). 7. In conclusion, the bovine LAD contains inducible B1 and constitutive B2 endothelial cell kinin receptors, both of which mediate endothelium-dependent relaxation partly via the release of NO. B1 receptors were also present on the smooth muscle layer of the bovine LAD. PMID:8581287
Drummond, G. R.; Cocks, T. M.
Double left anterior descending coronary artery originating from left main coronary stem and right coronary artery is a rare congenital coronary anomaly. In this case report, we are describing a patient with double left anterior descending coronary artery, one with normal origin, and the other originating from the right coronary artery. To the best of our knowledge, there are only a few reports resembling such case. PMID:24251016
Akbarzadeh, Fariborz; Shadravan, Sepide; Ghorbanian, Maryam; Piri, Reza; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad
Blockade of NF-?B by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate attenuates myocardial inflammatory response and ventricular dysfunction following coronary microembolization induced by homologous microthrombi in rats
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of specific NF-?B inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) on\\u000a inflammatory response and cardiac function in a rat model of coronary microembolization (CME). CME was developed by injecting\\u000a a suspension of microthrombotic particles (MTPs) into the left ventricle when obstructing the ascending aorta. MTPs were generated\\u000a from the rat clots sized by
Shumei Li; Shishun Zhong; Kai Zeng; Yukun Luo; Feilong Zhang; Xudong Sun; Lianglong Chen
BACKGROUND--Some patients with angina pectoris and normal coronary arteriograms have reduced coronary flow reserve and abnormal endothelium dependent vasodilator responses. Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor, is an important modulator of microvascular function and may also have algogenic properties. METHOD--Plasma ET-1 was measured in peripheral venous blood in 40 patients (30 women) (mean (SD) age 56 (8) years) with angina and normal coronary arteriograms and 21 normal controls (17 women) (mean (SD) age 53 (7) years). Patients with systemic hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, or coronary spasm were excluded. Plasma ET-1 was measured using radioimmunoassay. RESULTS--Thirty five patients had > or = 1 mm ST segment depression during exercise. Left bundle branch block was present in four patients at rest and in one during exercise. Mean (SD) (range) concentration of ET-1 (pg/ml) was higher in patients than in controls (3.84 (1.25) (1.97-7.42) v 2.88 (0.71) (1.57-4.48) P < 0.0001). In patients with "high" (> control mean (one SD)) ET-1 concentrations (n = 23), the time to onset of chest pain during exercise was significantly shorter (6.21 (3.9) v 9.03 (3.9) min; p = 0.01) than in patients with "low" ET-1 concentrations. Of the five patients with left bundle branch block, four had plasma ET-1 concentration > 4.0 pg/ml. CONCLUSION--Plasma endothelin is raised in patients with angina and normal coronary arteriograms and is consistent with the demonstration of endothelial dysfunction in such patients. The association between "high" plasma ET-1 and an earlier onset of chest pain during exercise suggests that endothelin may also have a role in the genesis of chest pain in patients with normal coronary arteries. PMID:8541166
Kaski, J. C.; Elliott, P. M.; Salomone, O.; Dickinson, K.; Gordon, D.; Hann, C.; Holt, D. W.
Coronary artery anomalies are found in 1–5% of all coronary angiograms. Single coronary artery is a rare congenital anomaly. The prevalence of the anomaly is 0.024–0.066% of the general population and percutaneous coronary intervention in this anomaly is performed infrequently. The highest incidence of this condition is reported from India. We report a case of a 55 year old patient of anterior wall ST elevation myocardial infarction with L1 group of single coronary artery who underwent successful angioplasty and stenting to left anterior descending artery. The unique features and inherent risks of percutaneous coronary intervention to single coronary artery are discussed. PMID:24973852
Mishra, T.K.; Mishra, C.K.; Das, B.
It has been suggested that obstruction of coronary veins can induce myocardial infarction similar to coronary artery obstruction.\\u000a In this study, the coronary veins of the sheep heart were blocked experimentally and haematological and inflammatory indices\\u000a (haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, tumour necrosis factor-? and interferon-?) alterations were studied. Twenty sheep were used\\u000a for this study. Anaesthesia was induced by ketamine
Fatemeh Dehghani Nazhvani; M. B. Sharifkazemi; S. N. Dehghani; S. Nazifi; M. Shafa
There is an ever-increasing demand for new imaging methods that can provide additional information about the coronary wall to better characterize and stratify high-risk plaques, and to guide interventional and pharmacologic management of patients with coronary artery disease. While there are a number of imaging modalities that facilitate the assessment of coronary artery pathology, this review paper focuses on intravascular optical imaging modalities that provide information on the microstructural, compositional, biochemical, biomechanical, and molecular features of coronary lesions and stents. The optical imaging modalities discussed include angioscopy, optical coherence tomography, polarization sensitive-optical coherence tomography, laser speckle imaging, near-infrared spectroscopy, time-resolved laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging. Given the wealth of information that these techniques can provide, optical imaging modalities are poised to play an increasingly significant role in the evaluation of the coronary artery in the future. PMID:21920342
Suter, Melissa J.; Nadkarni, Seemantini K.; Weisz, Giora; Tanaka, Atsushi; Jaffer, Farouc A.; Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.
There is an ever-increasing demand for new imaging methods that can provide additional information about the coronary wall to better characterize and stratify high-risk plaques, and to guide interventional and pharmacologic management of patients with coronary artery disease. While there are a number of imaging modalities that facilitate the assessment of coronary artery pathology, this review paper focuses on intravascular optical imaging modalities that provide information on the microstructural, compositional, biochemical, biomechanical, and molecular features of coronary lesions and stents. The optical imaging modalities discussed include angioscopy, optical coherence tomography, polarization sensitive-optical coherence tomography, laser speckle imaging, near-infrared spectroscopy, time-resolved laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and near-infrared fluorescence molecular imaging. Given the wealth of information that these techniques can provide, optical imaging modalities are poised to play an increasingly significant role in the evaluation of the coronary artery in the future. PMID:21920342
Suter, Melissa J; Nadkarni, Seemantini K; Weisz, Giora; Tanaka, Atsushi; Jaffer, Farouc A; Bouma, Brett E; Tearney, Guillermo J
Impact of Coronary Risk Factors on Contribution of Nitric Oxide and Adenosine to Metabolic Coronary Vasodilation in Humans 1 1 This study was supported by Grant-in-Aid for JSPS Fellows from the Ministry of Education, Science, and Culture and by the Japan Heart Foundation–Pfizer Pharmaceuticals Grant for Research on Coronary Artery Disease, Tokyo, Japan
Objectives. The contribution of nitric oxide (NO) and adenosine to the increase in coronary blood flow (CBF) induced by cardiac pacing was investigated in 28 subjects with angiographically normal coronary arteries with and without one or more risk factors for atherosclerosis.Background. NO and adenosine are important in the regulation of coronary circulation, and the inhibition of NO synthesis increases adenosine
Tetsuo Minamino; Masafumi Kitakaze; Yasushi Matsumura; Kazuhiko Nishida; Yoji Kato; Kazuhiko Hashimura; Yasuhiko Matsu-ura; Hiroharu Funaya; Hiroshi Sato; Tsunehiko Kuzuya; Masatsugu Hori
Objectives. This study sought to compare the outcome of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) (n = 834) and coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) (n = 1805) in diabetic patients with multivessel coronary disease from an observational database.Background. There is concern about selection of revascularization in diabetic patients with multivessel coronary artery disease.Methods. Data were collected prospectively and entered into
William S Weintraub; Bernardo Stein; Andrzej Kosinski; John S Douglas; Ziyad M. B Ghazzal; Ellis L Jones; Douglas C Morris; Robert A Guyton; Joseph M Craver; Spencer B King
Myocardial bridge (MB), which covers a part of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), is a normal anatomical variant structure (45% in frequency by autopsy) in LAD. MB contraction plays the role of a “double-edged sword” on the coronary events, suppressing coronary atherosclerosis under the MB, yet generating abnormal blood flow associated with coronary heart diseases (CHDs). High shear stress driven by MB compression causes the suppression of vascular permeability and vasoactive protein expression such as e-NOS and endothelin-1, which leads to the suppression of atherosclerosis in the LAD segment under the MB. However, despite the prevalent view of MB as benignancy by conventional coronary angiography (5-6% in frequency), with advance of imaging technique such as multislice spiral computed tomography [(MSCT); 16% in frequency], cardiologists are now frequently aware of symptomatic MB occurring not only in hospitalized patients, but also in young athletes free from atherosclerosis. Moreover, the large mass volume of MB muscle induces atherosclerosis evolution at the settled site in LAD proximal to MB and contributes to the occurrence of myocardial infarction. These events upon the coronary events result from the different pathophysiological mechanisms induced by contractile force of MB, which is solely determined just by the integration of anatomical properties of MB, such as the location, length and thickness of MB in an individual LAD. A recent MSCT provides the objective quantification of the anatomical variables that correlate with the histopathological results in relation to the occurrence of CHD. In this review, we therefore discuss the necessity to explore MB as a inherent chance anatomical risk factor for CHD. PMID:23555365
Yoko, Kawawa; Ehiichi, Kohda; Toshiharu, Ishii
Eosinophilic coronary monoarteritis is an unfamiliar cause of acute myocardial ischemia. Most commonly, it presents as a left-sided chest pain or sudden death in middle-aged women with no traditional risk factors for coronary artery disease. Because the abrupt onset leaves almost no time for intervention, the symptoms readily lead to death, and most cases are diagnosed at necropsy. Dissection of the coronary artery wall with resultant occlusion of the lumen, which commonly affects the left anterior descending artery, is a consistent gross finding. An inflammatory infiltrate, which is predominantly composed of eosinophils in the tunica adventitia and tunica media and is often accompanied by a hematoma in between these 2 layers, is observed histologically. The etiology remains unclear, but an increase in the activity of eosinophils because of hormonal interactions during pregnancy has been suggested. Interplay of hormones is thought to culminate in the release of histolytic agents by the eosinophils, which initiate the dissection process. Currently, there is no specific treatment for eosinophilic coronary monoarteritis, but cyclophosphamide and prednisone have shown positive results in the treatment of spontaneous coronary artery dissection with unspecified periadventitial inflammation. Percutaneous coronary procedures have also resulted in favorable outcomes in a subset of patients. Because of the high, sudden death rate in eosinophilic coronary monoarteritis, deciphering the underlying pathophysiology of this almost invariably fatal disease remains both a challenge and a key to developing screening methods that will allow timely detection and thus treatment. PMID:24978927
Carreon, Chrystalle Katte; Esposito, Michael J
Coronary artery fistula is an uncommon finding during angiographic exams. We report a case series of five patients with congenital coronary fistulas. The first patient was 56 years old and had a coronary fistula associated with a partial atrio ventricular defect, the second patient was 54 years old and had two fistulas originating from the right coronary artery with a severe atherosclerotic coronary disease, the third patient was 57 years old with a fistula originating from the circumflex artery associated with a rheumatic mitral stenosis, the fourth patient was 50 years old and had a fistulous communication between the right coronary artery and the right bronchial artery, and the last patient was 12 years old who had bilateral coronary fistulas draining into the right ventricle with an aneurismal dilatation of the coronary arteries. Angiographic aspects of coronary fistulas are various; management is controversial and depends on the presence of symptoms. PMID:24501660
Fennich, Nada; Elouali, Fedoua; Saghi, Ghita; Bouzammour, Nadia; Haddour, Leila; Zarzur, Jamila; Cherti, Mohamed
The aetiology of congenital coronary artery fistulas remains a challenging issue. Coronary arteries with an anatomically normal origin may, for obscure reasons, terminate abnormally and communicate with different single or multiple cardiac chambers or great vessels. When this occurs, the angiographic morphological appearance may vary greatly from discrete channels to plexiform network of vessels. Coronary arteriovenous fistulas (CAVFs) have neither specific signs nor pathognomonic symptoms; the spectrum of clinical features varies considerably. The clinical presentation of symptomatic cases can include angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, fatigue, dyspnoea, CHF, SBE, ventricular and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias or even sudden cardiac death. CAVFs may, however, be a coincidental finding during diagnostic coronary angiography (CAG). CAG is considered the gold standard for diagnosing and delineating the morphological anatomy and pathway of CAVFs. There are various tailored therapeutic modalities for the wide spectrum of clinical manifestations of CAVFs, including conservative pharmacological strategy, percutaneous transluminal embolisation and surgical ligation. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4
Said, S.A.M.; Thiadens, A.A.H.J.; Fieren, M.J.C.H.; Meijboom, E.J.; van der Werf, T.; Bennink, G.B.W.E.
Coronary Heart Disease, Hypertension, Stroke, and Diabetes #12;Coronary Heart Disease: Overview by atherosclerosis Â Narrowing of coronary arteries, the vessels that supply the heart Â· Disease process: coronary Supply To The Heart #12;Coronary Artery Disease Â· Coronary artery disease is one of the most common
Background Experimental data suggests that exclusive heart rate reduction with ivabradine is associated with the amelioration of the endothelial function. Since it is presently unknown whether this also applies to humans, the aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether heart rate reduction with ivabradine modulates the endothelial function in humans with an established coronary heart disease. Methods Using high-sensitivity ultrasound, we analysed the flow-mediated (FMD) and nitro-mediated dilation (NMD) of the brachial artery in 25 patients (62.9?±?8.4 years) with a stable coronary heart disease and a resting heart rate of ?70 beats per minute (bpm). To assess acute effects, measurements were performed before and 4 hours after the first intake of ivabradine 7.5 mg. Sustained effects of an ivabradine therapy (5 mg to 7.5 mg twice daily) were investigated after 4 weeks. Results We found a significant decrease in heart rate, both 4 hours after the intake of 7.5 mg of ivabradine (median -8 [interquartile range (IQR) -14 to -4] bpm) and after 4 weeks of twice daily intake (median -10 [IQR-17 to -5] bpm) (p?0.05). However, the FMD did not change significantly: neither after first dose of ivabradine nor after sustained therapy (baseline FMD: median 5.0 [IQR 2.4 to 7.9]%; FMD 4 hours after 7.5 mg of ivabradine: median 4.9 [IQR 2.7 to 9.8]%; FMD after 4 weeks of ivabradine therapy: median 6.1 [IQR 4.3 to 8.2]%). No significant changes of the NMD were observed. In regression analysis, the heart rate and FMD did not correlated, irrespective of the ivabradine intake (r2?=?0.086). Conclusion In conclusion, in our study heart rate reduction through ivabradine does not improve the endothelial function in patients with a stable coronary heart disease. Moreover, we found no correlation between the heart rate and the endothelial function. PMID:24479706
Background As coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) has emerged as a non-invasive alternative for evaluation of coronary anatomy with a lower referral threshold than invasive coronary angiography (ICA), the prevalence of coronary anomalies in CCTA may more closely reflect the true prevalence in the general population. Morphological features of coronary anomalies can be evaluated more precisely by CCTA than by ICA, which might lead to a higher identification of congenital coronary anomalies in CCTA compared to ICA. To evaluate the incidence, clinical and morphological features of the anatomy of patients with coronary anomalies detected either by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) with prospective ECG-triggering or invasive coronary angiography (ICA). Methods Consecutive patients underwent 64-slice CCTA (n?=?1?759) with prospective ECG-triggering or ICA (n?=?9?782) and coronary anatomy was evaluated for identification of coronary anomalies to predefined criteria (origin, course and termination) according to international recommendations. Results The prevalence of coronary anomalies was 7.9% (n?=?138) in CCTA and 2.1% in ICA (n?=?203; p?0.01). The most commonly coronary anomaly detected by CCTA was myocardial bridging 42.8% (n?=?59) vs. 21.2% (n?=?43); p?0.01, while with ICA an absent left main trunk was the most observed anomaly 36.0% (n?=?73; p?0.01). In 9.4% (n?=?13) of identified coronary anomalies in CCTA 9.4% were potentially serious coronary anaomalies, defined as a course of the coronary artery between aorta and pulmonary artery were identified. Conclusion The prevalence of coronary anomalies is substantially higher with CCTA than ICA even after exclusion of patients with myocardial bridging which is more frequently found with CCTA. This suggests that the true prevalence of coronary anomalies in the general population may have been underestimated based on ICA. PMID:25004927
Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG) are all dimeric. The present study was to determine the role of their dimeric status in nitric oxide-induced vasodilatation. In isolated porcine coronary arteries, after 20 h incubation with serum-free medium, serum-containing medium, or phosphate-buffered saline solution, the protein levels of the dimers of sGC, PDE5, and PKG were diminished while the monomer levels remained unchanged, associated with reduced cGMP elevation in response to DETA NONOate and decreased PDE5 activity; the activity of PKG was not significantly altered. DETA NONOate caused a greater relaxation in arteries incubated for 20 vs. 2 h. The relaxant response was largely abolished by 1H-[1, 2, 4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, an sGC inhibitor. Zaprinast, a PDE5 inhibitor, had no effect on relaxation caused by DETA NONOate of arteries incubated for 20 h but augmented the response incubated for 2 h. A greater relaxation to 8-bromo-guanosine 3'5'-cyclic monophosphate occurred in arteries incubated for 20 than for 2 h. The protein level of the dimers but not monomers of PDE5 was reduced by dithiothreitol and unaffected by hydrogen peroxide, accompanied with decreased PDE5 activity and reduced response to DETA NONOate. These results demonstrate that the dimeric but not monomeric status of sGC and PDE5 of coronary arteries are closely related to their activities. The preserved vasodilator response after 20 h incubation may result in part from a synchronous reduction of the dimer levels of sGC and PDE5 as well as an augmented response to cGMP. PMID:24413911
Liu, Juan; Chen, Zhengju; Ye, Liping; Liu, Huixia; Dou, Dou; Liu, Limei; Yu, Xiaoxing; Gao, Yuansheng
Intravascular ATP and ADP are important regulators of vascular tone, thrombosis, inflammation, and angiogenesis. This study was undertaken to evaluate the contribution of purinergic signaling to disturbed vasodilation and vascular remodeling during atherosclerosis progression. We used apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe(-/-)) mice as an appropriate experimental model for atherosclerosis. Noninvasive transthoracic Doppler echocardiography imaging with adenosine, ATP, and other nucleotides and nonhydrolyzable P2 receptor agonists and antagonists suggests that ATP regulates coronary blood flow in mice through activation of P2Y (most likely, endothelial ATP/UTP-selective P2Y(2)) receptors, rather than via its dephosphorylation to adenosine. Strikingly, compared to age-matched wild-type controls, young (10- to 15-week-old) Apoe(-/-) mice displayed diminished coronary reactivity in response to ATP but not adenosine. The impaired hyperemic response to ATP persisted in older (20- to 30-week-old) Apoe(-/-) mice, which were additionally characterized by mild atherosclerosis (as ascertained by aortic Oil Red O staining) and a systemic increase in plasma ATP and ADP levels. Concurrent thin-layer chromatographic analysis of nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 activities in thoracic aortas, lymph nodes, spleen, and serum revealed that aortic NTPDase was decreased by 40% to 50% in a tissue-specific manner both in young and mature Apoe(-/-) mice. Collectively, disordered purinergic signaling in Apoe(-/-) mice may serve as important prerequisite for impaired blood flow, local accumulation of ATP and ADP at sites of atherogenesis, and eventually, the exacerbation of atherosclerosis. PMID:22074736
Mercier, Nathalie; Kiviniemi, Tuomas O; Saraste, Antti; Miiluniemi, Mari; Silvola, Johanna; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Yegutkin, Gennady G
Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare congenital anomaly associated with very high mortality during infancy. We report a 35-year-old female patient with ALCAPA initially visualized by echocardiography. She visited outpatient department presenting with intermittent chest discomfort for 3 weeks. Transthoracic echocardiography showed left coronary artery arising from main pulmonary artery and abundant septal color flow Doppler signals. Transesophageal echocardiography clearly revealed markedly dilated and tortuous right coronary artery showing windsock appearance. Multidetector computed tomography and coronary angiography enabled visualization of anomalous left coronary artery originating from left side of main pulmonary trunk. After treadmill exercise test which showed ST-segment depression presenting inducible myocardial ischemia, patient underwent direct re-implantation of the anomalous coronary artery into the aorta without any complication. PMID:23346290
Kim, Byung-Ho; Park, Yon Woong; Hong, Seung-Pyo; Son, Ja-Yung; Lee, Young-Soo; Lee, Jin-Bae; Ryu, Jae-Kean; Choi, Ji-Yong; Kim, Kee-Sik; Chang, Sung-Guk
Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare congenital anomaly associated with very high mortality during infancy. We report a 35-year-old female patient with ALCAPA initially visualized by echocardiography. She visited outpatient department presenting with intermittent chest discomfort for 3 weeks. Transthoracic echocardiography showed left coronary artery arising from main pulmonary artery and abundant septal color flow Doppler signals. Transesophageal echocardiography clearly revealed markedly dilated and tortuous right coronary artery showing windsock appearance. Multidetector computed tomography and coronary angiography enabled visualization of anomalous left coronary artery originating from left side of main pulmonary trunk. After treadmill exercise test which showed ST-segment depression presenting inducible myocardial ischemia, patient underwent direct re-implantation of the anomalous coronary artery into the aorta without any complication. PMID:23346290
Kim, Byung-Ho; Park, Yon Woong; Hong, Seung-Pyo; Son, Ja-Yung; Lee, Young-Soo; Lee, Jin-Bae; Choi, Ji-Yong; Kim, Kee-Sik; Chang, Sung-Guk
Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease; Vessel Disease; Stable Angina; Unstable Angina or Stabilized Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction; Patients With ST-elevated Myocardial Infarction; Revascularization of Culprit Coronary Artery
A 26-year-old woman, a well-trained runner, had a sudden cardiac arrest just before crossing the finish line of a marathon. She was rapidly resuscitated and was later found to have an ectopic origin of the left coronary artery. This anomaly was surgically repaired by translocating the ostium from the right to the left sinus of Valsalva. Her difficult postoperative course prompted further coronary evaluation, which revealed severe stenosis of the neoostium. The patient underwent a second operation: this time, the stenosis was bypassed via a left internal mammary artery-to-left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) graft. Hypoplasia of the LAD and spasm during manipulation caused the graft to fail, necessitating double-stent angioplasty of the left main ostium and the LAD 2 months later. At the patient's 6-month follow-up examination, she had no further evidence of functional ischemia, and she resumed jogging. Because the mode and mechanism of the patient's condition and events were documented in unusual detail, this case furthers our understanding of sudden cardiac arrest in athletes who have rare coronary anomalies. We conclude that ectopia of a coronary artery does not itself cause potentially fatal ischemia. Rather, these events are due to the ectopic artery's intramural proximal course within the aortic media, which might result in critical stenosis by means of hypoplasia or lateral compression of the artery. PMID:24808787
Joggerst, Steven; Monge, Jorge; Uribe, Carlo; Sherron, Scott; Angelini, Paolo
Graft patency determines prognosis in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Numerous reports over the past 20 years have documented superior patencies and prognosis when multiple arterial grafts are used, yet less than 10% of CABG have multiple arterial grafts. Several conduits have been proposed, with varying degrees of success. Saphenous vein grafts (SVG) begin to fail with intimal hypertrophy and then atheroma after 5 years, with patency rates of 50% to 60% at 10 years, and <30% at 15 years. In contrast, left internal thoracic artery (LITA) patency is >95% at 10 years and >90% at 20 years. The radial artery is extremely versatile and can reach all territories, but is muscular and vulnerable to spasm and competitive flow. Similarly, the right gastroepiploic artery is also muscular, and is best suited to the posterior descending coronary artery, especially in reoperations and is also affected by competitive flow. In addition, bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting (BITA) grafts and total arterial revascularization (TACR) can be performed with identical perioperative mortality (1%) and perioperative morbidity to LITA + SVG. Importantly, survival is superior—85% to 90% at 10 years versus 75% to 80% respectively. BITA/TACR patients also suffer fewer late cardiac events and reoperations, with superior results for older patients, those requiring urgent surgery, diabetics, patients with renal dysfunction and in reoperations. Contraindications to BITA include obesity, insulin dependent diabetics, and severe chronic obstructive airways disease. As such, arterial grafts have better patencies and clinical results. BITA/TACR is often underutilized, but can be achieved in the majority of patients. Opportunities exist to enhance BITA/TACR use in CABG to the potential benefit of our patients. PMID:23977629
Abstract A coronary arterial fistula is a connection between one or more of the coronary arteries and a cardiac chamber or great vessel. This is a rare defect and usually occurs in isolation. Its exact incidence is unknown. The majority of these fistulas are congenital in origin although they may occasionally be detected after cardiac surgery. They do not usually cause symptoms or complications in the first two decades, especially when small. After this age, the frequency of both symptoms and complications increases. Complications include 'steal' from the adjacent myocardium, thrombosis and embolism, cardiac failure, atrial fibrillation, rupture, endocarditis/endarteritis and arrhythmias. Thrombosis within the fistula is rare but may cause acute myocardial infarction, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmias. Spontaneous rupture of the aneurysmal fistula causing haemopericardium has also been reported. The main differential diagnosis is patent arterial duct, although other congenital arteriovenous shunts need to be excluded. Whilst two-dimensional echocardiography helps to differentiate between the different shunts, coronary angiography is the main diagnostic tool for the delineation of the anatomy. Surgery was the traditional method of treatment but nowadays catheter closure is recommended using a variety of closure devices, such as coils, or other devices. With the catheter technique, the results are excellent with infrequent complications. Disease name and synonyms Coronary arterial fistulas Coronary arterial fistulas or malformations PMID:17184545
Qureshi, Shakeel A
The effects of methoxamine and nitroglycerin on measurements of large vessel (left circumflex) coronary dimensions were examined in eight conscious dogs using an ultrasonic dimension gauge, and total coronary resistance was calculated from measurements of arterial pressure and coronary blood flow. Methoxamine (50 ?g/kg per min), after transiently increasing left circumflex coronary dimensions, induced sustained reductions in left circumflex diameter (9±2%) and external (18±4%) and internal (27±5%) cross-sectional areas, at a time when mean arterial pressure rose by 65±5%, left ventricular dP/dt had decreased only slightly, and heart rate and mean coronary blood flow remained at control levels. Calculated large vessel and total coronary resistances rose similarly, i.e., by 108±29 and 92±14%, respectively. Methoxamine reduced coronary arterial wall stiffness from control at comparable stress levels, although at any common radius, wall stiffness was augmented substantially. Nitroglycerin (25 ?g/kg) induced an initial decrease in coronary dimensions along with the fall in arterial pressure. However, left circumflex coronary dimensions then rose, reaching a maximum 5 min later at a time when left circumflex coronary blood flow was reduced and heart rate and left ventricular dP/dt were at control levels. At this time, significantly different effects were observed on large vessel coronary resistance, which fell by 18±2%, and on total coronary resistance, which rose by 11±4%. Thus, in the conscious dog, large coronary vessels not only react passively to changes in aortic pressure but also undergo substantial active changes. Alpha adrenergic stimulation is sufficiently powerful to reduce cross-sectional area, despite the opposing elevation of distending pressure. PMID:6765959
Vatner, Stephen F.; Pagani, Massimo; Manders, W. Thomas; Pasipoularides, Ares D.
BACKGROUND Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) involving drug-eluting stents is increasingly used to treat complex coronary artery disease, although coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been the treatment of choice historically. Our trial compared PCI and CABG for treating patients with previously untreated three-vessel or left main coronary artery disease (or both). METHODS We randomly assigned 1800 patients with three-vessel or left
Patrick W. Serruys; Marie-Claude Morice; A. Pieter Kappetein; Antonio Colombo; David R. Holmes; Michael J. Mack; E. Stahle; Ted E. Feldman; Marcel van den Brand; Eric J. Bass; Nic Van Dyck; K. Leadly; Keith D. Dawkins; Friedrich W. Mohr
Dehydroeffusol is a naturally occurring phenanthrene isolated from Juncus effusus. In the context of screening new drugs against gastrointestinal spasms, we investigated its effects on isolated rat jejunum in vitro. Dehydroeffusol (30-90?µM) slightly and transiently enhanced contractions in a concentration-dependent manner but significantly inhibited the contractions induced by KCl (100?mM), (±)-Bay-K8644 (5?µM), pilocarpine (90?µM), and histamine (100?µM). These results show that dehydroeffusol may antagonize the spasmogenic activity of various agents, and therefore, could be a promising agent in the treatment of spasms. Its potential spasmolytic mechanism is also discussed. PMID:25089735
Di, Fan; Zhai, Haifeng; Li, Peng; Huang, Jianmei
... through these arteries is critical for the heart. Coronary artery disease usually results from the build-up of fatty material and plaque, a condition called atherosclerosis. As the ... blood to the heart can slow or stop, causing chest pain (stable ...
The near exponential rise in percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI) in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease and the consequent decline in referral of patients for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has lead to a crisis in cardiac surgery. Is CABG, one of the most successful and widely applied surgical procedures, about to follow surgery for peptic ulcer disease into obsolescence? The question has serious implications for service provision and training as well as for informed patient consent. Keith Dawkins puts the case for PCI and gives a very clear and concise account of its inexorable rise to pre-eminence. David Taggart has taken on the Goliath of interventional cardiology and its associated industry by persuasively marshalling the data from the evidence base which strongly favours surgery in triple vessel and left main coronary disease. He points to the lack of long-term results and also to the weaknesses of many of the comparative studies so far published. His arguments have been positively received on both sides of the Atlantic but it is by no means certain that they will bring about the multidisciplinary approach to providing patients with treatment options which he and others advocate. It also remains to be seen whether the evidence base when it is eventually acquired will vindicate the present increasing dominance of PCI over CABG. PMID:16719994
The vascular toxicity of inhaled agents may be caused by soluble factors that are released into the systemic circulation. To confirm this in a straightforward manner, we obtained plasma from healthy human volunteers before and after exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). Plasma samples were obtained from human volunteers exposed to 100 ?g/m(3) DE or filtered air for 2 h. A second cohort was exposed to 500 ppb NO(2) or filtered air in an identical protocol. Primary human coronary artery endothelial cells (hCAECs) were grown to confluence and treated for 24 h with a 10 or 30% (in media) mixture of plasma obtained before, immediately post or 24 h postexposure to pollutant exposures. Messenger RNA (mRNA) was isolated from hCAECs following the incubation and probed for intracellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) expression. ICAM-1 mRNA expression was increased by plasma obtained at both timepoints following the NO(2) exposures. VCAM-1 was significantly elevated in cells treated with plasma obtained 24 h following diesel exposure and at both timepoints following NO(2) exposure. Interleukin-8 protein was elevated in the hCAEC supernatant when cells were incubated with plasma from NO(2) exposures. These data indicate that proinflammatory circulating factors are elevated acutely following exposure to both DE and a primary component thereof, NO(2). These functional translational assays offer novel approaches to assessing the cardiovascular risk associated with air pollution exposure. PMID:22331494
Channell, Meghan M; Paffett, Michael L; Devlin, Robert B; Madden, Michael C; Campen, Matthew J
Ventricular arrhythmias are important contributors to morbidity and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. Ventricular fibrillation accounts for the majority of deaths occurring in the acute phase of ischemia, whereas sustained, monomorphic ventricular tachycardia due to reentry generated in the scar tissue develops most often in the setting of healed myocardial infarction, especially in patients with lower left ventricular ejection fraction. Despite determinant advances in population education and myocardial infarction management, the ventricular tachycardia risk in the overall population with coronary artery disease continues to be a major problem in clinical practice. The initial evaluation of a patient presenting with ventricular tachycardia requires a 12-lead electrocardiogram, which can be helpful to confirm the diagnosis, suggest the presence of potential underlying heart disease, and identify the location of the ventricular tachycardia circuit. An invasive electrophysiologic study is usually crucial to determine the mechanism of the arrhythmia once induced and to provide guidance for ablation. The approach for ventricular tachycardia ablation depends on several factors, including inducibility, sustainability, and clinical tolerance of ventricular tachycardia. The paper also reviews other therapeutic options for patients with ventricular tachycardia associated with coronary artery disease, including antiarrhythmic drug therapy, surgical ablation, and current implantable cardioverter-defibrillator indications. PMID:22951088
Benito, Begoña; Josephson, Mark E
The phenomenon of blood serum atherogenicity was described as the ability of human serum to induce lipid accumulation in cultured cells. The results of recent two-year prospective study in asymptomatic men provided the evidence for association between the changes in serum atherogenicity and dynamics of carotid intima-media thickness progression. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that blood serum atherogenicity and its changes in dynamics may be associated with accumulation of coronary calcium in subclinical atherosclerosis. It was performed in 782 CHD-free participants of The Heinz Nixdorf RECALL (Risk Factors, Evaluation of Coronary Calcium and Lifestyle) Study, in whom blood samples have been taken at the baseline and at the end of 5-year follow-up. Opposite to the previous findings, the changes in serum atherogenicity did not correlate neither with the extent of coronary artery calcification, nor with the changes in Agatston CAC score. There was a moderate but significant rise in serum atherogenicity after 5-year followup period, and the same dynamics was observed for Agatston CAC score, but not for convenient lipid-related risk factors. The absence of association of the changes in serum atherogenicity with the changes in Agatston CAC score, along with previous findings, provides a point of view that serum-induced intracellular cholesterol accumulation is not related to the processes of calcium deposition in arterial wall, since the last one reflects the progression of already existing subclinical atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:24533940
Sobenin, Igor A; Myasoedova, Veronica A; Anisimova, Elena V; Pavlova, Xenia N; Mohlenkamp, Stefan; Schmermund, Axel; Seibel, Rainer; Berenbein, Sina; Lehmann, Nils; Moebus, Susanne; Jockel, KarlHeinz; Orekhov, Alexander N; Erbel, Raimund
Graft coronary artery disease (GCAD) is the chief complication following cardiac transplantation. Presently, there are limited treatment options. Insights into more expedient diagnosis and amelioration, if only partially, of GCAD are fervently sought. The selectivity of Antrin Injection (Lu-Tex) with subsequent photoactivation has been evaluated in several preclinical atherosclerosis models. The inhibitory effect of Lu-Tex induced photosensitization was demonstrated with human bypass coronary smooth muscle cells. The biodistribution of Lu-Tex was evaluated in a rat model of heterotopic cardiac allografts 60 days following transplantation. Lu-Tex was retained in the cardiac allograft, exhibiting a five-fold increase in retention between the allograft and native heart. These findings lead us to suggest that further studies are warranted to ascertain the merits of Lu-Tex for the diagnosis and possible attenuation of chronic graft vascular disease.
Woodburn, Kathryn W.; Rodriquez, Shari L.; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Hayase, Motoya; Robbins, Robert C.; Kessel, David
Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) has been recently evaluated for its ability to assess coronary plaque characteristics, including plaque composition. Identification of the relationship between plaque composition by CCTA and patient clinical presentations may provide insight into the pathophysiology of coronary artery plaque, thus assisting identification of vulnerable plaques which are associated with the development of acute coronary syndrome. CCTA-generated 3D visualizations allow evaluation of both coronary lesions and lumen changes, which are considered to enhance the diagnostic performance of CCTA. The purpose of this review is to discuss the recent developments that have occurred in the field of CCTA with regard to its diagnostic accuracy in the quantitative assessment of coronary plaques, with a focus on the characterization of plaque components and identification of vulnerable plaques. PMID:25162010
In vitro studies during cold pulsed-wave laser angioplasty have demonstrated production of gas bubbles within the target tissue, creation of shock wave and formation of multi-layer dissections accompanied by an increase in the plaque and vessel wall temperature. These processes account for certain complications of coronary lasing, including acute vessel closure, dissections, spasm, and even perforation. The traditional lasing technique in which a large number of pulses is continually emitted across the lesion, may in fact contribute to the development and acceleration of the above mentioned processes. To overcome the shortcomings we have developed a new, safe lasing technique that consists of multiple trains of a small number of pulses each. Between laser sessions the laser catheter is retracted into the guiding catheter and nitroglycerin is injected intracoronary, thus providing time for dispersion of produced gas bubbles, cooling of the target artery, and adequate coronary vasodilatation. This new technique results in a significant reduction of laser associated complications. PMID:10151024
It has been reported that Northern populations are exposed to mixtures of various environmental contaminants unique to the Arctic (Northern contaminant mixtures - NCM) at a large range of concentrations, depending on their geological location, age, lifestyle and dietary habits. To determine if these contaminants may contribute to a cardiovascular health risk, especially when combined with a high fat and sugar diet and ethanol exposure, we treated human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) with two mixtures of 4 organic (NCM1) or 22 organic and inorganic (NCM2) chemicals detected in Northerners' blood during 2004-2005 in the presence or absence of low-density lipoprotein (1.5mg/ml), very-low-density lipoprotein (1.0mg/ml) and glucose (10mmol/L) (LVG), and in the absence or presence of 0.1% ethanol. After 24h of exposure, cell morphology and markers of cytotoxicity and endothelial function were examined. NCM1 treatment did not affect cell viability, but increased cell size, disrupted cell membrane integrity, and decreased cell density, uptake of small peptides, release of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI), while causing no changes in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein expression and nitric oxide (NO) release. In contrast, NCM2 decreased cell viability, total protein yield, uptake of small peptides, eNOS protein expression, and NO release and caused membrane damage, but caused no changes in the secretion of ET-1, prostacyclin and PAI. The presence of LVG and/or alcohol did or did not influence the effects of NCM1 or NCM2 depending on the endpoint and the mixture examined. These results suggested that the effects of one or one group of contaminants may be altered by the presence of other contaminants, and that with or without the interaction of high fat and sugar diet and/or ethanol exposure, NCMs at the concentrations used caused endothelial dysfunction in vitro. It remains to be investigated if these effects of NCMs also occur in vivo. PMID:23384447
Florian, Maria; Yan, Jin; Ulhaq, Saad; Coughlan, Melanie; Laziyan, Mahemuti; Willmore, William; Jin, Xiaolei
BackgroundVasopressin may be a potential cause of spasm in both the radial artery and the internal thoracic artery. This study compared the vasopressin-induced contraction and the effects of milrinone, nitroglycerin, and nitroprusside in vasopressin-induced contraction between the human radial artery and the internal thoracic artery to find effective antispastic methods for arterial grafts.
Wei Wei; Cheng-Qin Yang; Anthony Furnary; Guo-Wei He
The present study was to determine the role of the type I isoform of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG I) and its downstream effector myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) in the responses of different sized coronary arteries to nitrovasodilators. Relaxations of isolated porcine coronary arteries were determined by isometric tension recording technique. Protein levels of PKG I and its effectors were analyzed by Western blotting. The activities of PKG I and MYPT1 were studied by analyzing phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) and MYPT1, respectively. Nitroglycerin, DETA NONOate, and 8-Br-cGMP caused greater relaxations in large than in small coronary arteries. Relaxations were attenuated to a greater extent by Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS (a PKG inhibitor) in large vs. small arteries. The expressions of PKG I and MYPT1 in large arteries were more abundant than in small arteries. DETA NONOate stimulated phosphorylation of VASP at Ser239 and inhibited phosphorylation of MYPT1 at Thr853 to a greater extent in large than in small arteries. A suppressed phosphorylation of MYPT1 at Thr853 was caused by 8-Br-cGMP in large but not small arteries, which was inhibited by Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS. These results suggest that the greater responsiveness of large coronary arteries to nitrovasodilators result in part from greater activities of PKG I and MYPT1. Dysfunction in nitric oxide signaling is implicated in the vulnerability of large coronary arteries to certain disorders such as atherosclerosis and spasm. Augmentation of PKG I-MYPT1 signaling may be of therapeutic benefit for combating these events. PMID:22020732
Ying, Lei; Xu, Xiaojian; Liu, Juan; Dou, Dou; Yu, Xiaoxing; Ye, Liping; He, Qiong; Gao, Yuansheng
When solutions containing minute quantities of streptolysin O, previously activated with cysteine, were added to a salt and glucose medium that was being perfused by way of the coronary arteries through the vigorously beating isolated hearts of guinea pigs, rabbits, and rats, the amplitude of myocardial contraction decreased abruptly, often to zero. The effect was usually accompanied by a diminution in the flow of perfusion fluid, probably owing to spasm of the coronary arteries. The diminution in coronary flow was transitory, however, lasting as a rule only 2 or 3 minutes, while the loss of myocardial contractile power was permanent and irreversible. No decrease in myocardial contractility was obtained when the streptolysin O was not previously activated with cysteine, or when the streptolysin O was inhibited by cholesterol or by specific antibody, the findings pointing to streptolysin O as the active cardiotoxic agent. PMID:13357690
Kellner, Aaron; Bernheimer, Alan W.; Carlson, Arthur S.; Freeman, Elizabeth B.
Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography (CT) have recently emerged as two techniques that can noninvasively visualize the coronary arteries. The latest generation 16-row detector multislice CT scanner is now considered the most reliable technique to visualize the coronaries. The sensitivity and specificity to detect a significant (>50% diameter stenosis) coronary stenosis is +/-94% and +/-90%, respectively. Further technical improvements are necessary to make CT a clinically reliable diagnostic tool. PMID:14632942
de Feyter, Pim; Mollet, Nico R A; Cadermartiri, Filippo; Nieman, Koen; Pattynama, Peter
Nitric oxide (NO) formed via endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) plays crucial roles in the regulation of coronary blood flow through vasodilatation and decreased vascular resistance, and in inhibition of platelet aggregation and adhesion, leading to the prevention of coronary circulatory failure, thrombosis, and atherosclerosis. Endothelial function is impaired by several pathogenic factors including smoking, chronic alcohol intake, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. The mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction include reduced NO synthase (NOS) expression and activity, decreased NO bioavailability, and increased production of oxygen radicals and endogenous NOS inhibitors. Atrial fibrillation appears to be a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction is an important predictor of coronary artery disease (CAD) in humans. Penile erectile dysfunction, associated with impaired bioavailability of NO produced by eNOS and neuronal NOS, is also considered to be highly predictive of ischemic heart disease. There is evidence suggesting an important role of nitrergic innervation in coronary blood flow regulation. Prophylactic and therapeutic measures to eliminate pathogenic factors inducing endothelial and nitrergic nerve dysfunction would be quite important in preventing the genesis and development of CAD. PMID:22942627
Toda, Noboru; Tanabe, Shinichi; Nakanishi, Sadanobu
Pathophysiology and natural history 41 Distinct mouse coronary anatomy and myocardial infarction mice and the functional impact of that anatomy on myocardial infarctions induced by ligation atrium resulted in reproducible large myocardial infarctions involving the anterolateral, posterior
Objectives. This investigation sought to determine the relative prognostic value of coronary calcific deposits and coronary angiographic findings for predicting coronary heart disease-related events in patients referred for angiography.Background. The relation among coronary calcification, coronary stenoses and coronary heart disease-related events is of interest on a clinical as well as a pathophysiologic basis.Methods. Four hundred ninety-one symptomatic patients underwent coronary
Robert Detrano; Tzung Hsiai; Shaojung Wang; Gail Puentes; James Fallavollita; Paul Shields; William Stanford; Chris Wolfkiel; Demetrious Georgiou; Matthew Budoff; Judd Reed
OBJECTIVE--To prove the safety and effectiveness of high frequency rotational ablation of coronary artery stenoses and occlusion in humans. SUBJECTS--106 patients with symptoms (91 men, 15 women) who had 67 significant stenoses, mainly types B and C, and 46-chronic occlusions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Mean change in diameter stenosis after rotational angioplasty alone and in combination with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty immediately after treatment and 24 hours and six months later; restenosis rates at six months; complication of treatment. RESULTS--Rotational ablation could not be used in five stenoses and 16 chronic occlusions because of inability to reach or cross the lesion with the Rotablator guide wire. In four cases rotational ablation failed. Initial angiographic and clinical success by rotational ablation was achieved in 40 of the 67 stenoses (60%) and in 18 of the 46 chronic occlusions (39%). Additional balloon angioplasty was performed in 45 patients, increasing the success rates to 79% and 54%, respectively. In the 62 stenoses treated by rotational ablation the angiographic diameter stenoses were reduced from 76% (SD 14%) to 32% (14%) after Rotablator treatment alone and from 75% (11%) to 33% (17%) with additional balloon angioplasty. In the 30 chronic occlusions treated by rotational ablation the angiographic diameter stenoses were reduced to 38% (18%). At six months angiographic restenosis was evident in nine of the 25 (36%) stenoses treated with rotational ablation alone, in seven of the 22 (32%) stenoses treated with rotational and balloon angioplasty, and in 14 of the 24 (58%) chronic occlusions. There were no procedural deaths and two patients (2%) underwent emergency coronary artery bypass grafting. Although no transmural infarction occurred, there were five (6%) non-Q wave infarctions (two embolic side branch occlusions, two subacute occlusions, and one acute occlusion). Clinically insignificant slight increases in creatine kinase activity were seen in five patients (6%). Severe coronary artery spasm unresponsive to medical treatment was provoked in seven cases (8%). CONCLUSIONS--High frequency rotational ablation is a safe and effective method for treating type B and C coronary artery lesions with results comparable to percutaneous transluminal coronary balloon angioplasty. The combined use of rotational ablation and balloon angioplasty is feasible and is necessary in about half of all procedures, in most cases because the lumen created by the biggest burr is too small. Images PMID:8217440
Dietz, U; Erbel, R; Rupprecht, H J; Weidmann, S; Meyer, J
Background and object There was no Chinese questionnaire to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with hemifacial spasm (HFS). In this study, we aimed to validate a new disease-specific HRQoL scale for HFS (HFS-36) in Chinese version, and compared it to SF-36, a generic HRQoL scale. Patients and Methods The HFS-36 Chinese version was modified from English version of HFS-30, including subscales of mobility, activities of daily living (ADL), emotional well-being, stigma, social support, cognition, bodily discomfort, and communication. All the items were scored on the 5-point scales, ranging from 0(never) to 4(always). Patients with HFS were asked to answer HFS-36 and SF-36 questionnaires on the same day before and 6-8 weeks after Botulinum toxin (BTX) injections, respectively. The reliability and validity of HFS-36 scale were evaluated statistically. Results Totally, 103 patients (68 females; 35 males) were recruited in this study, with a mean age of 57.6 ± 11.5 years and a mean duration of HFS for 7.6 ± 5.8 years. The intra-class correlation (ICC) and Cronbach's ? were over 0.7 in the majority of items. HFS-36 showed a good correlation to HFS severity before BTX treatment and a significant improvement of subscale scoring after BTX treatment. HFS-36 also had a significant correlation to the mental health of SF-36. Conclusions The Chinese version of HFS-36 demonstrated a good reliability and validity in subscales of motility, ADL, emotion well-being, stigma and bodily discomfort. The HRQoL was significantly improved after BTX treatment assessed by HFS-36 or SF-36. Compared to SF-36, HFS-36 scale was more sensitive and specific to evaluate the HRQoL in HFS. PMID:20034399
Periprocedural guide wire-induced coronary artery dissection is a rare but potentially serious complication of percutaneous coronary intervention. Immediate stenting of the entry point is one of the therapeutic options but engaging the guide wire in the true lumen might be challenging. We report a case of a 55-year-old woman with a guide wire-induced coronary dissection that occurred during treatment of a bifurcation lesion. Optical coherence tomography was instrumental in distinguishing true from false lumen and thereby guide correct positioning of the guide wire to successfully treat the lesion using a dedicated bifurcation stent. PMID:24975190
van Ditzhuijzen, Nienke S; Ligthart, Jurgen; Tu, Shengxian; van der Linden, Marc; Regar, Evelyn
Cardiac computed tomography (CT) is a robust technology for the non-invasive assessment for a spectrum of cardiovascular disease processes. This image modality has been used to provide assessment of atherosclerotic plaque burden and coronary artery disease risk through coronary calcium scoring for 20 years and CT angiography for over 10 years . While electron beam tomography has been used to
Matthew J. Budoff
The coronary patient, as he pertains to industry particularly NASA, is discussed. Concepts of precoronary care, acute attacks which may develop while on the job, and the return of the cardiac patient to work are covered. Major emphasis was on the prevention of sudden death due to coronary disease.
Noninvasive assessment of coronary stenoses by myocardial imaging during pharmacologic coronary vasodilation. VI. Detection of coronary artery disease in human beings with intravenous N-13 ammonia and positron computed tomography
The possibility of detecting mild coronary stenoses with positron computed tomography and nitrogen (N-13) ammonia administered during pharmacologic coronary vasodilation was previously demonstrated in chronically instrumented dogs. The feasibility of using this technique in human beings and its sensitivity in determining the degree and extent of coronary artery disease were examined in 13 young normal healthy volunteers and 32 patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease. N-13 ammonia was administered intravenously and its distribution in the left ventricular myocardium recorded at rest and during dipyridamole-induced coronary hyperemia. In the 13 volunteers, N-13 activity was homogeneous at rest and during hyperemia, whereas 31 of the 32 patients had regional defects on the hyperemic images not present during rest. All six patients with double, all 10 with triple and 15 of 16 patients with single vessel disease (97 percent) were correctly identified with the technique. Two vessel involvement was correctly identified in five of the six patients with double vessel disease and three vessel disease in six of 10 patients. Of all 58 coronary stenoses, 52 (90 percent) were correctly identified. In a subgroup of 11 patients, the technique was compared with exercise thallium-201 planar images, which were abnormal in 10 (91 percent) whereas N-13 images were abnormal in all 11. Of the 19 stenosed coronary arteries in this subgroup, 11 (58 percent) were correctly identified with thallium-201 and 17 (89 percent) with tomography (p less than 0.01). It is concluded that cross-sectional imaging of the myocardial distribution of N-13 ammonia administered during pharmacologic coronary vasodilation is a highly sensitive and accurate means for noninvasive detection of coronary stenoses in human beings and for estimating the extent of coronary artery disease.
Schelbert, H.R.; Wisenberg, G.; Phelps, M.E.; Gould, K.L.; Henze, E.; Hoffman, E.J.; Gomes, A.; Kuhl, D.E.
Objectives. We sought to determine whether there is a gender bias in the selection of patients for coronary revascularization once the severity of the underlying coronary artery disease has been established with angiography.Background. It has been suggested that women with coronary artery disease are less likely to be referred for coronary angiography and coronary artery bypass surgery than men. Whether
Malcolm R. Bell; Peter B. Berger; David R. Holmes; Charles J. Mullany; Kent R. Bailey; Bernard J. Gersh
Coronary Heart Disease, Hypertension, Stroke, and Diabetes #12;Coronary Heart Disease: Overview) Blood Supply To The Heart #12;Coronary Artery Disease Â· Coronary artery disease is one of the most before 77) Â· Chronic illness Â· A disease of modernization Â· Alterations in diet Â· Reduction in activity
To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of dual-source CT coronary angiography for detecting coronary artery stenosis. From February\\u000a 2008 to January 2009, dual-source CT coronary CT angiography (DSCT-CCTA) and conventional coronary angiography (CAG) were\\u000a both performed in 84 patients who had either clinical symptoms or a high risk of coronary artery disease. The diagnostic accuracy\\u000a of DSCT-CCTA was evaluated by comparing
Yi Xu; Lijun Tang; Xiaomei Zhu; Hai Xu; Jinhua Tang; Zhijian Yang; Liansheng Wang; Dehang Wang
Objectives. We sought to investigate the mechanism of a mental stress–induced fall in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in patients with coronary artery disease.Background. Mental stress induces a fall in LVEF in a significant proportion of patients with coronary artery disease. This is accompanied by an increase in heart rate, blood pressure and rate–pressure product. Whether the mental stress–induced fall
Diwakar Jain; Sheriff M Shaker; Matthew Burg; Frans J. Th Wackers; Robert Soufer; Barry L Zaret
OBJECTIVESThe purpose of this study was to determine whether hyperinsulinemia during the oral glucose tolerance test is associated with increased neointimal tissue proliferation after coronary stent implantation in nondiabetic patients.BACKGROUNDAlthough hyperinsulinemia induces increased vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation in experimental models, it has not been determined whether hyperinsulinemia is associated with increased neointimal tissue proliferation after coronary stent implantation.METHODSSerial (postintervention
Tsutomu Takagi; Kiyoshi Yoshida; Takashi Akasaka; Shuichiro Kaji; Takahiro Kawamoto; Yasuhiro Honda; Atsushi Yamamuro; Takeshi Hozumi; Shigefumi Morioka
Iatrogenic left main coronary artery and aortic root dissection are rare complications during coronary catheterization. A case of catheter-induced left main coronary artery dissection with subsequent retrograde progression into the ascending aorta wall is reported. The patient was surgically managed with an ascending aorta replacement and left coronary ostial repair with an autologuos aortic wall ring-shaped patch in the paraostial position in order to seal the intimal tear. doi: 10.1111/jocs.12446 (J Card Surg 2014;29:821-823). PMID:25269622
Barbero, Cristina; Di Rosa, Elio; Devotini, Roger; Attisani, Matteo; Rinaldi, Mauro
In 61 patients with single vessel coronary artery disease (70 percent or greater obstruction of luminal diameter in only one vessel) and no previous myocardial infarction, the sites of ischemic changes on 12 lead exercise electrocardiography and on thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scanning were related to the obstructed coronary artery. The site of exercise-induced S-T segment depression did not identify which coronary artery was obstructed. In the 37 patients with left anterior descending coronary artery disease S-T depression was most often seen in the inferior leads and leads V4 to V6, and in the 18 patients with right coronary artery disease and in the 6 patients with left circumflex artery disease S-T depression was most often seen in leads V5 and V6. Although S-T segment elevation was uncommon in most leads, it occurred in lead V1 or a VL, or both, in 51 percent of the patients with left anterior descending coronary artery disease. A reversible anterior defect on exercise thallium scanning correlated with left anterior descending coronary artery disease (probability (p) less than 0.0001) and a reversible inferior thallium defect correlated with right coronary or left circumflex artery disease (p less than 0.0001). In patients with single vessel disease, the site of S-T segment depression does not identify the obstructed coronary artery; S-T segment elevation in lead V1 or aVL, or both, identifies left anterior descending coronary artery disease; and the site of reversible perfusion defect on thallium scanning identifies the site of myocardial ischemia and the obstructed coronary artery.
Dunn, R.F.; Freedman, B.; Bailey, I.K.; Uren, R.F.; Kelly, D.T.
The arterial-coronary sinus lactate difference was measured in 17 patients after each step of a programmed ventricular stimulation protocol consisting of single, double, and triple extrastimuli, first at a basic drive cycle length of 600 msec, then at 400 msec, with an inter-train interval of 4 seconds. Four patients had no structural heart disease, four had an idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, and nine had coronary artery disease with a significant stenosis in at least one branch of the left coronary artery. Net myocardial lactate production during programmed ventricular stimulation was observed in three patients with coronary artery disease, but not in any patient without coronary artery disease. Among the patients who had coronary artery disease, net myocardial lactate production generally occurred in the patients who had more severe coronary artery disease. Exercise-induced ischemia, as demonstrated by a stress thallium-201 test, did not correlate with myocardial lactate production during programmed ventricular stimulation. Programmed ventricular stimulation, with a stimulation protocol typically used in many electrophysiology laboratories, is capable of inducing myocardial ischemia in at least some patients who have coronary artery disease. This finding suggests that myocardial ischemia may potentially influence the results of programmed ventricular stimulation in some patients with coronary artery disease.
Morady, F.; DiCarlo, L.A. Jr.; Krol, R.B.; de Buitleir, M.; Nicklas, J.M.; Annesley, T.M.
Air embolism in the coronary arteries is a known complication of coronary angiography. Diving is a non-iatrogenic cause of arterial air embolism, commonly presenting with neurological and musculoskeletal symptoms. This is the first known case of coronary air embolism confirmed on coronary angiography in a diver presenting with pulmonary edema secondary to acute coronary syndrome. The possible mechanisms of coronary air embolism during a dive are reviewed in this article. PMID:19057040
Sammut, Mark Adrian; Cassar, Andrew; Felice, Herbert
Opinion statement \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a •The main objective in the treatment of blepharospasm is to decrease or cease the unwanted, repeated forced closure of the\\u000a eyelids. This is best achieved by the use of botulinum toxin. In a minority of patients, botulinum toxin is either ineffective\\u000a or poorly tolerated. In this group of patients, a trial with oral medication in the following
Dan R. Boghen; Robert L. Lesser
Stroke patients with hemiplegia exhibit flexor spasms in the upper limb and extensor spasms in the lower limb, and their movement patterns vary greatly. Constraint-induced movement therapy is an upper limb rehabilitation technique used in stroke patients with hemiplegia; however, studies of lower extremity rehabilitation are scarce. In this study, stroke patients with lower limb hemiplegia underwent conventional Bobath therapy for 4 weeks as baseline treatment, followed by constraint-induced movement therapy for an additional 4 weeks. The 10-m maximum walking speed and Berg balance scale scores significantly improved following treatment, and lower extremity motor function also improved. The results of functional MRI showed that constraint-induced movement therapy alleviates the reduction in cerebral functional activation in patients, which indicates activation of functional brain regions and a significant increase in cerebral blood perfusion. These results demonstrate that constraint-induced movement therapy promotes brain functional reorganization in stroke patients with lower limb hemiplegia. PMID:25337108
Wang, Wenqing; Wang, Aihui; Yu, Limin; Han, Xuesong; Jiang, Guiyun; Weng, Changshui; Zhang, Hongwei; Zhou, Zhiqiang
... What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Coronary Heart Disease? A common symptom of coronary heart disease ( ... narrow the coronary arteries. Signs and Symptoms of Heart Problems Related to Coronary Heart Disease Some people ...
on the perfusion of the heart muscle in patients with coronary artery disease remains a challenging task. We, coronary artery territories, myocardial perfusion. 1 Introduction Coronary Artery Disease (CADVisualization of Myocardial Perfusion Derived from Coronary Anatomy Maurice Termeer, Javier Oliv
Plasma beta-endorphin levels were studied in the coronary sinus of 8 patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). All the patients had ECG ischemic signs and pain during the inflation of the balloon. No significant changes in plasma beta-endorphin levels were observed during PTCA-induced ischemia. Baseline coronary sinus plasma beta-endorphin levels were found to be elevated when compared with peripheral ones which would suggest an accumulation of beta-endorphin in the ischemic heart. PMID:10503168
Parlapiano, C; Negri, M; Tonnarini, G; Borgia, M C; Martuscelli, E; Nigri, A; Campana, E; Giovanniello, T; Pantone, P
... coronary artery to keep the vessel open. Once the compression has been performed, contrast media is injected and an x-ray is taken to check for any change in the arteries. Following this, the catheter is removed and ...
Pharmacologic coronary vasodilation as an adjunct to thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy provides an important alternative form of stress that has been increasingly used in patients unable to perform an exercise stress test. Although dipyridamole has traditionally been used for this purpose, there are several compelling reasons why adenosine may be a preferable agent. First, dipyridamole acts by blocking the reuptake and transport of adenosine, which is the effective substance responsible for coronary vasodilation. Second, exogenous adenosine has a very short half-life (less than 2 seconds), which explains its very short duration of action as well as the brief, self-limiting duration of its side effects. Third, the adenosine infusion is controllable and may be increased or decreased as desired. Fourth, the coronary vasodilation induced by the doses of adenosine we recommend (140 micrograms/kg/min) may be more profound than that induced by the standard dipyridamole dose. Our experience to date, with nearly 1,000 patients studied, shows the adenosine thallium-201 test to be practical and well tolerated, with high sensitivity (87%) and specificity (94%) for detecting coronary artery disease.
Verani, M.S.; Mahmarian, J.J. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (USA))
Coronary vasorelaxation depends on nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, which is a function of endothelial nitric oxide synthase-derived NO production and NO inactivation by reactive oxygen species. This fine-tuned balance is disrupted in coronary artery disease (CAD). The impairment of NO production in conjunction with excessive oxidative stress promotes the loss of endothelial cells by apoptosis, leads to a further aggravation of endothelial dysfunction and triggers myocardial ischemia in CAD. In healthy individuals, increased release of NO from the vasculature in response to exercise training results from changes in endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression, phosphorylation, and conformation. However, exercise training has assumed a role in cardiac rehabilitation of patients with CAD, as well, because it reduces mortality and increases myocardial perfusion. This has been largely attributed to exercise training-mediated correction of coronary endothelial dysfunction in CAD. Indeed, regular physical activity restores the balance between NO production and NO inactivation by reactive oxygen species in CAD, thereby enhancing the vasodilatory capacity in different vascular beds. Because endothelial dysfunction has been identified as a predictor of cardiovascular events, the partial reversal of endothelial dysfunction secondary to exercise training might be the most likely mechanism responsible for the exercise training-induced reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with CAD. PMID:16517248
Linke, Axel; Erbs, Sandra; Hambrecht, Rainer
Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery (LCA) from the right coronary artery sinus is a rare congenital coronary anomaly. We report a case of a 48-year-old symptomatic man who was admitted to our clinic with a history of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction and hypercholesterolemia. Coronary angiography was performed revealing anomalous left coronary artery from the right coronary artery sinus. In addition, stenosis of RCA and well developed stenotic diagonal artery were detected with coronary angiography. We performed coronary by-pass with left internal mammarian artery to diagonal artery and vena saphena to right coronary artery (RCA). Both coronary angiography and intraoperative view should be evaluated well in patients with anomalous of the coronary artery. PMID:22572224
Colak, Mehmet Cengiz; Erdil, Nevzat; Disli, Olcay; Kahraman, Ercan; Battaloglu, Bektas
Summary The in-vivo effects of the new antithrombotic compound nafazatrom on experimental thrombosis of the left circumflex coronary artery, on hemodynamics and on ultimate infarct size were studied in pentobarbital-anesthetized, open-chest dogs. Coronary artery thrombosis was induced by low amperage stimulation (150 ?A, DC for 6 hr) of the circumflex artery intimal lining. The effects of oral pretreatment of 1%-Tylose
V. B. Fiedler
Objective: To explore the correlation between the plasma renalase level of coronary artery disease (CAD) patients and the degree of coronary artery stenosis. Methods: A total of 180 patients who received coronary angiography in our hospitals from August 2013 to October 2013 were selected as the CAD group, of which 164 were finally diagnosed as CAD. Another 140 healthy subjects were selected as the control group. The plasma renalase levels of the two groups were detected by ELISA to analyze CA-induced changes and to clarify the correlations with the number of branches with coronary artery stenosis and Syntax scores. Results: The plasma renalase level of the CAD group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05). The plasma renalase levels of the multi-branch and two-branch stenosis subgroups were significantly lower than that of the subgroup with normal coronary angiography outcomes (P<0.05), while the levels of the single-branch stenosis and normal subgroups were similar (P>0.05). Besides, the plasma renalase level of the low-risk subgroup was significantly higher than those of the medium-risk and high-risk subgroups (P<0.05), and the level of the medium-risk subgroup was significantly higher than that of the high-risk subgroup (P<0.05). Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that renalase level was the risk factor of CAD (OR=1.12, 95%CI: 1.03-3.34). Conclusion: Plasma renalase level was correlated with CAD, the changes of which may reflect the degree of coronary artery stenosis. Therefore, plasma renalase level can be used to indicate the progression of CAD.
He, Benhong; Hao, Jianjun; Sheng, Weiwei; Xiang, Yuancai; Zhang, Jiemei; Zhu, Hao; Tian, Jingcheng; Zhu, Xu; Feng, Yunxia
K(ATP) channels are involved in regulating coronary function, but the contribution of endothelial K(ATP) channels remains largely uncharacterized. We generated a transgenic mouse model to specifically target endothelial K(ATP) channels by expressing a dominant negative Kir6.1 subunit only in the endothelium. These animals had no obvious overt phenotype and no early mortality. Histologically, the coronary endothelium in these animals was preserved. There was no evidence of increased susceptibility to ergonovine-induced coronary vasospasm. However, isolated hearts from these animals had a substantially elevated basal coronary perfusion pressure. The K(ATP) channel openers, adenosine and levcromakalim, decreased the perfusion pressure whereas the K(ATP) channel blocker glibenclamide failed to produce a vasoconstrictive response. The inducible endothelial nitric oxide pathway was intact, as evidenced by vasodilation caused by bradykinin. In contrast, basal endothelin-1 release was significantly elevated in the coronary effluent from these hearts. Treatment of mice with bosentan (endothelin-1 receptor antagonist) normalized the coronary perfusion pressure, demonstrating that the elevated endothelin-1 release was sufficient to account for the increased coronary perfusion pressure. Pharmacological blockade of K(ATP) channels led to elevated endothelin-1 levels in the coronary effluent of isolated mouse and rat hearts as well as enhanced endothelin-1 secretion from isolated human coronary endothelial cells. These data are consistent with a role for endothelial K(ATP) channels to control the coronary blood flow by modulating the release of the vasoconstrictor, endothelin-1. PMID:17341678
Malester, Brian; Tong, Xiaoyong; Ghiu, Ioana; Kontogeorgis, Andrianos; Gutstein, David E; Xu, Jie; Hendricks-Munoz, Karen D; Coetzee, William A
A two coronary system is preferred for correcting anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA); however, translocation is not always possible. In countries where neonatal arterial switch operations have not been perfected coronary transfer can be difficult. The purpose of this report is to describe the intermediate results using the coronary elongation and translocation technique in developing countries.
William M. Novick; Xiao F. Li; Darko Anic; Alexander Baskevitch; Nestor Sandoval; Christian L. Gilbert; Thomas G. Di Sessa
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare quantitative estimates of coronary calcification with traditional coronary risk factors to determine their independent predictive power for the diagnosis of obstructive angiographic coronary artery disease in symptomatic patients. Methods: Three hundred sixty-eight symptomatic patients underwent coronary angiography and electron beam computed tomography at four different centers between April 1989 and December
John Kennedy; Robert Shavelle; Shaojun Wang; Matthew Budoff; Robert C. Detrano
The surgical treatment of coronary artery anomalies continues to evolve. The most common coronary artery anomalies requiring surgical intervention include coronary artery fistulae, anomalous pulmonary origins of the coronary arteries, and anomalous aortic origins of the coronary arteries. The choice of surgical intervention for each type of coronary anomaly depends on several anatomic, physiologic, and patient-dependent variables. As surgical techniques have progressed, outcomes have continued to improve; however, controversy still exists about many aspects of the proper management of patients who have these coronary artery anomalies. We reviewed the surgical treatment of 178 patients who underwent surgery for the above-mentioned types of coronary artery anomalies at the Texas Heart Institute from December 1963 through June 2001. On the basis of this experience, we discuss historical aspects of the early treatment of these anomalies and describe their present-day management. (Tex Heart Inst J 2002;29:299–307) PMID:12484614
Reul, Ross M.; Cooley, Denton A.; Hallman, Grady L.; Reul, George J.
Relative effectiveness of moderate versus more aggressive lipid lowering, and of low dose anticoagulation versus placebo, in delaying saphenous vein coronary bypass graft atherosclerosis and preventing occlusion of saphenous grafts of patients with saphenous vein coronary bypass ...
We report the case of 60-yr-old female in which therapeutic hypothermia (TH) was successfully induced maintaining the target temperature of 34? for 12 hr despite a risk of hypothermia-induced coagulation abnormalities following an emergent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) due to failed percutaneous coronary intervention, who suffered a cardiac arrest. Emergent CABG may be a relative contraindication for TH in post-cardiac arrest patients because hypothermia may increase the risk of infection and bleeding. However, the possibility of an improved neurologic outcome outweighs the risk of bleeding, although major surgery may be a relative contraindication for TH. PMID:23960458
Choi, Seung Pill; Wee, Jung Hee; Park, Jeong Ho; Park, Kyu Nam; Hong, Sung Jin
Acute exposure to high altitude produces hypoxia-associated stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. This response is further enhanced by physical activity and induces an increase in heart rate and blood pressure. Consequently, cardiac work, myocardial oxygen consumption, and coronary blood flow are also increased. During the first 4 days of acute exposure to moderate or high altitude, coronary patients are at greatest risk of untoward events. Gradual ascent, early limitation of activity to a lower level than tolerated at low altitude, pre-ascent physical conditioning and rigorous blood pressure control should all help to minimise the cardiac risk. At altitudes of 2500 to 3000 m or lower, an asymptomatic coronary patient with good exercise tolerance, without exercise induced signs or symptoms of ischemia, and with an ejection fraction of the left ventricle > 50%, is at very low risk. However, several days' acclimatization before high-level activity at moderate or high altitude is recommended. High risk coronary patients should be investigated more carefully and precautionary measures should be more stringent. Left and right cardiac function and pulmonary artery pressure are the most helpful parameters for evaluation and counselling of patients with non-ischemic heart disease who plan to ascend to moderate or high altitudes. When advising patients who intend to fly as passengers in commercial aircraft, it is important to know that in-flight atmospheric pressure conditions in commercial jet aircraft approach altitude equivalents of 1500 to 2400 m. Propeller-driven planes are rarely pressurized but usually fly at altitudes below 3300 m. Relatively strict contraindications for air travel by coronary patients are uncomplicated myocardial infarction within the last 2 weeks, complicated myocardial infarction within the last 6 weeks, unstable angina, thoracic surgery within the last 3 weeks, and poorly controlled congestive heart failure, arrhythmia, or hypertension. PMID:9622840
Allemann, Y; Saner, H; Meier, B
Background Despite the existence of controversial debates on the efficiency of coronary endarterectomy (CE), it is still used as an adjunct to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). This is particularly true in patients with endstage coronary artery disease. Given the improvements in cardiac surgery and postoperative care, as well as the rising number of elderly patient with numerous co-morbidities, re-evaluating the pros and cons of this technique is needed. Methods Patient demographic information, operative details and outcome data of 104 patients with diffuse calcified coronary artery disease were retrospectively analyzed with respect to functional capacity (NYHA), angina pectoris (CCS) and mortality. Actuarial survival was reported using a Kaplan-Meyer analysis. Results Between August 2001 and March 2005, 104 patients underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with adjunctive coronary endarterectomy (CE) in the Department of Thoracic-, Cardiac- and Vascular Surgery, University of Goettingen. Four patients were lost during follow-up. Data were gained from 88 male and 12 female patients; mean age was 65.5 ± 9 years. A total of 396 vessels were bypassed (4 ± 0.9 vessels per patient). In 98% left internal thoracic artery (LITA) was used as arterial bypass graft and a total of 114 vessels were endarterectomized. CE was performed on right coronary artery (RCA) (n = 55), on left anterior descending artery (LAD) (n = 52) and circumflex artery (RCX) (n = 7). Ninety-five patients suffered from 3-vessel-disease, 3 from 2-vessel- and 2 from 1-vessel-disease. Closed technique was used in 18%, open technique in 79% and in 3% a combination of both. The most frequent endarterectomized localization was right coronary artery (RCA = 55%). Despite the severity of endstage atherosclerosis, hospital mortality was only 5% (n = 5). During follow-up (24.5 ± 13.4 months), which is 96% complete (4 patients were lost caused by unknown address) 8 patients died (cardiac failure: 3; stroke: 1; cancer: 1; unknown reasons: 3). NYHA-classification significantly improved after CABG with CE from 2.2 ± 0.9 preoperative to 1.7 ± 0.9 postoperative. CCS also changed from 2.4 ± 1.0 to 1.5 ± 0.8 Conclusion Early results of coronary endarterectomy are acceptable with respect to mortality, NYHA & CCS. This technique offers a valuable surgical option for patients with endstage coronary artery disease in whom complete revascularization otherwise can not be obtained. Careful patient selection will be necessary to assure the long-term benefit of this procedure. PMID:19772645
Schmitto, Jan D; Kolat, Philipp; Ortmann, Philipp; Popov, Aron F; Coskun, Kasim O; Friedrich, Martin; Sossalla, Samuel; Toischer, Karl; Mokashi, Suyog A; Tirilomis, Theodor; Baryalei, Mersa M; Schoendube, Friedrich A
Infantile spasm (IS) is an epilepsy syndrome affecting infants and young toddlers and many causes have been reported, including occasional chromosomal abnormalities. We describe a 6-month-oldboy who experienced his first seizure at 5 months of age. The seizures were characterized by brief head nods and forceful flexion of the trunk and limbs. The patient has been developmentally delayed since birth and had deteriorated remarkably in the last month. Interictal electroencephalography showed modified hypsarrhythmia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed delayed myelination and widened brain extracellular space. Chromosomal analysis revealed the karyotype 46, XY, der(9) t(7;9)(p15;p22) pat. His father has the asymptomatic reciprocal translocation t(7;9)(p15;p22). This chromosomal abnormality is probably the etiology for the ISs and severe developmental anomalies in this patient. Chromosomal analysis may be done in patients with IS with no obvious cause. PMID:24823731
Zhong, Min; Dong, Yanling; Li, Mei; Yao, Hong
We report the case of a 64 year old man with two vessel coronary artery disease and a left main coronary artery to pulmonary artery fistula. He underwent coronary artery bypass grafting, but the coronary artery fistula was not closed. He developed recurrent angina due to coronary steal from the distal left anterior descending artery by the maturing coronary artery fistula. This was closed percutaneously by stenting the left main coronary artery with covered stents. The clinical implications and potential mechanisms of the coronary steal due to the coronary artery fistula are discussed. PMID:19410310
Murphy, Brian P; Gilbert, Tim
Patient: Female, 57 Final Diagnosis: Coronary sinus – venous fistula Symptoms: Dispnoea Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Rare disease Background: Coronary arterial fistula, or arteriovenous malformation (AVM), is a connection between the coronary tree and a cardiac chamber or great vessel, having bypassed the myocardial capillary bed. Known complications from coronary artery fistulas may include “steal” from the adjacent myocardium, resulting in myocardial ischemia. Case Report: We report the case of a 57-year-old Hispanic woman with abnormal preoperative electrocardiogram (ECG) and symptoms of dyspnea on exertion, who underwent a stress echocardiography demonstrating inferior distribution hypokinesis at peak exercise. Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) demonstrated a venous fistula connecting the coronary sinus (CS) with the distal portion of the left anterior descending artery (LAD), occupying the territory of a left posterior descending artery (L-PDA) and corresponding in distribution with the patient’s stress-induced wall motion abnormalities. Conclusions: Anomalous left anterior descending artery to coronary sinus fistula with associated ischemia is a rare clinical dilemma with limited experience of success with either surgical or medical options. PMID:24644528
Russo, Frank D.; Ahmadian, Homayoun R.; Slim, Ahmad M.
Complications are reported more frequently with the implantation of coronary sinus (CS) than other types of leads, and attempts to extract CS leads may also be associated with increased risks. The authors have performed nonthoracotomy lead extraction (LE) since 1981 and maintained a detailed database. By November 2001, 796 leads had been removed from 401 patients. We undertook review of our CS-LE experience to evaluate prevalence, safety, and efficacy. Of 14 patients referred for CS-LE, 7 were treated in the last year. In six the lead had been placed in the CS intentionally, and in eight inadvertently. One recent patient treated with biventricular pacing was septic and died before LE was undertaken. In nine men and four women (mean age 66 years) had one each CS lead and a total of 34 LEs (2.6/patient). Four CS leads had been in place for < 6 months (mean 1.5 month), whereas nine had been in place for between 6 months and 27 years. Several LE methods were used, from simple traction to the use of intraluminal locking stylets and powered sheaths. Complete removal of all leads was achieved in all patients. CS-LE required a mean of 13 minutes, including 1.8 minutes of fluoroscopy. There were no serious complications during the procedures, and the mean hospital stay was 4 days. PMID:12687883
Tyers, G Frank O; Clark, Jacquie; Wang, Yan; Mills, Pauline; Bashir, Jamil
Background Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with cardiac vale repair is an uncommon surgery in infants. CABG is technically demanding in infants due to the small size not only of the coronary arteries but also the potential graft arteries. The short and long-term outcome of surgery is not known and thus has largely been avoided. Results We report the case histories of two infants in whom CABG was undertaken successfully as a life-saving measure. Case 1: This infant needed an arterial switch operation after which the right coronary artery (RCA) was stenosed resulting in low cardiac output. After the right internal mammary artery (RIMA) was used to anastamose the RCA, the hemodynamic status improved drastically. Case 2: This infant underwent surgical correction for Anomalous Left Coronary Artery from Pulmonary Artery (ALCAPA). Postoperatively, she was in low cardiac output. She was found to have an occluded left coronary artery and mitral regurgitation (MR). After she underwent left internal mammary artery (LIMA) to Left Anterior Descending (LAD) anastamosis and mitral valve repair, the clinical condition improved dramatically. Conclusion CABG is an uncommon operation in infants. This surgery is technically difficult. The long term results are not known and there are very few reports for the same. Though such an operation is best avoided, it can be used as a desperate life saving measure. PMID:22368554
Gopal, MR; Maskari, S; Zacharias, S; Valliathu, J
SUMMARY Neural activation by digitalis has been shown to facilitate the development of cardiac arrhythmias and to mediate digitalis-induced increases in systemic and coronary resistance. Recent studies in our laboratory have implicated an area in the medulla within 2 inn of the obex as the locus for the neurally mediated arrhythmogenic properties of digitalis. To localize the site of digitalis-induced
JOHN C. SOMBERG; JANET E. KUHLMAN; THOMAS W. SMITH
Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is under-diagnosed and the true prevalence is underestimated. Unfortunately, SCAD is frequently missed on coronary angiogram since the arterial wall is not imaged with this test. Optical coherence tomography or intravascular ultrasound should be the true gold-standard to diagnose SCAD. Given the elusive angiographic diagnosis of SCAD and the lack of familiarity with angiographic variants of SCAD, a diagnostic algorithm and angiographic classification for SCAD is proposed in this article. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24227590
Objectives To assess the feasibility and safety of transulnar approach whenever transradial access fails. Background Radial access for coronary procedures has gained sound recognition. However, the method is not always successful. Methods Between January 2010 and June 2013, diagnostic with or without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was attempted in 2804 patients via the radial approach. Transradial approach was unsuccessful in 173 patients (6.2%) requiring crossover to either femoral (128 patients, 4.6%) or ulnar approach (45 patients, 1.6%). Patients who had undergone ulnar approach constituted our study population. Selective forearm angiography was performed after ulnar sheath placement. We documented procedural characteristics and major adverse cardio-cerebrovascular events. Results Radial artery spasm was the most common cause of crossover to the ulnar approach (64.4%) followed by failure to puncture the radial artery (33.4%). Out of 45 patients (82.2%), 37 underwent successful ulnar approach. The eight failed cases (17.8%) were mainly due to absent or weak ulnar pulse (75%). PCI was performed in 17 cases (37.8%), of which 8 patients underwent emergency interventions. Complications included transient numbness, non-significant hematoma, ulnar artery perforation, and minor stroke in 15.5%, 13.3%, 2.2% and 2.2%, respectively. No major cardiac-cerebrovascular events or hand ischemia were noted. Conclusion Ulnar approach for coronary diagnostic or intervention procedures is a feasible alternative whenever radial route fails. It circumvents crossover to the femoral approach. Our study confirms satisfactory success rate of ulnar access in the presence of adequate ulnar pulse intensity and within acceptable rates of complications. PMID:24954986
Sallam, Mansour; Al-Riyami, Adil; Misbah, Mohammad; Al-Sukaiti, Rashid; Al-Alawi, Abdallah; Al-Wahaibi, Aiman
Estimating left ventricular wall stress has recognized applications, but formulae for global stress cannot be applied to ischemic ventricles. A mathematic method for estimating regional stress in infarcted ventricles has been described. The hypothesis tested was that exercise-induced ischemia increases end-systolic wall stress. Subcostal four-chamber echocardiograms were recorded at rest and during peak symptom-limited exercise in 19 controls and 41 patients with chest pain undergoing coronary arteriography. Centerline regional wall motion and regional end-systolic wall stress were measured at rest and at peak exercise. The normal controls had increased wall motion with exercise, but wall stress remained low. All 32 of the patients with coronary artery disease (> or = 50% diameter narrowing) had wall motion abnormalities with exercise, but the sensitivity of identifying right coronary artery obstructions was poor. Patients with coronary disease had higher regional stress at peak exercise than did the controls. The sensitivity of identifying lesions in all three coronary arteries (0.95 to 1.0) was better than that for wall motion (p < 0.04). The specificity of wall stress needs to be tested in a larger population. Exercise-induced ischemia causes increased regional end-systolic wall stress that reflects its distribution in patients with coronary artery disease. These changes can be measured non-invasively during exercise echocardiography. PMID:8831360
Ginzton, L E; Rodrigues, D; Shapiro, S M; Laks, M M; Conant, R; Lobodzinski, S M
Coronary ostial stenosis in the absence of more peripheral coronary artery disease was present in four patients (0.093%) of 4298 angiograms performed on patients with coronary artery disease. Case reports of four patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery for isolated coronary ostial stenosis are presented and surgical techniques discussed. Three patients were young females (mean age 31 years). It is suggested that coronary ostial stenosis is a rare variant of coronary artery disease, more common in young women. PMID:4066742
Hutter, J A; Pasaoglu, I; Williams, B T
Conflicting data concerning the changes in basal coronary blood flow and nitric oxide (NO)-releasing capacity in chronic heart failure may be due to different phases or duration of heart failure. To investigate endothelium-dependent and -independent regulation of coronary blood flow in different phases of heart failure, coronary pressure-flow relationships during long diastole were obtained before and after rapid pacing of 3 and 5 wk at 240 beats/min in 12 or 6 dogs. Neither basal coronary blood flow nor the slope of coronary pressure-flow relationships changed; however, zero-flow pressure increased slightly after rapid pacing. Intracoronary injection of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester decreased coronary blood flow at a perfusion pressure of 50 mmHg by approximately 20% at baseline, 55% after 3 wk of rapid pacing, and 20% after 5 wk of rapid pacing. Acetylcholine-induced increase in coronary blood flow was maintained for 3 wk but was finally attenuated after 5 wk of rapid pacing. In contrast, the coronary blood flow response to adenosine gradually decreased with time. These results suggest that basal coronary blood flow is maintained until the late stage of heart failure, presumably by an increases in NO production during the early stage and then by other vasodilatory substances during the late stage, and that endothelium-dependent vasodilation via exogenously administered acetylcholine in resistance vessels is not necessarily impaired in the early stage despite the gradual reduction of endothelium-independent vasodilation via adenosine in chronic heart failure. PMID:11748050
Saito, Tomiyoshi; Maehara, Kazuhira; Tamagawa, Kazuaki; Oikawa, Yuji; Niitsuma, Takeo; Saitoh, Shu-Ichi; Maruyama, Yukio
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify the utility of "keyhole" thoracotomy approaches to single vessel coronary artery bypass surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Although minimally invasive surgery is efficacious in a wide variety of surgical disciplines, it has been slow to emerge in cardiac surgery. Among 49 selected patients, the authors have used a left anterior keyhole thoracotomy (6 cm in length) combined with complete dissection of the eternal mammary artery (IMA) pedicle under thoracoscopic guidance or directly through the keyhole incision to accomplish IMA coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) to the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery circulation or to the right coronary artery (RCA). METHODS: Keyhole CABG was accomplished in 46 of 49 patients in which this approach was attempted. All patients had significant (> 70%) obstruction of a dominant coronary artery that had failed or that was inappropriate for endovascular catheter treatment (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty or stenting). Forty-four of the 49 patients had proximal LAD and 5 had proximal RCA stenoses. The mean age of the patients (35 men and 14 women) was 61 years, and their median New York Heart Association anginal class was III. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 42%. Femoral cardiopulmonary bypass support was used in 9 (19%) of 46 patients successfully managed with the keyhole procedure. Short-acting beta-blockade was used in the majority of patients (38 of 46) to reduce heart rate and the vigor of cardiac contraction. RESULTS: As 49 patients have survived operation, which averaged 248 minutes in duration. Median, postoperative endotracheal intubation time for keyhole patients was 6 hours with 25 of 46 patients being extubated before leaving the operating room. The median hospital stay was 4.3 days. Conversion to sternotomy was required in three patients to accomplish bypass because of inadequate internal mammary conduits or acute cardiovascular decompensation during an attempted off-bypass keyhole procedure Postoperative complications were limited to respiratory difficulty in three patients and the development of a deep wound infection in one patient. Nine (19%) of 46 patients received postoperative transfusion. There have been no intraoperative or postoperative infarctions, and angina has been controlled in all but one patient who subsequently had an IMA-RCA anastomotic stenosis managed successfully with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. CONCLUSIONS: These early results with keyhole CABG are encouraging. As experience broadens, keyhole CABG may become a reasonable alternative to repeated endovascular interventions or sternotomy approaches to recalcitrant single-vessel coronary arterial disease involving the proximal LAD or RCA. PMID:8857850
Landreneau, R J; Mack, M J; Magovern, J A; Acuff, T A; Benckart, D H; Sakert, T A; Fetterman, L S; Griffith, B P
Ticagrelor is a potent P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate receptor antagonist characterized by a rapid onset, consistent and reversible antiplatelet effect, and an acceptable safety profile compared with existing adenosine diphosphate receptor blockers. In the large Phase III trial, PLATO, ticagrelor significantly reduced the composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke as well as cardiovascular and all-cause mortality compared with clopidogrel in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes. With its favorable impact on mortality, ticagrelor changes the landscape of anti-thrombotic therapy for patients with acute coronary syndromes. PMID:24147518
Bansilal, Sameer; Bonaca, Marc P; Sabatine, Marc S
Coronary artery anomalies are being more frequently diagnosed these days both because increasing numbers of patients are undergoing diagnostic studies and because advanced radiographic imaging methods are now commonly available. An isolated single coronary artery giving rise to the main coronary branches is a rare congenital anomaly. In this report we present a patient with a solitary coronary ostium, with both the left and right coronary artery systems arising from it, and then following their usual courses. This case was diagnosed incidentally during conventional angiography. PMID:20103964
Yaymaci, Bengi; Ugurlucan, Murat; Basaran, Murat; Selimoglu, Ozer; Kocailik, Ali; Akyildiz, Senay; Coskun, Orhan; Us, Melih
The clinical presentation of Kawasaki disease (KD) is variable and clinical implication among adults is rarely important but coronary involvement. Here we report a young patient showing recurrent acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who had a history of high-grade fever and conjunctivitis when he was little. Coronary angiography revealed aneurysmal coronary artery change in this patient. There is no particular consensus on guidelines for treatment for KD in case of coronary aneurysm causing ACS. In this case, we treated him medically without stent implantation successfully. PMID:25368706
Ju, Sungbae; Mun, Hee-Sun; Choi, Seonghoon; Cho, Jung Rae; Lee, Namho; Kang, Min-Kyung
Coronary CT angiography (CTA) is increasingly used worldwide for direct, non-invasive evaluation of the coronary arteries. Advances in computed tomography (CT) technology over the last decade have enabled such reliable imaging of the coronary arteries. Beyond arterial stenosis, coronary CTA also permits assessment of atherosclerotic plaque (including plaque burden) and coronary artery remodeling, previously only achievable through invasive means. It has been shown that coronary plaque volumes for non-calcified and mixed plaques and the arterial remodeling index, correlate closely with invasive intravascular ultrasound. Several studies have also shown a strong relationship of adverse plaque features imaged by coronary CTA with acute coronary syndrome, all-cause death, major adverse cardiovascular events and myocardial ischemia. The aim of this review is to summarize current methods for quantitative measurement of atherosclerotic plaque features from coronary CTA and to discuss their clinical implications. PMID:23984930
Dey, Damini; Schuhbaeck, Annika; Min, James K; Berman, Daniel S; Achenbach, Stephan
Executive Summary In July 2009, the Medical Advisory Secretariat (MAS) began work on Non-Invasive Cardiac Imaging Technologies for the Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), an evidence-based review of the literature surrounding different cardiac imaging modalities to ensure that appropriate technologies are accessed by patients suspected of having CAD. This project came about when the Health Services Branch at the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care asked MAS to provide an evidentiary platform on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of non-invasive cardiac imaging modalities. After an initial review of the strategy and consultation with experts, MAS identified five key non-invasive cardiac imaging technologies for the diagnosis of CAD. Evidence-based analyses have been prepared for each of these five imaging modalities: cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission computed tomography, 64-slice computed tomographic angiography, stress echocardiography, and stress echocardiography with contrast. For each technology, an economic analysis was also completed (where appropriate). A summary decision analytic model was then developed to encapsulate the data from each of these reports (available on the OHTAC and MAS website). The Non-Invasive Cardiac Imaging Technologies for the Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease series is made up of the following reports, which can be publicly accessed at the MAS website at: www.health.gov.on.ca/mas"> www.health.gov.on.ca/mas or at www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/mas_about.html Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography for the Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease: An Evidence-Based Analysis Stress Echocardiography for the Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease: An Evidence-Based Analysis Stress Echocardiography with Contrast for the Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease: An Evidence-Based Analysis 64-Slice Computed Tomographic Angiography for the Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease: An Evidence-Based Analysis Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease: An Evidence-Based Analysis Pease note that two related evidence-based analyses of non-invasive cardiac imaging technologies for the assessment of myocardial viability are also available on the MAS website: Positron Emission Tomography for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability: An Evidence-Based Analysis Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Assessment of Myocardial Viability: an Evidence-Based Analysis The Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment Collaborative has also produced an associated economic report entitled: The Relative Cost-effectiveness of Five Non-invasive Cardiac Imaging Technologies for Diagnosing Coronary Artery Disease in Ontario [Internet]. Available from: http://theta.utoronto.ca/reports/?id=7 Objective The objective of the analysis is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of stress echocardiography (ECHO) in the diagnosis of patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) compared to coronary angiography (CA). Stress Echocardiography Stress ECHO is a non-invasive technology that images the heart using ultrasound. It is one of the most commonly employed imaging techniques for investigating a variety of cardiac abnormalities in both community and hospital settings. A complete ECHO exam includes M-mode, 2-dimensional (2-D) images and Doppler imaging. In order to diagnosis CAD and assess whether myocardial ischemia is present, images obtained at rest are compared to those obtained during or immediately after stress. The most commonly used agents used to induce stress are exercise and pharmacological agents such as dobutamine and dipyridamole. The hallmark of stress-induced myocardial ischemia is worsening of wall motion abnormalities or the development of new wall motion abnormalities. A major challenge for stress ECHO is that the interpretation of wall motion contractility and function is subjective. This leads to inter-observer variability and reduced reproducibility. Further, it is estimated that approximately 30% of patients have sub-
The effects of frovatriptan and sumatriptan on internal carotid and coronary vascular haemodynamics were investigated and compared in conscious dogs. Frovatriptan and sumatriptan (0.1–100??g?kg?1) induced a transient increase in external coronary artery diameter (eCOD) of up to 2.9±1.2 and 1.8±0.6%, respectively (both P<0.05). This was followed by a prolonged and dose-dependent decrease in eCOD of up to ?5.2±1.2 and ?5.3±0.9% (both P<0.05), with ED50 values of 86±21 and 489±113??mol?kg?1, respectively. In contrast, only a decrease in the external diameter of the internal carotid artery was observed (?6.0±0.6 and ?6.2±1.4%, both P<0.05, and ED50 values of 86±41 and 493±162??mol?kg?1, respectively). Frovatriptan was thus 5.7 fold more potent than sumatriptan at the level of both large coronary and internal carotid arteries. After endothelium removal by balloon angioplasty in coronary arteries, the initial dilatation induced by the triptans was abolished and delayed constriction enhanced. The selective antagonist for the 5-HT1B receptors SB224289 dose-dependently blocked the effects of sumatriptan on large coronary and internal carotid arteries whereas the selective antagonist for the 5-HT1D receptors BRL15572 did not affect any of these effects. In conclusion, frovatriptan and sumatriptan initially dilate and subsequently constrict large coronary arteries in the conscious dog, whereas they directly constrict the internal carotid artery. The vascular endothelium modulates the effects of these triptans on large coronary arteries. Finally, 5-HT1B but not 5-HT1D receptors are primarily involved in canine coronary and internal carotid vasomotor responses to sumatriptan. PMID:11226138
Carel, Ivan; Ghaleh, Bijan; Edouard, Alain; Dubois-Rande, Jean-Luc; Parsons, Andrew A; Giudicelli, Jean-Francois; Berdeaux, Alain
The establishment of the coronary circulation is critical for the development of the embryonic heart. Over the last several years there has been tremendous progress in elucidating the pathways that control coronary development. Interestingly, many of the pathways that regulate the development of the coronary vasculature are distinct from those governing vasculogenesis in the rest of the embryo. It is becoming increasingly clear that coronary development depends on a complex communication between the epicardium, the sub-epicardial mesenchyme, and the myocardium mediated in part by secreted growth factors. This communication coordinates the growth of the myocardium with the formation of the coronary vasculature. This review will summarize our current understanding of the role of these growth factors in the regulation of coronary development. Continued progress in this field holds the potential to lead to novel therapeutics for the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. PMID:20299672
Olivey, Harold E.; Svensson, Eric C.
Drug-induced thrombocytopenia and thrombosis: Evidence from patients receiving an oral glycoprotein IIb\\/IIIa inhibitor in the Orbofiban in Patients with Unstable coronary Syndromes- (OPUS-TIMI 16) trial
Objective: To assess etiology and impact of thrombocytopenia in a large oral glycoprotein (GP) IIb\\/IIIa inhibitor trial.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Background: Heparin is known to cause thrombocytopenia, and in some of these patients thrombosis. GP IIb\\/IIIa inhibitors are also associated\\u000a with thrombocytopenia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: The Orbofiban in Patients with Unstable Coronary Syndromes (OPUS-TIMI 16) Trial randomized 10,392 patients with ACS to the\\u000a oral GP
Benjamin M. Scirica; Christopher P. Cannon; Richard Cooper; Richard H. Aster; Jacqueline Brassard; Carolyn H. McCabe; Andrew Charlesworth; Allan M. Skene; Eugene Braunwald
We report the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with acute coronary syndrome due to coronary slow flow after spinal cord injury. Data regarding the causes and clinical manifestations of coronary slow flow are inconclusive, but the autonomic nervous system is believed to be at least a contributing factor. The predominant vagal activity causes vasodilation and hemostasis, which can lead to acute coronary syndrome. We hereby call attention to hyperactive parasympathetic tonicity, which can lead to coronary slow flow and acute coronary syndrome in acute spinal cord injury patients. PMID:21841878
Aktoz, Meryem; Tatli, Ersan; Barutcu, Ahmet; Ozkalayci, Flora; Umit, Elif; Altun, Armagan
The mucosa of the trachea and bronchi is very sensitive to various types of stimuli. Thus, cigarette smoke as well as mechanical or chemical irritation induce local mucosal reactions and bronchial smooth muscle spasm via sensory reflexes1-4. However, only the chemical transmitters involved in these local or vago-vagal reflexes acting to produce bronchoconstriction are known, while the mediator of the
Jan M. Lundberg; Alois Saria
Objectives. This analysis compared the results of electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) with those of coronary angiography and intracoronary ultrasound (ICUS) for the in vivo detection of coronary atherosclerotic plaques.Background. EBCT is a new imaging modality for identification of coronary calcifications. Coronary angiography depicts advanced changes in coronary morphology, whereas ICUS is an established diagnostic tool that detects the early
Dietrich Baumgart; Axel Schmermund; Guenter Goerge; Michael Haude; Junbo Ge; Michael Adamzik; Cornelia Sehnert; Klaus Altmaier; Dietrich Groenemeyer; Rainer Seibel; Raimund Erbel
Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol, have been implicated in ethanol-induced heart injury. To assess the in vivo production of FAEEs by myocardial tissue, we used a modified ethanol ablation procedure in pigs. A controlled 60-minute ethanol infusion was administered into the distal left anterior descending coronary artery in seven swine; serial blood sampling of the coronary sinus and peripheral vein before, during, and after infusion allowed measurement of FAEE production and ethanol levels in the coronary sinus and the peripheral circulation. In a single animal, FAEEs were also quantified from nine different sites within the myocardium. FAEEs were produced by the heart within 5 minutes of exposure to ethanol, with very high concentrations of FAEEs detected in coronary sinus blood. Significant variability in amounts of FAEEs was detected in different regions of the heart tissue. A strong correlation was found between coronary sinus FAEEs and ethanol concentration (r = 0.9241, P < 0.00001). FAEE production by the heart after delivery of ethanol into the left anterior descending coronary artery was rapid, reaching levels in the coronary sinus blood 4 to 10 times greater than that found in peripheral blood after ethanol intake. These data demonstrate that FAEEs may be mediators of ethanol-induced cardiotoxicity. PMID:16651611
Yoerger, Danita M.; Best, Catherine A.; McQuillan, Brendan M.; Supple, Gregory E.; Guererro, J. Luis; Cluette-Brown, Joanne E.; Hasaba, Ali; Picard, Michael H.; Stone, James R.; Laposata, Michael
We present a case report of a 40-year-old male who underwent elective cardiac catheterization secondary to complaints of intermittent chest pain and inducible ischemia in the anterior wall. Diagnostic catheterization revealed severe coronary artery disease including an occluded mid left anterior descending (LAD) artery. There was a rarely described descending septal artery (Bonapace's branch) originating from a separate ostium in the right aortic sinus. This artery was a very important source of collateralization to the LAD. This artery has been reported once in vivo, while it has been described more frequently in postmortem studies. The descending septal artery is postulated to have an important role in the perfusion of the conduction system and in collateral circulation in patients with coronary artery disease. A literature review confirms the functional importance of this artery. PMID:23388235
Sanghvi, Kintur; de Leon Mansson, Sarah; Patel, Tejas
QT prolongation, Torsade de Pointes, myocardial ischemia from coronary vasospasm, and headache medications. Part 2: review of headache medications, drug-drug interactions, QTc prolongation, and other arrhythmias.
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine)(1B/1D) agonists can vasoconstrict coronary and cerebral arteries. Chest, jaw, and arm discomfort, so-called "triptan sensations," are often felt to be noncardiac. In Part 1 of this review, the relationship of triptans, coronary artery narrowing, and spasm was discussed, along with a case of a 53-year-old woman without cardiac risk factors who developed polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and cardiac ischemia with acquired corrected QT (QTc) interval prolongation following oral sumatriptan. In Part 2 of this review, headache medications, drug-drug interactions, QTc prolongation, and cardiac arrhythmias are appraised and discussed. Triptans, cardiac arrhythmias, and ischemia by prescribing information are summarized. The reader is provided tables on QTc prolongation by medication. The problem of QTc prolongation with a variety of headache medications at conventional doses, including triptans, serotonin reuptake inhibitors (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors), other antidepressants, antihistamines, and antinauseants should lead to proactively obtaining electrocardiograms and more vigilant surveillance of headache patients. This may be the place to start in protecting patients from these cardiac adverse events. PMID:23216298
Stillman, Mark J; Tepper, Deborah E; Tepper, Stewart J; Cho, Leslie
ObjectivesThe aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy in detecting high-grade coronary stenoses in patients with known coronary artery disease (CAD) using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT).
Axel Kuettner; Andreas F. Kopp; Stephen Schroeder; Thilo Rieger; Juergen Brunn; Christoph Meisner; Martin Heuschmid; Tobias Trabold; Christof Burgstahler; Jens Martensen; Wolfgang Schoebel; Hans-Konrad Selbmann; Claus D. Claussen
Radiation therapy of neoplasms involving the chest or mediastinum results in a wide spectrum of cardiac complications including coronary artery disease, which can present in patients with few or no traditional cardiac risk factors. We report a case of radiation induced coronary artery disease in a 60-year-old female with a history of stage IIIA nonsmall cell lung carcinoma which was diagnosed eight years earlier and treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. She presented to the hospital with atypical chest pain that had occurred intermittently over the preceding week. Her initial electrocardiogram and cardiac enzymes were within normal limits. However, following an indeterminate exercise nuclear stress test, she developed chest pain and elevated cardiac enzymes. Coronary angiography demonstrated 90% stenosis of the left main coronary artery ostium, without any evidence of atherosclerotic disease or stenosis in other coronary arteries. She underwent surgical revascularization, which revealed dense adhesions surrounding the heart. During surgery, she developed severe bleeding and died. Coronary artery disease can present within years of radiation exposure, and ostial lesions are typical. Treatment is often challenging because of the effects of radiation on other tissues and the risks of revascularization procedures. Therefore, a multidisciplinary team approach should be considered. PMID:24416042
Alsara, Osama; Alsarah, Ahmad; Kalavakunta, Jagadeesh K.; Abela, George S.
Introduction Although several etiopathogenetic mechanisms have been proposed, the causes of left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome are still controversial. Case presentation A 51-year-old Japanese woman consulted the emergency room complaining of the sudden onset of anterior chest pain while shopping. We initially suspected her disease as left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome based on her clinical background and laboratory examinations. However, the initial coronary angiogram demonstrated diffuse lesions in her distal left anterior descending coronary artery, and she was finally diagnosed with apical myocardial infarction. The blood flow in her distal left anterior descending coronary artery had markedly improved in the chronic phase. If the reduced blood flow in her distal left anterior descending coronary artery was induced by coronary vasospasm and the vasospasm was relieved before the coronary angiogram was performed, this case must be diagnosed as left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome. Conclusion We think this case may promote discussion regarding the pathophysiology of left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome. PMID:24716472
Type II diabetes and the metabolic syndrome are strong predictors of severity of occlusive coronary disease and poorer outcomes of coronary revascularization therapies. Coronary collateral growth can provide an alternative or accessory pathway of revascularization. However, collateral growth is impaired in type II diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Although many factors necessary for collateral growth are known and many interventions have shown promising results in animal studies, not a single attempt to induce coronary collateral growth in human clinical trials has led to satisfactory results. Accordingly, the first part of this review outlines the known deleterious effects of diabetes and the metabolic syndrome on factors necessary for collateral growth, including pro-angiogenic growth factors, endothelial function, the redox state of the coronary circulation, intracellular signaling, leukocytes and bone marrow-derived progenitors cells. The second section highlights the gaps in our current knowledge of how these factors interact with the radically altered environment of the coronary circulation in diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. The interplay between these pathologies and inadequately explored areas related to the temporal regulation of collateral remodeling and the roles of the extracellular matrix, vascular cell phenotype and pro-inflammatory cytokines are emphasized with implications to development of efficient therapies. PMID:22342811
This book contains 18 selections. Some of the titles are: Nuclear cardiology; Diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction; Therapy of angina pectoris; Psychosocial aspects of coronary artery disease; Nonatherosclerotic coronary artery disease; and The epidemiology of coronary artery disease.
The efficacy and safety of oral tolperisone hydrochloride (Mydocalm) in the treatment of painful reflex muscle spasm was assessed in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. A total of 138 patients, aged between 20 and 75 years, with painful reflex muscle spasm associated with diseases of the spinal column or proximal joints were enrolled in eight rehabilitation centers. Patients were randomized to receive either 300 mg tolperisone hydrochloride or placebo for a period of 21 days. Both treatment groups recovered during the 3 weeks rehabilitation program. However, tolperisone hydrochloride proved to be significantly superior to placebo: the change score of the pressure pain threshold as the primary target parameter significantly increased during therapy with tolperisone hydrochloride (P = 0.03, valid-case-analysis) compared to the results obtained on placebo treatment. The overall assessment of efficacy by the patient also demonstrated significant differences in favor of tolperisone hydrochloride. Best results were seen in patients aged between 40 and 60 years with a history of complaints shorter than 1 year and with concomitant physical therapy. The evaluation of safety data, i.e., adverse events, biochemical and hematological laboratory parameters, demonstrated no differences between tolperisone hydrochloride and placebo. As a conclusion tolperisone hydrochloride represents an effective and safe treatment of painful reflex muscle spasm without the typical side effects of centrally active muscle relaxants. PMID:8951937
Pratzel, H G; Alken, R G; Ramm, S
Presurgical evaluation of hemifacial spasm and spasmodic torticollis caused by a neurovascular conflict from AICA with 3T MRI integrated by 3D drive and 3D TOF image fusion: A case report and review of the literature
Background: Hemifacial spasm (HS) and spasmodic torticollis (ST) are well-known disorders that are caused by a neurovascular conflict. HS is characterized by irregular, involuntary muscle contractions on one side of the face due to spasms of orbicularis oris and orbicularis oculi muscles, and is usually caused by vascular compression of the VII cranial nerve. ST is an extremely painful chronic movement disorder causing the neck to involuntary turn to the side, upward and/or downward. HS is usually idiopathic but it is rarely caused by a neurovascular conflict with the XI cranial nerve. Case Description: We present a case of a 36-year-old woman with a 2-year history of left hemifacial spasm and spasmodic torticollis. Pre-surgical magnetic resonance imaging MRI examination was performed with 3TMRI integrated by 3Ddrive and 3DTOF image fusion. Surgery was performed through a left suboccipital retrosigmoid craniectomy. The intraoperative findings documented a transfixing artery penetrating the facial nerve and a dominant left anteroinferior cerebellar artery (AICA) in contact with the anterior surface of the pons and lower cranial nerves. Microvascular decompression (MVD) was performed. Postoperative course showed the regression of her symptoms. Conclusions Transfixing arteries are rarely reported as a cause of neurovascular conflicts. The authors review the literature concerning multiple neurovascular conflicts. PMID:25101203
Alafaci, Concetta; Granata, Francesca; Cutugno, Mariano; Grasso, Giovanni; Salpietro, Francesco M.; Tomasello, Francesco
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) risk increases with increasing number of risk factors. This study was aimed to assess different coronary risk factors among Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) surgery patients. A total of 700 patients younger than 45 or older than 65 years and underwent CABG in Tabriz Shahid Madani Heart Center since 2003 to 2007 were enrolled. We examined the probable differences of CAD risk factors between male and female groups and age groups. We also assessed the change of risk factors presentation in last 5 years. There was not significant difference between risk factor numbers in <45 and >65 years groups, but smoking and dyslipidemia was more prevalent in patients < 45 than > 65 years old. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus was more prevalent in patients > 65 old than < 45 years old; also differences were found between males and females patients, so that dyslipidemia, diabetes and hypertension were more prevalent in women than men. Some risk factors were recognized as acting more on one gender than the other. Also, the majority of patients have one or more risk factors, but different age and gender groups may have different risk factors that suggest the need for exact programming for appropriate prophylactic and therapeutic interventions in all groups. PMID:21913494
Safaei, Nasser; Alikhah, Hossein; Abadan, Younes
Coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography has been recognized as the most rapidly developed imaging technique in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease due to the emergence and technological advances in multislice CT scanners. Coronary CT angiography has been confirmed to demonstrate high diagnostic and predictive value in coronary artery disease when compared to invasive coronary angiography. However, it suffers from high radiation dose which raises concerns in the medical field. Various dose-reduction strategies have been proposed with effective outcomes having been achieved to reduce radiation exposure to patients. This article provides an introduction and overview of the series of articles that will focus on each particular topic related to coronary CT angiography. PMID:24392187
Sun, Zhonghua; Sabarudin, Akmal
Hyoscine N-butyl bromide, also known as scopolamine, is a type of antimuscarinic agent. This drug is associated with numerous common side effects, including abdominal fullness, constipation, urinary retention, blurred vision, skin flushing, tachycardia, decreased sweating, and salivation. The most unfavorable side effect is hemodynamic instability. In the present case, hypotension and acute myocardial infarction developed after intravenous hyoscine injection as a premedication therapy for colonoscopy. It was difficult to differentiate the cause-effect relationship between myocardial infarction and hypotension. Because both conditions were present under drug effects, we considered 2 possible diagnoses. One was coronary spasm with cardiogenic shock, and the other was myocardial ischemic sequela due to shock status. The latter diagnosis was confirmed after a series of examinations. PMID:24829823
A comparison of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT)-induced contractions was made on cocaine-treated strips of bovine pulmonary arteries and large coronary arteries. The affinities of the 5HT2 antagonist ketanserin, its metabolite ketanserinol, yohimbine and rauwolscine were estimated for both arteries.1.Ketanserin was a competitive antagonist of the effects of 5HT in both arteries. The KB values (-log mol\\/l) were 9.5 for large coronary arteries
Michael Frenken; Alberto J. Kaumann
Visualization of vasoconstriction and vasodilatation of coronary arteries with vasoactive agents is a useful research tool for evaluation of coronary vascular reserve. Microangiography with spatial resolution in the micrometer range was carried out to depict coronary vascular response in a rat heart under Langendorff perfusion using a high-speed imaging system and a third generation synchrotron radiation source at SPring-8. The
Keiji Umetani; Kazuhito Fukushima; Masakatsu Tsurusaki; Kensuke Uotani; Katsuhito Yamasaki; Kazuro Sugimura
One of the major limitations of transradial coronary intervention is the inability to use large guiding system, which leads to the development of dedicated sheathless guide catheter system. However, these devices are not available in the Republic of Korea. We present a case in which conventional guiding catheter was used for sheathless transradial coronary intervention in the treatment of complex coronary anatomy. PMID:23755083
Choi, Jaehuk; Suh, Jon; Seo, Hye-Sun; Cho, Yoon Haeng
Background—The increased incidence of coronary artery disease in men compared with premenopausal women suggests a detrimental role of male hormones on the cardiovascular system. However, testosterone has direct relaxing effects on coronary arteries in animals, as shown both in vitro and in vivo. The effect of testosterone on the human coronary circulation remains unknown. Methods and Results—We studied 13 men
Carolyn M. Webb; John G. McNeill; Christopher S. Hayward; Dominique de Zeigler; Peter Collins
Cardiac CT is a rapidly advancing technology. Non-invasive CT coronary angiography is an established technique for assessing coronary heart disease with accuracy similar to invasive coronary angiography. CT myocardial perfusion imaging can now identify perfusion defects in animal models and humans. MRI is the current ‘gold standard’ for the assessment of myocardial viability, but it is now also possible to
M C Williams; J H Reid; G McKillop; N W Weir; E J R van Beek; N G Uren; D E Newby
The relationships between two behavioral patterns, cardiac risk factors, and coronary heart disease are investigated. Risk factors used in the analysis were family history of coronary disease, smoking, cholesterol, obesity, systotic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, blood sugar, uric acid, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and white blood unit. It was found that conventional, non-behavioral pattern risk factors alone were not significantly related to coronary heart disease.
Townsend, J. C.; Cronin, J. P.
Coronary subclavian steal syndrome is a rare ischemic cause in patients after myocardial revascularization surgery. Subclavian artery stenosis or compression proximal to the internal mammary artery graft is the underlying cause. The authors present a clinical case of a patient with previous history of non-ST elevation myocardial infarction, triple coronary bypass, and effort angina since the surgery, with a positive ischemic test. Coronary angiography revealed a significant stenosis of the left subclavian artery, proximal to the internal mammary graft. PMID:24829810
Raposo, Luis; Leal, Silvio; Goncalves, Pedro Araujo; Mesquita Gabriel, Henrique; Teles, Rui Campante; Almeida, Manuel Sousa; Mendes, Miguel
Coronary subclavian steal syndrome is a rare ischemic cause in patients after myocardial revascularization surgery. Subclavian artery stenosis or compression proximal to the internal mammary artery graft is the underlying cause. The authors present a clinical case of a patient with previous history of non-ST elevation myocardial infarction, triple coronary bypass, and effort angina since the surgery, with a positive ischemic test. Coronary angiography revealed a significant stenosis of the left subclavian artery, proximal to the internal mammary graft. PMID:24829810
Machado, Carina; Raposo, Luís; Leal, Sílvio; Gonçalves, Pedro Araújo; Mesquita Gabriel, Henrique; Teles, Rui Campante; Almeida, Manuel Sousa; Mendes, Miguel
Background. Proximal subclavian artery occlusive disease in the presence of a patent internal mammary artery used as a conduit for a coronary artery bypass graft procedure may cause reversal of internal mammary artery flow (coronary-subclavian steal) and produce myocardial ischemia.Methods. We reviewed outcome to determine whether subclavian artery revascularization can provide effective protection from and treatment for coronary-subclavian steal. Between
Thomas J Takach; George J Reul; Igor Gregoric; Zvonimer Krajcer; J. Michael Duncan; James J Livesay; Denton A Cooley
The 5q14.3 microdeletion syndrome has recently been recognized as a clinical entity manifesting as severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, and brain malformations. Analysis of the shortest region of overlap among patients with this syndrome and subsequent identification of nucleotide alterations in the coding region of myocyte enhancer factor 2C gene (MEF2C) have suggested MEF2C as the gene responsible for the 5q14.3 microdeletion syndrome. We identified a de novo 3.4-Mb deletion of 5q14.3 in a patient with infantile spasms, microcephaly, and brain malformation. The deleted region in the present patient was positional toward the centromere, and MEF2C was not included in the deleted region. However the neurological and dysmorphic features of the present patient resembled those of patients with the 5q14.3 microdeletion syndrome. We consider that a positional effect is the likely explanation for this evidence. To study the precise mechanism of this positional effect, further information is required on patients showing atypical deletions neighboring MEF2C. PMID:22848023
Shimojima, Keiko; Okumura, Akihisa; Mori, Harushi; Abe, Shinpei; Ikeno, Mitsuru; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Although CAD was formerly considered a lipid accumulation-mediated disease, it has now been clearly shown to involve an ongoing inflammatory response. Advances in basic science research have established the crucial role of inflammation in mediating all stages of CAD. Today, there is convincing evidence that multiple interrelated immune mechanisms interact with metabolic risk factors to initiate, promote, and ultimately activate lesions in the coronary arteries. This review aims to provide current evidence pertaining to the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of CAD and discusses the impact of inflammatory markers and their modification on clinical outcomes. PMID:24441047
Christodoulidis, Georgios; Vittorio, Timothy J; Fudim, Marat; Lerakis, Stamatios; Kosmas, Constantine E
to the left and to the right coronary arteries is different. Vasko et ul. , who perl'ormed perfusion studies of human hearts, indicated that the flow in the left coronary artery was always greater tlian that in the right (Figure 3). Moreover... to the left and to the right coronary arteries is different. Vasko et ul. , who perl'ormed perfusion studies of human hearts, indicated that the flow in the left coronary artery was always greater tlian that in the right (Figure 3). Moreover...
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Near-normal glycemic control does not reduce cardiovascular events. For many patients with 1- or 2-vessel coronary artery disease, there is little benefit from any revascularization procedure over optimal medical therapy. For multivessel coronary disease, randomized trials demonstrated the superiority of coronary artery bypass grafting over multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with treated DM. However, selection of the optimal myocardial revascularization strategy requires a multidisciplinary team approach ('heart team'). This review summarizes the current evidence regarding the effectiveness of various medical therapies and revascularization strategies in patients with DM. PMID:25091969
Aronson, Doron; Edelman, Elazer R
A preparation was developed to perfuse the coronary circulation in working hearts from rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson). The preparation was used to examine pressure-flow relationships for the coronary circulation as the heart generated physiological and subphysiological work loads. Coronary vascular resistance increased exponentially as coronary flow rate decreased. Coronary resistance was also influenced by cardiac metabolism and acclimation temperature. When heart rate was increased, extravascular compression increased in coronary resistance. Direct vasoconstriction of the coronary vessels, produced by injections of adrenaline into the coronary circulation, was temperature-dependent. PMID:3585237
Farrell, A P
There is almost no data on the genetics of acute coronary syndromes, so this review discusses primarily the 50 genetic risk variants associated with coronary artery disease that are of genome-wide significance in the discovery population and replicated in an independent population. All of these risk variants are extremely common with more than half occurring in >50% of the general population. They increased only minimally the relative risk for coronary artery disease. The most striking finding is that 35 of the 50 risk variants act independently of known risk factors, indicating there are several pathways yet to be appreciated, contributing to the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. All of the genetic variants seem to act through atherosclerosis, except for the ABO blood groups, which show that A and B are associated with increased risk for myocardial infarction, mediated by a prolonged von Willebrand plasma half life leading to thrombosis. The potential molecular mechanisms of 9p21 are discussed, including cell cycle kinase inhibitors. Discovery of risk variants associated with PCSK9 has led to the development of novel treatment for plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. A monoclonal antibody inhibiting PCSK9 has already undergone phase I and II clinical trials, showing it is a potent inhibitor of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and is mediated through more rapid removal of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol from the plasma. This therapy complements that of statin therapy, which inhibits the synthesis of cholesterol. The benefits of Mendelian randomization to assess safety and efficacy and their limitations are discussed along with future directions. PMID:24902973
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of death in the USA, and a burden that is estimated to overtake all other\\u000a causes of mortality worldwide by the year 2020 . Marked advances have been made in recent years to better understand the\\u000a pathophysiology of CHD and to develop scoring systems that can integrate risk factors to estimate an
Firas A. Ghanem; Assad Movahed
Three-Dimensional Coronary Angiography (3D-CA) is a novel tool that allows clinicians to view and analyze coronary arteries in three-dimensional format. This will help to find accurate length estimates and to find the optimal viewing angles of a lesion based on the three-dimensional vessel orientation. Various advanced algorithms are incorporated in this 3D processing utility including 3D-RA calibration, ECG phase selection, 2D vessel extraction, and 3D vessel modeling into a utility with optimized workflow and ease-of-use features, which is fully integrated in the environment of the x-ray catheterization lab. After the 3D processing, the 3D vessels can be viewed and manipulated interactively inside the operating room. The TrueView map provides a quick overview of gantry angles with optimal visualization of a single or bifurcation lesion. Vessel length measurements can be performed without risk of underestimating a vessel segment due to foreshortening. Vessel cross sectional diameters can also be measured. Unlike traditional, projection-based quantitative coronary analysis, the additional process of catheter calibration is not needed for diameter measurements. Validation studies show a high reproducibility of the measurements, with little user dependency.
Suurmond, Rolf; Wink, Onno; Chen, James; Carroll, John
We hypothesized that coronary artery endothelial cell function and smooth muscle function are modified by global myocardial ischemia and used bradykinin-induced secretion of endothelium-derived relaxing factor as a marker of endothelial cell function. Bradykinin and sodium nitroprusside together determined maximum smooth muscle relaxation. Potassium chloride-induced contraction determined smooth muscle contractility. Endothelium-mediated smooth muscle relaxation expressed as a ratio of total coronary smooth muscle relaxation before and after ischemia quantified endothelial cell function. The effect of global normothermic ischemia on in situ coronary arteries from 7 swine hearts was studied. Coronary arterial rings taken from 0 to 220 minutes of ischemia at 20-minute intervals were studied in vitro. The data revealed unexpected tolerance of endothelium-mediated relaxation to ischemia. Endothelium-derived relaxing factor function was maintained to 160 minutes and smooth muscle function, to 120 minutes of ischemia. Coronary artery dysfunction seen in other studies after less ischemia may be the result of injury introduced during reperfusion, may be the consequence of myocardial injury, or may be due to events operative at the level of small arterioles. PMID:1731674
Dignan, R J; Dyke, C M; Abd-Elfattah, A S; Lutz, H A; Yeh, T; Lee, K F; Parmar, J; Wechsler, A S
SUS316L stainless steel and cobalt-chromium and platinum-chromium alloys are widely used platforms for coronary stents. These alloys also contain nickel (Ni), which reportedly induces allergic reactions in some subjects and is known to have various cellular effects. The effects of Ni on neointima formation after stent implantation remain unknown, however. We developed coronary stents made of Ni-free high-nitrogen austenitic stainless steel prepared using a N2-gas pressurized electroslag remelting (P-ESR) process. Neointima formation and inflammatory responses following stent implantation in porcine coronary arteries were then compared between the Ni-free and SUS316L stainless steel stents. We found significantly less neointima formation and inflammation in arteries implanted with Ni-free stents, as compared to SUS316L stents. Notably, Ni2+ was eluted into the medium from SUS316L but not from Ni-free stainless steel. Mechanistically, Ni2+ increased levels of hypoxia inducible factor protein-1? (HIF-1?) and its target genes in cultured smooth muscle cells. HIF-1? and their target gene levels were also increased in the vascular wall at SUS316L stent sites but not at Ni-free stent sites. The Ni-free stainless steel coronary stent reduces neointima formation, in part by avoiding activation of inflammatory processes via the Ni-HIF pathway. The Ni-free-stainless steel stent is a promising new coronary stent platform.
Fujiu, Katsuhito; Manabe, Ichiro; Sasaki, Makoto; Inoue, Motoki; Iwata, Hiroshi; Hasumi, Eriko; Komuro, Issei; Katada, Yasuyuki; Taguchi, Tetsushi; Nagai, Ryozo
The coronary circulation of anesthetized dogs was tested for the presence of vascular waterfalls by manipulating coronary arterial and coronary venous pressures. The left main coronary artery and the coronary sinus were cannulated, and relationships between coronary artery pressure, coronary sinus pressure, and coronary flow were studied. Experiments were conducted during diastolic arrests, under steady state conditions, in the absence of autoregulation. Relations of coronary flow to coronary sinus pressure at constant coronary artery pressure were consistent with the presence of a vascular waterfall in the coronary sinus. When the great cardiac vein was cannulated, relations of great vein flow to great vein pressure at constant coronary artery pressure were consistent with the presence of a vascular waterfall in the great vein, indicating that waterfall behavior can occur in epicardial veins other than the coronary sinus. In dogs on right heart bypass, with the coronary sinus and great vein uncannulated, the relationship between right atrial pressure and coronary sinus pressure showed a waterfall pattern, indicating that the waterfall is not an artifact of venous cannulation. In the right heart bypass experiments, venous waterfall behavior was seen in beating hearts as well as during diastolic arrests. We conclude that a vascular waterfall is present in epicardial coronary veins which can significantly influence coronary blood flow. PMID:6611215
Uhlig, P N; Baer, R W; Vlahakes, G J; Hanley, F L; Messina, L M; Hoffman, J I
Information on the mechanical properties of the coronary vascular bed can be obtained indirectly by modelling the vascular system. This indirect approach, unlike 'in vitro' measurements, allows to take into account the vasomotor conditions of the circulatory district as well as the effect of the surrounding embedding tissue on the vascular performance. An experimental manoeuvre of sudden occlusion and subsequent release of the thoracic descendent aorta on 5 anaesthetized dogs with open pericardium induces a step-like variation in the coronary perfusion pressure and the occurrence of oscillations in the mean coronary flow. Such a behaviour can be described using a second-order model ('windkessel'+inductance, which takes into account blood inertia in the large vessels). The value of the coefficients entering the equations have been obtained with a 'best-fit' procedure (minimum of the chi-squared variable) on the haemodynamical data. Coefficient variations are in agreement with the direct estimation of the myocardial compliance and volume, measured by Ultrasound Echocardiographic imaging (4-chamber projection mode). PMID:1485921
Nardo, C; Guiot, C; Losano, G
The last investigations have shown that coffee cons umption is associated with a significant reduction in coronary artery disease and breast can cer risks because coffee consumption increases migratory capacity and mitochondrial func tion of human cells. Caffeine-induced migratory capacity of cells is linked with repairin g of mitochondrial functions and reduction of cardiolipin and electron transport chain abnorma lities.
Alexander A. Amelkin
BACKGROUND: Temporary epicardial pacing wires are routinely used during cardiac surgery; they are dependable in controlling postoperative arrhythmias and are associated with low morbitity. CASE REPORT: We report a case of sternobronchial fistula formation induced by the existence of retained epicardial pacing wires in a patient who underwent coronary surgery ten years ago. CONCLUSION: Reported complications of retained epicardial pacing
Timothy Sakellaridis; Michalis Argiriou; Victor Panagiotakopoulos; Christos Charitos
Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Artery Disease; Myocardial Ischemia; Coronary Disease; Coronary Restenosis; Heart Diseases; Coronary Stenosis; Arteriosclerosis; Arterial Occlusive Diseases; Vascular Diseases
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Chronic HHcy induces coronary endothelial injury, and homocysteine (Hcy) inhibits insulin sensitivity by inducing endoplasmic reticulum stress in adipose tissue. However, the combined effects of chronic HHcy and hypertension on coronary artery endothelial function have still remained unclear. Fifty-one patients with essential hypertension (HT) were recruited, and were divided into nHT group (without HHcy) and H-type HT group (with HHcy). Forty healthy subjects were enrolled as controls. We assessed coronary artery endothelial function by coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR). Hcy levels were significantly higher (15.60±6.58 vs 13.08±4.13??mol?l(-1), P<0.05), whereas CFVR values were significantly lower in the HT patients than in the control group (2.88±0.70 vs 3.23±0.54, P<0.05). Hcy levels were negatively correlated with CFVR value (r=-0.578, P<0.01, 95% confidence interval -0.085 to -0.046). The homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance values were significantly higher (3.92±2.16 vs 2.72±1.50, P<0.05) , whereas CFVR values were significantly lower in H-type HT group than in nHT group (2.31±0.31 vs 3.25±0.62, P<0.01). Coronary artery endothelial function may be impaired in essential hypertensive patients with HHcy, and insulin resistance induced by HHcy may contribute to this damage. PMID:24670326
Liu, J; Xu, Y; Zhang, H; Gao, X; Fan, H; Wang, G
Background Before coronary evaluation by modern imaging techniques was feasible, premorbid diagnoses of coronary artery anomalies (CAAs) were usually made fortuitously by invasive coronary angiography (ICA). However, this technique is limited by its invasive and projectional nature. Coronary magnetic resonance angiography (CMRA) and multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) broadened clinical information by enabling visualisation of the coronary arteries in their anatomical environment. Methods This case series visualises and reviews anomalous coronary artery from the opposite sinus (ACAOS) and coronary artery fistulae. All CAAs were detected by means of 64-slice dual source computed tomography after 1000 cardiac scans at the Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Results Eight ACAOS cases, one anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) and one congenital aneurysm of an aortic sinus were found. Seven out often detected CAAs were considered malignant whereas three CAAs of the ACAOS type (retroaortic path) were considered benign. Significant coronary artery disease was found in three out of eight ACAOS cases. In one of the ACAOS cases complete evaluation of the anomalous coronary artery was limited by motion artifacts. All five cases of right ACAOS were referred for MSCT because the right coronary artery could not be located by invasive angiography. Conclusion All CAAs were easy to diagnose because of 3D imaging and high temporal and spatial resolution. High resolution made it possible to not only depict coronary artery abnormalities, but also to quantify luminal and vessel properties such as stenosis grade, aspects of plaque, anomalous vessel length, luminal area ratio and the asymmetry ratio. Because of its comprehensiveness, MSCT can be an effective imaging modality in patients suspected of coronary artery abnormalities caused by coronary artery disease, CAAs, or a combination of both. (Neth Heart J 2008;16:369-75.) PMID:19065275
ten Kate, G.J.R.; Weustink, A.C.; de Feyter, P.J.
Many fragmental classification of coronary artery anomalies (CAAs) exist, but a simple practical angiographic classification for angiographers has been never proposed. This study is aimed to suggest a simplified angiographic classification of congenital CAAs based on just a few univocal common angiographic patterns. The authors reviewed 5100 coronary angiographies in order to select CAAs patients and identify simple common angiographic
Rigatelli Gianluca; Docali Giorgio; Rossi Paolo; Bovolon Daniela; Rossi Daniele; Bandello Attilio; Lonardi Gabriele; Rigatelli Giorgio
Coronary angiography is the current gold standard for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease and therefore the prevalence of percutaneous coronary procedures such as angiography and angioplasty is high. The occurrence of cerebral complications after coronary angiography and coronary angioplasty is low and it mainly includes transient ischemic attack and stroke. The prevalence of transient cortical blindness after X-ray contrast media is low and it is usually seen after cerebral angiography. Until now only a few cases of transient cortical blindness have been described after coronary artery angiography. Regarding the spread of coronary angiography worldwide and in Poland this complication is uniquely rare. A 32-year-old man with multiple extrasystolic ventricular arrhythmia suggesting Brugada syndrome diagnosis according to morphology of the left bundle branch block and with decreased left ventricular ejection fraction was admitted to the First Department of Cardiology and Hypertension, Medical College of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. Coronary angiography was performed in order to exclude ischemic etiology of the observed abnormalities. No arteriosclerotic lesions were found in coronary arteries. Transient cortical blindness was observed directly after angiography which may have been caused by the neurotoxic effect of the used X-ray contrast medium. In ophthalmologic and neurologic examination as well as in the cerebral computed tomography scan no pathologies were found. Visual impairment disappeared totally within several hours. PMID:24570699
Wojciechowska, Wiktoria; Rajzer, Marek; Jurczyszyn, Artur; Bazan-Socha, Stanislawa; Bryniarski, Leszek; Czarnecka, Danuta
CT coronary angiography has helped radiologists understand the variations and anomalies of the anatomy of the coronary arteries and, thus, to alert the cardiologist whenever such an anomaly is present. This can be of immense help to the clinician planning interventional procedures such as stenting, balloon dilatation, or graft surgery, particularly when there are secondary changes of calcification, plaque formation and stenosis. PMID:19774140
Rahalkar, Anand M.; Rahalkar, Mukund D.
A b s t r ac t Background Modern genotyping platforms permit a systematic search for inherited components of complex diseases. We performed a joint analysis of two genomewide association studies of coronary artery disease. Methods We first identified chromosomal loci that were strongly associated with coronary ar- tery disease in the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) study (which
Nilesh J. Samani; Jeanette Erdmann; Alistair S. Hall; Christian Hengstenberg; Massimo Mangino; Bjoern Mayer; Richard J. Dixon; Thomas Meitinger; Peter Braund; H.-Erich Wichmann; Jennifer H. Barrett; Inke R. König; Suzanne E. Stevens; Silke Szymczak; David-Alexandre Tregouet; Mark M. Iles; Friedrich Pahlke; Helen Pollard; Wolfgang Lieb; Francois Cambien; Marcus Fischer; Willem Ouwehand; Stefan Blankenberg; Anthony J. Balmforth; Andrea Baessler; Stephen G. Ball; Tim M. Strom; Ingrid Brænne; Christian Gieger; Panos Deloukas; Martin D. Tobin; Andreas Ziegler; John R. Thompson; Heribert Schunkert
Objective: Many patients feel exhausted or depressed before the onset of an acute coronary event, but little is known about the origin of these feelings. We tested the hypothesis that the depressive symptomatology is associated with a reactivation of latent viruses and inflammation of a coronary vessel. Methods: A blood sample was drawn and a biopsy sample was obtained from
AD APPELS; FRITS W. BÄR; JIM BÄR; CATHERINE BRUGGEMAN; MARC DE BAETS
... the front of the heart. Minimally invasive bypass grafting is a fairly new procedure. It isn't right for everyone, especially if more than one or two coronary arteries need to be bypassed. Rate This Content: Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Clinical Trials Clinical trials are research studies that ...
Rapid technological developments in computed tomography (CT) imaging technique have made coronary CT angiography an attractive imaging tool in the detection of coronary artery disease. Despite visualization of excellent anatomical details of the coronary lumen changes, coronary CT angiography does not provide hemodynamic changes caused by presence of plaques. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a widely used method in the mechanical engineering field to solve complex problems through analysing fluid flow, heat transfer and associated phenomena by using computer simulations. In recent years, CFD is increasingly used in biomedical research due to high performance hardware and software. CFD techniques have been used to study cardiovascular hemodynamics through simulation tools to assist in predicting the behaviour of circulatory blood flow inside the human body. Blood flow plays a key role in the localization and progression of coronary artery disease. CFD simulation based on 3D luminal reconstructions can be used to analyse the local flow fields and flow profiling due to changes of vascular geometry, thus, identifying risk factors for development of coronary artery disease. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the coronary CT-derived CFD applications in coronary artery disease. PMID:24392188
The complex relationship among myocardial contractility, preload, afterload, and coronary autoregulation was studied using both analytical and numerical methods. To study autoregulation and coronary reserve changes in response to changes in cardiac oxygen consumption and in arterial pressure generation, a new variable was introduced: myocardial resistance to oxygen flow (\\u000a
O. Barnea; W. P. Santamore
We describe the case of a 65-year-old patient who was admitted to our tertiary centre with cardiac sounding chest pain and inferior ST elevation. Coronary angiography revealed mild plaque disease in the left anterior descending artery. The right coronary artery was smooth with no plaques with the exception of an occluded distal branch with no flow. The left ventriculogram revealed a ballooned and akinetic apex typical of Takotsubo syndrome (TS). We suspected a coronary embolus secondary to TS. A serial rise and fall in biomarkers of myocardial necrosis was noted. The patient was treated for acute coronary syndrome and discharged home 72 h from admission. Distal thromboembolism has been described in the literature before. On a search of PubMed there are no examples of coronary artery embolus in the context of TS. PMID:24769664
Heseltine, Thomas David; Karthikeyan, Vellore J; Morris, John
Coronary artery disease remains the leading cause of death in developed countries. Major recent studies such as SYNTAX and FREEDOM have confirmed that coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remains the gold standard treatment in terms of survival and freedom from myocardial infarction and the need for repeat revascularization. The current review explores the use of new technologies and future directions in coronary artery surgery, through 1) stressing the importance of multiple arterial conduits and especially the use of bilateral mammary artery; 2) discussing the advantages and disadvantages of off-pump coronary artery bypass; 3) presenting additional techniques, e.g. minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass grafting, hybrid, and robotic-assisted CABG; and, finally, 4) debating a novel external stenting technique for saphenous vein grafts. PMID:23908868
Taggart, David; Nir, Rony-Reuven; Bolotin, Gil
Coronary artery disease accounts for most deaths in Western communities. Especially acute coronary syndromes--with or without ST segment elevation in the ECG--are potentially life-threatening events. The tremendous number of more than 400,000 acute coronary syndromes per year in Germany demonstrates the necessity of guidelines for diagnosis and treatment approaches. During the diagnostic process the patients' individual risk is repeatedly assessed. The ultimate treatment regimen is based on this risk stratification and includes five major therapeutic tools: anti-ischemic agents, anticoagulants, antiplatelet drugs, coronary revascularization, and long-term patient management. Several anticoagulants, which act at different levels of the coagulation cascade, have been investigated in the NSTE-ACS (non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome). Most anticoagulants have been shown to be capable of reducing the risk of death and myocardial infarction, however, at the cost of bleeding complications. Antiplatelet agents are necessary for both, the acute event and the subsequent maintenance therapy. The recommended treatment regimen includes aspirin in combination with a thienopyridine. During the acute phase of the acute coronary syndrome, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors have been shown to reduce cardiovascular events. Revascularization for NSTE-ACS is performed to relieve angina and ongoing myocardial ischemia, and to prevent the progression to myocardial infarction or death. The indications for myocardial revascularization and the preferred approach (percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting) depend on the extent and severity of the lesions as identified by coronary angiography, the patient's condition and comorbidity. The long-term management after an acute coronary syndrome implies lifestyle measures and drug treatment in order to control risk factors impacting on the patients' outcome. PMID:19214407
Möllmann, Helge; Nef, Holger; Hamm, Christian W
Several studies of flow through collapsible tubing deformed by external pressures have led to a concept known as the "vascular waterfall". One hallmark of this state is a positive zero-flow pressure intercept (Pe) in flow-pressure curves. This intercept is commonly observed in the coronary circulation, but in blood-perfused beating hearts a vascular waterfall is not the only putative cause. To restrict the possibilities, we have measured flow-pressure curves in excised non-beating rabbit hearts in which the coronary arteries were perfused in a non-pulsatile way with a newtonian fluid (Ringers solution) containing potent vasodilator drugs. Under these circumstances, vascular waterfalls are believed to be the only tenable explanation for Pe. In physical terms the waterfall is a region where the vessel is in a state of partial collapse with a stabilized intraluminal fluid pressure (Pw). It is argued that the most probable site of this collapse was the intramural veins just before they reached the epicardial surface. In accord with the waterfall hypothesis, Pe increased as the heart became more edematous, but flow-pressure curves also became flatter, implying multiple waterfalls with differing Pws, leading to complete collapse of some of the venous channels. The principal compressive force is believed to have been the interstitial fluid pressure as registered through a needle (Pn) implanted in the left ventricular wall, but a small additional force (Ps) was probably due to swelling of interstitial gels. A method is presented for estimating Ps and Pw. Unlike rubber tubing, blood vessels are both collapsible and porous. Apparently because of increased capillary filtration, Pn was found to increase linearly with the perfusion pressure. Thus, Pw was not the same at all points on the flow-pressure curve. This finding has interesting implications with respect to the concept of coronary resistance. PMID:2062096
Gosselin, R E; Kaplow, S M
Coronary angiography is an important enhancement method for the analysis of coronary images and thereforeCoronary Tree Extraction Using Motion Layer Separation Wei Zhang1 , Haibin Ling2 , Simone Prummer3) is not applicable for coronary angiography because of heart beat and breathing motion. In this work, we propose
Dialysis-associated ischemic heart disease: Insights from coronary angiography. We reviewed the records of 44 dialysis patients who had undergone one or more coronary angiograms to determine the frequency with which symptomatic ischemic heart disease (IHD) and significant coronary artery narrowing coincided and to determine those factors which were associated with the coronary atherosclerotic process. Thirty-four patients were catheterized for angina
Stephen G Rostand; Katharine A Kirk; Edwin A Rutsky
Left main coronary artery aneurysm is an uncommon coronary anomaly. We describe herein a male whose coronary angiogram revealed left main coronary artery aneurysm. The purpose of the case report is to highlight the clinical picture, workup, and treatment options for such patients. PMID:22919451
Maheshwari, Monika; Tanwar, Chandra Prakash; Mittal, S. R.
The time relationship for recovery of mechanical function, the intramyocardial electrogram and coronary flow after brief periods of regional myocardial ischemia, was studied in conscious dogs. Total left vemtricular (LV) function was assessed with measurements of LV systolic and diastolic pressures, rate of change of LV pressure (dP/dt), and dP/dt/P. Regional LV function was assessed with measurements of regional segment length and velocity of shortening. An implanted hydraulic occluder on either the left anterior descending or circumflex coronary artery was inflated for 5- and 15-min periods on separate days. A 5-min occlusion depressed overall LV function transiently, but just before release of occlusion overall function had nearly returned to control. At this time regional function in the ischemic zone was still depressed to the point of absent shorteining or paradoxical motion during systole and was associated with marked ST segment elevation (+ 10 +/- 2.2 mV) at the site where function was measured. With release of occlusion and reperfusion the intramyocardial electrogram returned to normal within 1 min, and reactive hyperemia subsided by 5-10 min. In contrast to the rapid return to preocclusion levels for coronary flow and the electrogram, regional mechanical function remained depressed for over 3 h. A 15-min coronary occlusion resulted in an even more prolonged (greater than 6 h) derangement of function in the ischemic zone. Thus, brief periods of coronary occlusion result in prolonged impairement of regional myocardial function which could not have been predicted from the rapid return of the electrogram and coronary flow. These observations indicate that brief interruptions of coronary flow result either in a prolonged period of local ischemia or that alterations of mechanical induced by ischemia far outlast the repayment of the oxygen debt. PMID:1159098
Heyndrickx, G R; Millard, R W; McRitchie, R J; Maroko, P R; Vatner, S F
Transradial access (TRA) is becoming increasingly used worldwide for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) after acute coronary syndromes (ACS). TRA compared with transfemoral access has been noted to improve clinical outcomes in clinical trials and large registry cohort studies. However, much of the benefits of TRA PCI are noted in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary PCI, where TRA PCI has been associated with reductions in major bleeding events and potentially lower short- and long-term mortality rates. Although much less data exist for TRA PCI in unstable angina and/or non-ST elevation myocardial infarction, similar reductions in bleeding and mortality have not been consistently described. Differences in outcome benefit with TRA PCI among various ACS subtypes may be attributable to the potentially increased inherent risk of periprocedural bleeding in STEMI compared with unstable angina and/or non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. Pre- and intra-procedural factors associated with STEMI treatment, such as use of pharmacoinvasive therapy and aggressive antithrombotic regimens likely increase bleeding risk in patients. In conclusion, this review describes the evidence for TRA PCI across the spectrum of ACS and highlights why differences in clinical benefit may exist among ACS subtypes. PMID:24925803
Khan, Razi; Ly, Hung Q
The indication of coronary revascularization surgery in elderly people confronts the clinician and the surgeon with a particular question, in which quality of life is at least as important as prolonging life. Although age is not an intrinsic contraindication for surgery, a number of surgical risk factors are more frequent among elderly people, such as diabetes or pulmonary disease. These factors, together with the concomitant presence of aortic valvular stenosis or disease of the carotid or the peripheral arteries, must be taken into account before planning surgery. The new emerging techniques, such as transmyocardial laser revascularization can also be applied to this segment of the population. PMID:9717398
The evaluation of coronary lesions in patients with asymptomatic carotid plaque represents a very promising line of research to assess cardiovascular risk and the possible implementation of a more aggressive prevention therapy. Methods: In this study we enrolled 102 patients with intermediate to high cardiovascular risk but no history of coronary artery disease. The first group, consisting of 51 patients, underwent a Coronary CT scan (CCT-group) as well as carotid ultrasonography. The second group, also consisting of 51 patients, underwent coronary angiography (CA) and carotid ultrasonography. Results: The absence of a statistically significant difference between the involvement of both coronary and carotid sites, assessed by CCT and CA, confirms the role of coronary CT as a useful method in the preclinical evaluation of cardiovascular risk. In the CCT group, the correlation between atherosclerosis of carotid artery and coronary disease, as well as between the mean carotid intimal medial thickness and the number of involved coronary vessels, and between the maximum values of carotid plaque and the presence of coronary artery stenosis > 50%, were statistically significant. The Agatson calcium score was also statistically associated with carotid plaque size. Conclusion: The imaging biomarkers have a key role in the evaluation of subclinical atherosclerotic disease. Moreover, carotid ultrasound examination and a CT-scan of coronary arteries, in a particular sub-group of patients with intermediate to high cardiovascular risk, can play a crucial role to assess the preventive therapeutic strategies. PMID:25147763
Bonomo, Vito; Piraino, Davide; Bracale, Umberto Marcello; Evola, Salvatore; Di Piazza, Mariaconcetta; Vicari, Claudia; Lupo, Ambra; Inga, Giuseppe; Andolina, Giuseppe; Assennato, Pasquale; Novo, Salvatore
The subclinical modification of thyroid function represents an important risk factor for the development of acute coronary syndromes, neglected up to this day. Knowledge of the physiopathological processes implicated in the alteration of thyroid function that induces cardiovascular dysfunction is a necessity for the understanding of the phenomena and for the finding of the adequate therapeutic solutions. While recognizing the thyroid dysfunction as a modifiable risk factor for the acute coronary syndrome, we encountered a new challenge for the clinical research regarding its implications. The ability to manage the altered thyroid homeostasis may represent a new stage of prevention at a population level for the reduction of the cardiac risk, a stage which implies a risk factor that may remain clinically mute for a long period of time if left undiagnosed, however influencing the development of the acute coronary syndromes. PMID:24868251
Stamate, C S; Andronescu, A M; Nechita, A C; Delcea, C; Mihu, E M; Vintila, M M
To establish a model of coronary thrombotic microembolism in rats, either automicrothrombotic particulates (CM group) or saline control (SHAM group) was injected into temporarily clamped aortas of male Sprague-Dawley rats. After automicrothrombotic particulate injection, serum c-troponin I and von Willebrand factor levels, the no-flow area as evaluated by Thioflavin S, myocardial leukocyte infiltration levels, myocardial expressions of tumor necrosis factor ? and interleukin-6, the percentage of arterioles obstructed by thrombosis, and myocardial fibrosis were all significantly increased whereas cardiac function as evaluated by echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements were significantly reduced compared with the sham group. Thus, aortic automicrothrombotic particulate injection could induce coronary microembolism in rats, and this model could be of value in improving the understanding of pathophysiology of coronary microembolism. PMID:20651237
Gu, Ye; Bai, Yupeng; Wu, Jie; Hu, Liqun; Gao, Bo
Coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography has been increasingly used in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease due to improved spatial and temporal resolution with high diagnostic value being reported when compared to invasive coronary angiography. Diagnostic performance of coronary CT angiography has been significantly improved with the technological developments in multislice CT scanners from the early generation of 4-slice CT to the latest 320- slice CT scanners. Despite the promising diagnostic value, coronary CT angiography is still limited in some areas, such as inferior temporal resolution, motion-related artifacts and high false positive results due to severe calcification. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the technical developments of multislice CT and diagnostic value of coronary CT angiography in coronary artery disease based on different generations of multislice CT scanners. Prognostic value of coronary CT angiography in coronary artery disease is also discussed, while limitations and challenges of coronary CT angiography are highlighted. PMID:24392192
Sabarudin, Akmal; Sun, Zhonghua
Background—Prognostic risk models have had limited success in predicting coronary events in subjects with multiple risk factors. We and others have proposed an alternative approach using radiographically detectable coronary calcium. We evaluated and compared the predictive value of these 2 approaches for determining coronary event risk in asymptomatic adults with multiple coronary risk factors. In addition, we assessed the predictive
Robert C. Detrano; Nathan D. Wong; Terence M. Doherty; Robert M. Shavelle; Weiyi Tang; Leonard E. Ginzton; Matthew J. Budoff; Kenneth A. Narahara
MSCT coronary angiography is a promising technique for the non-invasive visualisation of coronary arteries. Based on the current\\u000a literature, it is expected to have a role in the diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. Its capability to visualise coronary\\u000a artery plaques will play a role in the targeting of culprit\\/vulnerable plaques.
F. Cademartiri; G. Runza; M. Belgrano; P. Malagutti; N. Mollet; P. Feyter
An abnormal increase in pulmonary thallium activity may be visualized on post-stress thallium images in patients with coronary artery disease. Because this increased pulmonary thallium activity usually disappears by the time of redistribution imaging, this study was designed to assess whether measurement of the degree of pulmonary thallium washout between stress and redistribution might improve the detection of increased pulmonary thallium activity in patients with coronary artery disease. Quantitative analysis revealed abnormal (that is, greater than 2 standard deviations of normal values) pulmonary thallium washouts in 59 (64%) of 92 patients with coronary artery disease, but in only 2 (25%) of 8 subjects with angiographically normal arteries (p less than 0.06). By comparison, the visual analysis of pulmonary thallium washout and use of initial pulmonary to myocardial thallium ratio were significantly (p less than 0.05) less sensitive in detecting abnormality in patients with coronary artery disease. Abnormal pulmonary thallium washout was related to both the anatomic extent and functional severity of disease: it occurred with greatest frequency in patients with multivessel disease and in those with exercise-induced left ventricular dysfunction (p less than 0.005). When added to the quantitative analysis of myocardial scintigraphy, the analysis of pulmonary thallium washout increased the detection of coronary artery disease from 84 to 93% (p less than 0.05), but the sample size was too small to assess specificity.
Levy, R.; Rozanski, A.; Berman, D.S.; Garcia, E.; Van Train, K.; Maddahi, J.; Swan, H.J.
Coronary angiography is the primary technique for diagnosing coronary abnormalities as it is able to locate precisely the coronary artery lesions. However, the clinical relevance of an appearing stenosis is not that easy to assess. In previous work we have analyzed the myocardial perfusion by comparing basal and hyperemic coronary flow. This comparison is the basis of a Relative Coronary Flow Reserve (RCFR) measure. In a Region-of-Interest (ROI) on the angiogram the contrast is measured as a function of time (the so-called time-density curve). The required hyperemic state of exercise is induced artificially by the injection of a vasodilator drug e.g. papaverine. In previous work we have presented the results of a small study of 20 patients. In this paper we present an analysis of the sensitivity of the method for variations in X-ray exposure between the two runs due to the Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) unit. The AEC is a system unit with the task to ensure a constant dose rate at the entrance of the detector by making the appropriate adaptations in X-ray factor settings for patients which range from slim to more obese. We have setup a phantom study to reveal the expected exposure variations. We present several of the developed phantoms together with a compensation strategy.
Storm, Corstiaan J.; Slump, Cornelis H.
Coronary artery anomalies are not frequent, nevertheless they are associated with increased and potentially lethal cardiac events. Recognition of these anomalies is fundamental in patients undergoing diagnostic or interventional coronary angiography. Most patients presenting with coronary anomalies are asymptomatic, but the risk of myocardial ischemia and sudden death requires the treatment of those patients. Different therapeutic options have been discussed, including surgery, conservative therapy, and interventional approaches. In this report, an aberrant origin of the left main coronary artery arising from the right coronary artery associated with coronary artery atherosclerosis and its surgical correction is described. PMID:17597047
Beiras-Fernandez, A; Kur, F; Kazmarek, I; Eifert, S; Oberhoffer, M; Silber, S; Reichart, B; Vicol, C
Left main coronary artery (LMCA) aneurysm is a rare coronary abnormality defined as localized coronary artery dilatations>1.5 to 2 times the diameter of the adjacent segments. The incidence of coronary artery aneurysm varies between 0.15% and 4.9%. It can be recognized by coronary angiography or multidetector computed tomography. Here, we present three cases of LMCA aneuryms, of one which firstly diagnosed by multidetected computed tomography. PMID:18053950
Ozcan, Ozlem; Canbay, Alper; Vural, Murat; Diker, Erdem; Aydogdu, Sinan
Electron-beam computed tomography (EBCT) and multislice CT (MSCT) are used for the detection and quantification of coronary\\u000a calcium, which is a good indicator of coronary atherosclerosis and total plaque burden (1–6). It is suggested that the coronary calcium score can be used to predict future coronary events in asymptomatic patients\\u000a (3–7). However, acute coronary events are initiated by rupture or
Alexander W. Leber; PLAQUE MORPHOLOGY
5-aminosalicylic acid (mesalamine) rarely induces hypersensitivity reactions. If chest pain associated with atypical electrocardiographic changes are seen during its administration, one should always bear in mind typeIvariant of Kounis syndrome. This variant includes patients, of any age, with normal coronary arteries, without predisposing factors for coronary artery disease, in whom the acute release of inflammatory mediators from mast cells can induce either sudden coronary artery narrowing, without increase of cardiac enzymes and troponins, or coronary artery spasm that progresses to acute myocardial infarction, with elevated cardiac enzymes and troponins. PMID:19084925
Kounis, George N; Kouni, Sophia A; Hahalis, George; Kounis, Nicholas G
Amlodipine (AMLO) is a calcium channel blocker with vasodilating properties, in which the specific effects on the coronary circulation are not fully known. Coronary flow velocity-pressure (F/P) curves were obtained at rest and during administration of AMLO (10 mg to 20 mg iv) or adenosine (ADO, 1 mg ic) in 10 normal subjects (six women, age 48 ± 14 years). F/P curves were reproduced in a numerical simulator of systemic and coronary circulations (CARDIOSIM(©)) by adjustment of coronary resistance ( > or < 100 ?m diameter vessels) and extravascular resistance applied to smaller vessels at endocardial (ENDO), middle and epicardial (EPI) myocardial layers. Best matching of in silico to in vivo curves was achieved by trial and error approach. ADO induced 170% and 250% increase in coronary flow velocity CFV and F/P diastolic slope as compared to 80% and 25-30% increase induced by AMLO, respectively. In the cardiovascular model, AMLO effects were predicted by progressive reduction of>100 ?m vessels resistance from EPI to ENDO. ADO effects were mimicked by reducing resistance of both>100 ?m and < 100 ?m vessels, progressively from EPI to ENDO in the latter. Additional reduction in extravascular resistance avoided to impose a transmural gradient of vasodilating effect for both drugs. Numerical simulation predicts vasodilating effects of AMLO mainly on larger arteries and of ADO on both>and < 100 ?m vessels. In vivo F/P loops could be completely reproduced in silico by adding extravascular resistance reduction for both drugs. Numerical simulator is useful tool for exploring the coronary effects of cardioactive drugs. PMID:23405966
De Lazzari, Claudio; L'Abbate, Antonio; Micalizzi, Mauro; Trivella, Maria Giovanna; Neglia, Danilo
The strongest independent risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) are increasing age and male gender. Whilst a wide variation in CAD mortality exists between countries, a male to female ratio of approximately 2:1 is consistently observed. These observations have led to the assumption that testosterone may exert a detrimental influence on the cardiovascular system. Despite this, coronary atherosclerosis increases with age, whilst a marked fall in serum bioavailable testosterone levels is observed. Similarly, low testosterone levels are also associated with other cardiovascular risk factors and increased expression of mediators of the atherosclerotic process. This in itself suggests that testosterone does not promote atheroma formation. Moreover, epidemiological studies show an inverse relationship between testosterone levels and surrogate markers of atherosclerosis, which suggests that it may be a testosterone deficient state, rather than male sex which is associated with CAD. In cholesterol-fed animal models, atherosclerosis is accelerated by castration and reduced after testosterone replacement therapy. Testosterone has also been shown to improve myocardial ischemia in men with angina pectoris. Consequently, increasing evidence suggests that the process of atherosclerosis is beneficially modulated by testosterone. These studies are the focus of this chapter. PMID:19011291
Nettleship, Joanne E; Jones, Richard D; Channer, Kevin S; Jones, T Hugh
The study of coronary artery anomalies would benefit from the clarification of various fundamental issues, including the definitions, classification, incidence, pathophysiologic mechanisms, and clinical relevance of each anomaly. The greatest challenge is to identify the abnormality and determine its clinical relevance so that appropriate treatment can be instituted. Currently, the coronary anatomy is essentially defined by the features of the (conductive) epicardial coronary tree and its dependent territory. Therefore, one must consider all the possible and observed variations in anatomic features that are used to describe the coronary arteries. We propose that the left anterior descending, circumflex, and right coronary arteries be considered the essential, elementary units of coronary anatomy. We also suggest that the coronary arteries be defined not by their origin or proximal course, but by their intermediate and distal segments or dependent microvascular bed. A strict classification system is necessary before meaningful data can be gathered about the incidence of coronary anomalies. With respect to clinical relevance, the greatest challenge is presented by anomalies that only occasionally cause critically severe clinical events and are otherwise compatible with a normal life. In such cases, it is not known whether the specific features of a given anomaly cause adverse clinical consequences, or whether additional episodic factors are required. To correlate subclassifiable anatomic and functional features with clinical events and prognoses, a large, multicenter database, relying on prospective, coordinated protocols, is urgently needed. In the absence of established official guidelines, we present practical protocols for diagnosing and treating coronary anomalies. (Tex Heart Inst J 2002;29:271–8) PMID:12484611
Background Infantile spasms (IS) is a specific type of epileptic encephalopathy associated with severe developmental disabilities. Genetic factors are strongly implicated in IS, however, the exact genetic defects remain unknown in the majority of cases. Rare mutations in a single gene or in copy number variants (CNVs) have been implicated in IS of children in Western countries. The objective of this study was to dissect the role of copy number variations in Chinese children with infantile spasms. Methods We used the Agilent Human Genome CGH microarray 180 K for genome-wide detection of CNVs. Real-time qPCR was used to validate the CNVs. We performed genomic and medical annotations for individual CNVs to determine the pathogenicity of CNVs related to IS. Results We report herein the first genome-wide CNV analysis in children with IS, detecting a total of 14 CNVs in a cohort of 47 Chinese children with IS. Four CNVs (4/47?=?8.5%) (1q21.1 gain; 1q44, 2q31.1, and 17p13 loss) are considered to be pathogenic. The CNV loss at 17p13.3 contains PAFAH1B1 (LIS1), a causative gene for lissencephaly. Although the CNVs at 1q21.1, 1q44, and 2q23.1 have been previously implicated in a wide spectrum of clinical features including autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and generalized seizure, our study is the first report identifying them in individuals with a primary diagnosis of IS. The CNV loss in the 1q44 region contains HNRNPU, a strong candidate gene recently suggested in IS by the whole exome sequencing of children with IS. The CNV loss at 2q23.1 includes MBD5, a methyl-DNA binding protein that is a causative gene of ASD and a candidate gene for epileptic encephalopathy. We also report a distinct clinical presentation of IS, microcephaly, intellectual disability, and absent hallux in a case with the 2q23.1 deletion. Conclusion Our findings strongly support the role of CNVs in infantile spasms and expand the clinical spectrum associate with 2q23.1 deletion. In particular, our study implicates the HNRNPU and MBD5 genes in Chinese children with IS. Our study also supports that the molecular mechanisms of infantile spasms appear conserved among different ethnic backgrounds. PMID:24885232
An extremely rare case of type IV dual left anterior descending coronary artery coexisting with myocardial bridging in a 50-year old Caucasian man with acute coronary syndrome is presented. Emergency cardiac catheterisation revealed no coronary atherosclerotic lesions. The potential causal relationship between the type IV dual left anterior descending coronary artery and myocardial ischaemia was discussed. We also summarised the current knowledge on the epidemiology and clinical significance of dual left anterior descending coronary artery in the adult population. PMID:20411463
Paradowski, Andrzej; Rostoff, Pawe?; Gajos, Grzegorz; Gackowski, Andrzej; Klimeczek, Piotr; Krupi?ski, Maciej; Pasowicz, Mieczys?aw; Piwowarska, Wies?awa
BackgroundThe function of the coronary collateral circulation in heart transplant patients has not been investigated in a controlled fashion. Since it partly belongs to the microcirculation, which is affected by transplant vasculopathy, the hypothesis was tested that the coronary collateral circulation in heart transplant recipients is less developed than in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients.Methods40 heart transplant patients underwent a
Tobias Rutz; Steffen Gloekler; Stefano F de Marchi; Tobias Traupe; Pascal Meier; Parham Eshtehardi; Stéphane Cook; Rolf Vogel; Paul Mohacsi; Christian Seiler
This retrospective study of the largest single center experience (100 patients) with off-pump robotically assisted coronary\\u000a procedures in the United Kingdom (April 2002–June 2008) aimed to rationalize patient selection, describe the technique, and\\u000a determine the learning curve, technical feasibility and operative outcome of robotically assisted Atraumatic Coronary Artery\\u000a Bypass (ACAB). Selected patients underwent either a robotic Totally Endoscopic Coronary Artery
Espeed Khoshbin; Shirley Martin; Rodney Foale; Ara Darzi; Roberto Casula
Objectives. We sought to identify and localize significant coronary stenoses on a segmental basis by electron-beam computed tomography (EBCT) and intravenous administration of a contrast agent.Background. The clinical applicability and limitations of intravenous EBCT coronary angiography have not been defined.Methods. EBCT was performed within 24 h of selective coronary angiography (SCA) in 28 patients (19 men and 9 women, mean
Axel Schmermund; Benno J Rensing; Patrick F Sheedy; Malcolm R Bell; John A Rumberger
Coronary artery aneurysms (CAA) were originally described in a series of post-mortem studies but are now more commonly observed during the widely used coronary angiography. This article reports on four adult patients with CAA associated with obstructive coronary atherosclerosis. Arterial and venous conduits were successfully performed in all four. The aetiology and treatment are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4
Said, S.A.M.; Sie, H.T.
Background—Endothelial vasodilator dysfunction is a characteristic feature of patients at risk for coronary atherosclerosis. Therefore, we prospectively investigated whether coronary endothelial dysfunction predicts disease progression and cardiovascular event rates. Methods and Results—Coronary vasoreactivity was assessed in 147 patients using the endothelium-dependent dilator acetylcholine, sympathetic activation by cold pressor testing, dilator responses to increased blood flow, and dilation in response to
Volker Schachinger; Martina B. Britten; Andreas M. Zeiher
Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is a well-known technique for improving the visibility and perceptibility of blood vessels in the human body. Coronary DSA extends conventional DSA to dynamic 2D fluoroscopic sequences of coronary arteries which are subject to respiratory and cardiac motion. Effective motion compensation is the main challenge for coronary DSA. Without a proper treatment, both breathing and heart motion can cause unpleasant artifacts in coronary subtraction images, jeopardizing the clinical value of coronary DSA. In this paper, we present an effective method to separate the dynamic layer of background structures from a fluoroscopic sequence of the heart, leaving a clean layer of moving coronary arteries. Our method combines the techniques of learning-based vessel detection and robust motion estimation to achieve reliable motion compensation for coronary sequences. Encouraging results have been achieved on clinically acquired coronary sequences, where the proposed method considerably improves the visibility and perceptibility of coronary arteries undergoing breathing and cardiac movement. Perceptibility improvement is significant especially for very thin vessels. The potential clinical benefit is expected in the context of obese patients and deep angulation, as well as in the reduction of contrast dose in normal size patients.
Zhu, Ying; Prummer, Simone; Chen, Terrence; Ostermeier, Martin; Comaniciu, Dorin
??Aspirin and clopidogrel are cornerstone therapies in cardiovascular disease. In particular, they are almost universally prescribed in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Evidence has… (more)
Good, Richard I.S.
1 Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Â· Coronary heart disease Â· Cerebrovascular disease Â· Peripheral arterial disease Â· Rheuma7c heart disease Â· Congenital heart disease Â· Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism Atherosclerosis CVD is caused by damage caused
Dever, Jennifer A.
Coronary heart disease is one of the most frequent causes of death in Germany. Psychosocial factors can be considered cofactors in the development of coronary heart disease. These factors also play a particularly important role in triggering acute coronary syndrome or acute myocardial infarction. Heart disease itself can result in manifest anxiety, tendencies toward denial, and depressive disorders. Especially the latter worsen the disease course and prognosis. In addition to somatic treatment, behavioral interventions to control risk factors are available as well as psychotherapy and antidepressants. The aim of this contribution is to describe the psychosomatic aspects of coronary heart disease and to delineate the principles of a holistic approach to treatment. PMID:20503032
Herrmann-Lingen, C; Meinertz, T
After a decade of rapid technological development cardiac CT has evolved into a valuable non-invasive coronary imaging technique, which raises the question whether this new diagnostic modality is ready to replace diagnostic catheter angiography. CT coronary angiography may not yet match the spatial and temporal resolution of selective X-ray angiography, it surpasses invasive angiography in terms of three-dimensional orientation, imaging of plaque and ostial abnormalities. For the moment invasive angiography combined with stress testing will remain the preferred approach in patients with a high probability of coronary disease and anticipated percutaneous intervention. However, for many patients with a low to intermediate likelihood of coronary artery disease, CT can be a reliably non-invasive alternative to catheter angiography. PMID:20542832
Traditional coronary artery bypass surgery involves a median sternotomy and the use of a heart-lung machine to stabilize the heart during suturing. Minimally invasive coronary artery surgery employs small incisions directly over the target vessels and avoids the use of a heart-lung machine, which can cause postoperative complications. The target coronary vessels are stabilized in alternative ways, potentially hazardous manipulation of the ascending aorta is avoided, and the subclavian and axillary arteries provide alternative inflow sources. Other new techniques used in minimally invasive procedures include a coronary artery cannula to avoid intraoperative ischemia and wound irrigation catheters to administer postoperative bupivacaine hydrochloride. Perioperative nurses need to become familiar with these new techniques to be able to plan and implement effective patient care. PMID:9413600
Coulson, A S; Bakhshay, S; Quarnstrom, J A; Mayer, S; Holmes, K; Villarreal, M
Cardiac computed tomography and magnetic resonance are relatively new imaging modalities that can exceed the ability of established imaging modalities to detect present pathology or predict patient outcomes. Coronary calcium scoring may be useful in asymptomatic patients at intermediate risk. Computed tomographic coronary angiography is a first-line indication to evaluate congenitally abnormal coronary arteries and, along with stress magnetic resonance myocardial perfusion imaging, is useful in symptomatic patients with nondiagnostic conventional stress tests. Cardiac magnetic resonance is indicated for visualizing cardiac structure and function, and delayed enhancement magnetic resonance is a first-line indication for assessing myocardial viability. Imaging plaque and molecular mechanisms related to plaque rupture holds great promise for the presymptomatic detection of patients at risk for coronary events but is not yet suitable for routine clinical use. PMID:19269527
Kantor, Birgit; Nagel, Eike; Schoenhagen, Paul; Barkhausen, Jorg; Gerber, Thomas C.
Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is a risk factor for adverse outcomes in the general population and in patients with coronary artery disease. The pathogenesis of CAC and bone formation share common pathways, and risk factors have been identified that contribute to the initiation and progression of CAC. Efforts to control CAC with medical therapy have not been successful. Event-free survival is also reduced in patients with coronary calcification after both percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and bypass graft surgery. Although drug-eluting stents and devices for plaque modification have modestly improved outcomes in calcified vessels, adverse event rates are still high. Innovative pharmacologic and device-based approaches are needed to improve the poor prognosis of patients with CAC. PMID:24530667
Madhavan, Mahesh V; Tarigopula, Madhusudhan; Mintz, Gary S; Maehara, Akiko; Stone, Gregg W; Généreux, Philippe
Atherosclerosis of conduit epicardial arteries is the principal culprit behind the complications of coronary heart disease, but a growing body of literature indicates that the coronary microcirculation also contributes substantially to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. An understanding of mechanisms regulating microvascular function in humans is an essential foundation for understanding the role in disease, especially since these regulatory mechanisms vary substantially across species and vascular bed. In fact all subjects whose coronary tissue was used in the studies described have medical conditions that warrant cardiac surgery, thus relevance to the normal human must be inferential and is based on tissue from subjects without known arteriosclerotic disease. This review will focus on recent advances in the physiological and pathological mechanisms of coronary microcirculatory control, describing a robust plasticity in maintaining endothelial control over dilation, including mechanisms that are most relevant to the human heart. PMID:22033434
Beyer, Andreas M.; Gutterman, David D.
The ability of exercise-induced myocardial hypoperfusion on thallium scintigraphy to predict coronary events was assessed in 1,689 patients with symptoms suggestive of coronary artery disease but without prior myocardial infarction or coronary artery bypass surgery. A total of 74 patients had a coronary event in the year after testing (12 cardiac deaths, 20 nonfatal infarctions and 42 referrals for bypass surgery more than 60 days after testing). Stepwise logistic regression identified only three independent predictors: the number of myocardial regions with reversible hypoperfusion (an index of the extent of hypoperfusion), the maximal magnitude of hypoperfusion (an index of the severity of hypoperfusion) and the achieved heart rate (an index of exercise performance). Both extent and severity were exponentially correlated with event rate (r greater than 0.97 and p less than 0.01 for each), whereas achieved heart rate was linearly correlated with event rate (r = 0.79 and p less than 0.05). On the basis of these data, a prognostic model was defined that employs extent and severity as stress-dependent orthogonal variables. Using this model, the predicted coronary event rate ranged over two orders of magnitude--from a low of 0.4% in patients able to exercise adequately without developing severe and extensive hypoperfusion at a low heart rate (less than 85% of their maximal predicted heart rate). Extent and severity of myocardial hypoperfusion, therefore, are important independent variables of prognosis in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.
Ladenheim, M.L.; Pollock, B.H.; Rozanski, A.; Berman, D.S.; Staniloff, H.M.; Forrester, J.S.; Diamond, G.A.
Membrane raft (MR)–redox signaling platforms associated with NADPH oxidase are involved in coronary endothelial dysfunction. Here, we studied whether statins interfere with the formation of MR-redox signaling platforms to protect the coronary arterial endothelium from oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL)–induced injury and from acute hypercholesterolemia. In cultured human coronary arterial endothelial cells, confocal microscopy detected the formation of an MRs clustering when they were exposed to OxLDL, and such MR platform formation was inhibited markedly by statins, including pravastatin and simvastatin. In these MR clusters, NADPH oxidase subunits gp91phox and p47phox were aggregated and were markedly blocked by both statins. In addition, colocalization of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) and ceramide was induced by OxLDL, which was blocked by statins. Electron spin resonance spectrometry showed that OxLDL-induced superoxide (O2.?) production in the MR fractions was substantially reduced by statins. In coronary artery intima of mice with acute hypercholesterolemia, confocal microscopy revealed a colocalization of gp91phox, p47phox, ASM, or ceramide in MR clusters. Such colocalization was rarely observed in the arteries of normal mice or significantly reduced by pretreatment of hypercholesterolemic mice with statins. Furthermore, O2.? production in situ was 3-fold higher in the coronary arteries from hypercholesterolemic mice than in those from normal mice, and such increase was inhibited by statins. Our results indicate that blockade of MR-redox signaling platform formation in endothelial cell membrane may be another important therapeutic mechanism of statins in preventing endothelial injury and atherosclerosis and may be associated with their direct action on membrane cholesterol structure and function. PMID:23435541
Wei, Yu-Miao; Li, Xiang; Xiong, Jing; Abais, Justine M.; Xia, Min; Boini, Krishna M.; Li, Pin-Lan
Background—Thrombosis is a pivotal event in the pathogenesis of coronary disease. We hypothesized that the presence of blood factors that reflect enhanced thrombogenic activity would be associated with an increased risk of recurrent coronary events during long-term follow-up of patients who have recovered from myocardial infarction. Methods and Results—We prospectively enrolled 1045 patients 2 months after an index myocardial infarction.
Arthur J. Moss; Robert E. Goldstein; Victor J. Marder; Charles E. Sparks; David Oakes; Henry Greenberg; Harvey J. Weiss; Wojciech Zareba; Mary W. Brown; Chang-Seng Liang; Edgar Lichstein; William C. Little; John A. Gillespie; Lucy Van Voorhees; Ronald J. Krone; Monty M. Bodenheimer; Judith Hochman; Edward M. Dwyer; Rohit Arora; Frank I. Marcus; Luc F. Miller Watelet; Robert B. Case
With the introduction of 64-slice CT and dual-source CT technology, coronary CT angiography (CCTA) has emerged as a useful\\u000a diagnostic imaging modality for the noninvasive assessment of coronary heart disease. Recently, the risks associated with\\u000a ionizing radiation on CT have raised serious concerns. The main concern of exposure to ionizing radiation is the potential\\u000a risk of cancer. CCTA involves much
Lei Xu; Zhaoqi Zhang
It is possible to decrease the rate of progression of coronary artery disease in diabetic patients by controlling all risk factors including hyperglycemia and by the prescription of statin and aspirin in high risk patients. After a coronary event, the management of the patient must be as optimal as possible in terms of pharmacological treatment and revascularization. "Ever more" is the key line in these patients. PMID:18839684
Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate acute angiographic success, in-hospital complications and long-term outcome after intracoronary stenting in patients with cardiac allograft vasculopathy.Background. The application of conventional interventional modalities to treat discrete lesions in patients with cardiac allograft vasculopathy is associated with higher procedural morbidity, mortality and higher restenosis compared to atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. Elective coronary
Suresh P Jain; Stephen R Ramee; Christopher J White; Mandeep R Mehra; Hector O Ventura; Shuyang Zhang; J. Stephen Jenkins; Tyrone J Collins
Opinion statement Microvascular coronary dysfunction (MCD) is an increasingly recognized cause of cardiac ischemia and angina that is diagnosed\\u000a more commonly in women. Patients with MCD present with the triad of persistent chest pain, ischemic changes on stress testing,\\u000a and no obstructive coronary artery disease on cardiac catheterization. Data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute–sponsored\\u000a Women’s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation
Arang Samim; Lynn Nugent; Puja K. Mehta; Chrisandra Shufelt; C. Noel Bairey Merz
The first section, with 12 chapters, deals with the detailed methods of computer analysis of images obtained from coronary vessels and the left ventricle. Basic principles of x-ray image formation are described, followed by details of the computer-based Cardiovascular Angiography Analysis system (CAAs) and the left-ventricular angioprocessing system (Contouromat), with their degree of validity. Other chapters discuss contour analysis, edge detection, densitometry, digital image processing, three-dimensional reconstruction, and the current status of structural analysis of the entire coronary tree. The second edition section contains 11 chapters, each exemplifying the application of these computer-based systems to almost the entire sphere of interventional cardiac imaging. Applications include intracoronary effects of nifedipine on coronary motility, left-ventricular function and myocardial oxygen consumption, various aspects of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (including left-ventricular wall stiffness), adjuvant thrombolysis, comparison of contour versus densitometric area measurements of coronary obstructions before and after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, and left-ventricular performance including lactate metabolism during vessel occlusion.
Reiber, J.H.C.; Serruys, P.W.; Slager, C.J.
Comparison of the predictive value of Exercise-Induced ST depression versus exercise technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission computed tomographic imaging for detection of coronary artery disease in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy
Scant knowledge exists regarding the significance of either additional ST depression in the presence of baseline depression or new stress-induced ST depression in patients with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. Accordingly, the purpose of this investigation is to determine whether the appearance and\\/or severity of ST abnormalities during exercise stress testing can accurately predict the prevalence of ischemic burden as measured
Dharmesh Patel; Timir S. Baman; George A. Beller
Introduction Metformin is licensed for treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. This report describes a patient on metformin who developed diarrhoea and symptomatic hypomagnesemia. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report on metformin-induced symptomatic hypomagnesemia. Case presentation The patient was a 57-year old Caucasian male with diabetes mellitus type 2. He had been on metformin for nine years and presented with chronic diarrhoea, spasms, paresthesias, pain, and malaise. Blood tests revealed hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, and hypokalemia. Conclusion Drugs associated with diarrhoea may induce malabsorption. If malabsorption is substantial it may result in further symptoms of clinical importance. In some cases potentially life-threatening conditions may occur. PMID:19946527
We describe a case of coronary-subclavian steal syndrome in a 77-year-old man who presented with progressive coronary ischemia 8 years after coronary artery bypass grafting with an in-situ left internal thoracic artery graft. Coronary and left subclavian artery angiogram revealed completely patent internal thoracic artery graft and 90% stenosis in the proximal left subclavian artery. We performed axilloaxillary artery bypass using expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE)[8 mm] graft. No coronary ischemia was noted postoperatively. Axillo-axillary artery bypass grafting was effective for coronary subclavian steal syndrome. PMID:23674033
Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Hirai, Hidekazu; Hosono, Mitsuharu; Bito, Yasuyuki; Nakahira, Atsushi; Suehiro, Yasuo; Kaku, Daisuke; Okada, Yuko; Suehiro, Shigefumi; Harada, Shigeru
Computed Tomography (Electron Beam Tomography: EBCT and multislice computed tomography: MSCT) have recently emerged as non-invasive diagnostic modalities that can quantify coronary calcium which is not only as indicator of coronary risk, but also permits assessment of the coronary lumen. The 16-slice MS-CT, the most recent CT-scanner has a very high resolution, which allows non-invasive assessment of coronary plaques. This has led to a stimulus for further research to assess the role of MSCT coronary plaque imaging in the identification of high-risk coronary plaques. PMID:15275633
de Feyter, Pim; Mollet, Nico; Nieman, Koen; Arampatzis, Akis; Cademartiri, Filippo; Pattynama, Peter; Serruys, Patrick
Key Clinical Message If no improvement is seen with ongoing treatment for current diagnosis, then diagnosis should be questioned. History taking and physical examination remain essential tools in care of the patient in addition to the current technological advancement. PMID:25356254
Stratemeier, Natalie; Kohli, Disha; Rastogi, Padmashri
BACKGROUND. Directional coronary atherectomy is a new technique of coronary revascularization by which atherosclerotic plaque is excised and retrieved from target lesions. With respect to the rate of restenosis and clinical outcomes, it is not known how this procedure compares with balloon angioplasty, which relies on dilation of the plaque and vessel wall. We compared the rate of restenosis after
Eric J. Topol; Ferdinand Leya; Cass A. Pinkerton; Patrick L. Whitlow; Berthold Hofling; Charles A. Simonton; Ronald R. Masden; Patrick W. Serruys; Martin B. Leon; David O. Williams; Spencer B. King; B. Daniel; D. B. Mark; J. M. Isner; D. R. Holmes; S. G. Ellis; K. L. Lee; G. P. Keeler; L. G. Berdan; T. Hinohara; R. M. Califf
Cineangiograms of 138 patients who underwent percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) were analyzed with a computer-based coronary angiography analysis system. The results before and after dilatation are presented. In a first study group (120 patients), the severity of the obstructive lesions derived from the automatically detected contours was evaluated in absolute terms and in percent-diameter reduction. In a second group
Patrick W. Serruys; Johan H. C. Reiber; William Wijns; Brand van den M. J. B. M; Cornelis J. Kooijman; Katen ten H. J; Paul G. Hugenholtz
Objective This study evaluated the manner in which coronary dominance affects in-hospital outcomes of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Background Previous studies have shown that left dominant coronary anatomies are associated with worse prognoses in patients with coronary artery disease. Methods Data were analyzed from 4873 ACS patients undergoing PCI between September 2008 and April 2013 at 14 hospitals participating in the Japanese Cardiovascular Database Registry. The patients were grouped based on diagnostic coronary angiograms performed prior to PCI; those with right- or co-dominant anatomy (RD group) and those with left-dominant anatomy (LD group). Results The average patient age was 67.6±11.8 years and both patient groups had similar ages, coronary risk factors, comorbidities, and prior histories. The numbers of patients presenting with symptoms of heart failure, cardiogenic shock, or cardiopulmonary arrest were significantly higher in the LD group than in the RD group (heart failure: 650 RD patients [14.7%] vs. 87 LD patients [18.8%], P?=?0.025; cardiogenic shock: 322 RD patients [7.3%] vs. 48 LD patients [10.3%], P?=?0.021; and cardiopulmonary arrest: 197 RD patients [4.5%] vs. 36 LD patients [7.8%], P?=?0.003). In-hospital mortality was significantly higher among LD patients than among RD patients (182 RD patients [4.1%] vs. 36 LD patients [7.8%], P?=?0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that LD anatomy was an independent predictor for in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 1.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–2.89; P?=?0.030). Conclusion Among ACS patients who underwent PCI, LD patients had significantly worse in-hospital outcomes compared with RD patients, and LD anatomy was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality. PMID:23991136
Kuno, Toshiki; Numasawa, Yohei; Miyata, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Sueyoshi, Koichiro; Ohki, Takahiro; Negishi, Koji; Kawamura, Akio; Kohsaka, Shun; Fukuda, Keiichi