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Sample records for coronary spasm induced

  1. Adenosine induced coronary spasm A rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Arora, P.; Bhatia, V.; Arora, M.; Kaul, U.

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine is commonly used as a pharmacological agent in myocardial perfusion imaging, as an antiarrhythmic agent, and in Cath Lab. during PCI for treating no reflow phenomenon. Coronary spasm has been reported following adenosine injection during stress imaging. We report a rare complication with ST segment elevation, following adenosine injection, given for treatment of supraventricular tachycardia. PMID:24581102

  2. Induced coronary spasm without electrocardiographic signs or symptoms of myocardial ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Cipriano, P.R.

    1983-03-01

    Angiographic studies have shown that coronary artery spasm can be induced with ergonovine maleate. Coronary artery spasm induced by ergonovine maleate in these studies was nearly always accompanied by chest pain and electrocardiographic changes of myocardial ischemia. This report demonstrates that coronary artery spasm induced by ergonovine maleate may be diagnosed by angiography in the absence of these signs or symptoms.

  3. A case of coronary microvascular spasm with slow flow induced by the intracoronary acetylcholine provocation test.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Yasuhiro; Yoneyama, Kihei; Izumo, Masaki; Kongoji, Ken; Harada, Tomoo; Akashi, Yoshihiro J

    2015-10-01

    Microvascular angina is a rare condition in which myocardial ischemia is caused by microvascular dysfunction without any abnormalities of the epicardial coronary arteries. In clinical practice, it is difficult to diagnose because the microvascular alterations cannot be detected by conventional angiography. Herein we present a rare case of a 67-year-old woman with unstable angina pectoris in whom considerably slow coronary flow was induced by the acetylcholine provocation test with mild epicardial arterial spasm, suggesting the presence of microvascular spasm. Moreover, we show that ?-methyl-p-[(123)I]-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic ((123)I-BMIPP) single-photon emission computed tomography imaging is useful for proving myocardial ischemia. PMID:25403747

  4. Resistant spontaneous coronary artery spasm.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Kudret; ?ahin, Alparslan; Y?ld?z, Sleyman Sezai; Aksan, Gkhan

    2015-10-01

    Coronary artery spasm should always be suspected in patients who have myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries. This case report presents a 33-year-old woman with anterior myocardial infarction, whose coronary angiograph revealed normal left anterior descending artery and new onset complete occlusion of the circumflex artery at the time of the procedure. Nitroglycerin up to 800 mcg was administered without success. In such resistant cases, when all efforts fail, including prompt recognition and application of vasodilator drugs, retracting the catheter and waiting may play a role. PMID:26536989

  5. Angiographic Characteristics of Catheter-Induced Spasm of the Left Main Coronary Artery.

    PubMed

    Ilia, Reuben; Shimony, Avi; Cafri, Carlos; Weinstein, Jean Marc

    2016-02-15

    Spasm of the left main coronary artery (LM) is considered to be rare. We investigated the angiographic characteristics of the LM in patients with combined LM and disease involving additional vessels, who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and underwent repeat coronary angiography within 5years of the CABG, to examine the apparent frequency of spasm of the LM on initial angiography and its possible predictors. A retrospective analysis was performed of patients who underwent coronary angiography in our institute, who were found to have significant LM stenosis and disease involving additional vessels, underwent CABG and repeat coronary angiography within 5years of the CABG. Data on angiographic characteristics of the LM on the initial angiogram were investigated. Of 84 patients, 17 (20%) were found to have a normal LM on repeat angiography (group A), and 67 (80%) demonstrated significant stenosis (group B). The degree of LM stenosis was milder in the initial angiogram in group A than in group B (64 15% vs 72 14%, p= 0.047). Most patients in group A demonstrated tubular LM stenosis at initial catheterization in comparison to group B (71% vs 18%). Using multivariate analysis, the only predictor for a normal LM at repeat catheterization was found to be tubular stenosis at initial catheterization (odds ratio 123, 95% confidence interval 4.0 to 3696). In conclusion, LM coronary spasm is a common finding, particularly in those with the appearance of tubular stenosis, and it should be excluded even in patients with additional coronary disease in certain instances to prevent unnecessary CABG. PMID:26721654

  6. Comparison of electrocardiography and thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy for the detection of ergonovine-induced coronary artery spasm: angiographic correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Shanes, J.G.; Pavel, D.; Blend, M.; Olea, E.; Krone, R.; Lacny, K.; Marmulstein, M.; Malik, R.; Meyer, C.; Kondos, G.T.

    1987-03-01

    This study was performed to determine the sensitivity of thallium imaging vs ECG monitoring for detecting coronary artery spasm noninvasively following intravenous ergonovine administration as compared to simultaneous coronary angiography. Thirty-two patients with insignificant coronary artery disease and chest pain underwent 12-lead ECG monitoring, thallium imaging, and coronary arteriography following the administration of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mg of ergonovine given 5 minutes apart or until chest pain occurred. One minute following the last dose of ergonovine, 2.5 mCi of thallium-201 was injected intravenously, and a final ECG was recorded and repeat coronary arteriography performed. Within 10 minutes following the injection of thallium, imaging was performed in the 40-degree and 70-degree left anterior oblique and anterior projections. The ECG, thallium study, and coronary arteriogram were read blindly and results were compared. The ECG, angiogram, and thallium study were read as positive if the following occurred, respectively: greater than or equal to 1 mm ST segment elevation, depression, or T wave reversal; greater than 50% vessel narrowing,; and reversible perfusion defect. Five patients were excluded from analysis because of either catheter-induced spasm, suboptimal thallium studies, or protocol violations. Of the 27 patients included for analysis, six had chest pain, five had a positive angiogram, five had a positive thallium study, and one had a positive ECG. The sensitivity of thallium vs ECG monitoring was 80% vs 25%, and the accuracy was 92% vs 80%. We conclude that thallium imaging greatly increases the noninvasive detection of ergonovine-induced coronary spasm as compared with the ECG with no loss of accuracy.

  7. Coronary artery spasm

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to use during an episode of chest pain. Beta-blockers are another type of medicine that is used with other coronary artery problems. However, beta-blockers may make this condition worse, and may be ...

  8. Coronary spasm after an adenosine stress test: an adverse effect of a vasodilator.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Thierry; Perdrisot, Remy

    2008-06-01

    The occurrence of a coronary spasm after an adenosine stress test is an exceptional event. We report a vasospasm in a patient with normal coronary angiography. The spasm occurred shortly after termination of adenosine infusion on abrupt withdrawal of vasodilation. Ischaemia induced ventricular arrhythmia (bursts of polymorphous tachycardia) that responded well to antispastic therapy. The main identified predisposing factor for coronary spasm was vasospastic angina and adenosine acted as a revealing factor of this unsuspected diagnosis. PMID:18664034

  9. Coronary Artery Spasm: Review and Update

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ming-Jui; Hu, Patrick; Hung, Ming-Yow

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery spasm (CAS), an intense vasoconstriction of coronary arteries that causes total or subtotal vessel occlusion, plays an important role in myocardial ischemic syndromes including stable and unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death. Coronary angiography and provocative testing usually is required to establish a definitive diagnosis. While the mechanisms underlying the development of CAS are still poorly understood, CAS appears to be a multifactorial disease but is not associated with the traditional risk factors for coronary artery disease. The diagnosis of CAS has important therapeutic implications, as calcium antagonists, not ?-blockers, are the cornerstone of medical treatment. The prognosis is generally considered benign; however, recurrent episodes of angina are frequently observed. We provide a review of the literature and summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of CAS. PMID:25249785

  10. Safety and optimal protocol of provocation test for diagnosis of multivessel coronary spasm.

    PubMed

    Sueda, Shozo; Miyoshi, Toru; Sasaki, Yasuhiro; Sakaue, Tomoki; Habara, Hirokazu; Kohno, Hiroaki

    2016-02-01

    We examined the safety of acetylcholine (ACh) and ergonovine (ER) tests retrospectively and investigated the optimal protocol of provocation test for diagnosis of multivessel coronary spasm. We performed 1546 ACh tests and 1114 ER tests during 23years. ACh was injected in incremental doses of 20/50/80?g into the right coronary artery (RCA) and of 20/50/100/200?g into the left coronary artery (LCA) over 20s. ER was administered in total doses of 40?g into the RCA and of 64?g into the LCA over 2-4min. When a coronary spasm was induced and did not resolve spontaneously within 3min after the completion of ACh/ER injection, or when hemodynamic instability due to coronary spasms occurred, 2.5-5.0mg of nitrate was administered into the responsible vessel. To relive provoked spasm, it is necessary to administer nitrate in 31 cases by ACh and in 76 cases by ER (2.0 vs. 6.8%, p<0.01) before another vessel attempts. Multivessel spasms were often observed in LCA testing than in RCA testing on both agents [ACh: 78.6% (11/14) vs. 11.8% (2/17), p<0.001, ER: 37.8% (14/37) vs. 20.5% (8/39), ns]. Even after the administration of nitrates, positive coronary spasm was obtained in 21.1% by ACh and 52.9% by ER tests on another coronary artery. No irreversible complications were recognized on both tests. We should firstly perform spasm provocation tests in the LCA and we may be able to diagnose another vessel spasm by performing the complete spasm provocation tests after the administration of nitrates to relieve provoked spasm in the first attempt. PMID:25366987

  11. Spasm in Arterial Grafts in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery.

    PubMed

    He, Guo-Wei; Taggart, David P

    2016-03-01

    Spasm of arterial grafts in coronary artery bypass graftingsurgery is still a clinical problem, and refractory spasm can occasionally be lethal. Perioperative spasm inbypass grafts and coronary arteries has been reported in 0.43% of all coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, but this may be an underestimate. Spasm can develop notonly in the internal mammary artery but more frequently in the right gastroepiploic and radial artery. The mechanism of spasm can involve many pathways, particularly those involving regulation of the intracellular calcium concentration. Endothelial dysfunction also plays a role in spasm. Depending on the clinical scenario, the possibility of spasm during and after coronary artery bypass grafting should be confirmed by angiography. Ifpresent, immediate intraluminal injection of vasodilators is often effective, although other procedures such as an intraaortic balloon pump or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation may also become necessary to salvage the patient. Prevention of spasm involves many considerations, and the principles are discussed in this review article. PMID:26588865

  12. Prevalence of coronary artery spasm during dobutamine stress echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Mansencal, Nicolas; El Hajjaji, Imane; El Mahmoud, Rami; Digne, Franck; Dubourg, Olivier

    2012-03-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of coronary artery spasm during dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). Over a 9-year period (from November 2001 to October 2010) we reviewed all patients (n = 2,224) referred for DSE. Criteria for selection included patients > 18 years old who underwent DSE. We systematically analyzed all electrocardiograms obtained during DSE to detect ST-segment elevation during the examination. All patients with ST-segment elevation underwent coronary angiography. DSE was performed in 2,179 patients. ST-segment elevation was observed in 21 patients, all of whom underwent emergency coronary angiography. In 13 of these 21 patients (62%) significant coronary stenosis was observed: 6 patients with critical coronary stenosis and 7 patients with chronic coronary occlusion. The remaining 8 patients (38% of patients presenting with ST-segment elevation during DSE, 7 men, mean age 67 11 years) had no significant coronary stenosis. Prevalence of coronary artery spasm during DSE was 0.4%. In conclusion, physicians should be aware that, although rare, coronary artery spasm may occur during DSE. PMID:22189013

  13. Coronary spasm in neurosurgical patients and role of trigeminocardiac reflex.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Tumul; Meuwly, Cyrill; Sandu, Nora; Cappellani, Ronald B; Schaller, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Background. Coronary artery spasm (CAS) is a rarely reported complication in neurosurgical patients and its main causative mechanism was attributed to vagal mediated responses. However, these may be the unusual manifestations of trigeminal cardiac reflex (TCR) which is a well established brain stem reflex observed in various neurosurgical patients. Methods and Results. In this review, we have searched for the case reports/papers related to intraoperative coronary spasm in neurosurgical patients and described the role of TCR in this regard. TCR is a possible mechanism in producing CAS in most of the cases in which stimulation occurred at or near the vicinity of trigeminal nerve. It is likely that TCR mediated coronary spasm may be a physiological mechanism and not related to actual myocardial insult apparent by cardiac enzymes or echocardiography studies in most of the cases. Some common risk factors may also exist related to occurrence of CAS as well as TCR. Conclusions. In conclusion, neurosurgical procedures occurring at the vicinity of trigeminal nerve may produce CAS even in previously healthy patients and may produce catastrophic consequences. There is a need for future reports and experimental studies on the interaction of TCR and pathophysiological mechanisms related to CAS. PMID:24587903

  14. Coronary Spasm in Neurosurgical Patients and Role of Trigeminocardiac Reflex

    PubMed Central

    Sandu, Nora; Cappellani, Ronald B.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Coronary artery spasm (CAS) is a rarely reported complication in neurosurgical patients and its main causative mechanism was attributed to vagal mediated responses. However, these may be the unusual manifestations of trigeminal cardiac reflex (TCR) which is a well established brain stem reflex observed in various neurosurgical patients. Methods and Results. In this review, we have searched for the case reports/papers related to intraoperative coronary spasm in neurosurgical patients and described the role of TCR in this regard. TCR is a possible mechanism in producing CAS in most of the cases in which stimulation occurred at or near the vicinity of trigeminal nerve. It is likely that TCR mediated coronary spasm may be a physiological mechanism and not related to actual myocardial insult apparent by cardiac enzymes or echocardiography studies in most of the cases. Some common risk factors may also exist related to occurrence of CAS as well as TCR. Conclusions. In conclusion, neurosurgical procedures occurring at the vicinity of trigeminal nerve may produce CAS even in previously healthy patients and may produce catastrophic consequences. There is a need for future reports and experimental studies on the interaction of TCR and pathophysiological mechanisms related to CAS. PMID:24587903

  15. Ventricular tachycardia complicating head-up tilt test: the role of coronary artery spasm.

    PubMed

    Yiu, Kai-Hang; Tse, Hung-Fat; Lau, Chu-Pak

    2011-12-01

    Head-up tilt test (HUT) is frequently used for diagnosis of neurocardiogenic syncope. It mimics orthostatic stress resulting in venous pooling, central hypovolemia with compensated left ventricular hypercontraction, and sympathetic stimulation. Although generally considered to be a safe procedure, we hereby present a rare complication of HUT in a 50-year-old woman with isoproterenol infusion inducing coronary spasm that resulted in ventricular tachycardia. PMID:20636319

  16. Complete rupture of the anterolateral papillary muscle caused by coronary spasm.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Masataka; Fukui, Toshihiro; Mahara, Keitaro; Takanashi, Shuichiro

    2015-12-01

    Papillary muscle rupture usually occurs as a catastrophic complication of acute myocardial infarction in patients with coronary artery stenosis; it is therefore less common in patients without coronary artery stenosis. We report the case of a 67-year old woman without coronary artery stenosis who suffered an acute anterolateral papillary muscle rupture and was successfully treated with mitral valve replacement. Evidence of coronary spasm was found on a coronary vasomotion test, suggesting that a high sensitivity to coronary spasm may explain a mechanism of isolated papillary muscle infarction. PMID:26330339

  17. An Extraordinary Case Associated with an Allergic Reaction to Clopidogrel: Coronary Artery Spasm or Kounis Syndrome?

    PubMed

    Liping, Zhang; Bin, Hui; Qiming, Feng

    2015-11-01

    Kounis syndrome is the concurrence of acute coronary syndrome with allergic reactions, such as anaphylaxis or anaphylactoid reactions. Here, we describe a unique case: CASs (coronary artery spasms) with both non-hypersensitivity and hypersensitivity aetiology (associated with clopidogrel hypersensitivity) were observed in a 61 year-old patient. Herein, the mechanism and clinical implications of this association are discussed. PMID:26138623

  18. Stimulus-induced reflex epileptic spasms in 5p- syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Kentaro; Saito, Yoshiaki; Yokoyama, Atushi; Nishimura, Yoko; Tamasaki, Akiko; Maegaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-02-01

    Here we describe two patients with 5p- syndrome who suffered from epilepsy characterised by stimulus-induced epileptic spasms manifesting as head nodding. In patient 1, a series of spasms were exclusively triggered by eating, and were associated with diffuse high-voltage slow waves on ictal EEG, particularly presenting as a positive slow potential at the left mid-temporal area. Clusters of sharp waves with negative polarity emerged in the same area during the inter-spasm periods during eating. In patient 2, spasms were provoked by either eating or micturition. Ictal EEG of clustered spasms after micturition showed positive slow or triphasic waves, which correlated with each spasm, over the bifrontal and vertex areas. These findings suggest that the focal cortical areas act as trigger regions in reflex epilepsies, and that a spasm-generator responsible for the execution of reflex spasms exists either in other cortical areas or in the subcortical structures. Although epilepsy is an unusual complication of 5p- syndrome, this syndrome may have a propensity to develop reflex epilepsy, particularly epileptic spasms. However, identification of responsible genes and their roles in this phenotype requires further investigations. PMID:26298410

  19. Worsening of coronary spasm during the perioperative period: A case report.

    PubMed

    Teragawa, Hiroki; Nishioka, Kenji; Fujii, Yuichi; Idei, Naomi; Hata, Takaki; Kurushima, Shuji; Shokawa, Tomoki; Kihara, Yasuki

    2014-07-26

    We present the case of a 65-year-old male with vasospastic angina (VSA) whose condition worsened during the perioperative period. He had been diagnosed with VSA 10 years prior. He was treated with two types of vasodilators and had not experienced any chest symptoms for 5 years. At this juncture, he underwent surgery for relapsed maxillary sublingual carcinoma. He had taken two vasodilators one day prior to surgery. Intravenous infusion of nitroglycerin (NTG) was initiated immediately before the surgery and continued the following day. Instead of stopping NTG, a dermal isosorbide dinitrate tape was applied on post-operative day 1. Two days later, a complete atrioventricular block with pulseless electrical activity appeared. After cardiopulmonary resuscitation, emergent coronary angiography showed severe coronary spasm in both the left and right coronary arteries. Intracoronary infusion of nitroglycerin and epinephrine with percutaneous cardiopulmonary support relieved the coronary spasm. During the perioperative period, several factors can trigger coronary vasospasm, including the discontinuation of vasodilators. Thus, surgeons, anesthetists, and cardiologists should watch for coronary vasospasm during this period and for worsening coronary spasm when discontinuing vasodilators in patients at risk for VSA. PMID:25068030

  20. Mechanisms underlying capsaicin effects in canine coronary artery: implications for coronary spasm

    PubMed Central

    Hiett, S. Christopher; Owen, Meredith K.; Li, Wennan; Chen, Xingjuan; Riley, Ashley; Noblet, Jillian; Flores, Sarah; Sturek, Michael; Tune, Johnathan D.; Obukhov, Alexander G.

    2014-01-01

    Aims The TRPV1, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1, agonist capsaicin is considered to be beneficial for cardiovascular health because it dilates coronary arteries through an endothelial-dependent mechanism and may slow atheroma progression. However, recent reports indicate that high doses of capsaicin may constrict coronary arterioles and even provoke myocardial infarction. Thus far, the mechanisms by which TRPV1 activation modulates coronary vascular tone remain poorly understood. This investigation examined whether there is a synergistic interplay between locally acting vasoconstrictive pro-inflammatory hormones (autacoids) and capsaicin effects in the coronary circulation. Methods and results Experiments were performed in canine conduit coronary artery rings and isolated smooth muscle cells (CASMCs). Isometric tension measurements revealed that 110 ?M capsaicin alone did not affect resting tension of coronary artery rings. In contrast, in endothelium-intact rings pre-contracted with a Gq/11-coupled FP/TP (prostaglandin F/thromboxane) receptor agonist, prostaglandin F2? (PGF2?; 10 ?M), capsaicin first induced transient dilation that was followed by sustained contraction. In endothelium-denuded rings pre-contracted with PGF2? or thromboxane analogue U46619 (1 ?M, a TP receptor agonist), capsaicin induced only sustained contraction. Blockers of the TP receptor or TRPV1 significantly inhibited capsaicin effects, but these were still observed in the presence of 50 ?M nifedipine and 70 mM KCl. Capsaicin also potentiated 20 mM KCl-induced contractions. Fluorescence imaging experiments in CASMCs revealed that the Gq/11-phospholipase C (PLC)-protein kinase C (PKC) and Ca2+-PLC-PKC pathways are likely involved in sensitizing CASMC TRPV1 channels. Conclusion Capsaicin alone does not cause contractions in conduit canine coronary artery; however, pre-treatment with pro-inflammatory prostaglandinthromboxane agonists may unmask capsaicin's vasoconstrictive potential. PMID:24935430

  1. Coronary spasm after completion of adenosine pharmacologic stress test.

    PubMed

    Han, Ping-Ping; Tian, Yue-Qin; Wei, Hong-Xing; Wang, Qi; He, Zuo-Xiang

    2011-10-01

    Adenosine is a frequently used pharmacologic stress agent in myocardial perfusion imaging. Its safety profile is well established, and most of its side effects are mild and transient. Coronary vasospasm occurs occasionally during or after adenosine stress test in rare cases, which may lead to seriously adverse outcomes. This study reported 3 such cases after completion of adenosine pharmacologic stress test. PMID:21573869

  2. Coronary spasm after the topical use of cocaine in nasal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lenders, Guy D.; Jorens, Philippe G.; De Meyer, Tim; Vandendriessche, Tom; Verbrugghe, Walter; Vrints, Christiaan J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background: Cocaine is a frequently used recreational drug which imposes important health problems with even life-threatening cardiotoxicity. The therapeutic use of cocaine is nowadays restricted to topical anesthesia in ophthalmological and nasal surgery but the possible hazards of this local anesthesia are not always fully appreciated. Case Report: A 51-year old male patient with moderate cardiovascular risk profile underwent elective nasal surgery and cocaine was used as a local anesthetic. During surgery, ventricular arrhythmias and cardiogenic shock occurred, mimicking an ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in sinus rhythm. Coronary angiography showed diffuse spasm of the right coronary artery (RCA) which disappeared with intracoronary nitrates. Urine analysis was positive for cocaine. The patient recovered completely with a normal echocardiography and ECG at discharge. Conclusions: Cocaine cardiotoxicity is not uncommon in the community but a particular situation arises when used in medicine as a topical anesthetic. This is the first case report, to our knowledge, of a cardiogenic shock mimicking a STEMI with documentation of diffuse coronary spasm after cocaine use in nasal surgery. One must be aware of the potential life-threatening complications in this low-risk surgery, moreover when safer alternatives are available. PMID:23569569

  3. Case of angina pectoris at rest and during effort due to coronary spasm and myocardial bridging.

    PubMed

    Teragawa, Hiroki; Fujii, Yuichi; Ueda, Tomohiro; Murata, Daiki; Nomura, Shuichi

    2015-06-26

    We present a case of a 71-year-old male who had chest symptoms at rest and during effort. He had felt chest oppression during effort for 1 year, and his chest symptoms had recently worsened. One month before admission he felt chest squeezing at rest in the early morning. He presented at our institution to evaluate his chest symptoms. Electrocardiography and echocardiography failed to show any specific changes. Because of the possibility that his chest symptoms were due to myocardial ischemia, he was admitted to our institution for coronary angiography (CAG). An initial CAG showed mild atherosclerotic changes in the proximal segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and mid-segment of the left circumflex coronary artery. Subsequent spasm provocation testing using acetylcholine revealed a bilateral coronary vasospasm, which was relieved after the intracoronary infusion of nitroglycerin. Finally, a CAG showed myocardial bridging (MB) of the mid-distal segments of the LAD. Fractional flow reserve using the intravenous administration of adenosine triphosphate was positive at 0.77, which jumped up to 0.90 through the myocardial bridging segments when the pressure wire was pulled back. Thus, coronary vasospasm and MB might have contributed to his chest symptoms at rest and during effort. Interventional cardiologists should consider the presence of MB as a potential cause of myocardial ischemia. PMID:26131343

  4. Case of angina pectoris at rest and during effort due to coronary spasm and myocardial bridging

    PubMed Central

    Teragawa, Hiroki; Fujii, Yuichi; Ueda, Tomohiro; Murata, Daiki; Nomura, Shuichi

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a 71-year-old male who had chest symptoms at rest and during effort. He had felt chest oppression during effort for 1 year, and his chest symptoms had recently worsened. One month before admission he felt chest squeezing at rest in the early morning. He presented at our institution to evaluate his chest symptoms. Electrocardiography and echocardiography failed to show any specific changes. Because of the possibility that his chest symptoms were due to myocardial ischemia, he was admitted to our institution for coronary angiography (CAG). An initial CAG showed mild atherosclerotic changes in the proximal segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and mid-segment of the left circumflex coronary artery. Subsequent spasm provocation testing using acetylcholine revealed a bilateral coronary vasospasm, which was relieved after the intracoronary infusion of nitroglycerin. Finally, a CAG showed myocardial bridging (MB) of the mid-distal segments of the LAD. Fractional flow reserve using the intravenous administration of adenosine triphosphate was positive at 0.77, which jumped up to 0.90 through the myocardial bridging segments when the pressure wire was pulled back. Thus, coronary vasospasm and MB might have contributed to his chest symptoms at rest and during effort. Interventional cardiologists should consider the presence of MB as a potential cause of myocardial ischemia. PMID:26131343

  5. Enhanced p122RhoGAP/DLC-1 Expression Can Be a Cause of Coronary Spasm

    PubMed Central

    Kinjo, Takahiko; Tanaka, Makoto; Osanai, Tomohiro; Shibutani, Shuji; Narita, Ikuyo; Tanno, Tomohiro; Nishizaki, Kimitaka; Ichikawa, Hiroaki; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Ishida, Yuji; Yokota, Takashi; Shimada, Michiko; Homma, Yoshimi; Tomita, Hirofumi; Okumura, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Background We previously showed that phospholipase C (PLC)-δ1 activity was enhanced by 3-fold in patients with coronary spastic angina (CSA). We also reported that p122Rho GTPase-activating protein/deleted in liver cancer-1 (p122RhoGAP/DLC-1) protein, which was discovered as a PLC-δ1 stimulator, was upregulated in CSA patients. We tested the hypothesis that p122RhoGAP/DLC-1 overexpression causes coronary spasm. Methods and Results We generated transgenic (TG) mice with vascular smooth muscle (VSM)-specific overexpression of p122RhoGAP/DLC-1. The gene and protein expressions of p122RhoGAP/DLC-1 were markedly increased in the aorta of homozygous TG mice. Stronger staining with anti-p122RhoGAP/DLC-1 in the coronary artery was found in TG than in WT mice. PLC activities in the plasma membrane fraction and the whole cell were enhanced by 1.43 and 2.38 times, respectively, in cultured aortic vascular smooth muscle cells from homozygous TG compared with those from WT mice. Immediately after ergometrine injection, ST-segment elevation was observed in 1 of 7 WT (14%), 6 of 7 heterozygous TG (84%), and 7 of 7 homozygous TG mice (100%) (p<0.05, WT versus TGs). In the isolated Langendorff hearts, coronary perfusion pressure was increased after ergometrine in TG, but not in WT mice, despite of the similar response to prostaglandin F2α between TG and WT mice (n = 5). Focal narrowing of the coronary artery after ergometrine was documented only in TG mice. Conclusions VSM-specific overexpression of p122RhoGAP/DLC-1 enhanced coronary vasomotility after ergometrine injection in mice, which is relevant to human CSA. PMID:26624289

  6. Laser irradiation reduces vasoreactivity of coronary artery: implication for prevention of coronary spasm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaru, Takanobu; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Miwa, Atsuko; Fujimori, Yoshiharu; Uchida, Yasumi

    1993-06-01

    Vasoreactivity of laser-treated coronary artery was investigated in canine left circumflex coronary artery (LCx). Excimer laser (XeCl 308 nm, 50 mJ/mm2), holmium YAG laser (2.1 micrometers , 150 mJ/pulse), or argon laser (488 nm, 3 W), were used through a single optical fiber. Two 3-mm long segments were obtained from the treated segments and controls in Krebs-bicarbonate buffer. Contraction of LCx was induced with KCl at 30 mM or 3,4 DAP and expressed as developed tension (gram; g). Eighteen dogs were used. Reduction of vasocontactility was observed in excimer treated vessels (0.17 +/- 0.24 g with KCl and 0.34 +/- 0.55 g with 3,4 DAP vs 2.13 +/- 0.85 with KCl and 3.1 +/- 1.9 with 3,4 DAP in control, P < 0.001 respectively), holmium YAG treated vessels (0.43 +/- 0.48 g with KCl and 0.46 +/- 0.24 with 3,4 DAP vs 2.42 +/- 0.49 g with KCl and 3.2 +/- 0.46 with 3,4 DAP in control, P < 0.001 respectively) and argon treated vessels (0.48 +/- 0.79 g vs 4.4 +/- 0.88 in control, P < 0.001). Either pulsed or argon laser irradiation results in loss of vasoreactivity to either constrictive or relaxation agent.

  7. Value of noninvasive assessment of patients with atypical chest pain and suspected coronary spasm using ergonovine infusion and thallium-201 scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    DiCarlo, L.A. Jr.; Botvinick, E.H.; Canhasi, B.S.; Schwartz, A.S.; Chatterjee, K.

    1984-10-01

    Twenty-six patients with known benign coronary anatomic characteristics and atypical chest pain syndromes were evaluated for the possibility of coronary spasm. Incremental intravenous ergonovine maleate infusions were administered, and thallium-201 scintigraphy was performed at the peak dosage and during recovery in the coronary care unit. With ergonovine therapy, 4 patients (16%) had chest pain associated with electrocardiographic (ECG) or scintigraphic changes. Nine patients (35%) had chest pain without associated ECG or scintigraphic changes, and 13 patients did not have chest pain in response to ergonovine administration, although 2 (8%) had ergonovine-induced scintigraphic defects. All 4 patients with ergonovine-induced chest pain and associated ECG or scintigraphic abnormalities had resolution or reduction of chest pain after medical treatment. However, 7 of the 9 patients with ergonovine-induced chest pain in the absence of ECG or scintigraphic abnormalities continued to have symptoms despite medical treatment a mean of 18 months later. In this limited study of a select group, bedside ergonovine provocation appeared safe. Many patients had chest pain, but few showed ECG or scintigraphic evidence of ischemia. Perfusion scintigraphy appears to have potential complementary value for the identification of an ischemic cardiac cause of atypical chest pain and provides a rationale for appropriate therapy.

  8. Spasm provocation tests performed under medical therapy: a new approach for treating patients with refractory coronary spastic angina on emergency admission.

    PubMed

    Sueda, Shozo; Kohno, Hiroaki; Miyoshi, Toru; Sasaki, Yasuhiro; Sakaue, Tomoki; Habara, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Objective There are no objective methods for evaluating the severity of vasospasms in patients with refractory coronary spastic angina (R-CSA) under adequate medical therapy. We examined whether spasm provocation tests performed under adequate medication are useful for evaluating the severity of disease in R-CSA patients on emergency admission. Methods and Results We performed spasm provocation tests before and after the administration of medical therapy in eight R-CSA patients, including one ventricular fibrillation survivor (VF-S) and seven patients with unstable angina (UAP) on emergency readmission. We also performed these tests only after medical therapy on urgent admission in four R-CSA patients, including two patients with UAP, one patient with VF-S and one patient with acute coronary syndrome. All 12 R-CSA patients had been medicated with ? 2 vasodilator drugs. Positive coronary spasms were defined as >99% transient narrowing. The coronary artery spasms disappeared in three patients under medication, and mitigation of vasospasticity was observed in three patients. In these six cases we continued the same medications. Meanwhile in two patients, we recommended a consultation for psychosomatic medicine. In contrast, the remaining six R-CSA patients exhibited higher levels of vasospasticity, irrespective of the administration of aggressive medical therapy, in which the doses of vasoactive drugs were increased in order to suppress coronary artery spasms. Conclusion In some R-CSA patients on emergency admission, performing spasm provocation tests under medical therapy is useful for determining the subsequent treatment strategy. Therefore, this test may become a new tool in the treatment of R-CSA. PMID:25130103

  9. Maximal acetylcholine dose of 200?g into the left coronary artery as a spasm provocation test: comparison with 100?g of acetylcholine.

    PubMed

    Sueda, Shozo; Kohno, Hiroaki; Miyoshi, Toru; Sakaue, Tomoki; Sasaki, Yasuhiro; Habara, Hirokazu

    2015-11-01

    As a spasm provocation test of acetylcholine (ACH), incremental dose up (20/50/100?g) into the left coronary artery (LCA) is recommended in the guidelines established by Japanese Circulation Society. Recently, Ong et al. reported the ACOVA study which maximal ACH dose was 200?g in the LCA. We compared the angiographic findings between ACH 100?g and ACH 200?g in the LCA and also examined the usefulness and safety of ACH 200?g in Japanese patients without variant angina. As a spasm provocation test, we performed intracoronary injection of ACH 200?g after ACH 100?g in 88 patients (55 males, 68.411.7years old) including 59 ischemic heart disease (IHD) patients and 29 non-IHD patients. Positive spasm was defined as >99% transient stenosis (focal spasm) or 90% severe diffuse vasoconstriction (diffuse spasm). Positive spasm by ACH 200?g was significantly higher than that by ACH 100?g (36 pts: 40.9% vs. 17 pts: 19.3%, p<0.01). Diffuse distal spasm on the left anterior descending artery was more recognized in ACH 200 ?g than in ACH 100 ?g (30.7 vs. 13.6%, p<0.01). In 29 rest angina patients, positive spasm by ACH 200?g (19 pts) was significantly higher than that by ACH 100?g (7 pts) (65.5 vs. 24.1%, p<0.01). No serious irreversible complications were found during ACH 200?g. Administration of ACH 200?g into the LCA was safe and useful. We may reexamine the maximal ACH dose into the LCA. PMID:25179297

  10. Intramural hemorrhage and endothelial changes in atherosclerotic coronary artery after repetitive episodes of spasm in x-ray-irradiated hypercholesterolemic pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasawa, K.; Tomoike, H.; Hayashi, Y.; Yamada, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Nakamura, M. )

    1989-08-01

    To assess whether coronary spasm affects the progression of atherosclerosis and results in evolution of myocardial infarction, the role of coronary spasm on the fine structure of conduit coronary arteries was studied morphologically. Goettingen miniature pigs were fed a semisynthetic diet containing 2% cholesterol and 1.1% sodium cholate. One month after being on this diet, the pigs were anesthetized and the endothelium of a branch of the left coronary artery was denuded using a balloon catheter. X-ray irradiation in a dose of 1,500 rad was given twice selectively to the area denuded, after 4 and 5 months of cholesterol feeding. Five months after endothelial denudation, transient (group A) and repetitive episodes (group B) of coronary spasm were provoked by single and periodic (five times every 5 minutes) intracoronary injections of serotonin (10 micrograms/kg/injection), respectively. The extent of spasm by serotonin at the previously denuded site was 84 +/- 4% (n = 4) and 90 +/- 5% (n = 6) narrowing in groups A and B (p = NS between groups), respectively. Forty minutes after the final administration of serotonin, the left coronary artery was relaxed by nitroglycerin, and the heart was isolated and perfuse-fixed under physiological pressure. Intramural hemorrhage was noted at the spastic site in six pigs of group B but not in group A. The average percent luminal narrowing, on cross sections at the spastic site in group B, was significantly greater than in group A (56 +/- 7% vs. 23 +/- 5%, p less than 0.01). Scanning electron micrographs revealed that the endothelial lining was intact at the nonspastic site in both groups. In addition to the appearance of intercellular bridges at the spastic site in both groups, squeezing of endothelial cells and adhesion of white blood cells were present at the spastic site exclusively in group B.

  11. Development of a mouse model of infantile spasms induced by N-methyl-d-aspartate.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiu-Yu; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Tomonoh, Yuko; Hu, Lin-Yan; Ju, Jun; Hirose, Shinichi; Zou, Li-Ping

    2015-12-01

    Using N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) injection, we attempt to develop a mouse model for infantile spasms (IS). Experiments were performed in postnatal 11- to 13-day-old C57 and Balbc mice. In the pilot experiment, mice were injected with different doses of NMDA (7, 15, and 30mg/kg) to determine the optimal age and convulsant doses of NMDA. In further experiment optimal age mice were divided into five groups: group A, control group that received intraperitoneal injection of physiological saline; group B, convulsion group that was given intraperitoneal NMDA; group C, pretreatment group that received adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) injection (100IU/kg) 30min before NMDA administration; group D, electroencephalogram (EEG) group that received EEG recording, group E, performance group that received motor and learning test at different time point after NMDA administration. The behaviors of each group were observed continuously for 3h, the latency and the total numbers of spasms were recorded. Pilot experiments showed that a 15mg/kg dose of NMDA could induce typical spasm-like seizures in P13 C57 mice, NMDA administration caused anxiety and deficits in motor and cognitive functions at early time and that large doses of ACTH reduced the number of seizures and rating scale (P<0.05). The NMDA mouse model has the following characteristics: age dependency, spasm-like seizures, cognitive impairment and response to ACTH, which fulfills the criteria of an IS model. PMID:26600368

  12. A case of vasospastic angina in which the ergonovine provocation test with intracoronary isosorbide dinitrate and nicorandil was effective in the diagnosis of microvascular spasm.

    PubMed

    Kiyooka, Takahiko; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Ikari, Yuji

    2014-10-01

    A 60-year-old man was admitted with early morning angina while at rest. Coronary angiogram revealed no organic lesions; therefore, a spasm provocation test with ergonovine was performed. Administration of intracoronary ergonovine induced total occlusion of the right coronary artery. The induced total occlusion improved but coronary flow velocity remained severely reduced and chest discomfort with ST-T changes in ECG remained in spite of repeated administration of isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN). Intracoronary administration of nicorandil following ISDN alleviated the chest discomfort, normalized the ST-T change in ECG, and improved the coronary flow. This suggested that microvascular spasm and the epicardial spasm were not relieved by ISDN but by nicorandil. Intracoronary nicorandil injection following ISDN administration may be useful for the diagnosis of microvascular spasm in the ergonovine provocation test. PMID:24407773

  13. Infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Hrachovy, Richard A; Frost, James D

    2013-01-01

    Infantile spasms are a unique disorder of infancy and early childhood. The average age at onset of infantile spasms is 6 months and the average incidence of the disorder is approximately 0.31 per 1000 live births. Approximately one-quarter of patients will spontaneously stop having spasms within 1 year of onset. There are three main types of epileptic spasms: flexor, extensor, and mixed flexor-extensor. Spasms frequently occur in clusters and commonly occur upon arousal from sleep. The motor spasms are frequently confused with other normal and abnormal infant behaviors. Typically, the interictal EEG reveals hypsarrhythmia or one of its variants. A variety of ictal EEG patterns may be seen, the most common of which is a generalized slow-wave transient followed by an attenuation of the background activity in all regions. The primary treatment objective is to improve the EEG and stop the spasms as soon as possible and to avoid prolonged treatment durations with any form of therapy. Currently, there is no conclusive evidence that medical or surgical treatment of infantile spasms significantly alters long-term outcome. Although the pathophysiological mechanism underlying infantile spasms is unknown, several animal models of infantile spasms have been developed in recent years. PMID:23622208

  14. Diagnosis of oesophageal spasm by ergometrine provocation.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, H A; Kaye, M D; Rhodes, J; Dart, A M; Henderson, A H

    1982-01-01

    Oesophageal spasm may mimic the pain of myocardial ischaemia. Forty-two patients who were thought to have angina until investigations failed to show any cardiovascular abnormality, were examined for oesophageal disease. Ergometrine provocation during oesophageal manometry caused significant deterioration in oesophageal motility, associated with familiar pain, in 24 patients. Ten age-matched controls were examined in a similar way and ergometrine produced motility changes in four and pain in two. Six volunteers with coronary artery stenosis and exercise-induced angina did not develop oesophageal motility changes during the pain. Ergometrine provocation is useful in establishing the diagnosis of oesophageal spasm in patients with recurrent angina-like pain but no cardiac abnormality. PMID:7068041

  15. Hemifacial Spasm

    MedlinePLUS

    ... research is being done? The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) conducts and supports research related ... better ways to prevent, treat, and ultimately cure neurological disorders, such as hemifacial spasm. NIH Patient Recruitment for ...

  16. Hemifacial spasm: ultrastructural changes in the facial nerve induced by neurovascular compression.

    PubMed

    Ruby, J R; Jannetta, P J

    1975-10-01

    In patients with hemifacial spasm, pathological changes were found in the facial nerve resulting from neurovascular compression-distortion. These changes are simular to those noted in trigeminal neuralgia. PMID:1179258

  17. Gender-Specific Prognosis and Risk Impact of C-Reactive Protein, Hemoglobin and Platelet in the Development of Coronary Spasm

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ming-Yow; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Hu, Wei-Syun; Chang, Nen-Chung; Huang, Chun-Yao; Hung, Ming-Jui

    2013-01-01

    Background: Scarce data are available on hemoglobin and platelet in relation to coronary artery spasm (CAS) development. We sought to determine the roles that high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), hemoglobin and platelet play in CAS patients. Methods: Patients (337 women and 532 men) undergoing coronary angiography with or without CAS but without obstructive coronary artery disease were evaluated during a 12-year period. Results: Among women with high hemoglobin levels, the odds ratios (OR) from the lowest (<1 mg/l) to the highest tertiles (>3 mg/l) of hs-CRP were 1.21, 2.15, and 5.93 (p=0.009). In women with low hemoglobin levels, an elevated risk was found from the middle to the highest tertiles of hs-CRP (OR 0.59 to 3.85) (p=0.004). This relationship was not observed in men. In men, platelet count was the most significant risk factor for CAS (p=0.004). The highest likelihood of developing CAS was found among women with the highest hs-CRP tertile and low platelet counts (OR 8.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.20-35.01) and among men with the highest hs-CRP tertile and high platelet counts (OR 4.58; 95% CI 0.48-43.97). Neither hemoglobin level nor platelet count was associated with frequent recurrent angina in both genders with CAS whereas death and myocardial infarction were rare. Conclusions: There are positive interactions among hs-CRP, hemoglobin and platelet in women with this disease, but not in men. While hemoglobin is a modifier in CAS development in women, platelet count is an independent risk factor for men. Both women and men have good prognosis of CAS. PMID:23372432

  18. C-Reactive Protein for Predicting Prognosis and Its Gender-Specific Associations with Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension in the Development of Coronary Artery Spasm

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Ming-Jui; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Hu, Wei-Syun; Chang, Nen-Chung; Hung, Ming-Yow

    2013-01-01

    Background While hypertension is negatively associated with coronary artery spasm (CAS), scarce data are available on diabetes mellitus in relation to CAS. In addition, outcome prediction in patients with CAS is challenging due to the lack of appropriate biomarkers. Therefore, we sought to identify the roles that gender, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), diabetes mellitus and hypertension play in CAS development and prognosis. Methodology/Prinicpal Findings Patients (350 women and 547 men) undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography with or without proven CAS but without obstructive stenosis were evaluated at long-term follow-up (median 102 months). Diabetic women and diabetic men with low hs-CRP levels had a low and high risk of CAS (odds ratio [OR]: 0.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.011.88 and OR: 5.02, 95% CI: 1.0324.54, respectively). The ORs of CAS in both women and men with the highest hs-CRP tertile (>3 mg/L) reduced from 4.41 to 1.45 and 2.98 to 1.52, respectively, if they had diabetes mellitus, and from 9.68 to 2.43 and 2.60 to 1.75, respectively, if they had hypertension. Hypertension had a more negative effect on CAS development in diabetic than non-diabetic women, which was not observed in men. The highest hs-CRP tertile was an independent predictor of adverse outcomes. Patients with the highest hs-CRP tertile had more coronary events than patients with the lowest hs-CRP tertitle (p?=?0.021, log-rank test). Conclusions Diabetes mellitus contributes to CAS development in men with low hs-CRP levels, but not in women. There are negative effects of diabetes mellitus and hypertension on CAS development in patients with high hs-CRP levels and especially in women. Elevated hs-CRP level independently predicts adverse outcomes. PMID:24204905

  19. Vigabatrin-induced MRI changes associated with extrapyramidal symptoms in a child with infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Schonstedt, Valeria; Stecher, Ximena; Venegas, Viviana; Silva, Claudio

    2015-10-01

    Vigabatrin is an antiepileptic drug used for treatment of infantile spasms. We present a female patient with infantile spasms in treatment with vigabatrin who developed ataxic movements. MRI demonstrated a symmetrical pattern of thalamic and globi pallidi diffusion restriction. While these image features have been widely described to be related to the use of vigabatrin, this case highlights the development of movement disorders in association with MRI signal changes. Awareness of the reversible nature of this condition is reassuring for the treating team and avoids unjustified studies. PMID:26306928

  20. FMLP provokes coronary vasoconstriction and myocardial ischemia in rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, M.N.; Booth, D.C.; Friedman, B.J.; Cunningham, M.R.; Jay, M.; De Maria, A.N. )

    1988-03-01

    Recent pathological studies of coronary arteries from humans with suspected coronary spasm have revealed an augmented intramural burden of inflammatory cells. To test the hypothesis than inappropriate activation of inflammatory cells participates in the evolution of coronary vasospasm, the present experiment employed a newly developed coronary arteriographic technique for use in pentobarbital-anesthetized rabbits to evaluate the coronary vasomotor actions of the nonselective inflammatory cell stimulant, N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP). In 10 of 10 animals, selective left intracoronary injection of 200 ng fMLP evoked profound left coronary narrowing accompanied in all cases by ST segment deviation and dysrhythmias. Thallium-201 scintigraphy demonstrated hypoperfusion of the left ventricular free wall and septum supplied by the spastic coronary artery. The fMLP-induced epicardial vasoconstriction, ischemic electrocardiogram (ECG) changes, and thallium perfusion defects were reversed by intravenous nitroglycerin. Neither the right coronary artery nor its distribution were influenced by left coronary injection of fMLP. Additional experiments in isolated, salt solution-perfused rabbit hearts demonstrated that fMLP failed to exert direct coronary vasoconstrictor effects. These observations indicate that the nonselective inflammatory cell stimulant, fMLP, provokes arteriographically demonstrable coronary spasm with attendant myocardial hypoperfusion and ischemic ECG changes in anesthetized rabbits. Such a model may be useful in exploring the dynamic role of inflammatory cells in development of coronary spasm.

  1. CPAP Therapy Improves Intractable Hemifacial Spasm

    PubMed Central

    Kasemsap, Narongrit; Netwijitpan, Sittichai; Limpawattana, Panita; Kongbunkiat, Kannikar; Tiamkao, Somsak; Chotmongkol, Verajit; Aekphachaisawat, Noppadol; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2015-01-01

    The correlation between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and hemifacial spasm has never been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of OSA-induced hypertension with intractable hemifacial spasm in which both conditions improved after continuous positive airway pressure treatment. PMID:26550503

  2. Current trends in the treatment of infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Chang-Yong

    2009-01-01

    Infantile spasms are an epilepsy syndrome with distinctive features, including age onset during infancy, characteristic epileptic spasms, and specific electroencephalographic patterns (interictal hypsarrhythmia and ictal voltage suppression). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) was first employed to treat infantile spasms in 1958, and since then it has been tried in prospective and retrospective studies for infantile spasms. Oral corticosteroids were also used in a few studies for infantile spasms. Variable success in cessation of infantile spasms and normalization of electroencephalograms was demonstrated. However, frequent significant adverse effects are associated with ACTH and oral corticosteroids. Vigabatrin has been used since the 1990s, and shown to be successful in resolution of infantile spasms, especially for infantile spasms associated with tuberous sclerosis. It is associated with visual field constriction, which is often asymptomatic and requires perimetric visual field study to identify. When ACTH, oral corticosteroids, and vigabatrin fail to induce cessation of infantile spasms, other alternative treatments include valproic acid, nitrazepam, pyridoxine, topiramate, zonisamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, felbamate, ganaxolone, liposteroid, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, intravenous immunoglobulin and a ketogenic diet. Rarely, infantile spasms in association with biotinidase deficiency, phenylketonuria, and pyridoxine-dependent seizures are successfully treated with biotin, a low phenylalanine diet, and pyridoxine, respectively. For medically intractable infantile spasms, some properly selected patients may have complete cessation of infantile spasms with appropriate surgical treatments. PMID:19557123

  3. Myocardial infarction temporally related to ephedra--a possible role for the coronary microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Rezkalla, Shereif H; Mesa, Juan; Sharma, Param; Kloner, Robert A

    2002-01-01

    Myocardial infarction has been reported with ephedrine and pseudoephedrine use. It has been suggested that these agents may induce coronary artery spasm, hypercoagulable states, or oxygen demand imbalance. We report a 25-year-old male with myocardial infarction after receiving a diet pill containing ephedra. Coronary angiography revealed normal coronary arteries with very slow flow, suggestive of microcirculation abnormalities. The flow responded promptly to intracoronary verapamil. PMID:12426924

  4. Management of infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    West syndrome, or infantile spasms syndrome is a frequently catastrophic infantile epileptic encephalopathy with a variety of etiologies. Despite the heterogeneous nature of causes of infantile spasms, a careful diagnostic evaluation can lead to diagnosis in many patients and may guide treatment choices. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain remains the highest yield initial study in determining the etiology in infantile spasms. Treatment of infantile spasms has little class I data, but adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), prednisolone and vigabatrin have the best evidence as first-line medications. Other therapies including the ketogenic diet and other anti-epileptics medications may also prove useful in the treatment of infantile spasms. In general, more studies are needed to determine the best treatment regimen for this condition. Prognosis is generally poor, with the majority of patients having some or profound neurocognitive delays. Patients without delays at diagnosis and without an identifiable etiology, if treated appropriately, have the greatest likelihood of a normal outcome. PMID:26835388

  5. Hand or foot spasms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... such as Parkinson disease , multiple sclerosis , dystonia, and Huntington disease Chronic kidney disease and dialysis Damage to a ... tests Vitamin D levels ( 25-OH vitamin D ) Treatment depends on the cause of the spasms. For ...

  6. Tetanus: Pathophysiology, Treatment, and the Possibility of Using Botulinum Toxin against Tetanus-Induced Rigidity and Spasms

    PubMed Central

    Hassel, Bjørnar

    2013-01-01

    Tetanus toxin, the product of Clostridium tetani, is the cause of tetanus symptoms. Tetanus toxin is taken up into terminals of lower motor neurons and transported axonally to the spinal cord and/or brainstem. Here the toxin moves trans-synaptically into inhibitory nerve terminals, where vesicular release of inhibitory neurotransmitters becomes blocked, leading to disinhibition of lower motor neurons. Muscle rigidity and spasms ensue, often manifesting as trismus/lockjaw, dysphagia, opistotonus, or rigidity and spasms of respiratory, laryngeal, and abdominal muscles, which may cause respiratory failure. Botulinum toxin, in contrast, largely remains in lower motor neuron terminals, inhibiting acetylcholine release and muscle activity. Therefore, botulinum toxin may reduce tetanus symptoms. Trismus may be treated with botulinum toxin injections into the masseter and temporalis muscles. This should probably be done early in the course of tetanus to reduce the risk of pulmonary aspiration, involuntary tongue biting, anorexia and dental caries. Other muscle groups are also amenable to botulinum toxin treatment. Six tetanus patients have been successfully treated with botulinum toxin A. This review discusses the use of botulinum toxin for tetanus in the context of the pathophysiology, symptomatology, and medical treatment of Clostridium tetani infection. PMID:23299659

  7. The Successful Treatment of Opioid Withdrawal-Induced Refractory Muscle Spasms with 5-HTP in a Patient Intolerant to Clonidine.

    PubMed

    Dais, Jennifer; Khosia, Ankur; Doulatram, Gulshan

    2015-01-01

    Instituting drug holidays for chronic opioid using patients is becoming commonplace for pain practitioners initiating procedures such as intrathecal pump or spinal cord stimulator trials. As such, pain practitioners need to be adept in their management of acute opioid withdrawal. Successfully weaning an opioid dependent patient off of chronic opioids requires a thorough knowledge of the available adjuvants to assist in this process. However, that selection can become exhausted by adjuvant side effects or by ineffective attenuation of opioid withdrawal symptoms. In that case, novel drugs, or novel application of currently available medications must be sought after to assist in the drug holiday. We present a case in which refractory muscle spasms secondary to opioid withdrawal were successfully treated with an over-the-counter supplement that is not typically used for the attenuation of opioid withdrawal symptoms. In a patient intolerant to the side effects of clonidine, we were able to successfully wean chronic opiates by treating refractory muscle spasms with the serotonin precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). We hypothesize that our success with this medication gives further credence to the role of serotonin in opioid withdrawal somatic symptomatology, and supports the need for future research to clarify the role of serotonin precursors or serotonin modulating drugs as potential alternatives in those unable to follow standard treatment protocols. PMID:26000689

  8. Tender Endothelium Syndrome: Combination of Hypotension, Bradycardia, Contrast Induced Chest Pain, and Microvascular Angina

    PubMed Central

    Chiew, Soon Kwang; Syed, Jaffer

    2016-01-01

    Hypotension, bradycardia, and contrast induced chest pain are potential complications of cardiac catheterization and coronary angiography. Catheter-induced coronary spasm has been occasionally demonstrated, but its relationship to spontaneous coronary spasm is unclear. We describe a 64-year-old female who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery in 1998 on the basis of an angiographic diagnosis of severe left main disease, who recently presented with increasingly frequent typical angina. Repeat coronary angiography was immediately complicated by severe chest pain, hypotension, and bradycardia but demonstrated only mild disease of the left main artery and entire coronary tree with complete occlusion of her prior grafts. This reaction was almost identical to that observed during her original coronary angiogram. We now believe her original angiogram was complicated by severe catheter-induced left main spasm, with the accompanying contrast reaction attributed to left main disease, and the occlusion of coronary grafts explained by the absence of significant left main disease. The combination of these symptoms has not been documented in the literature. In this instance, these manifestations erroneously led to coronary bypass surgery. It is unknown whether routine, systematic injection of intracoronary nitroglycerin prior to angiography might blunt the severity of such reactions. PMID:26981290

  9. Experimental coronary sclerosis induced by immobilization of rabbits: A new model of arteriosclerosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyavokin, V. V.; Tjawokin, W. W.

    1980-01-01

    A new method for producing arteriosclerosis with coronary insufficiency in rabbits by means of immobilization is described and discussed. The experimentally induced atherosclerosis develops due to hypodynamics imposed by the reduced muscular activity without overloading with exogenous cholesterol. The atherosclerosis and coronary insufficiency are associated. With variations in the duration and extent of immobilization, coronary insufficiency alone or with atherosclerosis can be produced.

  10. Vascular spasm complicates continuous wave but not pulsed laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gal, D.; Steg, P.G.; Rongione, A.J.; DeJesus, S.T.; Clarke, R.H.; Isner, J.M. )

    1989-11-01

    Preliminary clinical experience with laser angioplasty has suggested that arterial spasm may complicate attempts to employ laser light to accomplish vascular recanalization. The present study was designed to investigate the role of energy profile on the development of arterial spasm during laser angioplasty. Laser irradiation was delivered percutaneously in vivo to New Zealand white rabbits and to Yucatan microswine with or without atherosclerotic lesions induced by a combination of balloon endothelial denudation and atherogenic diet. Continuous wave (CW) laser irradiation from an argon ion gas laser (wavelength 488 to 514 nm) was applied to 23 arteries, while 16 arteries were irradiated using a pulsed xenon chloride (308 nm) or xenon fluoride (351 nm) excimer laser. Arterial spasm, defined as greater than 50% reduction in luminal diameter narrowing, complicated delivery of laser light to 17 (74%) of the 23 arteries irradiated with the CW argon laser. Spasm was consistently observed at powers greater than 2 W, at cumulative exposures greater than 200 seconds, and at total energy greater than 200 joules. Spasm was typically diffuse (including the length of the vessel) and protracted (lasting up to 120 minutes). Intra-arterial nitroglycerin (up to 300 micrograms) produced only temporary and incomplete resolution of laser-induced spasm. In contrast, spasm was never observed in any of the 16 arteries in which laser angioplasty was performed using a pulsed laser (0.95 to 6.37 joules/cm2, 10 to 50 Hz, 48 to 370 seconds). Thus CW but not pulsed laser angioplasty may be complicated by arterial spasm

  11. Hemifacial spasm triggered by vasodilators.

    PubMed

    Micheli, F; Scorticati, M C; Radi Orueta, I; Diaz, S

    1998-01-01

    Hemifacial spasm features myoclonic-like, paroxysmal, unilateral muscle twitching, attributable to vascular compression at the facial pontine root entry zone. We present the case of an 85-year-old man who presented with idiopathic hemifacial spasm with onset 23 years before. For the last 5 years, he was successfully treated with botulinum toxin injections. However, occasional nitrate intake for precordial pain promptly triggered muscle twitching. Vasodilation may exacerbate not only cases of hemifacial spasm, but even of trigeminal neuralgia, both recognized as neurovascular compressive syndromes. PMID:9617513

  12. Infantile spasms and HLA antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Howitz, P; Platz, P

    1978-01-01

    21 new cases of infantile spasms were reported in 1976 from paediatric departments in Denmark. The connection between infantile spasms and the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is mentioned, because of reports of a significantly higher incidence of HLA-B7 in children with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. The HLA antigen distribution in 19 of the 21 children was compared with that of 1967 healthy adults. No difference in the HLA antigens was demonstrated between children with infantile spasms and controls, whether in the material as a whole, or in the cryptogenic or symptomatic groups. However HLA typing of children with infantile spasms should continue in the search for a potential genetic marker in this grave disease, particularly in view of the reported high incidence of HLA-B7 in children with the Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. PMID:708109

  13. Modeling new therapies for infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    Chudomelova, Lenka; Scantlebury, Morris H.; Raffo, Emmanuel; Coppola, Antonietta; Betancourth, David; Galanopoulou, Aristea S.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Infantile spasms are the classical seizure type of West syndrome. Infantile spasms often herald a dismal prognosis, due to the high probability to evolve into intractable forms of epilepsies with significant cognitive deficits, especially if not adequately treated. The current therapies, high doses of adrenocorticotropic hormone, steroids or the GABA transaminase inhibitor vigabatrin, are often toxic and may not always be effective. The need to identify new therapies for spasms has led to the generation of a number of rodent models of infantile spasms. These include acute and chronic models of infantile spasms, with cryptogenic or symptomatic origin, many of which are based on specific etiologies. In this review, we will summarize the clinical experience with treating infantile spasms, the main features of the new animal models of infantile spasms and discuss their utility in the preclinical development of new therapies for infantile spasms. PMID:20618396

  14. Infantile spasms--evidence based medical management.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Jitendra Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Infantile spasms constitute significant burden of refractory epilepsy in children. The first line treatment choice varies at different centres. The author presents concise evidence based update on medical management of infantile spasms. PMID:24986193

  15. Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of coronary arteries for open-heart surgery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Roderick S.; Gladysz, D.; Brown, Derek W.; Higginson, Lyall A. J.

    1991-07-01

    A technique utilizing laser induced fluorescence has been developed to obtain direct real-time imaging of the coronary artery network for open heart surgery applications. Both excimer pumped dye and cw argon-ion laser radiation transmitted through a fused silica fiber were used as laser sources to irradiate swine, bovine, and human cadaver hearts whose coronary arteries had been injected with strongly fluorescent dyes. The laser induces fluorescence originating from within the coronary arteries and detected by the surgeon's eye, allows the entire coronary network to be directly viewed. A comparison between laser induced fluorescence and the use of direct visual inspection of arteries following injection of the dye Cardio-Green(R) as well as conventional thermal imaging is presented. The limitations imposed on each technique by layers of fat on top of the coronary arteries are also described. The possibility of using these techniques to detect mechanical or laser beam perforations during laser endarterectomy procedures is discussed.

  16. Vigabatrin and mental retardation in tuberous sclerosis: infantile spasms vs focal seizures

    PubMed Central

    Yum, Mi-Sun; Lee, Eun Hye; Ko, Tae-Sung

    2013-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is a genetic disorder resulting in epilepsy and mental retardation. Vigabatrin has shown efficacy in the treatment of infantile spasms caused by tuberous sclerosis complex, but its effects on focal seizures caused by tuberous sclerosis complex have not been determined. We compared the efficacy of vigabatrin in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex-induced focal seizures and infantile spasms and assessed the mental outcomes in both groups. We retrospectively evaluated 31 children with tuberous sclerosis complex and epilepsy, who were treated with vigabatrin in single tertiary center in Seoul, Korea. Vigabatrin treatment resulted in spasms cessation in 16 of 18 (88.9%) patients with infantile spasms, whereas 6 of 13 (46.2%) patients with focal seizures became seizure-free. Initial response to vigabatrin had no effect on intellectual disability. Vigabatrin was highly effective in eliminating infantile spasms caused by tuberous sclerosis complex, but was less effective in patients with focal seizures. PMID:22752486

  17. Vigabatrin and mental retardation in tuberous sclerosis: infantile spasms versus focal seizures.

    PubMed

    Yum, Mi-Sun; Lee, Eun Hye; Ko, Tae-Sung

    2013-03-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is a genetic disorder resulting in epilepsy and mental retardation. Vigabatrin has shown efficacy in the treatment of infantile spasms caused by tuberous sclerosis complex, but its effects on focal seizures caused by tuberous sclerosis complex have not been determined. We compared the efficacy of vigabatrin in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex-induced focal seizures and infantile spasms and assessed the mental outcomes in both groups. We retrospectively evaluated 31 children with tuberous sclerosis complex and epilepsy, who were treated with vigabatrin in a single tertiary center in Seoul, Korea. Vigabatrin treatment resulted in spasms cessation in 16 of 18 (88.9%) patients with infantile spasms, whereas 6 of 13 (46.2%) patients with focal seizures became seizure free. Initial response to vigabatrin had no effect on intellectual disability. Vigabatrin was highly effective in eliminating infantile spasms caused by tuberous sclerosis complex but was less effective in patients with focal seizures. PMID:22752486

  18. Adenosine-induced coronary vasospasm following drug-eluting stent implantation

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Naoya; Nagao, Ken; Hirayama, Atsushi; Kasama, Shu

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of coronary vasospasm during adenosine stress in a patient with a prior drug-eluting stent implantation. The patient had a stent implantation in the left anterior descending coronary artery 3?years ago. Recently, he developed a chest pain and underwent adenosine stress myocardial perfusion single photon emission CT (SPECT). During the adenosine stress, he felt severe chest pain and ST elevation on electrocardiogram. An invasive coronary angiography showed no in-stent restenosis. This phenomenon deemed to be adenosine-induced coronary vasospasm after stent implantation. PMID:24518394

  19. Placental Induced Growth Factor (PIGf) in Coronary Artery Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaresan, Alamelu; Carabello, Blaise; Mehta, Satish; Schlegel, Todd; Pellis, Neal; Ott, Mark; Pierson, Duane

    2010-01-01

    Our previous studies on normal human lymphocytes have shown a five-fold increase (p less than 0.001) in angiogenic inducers such as Placental Induced Growth Factor (PIGf) in physiologically stressful environments such as modeled microgravity, a space analog. This suggests de-regulation of cardiovascular signalling pathways indicated by upregulation of PIGf. In the current study, we measured PIGf in the plasma of 33 patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD) to investigate whether such disease is associated with increased levels of PIGf. A control consisting of 31 sex matched apparently healthy subjects was also included in the study. We observed that the levels of PIGf in CAD patients were significantly increased compared to those in healthy control subjects (p less than 0.001) and usually increased beyond the clinical threshold level (greater than 27ng/L). The mechanisms leading to up-regulation of angiogenic factors and the adaptation of organisms to stressful environments such as isolation, high altitude, hypoxia, ischemia, microgravity, increased radiation, etc are presently unknown and require further investigation in spaceflight and these other physiologically stressed environments.

  20. Ecstasy-induced acute coronary syndrome: something to rave about.

    PubMed

    Hoggett, Kerry; McCoubrie, David; Fatovich, Daniel M

    2012-06-01

    Ecstasy or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine is a commonly used illicit recreational drug, enjoying popularity for its stimulant effects. Although acute coronary syndrome is recognized after cocaine and methamphetamine use, association with Ecstasy use has rarely been reported. We report three cases of significantly delayed acute coronary syndrome and ST elevation myocardial infarction related to ingestion of Ecstasy. PMID:22672176

  1. Imaging of cocaine-induced global and regional myocardial ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Oster, Z.H.; Som, P.; Wang, G.J.; Weber, D.A. )

    1991-08-01

    Severe and often fatal cardiac complications have been reported in cocaine users with narrowed coronary arteries caused by atherosclerosis as well as in young adults with normal coronaries. The authors have found that in normal dogs cocaine induces severe temporary hypoperfusion of the left ventricle as indicated by a significantly lower 201Tl concentration compared to the baseline state. The most significant decrease in uptake occurred 5 min after injection and was more pronounced in the septal and apical segments. Following intravenous administration of cocaine, instead of gradual disappearance of 201Tl from the left ventricle, there was continuous increase in 201Tl concentration in the left ventricle. These imaging experiments indicate that the deleterious effects of cocaine on the heart are probably due to spasm of the coronaries and decreased myocardial perfusion. Since spasm of the large subpericardial vessels does not seem to explain the magnitude of the increased coronary resistance and decreased coronary flow after cocaine as described in the literature, it is suggested that microvascular spasm of smaller vessels plays a major role in the temporary decrease in perfusion. The data may also suggest that severe temporary myocardial ischemia is probably the initiating factor for the cardiac complications induced by cocaine.

  2. Epileptic spasms without hypsarrhythmia in infancy and childhood: tonic spasms as a seizure type.

    PubMed

    Marchi, Luciana R De; Seraphim, Evelyn A; Corso, Jeana T; Naves, Pedro Vf; Carvalho, Kelly Cristina de; Ramirez, Milton David H; Ferrari-Marinho, Taissa; Guaranha, Mirian Sb; Yacubian, Elza Mrcia T

    2015-06-01

    Epileptic spasms were defined by the International League Against Epilepsy Task Force on Classification and Terminology in 2001 as a specific seizure type. Epileptic spasms without hypsarrhythmia have been described in some series of patients, occurring either in infancy or childhood. More prolonged epileptic spasms without hypsarrhythmia were previously defined as a different seizure type, and referred to as "tonic spasm seizures". Here, we present a 5-year-old boy who started having epileptic spasms without hypsarrhythmia at 8 months of age, effectively treated with oxcarbazepine. With the withdrawal of medication, epileptic spasms returned. Video-EEG monitoring revealed high-voltage slow waves superimposed by low-voltage fast activity, followed by an electrodecremental phase and a burst of asymmetric fast activity, time-locked to clinical tonic spasm seizures. Brain MRI showed left temporal atrophy with temporal pole grey/white matter junction blurring and ictal PET-CT showed left basal frontal hypermetabolism. Seizures were refractory to several AEDs and vigabatrin was introduced with seizure cessation. Despite efforts to classify epileptic spasms, these are still considered as part of the group of unknown seizure types. In some cases, a focal origin has been suggested, leading to the term "periodic spasms" and "focal spasms". In this case, epileptic spasms without hypsarrhythmia, associated with tonic spasms, may be a variant of focal spasms and might be considered as an epileptic syndrome. [Published with video sequence]. PMID:25895540

  3. BMPER-induced BMP signaling promotes coronary artery remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Laura; Wu, Yaxu; Moser, Martin; Patterson, Cam

    2014-01-01

    Summary The connection of the coronary vasculature to the aorta is one of the last essential steps of cardiac development. However, little is known about the signaling events that promote normal coronary artery formation. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathway regulates multiple aspects of endothelial cell biology but has not been specifically implicated in coronary vascular development. BMP signaling is tightly regulated by numerous factors, including BMP-binding endothelial cell precursor-derived regulator (BMPER), which can both promote and repress BMP signaling activity. In the embryonic heart, BMPER expression is limited to the endothelial cells and the endothelial-derived cushions, suggesting that BMPER may play a role in coronary vascular development. Histological analysis of BMPER−/− embryos at early embryonic stages demonstrates that commencement of coronary plexus differentiation is normal and that endothelial apoptosis and cell proliferation are unaffected in BMPER−/− embryos compared with wild-type embryos. However, analysis between embryonic days 15.5-17.5 reveals that, in BMPER−/− embryos, coronary arteries are either atretic or connected distal to the semilunar valves. In vitro tubulogenesis assays indicate that isolated BMPER−/− endothelial cells have impaired tube formation and migratory ability compared with wild-type endothelial cells, suggesting that these defects may lead to the observed coronary artery anomalies seen in BMPER−/− embryos. Additionally, recombinant BMPER promotes wild-type ventricular endothelial migration in a dose-dependent manner, with a low concentration promoting and high concentrations inhibiting migration. Together, these results indicate that BMPER-regulated BMP signaling is critical for coronary plexus remodeling and normal coronary artery development. PMID:24373957

  4. Altered Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha expression levels correlate with coronary vessel anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Wikenheiser, Jamie; Wolfram, Julie A.; Gargesha, Madhusudhana; Yang, Ke; Karunamuni, Ganga; Wilson, David L.; Semenza, Gregg L.; Agani, Faton; Fisher, Steven A.; Ward, Nicole; Watanabe, Michiko

    2009-01-01

    The outflow tract myocardium and other regions corresponding to the location of the major coronary vessels of the developing chicken heart, display a high level of hypoxia as assessed by the hypoxia indicator EF5. The EF5 positive tissues were also specifically positive for nuclear-localized hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1?), the oxygen-sensitive component of the hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) heterodimer. This led to our hypothesis that there is a template of hypoxic tissue that determines the stereotyped pattern of the major coronary vessels. In this study we disturbed this template by altering ambient oxygen levels (hypoxia 15%; hyperoxia 75-40%) during the early phases of avian coronary vessel development, in order to alter tissue hypoxia, HIF-1? protein expression and its downstream target genes without high mortality. We also altered HIF-1? gene expression in the embryonic outflow tract cardiomyocytes by injecting an adenovirus containing a constitutively active form of HIF-1? (AdCA5). We assayed for coronary anomalies using anti-alpha-smooth muscle actin immunohistology. When incubated under abnormal oxygen levels or injected with a low titer of the AdCA5, coronary arteries displayed deviations from their normal proximal connections to the aorta. These deviations were similar to known clinical anomalies of coronary arteries. These findings indicated that developing coronary vessels may be subject to a level of regulation that is dependent on differential oxygen levels within cardiac tissues and subsequent HIF-1 regulation of gene expression. PMID:19777592

  5. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked infantile spasm syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > X-linked infantile spasm syndrome On this page: Description ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed August 2012 What is X-linked infantile spasm syndrome? X-linked infantile spasm ...

  6. Intracoronary demonstration of adenosine-induced coronary collateral steal.

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, C.; Kaufmann, U.; Meier, B.

    1997-01-01

    A steal phenomenon was detected by intravascular Doppler guidewire in a patient with a well collateralised coronary vascular area supplied by a reopened left circumflex coronary artery. This phenomenon accounted for the fall in blood flow velocity reserve during hyperaemic conditions to 50% of the baseline value. The collaterals must have been the cause of the steal phenomenon because complete revascularisation of the lesion barely reversed it. Images PMID:9038700

  7. Persistence of Recruitable Coronary Collaterals in the Absence of Coronary Vasospasm in a Patient with Variant Angina

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, Kazuhito; Takeuchi, Masaaki; Nakashima, Yasuhide

    1998-05-15

    Recruitable coronary collaterals may appear when spasm suddenly occludes the coronary artery. We report a patient with variant angina who had visible collateral vessels on a control coronary angiogram, despite the presence of normally appearing coronary arteries. These collaterals disappeared after intracoronary administration of nitroglycerin. These findings suggest that recruitable collateral vessels can remain patent long after spontaneous attacks of angina have resolved, and become visible when there is a pressure difference between two small coronary arteries.

  8. Intraoperative Detection of Intimal Lipid in the Radial Artery Predicts Degree of Postoperative Spasm

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Emile N; Burris, Nicholas S; Kon, Zachary N; Grant, Michael C; Brazio, Philip S; Xu, Chenyang; Laird, Patrick; Gu, Junyen; Kallam, Seeta; Desai, Pranjal; Poston, Robert S

    2008-01-01

    Background The radial arterys (RA) tendency to spasm when used as a bypass graft may relate to features of the RA itself. We imaged RA conduits before and after CABG in order to characterize intimal abnormalities that might relate to the risk of spasm. Methods RA conduits from thirty-two CABG patients were imaged intraoperatively using catheter-based optical coherence tomography (OCT) and again on day 5 using 64-channel MDCT angiography. The change in luminal diameter between timepoints was measured in the proximal, mid and distal RA. Spasm was defined as focal or diffuse luminal narrowing to a diameter less than the target coronary. Lipid content in the RA was quantified by the degree of light attenuation on the OCT image. Results Postoperative spasm was diagnosed in 18 of 32 (56%) RA grafts with the distal RA showing the most severe change versus the mid and proximal portions (?24.143.2% vs. ?15.340.7%, ?9.042.5% change in diameter respectively, p<0.01). The degree of attenuation of the OCT signal produced by the RA was strongly correlated with % diameter change (R=0.64, p=0.0005) and was significantly more pronounced in grafts with spasm versus no spasm (?1.970.61mm?1 vs. ?0.810.57mm?1, p<0.0001). Histology confirmed lipid deposits in areas of RA with strong attenuation. Conclusions RA conduits otherwise considered acceptable for bypass grafting were often found by OCT imaging to have a substantial amount of lipid, which in turn strongly relates to the risk of postoperative spasm. Screening conduits based on characteristics of intimal quality may improve results following RA grafting. PMID:19264305

  9. Recurrent angina after coronary angioplasty: mechanisms, diagnostic and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Izzo, Paolo; Macchi, Andrea; De Gennaro, Luisa; Gaglione, Antonio; Di Biase, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    Recurrent angina in patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention is defined as recurrence of chest pain or chest discomfort. Careful assessment is recommended to differentiate between non-cardiac and cardiac causes. In the case of the latter, recurrent angina occurrence can be related to structural (stretch pain, in-stent restenosis, in-stent thrombosis, incomplete revascularization, progression of coronary atherosclerosis) or functional (coronary micro-vascular dysfunction, epicardial coronary spasm) causes. Even though a complete diagnostic algorithm has not been validated, ECG exercise testing, stress imaging and invasive assessment of coronary blood flow and coronary vaso-motion (i.e. coronary flow reserve, provocation testing for coronary spasm) may be required. When repeated coronary revascularization is not indicated, therapeutic approaches should aim at targeting the underlying mechanism for the patients symptoms using a variety of drugs currently available such as beta-blockers, calcium-channel blockers, ivabradine or ranolazine. PMID:24062904

  10. Pregestational diabetes induces fetal coronary artery malformation via reactive oxygen species signaling.

    PubMed

    Moazzen, Hoda; Lu, Xiangru; Liu, Murong; Feng, Qingping

    2015-04-01

    Hypoplastic coronary artery disease is a congenital coronary artery malformation associated with a high risk of sudden cardiac death. However, the etiology and pathogenesis of hypoplastic coronary artery disease remain undefined. Pregestational diabetes increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and the risk of congenital heart defects. We show that pregestational diabetes in mice induced by streptozotocin significantly increased 4-hydroxynonenal production and decreased coronary artery volume in fetal hearts. Pregestational diabetes also impaired epicardial epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as shown by analyses of the epicardium, epicardial-derived cells, and fate mapping. Additionally, the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (Hif-1?), Snail1, Slug, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFgf), and retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (Aldh1a2) was decreased and E-cadherin expression was increased in the hearts of fetuses of diabetic mothers. Of note, these abnormalities were all rescued by treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in diabetic females during gestation. Ex vivo analysis showed that high glucose levels inhibited epicardial EMT, which was reversed by NAC treatment. We conclude that pregestational diabetes in mice can cause coronary artery malformation through ROS signaling. This study may provide a rationale for further clinical studies to investigate whether pregestational diabetes could cause hypoplastic coronary artery disease in humans. PMID:25422104

  11. Myocardial Blood Flow Distribution during Ischemia-Induced Coronary Vasodilation in the Unanesthetized Dog

    PubMed Central

    Bache, Robert J.; Cobb, Frederick R.; Greenfield, Joseph C.

    1974-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether coronary vasodilation distal to a flow-limiting coronary artery stenosis could result in redistribution of myocardial blood flow to produce subendocardial underperfusion. Studies were performed in 10 awake dogs chronically prepared with electromagnetic flow-meters and hydraulic occluders on the left circumflex coronary artery. Regional myocardial blood flow was measured using radionuclide-labeled microspheres, 7-10 ?m in diameter, injected into the left atrium. A 5-s coronary artery occlusion was followed by reactive hyperemia with excess inflow of arterial blood effecting 37520% repayment of the blood flow debt incurred during occlusion. When, after a 5-s occlusion, the occluder was only partially released to hold arterial inflow to the preocclusion level for 20 s before complete release, the delayed reactive hyperemia was augmented (mean blood flow repayment = 61045%, P < 0.01). This augmentation of the reactive hyperemia suggested that ischemia was continuing during the interval of coronary vasodilation when coronary inflow was at the preocclusion level. Measurements of regional myocardial blood flow demonstrated that endocardial flow slightly exceeded epicardial flow during control conditions. When arterial inflow was limited to the preocclusion rate during vasodilation after a 5-s total coronary artery occlusion, however, flow to the subepicardial myocardium was increased at the expense of underperfusion of the subendocardial myocardium. Thus, in the presence of a flow-limiting proximal coronary artery stenosis, ischemia-induced coronary vasodilation resulted in redistribution of myocardial blood flow with production of subendocardial ischemia in the presence of a net volume of arterial inflow which, if properly distributed, would have been adequate to prevent myocardial ischemia. Images PMID:4279928

  12. Myocardial blood flow distribution during ischemia-induced coronary vasodilation in the unanesthetized dog.

    PubMed

    Bache, R J; Cobb, F R; Greenfield, J C

    1974-12-01

    This study was designed to determine whether coronary vasodilation distal to a flow-limiting coronary artery stenosis could result in redistribution of myocardial blood flow to produce subendocardial underperfusion. Studies were performed in 10 awake dogs chronically prepared with electromagnetic flow-meters and hydraulic occluders on the left circumflex coronary artery. Regional myocardial blood flow was measured using radionuclide-labeled microspheres, 7-10 mum in diameter, injected into the left atrium. A 5(-s) coronary artery occlusion was followed by reactive hyperemia with excess inflow of arterial blood effecting 375+/-20% repayment of the blood flow debt incurred during occlusion. When, after a 5(-s) occlusion, the occluder was only partially released to hold arterial inflow to the preocclusion level for 20 s before complete release, the delayed reactive hyperemia was augmented (mean blood flow repayment = 610+/-45%, P < 0.01). This augmentation of the reactive hyperemia suggested that ischemia was continuing during the interval of coronary vasodilation when coronary inflow was at the preocclusion level. Measurements of regional myocardial blood flow demonstrated that endocardial flow slightly exceeded epicardial flow during control conditions. When arterial inflow was limited to the preocclusion rate during vasodilation after a 5(-s) total coronary artery occlusion, however, flow to the subepicardial myocardium was increased at the expense of underperfusion of the subendocardial myocardium. Thus, in the presence of a flow-limiting proximal coronary artery stenosis, ischemia-induced coronary vasodilation resulted in redistribution of myocardial blood flow with production of subendocardial ischemia in the presence of a net volume of arterial inflow which, if properly distributed, would have been adequate to prevent myocardial ischemia. PMID:4279928

  13. Practice Parameter: Medical Treatment of Infantile Spasms

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, M.T.; Weiss, S.K.; Adams-Webber, T.; Ashwal, S.; Stephens, D.; Ballaban-Gill, K.; Baram, T.Z.; Duchowny, M.; Hirtz, D.; Pellock, J.M.; Shields, W.D.; Shinnar, S.; Wyllie, E.; Snead, O.C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the current best practice for treatment of infantile spasms in children. Methods Database searches of MEDLINE from 1966 and EMBASE from 1980 and searches of reference lists of retrieved articles were performed. Inclusion criteria were the documented presence of infantile spasms and hypsarrhythmia. Outcome measures included complete cessation of spasms, resolution of hypsarrhythmia, relapse rate, developmental outcome, and presence or absence of epilepsy or an epileptiform EEG. One hundred fifty-nine articles were selected for detailed review. Recommendations were based on a four-tiered classification scheme. Results Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is probably effective for the short-term treatment of infantile spasms, but there is insufficient evidence to recommend the optimum dosage and duration of treatment. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether oral corticosteroids are effective. Vigabatrin is possibly effective for the short-term treatment of infantile spasm and is possibly also effective for children with tuberous sclerosis. Concerns about retinal toxicity suggest that serial ophthalmologic screening is required in patients on vigabatrin; however, the data are insufficient to make recommendations regarding the frequency or type of screening. There is insufficient evidence to recommend any other treatment of infantile spasms. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that successful treatment of infantile spasms improves the long-term prognosis. Conclusions ACTH is probably an effective agent in the short-term treatment of infantile spasms. Vigabatrin is possibly effective. PMID:15159460

  14. Novel Roles for Kv7 Channels in Shaping Histamine-Induced Contractions and Bradykinin-Dependent Relaxations in Pig Coronary Arteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xingjuan; Li, Wennan; Hiett, S Christopher; Obukhov, Alexander G

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated Kv7 channels are inhibited by agonists of Gq-protein-coupled receptors, such as histamine. Recent works have provided evidence that inhibition of vascular Kv7 channels may trigger vessel contractions. In this study, we investigated how Kv7 activity modulates the histamine-induced contractions in "healthy" and metabolic syndrome (MetS) pig right coronary arteries (CAs). We performed isometric tension and immunohistochemical studies with domestic, lean Ossabaw, and MetS Ossabaw pig CAs. We found that neither the Kv7.2/Kv7.4/Kv7.5 activator ML213 nor the general Kv7 inhibitor XE991 altered the tension of CA rings under preload, indicating that vascular Kv7 channels are likely inactive in the preloaded rings. Conversely, ML213 potently dilated histamine-pre-contracted CAs, suggesting that Kv7 channels are activated during histamine applications and yet partially inhibited by histamine. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed strong Kv7.4 immunostaining in the medial and intimal layers of the CA wall, whereas Kv7.5 immunostaining intensity was strong in the intimal but weak in the medial layers. The medial Kv7 immunostaining was significantly weaker in MetS Ossabaw CAs as compared to lean Ossabaw or domestic CAs. Consistently, histamine-pre-contracted MetS Ossabaw CAs exhibited attenuated ML213-dependent dilations. In domestic pig CAs, where medial Kv7 immunostaining intensity was stronger, histamine-induced contractions spontaneously decayed to ~31% of the peak amplitude within 4 minutes. Oppositely, in Ossabaw CAs, where Kv7 immunostaining intensity was weaker, the histamine-induced contractions were more sustained. XE991 pretreatment significantly slowed the decay rate of histamine-induced contractions in domestic CAs, supporting the hypothesis that increased Kv7 activity correlates with a faster rate of histamine-induced contraction decay. Alternatively, XE991 significantly decreased the amplitude of bradykinin-dependent dilations in pre-contracted CAs. We propose that in CAs, a decreased expression or a loss of function of Kv7 channels may lead to sustained histamine-induced contractions and reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation, both risk factors for coronary spasm. PMID:26844882

  15. Novel Roles for Kv7 Channels in Shaping Histamine-Induced Contractions and Bradykinin-Dependent Relaxations in Pig Coronary Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xingjuan; Li, Wennan; Hiett, S. Christopher; Obukhov, Alexander G.

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated Kv7 channels are inhibited by agonists of Gq-protein-coupled receptors, such as histamine. Recent works have provided evidence that inhibition of vascular Kv7 channels may trigger vessel contractions. In this study, we investigated how Kv7 activity modulates the histamine-induced contractions in “healthy” and metabolic syndrome (MetS) pig right coronary arteries (CAs). We performed isometric tension and immunohistochemical studies with domestic, lean Ossabaw, and MetS Ossabaw pig CAs. We found that neither the Kv7.2/Kv7.4/Kv7.5 activator ML213 nor the general Kv7 inhibitor XE991 altered the tension of CA rings under preload, indicating that vascular Kv7 channels are likely inactive in the preloaded rings. Conversely, ML213 potently dilated histamine-pre-contracted CAs, suggesting that Kv7 channels are activated during histamine applications and yet partially inhibited by histamine. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed strong Kv7.4 immunostaining in the medial and intimal layers of the CA wall, whereas Kv7.5 immunostaining intensity was strong in the intimal but weak in the medial layers. The medial Kv7 immunostaining was significantly weaker in MetS Ossabaw CAs as compared to lean Ossabaw or domestic CAs. Consistently, histamine-pre-contracted MetS Ossabaw CAs exhibited attenuated ML213-dependent dilations. In domestic pig CAs, where medial Kv7 immunostaining intensity was stronger, histamine-induced contractions spontaneously decayed to ~31% of the peak amplitude within 4 minutes. Oppositely, in Ossabaw CAs, where Kv7 immunostaining intensity was weaker, the histamine-induced contractions were more sustained. XE991 pretreatment significantly slowed the decay rate of histamine-induced contractions in domestic CAs, supporting the hypothesis that increased Kv7 activity correlates with a faster rate of histamine-induced contraction decay. Alternatively, XE991 significantly decreased the amplitude of bradykinin-dependent dilations in pre-contracted CAs. We propose that in CAs, a decreased expression or a loss of function of Kv7 channels may lead to sustained histamine-induced contractions and reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation, both risk factors for coronary spasm. PMID:26844882

  16. A MODEL OF SYMPTOMATIC INFANTILE SPASMS SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Scantlebury, Morris H.; Galanopoulou, Aristea S.; Chudomelova, Lenka; Raffo, Emmanuel; Betancourth, David; Mosh, Solomon L.

    2009-01-01

    Infantile spasms are characterized by age-specific expression of epileptic spasms, hypsarrhythmia and often result in significant cognitive impairment. Other epilepsies or autism often ensue especially in symptomatic IS (SIS). Cortical or subcortical damage, including white matter, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of SIS. To generate a model of SIS, we recreated this pathology by injecting rats with lipopolysaccharide and doxorubicin intracerebrally at postnatal day (P) 3 and with p-chlorophenylalanine intraperitoneally at P5. Spasms occurred between P413 and were associated with ictal EEG correlates, interictal EEG abnormalities and neurodevelopmental decline. After P9 other seizures, deficits in learning and memory, and autistic-like behaviors (indifference to other rats, increased grooming) were observed. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) did not affect spasms. Vigabatrin transiently suppressed spasms at P5. This new model of SIS will be useful to study the neurobiology and treatment of SIS, including those that are refractory to ACTH. PMID:19945533

  17. Infantile Spasm: A Review Article

    PubMed Central

    TAGHDIRI, Mohammad Mahdi; NEMATI, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Objective Infantile spasm (IS) is a convulsive disease characterized by brief, symmetric axial muscle contraction (neck, trunk, and/or extremities). IS is a type of seizure that was first described by West in 1841, who witnessed the seizure in his own son. Wests syndrome refers to the classic triad of spasms, characteristic EEG, and neurodevelopmental regression. Most cases involve flexors and extensors, but either of the types may be involved independently. IS, as its name implies, most often occurs during the first year of life with an incidence of approximately 1 per 2000-4000 live births. Most, but not all, patients with this disorder have severe EEG abnormalities; this pattern was originally referred to as hypsarrhythmia by Gibbs and Gibbs. Cases with known etiology or signs of brain damage are considered as symptomatic. The Overall prognosis of the disease is poor. Peak onset age of the epileptic syndrome is 3 to 7 months, which mainly occurs before 2 years of age in 93% of patients. Hypsarrhythmia is the EEG hallmark of IS, which comprised a chaotic, bilaterally asynchronous high-voltage polyspike, and slow wave discharges interspersed with multifocal spikes and slow waves. Etiological classification is as follows: 1) Symptomatic: with identifiable prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal causes with developmental delay at the presentation time; 2) Cryptogenic: unknown underlying cause, normal development at the onset of spasms, normal neurological exam and neuroimaging, and no abnormality in the metabolic evaluation; 3) Idiopathic: pure functional cerebral dysfunction with complete recovery, no residual dysfunction, normal neuroimaging and normal etiologic evaluation, and normal neurodevelopment. PMID:25143766

  18. Impact of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention on Exercise-Induced Repolarization Changes in Patients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Juki?, Anita; Carevi?, Vedran; Zekanovi?, Draen; Stojanovi?-Stipi?, Sanda; Runji?, Frane; Ljubkovi?, Marko; Fabijani?, Damir

    2015-09-15

    Recent reports suggest T peak to T end (Tpe) interval and Tpe/QT ratio as valuable indicators of increased arrhythmogenic risk in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to examine the exercise-induced changes in these indexes in patients with stable CAD, before and after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Forty patients were consecutively included in the interventional group (n = 20), with significant lesions (?75% luminal narrowing) suitable for PCI and in the control group (n = 20), with no significant coronary artery lesions (<50% luminal narrowing). One day before and 30 days after the coronarography, all patients performed treadmill exercise stress testing, and the electrocardiographic (ECG) indexes of repolarization were assessed during baseline and at peak exercise intensity. In the control group, the QT interval, QTc (QT-corrected) interval, Tpe interval, and Tpe/QT ratio measured at peak exercise significantly decreased from baseline values (p = 0.001, p = 0.004, p <0.001, and p = 0.017, respectively). Conversely, in interventional patients before the PCI, an increase in the Tpe interval and the Tpe/QT ratio was observed at exercise (p = 0.009, and p <0.001, respectively), with only the QT interval exhibiting a significant decrease from baseline (p <0.001). Thirty days after the PCI, all the ECG arrhythmogenic indexes measured at peak exercise significantly decreased from baseline values, thus assuming the same trend as detected in controls. In conclusion, restoration of blood supply normalized exercise-induced repolarization changes, suggesting that revascularization of previously ischemic myocardium lowers the cardiac arrhythmogenic potential in patients with stable CAD. PMID:26174604

  19. Distinction of non-ischemia inducing versus ischemia inducing coronary stenosis by fluorescent cardiac imaging.

    PubMed

    Wipper, Sabine; Reiter, Beate; Russ, Detlef; Hahnel, Fabian; Kersten, Jan-Felix; Klbel, Tilo; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Detter, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Intraoperative fluorescent cardiac imaging (FCI) can quantitatively assess myocardial perfusion abnormalities produced by graded flow-limiting coronary stenosis (FLS), but there are no data to distinguish FLS from non flow-limiting stenosis (NFLS) to determine their functional significance. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether non-ischemia inducing NFLS can be quantified and differentiated from FLS by FCI technology. Data are compared to gold standard fluorescent microspheres (FM). 11 domestic pigs of either sex underwent sternotomy. Left anterior descending coronary artery blood-flow was recorded by transit-time flow measurements. After baseline and Adenosine-induced hyperemia, two stenosis of low severity (50 and 90% NFLS) were produced, followed by FLS (50%) and total vessel occlusion. Time-dependent fluorescence intensity curves were recorded by FCI. Slope of fluorescence intensity (SFI) and background-subtracted peak fluorescence (BSFI) intensity were calculated and data compared to myocardial blood flow measurements using FM. All NFLS and FLS reduced myocardial perfusion as quantified by FCI showing decreased normalized BSFI and SFI (P<0.001). Box-plot analysis showed significant difference between NFLS (50 and 90%) and FLS (50%) assessed by BSFI (P<0.001) and SFI (P<0.001). In each animal, a linear correlation between FM-derived myocardial blood flow and FCI-derived BSFI (r=0.936, P<0.001) or SFI (r=0.942, P<0.001) was observed during baseline, hyperemia, graded NFLS, and FLS. Both, BSFI (r=0.789, P<0.001) and SFI (r=0.802, P<0.001) significantly correlated with transit-time flow measurements. FCI quantitative technology is capable of distinguishing between non-ischemia inducing NFLS and ischemia inducing FLS showing a good correlation compared to fluorescent microspheres. PMID:26408104

  20. Measurement of interstitial lactate during hypoxia-induced dilatation in isolated pressurised porcine coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Frbert, Ole; Mikkelsen, Erich O; Bagger, Jens P; Gravholt, Claus H

    2002-02-15

    Lactate is formed in the coronary arterial wall and in the myocardium as a consequence of ischaemia and infarction. We combined direct measurement of coronary artery diameter and interstitial arterial wall lactate concentration ex vivo in order to ascertain the possible role of lactate in hypoxia-induced vasodilatation. The wall of porcine coronary arteries, precontracted during an intraluminal pressure of 40 mmHg by addition of prostaglandin F2alpha, was cannulated using a microdialysis catheter, and exposed to hypoxia for 60 min, followed by 45 min of reoxygenation. The exchange fraction of [14C]lactate over the microdialysis membrane increased from 0.38 +/- 0.04 to 0.52 +/- 0.05 (P < 0.001) during the study period. Coronary artery diameter increased by 15.5 +/- 2.0 % (n = 20) during hypoxia (P < 0.001, compared to normoxic controls) and interstitial lactate concentration rose from 1.07 +/- 0.21 to 2.50 +/- 0.40 mmol x l(-1) during hypoxia (P < 0.01) and was unchanged in controls. The increase in coronary artery diameter correlated with the increase in interstitial lactate concentration in the period between 30 and 60 min of hypoxia (r = 0.62; P = 0.02). Dichloroacetate (10(-5) M), an agent that reduces lactate generation by activating pyruvate dehydrogenase, abolished hypoxia-induced lactate production, but caused a further increase in coronary arterial diameter (30.2 +/- 4.4 %, n = 9; P < 0.001 vs. hypoxia and no dichloroacetate). Under control conditions, the addition of L-lactate (10(-3)-10(-2) M) increased dose-dependently coronary arterial diameter by 22.0 +/- 4.2 % (n = 5) and interstitial lactate concentration from 0.52 +/- 0.04 to 5.70 +/- 0.66 mmol x l(-1) (P < 0.001). There was a correlation between the increase in coronary artery diameter and interstitial lactate concentration (r = 0.60; P = 0.02). The present observations represent the first direct measurements of metabolites by microdialysis in a blood vessel wall. The lactate concentration may affect, but is not essential for, hypoxia-induced vasodilatation in porcine coronary arteries. PMID:11850519

  1. Harmonic scalpel versus electrocautery for harvest of radial artery conduits: Reduced risk of spasm and intimal injury on optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Brazio, Philip S.; Laird, Patrick C.; Xu, Chenyang; Gu, Junyan; Burris, Nicholas S.; Brown, Emile N.; Kon, Zachary N.; Poston, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Vasospasm is the primary obstacle to widespread adoption of the radial artery as a conduit in coronary artery bypass grafting. We used optical coherence tomography, a catheter-based intravascular imaging modality, to measure the degree of radial artery spasm induced by means of harvest with electrocautery or a harmonic scalpel in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods Radial arteries were harvested from 44 consecutive patients with a harmonic scalpel (n = 15) or electrocautery (n = 29). Vessels were imaged before harvesting and after removal from the arm, with saphenous vein tracts serving as internal controls. Optical coherence tomographic findings for the degree of harvesting-induced injury were validated against histologic measures. Results Optical coherence tomographic measures of endovascular dimensions and injury correlated strongly with histologic findings. Mean luminal volume, a measure of vasospasm, decreased significantly less after harvesting with a harmonic scalpel (9% 7%) than with electrocautery (35% 6%, P = .015). Completely intact intima was present in 11 (73%) of 15 radial arteries harvested with a harmonic scalpel (73%) compared with 9 of 29 arteries harvested by means of electrocautery (31%, P = .011). Intraoperative flow measurements and patency rates at 5 days postoperatively were not significantly different among groups. Conclusions Optical coherence tomography provides a level of speed and accuracy for quantifying endothelial injury and vasospasm that has not been described for any other modality, suggesting potential as an intraoperative quality assurance tool. Our optical coherence tomographic findings suggest that the harmonic scalpel induces less spasm and intimal injury compared with electrocautery. PMID:19026820

  2. Contrast induced neurotoxicity following coronary angiogram with Iohexol in an end stage renal disease patient.

    PubMed

    Gollol Raju, Narasimha Swamy; Joshi, Deepak; Daggubati, Ramesh; Movahed, Assad

    2015-11-16

    Neurotoxicity is an infrequent adverse reaction to iodinated contrast agents. Contrast induced neurotoxicity following coronary angiogram is very rare. Renal disease is a risk factor for contrast induced neurotoxicity. We report a case of contrast induced neurotoxicity following coronary angiogram and intervention using Iohexol (Omnipaque 350) in an end stage renal disease patient on peritoneal dialysis who had prior exposure to iodinated contrast without any adverse reaction. Hemodialysis had to be initiated for rapid removal of the contrast agent with subsequent complete resolution of neurological deficits. This case highlights the need for interventionalists to be aware of an important adverse reaction to iodinated contrast agents, especially in individuals with renal dysfunction, and that neurotoxicity is a possibility even with prior uneventful exposures. The role and timing of hemodialysis in contrast induced neurotoxicity in patients with chronic kidney disease and in those without chronic kidney disease needs further deliberation. PMID:26601097

  3. Contrast induced neurotoxicity following coronary angiogram with Iohexol in an end stage renal disease patient

    PubMed Central

    Gollol Raju, Narasimha Swamy; Joshi, Deepak; Daggubati, Ramesh; Movahed, Assad

    2015-01-01

    Neurotoxicity is an infrequent adverse reaction to iodinated contrast agents. Contrast induced neurotoxicity following coronary angiogram is very rare. Renal disease is a risk factor for contrast induced neurotoxicity. We report a case of contrast induced neurotoxicity following coronary angiogram and intervention using Iohexol (Omnipaque 350) in an end stage renal disease patient on peritoneal dialysis who had prior exposure to iodinated contrast without any adverse reaction. Hemodialysis had to be initiated for rapid removal of the contrast agent with subsequent complete resolution of neurological deficits. This case highlights the need for interventionalists to be aware of an important adverse reaction to iodinated contrast agents, especially in individuals with renal dysfunction, and that neurotoxicity is a possibility even with prior uneventful exposures. The role and timing of hemodialysis in contrast induced neurotoxicity in patients with chronic kidney disease and in those without chronic kidney disease needs further deliberation. PMID:26601097

  4. Cellular and Pharmacological Targets to Induce Coronary Arteriogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hollander, Maurits R.; Horrevoets, Anton J.G.; van Royen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The formation of collateral vessels (arteriogenesis) to sustain perfusion in ischemic tissue is native to the body and can compensate for coronary stenosis. However, arteriogenesis is a complex process and is dependent on many different factors. Although animal studies on collateral formation and stimulation show promising data, clinical trials have failed to replicate these results. Further research to the exact mechanisms is needed in order to develop a pharmalogical stimulant. This review gives an overview of recent data in the field of arteriogenesis. PMID:23638831

  5. Detailing Radio Frequency Heating Induced by Coronary Stents: A 7.0 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Study

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Davide; Winter, Lukas; Mller, Alexander; Vogt, Julia; Renz, Wolfgang; zerdem, Celal; Grssl, Andreas; Tkachenko, Valeriy; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity gain of ultrahigh field Magnetic Resonance (UHF-MR) holds the promise to enhance spatial and temporal resolution. Such improvements could be beneficial for cardiovascular MR. However, intracoronary stents used for treatment of coronary artery disease are currently considered to be contra-indications for UHF-MR. The antenna effect induced by a stent together with RF wavelength shortening could increase local radiofrequency (RF) power deposition at 7.0 T and bears the potential to induce local heating, which might cause tissue damage. Realizing these constraints, this work examines RF heating effects of stents using electro-magnetic field (EMF) simulations and phantoms with properties that mimic myocardium. For this purpose, RF power deposition that exceeds the clinical limits was induced by a dedicated birdcage coil. Fiber optic probes and MR thermometry were applied for temperature monitoring using agarose phantoms containing copper tubes or coronary stents. The results demonstrate an agreement between RF heating induced temperature changes derived from EMF simulations versus MR thermometry. The birdcage coil tailored for RF heating was capable of irradiating power exceeding the specific-absorption rate (SAR) limits defined by the IEC guidelines by a factor of three. This setup afforded RF induced temperature changes up to +27 K in a reference phantom. The maximum extra temperature increase, induced by a copper tube or a coronary stent was less than 3 K. The coronary stents examined showed an RF heating behavior similar to a copper tube. Our results suggest that, if IEC guidelines for local/global SAR are followed, the extra RF heating induced in myocardial tissue by stents may not be significant versus the baseline heating induced by the energy deposited by a tailored cardiac transmit RF coil at 7.0 T, and may be smaller if not insignificant than the extra RF heating observed under the circumstances used in this study. PMID:23185498

  6. Caring for muscle spasticity or spasms

    MedlinePLUS

    High muscle tone - care; Increased muscle tension - care; Upper motor neuron syndrome - care; Muscle stiffness - care ... Muscle spasticity, or spasms, causes your muscles to become stiff or rigid. It can also cause exaggerated, ...

  7. Carisbamate acutely suppresses spasms in a rat model of symptomatic infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Tomonori; Mosh, Solomon L.; Galanopoulou, Aristea S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Infantile spasms are the signature seizures of West syndrome. The conventional treatments for infantile spasms, such as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and vigabatrin, are not always effective, especially in symptomatic infantile spasms (SIS). We tested the efficacy of carisbamate, a novel neurotherapeutic drug, to suppress spasms in the multiple-hit rat model of SIS and compared it with phenytoin to determine if its effect is via sodium-channel blockade. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats received right intracerebral infusions of doxorubicin and lipopolysaccharide at postnatal day 3 (PN3) and intraperitoneal p-chlorophenylalanine at PN5. A single intraperitoneal injection of carisbamate was administered at PN4, after the onset of spasms, at the following doses: 10mg/kg (CRS-10); 30 mg/kg (CRS-30); 60 mg/kg (CRS-60) and was compared to vehicle-injected group (VEH). Video-monitoring of PN67 CRS-60 or VEH injected pups was also done. Key findings Carisbamate acutely reduced both behavioral spasms (CRS-30 and CRS-60 groups only) and electroclinical spasms, during the first 23 post-injection hours, without detectable toxicity or mortality. In contrast, phenytoin (20 or 50 mg/kg) failed to suppress spasms. Significance Our findings provide preclinical evidence that carisbamate displays acute anticonvulsive effect on spasms through a sodium channel-independent mechanism. As spasms in the multiple-hit rat model are refractory to ACTH and transiently sensitive to vigabatrin, carisbamate may constitute a candidate new therapy for SIS, including the ACTH-refractory spasms. Further confirmation with clinical studies is needed. PMID:21770922

  8. Coronary pressure-flow autoregulation protects myocardium from pressure-induced changes in oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Bai, X J; Iwamoto, T; Williams, A G; Fan, W L; Downey, H F

    1994-06-01

    Pressure-flow autoregulation minimizes changes in coronary blood flow (CBF) when coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) is altered. This investigation determined if autoregulation also minimizes CPP-induced changes in coronary vascular volume (CVV) and CVV-dependent changes in myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2). In 11 anesthetized dogs, the left anterior descending coronary artery was cannulated, and responses to 20-mmHg changes in CPP were examined over a range of CPP from 60 to 180 mmHg. Changes in CPP had no significant effect on systemic hemodynamics or on left ventricular end-diastolic segment length, end-systolic segment length, or percent segment shortening. In hearts with effective pressure-flow autoregulation [closed-loop gain (GC) > 0.4], CVV increased 0.06%/mmHg change in CPP. For the same hearts, MVO2 increased 0.04%/mmHg change in CPP. In hearts with ineffective autoregulation (GC < 0.4), CVV increased 0.97%/mmHg (P < 0.001 vs. autoregulating hearts), and MVO2 increased 0.41%/mmHg (P < 0.001 vs. autoregulating hearts). MVO2 and CVV were correlated (r = 0.69, P < 0.0001) independently of autoregulatory capability, but only when autoregulation was poor and capacitance was elevated did CPP significantly affect MVO2. We conclude that pressure-flow autoregulation protects myocardium from CPP-induced changes in CVV, which in turn produces changes in oxygen consumption. PMID:8023997

  9. Microparticle-Induced Coagulation Relates to Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis in Severe Aortic Valve Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Patrick; Erkilet, Gülsüm; Veulemans, Verena; Kröpil, Patric; Schurgers, Leon; Zeus, Tobias; Heiss, Christian; Kelm, Malte; Westenfeld, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating microparticles (MPs) derived from endothelial cells and blood cells bear procoagulant activity and promote thrombin generation. Thrombin exerts proinflammatory effects mediating the progression of atherosclerosis. Aortic valve stenosis may represent an atherosclerosis-like process involving both the aortic valve and the vascular system. The aim of this study was to investigate whether MP-induced thrombin generation is related to coronary atherosclerosis and aortic valve calcification. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 55 patients with severe aortic valve stenosis, we assessed the coronary calcification score (CAC) as indicator of total coronary atherosclerosis burden, and aortic valve calcification (AVC) by computed tomography. Thrombin-antithrombin complex (TATc) levels were measured as a marker for thrombin formation. Circulating MPs were characterized by flow cytometry according to the expression of established surface antigens and by measuring MP-induced thrombin generation. Results Patients with CAC score below the median were classified as patients with low CAC, patients with CAC Score above the median as high CAC. In patients with high CAC compared to patients with low CAC we detected higher levels of TATc, platelet-derived MPs (PMPs), endothelial-derived MPs (EMPs) and MP-induced thrombin generation. Increased level of PMPs and MP-induced thrombin generation were independent predictors for the severity of CAC. In contrast, AVC Score did not differ between patients with high and low CAC and did neither correlate with MPs levels nor with MP-induced thrombin generation. Conclusion In patients with severe aortic valve stenosis MP-induced thrombin generation was independently associated with the severity of CAC but not AVC indicating different pathomechanisms involved in coronary artery and aortic valve calcification. PMID:27010400

  10. Carperitide induces coronary vasodilation and limits infarct size in canine ischemic hearts: role of NO.

    PubMed

    Asanuma, Hiroshi; Sanada, Shoji; Asakura, Masanori; Asano, Yoshihiro; Kim, Jiyoong; Shinozaki, Yoshiro; Mori, Hidezo; Minamino, Tetsuo; Takashima, Seiji; Kitakaze, Masafumi

    2014-08-01

    Carperitide is effective for heart failure (HF) owing to its diuretic and vasodilatory effects. This recombinant peptide may also have direct cardioprotective effects because carperitide reduces the severity of heart failure and limits infarct size. Because coronary vasodilation is an important cardioprotective treatment modality, we investigated whether carperitide increased coronary blood flow (CBF) and improved myocardial metabolic and contractile dysfunction during ischemia in canine hearts. We also tested whether carperitide is directly responsible for limiting the infarct size. We infused carperitide at 0.025-0.2??g?kg(-1)?min(-1) into the canine coronary artery. A minimum dose of 0.1??g?kg(-1)?min(-1) was required to obtain maximal vasodilation. To test the effects of carperitide on ischemic hearts, we reduced perfusion pressure in the left anterior descending coronary artery such that CBF decreased to one-third of the baseline value. At 10?min after carperitide was infused at a dose of 0.1??g?kg(-1)?min(-1), we observed increases in CBF, fractional shortening (FS) and pH levels in coronary venous blood without concomitant increases in cardiac nitric oxide (NO) levels; these changes were attenuated using either the atrial natriuretic peptide receptor antagonist HS-142-1 or the NO synthase inhibitor L(?)-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP) levels in the coronary artery were elevated in response to carperitide that also limited the infarct size after 90?min of ischemia and subsequent reperfusion. Again, these effects were blunted by L-NAME. Carperitide increases CBF, reduces myocardial contractile and metabolic dysfunction and limits infarct size. In addition, NO is necessary for carperitide-induced vasodilation and cardioprotection in ischemic hearts. PMID:24694647

  11. Exercise left ventricular performance in patients with chest pain, ischemic-appearing exercise electrocardiograms, and angiographically normal coronary arteries

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, H.J.; Sands, M.J.; Davies, R.A.; Wackers, F.J.; Alexander, J.; Lachman, A.S.; Williams, B.W.; Zaret, B.L.

    1981-02-01

    Left ventricular performance was evaluated using first-pass radionuclide angiocardiography in 31 patients with chest pain, an ischemic-appearing exercise electrocardiogram, and angiographically normal coronary arteries at rest and during maximal upright bicycle exercise. /sup 201/Tl imaging was done in all patients after treadmill exercise and in selected patients after ergonovine provocation. Resting left ventricular performance was normal in all patients. An abnormal ejection fraction response to exercise was detected in 12 of 31 patients. Regional dysfunction was present during exercise in four patients, all of whom also had abnormal global responses. Three of these 12 patients and two additional patients had exercise-induced /sup 201/Tl perfusion defects. In all nine patients who underwent ergonovine testing, there was no suggestion of coronary arterial spasm. Thus, left ventricular dysfunction during exercise, in the presence of normal resting performance, was found in a substantial number of patients with chest pain, an ischemic-appearing exercise electrocardiogram, and normal coronary arteries.

  12. Hemifacial Spasm and Neurovascular Compression

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Alex Y.; Yeung, Jacky T.; Gerrard, Jason L.; Michaelides, Elias M.; Sekula, Raymond F.; Bulsara, Ketan R.

    2014-01-01

    Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is characterized by involuntary unilateral contractions of the muscles innervated by the ipsilateral facial nerve, usually starting around the eyes before progressing inferiorly to the cheek, mouth, and neck. Its prevalence is 9.8 per 100,000 persons with an average age of onset of 44 years. The accepted pathophysiology of HFS suggests that it is a disease process of the nerve root entry zone of the facial nerve. HFS can be divided into two types: primary and secondary. Primary HFS is triggered by vascular compression whereas secondary HFS comprises all other causes of facial nerve damage. Clinical examination and imaging modalities such as electromyography (EMG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful to differentiate HFS from other facial movement disorders and for intraoperative planning. The standard medical management for HFS is botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injections, which provides low-risk but limited symptomatic relief. The only curative treatment for HFS is microvascular decompression (MVD), a surgical intervention that provides lasting symptomatic relief by reducing compression of the facial nerve root. With a low rate of complications such as hearing loss, MVD remains the treatment of choice for HFS patients as intraoperative technique and monitoring continue to improve. PMID:25405219

  13. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia following coronary artery bypass grafting: a diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Khanal, Raju; Karmacharya, Paras; Forman, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a challenge in post-cardiac surgery patients because of the high incidence of non-immune thrombocytopenia and heparinplatelet factor 4 antibodies in these groups. We present a case of HIT in a post coronary artery bypass surgery patient, which was successfully treated with prompt recognition and discontinuation of heparin products. PMID:26486110

  14. Acute coronary occlusion during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.

    PubMed Central

    Shiu, M F; Silverton, N P; Oakley, D; Cumberland, D

    1985-01-01

    Two hundred and forty percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty procedures were performed in three centres over a two year period. Acute occlusion of the vessel undergoing angioplasty was seen on 20 (8%) occasions. The cause of occlusion was determined angiographically and in some cases confirmed at the time of emergency open heart surgery. The mechanism of coronary occlusion was arterial dissection in six cases, persisting coronary arterial spasm in seven, and coronary thrombosis in four. In three patients the mechanism could not be determined. Immediate reintroduction of a balloon dilatation catheter was attempted in 10 patients and resulted in restoration of adequate coronary flow in six. The remaining 14 patients underwent open heart surgery as an emergency procedure. Images PMID:3160376

  15. A Rare Case of Acute Myocardial Infarction due to Coronary Artery Dissection and Heparin-Induced Thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Fradley, Michael G.; Drachman, Douglas E.

    2012-01-01

    Although both coronary artery dissection and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia may provoke myocardial infarction, it is extremely rare for both conditions to develop simultaneously in a single patient. We report a case of a 69-year-old woman who sustained a head-on motor vehicle accident with associated chest trauma. During a subsequent hospitalization, she was exposed to subcutaneous heparin and developed significant thrombocytopenia. Shortly thereafter, she re-presented with an acute myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography revealed a spiral dissection with superimposed thrombosis within the right coronary artery, while laboratory testing confirmed the diagnosis of heparin induced thrombocytopenia. She was treated with catheter-based thrombectomy and adjunctive direct thrombin inhibitor therapy, followed by three months of systemic anticoagulation with warfarin. To our knowledge, this represents the first published case of a native vessel myocardial infarction due to the combination of coronary artery dissection and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. PMID:22719771

  16. Neonatal estradiol stimulation prevents epilepsy in Arx model of X-linked infantile spasms syndrome.

    PubMed

    Olivetti, Pedro R; Maheshwari, Atul; Noebels, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-22

    Infantile spasms are a catastrophic form of pediatric epilepsy with inadequate treatment. In patients, mutation of ARX, a transcription factor selectively expressed in neuronal precursors and adult inhibitory interneurons, impairs cell migration and causes a major inherited subtype of the disease X-linked infantile spasms syndrome. Using an animal model, the Arx((GCG)10+7) mouse, we determined that brief estradiol (E2) administration during early postnatal development prevented spasms in infancy and seizures in adult mutants. E2 was ineffective when delivered after puberty or 30 days after birth. Early E2 treatment altered mRNA levels of three downstream targets of Arx (Shox2, Ebf3, and Lgi1) and restored depleted interneuron populations without increasing GABAergic synaptic density. Postnatal E2 treatment may induce lasting transcriptional changes that lead to enduring disease modification and could potentially serve as a therapy for inherited interneuronopathies. PMID:24452264

  17. Neonatal Estradiol Stimulation Prevents Epilepsy in Arx Model of X-Linked Infantile Spasms Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Olivetti, Pedro R.; Maheshwari, Atul; Noebels, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Infantile spasms are a catastrophic form of pediatric epilepsy with inadequate treatment. In patients, mutation of ARX, a transcription factor selectively expressed in neuronal precursors and adult inhibitory interneurons, impairs cell migration and causes a major inherited subtype of the disease X-linked infantile spasms syndrome. Using an animal model, the Arx(GCG)10+7 mouse, we determined that brief estradiol (E2) administration during early postnatal development prevented spasms in infancy and seizures in adult mutants. E2 was ineffective when delivered after puberty or 30 days after birth. Early E2 treatment altered mRNA levels of three downstream targets of Arx (Shox2, Ebf3, and Lgi1) and restored depleted interneuron populations without increasing GABAergic synaptic density. Postnatal E2 treatment may induce lasting transcriptional changes that lead to enduring disease modification and could potentially serve as a therapy for inherited interneuronopathies. PMID:24452264

  18. Closure of guide wire-induced coronary artery perforation with a two-component fibrin glue.

    PubMed

    Strger, Hans; Ruef, Johannes

    2007-08-01

    Perforation or rupture of a coronary artery with subsequent pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade is a potentially life-threatening complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Several emergency treatment strategies exist to close the perforation including reversal of anticoagulation, prolonged balloon inflation, implantation of stent grafts, local injection of thrombogenic molecules, placement of microcoils, or open heart surgery. Here we report on a 66-year-old patient who underwent urgent PCI for acute stent thrombosis in the proximal LAD. The artery was reopened, a new stent implanted successfully, and a GPIIb/IIIa-antagonist was given. Shortly thereafter the patient suffered from cardiac tamponade requiring pericardiocentesis and pericardial drainage. The coronary angiogram indicated a severe guide wire-induced perforation and pericardial effusion originating from a distal diagonal branch segment. Prolonged balloon inflation did not stop the leakage. Therefore the monorail balloon was exchanged for an over-the-wire balloon. A two-component commercial fibrin glue consisting of fibrinogen and thrombin was rapidly but separately injected through the wire channel of the balloon into the distal segment of the diagonal branch. The coronary leak was successfully closed and the patient recovered quickly. In comparison with the previously reported cases of thrombin injection important differences should be noticed: (1) a two-component hemostatic seal was used without reversal of anticoagulation, (2) rapid injection instead of prolonged infusion of the hemostatic drugs was performed, and (3) the rescue technique was applied in a cath lab that routinely uses monorail catheter systems. Therefore we consider this a novel and effective approach for closure of coronary ruptures. PMID:17420994

  19. Single photon emission computed tomography with thallium-201 during adenosine-induced coronary hyperemia: Correlation with coronary arteriography, exercise thallium imaging and two-dimensional echocardiography

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, T.; Heo, J.; Ogilby, J.D.; Iskandrian, A.S. )

    1990-11-01

    The feasibility, safety and diagnostic accuracy of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with thallium-201 imaging during adenosine-induced coronary hyperemia were evaluated in 53 patients with and 7 without coronary artery disease proved by coronary angiography. Adenosine was infused intravenously at a dose of 0.14 mg/kg body weight per min for 6 min and thallium was injected at 3 min. Adenosine caused an increase in heart rate (68 +/- 12 at baseline versus 87 +/- 18 beats/min at peak effect, p less than 0.0001) but no change in blood pressure. The sensitivity and specificity were 92% (95% confidence intervals 81% to 98%) and 100% (95% confidence intervals 59% to 100%), respectively; 20 (61%) of 33 patients with multivessel coronary artery disease were also correctly identified. In 30 patients, the predictive accuracy of adenosine thallium imaging was slightly higher than that of exercise SPECT thallium imaging (90% versus 80%, p = NS) (95% confidence intervals 72% to 97% and 61% to 92%, respectively). In 25 patients, two-dimensional echocardiography during adenosine infusion disclosed a new wall motion abnormality in 2 (10%) of 20 patients with coronary artery disease; 80% of these patients had reversible thallium defects (p less than 0.001). Side effects were mild and transient; aminophylline was used in only three patients. Thus, adenosine SPECT thallium imaging provides a high degree of accuracy in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease. The results are comparable with those of exercise SPECT thallium imaging. Most reversible defects in the adenosine study are not associated with any transient wall motion abnormality.

  20. Association between infantile spasms and nonaccidental head injury.

    PubMed

    Birca, Ala; D'Anjou, Guy; Carmant, Lionel

    2014-05-01

    Infantile spasms constitute a severe epileptic encephalopathy of infancy with poor long-term developmental outcome. Many diverse etiologies have been associated with infantile spasms, but the pathophysiological process is still not fully understood. We describe 2 cases of previously healthy 1- and 3-month-old infants who suffered a nonaccidental head injury with extensive cerebral lesions. Both presented with acute focal seizures rapidly controlled with phenobarbital. Nevertheless, they developed infantile spasms after a latency period of 3-4 months. Spasms were rapidly controlled with vigabatrin. Both children manifested with developmental delay, either exacerbated (case 1) or elicited (case 2) by infantile spasms. Our report highlights nonaccidental head injury as a risk factor for developing infantile spasms following a seizure-free latency period. A better understanding of the pathophysiology linking accidental brain trauma with infantile spasms could lead to more effective neuroprotective strategies. In the meantime, increased awareness and follow-up are warranted. PMID:23580697

  1. Serotonin, atherosclerosis, and collateral vessel spasm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenberg, N.

    1988-01-01

    Studies on animal models demonstrate that platelet products contribute to vascular spasm in ischemic syndromes and that this is reversible with administration of ketanserin and thromboxane synthesis inhibitors. Laboratory animals (dogs, rabbits, and rats) that had femoral artery ligations exhibited supersensitivity to serotonin within days in their collateral blood vessels. This supersensitivity lasted at least 6 months. The response to serotonin was reversed by ketanserin, but not by 5HT-1 antagonists. Supersensitivity does not extend to norepinephrine, and alpha blockers do not influence the response to serotonin. It appears that platelet activation by endothelial injury contributes to ischemia through blood vessel occlusion and vascular spasm. When platelet activation occurs in vivo, blood vessel occlusion and vascular spasm are reversible in part by using ketanserin or agents that block thromboxane synthesis or its action. Combining both classes of agents reverses spasm completely. These findings support existing evidence that platelet products contribute to vascular disease, and provide an approach to improved management with currently available pharmacologic agents.

  2. Validation of the rat model of cryptogenic infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    Chachua, Tamar; Yum, Mi-Sun; Velkov, Jana; Velek, Libor

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether a new model of cryptogenic infantile spasms consisting of prenatal priming with betamethasone and postnatal trigger of spasms by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid responds to chronic ACTH treatment, and has similar EEG signature, efficacy of treatments, and behavioral impairments as human infantile spasms. Methods Rats prenatally primed with betamethasone on gestational day 15 were used. Spasms were triggered with N-methyl-D-aspartic acid between postnatal days (P) 10-15 in a single session or in multiple sessions in one subject. The expression of spasms was compared to prenatally saline-injected controls. Effects of relevant treatments (ACTH, vigabatrin, methylprednisolone, rapamycin) were determined in betamethasone-primed rats. In the rats after spasms, behavioral evaluation was performed in the open field and and elevated plus maze on P20-22. Key Findings NMDA at P10-15 (the rat infant period) triggers the spasms significantly earlier and in greater numbers in the prenatal betamethasone-exposed brain compared to controls. Similar to human condition, the spasms occur in clusters. Repeated trigger of spasms is associated with ictal EEG electrodecrements and interictal large-amplitude waves, a possible rat variant of hypsarrhythmia. Chronic ACTH treatment in a randomized experiment, and chronic pretreatment with methylprednisolone significantly suppress number of spasms similar to human condition. Pretreatment with vigabatrin, but not rapamycin, suppressed the spasms. Significant behavioral changes occurred following multiple bouts of spasms. Significance The model of infantile spasms has remarkable similarities with the human condition in semiology, EEG, pharmacological response, and long-term outcome. Thus, the model can be used for search of novel and more effective treatments for infantile spasms. PMID:21854372

  3. Stereoselective inhibition of thromboxane-induced coronary vasoconstriction by 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Eltze, M.; Boer, R.; Sanders, K.H.; Boss, H.; Ulrich, W.R.; Flockerzi, D. )

    1990-01-01

    The biological activity of the (+)-S- and (-)-R-enantiomers of niguldipine, of the (-)-S- and (+)-R-enantiomers of felodipine and nitrendipine, and of rac-nisoldipine and rac-nimodipine was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of coronary vasoconstriction due to the thromboxane A2 (TxA2)-mimetic U-46619 in guinea pig Langendorff hearts, displacement of (+)-({sup 3}H)isradipine from calcium channel binding sites of guinea pig skeletal muscle T-tubule membranes, and blood pressure reduction in spontaneously hypertensive rats were determined. The enantiomers were obtained by stereoselective synthesis. Cross-contamination was less than 0.5% for both S- and R-enantiomers of niguldipine and nitrendipine and less than 1% for those of felodipine. From the doses necessary for a 50% inhibition of coronary vasoconstriction, stereoselectivity ratios for (+)-(S)-/(-)-(R)-niguldipine, (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-felodipine, and (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-nitrendipine of 28, 13, and 7, respectively, were calculated. The potency ratio rac-nisoldipine/rac-nimodipine was 3.5. Ratios obtained from binding experiments and antihypertensive activity were (+)-(S)-/(-)-(R)-niguldipine = 45 and 35, (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-felodipine = 12 and 13, (-)-(S)-/(+)-(R)-nitrendipine = 8 and 8, and rac-nisoldipine/rac-nimodipine = 8 and 7, respectively. Highly significant correlations were found between the in vitro potency of the substances to prevent U-46619-induced coronary vasoconstriction and their affinity for calcium channel binding sites as well as their antihypertensive activity.

  4. Testosterone Replacement Therapy Prevents Alterations of Coronary Vascular Reactivity Caused by Hormone Deficiency Induced by Castration

    PubMed Central

    Rouver, Wender Nascimento; Delgado, Nathalie Tristo Banhos; Menezes, Jussara Bezerra; Santos, Roger Lyrio; Moyses, Margareth Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effects of chronic treatment with different doses of testosterone on endotheliumdependent coronary vascular reactivity in male rats. Adult male rats were divided into four experimental groups: control (SHAM), castrated (CAST), castrated and immediately treated subcutaneously with a physiological dose (0.5 mg/kg/day, PHYSIO group) or supraphysiological dose (2.5 mg/kg/day, SUPRA group) of testosterone for 15 days. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was assessed at the end of treatment through tail plethysmography. After euthanasia, the heart was removed and coronary vascular reactivity was assessed using the Langendorff retrograde perfusion technique. A doseresponse curve for bradykinin (BK) was constructed, followed by inhibition with 100 ?M L-NAME, 2.8 ?M indomethacin (INDO), L-NAME + INDO, or L-NAME + INDO + 0.75 ?M clotrimazole (CLOT). We observed significant endotheliumdependent, BKinduced coronary vasodilation, which was abolished in the castrated group and restored in the PHYSIO and SUPRA groups. Furthermore, castration modulated the lipid and hormonal profiles and decreased body weight, and testosterone therapy restored all of these parameters. Our results revealed an increase in SBP in the SUPRA group. In addition, our data led us to conclude that physiological concentrations of testosterone may play a beneficial role in the cardiovascular system by maintaining an environment that is favourable for the activity of an endotheliumdependent vasodilator without increasing SBP. PMID:26322637

  5. Elevated Concentration of Interferon-Inducible Protein of 10 kD (IP-10) Is Associated With Coronary Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Niki, Toshiyuki; Soeki, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Koji; Taketani, Yoshio; Yagi, Shusuke; Iwase, Takashi; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Shimabukuro, Michio; Sata, Masataka

    2015-05-13

    Several studies have shown that various chemokines are more highly expressed in atherosclerotic plaques than in normal vessel walls. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between coronary atherosclerosis and noteworthy chemokines, including interferon-inducible protein of 10 kD (IP-10); monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1); regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES); and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), an established marker of atherosclerotic disease. We studied 28 patients who underwent coronary angiography because of suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). CAD was defined as stenosis of more than 50% of the vessel diameter on coronary angiograms. Blood samples were obtained both from the aorta and the coronary sinus (CS) just before coronary angiography. Relative to CAD (-) patients, those who were CAD (+) tended to have higher plasma concentrations of IP-10 in the aorta, as well as significantly higher transcoronary concentration gradients of circulating IP-10. There were no significant differences between the two groups in aortic plasma concentrations or transcoronary concentration gradients of MCP-1, RANTES, and hsCRP. Furthermore, both the aortic plasma concentrations and transcoronary concentration gradients of IP-10 correlated with the Gensini score (r = 0.58 and r = 0.63, respectively, P < 0.01), while the plasma MCP-1, RANTES, and serum hsCRP concentrations did not. This study suggests that IP-10 is a good surrogate marker of coronary atherosclerosis. PMID:25902883

  6. The relationship between ischemia-induced left ventricular dysfunction, coronary flow reserve, and coronary steal on regadenoson stress-gated 82Rb PET myocardial perfusion imaging

    PubMed Central

    Van Tosh, Andrew; Votaw, John R.; Reichek, Nathaniel; Palestro, Christopher J.; Nichols, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Gated rubidium-82 (82Rb) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies are acquired both at rest and during pharmacologic stress. Stress-induced ischemic left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) can produce a significant decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) from rest to stress. We determined the prevalence on PET of stress LVD with reduced ejection fraction (EF) and its association with absolute global and regional coronary flow reserve (CFR), and with relative perfusion defect summed difference score (SDS). Methods and Results We studied 205 patients with known or suspected coronary disease (120 M, 75 F, age 69 13 years) who had clinically indicated rest/regadenoson stress 82Rb PET/CT studies. Data were acquired in dynamic gated list mode. Global and 17-segment regional CFR values were computed from first-pass flow data using a 2-compartment model and factor analysis applied to auto-generated time-activity curves. Rest and stress LVEF and SDS were quantified from gated equilibrium myocardial perfusion tomograms using Emory Cardiac Toolbox software. LVD was defined as a change in LVEF of ??5% from rest to stress. A subgroup of 109 patients also had coronary angiography. Stress LVD developed in 32 patients (16%), with mean EF change of ?10 5%, vs +6 7% for patients without LVD (P < .0001). EF was similar at rest in patients with and without stress LVD (57 18% vs 56 16%, P = .63), but lower during stress for patients with LVD (47 20% vs 61 16%, P = .0001). CFR was significantly lower in patients with LVD (1.61 0.67 vs 2.21 1.03, Wilcoxon P = .002), and correlated significantly with change in EF (r = 0.35, P < .0001), but not with SDS (r = ?0.13, P = .07). The single variable most strongly associated with high risk of CAD (i.e., left main stenosis ?50%, LAD % stenosis ?70%, and/or 3-vessel disease) was stress EF (?2 = 17.3, P < .0001). There was a higher prevalence of patients with territorial CFR values ?1.0, consistent with coronary steal, in the LVD group than in the non-LVD group (39% vs 12%, P = .001). Conclusions LVD developed in 16% of patients undergoing 82Rb PET myocardial perfusion imaging, and was associated with multivessel coronary artery disease. There was a significant relationship between LVD and coronary blood flow during stress, with LVD corresponding to a low CFR. Territorial CFR ?1.0 was more common in patients with LVD than those without, suggesting that coronary steal is an important pathophysiologic mechanism contributing to pharmacologic stress-induced LVD. PMID:24092270

  7. Generalised cranial artery spasm in human rabies.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, R E; Roy-Burman, A; Martin, K W; Christensen, J C; Westenkirschner, D F; Fleck, J D; Glaser, C; Hyland, K; Rupprecht, C E

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, a teenager survived bat-associated rabies through the Milwaukee protocol (MP). This survivor and another patient with dog-associated rabies were found to have developed deficiencies of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and associated neurotransmitters. BH4 is also essential for neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), so rabies is predicted to cause constriction of cerebral arteries. We assume that rabies virus, which almost exclusively targets neurons, would disproportionately affect cerebral over systemic perfusion by disrupting nNOS and lead to generalised cerebral artery spasm. Cranial artery vasospasm, therefore, was actively sought in two rabies patients, with the intention to specifically treat with BH4 and L-arginine when necessary. Flow velocities and resistive (RI) or pulsatility indices (PI) of middle cerebral arteries (MCA) were obtained by transcranial doppler ultrasound (TCD). A survival analysis of 8 attempts at the MP is presented. Of these, two cases are reported here. The first case is one child with bat-associated rabies who developed severe bilateral MCAspasm on hospital day (HD)-10 that responded to very low dose (0.2 mcg/kg/min) nitroprusside. The second case, a child with dog-associated rabies, developed spasm of MCA on HD-6 that responded to 6 mg/kg/day BH4. A second spasm with high RI (without cerebral oedema or increased intracranial pressure) responded to 20 mg/kg/day BH4 and 0.5 g/kg/dose L-arginine. Review of the TCD of the first child showed a similar second spasm seven days after first episode. Cerebral artery vasospasm occurred in the two children with rabies, but was clinically silent by standard monitoring. Spasm responded to drugs directed at the NOS pathway. Animal models for treatment of rabies are sorely needed to evaluate therapy. PMID:18634498

  8. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) causing pulmonary emboli during coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Jiji, Ronny S; Michaels, Andrew D

    2008-11-15

    Thrombotic complications of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) can be devastating if not recognized and treated promptly. We describe an unusual case of rapid-onset HIT resulting in massive-bilateral pulmonary emboli in a 70 year-old man who developed chest pain during elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The diagnosis was made the following day after persistent chest pain and laboratory work demonstrating a new thrombocytopenia, a mildly elevated troponin, and positive DIC panel led to confirmatory imaging tests. HIT-related thrombosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chest pain in patients undergoing PCI. PMID:18798244

  9. KV7 channels are involved in hypoxia-induced vasodilatation of porcine coronary arteries

    PubMed Central

    Hedegaard, E R; Nielsen, B D; Kun, A; Hughes, A D; Krøigaard, C; Mogensen, S; Matchkov, V V; Fröbert, O; Simonsen, U

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Hypoxia causes vasodilatation of coronary arteries, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesized that hypoxia reduces intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) by opening of K channels and release of H2S. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Porcine coronary arteries without endothelium were mounted for measurement of isometric tension and [Ca2+]i, and the expression of voltage-gated K channels KV7 channels (encoded by KCNQ genes) and large-conductance calcium-activated K channels (KCa1.1) was examined. Voltage clamp assessed the role of KV7 channels in hypoxia. KEY RESULTS Gradual reduction of oxygen concentration from 95 to 1% dilated the precontracted coronary arteries and this was associated with reduced [Ca2+]i in PGF2α (10 μM)-contracted arteries whereas no fall in [Ca2+]i was observed in 30 mM K-contracted arteries. Blockers of ATP-sensitive voltage-gated potassium channels and KCa1.1 inhibited hypoxia-induced dilatation in PGF2α-contracted arteries; this inhibition was more marked in the presence of the Kv7 channel blockers, XE991 and linopirdine, while a KV7.1 blocker, failed to change hypoxic vasodilatation. XE991 also inhibited H2S- and adenosine-induced vasodilatation. PCR revealed the expression of KV7.1, KV7.4, KV7.5 and KCa1.1 channels, and KCa1.1, KV7.4 and KV7.5 were also identified by immunoblotting. Voltage clamp studies showed the XE991-sensitive current was more marked in hypoxic conditions. CONCLUSION The KV7.4 and KV7.5 channels, which we identified in the coronary arteries, appear to have a major role in hypoxia-induced vasodilatation. The voltage clamp results further support the involvement of KV7 channels in this vasodilatation. Activation of these KV7 channels may be induced by H2S and adenosine. PMID:24111896

  10. Reversible cold-induced abnormalities in myocardial perfusion and function in systemic sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, E.L.; Firestein, G.S.; Weiss, J.L.; Heuser, R.R.; Leitl, G.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Brinker, J.A.; Ciuffo, A.A.; Becker, L.C.

    1986-11-01

    The effects of peripheral cold exposure on myocardial perfusion and function were studied in 13 patients with scleroderma without clinically evident myocardial disease. Ten patients had at least one transient, cold-induced, myocardial perfusion defect visualized by thallium-201 scintigraphy, and 12 had reversible, cold-induced, segmental left ventricular hypokinesis by two-dimensional echocardiography. The 10 patients with transient perfusion defects all had anatomically corresponding ventricular wall motion abnormalities. No one in either of two control groups (9 normal volunteers and 7 patients with chest pain and normal coronary arteriograms) had cold-induced abnormalities. This study is the first to show the simultaneous occurrence of cold-induced abnormalities in myocardial perfusion and function in patients with scleroderma. The results suggest that cold exposure in such patients may elicit transient reflex coronary vasoconstriction resulting in reversible myocardial ischemia and dysfunction. Chronic recurrent episodes of coronary spasm may lead to focal myocardial fibrosis.

  11. Behavior of right and left ventricles during episodes of variant angina in relation to the site of coronary vasospasm

    SciTech Connect

    Neglia, D.; Parodi, O.; Marzullo, P.; Sambuceti, G.; Marcassa, C.; Michelassi, C.; L'Abbate, A. )

    1990-02-01

    The effects of single-vessel coronary occlusion on simultaneously evaluated right (RV) and left ventricular (LV) performance were assessed and compared with LV perfusion patterns in 25 patients with variant angina. Coronary spasm involved the right coronary artery in 15 patients (group 1) and the left anterior descending coronary artery in 10 patients (group 2). Biventricular function was assessed by radionuclide angiography under basal conditions, during spontaneous or ergonovine-induced ischemia, and after resolution of the ischemic attack. Myocardial perfusion was assessed by thallium 201 scintigraphy in 21 patients of this series during superimposable ischemic episodes. In group 1, ischemia caused RV (14 of 15 patients) and LV (13 of 15 patients) regional dysfunction with significant reduction in RV and LV ejection fractions. The interventricular spetum was involved in six of 15 patients, causing a more pronounced LV impairment. In group 2, all patients showed septal dyssynergies associated with a reduction of LV ejection fraction; absent or trivial RV involvement was observed. In both groups, LV perfusion defects were present in all patients with LV wall motion abnormalities during ischemia, matching the site of regional dyssynergies. Thus, in a group of patients with variant angina and single-vessel disease, transient occlusion of the right coronary artery directly caused RV and LV impairment; in these patients, the extent of LV but not RV dysfunction appeared related to the presence of septal ischemia. Vasospasm of the left anterior descending coronary artery consistently caused LV dysfunction not associated with secondary effects on RV systolic function.

  12. Coronary Artery Manifestations of Fibromuscular Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Michelis, Katherine C.; Olin, Jeffrey W.; Kadian-Dodov, Daniella; d’Escamard, Valentina; Kovacic, Jason C.

    2015-01-01

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) involving the coronary arteries is an uncommon but important condition that can present as acute coronary syndrome, left ventricular dysfunction, or potentially sudden cardiac death. Although the classic angiographic “string of beads” that may be observed in renal artery FMD does not occur in coronary arteries, potential manifestations include spontaneous coronary artery dissection, distal tapering or long, smooth narrowing that may represent dissection, intramural hematoma, spasm, or tortuosity. Importantly, FMD must be identified in at least one other noncoronary arterial territory to attribute any coronary findings to FMD. Although there is limited evidence to guide treatment, many lesions heal spontaneously; thus, a conservative approach is generally preferred. The etiology is poorly understood, but there are ongoing efforts to better characterize FMD and define its genetic and molecular basis. This report reviews the clinical course of FMD involving the coronary arteries and provides guidance for diagnosis and treatment strategies. PMID:25190240

  13. Pentoxifylline (Trental) does not inhibit dipyridamole-induced coronary hyperemia: Implications for dipyridamole-thallium-201 myocardial imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.A.; Slinker, B.K. )

    1990-06-01

    Dipyridamole-thallium-201 imaging is often performed in patients unable to exercise because of peripheral vascular disease. Many of these patients are taking pentoxifylline (Trental), a methylxanthine derivative which may improve intermittent claudication. Whether pentoxifylline inhibits dipyridamole-induced coronary hyperemia like other methylxanthines such as theophylline and should be stopped prior to dipyridamole-thallium-201 imaging is unknown. Therefore, we studied the hyperemic response to dipyridamole in seven open-chest anesthetized dogs after pretreatment with either pentoxifylline (0, 7.5, or 15 mg/kg i.v.) or theophylline (3 mg/kg i.v.). Baseline circumflex coronary blood flows did not differ significantly among treatment groups. Dipyridamole significantly increased coronary blood flow before and after 7.5 or 15 mm/kg i.v. pentoxifylline (p less than 0.002). Neither dose of pentoxifylline significantly decreased the dipyridamole-induced hyperemia, while peak coronary blood flow was significantly lower after theophylline (p less than 0.01). We conclude that pentoxyifylline does not inhibit dipyridamole-induced coronary hyperemia even at high doses.

  14. Endothelial changes induced by arterial spasm.

    PubMed Central

    Joris, I.; Majno, G.

    1981-01-01

    Prolonged arterial constriction can cause damage to the artery itself. The purpose of this study was to define the intimal changes. Two muscular arteries of the rat were studied by electron microscopy 15 minutes to 7 days after L-norepinephrine had been dripped over the vessels. Endothelial damage was caused by the tight folding of the internal elastic lamina, which mechanically squeezed the cells. As the artery relaxed, the endothelium showed gaps, patches of thinned cytoplasm, and many adhesions between cells on opposite sides of intimal folds. The adhesions involved whole cells of cytoplasmic bridges stretched across the intimal "valleys." They were present up to one day; later they seemed to snap and disappear without causing further cellular damage. A survey of the literature shows that such adhesions can also develop in collapsed arteries postmortem. They explain the endothelial "bridges" previously described by others as a normal intimal structure. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:7212018

  15. Balloon catheter coronary angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    Angelini, P.

    1987-01-01

    The author has produced a reference and teaching book on balloon angioplasty. Because it borders in surgery and is performed on an awake patient without circulatory assistance, it is a complex and demanding procedure that requires thorough knowledge before it is attempted. The text is divided into seven sections. The first section describes coronary anatomy and pathophysiology, defines the objectives and mechanisms of the procedure and lists four possible physiologic results. The next section describes equipment in the catheterization laboratory, catheters, guidewires and required personnel. The following section is on the procedure itself and includes a discussion of examination, testing, technique and follow-up. The fourth section details possible complications that can occur during the procedure, such as coronary spasms, occlusion, thrombosis, perforations and ruptures, and also discusses cardiac surgery after failed angioplasty. The fifth section details complex or unusual cases that can occur. The sixth and seventh sections discuss radiation, alternative procedures and the future of angioplasty.

  16. [Neuro-vascular decompression in hemifacial spasm: anatomical, electrophysiological and therapeutic results apropos of 100 cases].

    PubMed

    Caces, F; Chays, A; Locatelli, P; Bruzzo, M; Epron, J P; Fiacre, E; Magnan, J

    1996-01-01

    Hemifacial spasm is a neurological disorder due to abnormal hyperactivity of the facial nerve. The most common cause of hemifacial spasm is a neuro-vascular conflict in the cerebellopontine angle between a vascular loop and the root of the facial nerve (96% of cases). Tumors are the cause of hemifacial spasm in only 1% of cases). The authors present their results in 100 patients who underwent microvascular decompression for essential hemifacial spasm between 1990 and 1995. They used microsurgical and endoscopic procedures by a minimal retrosigmoid approach in all cases. The most common offending vessels were the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (70%), the vertebral artery (41%) and the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (28%). An aberrant vein was found in 2 cases. There were 38% of multiple artery-nerve conflicts. Physiopathology of hemifacial spasm is explained by two principal theories: in the ephaptic theory, hyperactivity and an abnormal nervous impulse pathway are due to a short demyelinated area on the nerve trunk caused by the offending vessel, inducing short circuiting between adjacent nerve fibers. In the nuclear theory, hyperactivity of the facial nerve is due to an abnormal and automatic activity of the facial nerve nucleus itself, induced by the vessel. The authors used pre and postoperative electromyographic tests and intraoperative electromyographic tests. Their results tend to prove the nuclear theory. Ninety per cent of the patients had a good result, with a mean follow-up time of 30 months in 60 cases. In 82% of the cases, there was a total recovery after a single procedure. There was no mortality and no facial palsy. Hearing loss occurred in less than 5%. PMID:9183904

  17. Localization of bypass-induced changes in flow in coronary artery models.

    PubMed

    Singh, M; Liepsch, D

    2003-11-01

    Right coronary artery bypass restores blood flow through heart tissues. This also induces changes in flow leading to its failure. By this work the sites which are prone to such changes are localized. The bypass models are developed from transparent silicon rubber of elastic properties similar to arterial tissues. Flow visualization is carried out by photoelasticity technique by using dilute solution of vanadium pentoxide. This analysis carried out under pulsatile flow conditions shows that the proximal stenotic region continues to contribute to the alteration in flow in the hood region of the bypass. Thus making its proximal and distal regions prone to flow-induced changes, which may lead to its blockage over the long duration. PMID:15332491

  18. Infantile Spasms: Little Seizures, BIG Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Shields, W Donald

    2006-01-01

    Infantile spasms is one of the catastrophic childhood epilepsies because of the difficulty in controlling seizures and the association with mental retardation. However, early recognition, a careful diagnostic evaluation, and proper treatment may allow some children to attain seizure control and to achieve a normal, or at least much improved, level of development. Thus, there is the opportunity to have an important impact in the lives of these unfortunate children and their families. PMID:16761063

  19. Angiotensin 1-7 induces bradykinin-mediated relaxation in porcine coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Gorelik, G; Carbini, L A; Scicli, A G

    1998-07-01

    Angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7) has been reported to induce relaxation which is partially blocked by a kinin receptor antagonist. We investigated the relationship between kinins and angiotensin peptides with use of preconstricted isolated pig coronary arteries. Ang 1-7 alone (up to 10(-5) M) had no relaxant effect. Bradykinin (BK) (10(-10)-10(-7) M) induced transient relaxation, returning to basal tone, although BK remained in the bath. In these BK-stimulated rings, Ang 1-7 but not BK (both 5 x 10(-6) M) again relaxed the rings by approximately 50%. This relaxation was blocked by a BK B2 antagonist, a kininase, and a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. Ang 1-7 inhibited purified angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) by 30 +/- 3.5% (n = 4) at 10(-6) M. However, in BK-pretreated rings, the ACE inhibitor ramiprilat did not induce relaxation, nor did it affect the relaxant response to Ang 1-7, which suggests that the effect of Ang 1-7 was not caused by ACE inhibition. Ang 1-7-induced vasodilation was reduced by 69.9 +/- 6.2% by an AT2 receptor blocker, PD-123319, and 29.3 +/- 7.3% by an AT1 antagonist, losartan. Neither the nonselective AT1/AT2 receptor antagonist sarthran nor saralasin inhibited the response to Ang 1-7. Ang II did not elicit relaxation either alone or in the presence of losartan, which suggests that activation of AT2 receptors does not cause relaxation. Thus, in the presence of bradykinin, Ang 1-7 relaxes pig coronary arteries via a PD-123319-sensitive mechanism involving nitric oxide, kinins and the BK B2 receptor. The kallikrein-kinin and renin-angiotensin systems may be linked through the interaction of Ang 1-7 and BK. PMID:9655885

  20. Efficacy and tolerability of the galanin analog NAX 5055 in the multiple-hit rat model of symptomatic infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Jequier Gygax, Marine; Klein, Brian D; White, H Steve; Kim, Mimi; Galanopoulou, Aristea S

    2014-01-01

    Infantile spasms are seizures manifesting in infantile epileptic encephalopathies that are associated with poor epilepsy and cognitive outcomes. The current therapies are not always effective or are associated with serious side effects. Early cessation of spasms has been proposed to improve long-term outcomes. To identify new therapies for infantile spasms with rapid suppression of spasms, we are using the multiple-hit rat model of infantile spasms, which is a model of refractory infantile spasms. Here, we are testing the efficacy and tolerability of a single dose of the galanin receptor 1 preferring analog, NAX 5055, in the multiple-hit model of spasms. To induce the model, postnatal day 3 (PN3) male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent right intracerebral infusions of doxorubicin and lipopolysaccharide; p-chlorophenylalanine was then injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) at PN5. After the onset of spasms at PN4, 11-14 rats/group were injected i.p. with either NAX 5055 (0.5, 1, 2, or 4mg/kg) or vehicle. Video monitoring for spasms included a 1h pre-injection period, followed by 5h of recording post-injection, and two 2h sessions on PN5. The study was conducted in a randomized, blinded manner. Neurodevelopmental reflexes were assessed daily as well as at 2h after injection. Respiratory function, heart rate, pulse distension, oximetry and blood glucose were measured 4h after injection. The relative expression of GalR1 and GalR2 mRNA over ?-actin in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus was determined with real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. There was no acute effect of NAX 5055 on spasm frequency after the single dose of NAX 5055 (n=11-13 rats/group, following exclusions). Neurodevelopmental reflexes, vital signs, blood glucose measured 4h post-injection, and survival were not affected. A reduction in pulse and breath distention of unclear clinical significance was observed with the 7mg/kg NAX 5055 dose. GalR1 mRNA was present in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of PN4 and adult rats. The hippocampal - but not the cortical - GalR1 mRNA expression was significantly lower in PN4 pups than in adults. GalR1 mRNA was also at least 20 times less abundant in the PN4 cortex than GalR2 mRNA. In conclusion, a single dose of NAX 5055 has no acute efficacy on spasms or toxicity in the multiple hit rat model of medically refractory infantile spasms. Our findings cannot exclude the possibility that repetitive NAX 5055 administration may show efficacy on spasms. The higher expression of GalR2 in the PN4 cortex suggests that GalR2-preferring analogs may be of interest to test for efficacy on spasms. PMID:24252685

  1. Efficacy and tolerability of the Galanin Analog NAX 5055 in the multiple-hit rat model of symptomatic infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    Gygax, Marine Jequier; Klein, Brian D.; White, H. Steve; Kim, Mimi; Galanopoulou, Aristea S.

    2013-01-01

    Infantile spasms are seizures manifesting in infantile epileptic encephalopathies that are associated with poor epilepsy and cognitive outcomes. The current therapies are not always effective or are associated with serious side effects. Early cessation of spasms has been proposed to improve long-term outcomes. To identify new therapies for infantile spasms with rapid suppression of spasms, we are using the multiple-hit rat model of infantile spasms, which is a model of refractory infantile spasms. Here, we are testing the efficacy and tolerability of a single dose of the galanin receptor 1 preferring analog, NAX 5055, in the multiple-hit model of spasms. To induce the model, postnatal day 3 (PN3) male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent right intracerebral infusions of doxorubicin and lipopolysaccharide; p-chlorophenylalanine was then injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) at PN5. After the onset of spasms at PN4, 1114 rats/group were injected i.p. with either NAX 5055 (0.5, 1, 2, or 4 mg/kg) or vehicle. Video monitoring for spasms included a 1hour pre-injection period, followed by 5 hours of recording post-injection, and two 2 hour sessions on PN5. The study was conducted in a randomized, blinded manner. Neurodevelopmental reflexes were assessed daily as well as at 2 hours after injection. Respiratory function, heart rate, pulse distension, oximetry and blood glucose were measured 4 hours after injection. The relative expression of GalR1 and GalR2 mRNA over ?-actin in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus was determined with real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. There was no acute effect of NAX 5055 on spasm frequency after the single dose of NAX 5055 (n=1113 rats/group, following exclusions). Neurodevelopmental reflexes, vital signs, blood glucose measured 4 hours post-injection, and survival were not affected. A reduction in pulse and breath distention of unclear clinical significance was observed with the 7mg/kg NAX 5055 dose. GalR1 mRNA was present in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of PN4 and adult rats. The hippocampal but not the cortical- GalR1 mRNA expression was significantly lower in PN4 pups than in adults. GalR1 mRNA was also at least 20 times less abundant in the PN4 cortex than GalR2 mRNA. In conclusion, a single dose of NAX 5055 has no acute efficacy on spasms or toxicity in the multiple hit rat model of medically refractory infantile spasms. Our findings cannot exclude the possibility that repetitive NAX 5055 administration may show efficacy on spasms. The higher expression of GalR2 in the PN4 cortex suggests that GalR2-preferring analogs may be of interest to test for efficacy on spasms. PMID:24252685

  2. Preventing radiocontrast-induced nephropathy in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing coronary angiography

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Yao-Min; Lin, Shoa-Lin; Hung, Shih-Yuan; Huang, Wei-Chun; Wang, Paul Yung-Pou

    2012-01-01

    Radiocontrast-induced nephropathy (RCIN) is an acute and severe complication after coronary angiography, particularly for patients with pre-existing chronic kidney disease (CKD). It has been associated with both short- and long-term adverse outcomes, including the need for renal replacement therapy, increased length of hospital stay, major cardiac adverse events, and mortality. RCIN is generally defined as an increase in serum creatinine concentration of 0.5 mg/dL or 25% above baseline within 48 h after contrast administration. There is no effective therapy once injury has occurred, therefore, prevention is the cornerstone for all patients at risk for acute kidney injury (AKI). There is a small but growing body of evidence that prevention of AKI is associated with a reduction in later adverse outcomes. The optimal strategy for preventing RCIN has not yet been established. This review discusses the principal risk factors for RCIN, evaluates and summarizes the evidence for RCIN prophylaxis, and proposes recommendations for preventing RCIN in CKD patients undergoing coronary angiography. PMID:22655164

  3. Is a Metallic Microcoil Really a Permanent Embolic Agent for the Management of Distal Guidewire-Induced Coronary Artery Perforation?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Young Jin; Park, Sun Man; Park, Kyoung-Ha; Choi, Young-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Coronary artery perforation (CAP) after percutaneous coronary intervention is a rare, but serious complication. It can cause cardiac tamponade, acute myocardial infarction or death. The treatments of CAP involve prolonged balloon inflation, emergent surgery, coil embolization, and implantation of covered stent. We have successfully performed the emergent microcoil embolization in a patient with uncontrolled Ellis grade 3 guidewire-induced CAP resulting in delayed cardiac tamponade. Contrasting our usual expectation, the 1-year follow-up angiography showed a patent flow at the embolized site. PMID:21949533

  4. Coronary sinus norepinephrine concentrations during ventricular tachycardia induced by left stellate ganglion stimulation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, R; Lamontagne, D; Cardinal, R; de Champlain, J; Armour, J A

    1988-04-01

    Coronary sinus catecholamine overflow was measured in open-chest dogs, anesthetized with sodium thiopental and alpha-chloralose, during left sympathetic stimulation. Uniform ventricular tachycardias were induced in 9 out of 16 dogs during either left stellate ganglion or left ventrolateral cardiac nerve stimulations. Significant increases in norepinephrine (8.1 ng/mL, plasma) and epinephrine (0.19 ng/mL, plasma) overflows were obtained after 30 and 90 s of stimulation, respectively. Maximum norepinephrine overflow was significantly higher in dogs with ventricular tachycardia than in those without it (16.0 vs. 7.4 ng/mL, p less than 0.05). This suggests that the induction of ventricular tachycardia in the normal myocardium is related to the amount of local secretion of norepinephrine during nerve stimulation. PMID:3167674

  5. Comparison of the efficacy of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide with saline hydration in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing coronary angiography with or without concomitant percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chaoyu; Zhi, Jixin; Bai, Xiaopeng; Li, Xueqi; Xia, Hongyuan

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy has an increasing trend as a result of increased use of contrast media during coronary interventional procedures. Contrast-induced nephropathy is one of the major causes for hospital acquired renal failure after coronary interventional procedures. In this study, a total of 126 enrolled patients undergoing elective coronary angiography and/or percutaneous coronary intervention were randomly divided into two groups to investigate the efficacy of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing elective coronary angiography and/or percutaneous coronary intervention. Our results showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the primary end points, with similar incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy in the two groups (P=0.770). In compared with the hydration group, the elevation of serum creatinine in the recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide group was less, especially at 48 hours (P=0.047) and at 72 hours (P=0.048) after the procedure. The creatinine clearance from baseline to 72 hours after the procedure was higher in the BNP group than in the hydration group. There were significant differences in creatinine clearance at 48 hours (P=0.016) and at 72 hours (P=0.019) between the two groups. In spite of similar incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy, recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide has its advantages for the protection of the renal function associated with better protection of renal function in patients undergoing elective coronary angiography and/or percutaneous coronary intervention, compared with saline hydration. PMID:26550389

  6. Prevention of subsequent exercise-induced periinfarct ischemia by emergency coronary angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction: comparison with intracoronary streptokinase

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, A.Y.; Lai, P.; Juni, J.E.; Bourdillon, P.D.; Walton, J.A. Jr.; Laufer, N.; Buda, A.J.; Pitt, B.; O'Neill, W.W.

    1986-09-01

    To compare the efficacy of emergency percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and intracoronary streptokinase in preventing exercise-induced periinfarct ischemia, 28 patients presenting within 12 hours of the onset of symptoms of acute myocardial infarction were prospectively randomized. Of these, 14 patients were treated with emergency angioplasty and 14 patients received intracoronary streptokinase. Recatheterization and submaximal exercise thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography were performed before hospital discharge. Periinfarct ischemia was defined as a reversible thallium defect adjacent to a fixed defect assessed qualitatively. Successful reperfusion was achieved in 86% of patients treated with emergency angioplasty and 86% of patients treated with intracoronary streptokinase (p = NS). Residual stenosis of the infarct-related coronary artery shown at predischarge angiography was 43.8 +/- 31.4% for the angioplasty group and 75.0 +/- 15.6% for the streptokinase group (p less than 0.05). Of the angioplasty group, 9% developed exercise-induced periinfarct ischemia compared with 60% of the streptokinase group (p less than 0.05). Thus, patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with emergency angioplasty had significantly less severe residual coronary stenosis and exercise-induced periinfarct ischemia than did those treated with intracoronary streptokinase. These results suggest further application of coronary angioplasty in the management of acute myocardial infarction.

  7. Part Two: Infantile Spasms--The New Consensus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellock, John M.; O'Hara, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the conclusion made by the consensus group regarding infantile spasms. The consensus group concluded that "infantile spasms are a major form of severe epileptic encephalopathy of early childhood that results in neurodevelopmental regression and imposes a significant health burden." The entire group agrees that the best

  8. Infantile Spasms and Cytomegalovirus Infection: Antiviral and Antiepileptic Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunin-Wasowicz, Dorota; Kasprzyk-Obara, Jolanta; Jurkiewicz, Elzbieta; Kapusta, Monika; Milewska-Bobula, Bogumila

    2007-01-01

    From 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2004, 22 patients (13 males, nine females; age range 2-12mo) with infantile spasms and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection were treated with intravenous ganciclovir (GCV) and antiepileptic drugs. GCV was given for 3 to 12 weeks with a 1-month interval (one, two, or three courses). Epileptic spasms occurred before

  9. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked infantile spasm syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are related to X-linked infantile spasm syndrome? X-linked infantile spasm syndrome is caused by mutations in either the ARX gene or the CDKL5 gene. The proteins produced from these genes play a role in the normal functioning of the ...

  10. Infantile Spasms and Cytomegalovirus Infection: Antiviral and Antiepileptic Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunin-Wasowicz, Dorota; Kasprzyk-Obara, Jolanta; Jurkiewicz, Elzbieta; Kapusta, Monika; Milewska-Bobula, Bogumila

    2007-01-01

    From 1 January 1995 to 31 December 2004, 22 patients (13 males, nine females; age range 2-12mo) with infantile spasms and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection were treated with intravenous ganciclovir (GCV) and antiepileptic drugs. GCV was given for 3 to 12 weeks with a 1-month interval (one, two, or three courses). Epileptic spasms occurred before…

  11. Significance of dipyridamole-induced transient dilation of the left ventricle during thallium-201 scintigraphy in suspected coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Chouraqui, P.; Rodrigues, E.A.; Berman, D.S.; Maddahi, J. )

    1990-09-15

    The occurrence and significance of transient dilation of the left ventricle during dipyridamole stress-redistribution thallium-201 scintigraphy was studied in 73 patients who underwent both dipyridamole thallium-201 study and coronary angiography. Transient dilation ratio was calculated from planar anterior images by dividing the computer-derived left ventricular area on the initial image by that of the 4-hour image. In 11 patients with normal coronary arteriograms or less than 50% coronary stenosis, the transient dilation ratio was 0.98 +/- 0.046. An abnormal transient dilation ratio was defined as greater than or equal to 1.12, representing greater than or equal to 3 standard deviations above the mean normal value. When the 15 patients with an abnormal ratio were compared with the 58 with a normal ratio, the former group had a significantly higher frequency of 3 critical (greater than or equal to 90%) coronary stenoses (33 vs 5%), higher prevalence of collaterals (67 vs 24%), more extensive myocardial reversible defects by planar (71 vs 10%) or by single-photon emission computed tomography (87.5 vs 35%) imaging and a higher incidence of dipyridamole-induced anginal chest pain (53 vs 22%). No significant difference between the 2 groups was noted with respect to age, gender, prior myocardial infarction, single or double critical coronary stenosis, dipyridamole-induced ischemic electrocardiographic response and increased lung uptake. An abnormal transient dilation ratio of greater than or equal to 1.12 was a specific marker of multivessel (87%) or 3-vessel (85%) critical coronary artery disease.

  12. Painful muscle spasms complicating algodystrophy: central or peripheral disease?

    PubMed Central

    Robberecht, W; Van Hees, J; Adriaensen, H; Carton, H

    1988-01-01

    A 21 year old female patient developed Sdeck's atrophy of the right foot secondary to a chronic Achilles tendinitis. The condition was complicated by the occurrence of painful muscle spasms in the right leg and incontinence of urine. The spasms had characteristics of both a tonic ambulatory foot response and a spinal flexor reflex. The movements disappeared during sleep. Regional anaesthesia of the right leg made the spasms disappear both in and outside the region of anaesthesia. Backaveraging of the EEG showed the involuntary spasms to be preceded by a cortical potential similar to a readiness potential, indicating a cortical potential similar to a readiness potential, indicating a cortical component in the pathophysiology of the muscle spasms complicating Sdeck's atrophy. PMID:3379430

  13. Model of cryptogenic infantile spasms after prenatal corticosteroid priming

    PubMed Central

    Velek, Libor; Chachua, Tamar; Yum, Mi-Sun; Poon, Ka-Lai; Velkov, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Infantile spasms (IS) is a devastating epilepsy syndrome of childhood. They occur in 3-12 month old infants and are characterized by spasms, interictal EEG hypsarrhythmia and profound mental retardation. Hormonal therapy (ACTH, corticosteroids) are frequently used, their efficacy is however tainted by severe side effects. For research of novel therapies, a validated animal model of IS is required. We propose the model of spastic seizures triggered by NMDA in infant rats prenatally exposed to betamethasone. The spasms have remarkable similarity to human IS, including motor flexion spasms, ictal EEG electrodecrement, and responsiveness to ACTH. Interestingly, the spasms do not involve the hippocampus. Autoradiographic metabolic mapping as well as tagging the areas of neuronal excitation with c-fos indicate a strong involvement of hypothalamic structures such as the arcuate nucleus, which has significant bilateral connections with other hypothalamic nuclei as well as with the brainstem. PMID:20618421

  14. Oesophageal spasm, vomiting and hyoscine hydrobromide patch.

    PubMed

    Murray-Brown, Fay; Davies, I Llion

    2016-03-01

    We report the case of a 60-year-old woman with metastatic breast cancer whose intractable nausea and vomiting were effectively managed with a hyoscine hydrobromide (scopolamine) patch. Contrast swallow revealed oesophageal spasm to be the underlying cause. Symptom relief may be attributed to the antimuscarinic properties of the patch, allowing lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation. Following patch use she was able to enjoy small meals and fluids without symptoms. This is the first time this mechanism of action of scopolamine for alleviating nausea and vomiting has been described in the literature. PMID:26667134

  15. Infantile spasms syndrome in monozygotic twins.

    PubMed Central

    Pavone, L; Mollica, F; Incorpora, G; Pampiglione, G

    1980-01-01

    The infantile spasms syndrome appeared on the same day in a pair of monozygotic twins at age 6 months. Clinical, electroencephalographic, and neuroradiological findings during the development of the disease are reported. One of the twins was treated with ACTH and in his case clinical and electroencephalographic improvement was more rapid than in the other who was treated with clonazepam. While the computer tomography scan initially showed in each twin an area of low density in the right fronto-parietal region, this had disappeared in the tomograms obtained about 8 months later. PMID:6254446

  16. Human Stanniocalcin-1 Blocks TNF-α-Induced Monolayer Permeability in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Changyi; Jamaluddin, Md. Saha; Yan, Shaoyu; Sheikh-Hamad, David; Yao, Qizhi

    2009-01-01

    Objective Our previous studies revealed upregulation of stanniocalcin-1 (STC1) in cardiac vessels in dilated cardiomyopathy. However, the functional significance of STC1 is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of STC1 on TNF-α-induced monolayer permeability of human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). Methods and Results Cells were pretreated with STC1 for 30 minutes followed by treatment with TNF-α (2 ng/mL) for 24 hours. Monolayer permeability was studied using a trans-well system. STC1 pretreatment significantly blocked TNF-α-induced monolayer permeability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. STC1 effectively blocked TNF-α-induced downregulation of endothelial tight junction proteins zonula occluden-1 and claudin-1 at both mRNA and protein levels. STC1 also significantly decreased TNF-α-induced superoxide anion production. The inhibitory effect of STC1 was specific to TNF-α, as it failed to inhibit VEGF-induced endothelial permeability. Furthermore, STC1 partially blocked NF-κB and JNK activation in TNF-α-treated endothelial cells. JNK inhibitor and antioxidant also effectively blocked TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation and monolayer permeability in HCAECs. Conclusions STC1 maintains endothelial permeability in TNF-α-treated HCAECs through preservation of tight junction protein expression, suppression of superoxide anion production and inhibition of the activation of NFκB and JNK, suggesting an important role for STC1 in regulating endothelial functions during cardiovascular inflammation. PMID:18309109

  17. Hypoxia-induced vasodilation in the right coronary circulation of conscious dogs: Role of adrenergic activation

    PubMed Central

    Setty, Srinath; Zong, Pu; Sun, Wei; Tune, Johnathan D.; Downey, H. Fred

    2008-01-01

    The role of adrenergic activation in the right coronary (RC) flow response to hypoxia has not been previously delineated, and limited information from left coronary studies is inconsistent. Seven dogs were instrumented with catheters implanted in the aorta and in the right ventricle to measure aortic pressure and right ventricular (RV) pressure, respectively. A flow transducer was placed around the RC artery to measure RC flow. After recovery from surgery, the dogs were exposed to systemic hypoxia in a Plexiglas chamber ventilated with N2. Percent O2 in the chamber was monitored, and blood samples and hemodynamic data were collected as chamber O2 was progressively reduced to ~6%. The chamber was then opened, and the dog breathed room air. Phentolamine, 1 mg/kg, and propranolol, 2 mg/kg, were then administered via the RV catheter to achieve adrenergic blockade, and the hypoxia protocol was repeated. During hypoxia, arterial PO2 progressively fell from 87 3 to 25 1 mmHg during untreated control condition and from 90 4 to 23 1 mmHg during adrenergic blockade. In the unblocked condition, hypoxia caused increases in aortic pressure, heart rate, RV pressure, and RV dP/dtmax. After adrenergic blockade, normoxic aortic pressure was reduced; heart rate and RV dP/dtmax tended to be lower. Aortic pressure rose during hypoxia, but to lesser values than before blockade. Heart rate and RV dP/dtmax also increased, but only at more severe hypoxia, and these values were less than before blockade. Normoxic flow and hypoxia-induced increases in RC flow and conductance were not altered by blockade. The relationship between RC conductance and RV triple product, an index of RV O2 demand, was steeper after blockade. These findings indicate that in the normal, unblocked condition, RC flow during hypoxia is restrained by an adrenergic-mediated increase in RC vasomotor tone. PMID:18055275

  18. Effect of High Dose Rosuvastatin Loading before Percutaneous Coronary Intervention on Contrast-Induced Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jae Hong; Hwang, Kyo Bum; Woo, Sun Ho; Jeong, Jin Woo; Kim, Yong Cheol; Joe, Dai-Yeol; Ko, Jum Suk; Rhee, Sang Jae; Lee, Eun Mi; Oh, Seok Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This observational, non-randomized study evaluated the effect of rosuvastatin loading before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on the incidence of CIN in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Subjects and Methods A total of 824 patients who underwent PCI for ACS were studied (408 patients in the statin group=40 mg rosuvastatin loading before PCI; 416 patients of control group=no statin pretreatment). Serum creatinine concentrations were measured before and 24 and 48 hours after PCI. The primary endpoint was development of CIN defined as an increase in serum creatinine concentration of ?0.5 mg/dL or ?25% above baseline within 72 hours after PCI. Results The incidence of CIN was significantly lower in the statin group than that in the control group (18.8% vs. 13.5%, p=0.040). The maximum percent changes in serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate in the statin group within 48 hours were significantly lower than those in the control group (5.8422.59% vs. 2.4324.49%, p=0.038; -11.4414.00 vs. -9.5113.89, p=0.048, respectively). The effect of rosuvastatin on preventing CIN was greater in the subgroups of patients with diabetes, high-dose contrast medium, multivessel stents, high baseline C-reactive protein, and myocardial infarction. A multivariate analysis revealed that rosuvastatin loading was independently associated with a decreased risk for CIN (odds ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.43-0.95, p=0.026). Conclusion High-dose rosuvastatin loading before PCI was associated with a significantly lower incidence of CIN in patients with ACS. PMID:25278982

  19. Le spasme du sanglot chez les nourrissons

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ran D.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Question Des enfants qui fréquentent ma clinique ont des épisodes semblables à des convulsions pendant lesquels ils pleurent et retiennent leur souffle au point de faire survenir une cyanose et de perdre conscience. Les résultats à l’examen ou aux investigations sont normaux et les pédiatres consultés ne font pas d’autres investigations. Les spasmes du sanglot sont-ils communs et quels genres d’investigations faut-il faire? Réponse Le spasme du sanglot est un trouble non épileptique paroxysmal bénin qui se produit chez les enfants en santé de six à 48 mois. Les épisodes commencent par une provocation, comme un bouleversement émotionnel ou une blessure mineure, et peuvent progresser en une retenue de la respiration, une cyanose et une syncope. Les épisodes sont extrêmement effrayants à regarder mais ont des conséquences bénignes. Une fois le diagnostic clinique posé, on recommande de faire passer un électrocardiogramme et d’exclure la possibilité d’une anémie, mais aucune autre investigation ou demande de consultation n’est nécessaire.

  20. Interneuron, interrupted: molecular pathogenesis of ARX mutations and X-linked infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Olivetti, Pedro R; Noebels, Jeffrey L

    2012-10-01

    X-linked Infantile Spasms Syndrome (ISSX) is a catastrophic epilepsy of early childhood with intractable seizures, intellectual disability, and poor prognosis. A spectrum of mutations in the Aristaless-Related Homeobox gene (ARX) has been linked to ISSX, and downstream targets of this interneuron-expressed transcription factor are being defined. Recent advances combining in vitro and in vivo methods have unveiled complex interactions between Arx and its binding partners and their effects on cell migration and maturation that can help explain the diversity of ARX phenotypes. New mutant mouse models of Arx-induced pathology, including a recent human triplet-repeat expansion mutation with a phenotype of infantile spasms and electrographic seizures, provide valuable tools for exploring the pathophysiology of Arx and substrates for testing novel therapies. PMID:22565167

  1. Interneuron, Interrupted: Molecular Pathogenesis of ARX Mutations and X-linked Infantile Spasms

    PubMed Central

    Olivetti, Pedro R.; Noebels, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    X-linked Infantile Spasms Syndrome (ISSX) is a catastrophic epilepsy of early childhood with intractable seizures, intellectual disability, and poor prognosis. A spectrum of mutations in the Aristaless-Related Homeobox gene (ARX) has been linked to ISSX, and downstream targets of this interneuron-expressed transcription factor are being defined. Recent advances combining in vitro and in vivo methods have unveiled complex interactions between Arx and its binding partners and their effects on cell migration and maturation that can help explain the diversity of ARX phenotypes. New mutant mouse models of Arx-induced pathology, including a recent human triplet-repeat expansion mutation with a phenotype of infantile spasms and electrographic seizures, provide valuable tools for exploring the pathophysiology of Arx and substrates for testing novel therapies. PMID:22565167

  2. Participation of H1-receptors in histamine-induced contraction and relaxation of horse coronary artery in vitro.

    PubMed

    Obi, T; Miyamoto, A; Matumoto, M; Ishiguro, S; Nishio, A

    1991-10-01

    The mechanisms of histamine-induced contraction and relaxation were investigated in rings isolated from a middle part of the left descending coronary arteries of horses. Intact and endothelium-denuded preparations were compared. Rings of horse coronary arteries contracted in response to histamine in a concentration dependent manner, but some of them relaxed with lower concentrations and contracted with higher concentrations. Removal of the endothelium abolished the relaxation and potentiated the contraction. The pD2 values were 4.70 +/- 0.08 in the rings with intact endothelium and 4.95 +/- 0.08 in endothelium-denuded rings. Histamine-induced contractions in intact and denuded preparations were not affected by an H2-antagonist, cimetidine, but were inhibited by an H1-antagonist, diphenhydramine in non-competitive manner in the rings with endothelium and in competitive manner in denuded rings. After precontraction with PGF2 alpha or norepinephrine, histamine relaxed preparations with intact endothelium (pD2 value, 7.80 +/- 0.11), although histamine-induced relaxations were not observed in denuded preparations. The relaxation was competitively inhibited by diphenhydramine. Relaxing response was significantly attenuated by methylene blue, quinacrine, L-nitro-arginine, gossypol and AA861 but not by indomethacin. These results suggest that the histamine-induced contraction and relaxation in horse coronary arteries are mediated mainly by H1-receptors in the smooth muscle and endothelium, respectively, and H1-receptor activation of endothelial cells may liberate vasodilator substances. PMID:1684296

  3. Prinzmetal's angina, normal coronary arteries and pericarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, J. R.; Kisilevsky, R.; Armstrong, P. W.

    1978-01-01

    A woman with Prinzmetal's variant angina had spontaneous attacks of myocardial ischemia characterized by severe chest pain, hypotension, inferior ST-segment elevation, transient complete heart block and selective right ventricular dysfunction. Despite initial improvement following intravenous administration of atropine and sublingual administration of nitroglycerin she died of cardiogenic shock. Autopsy showed normal coronary arteries and acute pericarditis, more pronounced over the right side of the heart. It is postulated that the pericardial inflammation elicited severe spasm of the subjacent right coronary artery. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4A FIG. 4B FIG. 5A FIG. 5B PMID:679098

  4. Evidence-based guideline update: Medical treatment of infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    Go, C.Y.; Mackay, M.T.; Weiss, S.K.; Stephens, D.; Adams-Webber, T.; Ashwal, S.; Snead, O.C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To update the 2004 American Academy of Neurology/Child Neurology Society practice parameter on treatment of infantile spasms in children. Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from 2002 to 2011 and searches of reference lists of retrieved articles were performed. Sixty-eight articles were selected for detailed review; 26 were included in the analysis. Recommendations were based on a 4-tiered classification scheme combining pre-2002 evidence and more recent evidence. Results: There is insufficient evidence to determine whether other forms of corticosteroids are as effective as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) for short-term treatment of infantile spasms. However, low-dose ACTH is probably as effective as high-dose ACTH. ACTH is more effective than vigabatrin (VGB) for short-term treatment of children with infantile spasms (excluding those with tuberous sclerosis complex). There is insufficient evidence to show that other agents and combination therapy are effective for short-term treatment of infantile spasms. Short lag time to treatment leads to better long-term developmental outcome. Successful short-term treatment of cryptogenic infantile spasms with ACTH or prednisolone leads to better long-term developmental outcome than treatment with VGB. Recommendations: Low-dose ACTH should be considered for treatment of infantile spasms. ACTH or VGB may be useful for short-term treatment of infantile spasms, with ACTH considered preferentially over VGB. Hormonal therapy (ACTH or prednisolone) may be considered for use in preference to VGB in infants with cryptogenic infantile spasms, to possibly improve developmental outcome. A shorter lag time to treatment of infantile spasms with either hormonal therapy or VGB possibly improves long-term developmental outcomes. PMID:22689735

  5. Cerebrospinal Fluid Corticotropin and Cortisol Are Reduced in Infantile Spasms

    PubMed Central

    Baram, Tallie Z.; Mitchell, Wendy G.; Hanson, Rebecca A.; Snead, O. Carter; Horton, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Infantile spasms respond to ACTH, and levels of the hormone in cerebrospinal fluid of untreated infants with this disorder were found to be lower than in age-matched controls. In this study we analyzed cerebrospinal fluid Cortisol and ACTH using improved immunoassays in a larger cohort of infants with infantile spasms. Analysis of 20 patients and 15 age-matched controls revealed significantly lower levels of both ACTH and Cortisol in the cerebrospinal fluid. These data, combined with the efficacy of ACTH and glucocorticoids for infantile spasms, support an involvement of the brain-adrenal-axis in this disorder. PMID:8534274

  6. Coronary Arteries

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and animations for grades K-6. The Coronary Arteries | Share Coronary Circulation The heart muscle, like every ... into two main coronary blood vessels (also called arteries). These coronary arteries branch off into smaller arteries, ...

  7. Effect of force-induced mechanical stress at the coronary artery bifurcation stenting: Relation to in-stent restenosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cheng-Hung; Jhong, Guan-Heng; Hsu, Ming-Yi; Liu, Shih-Jung; Wang, Chao-Jan; Hung, Kuo-Chun

    2014-05-01

    The deployment of metallic stents during percutaneous coronary intervention has become common in the treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions. However, restenosis occurs mostly at the bifurcation area even in present era of drug-eluting stents. To achieve adequate deployment, physicians may unintentionally apply force to the strut of the stents through balloon, guiding catheters, or other devices. This force may deform the struts and impose excessive mechanical stresses on the arterial vessels, resulting in detrimental outcomes. This study investigated the relationship between the distribution of stress in a stent and bifurcation angle using finite element analysis. The unintentionally applied force following stent implantation was measured using a force sensor that was made in the laboratory. Geometrical information on the coronary arteries of 11 subjects was extracted from contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan data. The numerical results reveal that the application of force by physicians generated significantly higher mechanical stresses in the arterial bifurcation than in the proximal and distal parts of the stent (post hoc P < 0.01). The maximal stress on the vessels was significantly higher at bifurcation angle <70 than at angle ?70 (P < 0.05). The maximal stress on the vessels was negatively correlated with bifurcation angle (P < 0.01). Stresses at the bifurcation ostium may cause arterial wall injury and restenosis, especially at small bifurcation angles. These finding highlight the effect of force-induced mechanical stress at coronary artery bifurcation stenting, and potential mechanisms of in-stent restenosis, along with their relationship with bifurcation angle.

  8. Ventricular fibrillation due to coronary vasospasm

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Syed Yaseen; Hanley, Alan; Crowley, James

    2014-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman developed a sudden-onset severe chest pain and breathlessness at home. She collapsed within minutes and received bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation from her husband. On arrival, the paramedics identified ventricular fibrillation requiring defibrillation. She was admitted to the intensive care unit for observation. A coronary angiogram performed at our hospital demonstrated non-obstructive disease of the right coronary artery. Her antidepressant medications were discontinued and she was discharged. No specific cause was found for the arrhythmia and collapse. One week later, she developed similar chest pain. An ECG showed transient ST-elevation in the inferior leads. Symptoms and ECG changes resolved with sublingual nitroglycerin. During the course of a repeat coronary angiogram the patient developed severe spasm of the right coronary artery associated with typical chest pain and ST-elevation in the inferior leads. She was treated with insertion of a drug-eluting stent and a cardiac defibrillator. PMID:24493114

  9. ACTH therapy in infantile spasms: side effects.

    PubMed Central

    Riikonen, R; Donner, M

    1980-01-01

    162 children with infantile spasms were treated with ACTH at the Children's Hospital, Helsinki, and at the Aurora Hospital, Helsinki, during 1960--76. In a large proportion (37%) of the children the treatment caused pronounced side effects, and the mortality was 4.9%. The most common complications were infections: septic infections, pneumonias, and urinary and gastrointestinal infections. Other side effects were arterial hypertension (11), osteoporosis (2), hypokalaemic alkalosis (2), and other marked electrolyte disturbances (10). In children necropsy showed fresh intracerebral haemorrhages. Four children developed oliguria and hyperkalaemia during and after withdrawal of ACTH. One of them had tubular necrosis confirmed by renal biopsy. Infections were significantly more common with large doses (120 units) of ACTH than with small ones (40 units). It is concluded that side effects, even severe ones, are more common during treatment than had been assumed. Careful watch is important before and after treatment. The benefit of very high dosages should also be reconsidered. PMID:6254450

  10. The history of facial palsy and spasm

    PubMed Central

    Sajadi, Mohamad-Reza M.; Tabatabaie, Seyed Mahmoud

    2011-01-01

    Although Sir Charles Bell was the first to provide the anatomic basis for the condition that bears his name, in recent years researchers have shown that other European physicians provided earlier clinical descriptions of peripheral cranial nerve 7 palsy. In this article, we describe the history of facial distortion by Greek, Roman, and Persian physicians, culminating in Razi's detailed description in al-Hawi. Razi distinguished facial muscle spasm from paralysis, distinguished central from peripheral lesions, gave the earliest description of loss of forehead wrinkling, and gave the earliest known description of bilateral facial palsy. In doing so, he accurately described the clinical hallmarks of a condition that we recognize as Bell palsy. PMID:21747074

  11. Insulin Resistance Increases the Risk of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Patients Undergoing Elective Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Li, Yueping; Liu, Yuyang; Shi, Dongmei; Yang, Lixia; Liang, Jing; Zhou, Yujie

    2016-02-01

    We assessed the influence of insulin resistance (IR) on the development of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients (n = 719) undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients were divided into diabetes mellitus (DM = 242), nondiabetic IR (IR = 120), and nondiabetic insulin sensitivity (IS = 357) groups according to medical history and homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index. Serum creatinine (SCr) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were measured before and 72 hours after PCI. There were no differences in SCr and eGFR among the groups before PCI; SCr increased and eGFR decreased significantly in the DM and IR groups post-PCI (P < .001). The incidence of CIN in the IR group was as high as in the DM group and were both significantly higher than in the IS group (6.7% vs 8.7% vs 2.2%, P < .05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed DM (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19, 95%CI = 1.08-1.510, P < .001), HOMA-IR (OR = 1.39, 95%CI = 1.23-1.58, P < 0.001), and eGFR (OR = 0.88, 95%CI = 0.84-0.92, P < .001) were independent risk factors in predicting CIN. Screening IR patients and taking appropriate prophylactic strategy before PCI may reduce the incidence of CIN. PMID:25843952

  12. Particles deposition induced by the magnetic field in the coronary bypass graft model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernad, Sandor I.; Totorean, Alin F.; Vekas, Ladislau

    2016-03-01

    Bypass graft failures is a complex process starting with intimal hyperplasia development which involve many hemodynamic and biological factors. This work presents experimental results regarding the possibility to use magnetic drug delivery to prevent the development of the intimal hyperplasia using a simplified but intuitive model. The primary goal is to understand the magnetic particle deposition in the anastomosis region of the bypass graft taking into account the complex flow field created in this area which involves recirculation region, flow mixing and presence of particles with high residence time. The three-dimensional geometry model was used to simulate the motion and accumulation of the particles under the magnetic field influence in anastomotic region of the coronary bypass graft. The flow patterns are evaluated both numerically and experimentally and show a good correlation in term of flow parameters like vortex length and flow stagnation point positions. Particle depositions are strongly dependent on the magnet position and consequently of the magnetic field intensity and field gradient. Increased magnetic field controlled by the magnet position induces increased particle depositions in the bypass graft anastomosis. The result shows that particle depositions depend on the bypass graft angle, and the deposition shape and particle accumulation respectively, depend by the flow pattern in the anastomosis region.

  13. Role of hydration in contrast-induced nephropathy in patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Jurado-Romn, Alfonso; Hernndez-Hernndez, Felipe; Garca-Tejada, Julio; Granda-Nistal, Carolina; Molina, Javier; Velzquez, Maite; Albarrn, Agustn; Tascn, Juan

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the role of hydration to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI), we prospectively included 408 consecutive patients who were randomly assigned to receive either hydration with isotonic saline (1 ml/kg/h since the beginning of the procedure and for 24 hours after it: NS+ group) or not (NS- group). All patients received an iso-osmolar nonionic contrast medium. The primary end point was the development of CIN: ?25% or ?0.5 mg/dl increase in serum creatinine within 3 days after the procedure. CIN was observed in 14% of patients: 21% in the NS- group and 11% in the NS+ group (p=0.016). CIN was significantly associated with death (15.2% vs 2.8%; p<0.0001) and need for dialysis (13.4% vs 0%; p<0.0001). In multivariate analysis, the only predictors of CIN were hydration (OR=0.29 [0.14 to 0.66]; p=0.003) and the hemoglobin before the procedure (OR=0.69 [0.59 to 0.88]; p<0.0001). In conclusion, intravenous saline hydration during PPCI reduced the risk of CIN to 48%. Patients with CIN had increased mortality and need for dialysis. Given the higher incidence of CIN in emergent procedures, and its morbidity and mortality, preventive hydration should be mandatory in them unless contraindicated. PMID:25759106

  14. Thallium-201 myocardial imaging during coronary vasodilation induced by oral dipyridamole

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, K.L.; Sorenson, S.G.; Albro, P.; Caldwell, J.H.; Chaudhuri, T.; Hamilton, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging of /sup 201/TI injected during maximum exercise has been an important diagnostic tool for coronary artery disease. Pharmacologic coronary vasodilation by i.v. infusion of dipyridamole may be used in lieu of exercise stress for purposes of diagnostic perfusion imaging. However, i.v. dipyridamole is not currently available from commercial sources for widespread routine use. Accordingly, this study was carried out in order to determine whether high dose, oral dipyridamole would be useful as a coronary vasodilator for purposes of diagnostic perfusion imaging. Fifty-eight patients undergoing diagnostic coronary arteriography also had myocardial perfusion imaging with 201TI under conditions of rest, maximum exercise stress, and high dose oral dipyridamole. Of those patients who had a defect on exercise thallium images, 75% also had a perfusion defect on thallium images after high dose oral dipyridamole. These results indicate that oral dipyridamole causes sufficient coronary arteriolar vasodilation and increase of coronary flow in nonstenotic arteries to identify perfusion defects comparable to those seen on maximum exercise stress in at least 75% of cases. In 25% of patients with exercise defects, no perfusion defect was seen after oral dipyridamole. Thus, oral dipyridamole is a potent coronary vasodilator, comparable to exercise stress in most cases, but in a minority of patients may not be comparable to exercise stress.

  15. Surgical outcomes for intractable epilepsy in children with epileptic spasms.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Brian D; Nickels, Katherine; Wirrell, Elaine C

    2012-06-01

    Epileptic spasms, or seizures marked by flexor, extensor, or flexor-extensor spasms, are not always responsive to medical management. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the outcome of epilepsy surgery in children with medically intractable epileptic spasms. We identified 11 children with epileptic spasms who underwent lesionectomy (36%), lobectomy (27%), multi-lobectomy (9%), hemispherectomy (18%), or corpus callosotomy (9%). At the time of surgery, 6 children had developed other concurrent seizure type(s), including simple partial (9%), complex partial (27%), partial undifferentiated (9%), primary generalized tonic clonic (9%), tonic (9%), atonic (27%), and myoclonic (9%) seizures. Six children (55%) were seizure free at last follow-up from initial surgery. Predictors of favorable outcome included lack of focal slowing and the presence of less than 2 interictal epileptiform abnormalities on postoperative electroencephalogram (P = .035 and .035, respectively). Favorable outcome was significantly associated with parent/caregiver report of improved postoperative developmental outcomes (P = .026). PMID:22123426

  16. Latest American and European updates on infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Lux, Andrew L

    2013-03-01

    Infantile spasms remain a challenging condition to study and treat, and although they form the commonest epilepsy syndrome with onset in infancy, the challenge is broadened by the wide range of potential underlying causes. The field of study remains dynamic, with debates relating to case definitions and organising structures for classification of seizures and epilepsies in general, and a newly proposed genetic and biologic classification specifically for infantile spasms. There have been recent consensus statements, a Delphi process eliciting prioritised quality-of-care indicators, systematic reviews of treatment, and a survey of clinical practice in the USA. There is increasing evidence that longer duration of spasms is associated with poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes. It has taken many years to develop an animal model that reasonably represents infantile spasms, but there are now several animal models, and they are leading to innovative and valuable studies that suggest novel treatments. PMID:23341252

  17. Characterization of ictal slow waves in epileptic spasms.

    PubMed

    Honda, Ryoko; Saito, Yoshiaki; Okumura, Akihisa; Abe, Shinpei; Saito, Takashi; Nakagawa, Eiji; Sugai, Kenji; Sasaki, Masayuki

    2015-12-01

    We characterized the clinico-neurophysiological features of epileptic spasms, particularly focusing on high-voltage slow waves during ictal EEG. We studied 22 patients with epileptic spasms recorded during digital video-scalp EEG, including five individuals who still had persistent spasms after callosotomy. We analysed the duration, amplitude, latency to onset of electromyographic bursts, and distribution of the highest positive and negative peaks of slow waves in 352 spasms. High-voltage positive slow waves preceded the identifiable muscle contractions of spasms. The mean duration of these positive waves was 569228m, and the mean latency to electromyographic onset was 182127m. These parameters varied markedly even within a patient. The highest peak of the positive component was distributed in variable regions, which was not consistent with the location of lesions on MRI. The peak of the negative component following the positivity was distributed in the neighbouring or opposite areas of the positive peak distribution. No changes were evident in the pre- or post-surgical distributions of the positive peak, or in the interhemispheric delay between both hemispheres, in individuals with callosotomy. Our data imply that ictal positive slow waves are the most common EEG changes during spasms associated with a massive motor component. Plausible explanations for these widespread positive slow waves include the notion that EEG changes possibly reflect involvement of both cortical and subcortical structures. PMID:26620546

  18. A genetic and biologic classification of infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    Paciorkowski, Alex R.; Thio, Liu Lin; Dobyns, William B.

    2011-01-01

    Infantile spasms are an age-dependent epilepsy that are highly associated with cognitive impairment, autism, and movement disorders. Previous classification systems have focused on a distinction between symptomatic and cryptogenic etiologies, and have not kept pace with the recent discoveries of mutations in genes in key pathways of central nervous system development in patients with infantile spasms. Children with certain genetic syndromes are much more likely to have infantile spasms, and we review the literature to propose a genetic classification of these disorders. Children with these genetic associations with infantile spasms also have phenotypes beyond epilepsy that may be explained by recent advances in the understanding of underlying biological mechanisms. We therefore also propose a biologic classification of the genes highly associated with infantile spasms, and articulate models for infantile spasms pathogenesis based on that data. The two best described pathways of pathogenesis are abnormalities in the gene regulatory network of GABAergic forebrain development, and abnormalities in molecules expressed at the synapse. We intend for these genetic and biologic classifications to be flexible, and hope that they will encourage much needed progress in syndrome recognition, clinical genetic testing, and ultimately the development of new therapies that target specific pathways of pathogenesis. PMID:22114996

  19. Pathogenesis and new candidate treatments for infantile spasms and early life epileptic encephalopathies: A view from preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Galanopoulou, Aristea S; Mosh, Solomon L

    2015-07-01

    Early onset and infantile epileptic encephalopathies (EIEEs) are usually associated with medically intractable or difficult to treat epileptic seizures and prominent cognitive, neurodevelopmental and behavioral consequences. EIEEs have numerous etiologies that contribute to the inter- and intra-syndromic phenotypic variability. Etiologies include structural and metabolic or genetic etiologies although a significant percentage is of unknown cause. The need to better understand their pathogenic mechanisms and identify better therapies has driven the development of animal models of EIEEs. Several rodent models of infantile spasms have emerged that recapitulate various aspects of the disease. The acute models manifest epileptic spasms after induction and include the NMDA rat model, the NMDA model with prior prenatal betamethasone or perinatal stress exposure, and the ?-butyrolactone induced spasms in a mouse model of Down syndrome. The chronic models include the tetrodotoxin rat model, the aristaless related homeobox X-linked (Arx) mouse models and the multiple-hit rat model of infantile spasms. We will discuss the main features and findings from these models on target mechanisms and emerging therapies. Genetic models have also provided interesting data on the pathogenesis of Dravet syndrome and proposed new therapies for testing. The genetic associations of many of the EIEEs have also been tested in rodent models as to their pathogenicity. Finally, several models have tested the impact of subclinical epileptiform discharges on brain function. The impact of these advances in animal modeling for therapy development will be discussed. PMID:25968935

  20. Terrible Stent Thrombosis Induced by a Treadmill Test Performed Three Days after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Se Yun; Lee, Un Joo

    2014-01-01

    Generally, early exercise after coronary stenting is considered safe, but isolated cases of acute stent thrombosis have been associated with the performance of a treadmill exercise test after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The treadmill exercise test is often used to noninvasively assess the functional result of PCI. In this report, we describe a case of terrible stent thrombosis related to an exercise test performed 3 days after stenting, and the patient died as the result of an intractable thrombus. PMID:24855604

  1. Fatal Subacute Stent Thrombosis Induced by Guidewire Fracture with Retained Filaments in the Coronary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Jin; Kim, Jae-Kyun; Park, Bo-Min; Song, Pil-Sang; Kim, Dong-Kie; Kim, Ki-Hun; Seol, Sang-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    During percutaneous coronary intervention, guidewire fractures are very exceptionally encountered in medical practice, but can cause fatal complications such as intracoronary thrombus formation, embolization and perforation. Removal of the remnant segments of guidewire is important for the prognosis. There are several methods being recommended for the treatment of fractured guidewire remnants. However, the best treatment of remnant guidewire filament is still unclear. Herein, we present a case where we did not completely remove remnant guidewire filaments that caused fatal coronary thrombosis. PMID:24363752

  2. Acidosis-induced coronary constriction in the rat heart: evidence for the activation of L-type calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D A; Woodward, B

    1999-01-01

    Perfused rat hearts were used to study the effects of acidosis on coronary tone. When pH was decreased, over the range pH 7.4 to pH 6.2, by reducing perfusate bicarbonate levels, under constant flow conditions, there was a transient decrease in coronary perfusion pressure (CPP), followed by a sustained acidosis-dependent increase in CPP, which reversed when pH was returned to pH 7.4. This increase in CPP was seen at perfusion rates of 5, 10, and 20 ml/min(-1). When using constant pressure perfusion acidosis reduced coronary flow. In a HEPES-buffered bicarbonate-free solution, acidosis did not cause a transient fall in CPP but it did produce a sustained increase in CPP. Addition of ammonium chloride (10 mM) reduced CPP, while washout of ammonium chloride increased CPP. The acidosis-induced increase in CPP was not affected by indomethacin, nitro-L-arginine, the nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, 8-phenyl theophylline, or the thromboxane receptor antagonist, ZD 1542. The acidosis-induced increase in CPP was independent of the myocardial depressant effects of acidosis, but was attenuated by three different L-type calcium channel blockers. These results demonstrate that the coronary circulation of the rat constricts in response to acidosis. Experiments performed with L-type calcium channel blockers, and the calcium channel activator BAY K8644, suggest that constriction occurs via activation of L-type calcium channels. This would not be expected on the basis of electrophysiological studies, which have shown an inhibition of L-type calcium channels by acidosis. PMID:10651181

  3. Comparison of Carvedilol and Metoprolol for Preventing Contrast-Induced Nephropathy after Coronary Angiography

    PubMed Central

    Y?lmaz, Mustafa; Ayd?nalp, Alp; Okyay, Kaan; Tekin, Abdullah; Bal, U?ur Abbas; Bayraktar, Nilfer; Y?ld?r?r, Aylin; Mderriso?lu, Haldun

    2015-01-01

    Aims Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is one of the most common causes of hospital-acquired acute renal failure. Oxidative stress and vasoconstriction might play key roles in its pathogenesis. In a few experimental models, antioxidant properties of carvedilol have been documented. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the effects of carvedilol and metoprolol on the development of CIN in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Methods One hundred patients currently taking metoprolol and 100 patients currently taking carvedilol were enrolled into the study. Venous blood samples were obtained before and 48 h after contrast administration. Cystatin C and malondialdehyde values were examined and compared. CIN was defined as a creatinine increase of at least 25% or 0.5 mg/dl from the baseline value. Results Seven patients in the carvedilol group (7%) and 22 patients in the metoprolol group (22%) developed CIN (p = 0.003). In the metoprolol group, the median cystatin C concentration increased significantly from 978 to 1,086 ng/ml (p = 0.001) 48 h after radiocontrast administration. In the carvedilol group, the median cystatin C concentration did not change significantly (1,143 vs. 1,068 ng/ml; p = 0.94). In the metoprolol group, the mean malondialdehyde concentration increased significantly from 7.09 1.48 to 8.38 2.6 nmol/l (p < 0.001). In the carvedilol group, the mean serum malondialdehyde concentration did not change significantly (7.44 1.21 vs. 7.56 1.11 nmol/l; p = 0.59). Conclusion When compared to metoprolol, carvedilol might decrease oxidative stress and subsequent development of CIN. PMID:26195972

  4. TNF-?-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis contributes to cardiac dysfunction after coronary microembolization in mini-pigs

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhang-Wei; Qian, Ju-Ying; Ma, Jian-Ying; Chang, Shu-Fu; Yun, Hong; Jin, Hang; Sun, Ai-Jun; Zou, Yun-Zeng; Ge, Jun-Bo

    2014-01-01

    This experimental study was designed to clarify the relationship between cardiomyocyte apoptosis and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) expression, and confirm the effect of TNF-? on cardiac dysfunction after coronary microembolization (CME) in mini-pigs. Nineteen mini-pigs were divided into three groups: sham-operation group (n=5), CME group (n=7) and adalimumab pre-treatment group (n=7; TNF-? antibody, 2mg/kg intracoronary injection before CME). Magnetic resonance imaging (3.0-T) was performed at baseline, 6th hour and 1week after procedure. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was detected by cardiac-TUNEL staining, and caspase-3 and caspase-8 were detected by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, serum TNF-?, IL-6 and troponin T were analysed, while myocardial expressions of TNF-? and IL-6 were detected. Both TNF-? expression (serum level and myocardial expression) and average number of apoptotic cardiomyocyte nuclei were significantly increased in CME group compared with the sham-operation group. Six hours after CME, left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV) was increased and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was decreased in CME group. Pre-treatment with adalimumab not only significantly improved LVEF after CME (6th hour: 54.92.3% versus 50.43.9%, P=0.036; 1week: 56.74.2% versus 52.72.9%, P=0.041), but also suppressed cardiomyocyte apoptosis and the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-8. Meanwhile, the average number of apoptotic cardiomyocytes nuclei was inversely correlated with LVEF (r=?0.535, P=0.022). TNF-?-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis is likely involved in cardiac dysfunction after CME. TNF-? antibody therapy suppresses cardiomyocyte apoptosis and improves early cardiac function after CME. PMID:25130514

  5. Inhibition of hypoxia-induced relaxation of rabbit isolated coronary arteries by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine but not glibenclamide.

    PubMed

    Jiang, C; Collins, P

    1994-03-01

    1. The effects of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, tetrodotoxin and glibenclamide on hypoxia-induced coronary artery relaxation, induced by bubbling Krebs solution with 95% N2 and 5% CO2 instead of 95% O2 and 5% CO2, were assessed by measuring the changes in isometric tension in isolated epicardial coronary artery rings of the rabbit. In addition, the effects of glibenclamide on the relaxation induced by adenosine were investigated. 2. Hypoxia caused a transient relaxation of 38 +/- 3% (P < 0.01) and 17 +/- 2% (P < 0.01) in endothelium-intact or -denuded arteries respectively. NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (30 and 100 microM) inhibited the relaxation in endothelium-intact rings to 31 +/- 2% (P < 0.05) and 16 +/- 2% (P < 0.01) respectively and slightly but significantly attenuated the relaxation in endothelium-denuded rings to 15 +/- 1% and 13 +/- 1% (P < 0.05) respectively. 3. Glibenclamide, a potassium channel inhibitor, did not significantly after the hypoxia-induced relaxation. 4. Incubation with tetrodotoxin (3 and 10 microM) for 30 min reduced the relaxation to 31 +/- 3% (P < 0.05) and 14 +/- 2% (P < 0.01), and 14 +/- 2% (P < 0.05) and 11 +/- 1% (P < 0.05) in endothelium-intact and -denuded rings respectively. However, indomethacin (10 microM), atropine (1 microM), propranolol (10 microM) and phentolamine (10 microM) did not significantly affect the relaxation. 5. Adenosine (1, 10 and 100 MicroM) caused relaxation of 6 +/- 1%, 52 +/-3% and 97 +/-2% respectively in endothelium-denuded rings precontracted with prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2 alpha, 3 MicroM) and the relaxation was markedly inhibited by 8-phenyltheophylline. Furthermore, glibenclamide (1 and 10 MicroM) reduced the relaxation induced by adenosine (1, 10 and 100 MicroM) to 2 +/-1% (P<0.05), 38 =/-3% (P<0.05) and 85 +/-2%(P<0.05), and 0.6 +/- 0.4% (P<0.05), 27 +/- 4% (P<0.05) and 72 +/- 4% (P<0.01) respectively, in these endothelium-denuded preparations.6. These data suggest that hypoxia-induced relaxation is mediated by the release of nitric oxide rather than by the activation of glibenclamide-sensitive potassium channels in rabbit isolated coronary arteries. A neurogenic mechanism partially modulates the relaxation, possibly by activating non-adrenergic and noncholinergic nerve endings. The inhibition by glibenclamide on adenosine-induced relaxation in isolated coronary arteries may help to explain the fact that glibenclamide inhibits hypoxic coronary relaxation in perfused hearts but not in isolated coronary preparations. PMID:8019749

  6. CPP-115, a vigabatrin analogue, decreases spasms in the multiple-hit rat model of infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Stephen W.; Mowrey, Wenzhu; Hall, Charles B.; Galanopoulou, Aristea S.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Infantile spasms (IS) have poor outcomes and limited treatment options, including vigabatrin, a GABA aminotransferase inactivator. Vigabatrin has been associated with retinal toxicity. A high affinity vigabatrin analogue (CPP-115, Catalyst Pharmaceutical Partners) has shown lower risk of retinal toxicity. Here, we test the efficacy of CPP-115 in reducing spasms and its tolerability in the multiple-hit rat model of IS, in which daily vigabatrin reduced spasms only for one day, but was not well tolerated. Methods Male rats were treated with the protocol of the multiple-hit model of IS at postnatal day 3 (PN3). Using a randomized, blinded, vehicle-controlled, dose-response study design, CPP-115 [0.1, 1, or 5 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.)] or vehicle were given daily (PN4-12) or as single injection (PN7) after spasms onset. Intermittent video- or video-EEG monitoring was done. Secondary endpoints included: daily weights, survival, performance on open field activity, surface righting time, and negative geotaxis (PN3-20), horizontal bar (PN13-20), Barnes maze (PN16-19). Statistics used a linear mixed model of raw or normalized log-transformed data, taking into account the repeated observations on each animal. Results The lower CPP-115 doses (0.11 mg/kg/day, PN4-12) reduced spasms between PN6-7 without increasing mortality. CPP-115 at 5 mg/kg/day (PN4-12) reduced spasms earlier (PN5), but was eventually lethal. A single CPP-115 injection (1mg/kg i.p.) decreased electroclinical spasms acutely but transiently. CPP-115 transiently improved the probability to >50% reduction of spasms, but did not accelerate spasms cessation. CPP-115 did not alter neurodevelopmental outcomes or visuospatial learning. Significance We provide proof-of-concept evidence that CPP-115, a vigabatrin analogue, decreases spasms in the multiple-hit rat model of IS at considerably lower and better tolerated doses than vigabatrin did in our previous studies. Further optimization of the treatment protocol is needed. CPP-115 may be a promising new candidate treatment for IS with better tolerability than vigabatrin. PMID:24321005

  7. Protein kinase G regulates the basal tension and plays a major role in nitrovasodilator-induced relaxation of porcine coronary veins

    PubMed Central

    Qi, H; Zheng, X; Qin, X; Dou, D; Xu, H; Raj, J U; Gao, Y

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Coronary venous activity is modulated by endogenous and exogenous nitrovasodilators. The present study was to determine the role of protein kinase G (PKG) in the regulation of the basal tension and nitrovasodilator-induced relaxation of coronary veins. Experimental approach: Effects of a PKG inhibitor on the basal tension and responses induced by nitroglycerin, DETA NONOate, and 8-Br-cGMP in isolated porcine coronary veins were determined. Cyclic cGMP was measured with radioimmunoassay. PKG activity was determined by measuring the incorporation of 32P from ?-32P-ATP into the specific substrate BPDEtide. Key results: Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS, a specific PKG inhibitor, increased the basal tension of porcine coronary veins and decreased PKG activity. The increase in tension was 38% of that caused by nitro-L-arginine. Relaxation of the veins induced by nitroglycerin and DETA NONOate was accompanied with increases in cGMP content and PKG activity. These effects were largely eliminated by inhibiting soluble guanylyl cyclase with ODQ. The increase in PKG activity induced by the nitrovasodilators was abolished by Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS. The relaxation caused by these dilators and by 8-Br-cGMP at their EC50 was attenuated by the PKG inhibitor by 5166%. Conclusions and implications: These results suggest that PKG is critically involved in nitric oxide-mediated regulation of the basal tension in porcine coronary veins and that it plays a primary role in relaxation induced by nitrovasodilators. Since nitric oxide plays a key role in modulating coronary venous activity, augmentation of PKG may be a therapeutic target for improving coronary blood flow. PMID:17891157

  8. Effect of force-induced mechanical stress at the coronary artery bifurcation stenting: Relation to in-stent restenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Cheng-Hung; Jhong, Guan-Heng; Hsu, Ming-Yi; Wang, Chao-Jan; Liu, Shih-Jung; Hung, Kuo-Chun

    2014-05-28

    The deployment of metallic stents during percutaneous coronary intervention has become common in the treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions. However, restenosis occurs mostly at the bifurcation area even in present era of drug-eluting stents. To achieve adequate deployment, physicians may unintentionally apply force to the strut of the stents through balloon, guiding catheters, or other devices. This force may deform the struts and impose excessive mechanical stresses on the arterial vessels, resulting in detrimental outcomes. This study investigated the relationship between the distribution of stress in a stent and bifurcation angle using finite element analysis. The unintentionally applied force following stent implantation was measured using a force sensor that was made in the laboratory. Geometrical information on the coronary arteries of 11 subjects was extracted from contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan data. The numerical results reveal that the application of force by physicians generated significantly higher mechanical stresses in the arterial bifurcation than in the proximal and distal parts of the stent (post hoc P < 0.01). The maximal stress on the vessels was significantly higher at bifurcation angle <70° than at angle ≧70° (P < 0.05). The maximal stress on the vessels was negatively correlated with bifurcation angle (P < 0.01). Stresses at the bifurcation ostium may cause arterial wall injury and restenosis, especially at small bifurcation angles. These finding highlight the effect of force-induced mechanical stress at coronary artery bifurcation stenting, and potential mechanisms of in-stent restenosis, along with their relationship with bifurcation angle.

  9. Recent advances in the pharmacotherapy of infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Riikonen, Raili

    2014-04-01

    Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), oral corticosteroids and vigabatrin are now first-line treatments for infantile spasms in the US and Europe. There is now increased knowledge regarding the role of ACTH, corticosteroids and vigabatrin (e.g. efficacy, doses, side effects, treatment in specific aetiological subtypes of infantile spasms), and other antiepileptic drugs (i.e. topiramate, valproate, zonisamide, sulthiame, levetiracetam, lamotrigine, pyridoxine, ganaxolone), as well as adjunctive flunarizine and novel drugs not yet in clinical use for infantile spasms (i.e. pulse rapamycin and melanocortin receptor agonists). The existence of a latent period, weeks to months following a precipitating brain insult, raises the possibility of preventive interventions. Recent experimental data emerging from animal models of infantile spasms have provided optimism that new and innovative treatments can be developed, and knowledge that drug treatment can affect long-term cognitive outcome is increasing. The aim of this article is to review recent developments in the pharmacotherapy of infantile spasms and to highlight the practical implications of the latest research. PMID:24504827

  10. Impact of minimum contrast media volumes during elective percutaneous coronary intervention for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Ebisawa, Soichiro; Kurita, Tairo; Tanaka, Nobuyoshi; Nasu, Kenya; Kimura, Masashi; Ito, Tatsuya; Kinoshita, Yoshihisa; Tsuchikane, Etsuo; Terashima, Mitsuyasu; Suzuki, Takahiko

    2016-01-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is an important complication following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The clinical importance of a minimum contrast media volume (CMV) for PCI to prevent CIN has not been well evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of minimum CMV to prevent CIN after PCI. In this study, 2052 consecutive patients who underwent elective PCI in our institute were analyzed. We divided patients into two groups according to CMV: a minimum CMV PCI group [CMV ?50ml (n = 94)] and a non-minimum CMV PCI group [CMV >50ml (n = 1958)]. CIN occurred in 160 (7.8%) patients. The incidence of CIN was significantly lower in the minimum CMV PCI group than in the non-minimum CMV PCI group (2.1 vs. 8.1%; P = 0.03). According to multivariate analysis, elderly patients and diabetes mellitus patients were at high risk of developing CIN in this study population. When analyzing only high-risk patients, the incidence of CIN was also significantly lower in the minimum CMV group than in the non-minimum CMV group (2.6 vs. 10.3%; P= 0.03). Minimum CMV PCI could reduce the incidence of CIN, particularly in high-risk patients; as such, defining the minimum CMV clinical cut-off values may be useful for the prevention of CIN. PMID:26001976

  11. How Strong Is the Evidence for Sodium Bicarbonate to Prevent Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury After Coronary Angiography and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention?

    PubMed

    Dong, Yuhao; Zhang, Bin; Liang, Long; Lian, Zhouyang; Liu, Jing; Liang, Changhong; Zhang, Shuixing

    2016-02-01

    Hydration with sodium bicarbonate is one of the strategies to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). The purpose of this study was to determine how strong is the evidence for sodium bicarbonate to prevent CI-AKI after coronary angiography (CAG) and/or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).We conducted PubMed, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases to search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the efficacy of sodium bicarbonate with sodium chloride to prevent CI-AKI after CAG and/or PCI. Relative risk (RR), standardized mean difference (SMD), or weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated. Heterogeneity, publication bias, and study quality were evaluated, sensitivity analyses, cumulative analyses, and subgroup analyses were performed. The risk of random errors was assessed by trial sequential analysis (TSA).Sixteen RCTs (3537 patients) met the eligibility criteria. Hydration with sodium bicarbonate showed significant beneficial effects in preventing CI-AKI (RR 0.67; 95% CI: 0.47-0.96, P?=?0.029), decreasing the change in serum creatinine (SCr) (SMD -0.31 95% CI: -0.55 to -0.07, P?=?0.011) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (SMD -0.17 95% CI: -0.30 to -0.04, P?=?0.013). But no significant differences were observed in the requirement for dialysis (RR 1.11; 95% CI: 0.60-2.07, P?=?0.729), mortality (RR 0.71; 95% CI: 0.41-1.21, P?=?0.204) and reducing the length of hospital stay (LHS) (WMD -1.47; 95% CI: -4.14 to 1.20, P?=?0.279). The result of TSA on incidence of CI-AKI showed the required information size (RIS?=?6614) was not reached and cumulative z curve did not cross TSA boundary. The result of TSA on the requirement for dialysis and mortality demonstrated the required information sizes (RIS?=?170,510 and 19,516, respectively) were not reached, and the cumulative z-curve did not cross any boundaries.The evidence that sodium bicarbonate reduces the incidence of CI-AKI is encouraging but more well-designed randomized controlled trails are required to allow definitive firm conclusion to be drawn. PMID:26886610

  12. Cinnamaldehyde and cinnamaldehyde-containing micelles induce relaxation of isolated porcine coronary arteries: role of nitric oxide and calcium

    PubMed Central

    Raffai, Gbor; Kim, Byungkuk; Park, Sanga; Khang, Gilson; Lee, Dongwon; Vanhoutte, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Cinnamaldehyde, a major component of cinnamon, induces the generation of reactive oxygen species and exerts vasodilator and anticancer effects, but its short half-life limits its clinical use. The present experiments were designed to compare the acute relaxing properties of cinnamaldehyde with those of self-assembling polymer micelles either loaded with cinnamaldehyde or consisting of a polymeric prodrug [poly(cinnamaldehyde)] that incorporates the compound in its backbone. Methods Rings of porcine coronary arteries were contracted with the thromboxane A2 receptor agonist U46619 or 40 mM KCl, and changes in isometric tension were recorded. Results Cinnamaldehyde induced concentration-dependent but endothelium-independent, nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-independent, cyclooxygenase-independent, soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC)-independent, calcium-activated potassium-independent, and TRPA1 channel-independent relaxations. Cinnamaldehyde also inhibited the contractions induced by 40 mM KCl Ca2+ reintroduction in 40 mM KCl Ca2+-free solution or by the Ca2+ channel opener Bay K8644. Cinnamaldehyde-loaded control micelles induced complete, partly endothelium-dependent relaxations sensitive to catalase and inhibitors of NOS or sGC, but not cyclooxygenase or TRPA1, channels. Cinnamaldehyde-loaded micelles also inhibited contractions induced by 40 mM KCl Ca2+ reintroduction or Bay K8644. Poly(cinnamaldehyde) micelles induced only partial, endothelium-dependent relaxations that were reduced by inhibitors of NOS or sGC and by catalase and the antioxidant tiron, but not by indomethacin or TRPA1 channel blockers. Conclusion The present findings demonstrate that cinnamaldehyde-loaded and poly(cinnamaldehyde) micelles possess vasodilator properties, but that the mechanism underlying the relaxation that they cause differs from that of cinnamaldehyde, and thus could be used both to relieve coronary vasospasm and for therapeutic drug delivery. PMID:24904214

  13. Vigabatrin retinal toxicity in children with infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Tom; Cortese, Filomeno; Kumarappah, Ananthavalli; Snead, O. Carter; Buncic, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine time to vigabatrin (VGB, Sabril; Lundbeck, Deerfield, IL) induced retinal damage in children with infantile spasms (IS) and to identify risk factors for VGB-induced retinal damage (VGB-RD). Methods: Observational cohort study including 146 participants (68 female, 81 male) with IS, an age-specific epilepsy syndrome of early infancy, treated with VGB. Participants ranged from 3 to 34.9 months of age (median 7.6 months). The median duration of VGB treatment was 16 months (range 4.678.5 months). Electroretinograms (ERGs) were performed according to the Standards of the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision. Inclusion required baseline (pre-VGB or within 4 weeks of starting VGB treatment) and at least 2 follow-up ERGs. Significant reduction from baseline of the 30-Hz ERG flicker amplitude on 2 consecutive visits identified VGB-RD. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses depicted the effect of duration of VGB on VGB-RD. Results: These data represent the largest survival analysis of children treated with VGB who did not succumb to retinal toxicity during the study. Thirty of the 146 participants (21%) showed VGB-RD. The ERG amplitude reduced with duration of VGB treatment (p = 0.0004) with no recovery after VGB cessation. With 6 and 12 months of VGB treatment, 5.3% and 13.3%, respectively, developed VGB-RD. There was neither effect of age of initiation of VGB treatment nor sex of the child on survival statistics and no significant effect of cumulative dosage on the occurrence of VGB-RD. Conclusions: Minimizing VGB treatment to 6 months will reduce the prevalence of VGB-RD in patients with IS. PMID:25381295

  14. 17q21.31 microdeletion associated with infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Wray, Carter D

    2013-01-01

    Patients with 17q21.31 microdeletions frequently have neurologic abnormalities, especially seizures. This report is of a child with a deletion in this location who developed infantile spasms, a seizure type not specifically described in this syndrome. FISH analysis of parental blood metaphases demonstrated that the deletions occurred de novo. The deleted region encompasses the previously defined critical region for the 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome, and includes the gene encoding for corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1, a protein implicated in hyperexcitability, and potentially in infantile spasms. Treatment with ACTH led to spasm cessation, consistent with its expected repression of CRH levels, which should be augmented by CRHR1 deletion, although this response was transient. PMID:23123321

  15. Infantile Spasms: A Critical Review of Emerging Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Stafstrom, Carl E

    2009-01-01

    Infantile spasms is a developmental epilepsy syndrome with unique clinical and EEG features, a specific pattern of pharmacological responsiveness, and poor outcome in terms of cognition and epilepsy. Despite the devastating nature of infantile spasms, little is known about its pathogenesis. Until recently, there has been no animal model available to investigate the pathophysiology of the syndrome or to generate and test novel therapies. Now, several promising animal models have emerged, spanning the etiological spectrum from genetic causes (e.g., Down syndrome or Aristaless-related homeobox [ARX] mutation) to acquired causes (e.g., endogenous and exogenous toxins or stress hormones with convulsant activity or blockade of neural activity). These new models are discussed in this review, with emphasis on the insights each can provide for understanding, treating, and preventing infantile spasms. PMID:19471616

  16. The genetic landscape of infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Jacques L; Lachance, Mathieu; Hamdan, Fadi F; Carmant, Lionel; Lortie, Anne; Diadori, Paola; Major, Philippe; Meijer, Inge A; Lemyre, Emmanuelle; Cossette, Patrick; Mefford, Heather C; Rouleau, Guy A; Rossignol, Elsa

    2014-09-15

    Infantile spasms (IS) is an early-onset epileptic encephalopathy of unknown etiology in ?40% of patients. We hypothesized that unexplained IS cases represent a large collection of rare single-gene disorders. We investigated 44 children with unexplained IS using comparative genomic hybridisation arrays (aCGH) (n = 44) followed by targeted sequencing of 35 known epilepsy genes (n = 8) or whole-exome sequencing (WES) of familial trios (n = 18) to search for rare inherited or de novo mutations. aCGH analysis revealed de novo variants in 7% of patients (n = 3/44), including a distal 16p11.2 duplication, a 15q11.1q13.1 tetrasomy and a 2q21.3-q22.2 deletion. Furthermore, it identified a pathogenic maternally inherited Xp11.2 duplication. Targeted sequencing was informative for ARX (n = 1/14) and STXBP1 (n = 1/8). In contrast, sequencing of a panel of 35 known epileptic encephalopathy genes (n = 8) did not identify further mutations. Finally, WES (n = 18) was very informative, with an excess of de novo mutations identified in genes predicted to be involved in neurodevelopmental processes and/or known to be intolerant to functional variations. Several pathogenic mutations were identified, including de novo mutations in STXBP1, CASK and ALG13, as well as recessive mutations in PNPO and ADSL, together explaining 28% of cases (5/18). In addition, WES identified 1-3 de novo variants in 64% of remaining probands, pointing to several interesting candidate genes. Our results indicate that IS are genetically heterogeneous with a major contribution of de novo mutations and that WES is significantly superior to targeted re-sequencing in identifying detrimental genetic variants involved in IS. PMID:24781210

  17. [Coronary vasodilatation induced by acetylcholine in the isolated hearts of guinea pig and mice: differential contributions of nitric oxide and postacyclin].

    PubMed

    Kozlovskiĭ, V I; Gwozdz, P; Drelicharz, L; Zinchuk, V V; Chlopicki, S

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin (PGI2) as well as muscarinic m2 and m3 receptors in the coronary vasodilatation induced by acetylcholine in the isolated hearts of guinea pig and mouse perfused according to the Langendorff method. In the guinea pig heart, a coronary vasodilator response to acetylcholine was profoundly decreased by the NO-synthase inhibitor L-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10(-4) M), while in the mouse heart this response was blocked by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (5 x 10(-6) M). In both cases, the muscarinic m3 receptor antagonist 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine (4-DAMP, 3 x 10(-8) M) blocked the acetylcholine-induced vasodilator response, while the muscarinic m2 antagonist methoctramine (3 x 10(-7) M) had no effect. It was concluded that the vasodilator effect of acetylcholine depends on NO in the coronary circulation of guinea pig and on PGI2 in the coronary circulation of mouse. In both cases, the coronary vasodilation induced by acetylcholine is mediated by muscarinic m3 receptors. PMID:18652249

  18. Acute myocardial infarction following scorpion sting in a case with obstructive coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Soumya; K, Satish; Singla, Vivek; KS, Ravindranath

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence of an acute myocardial infarction (MI) following a scorpion sting has been very rarely reported in the previous literature. Possible pathogenetic mechanisms include severe hypotension due to hypovolaemic shock and coronary spasm with subsequent thrombosis of coronary vessels developed after the release of vasoactive, inflammatory and thrombogenic substances contained in the scorpion venom. All of the previously reported cases had normal coronary angiogram. We report a case of a 65-year-old woman who presented with severe scorpion sting and was treated with prazosin. But a few hours later, she developed acute anterior wall MI. Coronary angiogram revealed the presence of significant stenosis in coronary arteries. As acute MI owing to significant coronary artery disease can be evident after severe scorpion envenomation, so every case of acute coronary syndrome following scorpion sting needs early diagnosis, thorough cardiovascular evaluation and appropriate treatment. PMID:23715842

  19. Inhibition of hypoxia-induced relaxation of rabbit isolated coronary arteries by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine but not glibenclamide.

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, C.; Collins, P.

    1994-01-01

    1. The effects of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, tetrodotoxin and glibenclamide on hypoxia-induced coronary artery relaxation, induced by bubbling Krebs solution with 95% N2 and 5% CO2 instead of 95% O2 and 5% CO2, were assessed by measuring the changes in isometric tension in isolated epicardial coronary artery rings of the rabbit. In addition, the effects of glibenclamide on the relaxation induced by adenosine were investigated. 2. Hypoxia caused a transient relaxation of 38 +/- 3% (P < 0.01) and 17 +/- 2% (P < 0.01) in endothelium-intact or -denuded arteries respectively. NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (30 and 100 microM) inhibited the relaxation in endothelium-intact rings to 31 +/- 2% (P < 0.05) and 16 +/- 2% (P < 0.01) respectively and slightly but significantly attenuated the relaxation in endothelium-denuded rings to 15 +/- 1% and 13 +/- 1% (P < 0.05) respectively. 3. Glibenclamide, a potassium channel inhibitor, did not significantly after the hypoxia-induced relaxation. 4. Incubation with tetrodotoxin (3 and 10 microM) for 30 min reduced the relaxation to 31 +/- 3% (P < 0.05) and 14 +/- 2% (P < 0.01), and 14 +/- 2% (P < 0.05) and 11 +/- 1% (P < 0.05) in endothelium-intact and -denuded rings respectively. However, indomethacin (10 microM), atropine (1 microM), propranolol (10 microM) and phentolamine (10 microM) did not significantly affect the relaxation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8019749

  20. Stent-induced coronary artery stenosis characterized by multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Han-Wei; Simianu, Vlad; Locker, Mattew J.; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Sturek, Michael

    2011-02-01

    We demonstrate for the first time the applicability of multimodal nonlinear optical (NLO) microscopy to the interrogation of stented coronary arteries under different diet and stent deployment conditions. Bare metal stents and Taxus drug-eluting stents (DES) were placed in coronary arteries of Ossabaw pigs of control and atherogenic diet groups. Multimodal NLO imaging was performed to inspect changes in arterial structures and compositions after stenting. Sum frequency generation, one of the multimodalities, was used for the quantitative analysis of collagen content in the peristent and in-stent artery segments of both pig groups. Atherogenic diet increased lipid and collagen in peristent segments. In-stent segments showed decreased collagen expression in neointima compared to media. Deployment of DES in atheromatous arteries inhibited collagen expression in the arterial media.

  1. Ischemia induced by coronary steal through a patent mammary artery side branch: a role for embolization.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Nuno; da Silva Castro, Alexandra; Pereira, Adriana; Silva, Joo Carlos; Almeida, Pedro Bernardo; Andrade, Aurora; Maciel, Maria Jlia; Pinto, Paula

    2013-06-01

    Non-occlusion of the internal mammary artery side branches may cause ischemia due to flow diversion after coronary artery bypass grafting. The authors present the case of a 67-year-old man with recurrent angina after undergoing myocardial revascularization with a left internal mammary artery to left anterior descending bypass. He presented with impaired anterior wall myocardial perfusion in the setting of a patent left internal mammary artery side branch. Effective percutaneous treatment was carried out through coil embolization, with improved flow and clinical symptoms, confirmed through ischemia testing. Coronary steal through a patent mammary artery side branch is a controversial phenomenon and this type of intervention should be considered only in carefully selected patients. PMID:23809629

  2. Myocardial perfusion imaging study of CO(2)-induced panic attack.

    PubMed

    Soares-Filho, Gasto L F; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrin, Oscar; Santulli, Gaetano; Mesquita, Claudio T; Cosci, Fiammetta; Silva, Adriana C; Nardi, Antonio E

    2014-01-15

    Chest pain is often seen alongside with panic attacks. Moreover, panic disorder has been suggested as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and even a trigger for acute coronary syndrome. Patients with coronary artery disease may have myocardial ischemia in response to mental stress, in which panic attack is a strong component, by an increase in coronary vasomotor tone or sympathetic hyperactivity setting off an increase in myocardial oxygen consumption. Indeed, coronary artery spasm was presumed to be present in cases of cardiac ischemia linked to panic disorder. These findings correlating panic disorder with coronary artery disease lead us to raise questions about the favorable prognosis of chest pain in panic attack. To investigate whether myocardial ischemia is the genesis of chest pain in panic attacks, we developed a myocardial perfusion study through research by myocardial scintigraphy in patients with panic attacks induced in the laboratory by inhalation of 35% carbon dioxide. In conclusion, from the data obtained, some hypotheses are discussed from the viewpoint of endothelial dysfunction and microvascular disease present in mental stress response. PMID:24188891

  3. Potentiation of phorbol ester-induced coronary vasoconstriction in dogs following endothelium disruption

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.B.; Ku, D.D.

    1986-03-05

    In the present study, the effect of phorbol ester, 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), activation of protein kinase C on coronary vascular reactivity was studied in isolated dog coronary arteries. Addition of TPA (10-100 nM) produced a slow, time- and dose-dependent contraction reaching a maximum at approx 2-3 hrs and was essentially irreversible upon washing. Disruption of the endothelium(EC) greatly accelerated the development as well as increase the magnitude of TPA contraction (50-100%). Prior treatment of vessels with phentolamine (1..mu..M), cyproheptadine (1..mu..H) and ibuprofen (1..mu..g/ml) did not alter the TPA contraction. Furthermore, in contrast to previously reported calcium-dependence of TPA contraction in other vessels, complete removal of extracellular calcium (Ca/sub 0/) or addition of 1..mu..M nimodipine after TPA(30nM) resulted in only 32 +/- 4% and 25 +/- 3% reversal of TPA contraction, respectively. Addition of amiloride (10..mu..M to 1mM), however, resulted in a dose-dependent reversal of TPA contraction. The results of the present study indicate that a similar activation of protein kinase C by TPA leads to potent coronary vasoconstriction, which is not completely dependent on Ca/sub 0/. More importantly, these results further support their hypothesis that EC also functions as an inhibitory barrier to prevent circulating vasoconstrictors from exerting their deleterious constrictory effects.

  4. The effects of N-acetylcysteine on cisplatin-induced changes of cardiodynamic parameters within coronary autoregulation range in isolated rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Rosic, Gvozden; Selakovic, Dragica; Joksimovic, Jovana; Srejovic, Ivan; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Tatalovi?, Nikola; Orescanin-Dusic, Zorana; Mitrovic, Slobodanka; Ilic, Milena; Jakovljevic, Vladimir

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chronic NAC administration along with cisplatin on cisplatin-induced cardiotoxicity by means of coronary flow (CF), cardiodynamic parameters, oxidative stress markers and morphological changes in isolated rat heart. Isolated hearts of Wistar albino rats (divided into four groups: control, cisplatin, NAC and cisplatin+NAC group) were perfused according to Langendorff technique at constant coronary perfusion pressure starting at 50 and gradually increased to 65, 80, 95 and 110cm H2O to evaluate cardiodynamic parameters within autoregulation range. Samples of coronary venous effluent (CVE) were collected for determination of CF and biochemical assays, and heart tissue samples for biochemical assays and histopathological examination. Cisplatin treatment decreased CF and heart rate, and increased left ventricular systolic pressure and maximum left ventricular pressure development rate. Cisplatin increased H2O2 and TBARS, but decreased NO2(-) levels in CVE. In tissue samples, cisplatin reduced pathological alterations in myocardium and coronary vessels, with no changes in the amount of total glutathione, as well as in activity of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. NAC coadministration, by reducing oxidative damage, attenuated cisplatin-induced changes of cardiodynamic and oxidative stress parameters, as well as morphological changes in myocardium and coronary vasculature. PMID:26656795

  5. Part One: Infantile Spasms--The New Consensus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellock, John

    2011-01-01

    Infantile spasms (IS, West syndrome) represent a difficult to treat and sometimes not immediately recognized form of epilepsy which is relatively rare. West Syndrome or IS is one of the most recognized types of epileptic encephalopathy, a form of epilepsy usually associated with developmental regression and delay, frequently difficult to treat and…

  6. Treatment of facial spasm with botulinum toxin. An interim report.

    PubMed

    Frueh, B R; Musch, D C

    1986-07-01

    Forty-eight patients were given serial injections of botulinum toxin in their eyelids for treatment of eyelid spasm during a two-year interval. Ninety-four percent obtained relief of spasm from botulinum toxin injection. The duration of the spasm-free interval as well as the incidence of ptosis and of diplopia was dose dependent. The marked increase in the incidence of these side effects with only a small increase in the duration of the spasm-free interval, when a dose of 25 units per lid was used, leads the authors to conclude that this dose is too high and should not be used. Since diplopia was most commonly caused by paresis of the inferior oblique muscle, and since blepharospasm usually can be controlled by excising the upper lid protractors, further studies are required to determine whether lower lid injection is necessary and, if it is found to be so, whether injecting only the lateral portion of the lid would be adequate. PMID:3763137

  7. Alexander disease with mild dorsal brainstem atrophy and infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Torisu, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Yoko; Yamaguchi-Takada, Yui; Yano, Tamami; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Sawaishi, Yukio; Hara, Toshiro

    2013-05-01

    We present the case of a Japanese male infant with Alexander disease who developed infantile spasms at 8 months of age. The patient had a cluster of partial seizures at 4 months of age. He presented with mild general hypotonia and developmental delay. Macrocephaly was not observed. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings fulfilled all MRI-based criteria for the diagnosis of Alexander disease and revealed mild atrophy of the dorsal pons and medulla oblongata with abnormal intensities. DNA analysis disclosed a novel heterozygous missense mutation (c.1154 C>T, p.S385F) in the glial fibrillary acidic protein gene. At 8 months of age, tonic spasms occurred, and electroencephalography (EEG) revealed hypsarrhythmia. Lamotrigine effectively controlled the infantile spasms and improved the abnormal EEG findings. Although most patients with infantile Alexander disease have epilepsy, infantile spasms are rare. This comorbid condition may be associated with the distribution of the brain lesions and the age at onset of Alexander disease. PMID:22818990

  8. Part One: Infantile Spasms--The New Consensus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellock, John

    2011-01-01

    Infantile spasms (IS, West syndrome) represent a difficult to treat and sometimes not immediately recognized form of epilepsy which is relatively rare. West Syndrome or IS is one of the most recognized types of epileptic encephalopathy, a form of epilepsy usually associated with developmental regression and delay, frequently difficult to treat and

  9. GRACE risk score predicts contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with acute coronary syndrome and normal renal function.

    PubMed

    Raposeiras-Roubn, Sergio; Aguiar-Souto, Pablo; Barreiro-Pardal, Cristina; Lpez Otero, Diego; Elices Teja, Juliana; Ocaranza Sanchez, Raymundo; Cid Alvarez, Belen; Trillo Nouche, Ramiro; Maceiras, Mara Victoria Reino; Abu-Assi, Emad; Garca-Acua, Jos Mara; Gonzlez-Juanatey, Jos Ramn

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the incidence, clinical predictors, and outcomes of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) after coronary angiography in patients with myocardial infarction and normal kidney function. We studied 202 consecutive patients with glomerular filtration rate >60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). The CIN was defined according to 3 definitions: increases in serum creatinine (sCr) ?25%, ?0.3 mg/dL, and ?0.5 mg/dL. The CIN occurred in 56 (27.7%), 42 (20.8%), and 13 (6.4%) patients, respectively. In multivariate analysis, the presence of a high Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score (>140) was an independent predictor of CIN in its milder forms (?25% and ?0.3 mg/dL of rise in sCr). Increase in sCr ?0.3 mg/dL was an independent predictor of bleeding. Increase in sCr ?0.5 mg/dL was an independent predictor of in-hospital cardiac events (mortality, myocardial infraction [MI], and heart failure). As conclusion, the GRACE score is a useful tool to predict CIN in patients with MI and normal renal function. PMID:22297037

  10. Time Course of Isoflurane-Induced Vasodilation: A Doppler Ultrasound Study of the Left Coronary Artery in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lenzarini, Francesca; Di Lascio, Nicole; Stea, Francesco; Kusmic, Claudia; Faita, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Isoflurane is widely used as vasodilator in studies of coronary flow reserve (CFR) in small animals, but the protocols have not been standardized. This study assessed the time course of the increase in isoflurane-induced flow in the mouse coronary artery by pulsed-wave Doppler measurements at 1% isoflurane concentration maintained for 6 min and then increased to 2.5% for 30 min. Velocity-time integral and velocity peak values were best fitted by the sigmoid model, which allowed derivation of the mean time (Tt90 = 14 min) of high-isoflurane needed to reach 90% of the hyperemic plateau value. In subsequent experiments, CFR was measured at 4 min (mean time of literature data) and 14 min of hyperemic response. The 4-min CFR was significantly lower than the 14 -min CFR, and the Bland-Altman plot revealed significant bias of the 4-min CFR against the 14-min CFR. This result suggests that measurements of flow velocity at times shorter than 14 min may be inappropriate for expressing the effective value of CFR. PMID:26792616

  11. Effect of Remote Ischemic Preconditioning on Platelet Activation Induced by Coronary Procedures.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Gaetano Antonio; Stazi, Alessandra; Villano, Angelo; Torrini, Flavia; Milo, Maria; Laurito, Marianna; Flego, Davide; Aurigemma, Cristina; Liuzzo, Giovanna; Crea, Filippo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we aim to assess whether remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) reduces platelet activation during coronary angiography (CA) and/or percutaneous coronary interventions. We studied 30 patients who underwent CA because of a suspect of stable angina. Patients were randomized to RIPC (3 short episodes of forearm ischemia) or sham RIPC (controls) before the procedure. Blood samples were collected at baseline, at the end of the procedure, and 24 hours later. Monocyte-platelet aggregate (MPA) formation and platelet CD41 in the MPA gate and CD41 and CD62 expression in the platelet gate were assessed by flow cytometry, in the absence and in the presence of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) stimulation. A significant increase in platelet activation occurred during the invasive procedure in controls, which persisted at 24 hours. However, compared with controls, RIPC group showed no or a lower increase in platelet variables, including MPA formation (p <0.0001) and CD41 (p = 0.002) in the MPA gate and CD41 (p <0.0001) and CD62 (p = 0.002) in the platelet gate. ADP increased platelet activation at baseline, but did not further increase platelet reactivity during the invasive procedure in either groups. Percutaneous coronary interventions, performed in 10 patients (6 in the RIPC group and 4 in controls), did not have any further significant effect on platelet activation and reactivity compared with CA alone. In conclusion, RIPC reduces platelet activation occurring during CA. In contrast, no effects were observed on platelet response to ADP stimulation, probably related to the administration of an ADP antagonist in all patients. PMID:26739396

  12. Malondialdehyde mediates oxidized LDL-induced coronary toxicity through the Akt-FGF2 pathway via DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) is involved in the development of atherosclerotic heart disease through a mechanism that is not fully understood. In this study, we examined the role of malondialdehyde (MDA), an important oxidative stress epitope of oxLDL, in mediating coronary endothelial cytotoxicity. Results Human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) were treated with oxLDL in the presence or absence of antibody against MDA (anti-MDA) or apoB100 (anti-apoB100). In HCAECs treated with oxLDL (100 ?g/ml) alone, DNA synthesis, cell viability, and expression of prosurvival fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) were significantly reduced (P < 0.01 vs phosphate buffered salinetreated cells). These inhibitory effects of oxLDL were significantly attenuated in HCAECs cotreated with anti-MDA (0.15 ?g/ml; P < 0.05 vs oxLDL-treated cells), but not in those cotreated with anti-apoB100. When we tested the effects of a panel of signal transduction modifiers on the signal transduction pathways of MDA in oxLDL-treated HCAECs, we found that MDA-induced cytotoxicity was mediated partly through the Akt pathway. Using a reporter gene assay, we identified an oxLDL-response element in the FGF2 promoter that was responsible for the transcriptional repression of FGF2 by oxLDL. The results of bisulfite genomic DNA sequencing showed that in HCAECs treated with oxLDL, the GC-rich promoter of FGF2 was heavily methylated at cytosine residues, whereas cotreatment with anti-MDA markedly reduced oxLDL-induced FGF2 promoter methylation. Conclusion OxLDL disrupts the growth and survival of HCAECs through an MDA-dependent pathway involving methylation of the FGF2 promoter and repression of FGF2 transcription. This novel epigenetic mechanism of oxLDL may underlie its atherogenicity in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:24490960

  13. Preferential coronary vascular dysfunction caused by electrolysis-induced oxygen-derived free radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Tilton, R.G.; Land, M.P.; Sutera, S.P.; Larson, K.B.; Williamson, J.R. )

    1991-03-15

    To test if oxygen-derived free radicals could mediate vascular damage in the absence of ischemia, isolated hearts from Dutch-Belted rabbits were perfused with Krebs-bicarbonate buffer for collection of baseline data, randomized to a control group or subjected to electrolysis using the same buffer, then perfused at the same baseline flow rate for an additional 90 min. Electrolysis was performed in the arterial inflow line {approximately}10 cm from the heart with platinum and stainless steel electrodes. Coronary vascular resistance, vascular volume, {sup 125}I-BSA permeation, {sup 125}I-BSA mean-transit time, and left ventricle function, including LVEDP and +dP/dt, were assessed as described previously. Baseline R, LVEDP, +dP/dt, V{sub 1}, F{sub 21}, and t{sub BSA} did not differ between experimental groups. Electrolysis was continued until perfusion pressure increased {approximately}30%; this was associated with a 46% increase in V{sub 1}, a 6-fold increase in F{sub 21}, and a {approximately}3-fold increase in t{sub BSA} but no significant change in LV function. Under these experimental conditions, electrolysis produced injury only to coronary vascular cells.

  14. Diagnosing coronary artery disease by sound analysis from coronary stenosis induced turbulent blood flow: diagnostic performance in patients with stable angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Winther, Simon; Schmidt, Samuel Emil; Holm, Niels Ramsing; Toft, Egon; Struijk, Johannes Jan; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Bøttcher, Morten

    2016-02-01

    Optimizing risk assessment may reduce use of advanced diagnostic testing in patients with symptoms suggestive of stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Detection of diastolic murmurs from post-stenotic coronary turbulence with an acoustic sensor placed on the chest wall can serve as an easy, safe, and low-cost supplement to assist in the diagnosis of CAD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of an acoustic test (CAD-score) to detect CAD and compare it to clinical risk stratification and coronary artery calcium score (CACS). We prospectively enrolled patients with symptoms of CAD referred to either coronary computed tomography or invasive coronary angiography (ICA). All patients were tested with the CAD-score system. Obstructive CAD was defined as more than 50 % diameter stenosis diagnosed by quantitative analysis of the ICA. In total, 255 patients were included and obstructive CAD was diagnosed in 63 patients (28 %). Diagnostic accuracy evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curves was 72 % for the CAD-score, which was similar to the Diamond-Forrester clinical risk stratification score, 79 % (p = 0.12), but lower than CACS, 86 % (p < 0.01). Combining the CAD-score and Diamond-Forrester score, AUC increased to 82 %, which was significantly higher than the standalone CAD-score (p < 0.01) and Diamond-Forrester score (p < 0.05). Addition of the CAD-score to the Diamond-Forrester score increased correct reclassification, categorical net-reclassification index = 0.31 (p < 0.01). This study demonstrates the potential use of an acoustic system to identify CAD. The combination of clinical risk scores and an acoustic test seems to optimize patient selection for diagnostic investigation. PMID:26335368

  15. Encephalopathy in an infant with infantile spasms: possible role of valproate toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sivathanu, Shobhana; Sampath, Sowmya; Veerasamy, Madhubala; Sunderkumar, Satheeshkumar

    2014-01-01

    An infant presented with global developmental delay and infantile spasms. EEG was suggestive of hypsarrhythmia. She was started on sodium valproate, clonazepam and adrenocorticotropic hormone injection. After an initial improvement the child developed vomiting, altered sensorium and increase in frequency of seizures suggestive of encephalopathy. Valproate-induced hyperammonaemia or hepatic encephalopathy was considered and the drug was withheld following which there was a dramatic improvement. Paradoxically, the liver function tests and serum ammonia were normal. However, a complete reversal of encephalopathy, on withdrawal of the drug, strongly suggested an adverse drug reaction (ADR) due to valproic acid. Marginal elevation of serum valproic acid prompted us to use the Naranjo ADR probability score to confirm the diagnosis. This case highlights the fact that valproate toxicity can manifest with normal liver function and serum ammonia levels. This is the youngest reported case with this rare form of valproate-induced encephalopathy. PMID:24810446

  16. Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction in Patients With Infantile Spasm and the Effect of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Treatment.

    PubMed

    Gencpinar, Pinar; Kocabas, Abdullah; Duman, zgr; Dndar, Nihal Olga; Haspolat, Senay; Kardelen, F?rat

    2016-02-01

    Infantile spasm is an age-dependent epileptic-encephalopathy syndrome. Cardiac autonomic function is frequently altered in epilepsy. In this study, we examined heart rate variability in patients with infantile spasm before and after treatment. Nineteen patients with infantile spasm and 13 healthy comparisons were enrolled in the study. Cardiac rhythm was recorded with a Holter device for 24 hours before adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) (Synacthen depot) and B6 vitamin administration and 1 month after treatment. Heart rate variability analysis found lower heart rate variability parameters in patients with infantile spasm at the onset of the syndrome, prior to treatment with ACTH. The time domain parameters of heart rate variability values showed a statistically significant increase following ACTH treatment. Our data suggest that patients with infantile spasm exhibit lower heart rate variability parameters, and the treatment of spasms with ACTH and B6 together diminished the autonomic dysfunction in our cohort. PMID:25953826

  17. Topiramate and Adrenal Cortico-tropic Hormone as Initial Treatment of Infantile Spasms

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Bradley; Alonso, William D.; Porter, Brenda E.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, adrenal cortico-tropic hormone (ACTH) was used as first line treatment for infantile spasms, however there has been increasing use of topiramate as initial therapy. Here we report a retrospective study of ACTH and topiramate as initial treatment of infantile spasms. The neurology patient database at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia was searched using the ICD-9 code for infantile spasms, and 50 patients were randomly chosen for chart review. We identified thirty-one patients receiving either ACTH or topiramate monotherapy (ACTH, n = 12, topiramate n = 19) as a first line treatment for infantile spasms. Twenty-six patients were symptomatic and five cryptogenic. Six patients treated with ACTH had resolution of clinical spasms and hypsarrhithmia within a month, but three relapsed. Four of the nineteen patients treated with topiramate eventually, though over a period of 0,1,8 or 69 months, had resolution of spasms and hypsarrhythmia. PMID:19225138

  18. Adrenocorticotropic hormone versus prednisolone in the treatment of infantile spasms post vigabatrin failure.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kevin; Snead, O Carter; Boyd, Jennifer; Go, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    The Child Neurology Society/American Academy of Neurology practice parameter has recommended adrenocorticotropic hormone or vigabatrin in the short-term treatment of infantile spasms. When vigabatrin is unavailable or ineffective and adrenocorticotropic hormone is not a treatment option because of the prohibitive cost, other forms of corticosteroids have been considered in the treatment of infantile spasms. This retrospective study reviewed the Hospital for Sick Children's experience with the short-term effectiveness of prednisolone versus adrenocorticotropic hormone in patients with infantile spasms who have failed vigabatrin. The results showed that while adrenocorticotropic hormone was more likely to lead to short-term spasm freedom, there was no difference in the likelihood of longer-term spasm resolution without relapse. These findings can guide clinicians in the treatment of infantile spasms post vigabatrin failure. PMID:24965788

  19. Heart ischaemia–reperfusion induces local up-regulation of vasoconstrictor endothelin ETB receptors in rat coronary arteries downstream of occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Skovsted, G F; Kruse, L S; Larsen, R; Pedersen, A F; Trautner, S; Sheykhzade, M; Edvinsson, L

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Endothelins act via two receptor subtypes, ETA and ETB. Under physiological conditions in coronary arteries, ETA receptors expressed in smooth muscle cells mediate vasoconstriction whereas ETB receptors mainly found in endothelial cells mediate vasorelaxation. However, under pathophysiological conditions, ETB receptors may also be expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells mediating vasoconstriction. Here, we have investigated whether vasoconstrictor ETB receptors are up-regulated in coronary arteries after experimental myocardial ischaemia in rats. Experimental Approach Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either heart ischaemia–reperfusion (15 min ischaemia and 22 h reperfusion), permanent ischaemia (22 h) by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery, or sham operation. Using wire myography, the endothelin receptor subtypes mediating vasoconstriction were examined in isolated segments of the left anterior descending and the non-ligated septal coronary arteries. Endothelin receptor-mediated vasoconstriction was examined with cumulative administration of sarafotoxin 6c (ETB receptor agonist) and endothelin-1 (with or without ETA or ETB receptor blockade). The distribution of ETB receptors was localized with immunohistochemistry and quantified by Western blot. Key Results Endothelin ETB receptor-mediated vasoconstriction and receptor protein levels were significantly augmented in coronary arteries situated downstream of the occlusion after ischaemia–reperfusion compared with non-ischaemic arteries. In contrast, the ETA receptor-mediated vasoconstriction was unaltered in all groups. Conclusions and Implications Ischaemia–reperfusion induced local up-regulation of ETB receptors in the smooth muscle cells of coronary arteries in the post-ischaemic area. In contrast, in non-ischaemic areas, ETB receptor function was unaltered. PMID:24467585

  20. Relationship between regional myocardial blood flow and thallium-201 distribution in the presence of coronary artery stenosis and dipyridamole-induced vasodilation.

    PubMed Central

    Mays, A E; Cobb, F R

    1984-01-01

    This study assesses the relationship between the distribution of thallium-201 and myocardial blood flow during coronary vasodilation induced by intravenous dipyridamole in canine models of partial and complete coronary artery stenosis. 10 dogs were chronically instrumented with catheters in the left atrium and aorta and with a balloon occluder and electromagnetic flow probe on the proximal left circumflex coronary artery. Regional myocardial blood flow was measured during control conditions with radioisotope-labeled microspheres, and the phasic reactive hyperemic response to a 20-s transient occlusion was then recorded. Dipyridamole was then infused intravenously until phasic coronary blood flow increased to match peak hyperemic values. The left circumflex coronary artery was either partially occluded to reduce phasic blood flow to control values (group 1) or it was completely occluded (group 2), and thallium-201 and a second microsphere label were injected. 5 min later, the animals were sacrificed, the left ventricle was sectioned into 1-2-g samples, and thallium-201 activity and regional myocardial blood flow were measured. Curvilinear regression analyses between thallium-201 localization and myocardial blood flow during dipyridamole infusion demonstrated a slightly better fit to a second- as compared with a first-order model, indicating a slight roll-off of thallium activity as myocardial blood flow increases. During the dipyridamole infusion, the increases in phasic blood flow, the distributions of regional myocardial blood flow, and the relationships between thallium-201 localization and regional blood flow were comparable to values previously observed in exercising dogs with similar occlusions. These data provide basic validation that supports the use of intravenous dipyridamole and thallium-201 as an alternative to exercise stress and thallium-201 for evaluating the effects of coronary occlusive lesions on the distribution of regional myocardial blood flow. PMID:6715540

  1. Teaching neuroimages: infant with glutaric aciduria type 1 presenting with infantile spasms and hypsarrhythmia.

    PubMed

    Young-Lin, Nichole; Shalev, Sarah; Glenn, Orit A; Gardner, Marisa; Lee, Chung; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony; Gelfand, Amy A

    2013-12-10

    A 7-month-old boy with glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) presented with 1 week of clustered flexor spasms. Examination revealed mild axial hypotonia without encephalopathy. Video-EEG monitoring revealed hypsarrhythmia and infantile spasms (figure, A). MRI showed acute basal ganglia injury (figure, B). After 3 weeks of prednisolone treatment, 5-month follow-up showed continued resolution of hypsarrhythmia and spasms. PMID:24323445

  2. Hemifacial spasm: 20-year surgical experience, lesson learned

    PubMed Central

    Soriano-Baron, Hector; Vales-Hidalgo, Olivia; Arvizu-Saldana, Emiliano; Moreno-Jimenez, Sergio; Revuelta-Gutierrez, Rogelio

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hemifacial spasm is characterized by unilateral, paroxysmal, and involuntary contractions. It is more common in women on the left side. Its evolution is progressive, and it rarely improves without treatment. Methods: Microvascular decompressions (N = 226) were performed in 194 Hispanic patients (May 1992May 2011). Outcomes were evaluated on a 4-point scale: Excellent (complete remission); good (12 spasms/day); bad (>2 spasms/day); and recurrence (relapse after initial excellent/good response). Results: Most patients were female (n = 123); 71 were male. Mean (SD) age was 49.4 (11.7) years; age at onset, 43.9 (11.9) years; time to surgery, 5.7 (4.7) years. The left side was affected in 114 patients. Typical syndrome occurred in 177 (91.2%); atypical in 17 (8.8%). Findings were primarily vascular compression (n = 185 patients): Anterior inferior cerebellar artery (n = 147), posterior inferior cerebellar artery (n = 12), basilar artery (n = 10), superior cerebellar artery (n = 8), and 2 vessels (n = 8); 9 had no compression. Postsurgical results were primarily excellent (79.9% [n = 155]; good, 4.6% [n = 9]; bad, 15.5% [n = 30]), with recurrence in 21 (10.8%) at mean 51-month (range, 1133 months) follow-up. Complications included transient hearing loss and facial palsy. Conclusions: The anterior inferior cerebellar artery is involved in most cases of hemifacial spasm. Failure to improve postsurgically after 1 week warrants reoperation. Sex, side, and onset are unrelated to treatment response. Microvascular decompression is the preferred treatment. It is minimally invasive, nondestructive, and achieves the best long-term results, with minor morbidity. To our knowledge, this series is the largest to date on a Hispanic population. PMID:26015871

  3. Intraspinal baclofen in the treatment of severe spasticity and spasms.

    PubMed

    Sahuquillo, J; Muxi, T; Noguer, M; Jodar, R; Closa, C; Rubio, E; Garcia-Fernandez, L; Guitart, J M

    1991-01-01

    Ten patients with severe spasticity were evaluated according to a standardized protocol in order to be treated by intraspinal baclofen. Entry criteria in the protocol were the following: 1) Stable central nervous system lesion, 2) Severe spasticity and/or flexo-extensor spasms not controllable by oral treatment, 3) Normal CSF circulation and 4) Informed consent. All patients received a test dose of twenty-five micrograms of baclofen injected intrathecally. At intervals of at least one day, doses were increased in 10-25 microgram steps until total abolition of spontaneous spasms was achieved in complete spinal cord lesions. In patients with residual motor function, doses were titrated until the optimal dose was found that reduced spasms and enabled performance of maximum daily life activities according to the patient's neurological level. In nine patients a multidose reservoir was implanted to deliver intrathecal baclofen. Effective dosage was 60 +/- 31 micrograms in the entire group. Ashworth score was reduced from 4.6 +/- 0.7 to 1.2 +/- 0.4 (mean +/- SD) (p less than 0.0001) and spasms from 3.2 +/- 0.8 to 0.2 +/- 0.4 (p less than 0.0001). Follow-up of the nine patients in whom a reservoir was implanted has been 18 +/- 9 months. Initial dosage requirements and tolerance were significantly different in complete (Frankel's A grade) or incomplete lesions (Frankel's B, C and D grades). Complete spinal cord lesions required a greater initial dose (156 +/- 43) than incomplete lesions (44 +/- 24), these differences being statistically significant (Student's t-test, p less than 0.05). Tolerance was observed only in patients with complete motor and complete sensory lesions. In incomplete lesions, dose increase was insignificant. PMID:1927610

  4. Hemifacial spasm due to vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    AbdelHamid, Mustafa; John, Kuruvilla; Rizvi, Tanvir; Huff, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Hemifacial spasm (HFS) happens because of vascular compression of the facial nerve at the root exit zone. Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD) is a very rare cause of HFS. VBD is diagnosed by computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Here, we report a case of 65-year-old female patient with HFS due to VBD. We discuss the complications and the treatment options for the case. PMID:26649123

  5. Infantile spasms are associated with abnormal copy number variations.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vijay N; Sundaram, Senthil K; Chugani, Harry T; Huq, A H M M

    2013-10-01

    The authors tested the hypothesis that de novo copy number variations (CNVs) implicated in known genomic disorders ("pathogenic CNVs") are significant predisposing factors of infantile spasms. The authors performed a genome-wide analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping microarray data to identify the role of de novo/known pathogenic large CNVs in 13 trios of children affected by infantile spasms. A rare, large (4.8 Mb) de novo duplication was detected in the 15q11-13 region of 1 patient. In addition, 3 known pathogenic CNVs (present in the patient as well as 1 of the parents) were detected in total. In 1 patient, a known pathogenic deletion was detected in the region of 2q32.3. Similarly, in 1 other patient, 2 known pathogenic deletions in the regions of 16p11.2 and Xp22.13 (containing CDKL5) were detected. These findings suggest that some specific pathogenic CNVs predispose to infantile spasms and may be associated with different phenotypes. PMID:22914377

  6. Artichoke, cynarin and cyanidin downregulate the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in human coronary smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ning; Pautz, Andrea; Wollscheid, Ursula; Reifenberg, Gisela; Förstermann, Ulrich; Li, Huige

    2014-01-01

    Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) is one of the world's oldest medicinal plants with multiple health benefits. We have previously shown that artichoke leaf extracts and artichoke flavonoids upregulate the gene expression of endothelial-type nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human endothelial cells. Whereas NO produced by the eNOS is a vasoprotective molecule, NO derived from the inducible iNOS plays a pro-inflammatory role in the vasculature. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of artichoke on iNOS expression in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMC). Incubation of HCASMC with a cytokine mixture led to an induction of iNOS mRNA expression. This iNOS induction was concentration- and time-dependently inhibited by an artichoke leaf extract (1-100 µg/mL, 6 h or 24 h). Consistently, the artichoke leaf extract also reduced cytokine-induced iNOS promoter activation and iNOS protein expression. In addition, treatment of HCASMC with four well-known artichoke compounds (cynarin > cyanidin > luteolin ≈ cynaroside) led to a downregulation iNOS mRNA and protein expression, with cynarin being the most potent one. In conclusion, artichoke contains both eNOS-upregulating and iNOS-downregulating compounds. Such compounds may contribute to the beneficial effects of artichoke and may per se have therapeutic potentials. PMID:24662080

  7. Activation of group IVC phospholipase A2 by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons induces apoptosis of human coronary artery endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Sean M.; Elgayyar, Mona A.; Menn, Fu-Minn; Vulava, Vijay M.; McKay, Larry; Sanseverino, John; Sayler, Gary; Tucker, Dawn E.; Leslie, Christina C.; Lu, Kim P.; Ramos, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to environmental pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in coal tar mixtures and tobacco sources, is considered a significant risk factor for the development of heart disease in humans. The goal of this study was to determine the influence of PAHs present at a Superfund site on human coronary artery endothelial cell (HCAEC) phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity and apoptosis. Extremely high levels of 12 out of 15 EPA high-priority PAHs were present in both the streambed and floodplain sediments at a site where an urban creek and its adjacent floodplain were extensively contaminated by PAHs and other coal tar compounds. Nine of the 12 compounds and a coal tar mixture (SRM 1597A) activated group IVC PLA2 in HCAECs, and activation of this enzyme was associated with histone fragmentation and poly (ADP) ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Genetic silencing of group IVC PLA2 inhibited both 3H-fatty acid release and histone fragmentation by PAHs and SRM 1597A, indicating that individual PAHs and a coal tar mixture induce apoptosis of HCAECs via a mechanism that involves group IVC PLA2. Western blot analysis of aortas isolated from feral mice (Peromyscus leucopus) inhabiting the Superfund site showed increased PARP and caspase-3 cleavage when compared to reference mice. These data suggest that PAHs induce apoptosis of HCAECs via activation of group IVC PLA2. PMID:21132278

  8. Near-infrared spectroscopy study of tourniquet-induced forearm ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardini, Mario E.; Guizzetti, Giovanni G.; Bavera, Matteo; Lago, Paolo; Corti, Mario; Falcone, Colomba; Pastore, Federico

    2001-06-01

    Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) can be employed to monitor local changes in haemodynamics and oxygenation of human tissues. A preliminary study has been performed in order to evaluate the NIRS transmittance response to induced forearm ischaemia in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The population consists in 40 patients with cardiovascular risk factors and angiographically documented CAD, compared to a group of 13 normal subjects. By inflating and subsequently deflating a cuff placed around the patient arm, an ischaemia has been induced and released, and the patients have been observed until recovery of the basal conditions. A custom NIRS spectrometer has been used to collect the backscattered light intensities from the patient forearm throughout the ischaemic and the recovery phase. The time dependence of the near-infrared transmittance on the control group is consistent with the available literature. On the contrary, the magnitude and dynamics of the NIRS signal on the CAD patients show deviations from the documented normal behavior, which can be tentatively attributed to abnormal vessel stiffness. These preliminary results, while validating the performance of the IRIS spectrometer, are strongly conducive towards the applicability of the NIRS technique to ischaemia analysis and to the endothelial dysfunction characterization in CAD patients with cardiovascular risk factors.

  9. 2014 Williams Harvey Lecture: importance of coronary vasomotion abnormalities-from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2014-12-01

    Coronary vasomotion abnormalities play important roles in the pathogenesis of ischaemic heart disease, in which endothelial dysfunction and coronary artery spasm are substantially involved. Endothelial vasodilator functions are heterogeneous depending on the vessel size, with relatively greater role of nitric oxide (NO) in conduit arteries and predominant role of endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) in resistance arteries, where endothelium-derived hydrogen peroxide serves as an important EDHF. The functions of NO synthases in the endothelium are also heterogeneous with multiple mechanisms involved, accounting for the diverse functions of the endothelium in vasomotor as well as metabolic modulations. Cardiovascular abnormalities and metabolic phenotypes become evident when all three NO synthases are deleted, suggesting the importance of both NO and EDHF. Coronary artery spasm plays important roles in the pathogenesis of a wide range of ischaemic heart disease. The central mechanism of the spasm is hypercontraction of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), but not endothelial dysfunction, where activation of Rho-kinase, a molecular switch of VSMC contraction, plays a major role through inhibition of myosin light-chain phosphatase. The Rho-kinase pathway is also involved in the pathogenesis of a wide range of cardiovascular diseases and new Rho-kinase inhibitors are under development for various indications. The registry study by the Japanese Coronary Spasm Association has demonstrated many important aspects of vasospastic angina. The ongoing international registry study of vasospastic angina in six nations should elucidate the unknown aspects of the disorder. Coronary vasomotion abnormalities appear to be an important therapeutic target in cardiovascular medicine. PMID:25354517

  10. Analysis of coronary collaterals in ischaemic heart disease by angiography during pacing induced ischaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Frick, M H; Valle, M; Korhola, O; Riihimki, E; Wiljasalo, M

    1976-01-01

    Studies were made using ordinary selective coronary angiography and angiography during ischaemia produced by right atrial pacing, on a series of 41 patients with ischaemic heart disease, to examine the response of the collaterals to the ischaemia stimulus. Regional myocardial perfusion was determined under the same circumstances by measuring regional 133Xenon washout curves. No collaterals were found in 8 patients, none of whom demonstrated collaterals when angiography was repeated during ischaemia. Eleven of the 33 patients with prepacing collaterals (33%) responded to ischaemia with an increase in the collaterals, 16 patients (49%) showed no change, 5 patients (15%) showed a decrease in the collaterals, and one patient exhibited a bidirectional change. Regional myocardial perfusion responses closely paralleled the angiographic changes, yielding suggestive evidence that the collaterals were intimately involved in the enhancement of the flow. Despite different collateral and flow responses to ischaemia, the data on exercise tolerance, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, ejection fraction, prevalence of left ventricular asynergy, and the topographic relation between synergy and collaterals, were largely similar. The data show that in some patients the collateral circulation reacts to ischaemia by enhancement, but the functional significance of this response is obscure. Images PMID:1259832

  11. Coronary Endothelial Dysfunction Induced by Nucleotide Oligomerization Domain-Like Receptor Protein with Pyrin Domain Containing 3 Inflammasome Activation During Hypercholesterolemia: Beyond Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Pitzer, Ashley L.; Chen, Yang; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: This study hypothesized that activation of endothelial nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptor protein with pyrin domain containing 3 (Nlrp3) inflammasomes directly produces endothelial dysfunction during hypercholesterolemia, which is distinct from its canonical roles in inflammation. Results: Acute hypercholesterolemia in mice was induced by intraperitoneal administration of poloxamer 407 (0.5 g/kg) for 24 h. Endothelial dysfunction was assessed by evaluating endothelium-dependent vasodilation in isolated, perfused, and pressurized coronary arteries in response to bradykinin (10−10–10−6 M) and acetylcholine (10−9–10−5 M). Impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation was observed in Nlrp3+/+ mice with acute hypercholesterolemia, which was markedly ameliorated in Nlrp3−/− mice. Treatment of mice with inhibitors for caspase-1 or high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) significantly restored endothelium-dependent vasodilation in Nlrp3+/+ mice with acute hypercholesterolemia. Confocal microscopic analysis demonstrated that hypercholesterolemia markedly increased caspase-1 activity and HMGB1 expression in coronary arterial endothelium of Nlrp3+/+ mice, which was absent in Nlrp3-deficient mice. Further, recombinant HMGB1 directly induced endothelial dysfunction in normal Nlrp3+/+ coronary arteries. In vitro, Nlrp3 inflammasome formation and its activity were instigated in cultured endothelial cells by cholesterol crystal, a danger factor associated with hypercholesterolemia. Moreover, cholesterol crystals directly induced endothelial dysfunction in coronary arteries from Nlrp3+/+ mice, which was attenuated in Nlrp3−/− arteries. Such cholesterol crystal-induced impairment was associated with enhanced superoxide production, downregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity, and pyroptosis. Innovation and Conclusion: Our data provide the first evidence that activation of endothelial Nlrp3 inflammasome directly impairs endothelial function beyond its canonical inflammatory actions. This novel non-canonical action of Nlrp3 inflammasomes may initiate or exacerbate vascular injury during hypercholesterolemia. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 1084–1096. PMID:25739025

  12. A Pulse Rapamycin Therapy for Infantile Spasms and Associated Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Raffo, Emmanuel; Coppola, Antonietta; Ono, Tomonori; Briggs, Stephen W.; Galanopoulou, Aristea S.

    2011-01-01

    Infantile spasms are seizures manifesting within a spectrum of epileptic encephalopathies of infancy that often lead to cognitive impairment. Their current therapies, including adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), high dose steroids, or vigabatrin, are not always effective and may be associated with serious side effects. Overactivation of the TORC1 complex of the mTOR pathway is implicated in the pathogenesis of certain genetic and acquired disorders that are linked with infantile spasms, like tuberous sclerosis. Here, we tested the therapeutic potential of rapamycin, a TORC1 inhibitor, as a potential treatment for infantile spasms in the multiple-hit rat model of ACTH-refractory symptomatic infantile spasms, which is not linked to tuberous sclerosis. Rapamycin or vehicle were given after spasms appeared. Their effects on spasms, other seizures, performance in Barnes maze, and expression of the phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein (pS6: a TORC1 target) in the cortex, using immunofluorescence, were compared. Rapamycin suppressed spasms dose-dependently and improved visuospatial learning, although it did not reduce the frequency of other emerging seizures. High-dose pulse rapamycin effected acute and sustained suppression of spasms and improved cognitive outcome, without significant side effects. Therapeutically effective rapamycin doses normalized the pS6 expression, which was increased in perilesional cortical regions of pups with spasms. These findings support that pathological overactivation of TORC1 may be implicated in the pathogenesis of infantile spasms, including those that are not linked to tuberous sclerosis. Furthermore, a high-dose, pulse rapamycin treatment is a promising, well tolerated and disease-modifying new therapy for infantile spasms, including those refractory to ACTH. PMID:21504792

  13. L-citrulline for protection of endothelial function from ADMAinduced injury in porcine coronary artery

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Chao; Lun, Li-Min; Zhao, Jin-Xia; Wang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Jue; Ning, Chun-Ping; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Bei-Bei; He, Guo-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a cardiovascular risk factor. We tested the hypothesis that L-citrulline may ameliorate the endothelial function altered by ADMA in porcine coronary artery (PCA). Myograph study for vasorelaxation, electrochemical measurement for NO, RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis for expression of eNOS, argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS), and p-eNOSser1177 were performed. cGMP was determined by enzyme immunoassay. Superoxide anion (O2.?) production was detected by the lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence method. Compare with controls (96.03%??6.2%), the maximal relaxation induced by bradykinin was significantly attenuated (61.55%??4.8%, p?

  14. Systematic Literature Review of AbobotulinumtoxinA in Clinical Trials for Blepharospasm and Hemifacial Spasm

    PubMed Central

    Dashtipour, Khashayar; Chen, Jack J.; Frei, Karen; Nahab, Fatta; Tagliati, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim was to elucidate clinical trial efficacy, safety, and dosing practices of abobotulinumtoxinA (ABO) treatment in adult patients with blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. To date, most literature reviews for blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm have examined the effectiveness of all botulinum neurotoxin type A products as a class. However, differences in dosing units and recommended schemes provide a clear rationale for reviewing each product separately. Methods A systematic literature review was performed to identify randomized controlled trials and other comparative clinical studies of ABO in the treatment of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm published in English between January 1991 and March 2015. Medical literature databases (PubMed, Cochrane library, EMBASE) were searched. A total of five primary publications that evaluated ABO for the management of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm were identified and summarized. Results Data included 374 subjects with blepharospasm and 172 subjects with hemifacial spasm treated with ABO. Total ABO doses ranged between 80 and 340 U for blepharospasm and 25 and 85 U for hemifacial spasm, depending on the severity of the clinical condition. All studies showed statistically significant benefits for the treatment of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. ABO was generally well tolerated across the individual studies. Adverse events considered to be associated with ABO treatment included: ptosis, tearing, blurred vision, double vision, dry eyes, and facial weakness. Discussion These data from 5 randomized clinical studies represents the available evidence base of ABO in blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. Future studies in this area will add to this evidence base. PMID:26566457

  15. Association analysis of polymorphisms of the CRHR1 gene with infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    YANG, GUANG; ZOU, LI-PING; WANG, JING; SHI, XIU-YU; YANG, XIAO-FAN; WANG, BIN; LIU, YU-JIE; SUN, YAN-HONG; JIA, FEI-YONG

    2015-01-01

    While >200 types of etiologies have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of infantile spasms, the pathophysiology of infantile spasms remains largely elusive. Pre-natal stress and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction were shown to be involved in the development of infantile spasms. To test the genetic association between the CRHR1 gene, which encodes the corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptor, and infantile spasms, five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CRHR1 gene were genotyped in a sample set of 128 cases with infantile spasms and 131 healthy controls. Correlation analysis was performed on the genotyped data. Under the assumption of the dominant model, the selected five SNPs, rs4458044, rs171440, rs17689966, rs28364026 and rs242948, showed no association with the risk of infantile spasms and the effectiveness of adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment. In addition, subsequent haplotype analysis suggested none of them was associated with infantile spasms. In conclusion, the experimental results of the present study suggested no association between the CRHR1 gene and infantile spasms in a Chinese population. PMID:25954915

  16. Association analysis of polymorphisms of the CRHR1 gene with infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Zou, Li-Ping; Wang, Jing; Shi, Xiu-Yu; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Bin; Liu, Yu-Jie; Sun, Yan-Hong; Jia, Fei-Yong

    2015-08-01

    While >200 types of etiologies have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of infantile spasms, the pathophysiology of infantile spasms remains largely elusive. Pre-natal stress and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction were shown to be involved in the development of infantile spasms. To test the genetic association between the CRHR1 gene, which encodes the corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptor, and infantile spasms, five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CRHR1 gene were genotyped in a sample set of 128 cases with infantile spasms and 131 healthy controls. Correlation analysis was performed on the genotyped data. Under the assumption of the dominant model, the selected five SNPs, rs4458044, rs171440, rs17689966, rs28364026 and rs242948, showed no association with the risk of infantile spasms and the effectiveness of adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment. In addition, subsequent haplotype analysis suggested none of them was associated with infantile spasms. In conclusion, the experimental results of the present study suggested no association between the CRHR1 gene and infantile spasms in a Chinese population. PMID:25954915

  17. Novel angiotensin II AT(1) receptor antagonist irbesartan prevents thromboxane A(2)-induced vasoconstriction in canine coronary arteries and human platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Fukuhara, M; Diz, D I; Ferrario, C M; Brosnihan, K B

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate whether the novel orally active nonpeptide angiotensin II (Ang II) AT(1) receptor antagonist irbesartan interacts with the thromboxane A(2)/prostaglandin endoperoxide H(2) (TxA(2)/PGH(2)) receptor in canine coronary arteries and human platelets. Coronary artery rings were isolated from male dog hearts (n = 18) and isometric tension of vascular rings was measured continuously at optimal basal tension in organ chambers. Autoradiographic binding of [(3)H]SQ29,548, a TxA(2) receptor antagonist, in canine coronary sections was determined. Blood for platelet aggregation studies was collected by venous puncture from healthy human volunteers (n = 6) who were free of aspirin-like agents for at least 2 weeks. Vascular reactivity and platelet aggregation in response to the TxA(2) analogs U46619 and autoradioagraphic receptor binding to the TxA(2) receptor antagonist [(3)H]SQ29,548 were studied with and without irbesartan. The TxA(2) analog U46619 produced dose-dependent vasoconstriction in coronary rings (EC(50) = 11.6 +/- 1.5 nM). Pretreatment with irbesartan inhibited U46619-induced vasoconstriction, and the dose-response curve was shifted to the right in a dose-dependent manner. The EC(50) of U46619 was increased 6- and 35-fold in the presence of 1 and 10 microM of irbesartan without a change of maximal contraction. At 1 microM, irbesartan is 2-fold more potent than the AT(1) receptor antagonist losartan in the inhibition of U46619-induced vasoconstriction in canine coronary arteries. In contrast, neither AT(1) receptor antagonists (CV11974 and valsartan), the AT(2) receptor antagonist PD123319, nor the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril had any effect on U46619-induced coronary vasoconstriction. Irbesartan did not change potassium chloride-induced vasoconstriction; however, irbesartan did inhibit the vasoconstriction mediated by another TxA(2)/PGH(2) receptor agonist prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)). Neither the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester nor the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin had any effect on irbesartan's attenuation of U46619-induced vasoconstriction. Irbesartan specifically reversed U46619-preconstricted coronary artery rings with and without endothelium in a dose-dependent manner. Irbesartan at high concentrations significantly competed for [(3)H]SQ29,548 binding in canine coronary sections. U46619 stimulated dose-dependent human platelet aggregation of platelet-rich plasma. Preincubation with irbesartan significantly inhibited platelet aggregation in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, the dual antagonistic actions of irbesartan by acting at both the AT(1) and TxA(2) receptors in blood vessels and platelets may overall enhance its therapeutic profile in the treatment of hypertension, atherosclerosis, and arterial thrombosis. PMID:10604953

  18. MiR-30b Is Involved in the Homocysteine-Induced Apoptosis in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells by Regulating the Expression of Caspase 3.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Chen, Qi; Song, Xiaowei; Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Jianliang

    2015-01-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) is an independent risk factor for a variety of cardiovascular diseases, such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, stroke, etc. There is a close relationship between the vascular endothelial cell apoptosis and these diseases. Recent studies have shown homocysteine can induce apoptosis in endothelial cells, which may be an important mechanism for the development of theses cardiovascular diseases. Although there are several reports about how the Hcy induces apoptosis in endothelial cells, the exact mechanism is not fully understood. MicroRNAs are small, non-coding RNA. Previous studies have shown that there is a close relationship between several microRNAs and cell apoptosis. However, there are no studies about the role of microRNAs in Hcy-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells so far. In this study, we constructed the model of homocysteine-induced apoptosis in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) and found miR-30b was significantly down-regulated by 1 mmol/L Hcy. In addition, overexpression of miR-30b can improve the Hcy-induced apoptosis in HCAECs by downregulating caspase-3 expression. Therefore, miR-30b may play an important role in Hcy-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells. PMID:26263983

  19. MiR-30b Is Involved in the Homocysteine-Induced Apoptosis in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells by Regulating the Expression of Caspase 3

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng; Chen, Qi; Song, Xiaowei; Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Jianliang

    2015-01-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) is an independent risk factor for a variety of cardiovascular diseases, such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, stroke, etc. There is a close relationship between the vascular endothelial cell apoptosis and these diseases. Recent studies have shown homocysteine can induce apoptosis in endothelial cells, which may be an important mechanism for the development of theses cardiovascular diseases. Although there are several reports about how the Hcy induces apoptosis in endothelial cells, the exact mechanism is not fully understood. MicroRNAs are small, non-coding RNA. Previous studies have shown that there is a close relationship between several microRNAs and cell apoptosis. However, there are no studies about the role of microRNAs in Hcy-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells so far. In this study, we constructed the model of homocysteine-induced apoptosis in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs) and found miR-30b was significantly down-regulated by 1 mmol/L Hcy. In addition, overexpression of miR-30b can improve the Hcy-induced apoptosis in HCAECs by downregulating caspase-3 expression. Therefore, miR-30b may play an important role in Hcy-induced apoptosis in endothelial cells. PMID:26263983

  20. Infantile spasms syndrome, West syndrome and related phenotypes: what we know in 2013.

    PubMed

    Pavone, Piero; Striano, Pasquale; Falsaperla, Raffaele; Pavone, Lorenzo; Ruggieri, Martino

    2014-10-01

    The current spectrum of disorders associated to clinical spasms with onset in infancy is wider than previously thought; accordingly, its terminology has changed. Nowadays, the term Infantile spasms syndrome (ISs) defines an epileptic syndrome occurring in children younger than 1 year (rarely older than 2 years), with clinical (epileptic: i.e., associated to an epileptiform EEG) spasms usually occurring in clusters whose most characteristic EEG finding is hypsarrhythmia [the spasms are often associated with developmental arrest or regression]. The term West syndrome (WS) refers to a form (a subset) of ISs, characterised by the combination of clustered spasms and hypsarrhythmia on an EEG and delayed brain development or regression [currently, it is no longer required that delayed development occur before the onset of spasms]. Less usually, spasms may occur singly rather than in clusters [infantile spasms single-spasm variant (ISSV)], hypsarrhythmia can be (incidentally) recorded without any evidence of clinical spasms [hypsarrhythmia without infantile spasms (HWIS)] or typical clinical spasms may manifest in absence of hypsarrhythmia [infantile spasms without hypsarrhythmia (ISW)]. There is a growing evidence that ISs and related phenotypes may result, besides from acquired events, from disturbances in key genetic pathways of brain development: specifically, in the gene regulatory network of GABAergic forebrain dorsal-ventral development, and abnormalities in molecules expressed at the synapse. Children with these genetic associations also have phenotypes beyond epilepsy, including dysmorphic features, autism, movement disorders and systemic malformations. The prognosis depends on: (a) the cause, which gives origin to the attacks (the complex malformation forms being more severe); (b) the EEG pattern(s); (c) the appearance of seizures prior to the spasms; and (d) the rapid response to treatment. Currently, the first-line treatment includes the adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH and vigabatrin. In the near future the gold standard could be the development of new therapies that target specific pathways of pathogenesis. In this article we review the past and growing number of clinical, genetic, molecular and therapeutic discoveries on this expanding topic. PMID:24268986

  1. Continuous veno-venous hemofiltration for the treatment of contrast-induced acute renal failure after percutaneous coronary interventions.

    PubMed

    Marenzi, GianCarlo; Bartorelli, Antonio L; Lauri, Gianfranco; Assanelli, Emilio; Grazi, Marco; Campodonico, Jeness; Marana, Ivana

    2003-01-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) requiring hemodialysis after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) is a serious complication with poor prognosis. Hemodialysis-induced hypotension may have deleterious cardiovascular effects, especially in high-risk patients. Ultrafiltrate removal and simultaneous fluid replacement with a solution similar to plasma for high-volume controlled hydration can be obtained with hemodynamic stability by continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH). We prospectively assessed the safety and effectiveness of percutaneous CVVH (Y-shaped double-lumen catheter, circuit originating from and terminating in the femoral vein) in 33 consecutive patients (23 men and 10 women; mean age, 69 +/- 9 years) who, after PCI, developed oligo-anuric ARF, associated in 20 of them with congestive heart failure. All patients received a concomitant infusion of furosemide (500-1000 mg/day) and dopamine (2 microg/kg/min). During CVVH, the average fluid volume replacement and body fluid net reduction were 1000 +/- 247 and 75 +/- 48 ml/hr, respectively. Treatment with CVVH continued for 4.7 +/- 2.7 days and corrected fluid overload in all cases. No patient experienced systemic hypotension or hypovolemia. Diuresis recovered in 32 (97%) patients, who showed a parallel improvement of renal function parameters. One patient required chronic dialysis. In-hospital and 1-year mortality was 9.1% and 27.3%, respectively. In conclusion, our data indicate that CVVH is a safe and effective therapy of radiocontrast-induced ARF following PCI. It temporarily replaces renal function without deleterious cardiovascular effects, allowing the kidney to recover from the nephrotoxic injury. However, despite promising early results, large randomized trials are required to define the role of CVVH in ARF after PCI. PMID:12508197

  2. G protein-coupled receptors mediate coronary flow- and agonist-induced responses via lectin-oligosaccharide interactions.

    PubMed

    Perez-Aguilar, Sandra; Torres-Tirado, David; Martell-Gallegos, Guadalupe; Velarde-Salcedo, Jimena; Barba-de la Rosa, Ana Paulina; Knabb, Maureen; Rubio, Rafael

    2014-03-01

    Blood flow acts parallel to the coronary luminal endothelial surface layer (LESL) and modulates multiple parenchymal functions via the release of paracrine agents. Evidence indicates that the LESL may be a flow-sensing organelle and that perhaps through flow-induced lectin (L)oligosaccharide (O) complex formation (LO) participates in this process. LESL integrins and selectins are both lectinic and flow sensitive, but the L properties of flow-sensitive G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are unknown. Therefore, we investigated the presence of L in the LESL and hypothesized that if flow-sensitive GPCRs are L, flow and O will determine their response to receptor activation. The LESL protein fraction isolated from guinea pig hearts was passed through an affinity chromatography column made of three sugars, mannose, galactose, and N-acetylglucosamine, and the lectinic fraction was eluted. Immune dot blot was used to identify L proteins in the LESL fraction. Our results indicate the following. 1) Two-dimensional SDS-PAGE (2D-SDS-PAGE) of the LESL lectinic fraction revealed at least 167 Ls. 2) Among these Ls, we identified three selectins and the GPCRs: angiotensin II, bradykinin (B2-R), adenosine A1 and A2, prolactin, endothelin, ?1-adrenergic (?1A-R), thromboxane A2, ?1-adrenergic, ?3-adrenergic, and insulin receptors; the first six GPCRs are known to be flow sensitive. 3) The amplitude of receptor-induced vascular responses by ?1A-R and B2-R activation (phenylephrine or bradykinin, respectively) was a function of flow and O (hyaluronidate). Our results support a novel mechanism of GPCR-mediated responses to flow via LO interaction. PMID:24363307

  3. Muscle spasms associated with Sudeck's atrophy after injury.

    PubMed Central

    Marsden, C D; Obeso, J A; Traub, M M; Rothwell, J C; Kranz, H; La Cruz, F

    1984-01-01

    Four patients developed abnormal involuntary movements of a limb after injury. All subsequently developed sympathetic algodystrophy with Sudeck's atrophy and then abnormal muscle spasms or jerks of the affected limb, lasting years. Sympathetic block in three patients did not relieve the abnormal movements. Two patients obtained partial recovery spontaneously, but the other two required surgery for relief. The pathophysiology of this condition remains to be determined but the evidence suggests that it is a distinct, disabling clinical syndrome. Images FIG 1 FIG 3 PMID:6198018

  4. Successful percutaneous stenting of a right gastroepiploic coronary bypass graft using monorail delivery system: a case report.

    PubMed

    Alam, M; Safi, A M; Mandawat, M K; Anderson, J E; Kwan, T; Feit, A; Clark, L T

    2000-02-01

    The right gastroepiploic artery (RGEA) is being successfully used as an arterial conduit in a selected group of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. However, myocardial ischemia may result due to spasm, occlusion, and stenosis of this graft. The anastamosis site at distal right coronary artery (RCA) or posterior descending artery (PDA) is the most common location for stenosis of an in situ gastroepiploic coronary bypass graft. Balloon angioplasty of such stenoses has been reported with optimal short-term results. Stent deployment would decrease the restenosis rate, so that repeat procedures could be minimized for these technically challenging lesions. We describe a case of successful deployment of a stent with monorail delivery system at the anastamotic site stenosis of an in situ gastroepiploic right coronary artery bypass graft. This percutaneous coronary intervention could prevent redo coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Cathet. Cardiovasc. Intervent. 49:197-199, 2000. PMID:10642773

  5. Interictal High Frequency Oscillations in an Animal Model of Infantile Spasms

    PubMed Central

    Frost, James D.; Lee, Chong L.; Le, John T.; Hrachovy, Richard A.; Swann, John W.

    2012-01-01

    While infantile spasms is the most common catastrophic epilepsy of infancy and early-childhood, very little is known about the basic mechanisms responsible for this devastating disorder. In experiments reported here, spasms were induced in rats by the chronic infusion of TTX into the neocortex beginning on postnatal day 1012. Studies of focal epilepsy suggest that high frequency EEG oscillations (HFOs) occur interictally at sites that are most likely responsible for seizure generation. Thus, our goal was to determine if HFOs occurred and where they occurred in cortex in the TTX model. We also undertook multiunit recordings to begin to analyze the basic mechanisms responsible for HFOs. Our results show that HFOs occur most frequently during hypsarrhythmia and NREM sleep and are most prominent contralateral to the TTX infusion site in the homotopic cortex and anterior to this region in frontal cortex. While HFOs were largest and most frequent in these contralateral regions, they were also commonly recorded synchronously across multiple and widely-spaced recordings sites. The amplitude and spatial distribution of interictal HFOs were found to be very similar to the high frequency bursts seen at seizure onset. However, the latter differed from the interictal events in that the high frequency activity was more intense at seizure onset. Microwire recordings showed that neuronal unit firing increased abruptly with the generation of HFOs. A similar increase in neuronal firing occurred at the onset of the ictal events. Taken together, results suggest that neocortical networks are abnormally excitable, particularly contralateral to TTX infusion, and that these abnormalities are not restricted to small areas of cortex. Multiunit firing coincident with HFOs are fully consistent with a neocortical hyperexcitability hypothesis particularly since they both occur at seizure onset. PMID:22342513

  6. Vigabatrin therapy implicates neocortical high frequency oscillations in an animal model of infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Frost, James D; Le, John T; Lee, Chong L; Ballester-Rosado, Carlos; Hrachovy, Richard A; Swann, John W

    2015-10-01

    Abnormal high frequency oscillations (HFOs) in EEG recordings are thought to be reflections of mechanisms responsible for focal seizure generation in the temporal lobe and neocortex. HFOs have also been recorded in patients and animal models of infantile spasms. If HFOs are important contributors to infantile spasms then anticonvulsant drugs that suppress these seizures should decrease the occurrence of HFOs. In experiments reported here, we used long-term video/EEG recordings with digital sampling rates capable of capturing HFOs. We tested the effectiveness of vigabatrin (VGB) in the TTX animal model of infantile spasms. VGB was found to be quite effective in suppressing spasms. In 3 of 5 animals, spasms ceased after a daily two week treatment. In the other 2 rats, spasm frequency dramatically decreased but gradually increased following treatment cessation. In all animals, hypsarrhythmia was abolished by the last treatment day. As VGB suppressed the frequency of spasms, there was a decrease in the intensity of the behavioral spasms and the duration of the ictal EEG event. Analysis showed that there was a burst of high frequency activity at ictal onset, followed by a later burst of HFOs. VGB was found to selectively suppress the late HFOs of ictal complexes. VGB also suppressed abnormal HFOs recorded during the interictal periods. Thus VGB was found to be effective in suppressing both the generation of spasms and hypsarrhythmia in the TTX model. Vigabatrin also appears to preferentially suppress the generation of abnormal HFOs, thus implicating neocortical HFOs in the infantile spasms disease state. PMID:26026423

  7. A role for the sodium pump in H2O2-induced vasorelaxation in porcine isolated coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Wong, P S; Garle, M J; Alexander, S P H; Randall, M D; Roberts, R E

    2014-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been proposed to act as a factor for endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH) and EDH may act as a 'back up' system to compensate the loss of the NO pathway. Here, the mechanism of action of H2O2 in porcine isolated coronary arteries (PCAs) was investigated. Distal PCAs were mounted in a wire myograph and pre-contracted with U46619 (1nM-50μM), a thromboxane A2-mimetic or KCl (60mM). Concentration-response curves to H2O2(1μM-1mM), bradykinin (0.01nM-1μM), sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (10nM-10μM), verapamil (1nM-10μM), KCl (0-20mM) or Ca(2+)-reintroduction (1μM-10mM) were constructed in the presence of various inhibitors. Activity of the Na(+)/K(+)-pump was measured through rubidium-uptake using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. H2O2 caused concentration-dependent vasorelaxations with a maximum relaxation (Rmax) of 100±16% (mean±SEM), pEC50=4.18±0.20 (n=4) which were significantly inhibited by PEG-catalase at 0.1-1.0mM H2O2 (P<0.05). 10mM TEA significantly inhibited the relaxation up to 100μM H2O2 (P<0.05). 60mM K(+) and 500nM ouabain significantly inhibited H2O2-induced vasorelaxation producing a relaxation of 40.8±8.5% (n=5) and 47.5±8.6% (n=6) respectively at 1mM H2O2 (P<0.0001). H2O2-induced vasorelaxation was unaffected by the removal of endothelium, inhibition of NO, cyclo-oxygenase, gap junctions, SKCa, IKCa, BKCa Kir, KV, KATP or cGMP. 100μM H2O2 had no effects on the KCl-induced vasorelaxation or Ca(2+)-reintroduction contraction. 1mM H2O2 inhibited both KCl-induced vasorelaxation and rubidium-uptake consistent with inhibition of the Na(+)/K(+)-pump activity. We have shown that the vascular actions of H2O2 are sensitive to ouabain and high concentrations of H2O2 are able to modulate the Na(+)/K(+)-pump. This may contribute towards its vascular actions. PMID:25258292

  8. Cholinergic induced coronary vasospasm: Treatment of organophosphate toxicity. Final report, 1 May 1988-31 October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, J.E.; Bellamy, R.F.

    1993-05-13

    To evaluate the mechanism of organophosphate's possible acetylcholine (ACh) mediated vasospasm, studies were conducted on sixteen, Yorkshire swine. In one group of eight pigs, a dose of two LD-50s of soman (4.6 Kg/kg 205 JIG) was given at 102.5 microgram/second in the femoral vein. These experiments demonstrated that following soman injection coronary blood flow decreased, with an increase in acetylcholine levels and coronary vascular resistance. The fall in coronary blood flow was accompanied by concomitant decreases in acetyl-cholinesterase levels, hemodynamic function, S-T segment elevation and ventricular fibrillation. In eight additional pigs intracoronary saline or ACh (1.05 + or - 0.39 micrometers) infusions tested coronary vasoactivity in the resting condition. Following the sedentary experiments the same pigs underwent six treadmill exercise studies:(1) Exer. Cont., 1 ml/min saline, i.c.;(2) Exer.+ 0.10 + or - 0.02 micrometers ACh, i.c.; (3) Exer. + 0.52 + or - 0.20 micrometers ACh, i.c.; (4) Exer. + 1.05 + or - 0.39 micrometers ACh, i.c.; (5) Exer.+ ACh-atropine, 1.05 + or - 0.39 micrometers ACh, i.c., atropine 28 microgram/kg, i.v.; or (6) Atropine, 1 ml/min saline, i.c., atropine 28 microgram/kg i.v. At rest ACh decreased coronary blood flow by 28%. Exercise increased coronary blood flow by 77% while exercise plus ACh infusions reduced coronary blood flow by 19%, 261/, and 31% for Exer.+0.10, Exer.+0.5, and Ex+1.05 JIM ACh, respectively. In addition, ACh infusion during exercise decreased the lactate consumption and at Exer.+1.05 micrometer ACh there was a lactate production with a reduction in Mv02. These data support ACh mediated coronary vasospasm in the swine.

  9. Excimer and holmium:YAG laser coronary angioplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geschwind, Herbert J.; Nakamura, Fumitaka; Kvasnicka, Jan; Dubois-Rande, Jean Luc

    1992-08-01

    Recently, access to the coronary arteries became available to laser angioplasty based upon a new concept which utilizes a pulsed laser source and multifiber, `over-the-wire' guided catheters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early and long-term results and the side effects of coronary angioplasty using an excimer or a Holmium:YAG laser. Forty consecutive patients were treated with the Holmium:YAG laser (group I) and 46 consecutive patients were treated with the excimer laser (group II). The primary laser angioplasty success rate was 55% and 71.7% for group I and II, respectively. It was similar in calcified and in non-calcified lesions and in total occlusions and stenoses. Laser stand-alone therapy was obtained in 5.0% of group I patients versus 21.7% in group II patients (p < 0.05). Failures were due to the inability for the laser catheter tip to reach the lesion, to cross the obstruction, or to obtain a significant reduction in stenosis. They were more frequent in group I than in group II patients (45% versus 28.3%). Complications included acute closure in 7.5% of group I and 17.1% of group II patients and spasm in 10.0% and 13.0% of group I and group II patients, respectively. Dissection occurred more frequently in group II than in group I patients (28.3% versus 7.5%, p < 0.04). The angiographic patency rate at 6 month follow up was 33% and 29% for group I and group II patients, respectively. Multifiber, wire-guided catheters provide an easy access to the coronary arteries. Excimer laser angioplasty using large, densely packed catheters is effective but induces a high rate of dissections. Technical improvements are required to ablate more tissue to possibly reduce the restenosis rate. Further studies ar needed to elucidate the mechanism of side effects to reduce their impact on restenosis rate.

  10. Recombinant Brain Natriuretic Peptide for the Prevention of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Undergoing Nonemergent Percutaneous Coronary Intervention or Coronary Angiography: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinming; Xie, Yanan; He, Fang; Gao, Zihan; Hao, Yuming; Zu, Xiuguang; Chang, Liang; Li, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    The role of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is unknown. This study aimed to investigate BNP's effect on CIN in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary angiography (CAG). The patients were randomized to BNP (0.005 μg/kg/min before contrast media (CM) exposure and saline hydration, n = 106) or saline hydration alone (n = 103). Cystatin C, serum creatinine (SCr) levels, and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) were assessed at several time points. The primary endpoint was CIN incidence; secondary endpoint included changes in cystatin C, SCr, and eGFR. CIN incidence was significantly lower in the BNP group compared to controls (6.6% versus 16.5%, P = 0.025). In addition, a more significant deterioration of eGFR, cystatin C, and SCr from 48 h to 1 week (P < 0.05) was observed in controls compared to the BNP group. Although eGFR gradually deteriorated in both groups, a faster recovery was achieved in the BNP group. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that using >100 mL of CM (odds ratio: 4.36, P = 0.004) and BNP administration (odds ratio: 0.21, P = 0.006) were independently associated with CIN. Combined with hydration, exogenous BNP administration before CM effectively decreases CIN incidence in CKD patients. PMID:26949703

  11. Inhibitory effects of brefeldin A, a membrane transport blocker, on the bradykinin-induced hyperpolarization-mediated relaxation in the porcine coronary artery

    PubMed Central

    Ohnishi, Yoshinori; Hirano, Katsuya; Nishimura, Junji; Furue, Masutaka; Kanaide, Hideo

    2001-01-01

    To elucidate the mechanism of the relaxation mediated by endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs), the effect of brefeldin A, a membrane transport blocker, on cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and tension was determined in the porcine coronary arterial strips. We also examined the effect of brefeldin A on [Ca2+]i in the endothelial cells of the porcine aortic valve. In the presence of 10??M indomethacin and 30??M NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG), both bradykinin and substance P induced a transient decrease in [Ca2+]i and tension in arterial strips contracted with 100?nM U46619 (thromboxane A2 analogue). A 6?h pre-treatment with 20??g?ml?1 brefeldin A abolished the bradykinin-induced relaxation, while it had no effect on the substance P-induced relaxation. In the absence of indomethacin and L-NOARG, brefeldin A had no effect on the bradykinin-induced relaxation during the contraction induced by U46619 or 118?mM K+. The indomethacin/L-NOARG-resistant relaxation induced by bradykinin was completely inhibited by 3?mM tetrabutylammonium (non-specific Ca2+-activated K+ channel blocker), while that induced by substance P was not inhibited by 3?mM tetrabutylammonium or 1?mM 4-aminopyridine (voltage-dependent K+ channels blocker) alone, but completely inhibited by their combination. Brefeldin A had no effect on the [Ca2+]i elevation in endothelial cells induced by bradykinin or substance P. In conclusion, bradykinin produce EDHF in a brefeldin A-sensitive mechanism in the porcine coronary artery. However, this mechanism is not active in a substance P-induced production of EDHF, which thus suggests EDHF to be more than a single entity. PMID:11522609

  12. Infantile spasms: a U.S. consensus report.

    PubMed

    Pellock, John M; Hrachovy, Richard; Shinnar, Shlomo; Baram, Tallie Z; Bettis, David; Dlugos, Dennis J; Gaillard, William D; Gibson, Patricia A; Holmes, Gregory L; Nordl, Douglas R; O'Dell, Christine; Shields, W Donald; Trevathan, Edwin; Wheless, James W

    2010-10-01

    The diagnosis, evaluation, and management of infantile spasms (IS) continue to pose significant challenges to the treating physician. Although an evidence-based practice guideline with full literature review was published in 2004, diversity in IS evaluation and treatment remains and highlights the need for further consensus to optimize outcomes in IS. For this purpose, a working group committed to the diagnosis, treatment, and establishment of a continuum of care for patients with IS and their familiesthe Infantile Spasms Working Group (ISWG)was convened. The ISWG participated in a workshop for which the key objectives were to review the state of our understanding of IS, assess the scientific evidence regarding efficacy of currently available therapeutic options, and arrive at a consensus on protocols for diagnostic workup and management of IS that can serve as a guide to help specialists and general pediatricians optimally manage infants with IS. The overall goal of the workshop was to improve IS outcomes by assisting treating physicians with early recognition and diagnosis of IS, initiation of short duration therapy with a first-line treatment, timely electroencephalography (EEG) evaluation of treatment to evaluate effectiveness, and, if indicated, prompt treatment modification. Differences of opinion among ISWG members occurred in areas where data were lacking; however, this article represents a consensus of the U.S. approach to the diagnostic evaluation and treatment of IS. PMID:20608959

  13. Quality-of-care indicators for infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Wang, C Jason; Jonas, Rinat; Fu, Chong Min; Ng, Chun Y; Douglass, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    We developed a comprehensive set of quality-of-care indicators for the management of children with infantile spasms in the United States, encompassing evaluation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention and management of side effects and comorbidities. The indicators were developed using the RAND/UCLA Modified Delphi Method. After a focused review of the literature and guidelines by the study team, an expert panel (nominated by leaders of Child Neurology Society, American Epilepsy Society, and National Institute for Neurologic Disorders) rated the draft indicators anonymously, met face-to-face to discuss each indicator, and rerated the revised indicators on validity, feasibility, and importance. The panel recommended 21 indicators, of which 8 were identified as most likely to have a large positive impact on improving quality of life and/or health outcomes for children with infantile spasms. The proposed indicators can be used to assess and document variations and gaps in quality-of-care and inform future research and quality improvement interventions. PMID:22566712

  14. L-citrulline for protection of endothelial function from ADMA-induced injury in porcine coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Chao; Lun, Li-Min; Zhao, Jin-Xia; Wang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Jue; Ning, Chun-Ping; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Bei-Bei; He, Guo-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a cardiovascular risk factor. We tested the hypothesis that L-citrulline may ameliorate the endothelial function altered by ADMA in porcine coronary artery (PCA). Myograph study for vasorelaxation, electrochemical measurement for NO, RT-PCR, and Western blot analysis for expression of eNOS, argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS), and p-eNOS(ser1177) were performed. cGMP was determined by enzyme immunoassay. Superoxide anion (O2.(-)) production was detected by the lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence method. Compare with controls (96.03%??6.2%), the maximal relaxation induced by bradykinin was significantly attenuated (61.55%??4.8%, p<0.01), and significantly restored by L-citrulline (82.67??6.4%, p<0.05) after 24?hours of ADMA exposure. Expression of eNOS, p-eNOS(ser1177), and ASS in PCA significantly increased after L-citrulline incubation. L-citrulline also markedly restored the NO production, and cGMP level which was reduced by ADMA. The increased O2.(-) production by ADMA was also inhibited by L-citrulline. L-citrulline restores the endothelial function in preparations treated with ADMA by preservation of NO production and suppression of O2.(-) generation. Preservation of NO is attributed to the upregulation of eNOS expression along with activation of p-eNOS(ser1177). L-citrulline improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation through NO/ cGMP pathway. PMID:26046576

  15. The immunosuppressant FTY720 prolongs survival in a mouse model of diet-induced coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanying; Kim, Roy Y; Imhof, Isabella; Honbo, Norman; Luk, Fu S; Li, Kang; Kumar, Nikit; Zhu, Bo-Qing; Eberl, Delphine; Ching, Daniel; Karliner, Joel S; Raffai, Robert L

    2014-02-01

    FTY720, an analogue of sphingosine-1-phosphate, is cardioprotective during acute injury. Whether long-term FTY720 affords cardioprotection is unknown. Here, we report the effects of oral FTY720 on ischemia/reperfusion injury and in hypomorphic apoE mice deficient in SR-BI receptor expression (ApoeR61(h/h)/SRB1(-/- mice), a model of diet-induced coronary atherosclerosis and heart failure. We added FTY720 (0.3 mgkg(-1)d(-1)) to the drinking water of C57BL/6J mice. After ex vivo cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury, these mice had significantly improved left ventricular (LV) developed pressure and reduced infarct size compared with controls. Subsequently, ApoeR61(h/h)/SRB1(-/-) mice fed a high-fat diet for 4 weeks were treated or not with oral FTY720 (0.05 mgkg(-1)d(-1)). This sharply reduced mortality (P < 0.02) and resulted in better LV function and less LV remodeling compared with controls without reducing hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Oral FTY720 reduced the number of blood lymphocytes and increased the percentage of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the circulation, spleen, and lymph nodes. FTY720-treated mice exhibited increased TGF-? and reduced IFN-? expression in the heart. Also, CD4 expression was increased and strongly correlated with molecules involved in natural Treg activity, such as TGF-? and GITR. Our data suggest that long-term FTY720 treatment enhances LV function and increases longevity in mice with heart failure. These benefits resulted not from atheroprotection but from systemic immunosuppression and a moderate reduction of inflammation in the heart. PMID:24508946

  16. Genetic variation and gender determine bradykinin type 1 receptor responses in human tissue: implications for the ACE-inhibitor-induced effects in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiyan; Roks, Anton J M; Leijten, Frank P J; Garrelds, Ingrid M; Musterd-Bhaggoe, Usha M; van den Bogaerdt, Antoon J; de Maat, Moniek P M; Simoons, Maarten L; Danser, A H Jan; Oeseburg, Hisko

    2014-03-01

    The efficacy of the ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitor perindopril in coronary artery disease [EUROPA (European trial on reduction of cardiac events with perindopril in stable coronary artery disease) study] is associated with the rs12050217 A/G single nucleotide polymorphism in the B1 receptor (bradykinin type 1 receptor) gene. To investigate the underlying mechanism, we examined the effect of this polymorphism on B1-receptor-mediated coronary artery dilation and peripheral blood mononuclear cell activation. Vasorelaxant responses of human coronary microarteries from subjects without coronary disease to des-Arg(9)-bradykinin and to bradykinin were studied in organ bath experiments. Des-Arg9-bradykinin responses were endothelium-dependent and exclusively mediated by B1 receptors, whereas responses to bradykinin were induced through B2 receptors (bradykinin type 2 receptors). The presence of the G allele reduced the response to 3 10(-8) mol/l des-Arg(9)-bradykinin by 29% [AA (n=13) compared with AG/GG (n=8); P<0.03], and tended to lower concentration-related responses (P=0.065) to this agonist, whereas the responses to bradykinin were unaffected by the rs12050217 genotype. In freshly obtained human mononuclear cells 1 ?mol/l des-Arg(9)-bradykinin increased expression of the pro-inflammatory factors CXCL5 (CXC chemokine ligand 5) and IL6 (interleukin-6). These responses were not affected by genotype and exclusively occurred in blood cells from women, correlating (in the case of CXCL5) with their plasma 17?-oestradiol levels (r(2)=0.32, P=0.02; n=17). IL-1? (interleukin-1?) increased CXCL5 and IL6 expression in both genders, and this response was not associated with 17?-oestradiol levels. The gender difference in responses to B1 receptor stimulation in blood mononuclear cells implies possible gender differences in the response to ACE inhibitor therapy, which needs to be studied more comprehensively. The observed decrease in coronary vasodilator response might contribute to the impaired treatment response to perindopril of G allele carriers found in the EUROPA study. PMID:24117346

  17. [Vaso-reactive properties of radial and internal mammary arteries: application to coronary bypass surgery].

    PubMed

    Chardigny, C; Jebara, V; Descombes, J J; Acar, C; Verbeuren, T; Fabiani, J N

    1994-09-01

    Satisfactory results were obtained with the radial artery used as a conduit for coronary artery bypass. However, spasm of this conduit was observed. Human radial and internal mammary artery ring segments were studied in organ chambers. Potassium chloride, norepinephrine, serotonin and thromboxane A2 mimetic were used to obtain dose-response curves, permitting assessment of force of contraction and sensitivity. The radial artery presents stronger contractions than the internal mammary artery. The two vessels have equal sensitivity to the vasoconstrictors used. These data emphasize the hyperreactivity of the radial artery and the need for prevention of vasospasm when this vessel is used as a conduit for coronary artery bypass. PMID:7646232

  18. The early electroclinical manifestations of infantile spasms: A video EEG study

    PubMed Central

    Iype, Mary; Kunju, Puthuvathra Abdul Mohammed; Saradakutty, Geetha; Mohan, Devi; Khan, Shahanaz Ahamed Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Infantile spasms are described as flexor extensor and mixed; but more features of their semiology and ictal electroencephalography (EEG) changes are sparse in the literature. The purpose of the study was to describe the clinical and ictal video-EEG characteristics of consecutive cases with infantile spasms and to try to find an association with the etiology. Materials and Methods: The clinical phenomenology and EEG characteristics on video-EEG were analyzed in 16 babies with infantile spasms. Results: A total of 869 spasms were reviewed. Nine (56.3%) showed focal seizures at least once during the recording and 1 (6.3%) had multifocal myoclonus in addition to the spasms. The duration of the cluster and interval between spasms was totally variable in all patients. Lateralizing phenomena were present in at least some of the spasms in all patients. Unilateral manual automatism in the form of holding the pinna was noted in three patients following the spasm. The ictal EEG activity in the majority (75%) was the slow wave. Four (25%) showed fast generalized spindle-like ictal discharges. Spikes, spike and wave activity, or electrodecremental pattern alone during the ictus was seen in none. On bivariate analysis, no factor noted on the video EEG had association with the etiology. Conclusion: Infantile spasms could be associated with focal and other seizures, has unique, non-uniform and variable semiology from patient to patient. The ictal EEG manifestation in the majority (75%) of our patients was the slow wave transient with 25% showing generalized fast spindle-like activity. PMID:27011629

  19. Pathophysiology of Massive Infantile Spasms: Perspective on the Putative Role of the Brain Adrenal Axis

    PubMed Central

    Baram, Tallie Z.

    2013-01-01

    Massive infantile spasms are an age-specific seizure syndrome of infancy. Uniquely, the spasms respond to hormonal manipulation using adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) or glucocorticoids. A hypothesis explaining the efficacy of hormonal therapy, age-specificity, multiple causative factors, and spontaneous resolution of infantile spasms is presented. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), an excitant neuropeptide suppressed by ACTH/steroids, is implicated. Evidence for the age-specific convulsant properties of CRH is presented, and a putative scenario in which a stressinduced enhancement of endogenous CRH-mediated seizures is discussed. Clinical testing of the CRH-excess theory and its therapeutic implications are suggested. PMID:8388675

  20. Hemifacial spasm caused by a cerebellopontine angle arachnoid cyst. Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Juretschke, Fernando; Vargas, Antonio; Gonzlez-Rodrigalvarez, Rosario; Garcia-Leal, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Arachnoid cysts involving the cerebellopontine angle are an unusual cause of hemifacial spasm. The case is reported of a 71-year old woman presenting with a right hemifacial spasm and an ipsilateral arachnoid cyst. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging findings suggested a neurovascular compression caused by displacement of the facial-acoustic complex and the anterior inferior cerebellar artery by the cyst. Cyst excision and microvascular decompression of the facial nerve achieved permanent relief. The existing cases of arachnoid cysts causing hemifacial spasm are reviewed and the importance of a secondary neurovascular conflict identification and decompression in these cases is highlighted. PMID:26165486

  1. Coronary Angioplasty

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Are the Risks Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis Cardiac Catheterization Coronary Heart Disease Heart Attack Stents ... up inside your arteries. This condition is called atherosclerosis (ath-er-o-skler-O-sis). Atherosclerosis can ...

  2. Coronary Calcium Scan

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Coronary Calcium Scan? A coronary calcium scan is a test ... you have calcifications in your coronary arteries. Coronary Calcium Scan Figure A shows the position of the ...

  3. Coronary heart disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Heart disease, Coronary heart disease, Coronary artery disease; Arteriosclerotic heart disease; CHD; CAD ... Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in the United States for men and women. Coronary ...

  4. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting? Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is ... bypass multiple coronary arteries during one surgery. Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Figure A shows the location of ...

  5. Coronary Vasospasm While Treating Supraventricular Tachycardia: Is Adenosine Really to Blame?

    PubMed Central

    Quevedo, Henry C.; Pinto Miranda, Veronica; Sequeira, Rafael F.

    2013-01-01

    Coronary artery spasm has been reported during adenosine stress testing. Herein, we describe a transient ST-segment elevation following adenosine therapy for supraventricular tachycardia. A 38-year-old male presented to the emergency department with palpitations. Electrocardiogram showed supraventricular tachycardia with short RP interval. Vagal maneuvers were unsuccessful. Adenosine was then administered in two successive injections of 6 and 12?mg dosages, respectively. A subsequent 12-lead electrocardiogram revealed ST-segment elevation in inferior leads with reciprocal changes. Coronary angiography disclosed nonobstructive coronary disease. A postprocedure electrocardiogram exhibited normal sinus rhythm with nonspecific T wave abnormalities. Cardiac biomarkers were elevated with a peak troponin I of 0.32. Echocardiogram depicted bicuspid aortic valve and normal systolic function. Electrophysiological study revealed a concealed left accessory pathway and successful radiofrequency ablation was performed. Given the dynamic changes in the electrocardiogram, we hypothesize that this event was most likely a coronary vasospasm. The mechanism of coronary spasm following adenosine injection remains uncertain. Potential mediators include KATP channels and adenosine-2 receptors. PMID:24826297

  6. Low-fat diet and regular, supervised physical exercise in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease: reduction of stress-induced myocardial ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Schuler, G.; Schlierf, G.; Wirth, A.; Mautner, H.P.; Scheurlen, H.; Thumm, M.; Roth, H.; Schwarz, F.; Kohlmeier, M.; Mehmel, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of physical exercise and normalization of serum lipoproteins on stress-induced myocardial ischemia were studied in 18 patients with coronary artery disease, stable angina pectoris, and mild hypercholesterolemia (total serum cholesterol 242 +/- 32 mg/dl). These patients underwent a combined regimen of low-fat/low-cholesterol diet and regular, supervised physical exercise at high intensity for 12 months. At 1 year serum lipoproteins has been lowered to ideal levels (serum cholesterol 202 +/- 31 mg/dl, low-density lipoproteins 130 +/- 30 mg/dl, very low-density lipoproteins 22 +/- 15 mg/dl, serum triglycerides 105 (69 to 304) mg/dl) and physical work capacity was improved by 21% (p less than .01). No significant effect was noted on high-density lipoproteins, probably as a result of the low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet. Stress-induced myocardial ischemia, as assessed by thallium-201 scintigraphy, was decreased by 54% (p less than .05) despite higher myocardial oxygen consumption. Eighteen patients matched for age and severity of coronary artery disease served as a control group and ''usual medical care'' was rendered by their private physicians. No significant changes with respect to serum lipoproteins, physical work capacity, maximal rate-pressure product, or stress-induced myocardial ischemia were observed in this group. These data indicate that regular physical exercise at high intensity, lowered body weight, and normalization of serum lipoproteins may alleviate compromised myocardial perfusion during stress.

  7. Coronary microcirculation: physiology and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Komaru, T; Kanatsuka, H; Shirato, K

    2000-06-01

    Coronary microvessels play a pivotal role in determining the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the myocardium by regulating the coronary flow conductance and substance transport. Direct approaches analyzing the coronary microvessels have provided a large body of knowledge concerning the physiological and pharmacological characteristics of the coronary circulation, as has the rapid accumulation of biochemical findings about the substances that mediate vascular functions. Myogenic and flow-induced intrinsic vascular controls that determine basal tone have been observed in coronary microvessels in vitro. Coronary microvascular responses during metabolic stimulation, autoregulation, and reactive hyperemia have been analyzed in vivo, and are known to be largely mediated by metabolic factors, although the involvement of other factors should also be taken into account. The importance of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels in the metabolic control has been increasingly recognized. Furthermore, many neurohumoral mediators significantly affect coronary microvascular control in endothelium-dependent and -independent manners. The striking size-dependent heterogeneity of microvascular responses to all of these intrinsic, metabolic, and neurohumoral factors is orchestrated for optimal perfusion of the myocardium by synergistic and competitive interactions. The regulation of coronary microvascular permeability is another important factor for the nutrient supply and for edema formation. Analyses of collateral microvessels and subendocardial microvessels are important for understanding the pathophysiology of ischemic hearts and hypertrophied hearts. Studies of the microvascular responses to drugs and of the impairment of coronary microvessels in diseased conditions provide useful information for treating microvascular dysfunctions. In this article, the endogenous regulatory system and pharmacological responses of the coronary circulation are reviewed from the microvascular point of view. PMID:10882810

  8. Co-administration of Grape Seed Extract and Exercise Training Improves Endothelial Dysfunction of Coronary Vascular Bed of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Badavi, Mohammad; Abedi, Hassan Ali; Sarkaki, Ali Reza; Dianat, Mahin

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the known complications of diabetes mellitus is vascular dysfunction. Inability of the coronary vascular response to cardiac hyperactivity might cause a higher incidence of ischemic heart disease in diabetic subjects. It has been indicated that regular exercise training and antioxidants could prevent diabetic cardiovascular problems enhanced by vascular damage. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the effects of grape seed extract (as antioxidant), with and without exercise training on coronary vascular function in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods Fifty male Wistar rats weighing 200 232 grams were randomly divided into five groups of 10 rats each: sedentary control, sedentary diabetic, trained diabetic, grape seed extract (200 mg/kg) treated sedentary diabetic and, grape seed extract treated trained diabetic. Diabetes was induced by one intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. After eight weeks, coronary vascular responses to vasoactive agents were determined. Results The endothelium dependent vasorelaxation to acetylcholine was reduced significantly in diabetic animals; exercise training or grape seed extract administration partially improves this response. However, exercise training in combination with grape seed extract restores endothelial function completely. The endothelium independent vasorelaxation to sodium nitroprusside was improved by combination of exercise training and grape seed extract. On the other hand, the basal perfusion pressure and vasoconstrictive response to phenylephrine did not change significantly. Conclusions The data indicated that co-administration of grape seed extract and exercise training had more significant effects than exercise training or grape seed extract alone; this may constitute a convenient and inexpensive therapeutic approach to diabetic vascular complications. PMID:24693368

  9. Delayed relief of hemifacial spasm after microvascular decompression.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lei; Zhong, Jun; Zhu, Jin; Dou, Ning-Ning; Liu, Ming-Xing; Li, Shi-Ting

    2015-03-01

    Microvascular decompression (MVD) has been accepted worldwide as a reasonable treatment for hemifacial spasm (HFS); however, resolution of the HFS is often gradual. To conclude the delayed relief rate of the MVD for the treatment of HFS, we conducted a systematic review. Using the keywords delayed relief, hemifacial spasm, or microvascular decompression, articles published in English-language journals and indexed in PubMed between June 1, 1994 and June 1, 2014 on the treatment of HFS with emphasis on delayed relief were considered for this study. Twelve articles with 2727 patients with HFS were finally enrolled in this review. Among all the patients, the ratio of male versus female was 1:2.7, and left versus right was 1:1.6. The average age at surgery was 52.5 years (49.1-55.9 y), with HFS symptom duration of 68.4 months (38.4-98.4 mo) before the surgery. The average follow-up duration was 49 months (6.4-121.6 mo). After examining all the patients, we obtained a mean postoperative success rate of 85.1% (76.5%-93.5%), but the success rate after the MVD immediately is only 71.8% (59.5%-84%). The mean rate of delayed relief was 25.4% (18.8%-37.1%). Approximately 13.1% (5.9%-19.7%) of the patients with symptom recurrence resorted to repeated MVD during the follow-up period. Accordingly, MVD is the most effective treatment for patients with HFS, but some of the patients may experienced delayed relief, which could be avoided if a thorough decompression of the facial nerve root had been obtained. PMID:25668113

  10. Treatment of hemifacial spasm with botulinum A toxin. Results and rationale.

    PubMed

    Gonnering, R S

    1986-01-01

    Hemifacial spasm is characterized by unilateral, periodic, tonic contractions of facial muscles, thought to be caused by mechanical compression at the root-exit zone of the facial nerve. Electrophysiologic abnormalities such as ectopic excitation and synkinesis are typical. Although posterior fossa microsurgical nerve decompression is successful in bringing about relief of the spasm in most cases, it carries a risk to hearing. As an alternative treatment, 15 patients with hemifacial spasm were given a total of 41 sets of injections with botulinum A toxin, with a mean follow-up of 14.3 +/- 1.1 months. Relief of symptoms lasted a mean of 108.3 +/- 4.2 days. Mild transient lagophthalmos and ptosis were the only complications. Although the exact mechanism of its action and beneficial effect is speculative at this time, botulinum A toxin appears to offer an effective, safe alternative to more radical intracranial surgery for patients with hemifacial spasm. PMID:3154554

  11. Cranial dystonia, blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm: clinical features and treatment, including the use of botulinum toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, S P; Lang, A E

    1988-01-01

    Blepharospasm, the most frequent feature of cranial dystonia, and hemifacial spasm are two involuntary movement disorders that affect facial muscles. The cause of blepharospasm and other forms of cranial dystonia is not known. Hemifacial spasm is usually due to compression of the seventh cranial nerve at its exit from the brain stem. Cranial dystonia may result in severe disability. Hemifacial spasm tends to be much less disabling but may cause considerable distress and embarrassment. Patients affected with these disorders are often mistakenly considered to have psychiatric problems. Although the two disorders are quite distinct pathophysiologically, therapy with botulinum toxin has proven very effective in both. We review the clinical features, proposed pathophysiologic features, differential diagnosis and treatment, including the use of botulinum toxin, of cranial dystonia and hemifacial spasm. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:3052771

  12. Parry-Romberg syndrome with hemimasticatory spasm in pregnancy; A dystonia mimic

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Akhila Kumar; Gopinath, Godhavarma; Singh, Shaily

    2014-01-01

    Parry-Romberg syndrome (PRS) with hemimasticatory spasm (HMS) is quite an uncommon overlapping phenomenon which very often mimics jaw closing dystonia. A previously healthy 35-year-old female, during her 5th month of pregnancy started developing intermittent unilateral painful spasms of jaw while conversation, clinching of teeth, or eating, which led to frequent tongue bites. The spasms were worsened during pregnancy. She used to do certain manoeuvre like sensory tricks in form of touching involved side of the face to relieve the symptoms. Apart from this, she developed progressive hemifacial and hemitongue atrophy. Other medical and neurological examinations were normal. Laboratory investigations as well as neuroimaging were noncontributory. The spasm responded to carbamazepine but hemifacial atrophy persists. To our best knowledge, onset and worsening of this syndrome in pregnancy has not been described earlier which might be correlated either with some hormonal imbalance or some unknown mechanisms. PMID:24966565

  13. Fruit juice-induced endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated porcine coronary arteries: evaluation of different fruit juices and purees and optimization of a red fruit juice blend.

    PubMed

    Auger, Cyril; Kim, Jong-Hun; Trinh, Sandrine; Chataigneau, Thierry; Popken, Anne M; Schini-Kerth, Valrie B

    2011-05-01

    Numerous studies have indicated that several polyphenol-rich sources such as red wine and green tea are potent inducers of endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated arteries. As various fruits and berries are known to contain high levels of polyphenols, the aim of the present study was to assess the ability of selected pure fruit juices and purees as well as blends to cause endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated arteries. Vascular reactivity was assessed using porcine coronary artery rings, and fruit juices, purees and blends were characterized for their content in vitamin C, total phenolic, sugar and antioxidant activity. Fruit juices and purees caused variable concentration-dependent relaxations, with blackcurrant, aronia, cranberry, blueberry, lingonberry, and grape being the most effective fruits. Several blends of red fruits caused endothelium-dependent relaxations. Relaxations to blend D involved both a NO- and an EDHF-mediated components. The present findings indicate that some berries and blends of red fruit juices are potent inducers of endothelium-dependent relaxations in the porcine coronary artery. This effect involves both endothelium-derived NO and EDHF, and appears to be dependent on their polyphenolic composition rather than on the polyphenolic content. PMID:21779562

  14. [The special role of inducible NO-synthase in the mechanism of rat coronary vessels tone regulation during immobilization stress, combined with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Lazuko, S S; Beliaeva, L E; Solodkov, A P

    2014-04-01

    Persistent hyperglycemia after intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin (50 mg/kg) to the rats prevents decrease of coronary vessels myogenic tone and myocardial contractility during subsequent 6-hr immobilization stress. The intensity of these abnormalities in all experimental groups is significantly reduced with the supplement of the perfusate with inducible NO-synthase (iNOS) selective blocker S-methylisothiourea. Similar rise of the NO2-/NO3- concentration in the rats' blood after "stress", "diabetes mellitus" and "diabetes mellitus + stress" combines with an increase of iNOS transcripts in the myocardium to 6, 5.8 and 51 times compared with control. These data testify to a substantial modification of the cells from coronary vessels in the presence of marked and persistent hyperglycemia. Inducible NO-synthase uncoupling caused by excessive formation of the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the myocardium may be one of number mechanisms responsible for such phenotypic vascular alteration in the "stress + diabetes mellitus" group. PMID:25272454

  15. Tryptase and Coronary Heart Disease

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-01

    Acute Coronary Syndrome With ST Elevation on Electrocardiogram; Acute Coronary Syndrome Without ST Elevation on Electrocardiogram; Noncritical Coronary Artery Disease With Coronary Stenosis <50%; Aortic Aneurysms

  16. Safety and Efficacy of Vigabatrin for the Treatment of Infantile Spasms

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, Michele A.; Tolman, Justin A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, vigabatrin became the first FDA approved medication for the treatment of infantile spasms in the United States. There are few well-designed prospective studies comparing the drug to placebo or other modalities used in the treatment of infantile spasms. The available data have demonstrated that vigabatrin is efficacious in the treatment of infantile spasms regardless of underlying etiology, but that it is particularly beneficial in patients with a diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), the only other medication with robust efficacy data, has been used as first line therapy for infantile spasms associated with other etiologies, and in general controls spasms sooner than vigabatrin, though relapse is common with both therapies. Vigabatrin is generally well tolerated. However, use has been associated with permanent loss of peripheral vision in some patients. In children with tuberous sclerosis, vigabatrin should be considered as initial therapy for infantile spasms. It is a viable alternative for patients with suboptimal response, contraindications or intolerance to ACTH. PMID:23861649

  17. Detection of global DNA hypomethylation of peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Jing; Shi, Xiu-Yu; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Ju, Jun; Liu, Yu-Jie; Li, Zhi-Fang; Li, Yu-Fen; Zou, Li-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of infantile spasms remains unclear. DNA methylation may play a pivotal role in the development of some types of neurological diseases, such as epilepsy. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between global DNA methylation of peripheral blood leukocytes and cryptogenic infantile spasms. DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes was extracted from 20 patients with cryptogenic infantile spasms and 20 gender and age matched healthy controls. Global DNA methylation percentage of peripheral blood leukocytes was measured using a global DNA methylation quantification kit. Global DNA methylation levels of peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with cryptogenic infantile spasms (23.4 20.0%) were significantly lower than those in healthy controls (46.8 8.4%). Furthermore, we did not find any association between the levels of DNA methylation and effectiveness of Adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment. Our study demonstrates that global DNA hypomethylation of peripheral blood lymphocytes is correlated with infantile spasms. This finding provides information for better understanding of the pathogenesis of infantile spasms. PMID:25524839

  18. Positron emission tomography findings in children with infantile spasms and autism.

    PubMed

    Dilber, Cengiz; Cal??kan, Mine; Snmezo?lu, Kerim; Ni?li, Serap; Mukaddes, Nahit Motavalli; Tatl?, Burak; Ayd?nl?, Nur; Ekici, Bar??; zmen, Meral

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate positron emission tomography (PET) findings in patients diagnosed with infantile spasms and autism. This study includes 90 patients who were diagnosed with infantile spasms at the Department of Pediatric Neurology in the Istanbul University Medical Faculty between 1995 and 2007. Of the 90 patients, 15 patients who were diagnosed with autism using the Autism Behaviour Checklist and Childhood Autism Rating Scale and a control group of nine patients without autism but with infantile spasms underwent PET examination. Mean patient age ( standard error, SE) varied between 3 years and 16 years (7.8 4 years), while the mean follow-up time (SE) varied between 2 years and 16 years (average: 7.1 4 years). Autism was present in 11 patients with symptomatic spasms and in four patients with cryptogenic spasms (p=0.009). On the PET scans of the 15 patients with autism, 13 (86.7%) had significantly decreased metabolic activity in the temporal lobe (p<0.001), nine (60%) had significantly decreased activity in the frontal lobe (p=0.004), and seven (46.7%) had significantly decreased activity in the parietal lobe (p=0.022). In our opinion, hypometabolism in the frontal and parietal lobes, in addition to that previously reported in the temporal lobe, plays a role in the development of autism in patients with infantile spasms. PMID:23219829

  19. The Impact of Remote Ischemic Pre-Conditioning on Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty: A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gholoobi, Arash; Sajjadi, Seyyed Masoud; Shabestari, Mahmoud Mohammadzadeh; Eshraghi, Ali; Shamloo, Alireza Sepehri

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is an acute major complication following intravascular administration of iodinated contrast agents; however, the best approach for preventing CIN is not clear. Remote ischemic pre-conditioning (RIPC) is a new, non-pharmacological method that has been considered for the prevention of CIN following coronary angiography. This study assessed the effects of RIPC with four brief episodes of upper limb ischemia and reperfusion in the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) after coronary angiography and/or angioplasty. Methods In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, we enrolled 51 patients with chronic stable angina and non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE.ACS), and they underwent coronary angiography and/or angioplasty. Standard fluid therapy with normal saline was prescribed for all patients before and after the procedure. The patients were divided into two groups, i.e., a study group of patients who had undergone RIPC intervention and a control group of patients who had not undergone RIPC. One hour before the procedure, a sphygmomanometer cuff was placed around one arm and inflated up to 50 mmHg above the systolic pressure for five minutes; then, the cuff was deflated for another five minutes, and this cycle was repeated four times. The patients’ serum creatinine levels were measured at baseline and 48 hours after the procedure, and the incidence of CIN was calculated. Results Twenty-one males and 30 females were studied in two groups, i.e., an RIPC intervention group (n = 25) and a control group (n = 26) that were homogenous considering baseline characteristics. No significant difference was observed in the mean level of serum creatinine between the two groups at a post-intervention time of 48 hours (RICP: 1.74 ± 0.70 mg/dL vs. Control: 1.75 ± 0.87 mg/dL; P = 0.64). However, a lower incidence rate of CIN was observed 48 hours after the administration of the contrast medium in the RIPC group, but it was not statistically significant (RIPC: 23.1% vs. Control: 12.0%; P = 0.30). Conclusion It seems that adequate fluid therapy is still the most effective strategy for preventing CIN and that RIPC might have additional protective effects in very high risk patients, such as those with severe renal insufficiency and heart failure. PMID:26816582

  20. Epicardial Coronary Arteries in Khat Chewers Presenting with Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Al-Motarreb, Ahmed; Shabana, Adel; El-Menyar, Ayman

    2013-01-01

    Background. Khat chewing is a common habit in Yemen despite increased evidence of its negative impact on the cardiovascular system. Aims. We aimed to study the epicardial coronary arteries in khat chewers presenting with myocardial infarction (AMI). Materials and Methods. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2008 and May 2009 in Yemen. AMI patients who underwent coronary angiogram were enrolled and divided into groups (gp): gp1 (diabetic and khat chewers), gp2 (khat chewers and nondiabetic), and gp3 (diabetic and non-khat users). Results. Of 347 AMI patients 63%, 21%, and 16% were in gp 2, 3, and 1, respectively. Khat chewers were younger in comparison to non-khat users. Group 3 patients were more likely to have multivessel disease, severe left anterior descending (LAD), right coronary artery (RCA) stenosis and total RCA, and left circumflex (Lcx) occlusion compared to other groups. Group 1 patients were more likely to have total LAD occlusion and severe Lcx lesions. In multivariate analysis, age, diabetes mellitus, and smoking were significant independent predictors for significant coronary artery lesions; however, khat chewing did not show such association. Conclusions. Coronary spasm is the main mechanism of AMI in khat chewers. The impact of our finding for risk stratification and management warrants further studies. PMID:24222853

  1. Epicardial coronary arteries in khat chewers presenting with myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Al-Motarreb, Ahmed; Shabana, Adel; El-Menyar, Ayman

    2013-01-01

    Background. Khat chewing is a common habit in Yemen despite increased evidence of its negative impact on the cardiovascular system. Aims. We aimed to study the epicardial coronary arteries in khat chewers presenting with myocardial infarction (AMI). Materials and Methods. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted between November 2008 and May 2009 in Yemen. AMI patients who underwent coronary angiogram were enrolled and divided into groups (gp): gp1 (diabetic and khat chewers), gp2 (khat chewers and nondiabetic), and gp3 (diabetic and non-khat users). Results. Of 347 AMI patients 63%, 21%, and 16% were in gp 2, 3, and 1, respectively. Khat chewers were younger in comparison to non-khat users. Group 3 patients were more likely to have multivessel disease, severe left anterior descending (LAD), right coronary artery (RCA) stenosis and total RCA, and left circumflex (Lcx) occlusion compared to other groups. Group 1 patients were more likely to have total LAD occlusion and severe Lcx lesions. In multivariate analysis, age, diabetes mellitus, and smoking were significant independent predictors for significant coronary artery lesions; however, khat chewing did not show such association. Conclusions. Coronary spasm is the main mechanism of AMI in khat chewers. The impact of our finding for risk stratification and management warrants further studies. PMID:24222853

  2. Hemodynamic and metabolic correlates of dipyridamole-induced myocardial thallium-201 perfusion abnormalities in multivessel coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, D P; Beller, G A; Linden, J; Ayers, C R; Ripley, M L; Taylor, H; Watson, D D; Feldman, M D

    1994-06-15

    The mechanisms responsible for the development of reversible thallium-201 (TI-201) defects with dipyridamole stress in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is not well understood. Previous experimental animal studies have demonstrated coronary steal characterized by an absolute decrease in subendocardial flow distal to a stenosis in response to dipyridamole infusion. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to determine if reversible TI-201 defects in response to dipyridamole infusion are reflective of myocardial ischemia or secondary to regional differences in flow reserve. Dipyridamole (0.56 mg/kg) TI-201 imaging was performed in 23 patients in whom serial electrocardiographic, hemodynamic, aortic and coronary sinus lactate, and coronary sinus adenosine measurements were obtained. All patients with CAD had TI-201 redistribution (3.8 +/- 2.0 defects/patient), and all patients without CAD had normal scans. Mean aortic pressure was similar in both groups and did not change in response to dipyridamole (non-CAD 103 +/- 11 vs CAD 99 +/- 15 mm Hg, p = NS). Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure was similar at baseline (non-CAD 11 +/- 4 vs CAD 13 +/- 5 mm Hg, p = NS) and did not change in response to the drug (non-CAD 14 +/- 3 vs CAD 15 +/- 7 mm Hg, p = NS). Lactate extraction fraction was similar at baseline (non-CAD 0.22 +/- 0.09 vs CAD 0.17 +/- 0.14, p = NS) and decreased similarly in both groups (non-CAD 0.08 +/- 0.06 vs CAD 0.05 +/- 0.12, p = NS).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8203332

  3. Senescence Marker Protein-30 (SMP30) Deficiency Impairs Myocardium-Induced Dilation of Coronary Arterioles Associated with Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Mizukami, Hiroyuki; Saitoh, Shu-ichi; Machii, Hirofumi; Yamada, Shinya; Hoshino, Yasuto; Misaka, Tomofumi; Ishigami, Akihito; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2013-01-01

    Senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) decreases with aging. Mice with SMP30 deficiency, a model of aging, have a short lifespan with increased oxidant stress. To elucidate SMP30s effect on coronary circulation derived from myocytes, we measured the changes in the diameter of isolated coronary arterioles in wild-type (WT) mice exposed to supernatant collected from isolated paced cardiac myocytes from SMP30 KO or WT mice. Pacing increased hydrogen peroxide in myocytes, and hydrogen peroxide was greater in SMP30 KO myocytes compared to WT myocytes. Antimycin enhanced and FCCP (oxidative phosphorylation uncoupler in mitochondria) decreased superoxide production in both groups. Addition of supernatant from stimulated myocytes, either SMP30 KO or WT, caused vasodilation. The degree of the vasodilation response to supernatant was smaller in SMP30 KO mice compared to WT mice. Administration of catalase to arterioles eliminated vasodilation in myocyte supernatant of WT mice and converted vasodilation to vasoconstriction in myocyte supernatant of SMP30 KO mice. This vasoconstriction was eliminated by olmesartan, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Thus, SMP30 deficiency combined with oxidant stress increases angiotensin and hydrogen peroxide release from cardiac myocytes. SMP30 plays an important role in the regulation of coronary vascular tone by myocardium. PMID:23629672

  4. Coronary arteriography and angioplasty

    SciTech Connect

    King, S.B.; Douglas, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book explores biomedical radiography of the heart. Topics considered include six bench marks in the history of cardiac catheterization; normal coronary anatomy; anomalies of the coronary arteries; pathoanotomy of the coronary arteries and complications; indications, limitations, and risks of coronary arteriography and left ventriculography; catheterization techniques in coronary arteriography and left ventriculography: the Sones technique; catheterization techniques in coronary arteriography and left ventriculography: the Judkins technique; modification of Judkins catheters; catheterization techniques in coronary arteriography and left ventriculography multipurpose technique; new views in coronary arteriography; quantitative evaluation of left ventricular function; complications of coronary arteriography: management during and following the procedure; interpretation of coronary arteriograms and left ventriculograms; prevalence and distribution of disease in patients catheterized for suspected coronary disease at Emory University Hospital; the Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory; selection for surgery or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty; intracoronary thrombolysis; and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.

  5. Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kocas, Cuneyt; Yildiz, Ahmet; Abaci, Okay; Karaca, Osman Sukru; Firdin, Nur; Dalgic, Yalcin; Bostan, Cem; Ersanli, Murat

    2015-11-01

    We assessed the relation between platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) on admission and contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). A total of 488 patients with NSTE-ACS who underwent urgent coronary angiography were enrolled. Levels of PLR and creatinine were measured before angiography and at 72 hours after angiography. Patients were divided into 2 groups, namely, the CIN group, 80 patients (16.3%; age 65.3 12.5years; 66.7% men) and the non-CIN group, 408 patients (83.7%; age 61.2 12.3 years; 72.5% men). Patients in the CIN group had significantly higher PLR than those in the non-CIN group (152.9 99.6 vs 120.4 66.1, P < .001). In logistic regression analysis, PLR (odds ratio [OR] 1.004, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.001-1.007, P = .02), diabetes mellitus (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.02-2.98, P = .03), and ST-segment depression on admission electrocardiogram (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.00-2.81, P = .04) were independent predictors of CIN. The PLR was an independent predictor of CIN after angiography in patients with NSTE-ACS. PMID:25852211

  6. Percutaneous coronary intervention for chronic total occlusion improved prognosis in patients with renal insufficiency at high risk of contrast-induced nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Liu, Yuanhui; Li, Hualong; Zhou, Yingling; Guo, Wei; Duan, Chongyang; Chen, Shiqun; Chen, Pingyan; Tan, Ning; Chen, Jiyan

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether attempted percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO) would improve the prognosis in patients with renal insufficiency at high risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). We analyzed 2,330 consecutive patients with renal insufficiency with or without CTOs who underwent coronary angiography or PCI from prospectively collected data. The long-term death and risk of CIN were evaluated among three groups: patients without CTOs (group A, n = 1,829), patients with un-attempted PCI for CTOs (group B, n = 142), and patients who underwent attempted PCI for CTOs (group C, n = 359). Overall, group B and group C (successful rate, 89%) patients had similar renal function and were not significantly associated with an increased risk of CIN (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.41–1.93, P = 0.758). During a 2.33-year period (median), multivariate analysis demonstrated that attempted PCI for CTOs was independently associated with lower mortality (adjusted hazard ratio for death: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.18–0.83; P = 0.015). Attempted PCI for CTOs improved the long-term prognosis in patients with high-risk renal insufficiency and did not increase the risk of CIN. PMID:26899017

  7. Percutaneous coronary intervention for chronic total occlusion improved prognosis in patients with renal insufficiency at high risk of contrast-induced nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Liu, Yuanhui; Li, Hualong; Zhou, Yingling; Guo, Wei; Duan, Chongyang; Chen, Shiqun; Chen, Pingyan; Tan, Ning; Chen, Jiyan

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether attempted percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusion (CTO) would improve the prognosis in patients with renal insufficiency at high risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). We analyzed 2,330 consecutive patients with renal insufficiency with or without CTOs who underwent coronary angiography or PCI from prospectively collected data. The long-term death and risk of CIN were evaluated among three groups: patients without CTOs (group A, n?=?1,829), patients with un-attempted PCI for CTOs (group B, n?=?142), and patients who underwent attempted PCI for CTOs (group C, n?=?359). Overall, group B and group C (successful rate, 89%) patients had similar renal function and were not significantly associated with an increased risk of CIN (adjusted odds ratio [OR]?=?0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.41-1.93, P?=?0.758). During a 2.33-year period (median), multivariate analysis demonstrated that attempted PCI for CTOs was independently associated with lower mortality (adjusted hazard ratio for death: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.18-0.83; P?=?0.015). Attempted PCI for CTOs improved the long-term prognosis in patients with high-risk renal insufficiency and did not increase the risk of CIN. PMID:26899017

  8. MRI findings in infants with infantile spasms after neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Dawn, Gano; Sargent, Michael A.; Miller, Steven P.; Connolly, Mary B.; Wong, Peter; Glass, Hannah C.; Poskitt, Kenneth J.; Chau, Vann

    2014-01-01

    Background To evaluate the predominant pattern of brain injury and the anatomic areas of injury in children with infantile spasms following neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Methods A nested case-control study of infantile spasms in children with term neonatal HIE was performed. All patients had T1/T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) performed on the third day of life. Using a validated scoring system, the MRI was classified as: normal, watershed, basal ganglia/thalamus, total, or focal-multifocal. Two study investigators scored additional anatomic areas of injury (cortical extent, levels of the brainstem, hypothalamus) on T1/T2-weighted MRI and DWI blinded to the outcome. The predominant pattern of brain injury and anatomic areas of injury were compared between patients who developed infantile spasms and randomly selected controls. Results Eight patients who developed infantile spasms were identified among a cohort of 176 term newborns with HIE (4.5%). There were no significant differences in the perinatal and neonatal course between newborns who developed infantile spasms and controls who did not. The development of infantile spasms after neonatal HIE was significantly associated with basal ganglia/thalamus and total brain injury (P=.001), extent of cortical injury greater than 50% (odds ratio [OR]=11.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.1-158.5, P=.01), injury to the midbrain (OR=13, 95% CI=1.3 to 172, P=.007) and hypothalamic abnormalities (P=.01). Conclusions The development of infantile spasms after HIE is associated with injury to the basal ganglia and thalami on neonatal MRI, particularly when extensive cortical injury and/or injury to the midbrain is present. PMID:24095571

  9. Cold pressor /sup 201/Tl myocardial scintigraphy in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, M.; Dubiel, J.P.; Haibach, H.

    1982-12-01

    /sup 201/Tl myocardial scintigraphy was performed during cold pressor stimulation in 36 patients aged 36 to 69 years. Thirty-one patients had coronary artery disease and 5 patients did not, as confirmed by coronary cineangiography. /sup 201/Tl (1.5 to 2 mCi) was injected at 30 seconds of the cold pressor stimulation. The product of systolic pressure X heart rate increased from a baseline of 77.4 +/- 16 (standard deviation (SD)) to 103.6 +/- 17 at 30 seconds of the cold pressor test (p less than 0.0005). Transient perfusion deficits developed in 24 of 31 patients with coronary artery disease (sensitivity 77%), and all 5 patients without coronary artery disease had normal scintigrams. The sensitivity in detecting coronary artery disease was 40% in patients with 1 vessel disease, 91% in patients with 2 vessel disease, and 100% in patients with 3 vessel disease. Exercise electrocardiograms (available in 29 of 36 patients) were positive for ischemia in 18 of 24 patients with coronary artery disease and in 1 of 5 patients without coronary artery disease (sensitivity 75% and specificity less than 80%). Exercise /sup 201/Tl scintigrams, obtained in 16 patients, were positive in 11 patients with coronary artery disease and positive cold pressor /sup 201/Tl scintigrams. Five patients without coronary artery disease and with normal cold pressor /sup 201/Tl scintigrams had normal exercise /sup 201/Tl scintigrams. Coronary cineangiography performed during cold pressor stimulation in 6 patients who had positive cold pressor and exercise /sup 201/Tl scintigrams did not show coronary spasm. Our data indicate that cold pressor thallium-201 scintigraphy offers promise as a noninvasive test in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease and may be used in patients in whom exercise testing is not feasible.

  10. Cold pressor thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, M; Dubiel, J P; Haibach, H

    1982-12-01

    Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy was performed during cold pressor stimulation in 36 patients aged 36 to 69 years. Thirty-one patients had coronary artery disease and 5 patients did not, as confirmed by coronary cineangiography. Thallium-201 (1.5 to 2 mCi) was injected at 30 seconds of the cold pressor stimulation. The product of systolic pressure X heart rate increased from a baseline of 77.4 +/- 16 (standard deviation [SD]) to 103.6 +/- 17 at 30 seconds of the cold pressor test (p less than 0.0005). Transient perfusion deficits developed in 24 of 31 patients with coronary artery disease (sensitivity 77%), and all 5 patients without coronary artery disease had normal scintigrams. The sensitivity in detecting coronary artery disease was 40% in patients with 1 vessel disease, 91% in patients with 2 vessel disease, and 100% in patients with 3 vessel disease. Exercise electrocardiograms (available in 29 of 36 patients) were positive for ischemia in 18 of 24 patients with coronary artery disease and in 1 of 5 patients without coronary artery disease (sensitivity 75% and specificity less than 80%). Exercise thallium-201 scintigrams, obtained in 16 patients, were positive in 11 patients with coronary artery disease and positive cold pressor thallium-201 scintigrams. Five patients without coronary artery disease and with normal cold pressor thallium-201 scintigrams had normal exercise thallium-201 scintigrams. Coronary cineangiography performed during cold pressor stimulation in 6 patients who had positive cold pressor and exercise thallium-201 scintigrams did not show coronary spasm. Our data indicate that cold pressor thallium-201 scintigraphy offers promise as a noninvasive test in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease and may be used in patients in whom exercise testing is not feasible. PMID:7148699

  11. Conduits for Coronary Bypass: Arteries Other Than the Internal Thoracic Artery's

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This is the third in a series on coronary artery bypass which reviews three alternative arterial conduits. The radial artery has become the most widely used of the three and accumulating experience demonstrates better patency at 10 years versus saphenous vein. Drawbacks are a long incision on the forearm, the propensity for spasm and persistent sensory disturbance in about 10%. The first is answered by endoscopic harvest which may yield a shorter conduit but reduces sensory nerve injury. Spasm is managed pharmacologically and by less harvest trauma. The gastroepiploic artery is used in situ and free and although the abdominal cavity is entered complications are minimal and patency compares favorably with the radial artery. Use of the inferior epigastric artery remains minimal and its similar length often requires composite use but limited patency data are supportive. Other arteries have had rare use and this is unlikely to change because the three presented here have significant advantages and acceptance. PMID:23772403

  12. SLCA/IP power alternative screening method (SPASM)

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.C. |; Ancrile, J.D.

    1995-03-01

    This report describes the SLCA/IP Power Alternative Screening Method (SPASM), which was used to screen 784 possible combinations of electric power marketing alternatives and dam operational scenarios to provide a representative range for analysis in the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Each combination consists of one energy and capacity commitment level and one operational scenario for each of the hydroelectric facilities at Glen Canyon Dam, Flaming Gorge Dam, and the Aspinall Unit. The total annual cost to the SLCA/IP firm power customers of each of the 784 combinations is estimated and included in a relative frequency distribution. A relative frequency distribution is also generated for each marketing alternative. The number of combinations is reduced to 12 by taking the mean value and endpoint value for each of four marketing alternatives. Some minor deviations from this procedure, which are made for political purposes, are explained. 9 figs., 14 tabs.

  13. [Abdominal spasms, meteorism, diarrhea: fructose intolerance, lactose intolerance or IBS?].

    PubMed

    Litschauer-Poursadrollah, Margaritha; El-Sayad, Sabine; Wantke, Felix; Fellinger, Christina; Jarisch, Reinhart

    2012-12-01

    Meteorism, abdominal spasms, diarrhea, casually obstipation, flatulence and nausea are symptoms of fructose malabsorption (FIT) and/or lactose intolerance (LIT), but are also symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Therefore these diseases should be considered primarily in patients with digestive complaints. For diagnosis an H(2)-breath test is used.In 1,935 patients (526 m, 1,409 f) a fructose intolerance test and in 1,739 patients (518 m,1,221 f) a lactose intolerance test was done.FIT is found more frequently than LIT (57 versus 52 % in adults (p?

  14. Revisiting the link between hypertension and hemifacial spasm.

    PubMed

    Leong, Jia-Li; Li, Hui-Hua; Chan, Ling-Ling; Tan, Eng-King

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between hypertension and hemifacial spasm (HFS) has been debated. Microvascular decompression surgery is effective in some HFS patients with uncontrolled hypertension. To address current gaps in knowledge, we conducted a meta-analysis of case-control studies that have examined the prevalence of hypertension in HFS patients compared to non-HFS controls. We also evaluated the implications and limitations of the pooled studies. We identified 62 studies from PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Scholar.google.com and six studies that fit our inclusion criteria were included. A random-effects model was used to derive the pooled estimate of the Odds Ratio. The data was plotted on a Forest plot. A pooled analysis involving 51585 subjects, 549 cases, 720 neurological controls and 50316 controls from the general population, showed that HFS patients had a higher chance of developing hypertension (OR?=?1.72, 95% CI?=?(1.12, 2.31), p-value ?<0.001). The prevalence of hypertension was higher in HFS patients as compared to non-HFS patients. This meta-analysis highlights a positive correlation between hypertension and HFS. Blood pressure should be closely monitored during the follow-up of HFS patients. Preliminary links between ventrolateral medullary (VLM) compression and HFS should be further evaluated in future studies. PMID:26891766

  15. Neurodevelopmental outcomes in children with Down syndrome and infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    Tapp, Sarah; Anderson, Tovi; Visootsak, Jeannie

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability in the United States. The prevalence of seizure in individuals with DS is 113%, and infantile spasm (IS) occurs in 632% of those with seizures. Since IS is relatively common in children with DS, it is important to understand the impact IS has on the neurodevelopmental outcomes in order to provide appropriate anticipatory guidance to help maximize the potential of these children. Our study is the first to compare the neurodevelopmental outcomes of children with DS and IS (DS + IS) to children with DS and no history of seizures (DS ? IS). Using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III, we assessed the neurodevelopment of 29 subjects (eight DS + IS and 21 DS ? IS). Neurodevelopmental outcome was poor in the DS + IS cohort, but the delay in treatment does not appear to contribute to any differences in their developmental scores. However, when compared to children with DS ? IS, the DS + IS cohort scored approximately 20 points less in all domains including cognitive, motor, and language (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that IS may impact the neurodevelopmental outcomes of children with DS + IS; thus, it is important to provide ongoing developmental and educational assessments and potentially additional therapies for children with DS + IS. PMID:26523121

  16. Revisiting the link between hypertension and hemifacial spasm

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Jia-Li; Li, Hui-hua; Chan, Ling-Ling; Tan, Eng-King

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between hypertension and hemifacial spasm (HFS) has been debated. Microvascular decompression surgery is effective in some HFS patients with uncontrolled hypertension. To address current gaps in knowledge, we conducted a meta-analysis of case-control studies that have examined the prevalence of hypertension in HFS patients compared to non-HFS controls. We also evaluated the implications and limitations of the pooled studies. We identified 62 studies from PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Scholar.google.com and six studies that fit our inclusion criteria were included. A random-effects model was used to derive the pooled estimate of the Odds Ratio. The data was plotted on a Forest plot. A pooled analysis involving 51585 subjects, 549 cases, 720 neurological controls and 50316 controls from the general population, showed that HFS patients had a higher chance of developing hypertension (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = (1.12, 2.31), p-value  <0.001). The prevalence of hypertension was higher in HFS patients as compared to non-HFS patients. This meta-analysis highlights a positive correlation between hypertension and HFS. Blood pressure should be closely monitored during the follow-up of HFS patients. Preliminary links between ventrolateral medullary (VLM) compression and HFS should be further evaluated in future studies. PMID:26891766

  17. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Enhances Accelerative Wave Intensity in Coronary Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Om; Leung, Michael C. H.; Wong, Dennis T. L.; Meredith, Ian T.; Cameron, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Background The systolic forward travelling compression wave (sFCW) and diastolic backward travelling decompression waves (dBEW) predominantly accelerate coronary blood flow. The effect of a coronary stenosis on the intensity of these waves in the distal vessel is unknown. We investigated the relationship between established physiological indices of hyperemic coronary flow and the intensity of the two major accelerative coronary waves identified by Coronary Wave Intensity analysis (CWIA). Methodology / Principal Findings Simultaneous intracoronary pressure and velocity measurement was performed during adenosine induced hyperemia in 17 patients with pressure / Doppler flow wires positioned distal to the target lesion. CWI profiles were generated from this data. Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR) and Coronary Flow Velocity Reserve (CFVR) were calculated concurrently. The intensity of the dBEW was significantly correlated with FFR (R = -0.70, P = 0.003) and CFVR (R = -0.73, P = 0.001). The intensity of the sFCW was also significantly correlated with baseline FFR (R = 0.71, p = 0.002) and CFVR (R = 0.59, P = 0.01). Stenting of the target lesion resulted in a median 178% (interquartile range 55–280%) (P<0.0001) increase in sFCW intensity and a median 117% (interquartile range 27–509%) (P = 0.001) increase in dBEW intensity. The increase in accelerative wave intensity following PCI was proportionate to the baseline FFR and CFVR, such that stenting of lesions associated with the greatest flow limitation (lowest FFR and CFVR) resulted in the largest increases in wave intensity. Conclusions Increasing ischemia severity is associated with proportionate reductions in cumulative intensity of both major accelerative coronary waves. Impaired diastolic microvascular decompression may represent a novel, important pathophysiologic mechanism driving the reduction in coronary blood flow in the setting of an epicardial stenosis. PMID:26658896

  18. Connecting the coronaries: How the coronary plexus develops and is functionalized

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Laura; Pi, Xinchun; Patterson, Cam

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of the coronary circulation is one of the final critical steps during heart development. Despite decades of research, our understanding of how the coronary vasculature develops and connects to the aorta remains limited. This review serves two specific purposes: it addresses recent advances in understanding the origin of the coronary endothelium, and it then focuses on the last crucial step of coronary vasculature development, the connection of the coronary plexus to the aorta. The chick and quail animal models have yielded most of the information for how these connections form, starting with a fine network of vessels that penetrate the aorta and coalesce to form two distinct ostia. Studies in mouse and rat confirm that at least some of these steps are conserved in mammals, but gaps still exist in our understanding of mammalian coronary ostia formation. The signaling cues necessary to guide the coronary plexus to the aorta are also incompletely understood. Hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1 and its downstream targets are among the few identified genes that promote the formation of the coronary stems. Together, this review summarizes our current knowledge of coronary vascular formation and highlights the significant gaps that remain. In addition, it highlights some of the coronary artery anomalies known to affect human health, demonstrating that even seemingly subtle defects arising from incorrect coronary plexus formation can result in significant health crises. PMID:25173872

  19. Coronary artery fistula (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    A coronary artery fistula generally occurs when one of the coronary arteries fails to form properly during the development of the baby. Coronary artery fistula is an abnormal connection between one of ...

  20. Inhibitory Effect of a French Maritime Pine Bark Extract-Based Nutritional Supplement on TNF-α-Induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Kristine C. Y.; Li, Xiao-Hong; McRobb, Lucinda S.; Heather, Alison K.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation, leading to endothelial dysfunction, contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The popularity of natural product supplements has increased in recent years, especially those with purported anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant effects. The efficacy and mechanism of many of these products are not yet well understood. In this study, we tested the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of a supplement, HIPER Health Supplement (HIPER), on cytokine-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). HIPER is a mixture of French maritime pine bark extract (PBE), honey, aloe vera, and papaya extract. Treatment for 24 hours with HIPER reduced TNF-α-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation that was associated with decreased NADPH oxidase 4 and increased superoxide dismutase-1 expression. HIPER inhibited TNF-α induced monocyte adhesion to HCAECs that was in keeping with decreased expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and decreased nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. Further investigation of mechanism showed HIPER reduced TNF-α induced IκBα and p38 and MEK1/2 MAP kinases phosphorylation. Our findings show that HIPER has potent inhibitory effects on HCAECs inflammatory and oxidative stress responses that may protect against endothelial dysfunction that underlies early atherosclerotic lesion formation. PMID:26664450

  1. Inhibitory Effect of a French Maritime Pine Bark Extract-Based Nutritional Supplement on TNF-?-Induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Human Coronary Artery Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Kristine C Y; Li, Xiao-Hong; McRobb, Lucinda S; Heather, Alison K

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation, leading to endothelial dysfunction, contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The popularity of natural product supplements has increased in recent years, especially those with purported anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant effects. The efficacy and mechanism of many of these products are not yet well understood. In this study, we tested the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of a supplement, HIPER Health Supplement (HIPER), on cytokine-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). HIPER is a mixture of French maritime pine bark extract (PBE), honey, aloe vera, and papaya extract. Treatment for 24 hours with HIPER reduced TNF-?-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation that was associated with decreased NADPH oxidase 4 and increased superoxide dismutase-1 expression. HIPER inhibited TNF-? induced monocyte adhesion to HCAECs that was in keeping with decreased expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and decreased nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) activation. Further investigation of mechanism showed HIPER reduced TNF-? induced I?B? and p38 and MEK1/2 MAP kinases phosphorylation. Our findings show that HIPER has potent inhibitory effects on HCAECs inflammatory and oxidative stress responses that may protect against endothelial dysfunction that underlies early atherosclerotic lesion formation. PMID:26664450

  2. Great heterogeneity of commercial fruit juices to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated porcine coronary arteries: role of the phenolic content and composition.

    PubMed

    Auger, Cyril; Pollet, Brigitte; Arnold, Ccile; Marx, Cline; Schini-Kerth, Valrie B

    2015-01-01

    Since polyphenol-rich products such as red wine, grape juice, and grape extracts have been shown to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, we have evaluated whether commercial fruit juices such as those from berries are also able to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations of isolated coronary arteries and, if so, to determine whether this effect is related to their phenolic content. Among the 51 fruit juices tested, 2/12 grape juices, 3/7 blackcurrant juices, 4/5 cranberry juices, 1/6 apple juices, 0/5 orange juices, 2/6 red fruit and berry juices, 3/6 blends of red fruit juices, and 0/4 non-red fruit juices were able to induce relaxations achieving more than 50% at a volume of 1%. The active fruit juices had phenolic contents ranging from 0.31 to 1.86?g GAE/L, which were similar to those of most of the less active juices with the exception of one active grape juice (2.14?g GAE/L) and one active blend of red fruit juices (3.48?g GAE/L). Altogether, these findings indicate that very few commercial fruit juices have the ability to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, and that this effect is not related to their quantitative phenolic content, but rather to their qualitative phenolic composition. PMID:25009961

  3. Epileptic spasms: a previously unreported manifestation of WDR45 gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Xixis, Kathryn I; Mikati, Mohamad A

    2015-12-01

    WDR45 mutations cause neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, usually presenting with early childhood developmental delay and followed by early adulthood extrapyramidal symptoms. Although various seizure types may occur, epileptic spasms have not been reported for this disease. Our patient initially developed a prolonged, focal-onset seizure at three months of age and was subsequently noted to have psychomotor delay. At 11 months of age, she developed epileptic spasms. Her EEG showed hypsarrhythmia. An extensive neurogenetic workup and brain MRI, revealing normal data, ruled out other detectable causes of epileptic spasms. Whole-exome sequencing revealed a de novo, heterozygous deleterious mutation c.400C>T (p.R13X) in WDR45, previously reported to be disease-causing and associated with early childhood global developmental delay and seizures other than epileptic spasms. We conclude that WDR45 mutations should be considered as a possible aetiology in infants with early-onset focal seizures and/or in otherwise undiagnosed cases of epileptic spasms. PMID:26609730

  4. Magnetoencephalography reveals a unique neurophysiological profile of focal-onset epileptic spasms.

    PubMed

    Kakisaka, Yosuke; Gupta, Ajay; Enatsu, Rei; Wang, Zhong I; Alexopoulos, Andreas V; Mosher, John C; Dubarry, Anne-Sophie; Hino-Fukuyo, Naomi; Burgess, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy is defined as a disorder of the brain characterized by an enduring predisposition to experience epileptic seizures and the neurobiological, cognitive, psychological, and social difficulties relating to the condition. An epileptic spasm (ES) is a type of seizure characterized by clusters of short contractions involving axial muscles and proximal segments. However, the precise mechanism of ESs remains unknown. Despite the potential of magnetoencephalography (MEG) as a tool for investigating the neurophysiological mechanism of ESs, it has been difficult to use this methodology due to magnetic artifacts attributable to patient movement. We report on an 8-year-old girl suffering from intractable epileptic spasms from the age of 7 months. She was diagnosed with possible Aicardi syndrome [corrected] (AGS), characterized by the triad of callosal agenesis, infantile spasms, and chorioretinal lacunae. She is now intellectually delayed and suffers from intractable ES. We used both MEG and electroencephalography to investigate her epilepsy. The recording captured two series of spasm clusters. Spikes were clearly identified with MEG in about four-fifths of all spasms but were identified poorly or not at all in the remainder. MEG findings support previous studies that used intracranial electrodes to analyze patients with ESs and that showed variability in ES-associated spikes in terms of manner of cortical involvement and magnitude. Given the limitations of intracranial electrodes, such as sampling restrictions and invasiveness, MEG may be a helpful tool for non-invasively investigating the unique pathophysiological profile of focal-onset ESs. PMID:23343709

  5. Botulinum toxin treatment of cranial-cervical dystonia, spasmodic dysphonia, other focal dystonias and hemifacial spasm.

    PubMed Central

    Jankovic, J; Schwartz, K; Donovan, D T

    1990-01-01

    In the past five years, 477 patients with various focal dystonias and hemifacial spasm received 3,806 injections of botulinum A toxin for relief of involuntary spasms. A definite improvement with a global rating greater than or equal to 2 on a 0-4 scale, was obtained in all 13 patients with spasmodic dysphonia, 94% of 70 patients with blepharospasm, 92% of 13 patients with hemifacial spasm, 90% of 195 patients with cervical dystonia, 77% of 22 patients with hand dystonia, 73% of 45 patients with oromandibular dystonia, and in 90% of 21 patients with other focal dystonia who had adequate follow up. While the average duration of maximum improvement lasted about 11 weeks after an injection (range seven weeks in patients with hand dystonia to 15 weeks in patients with hemifacial spasm), some patients benefited for over a year. Only 16% of the 941 treatment visits with follow up were not successful. Except for transient focal weakness, there were very few complications or systemic effects attributed to the injections. This study supports the conclusion that botulinum toxin injections are a safe and effective therapy for patients with focal dystonia and hemifacial spasm. Images PMID:2213039

  6. The relation of infantile spasms, tubers, and intelligence in tuberous sclerosis complex

    PubMed Central

    O'Callaghan, F; Harris, T; Joinson, C; Bolton, P; Noakes, M; Presdee, D; Renowden, S; Shiell, A; Martyn, C; Osborne, J

    2004-01-01

    Background: The aetiology of the learning difficulty in tuberous sclerosis is debated. It may be related to the amount of tubers in the brain or caused by the infantile spasms that occur in early life. Aims: To examine the relative contributions to final intelligence (IQ) made by both cerebral tubers and infantile spasms. Methods: As part of an epidemiological study of tuberous sclerosis in the south of England, patients were recruited who were able to undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without the need for an anaesthetic. Epilepsy history was determined by interview and review of clinical records. IQ was assessed using either Wechsler intelligence scales or Raven's matrices. Results: A total of 41 patients consented to have an MRI scan. IQ scores were normally distributed about a mean of 91. Twenty six patients had a positive history of epilepsy, and 11 had suffered from infantile spasms. There was a significant relation between the number of tubers and IQ. Infantile spasm status partly confounded the relation between tubers and IQ, but did not render the relation statistically insignificant. The relation between infantile spasms and learning difficulty remained strong even when controlling for the number of tubers. PMID:15155396

  7. The response to ACTH is determined early in the treatment of infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Mytinger, John R; Weber, Amanda; Heyer, Geoffrey L

    2015-03-01

    Although adrenocorticotropic hormone is the most commonly used treatment for infantile spasms in the United States, the optimal regimen for this indication is not known. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the optimal adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment duration. We conducted a retrospective chart review of response to adrenocorticotropic hormone among all patients with infantile spasms managed at our institution from January2009 to September2013. Treatment response was defined as clinical remission for greater than or equal to 28 days starting at any point within the adrenocorticotropic hormone course and remission of hypsarrhythmia (or definite EEG improvement if hypsarrhythmia was absent at baseline). For responders, the diagnostic and post-treatment EEG tracings were reviewed. Electroclinical remission was achieved in 21 of 39 patients (54%) receiving adrenocorticotropic hormone, including 11/25 (44%) receiving a long course (typically 12 weeks) and 10/14 (71%) receiving a short course (typically four weeks). The mean time to clinical remission was 5.8 days (median: 5 days; range: 1-20 days). Only one patient responded beyond two weeks of treatment. This study provides Class IV evidence that among patients with infantile spasms, the response to adrenocorticotropic hormone is most often determined early in the treatment course. Given the importance of rapid remission, clinicians should consider adding or changing treatment if infantile spasms do not resolve within two weeks of adrenocorticotropic hormone initiation. Further study is needed to determine the optimal adrenocorticotropic hormone regimen for infantile spasms. PMID:25644547

  8. Full-length human chromogranin-A cardioactivity: myocardial, coronary, and stimulus-induced processing evidence in normotensive and hypertensive male rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Pasqua, Teresa; Corti, Angelo; Gentile, Stefano; Pochini, Lorena; Bianco, Mimma; Metz-Boutigue, Marie-Hlne; Cerra, Maria Carmela; Tota, Bruno; Angelone, Tommaso

    2013-09-01

    Plasma chromogranin-A (CgA) concentrations correlate with severe cardiovascular diseases, whereas CgA-derived vasostatin-I and catestatin elicit cardiosuppression via an antiadrenergic/nitric oxide-cGMP mediated mechanism. Whether these phenomena are related is unknown. We here investigated whether and to what extent full-length CgA directly influences heart performance and may be subjected to stimulus-elicited intracardiac processing. Using normotensive and hypertensive rats, we evaluated the following: 1) direct myocardial and coronary effects of full-length CgA; 2) the signal-transduction pathway involved in its action mechanism; and 3) CgA intracardiac processing after ?-adrenergic [isoproterenol (Iso)]- and endothelin-1(ET-1)-dependent stimulation. The study was performed by using a Langendorff perfusion apparatus, Western blotting, affinity chromatography, and ELISA. We found that CgA (1-4 nM) dilated coronaries and induced negative inotropism and lusitropism, which disappeared at higher concentrations (10-16 nM). In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), negative inotropism and lusitropism were more potent than in young normotensive rats. We found that perfusion itself, Iso-, and endothelin-1 stimulation induced intracardiac CgA processing in low-molecular-weight fragments in young, Wistar Kyoto, and SHR rats. In young normotensive and adult hypertensive rats, CgA increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase phosphorylation and cGMP levels. Analysis of the perfusate from both Wistar rats and SHRs of untreated and treated (Iso) hearts revealed CgA absence. In conclusion, in normotensive and hypertensive rats, we evidenced the following: 1) full-length CgA directly affects myocardial and coronary function by AkT/nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide/cGMP/protein kinase G pathway; and 2) the heart generates intracardiac CgA fragments in response to hemodynamic and excitatory challenges. For the first time at the cardiovascular level, our data provide a conceptual link between systemic and intracardiac actions of full-length CgA and its fragments, expanding the knowledge on the sympathochromaffin/CgA axis under normal and physiopathological conditions. PMID:23751870

  9. Receptor for advanced glycation end products involved in circulating endothelial cells release from human coronary endothelial cells induced by C-reactive protein

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shulai; Gao, Lichao; Gong, Fangqi; Chen, Xiaoyang

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): This study was designed to investigate the effect of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), S100A12 and C-reactive protein (CRP) on the release of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) from human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs). Materials and Methods: HCAECs were cultured in increasing concentration of CRP (0, 12.5, 25, 50?g/ml) or S100A12 protein (0, 4, 10, 25?g/ml) for 24 hr. CECs were measured by flow cytometry. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was designed to decrease RAGE level. Fluorescence microscopy and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to assess the efficiency of siRNA silencing RAGE. The release of CECs from HCAECs was further evaluated by flow cytometry. Results: CRP caused a significant increase in the release of CECs from HCAECs. The number of CECs increased by about 2-fold in 25 ?g/ml CRP-treated group compared to the control group (12.22% compared to 6.82%, P=0.032). But S100A12 failed to increase the release of CECs from HCAECs. Blockade of RAGE by siRNA significantly decreased the release of CECs induced by CRP (13.22% of CRP group compared to 8.77% of CRP+siRNA group, P=0.017). Conclusion: RAGE is involved in the release of CECs induced by CRP, and the effect can be attenuated by silencing RAGE. RAGE may play an important role in endothelial dysfunction in cardiovascular disease. Inhibition of RAGE may be a therapeutic target for coronary artery lesions in Kawasaki disease. PMID:26221486

  10. Electrophysiologic Investigation During Facial Motor Neuron Suppression in Patients With Hemifacial Spasm: Possible Pathophysiology of Hemifacial Spasm: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Soo In; Kim, Min-Wook; Park, Dong Yoon; Huh, Ryoong

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the pathophysiological mechanism of hemifacial spasm (HFS), we performed electrophysiological examinations, such as supraorbital nerve stimulation with orbicularis oris muscle recording and lateral spread tests, after suppressing the patient's central nervous system by administering intravenous diazepam. Methods Six patients with HFS were recruited. Supraorbital nerve stimulation with orbicularis oris muscle recording and the lateral spread test were performed, followed by intravenous application of 10 mg diazepam to achieve facial motor neuron suppression. Subsequently, we repeated the two electrophysiological experiments mentioned above at 10 and 20 minutes after the patients had received the diazepam intravenously. Results Orbicularis oris muscle responses were observed in all patients after supraorbital nerve stimulation and lateral spread tests. After the diazepam injection, no orbicularis oris muscle response to supraorbital nerve stimulation was observed in one patient, and the latencies of this response were evident as a slowing tendency with time in the remaining five patients. However, the latencies of the orbicularis oris muscle responses were observed consistently in all patients in the lateral spread test. Conclusion Our results suggest that ectopic excitation/ephaptic transmission contributes to the pathophysiological mechanisms of HFS. This is because the latencies of the orbicularis oris muscle responses in the lateral spread test were observed consistently in the suppressed motor neuron in our patients. PMID:24466519

  11. Endothelin-induced changes in intracellular pH and Ca2+ in coronary smooth muscle: role of Na(+)-H+ exchange.

    PubMed Central

    Hubel, C A; Highsmith, R F

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced stimulation of Na(+)-H+ exchange and intracellular free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) was examined in primary cultures of porcine coronary artery smooth muscle cells. Intracellular pH (pHi) and [Ca2+]i were measured using 2,7-bis-carboxyethyl-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein and the acetoxymethyl ester of fura-2 respectively. In HCO3(-)-free buffer (pH = 7.4), ET-1 (0.1-50 nM) induced a sustained, dose-dependent increase in pHi. ET-1 (10 nM) increased pHi from 6.83 +/- 0.01 to 6.93 +/- 0.02 (P < 0.01). The alkalinization was blocked by the Na(+)-H+ exchange inhibitor, 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride (EIPA, 3 microM) or by substitution of Na+ with N-methylglucamine or choline chloride (P < 0.05). Recovery of pHi in response to acidification, induced by washout of a 20 mM NH4Cl prepulse, was > 90% inhibited by EIPA (3 microM), confirming the presence of an ET-1-responsive Na(+)-H+ exchanger. Coronary smooth muscle cells responded to ET-1 with a dose-dependent, biphasic increase in [Ca2+]i which was not inhibited by manipulations (EIPA pretreatment or Na(+)-free media) shown to block the Na(+)-H+ exchanger. The ET-1-mediated alkalinization was not inhibited by removal of extracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]o). However, complete blockade of the ET-1-mediated [Ca2+]i response using the intracellular Ca(2+)-chelator, [bis-(2-amino-5-methylphenoxy)ethane-NNN'N'-tetraacetic acid tetraacetoxymethyl ester] (MAPTAM), in [Ca2+]o-free media, demonstrated that an increment in [Ca2+]i is required for activation of the Na(+)-H+ exchanger by ET-1. The ET-1-induced rise in [Ca2+]i was not associated with a rise in pHi in the presence of CO2/HCO3-. We conclude that: (1) activation of Na(+)-H+ exchange by ET-1 requires an increment in [Ca2+]i; and (2) ET-1 stimulates EIPA-sensitive Na(+)-H+ exchange, but this stimulation does not modulate ET-1-induced changes in [Ca2+]i. PMID:7575397

  12. Infantile spasms and early immunization against whooping cough. Danish survey from 1970 to 1975.

    PubMed Central

    Melchior, J C

    1977-01-01

    113 cases of infantile spasms were diagnosed in the period 1 April 1970 to 31 March 1975 after Denmark changed her immunization programme. Previously whooping cough vaccine was given as the triple combination at 5, 6, and 15 months of age. From 1 April 1970 it was given as a monovalent vaccine at 5 and 9 weeks of age and at 10 months of age. A comparison with previous material of 86 cases of infantile spasms from 1957 to 1967 showed no change in the age at onset. Though there may be an occasional connection between immunization and infantile spasms, the most important factor is a time-coincidence between any immunization given at a certain age with the neurological disorders which are natural for that age. PMID:836065

  13. Screening of Inherited Metabolic Disorders in Infants with Infantile Spasms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Ming; Li, Rui; Chen, Sheng-Zhi; Sang, Yan; Chen, Jiao; Fan, Cong-Hai

    2014-11-23

    The objective of this study is to explore the incidence of inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) in infants with infantile spasms (IS), with an attempt to improve the early diagnosis and etiological and symptomatic treatment. Urine and blood samples were collected from 60 IS patients and analyzed for the quantification of amino acids, organic acids, and fatty acids by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrum. Routine urine tests, hepatic function tests, blood biochemistry, brain imaging, as well as examinations of the brain stem auditory/visual evoked potentials were also examined. In addition to antiepileptic therapy, etiological and symptomatic treatments were also conducted in infants with confirmed IMD and the follow-up lasted for 6months in these pediatric patients. Metabolic disorders were found in 28 (46.67%) of 60 IS infants, among them 13 (21.67%) were confirmed to be with IMD. Twelve of these 13 IS patients with definite IMD diagnoses (92.31%) experienced varying degrees of delayed development of intelligence and motor function, 8 patients (61.54%) had abnormal cranial CT or MRI findings, 11 patients (84.61%) had abnormal brain stem evoked potentials, 4 patients (30.77%) had abnormal hepatic functions, 3 patients (23.07%) had abnormal blood biochemistry, 2 patients (15.38%) had positive (+ to ++) results for routine urine ketones, and 2 patients (15.38%) had skin lesions. After treatment in children who were diagnosed IMD, the well controlled epileptic seizures and the satisfactory developments in mental and motor were found in 4 cases of methylmalonic acidemia, 2 cases of classical phenylketonuria, and one case of biotin deficiency disease, glutaric acidemia type I, and 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria in each. IMD is a key biological cause in IS. Early screening for IMD is warranted in IS infants to facilitate the improvement for the prognosis and an early etiological treatment. PMID:25417060

  14. Contrast Sensitivity Is Reduced in Children with Infantile Spasms

    PubMed Central

    Mirabella, Giuseppe; Morong, Sharon; Buncic, J. Raymond; Snead, O. Carter; Logan, William J.; Weiss, Shelly K.; Abdolell, Mohamed; Westall, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether visual deficits in children with infantile spasm (IS) are the result of seizure activity or of treatment with the anticonvulsant drug vigabatrin (VGB). Methods Vision function was determined in three experiments by determining peak contrast sensitivity (CS) and grating acuity (GA) with the sweep visual evoked potential. Cross-sectional study A: 34 children, including 11 patients with childhood epilepsy with exposure to VGB for at least 6 months, 10 with childhood epilepsy exposed to antiepileptic drugs other than VGB, and 13 normally developing children. Cross-sectional study B: 32 children, including 16 with IS nave to VGB and 16 normally developing children. Longitudinal study: seven children with IS nave to VGB, with subsequent follow-up 5 to 10 months after starting VGB. Results In cross-sectional study A, the median CS was reduced by 0.5 log units (P = 0.025) in children with epilepsy exposed to VGB compared with those exposed to other antiepileptic drugs and normally developing children. In cross-sectional study B, the median CS was reduced by 0.25 log units (P = 0.0015) in children with IS (VGB nave) compared with normally developing children. Longitudinal assessment showed no decrease in CS in children with IS who were followed up 5 to 10 months after starting VGB. There was no difference in GA among groups in any of the experiments. Conclusions Patients with IS have CS deficits, but a sparing of GA. This deficit is present before VGB treatment and does not worsen with treatment onset. Results suggest that visual dysfunction is largely the result of the seizures themselves. PMID:17652730

  15. Clinical profile and treatment of infantile spasms using vigabatrin and ACTH - a developing country perspective

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Infantile spasms represent a serious epileptic syndrome that occurs in the early infantile age. ACTH and Vigabatrin are actively investigated drugs in its treatment. This study describes the comparison of their efficacy in a large series of patients with infantile spasms from Pakistan. Methods All patients with infantile spasms who presented to Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan from January, 2006 to April, 2008 were included in this study. Inclusion criteria were clinical symptoms of infantile spasms, hypsarrythmia or modified hyparrythmia on electroencephalography, at least six months of follow-up period and receipt of any of the two drugs mentioned above. The type of drug distribution was random according to the availability, cost and ease of administration. Results Fifty six cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria. 62.5% were males. Mean age at onset of seizures was 5 1.4 months. Fifty two (92.8%) patients demonstrated hypsarrythmia on electroencephalography. 64.3% cases were identified as symptomatic while 19.6% were cryptogenic and 16.1% were idiopathic. Eighteen patients received ACTH while 38 patients received Vigabatrin as first line therapy. Initial response to first line therapy was similar (50% for ACTH and 55.3% for Vigabatrin). Overall, the symptomatic and idiopathic groups responded better to Vigabatrin. The relapse rate was higher for ACTH as compared to Vigabatrin (55.5% vs. 33.3%) when considering the first line therapy. Four patients evolved to Lennox-Gastaut variant; all of these patients had initially received Vigabatrin and then ACTH. Conclusion Vigabatrin and ACTH showed no significant difference in the initial treatment of infantile spasms. However, patients receiving ACTH were 1.2 times more likely to relapse as compared to the patients receiving Vigabatrin when considering monotherapy. We suggest that Vigabatrin should be the initial drug of choice in patients presenting with infantile spasms. However, larger studies from developing countries are required to validate the therapeutic trends observed in this study. PMID:20078871

  16. Efficacy of thiocolchicoside in Indian patients suffering from low back pain associated with muscle spasm.

    PubMed

    Soonawalla, Darius F; Joshi, Niteen

    2008-05-01

    Low back pain (LBP), a high prevalent condition among middle aged population, is usually associated with 'muscle spasm' that is responsible for giving rise to pain as well as its persistence. Muscle spasm is an involuntary, painful contraction of muscles that interferes with the function and cause of muscular disorder. Therefore centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxants, also called lissive drugs, are commonly used for its treatment. Sometimes these are combined with NSAIDs. The use of centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxants, though efficacious, is associated with frequent development of dose-related adverse drug reactions like sedation, impairment of voluntary motor functions and ataxia. So there is an urgent need for newer better drugs for treatment of conditions associated with muscle spasm. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of oral thiocolchicoside (TC), a natural glycoside as compared to an adrenergic alpha 2 agonist tizanidine (TZ) in the Indian patients with LBP accompanied by muscle spasm. In this randomised, non-cross over clinical study, 60 adult Indians aged between 18 and 65 years with clinical diagnosis of muscle spasm associated with low back pain were enrolled. Patients satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were either treated with TC and TZ for one week duration. Visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain at rest and VAS for tiredness, drowsiness, dizziness and alertness was used as the self-rated primary efficacy and safety variable. Pain was also assessed by mobility assessment; muscle spasm assessment and analgesic consumption. Data obtained from 58 patients (those who completed the study) indicated that in this one week study both TC and TZ provided sustained symptoms relief compared with the baseline. There was statistically significant reduction in severity of symptoms from day 0 to day 7 in both the groups. Patients were followed up on 3rd and 7th day and severity score of various parameters was recorded. There was significant difference among the treatment groups in favour of TC than TZ in efficacy parameters thus showing TC is at slightly better effective than TZ and in case of safety, TC scores significantly better over TZ in the patients with accompanying muscle spasm. These findings confirm that TC is a preferred option for the LBP with muscle spasms. PMID:18839644

  17. Use of fillers as adjunct therapy for the treatment of lower face hemifacial spasm.

    PubMed

    Borodic, Gary E

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of hemifacial spasm with periorbital injections of higher doses of botulinum toxin can create disfiguring and undesirable weakness in the lower face during active facial movements. The use of asymmetric hyaluronidate filler injections to the lower face provides a refinement allowing for a lowered neurotoxin dose. The filler creates a ballasting effect and involuntary facial movement. The conventional filler effect also further reduces asymmetric nasolabial folds and marionette lines. Fifteen of 18 patients with lower facial spasms found the filler toxin combination an improvement over neurotoxin alone. PMID:23559346

  18. Painful tonic spasms and brainstem involvement in a patient with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Roman-Filip, Corina; Ungureanu, Aurelian; Cernu?c?-Mi?aru, Mihaela

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory-demyelinating disease of the central nervous system classically characterized by optic neuritis and severe myelitis. New diagnostic criteria defined neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder as limited forms of NMO or diverse neurologic presentations in the presence of specific antiaquaporin-4 antibodies. We report the case of a 57-year-old woman admitted in our department for recurrent attacks of optic neuritis, tetraparesis with severe painful tonic spasms of the left limbs and brainstem involvement. Painful tonic spasms have been described as movement disorders associated with multiple sclerosis, but a growing number of reports describe them in cases of NMO. PMID:26851692

  19. Bilateral reversible basal ganglia changes associated with dystonia and hemifacial spasms in central nervous system lupus

    PubMed Central

    Christodoulou, Loucas; Siddiqui, Ata; D’Cruz, David; Andrews, Thomasin

    2015-01-01

    We report a 40-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and associated inflammatory polyarthritis who presented with acute facial dystonic spasms. Her speech was also affected. An MRI brain showed bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia signal change on T2. This movement disorder was due to an acute manifestation of her lupus. Her symptoms resolved rapidly following treatment with (oral) steroids. Repeat MRI brain at 1 month showed complete resolution of the basal ganglia signal change. This is the first time that facial spasms and dystonia with corresponding MRI changes are reported as a presentation of lupus affecting the central nervous system (CNS lupus). PMID:26807375

  20. Coronary accordion effect mimicking coronary dissection

    PubMed Central

    Balli, Mehmet; Akilli, Rabia Eker; Tekin, Kamuran; Cayli, Murat

    2013-01-01

    The coronary “accordion” effect is a rare pseudo-complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). It is usually observed due to straightening and shortening of tortuous vessels with stiff guidewires during PCI. In this case report, we present an interesting case of the coronary accordion effect observed in a 52-year-old woman undergoing PCI. PMID:24570759

  1. Mitral annular calcium, inducible myocardial ischemia, and cardiovascular events in outpatients with coronary heart disease (from the Heart and Soul Study).

    PubMed

    Holtz, Jonathan E; Upadhyaya, Deepa S; Cohen, Beth E; Na, Beeya; Schiller, Nelson B; Whooley, Mary A

    2012-04-15

    We sought to determine whether mitral annular calcium (MAC) is associated with inducible myocardial ischemia and adverse cardiovascular outcomes in ambulatory patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). MAC is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population, but its association with CVD outcomes in patients with CAD has not been evaluated. We examined the association of MAC with inducible ischemia and subsequent cardiovascular events in 1,020 ambulatory patients with CAD who were enrolled in the Heart and Soul Study. We used logistic regression to determine the association of MAC with inducible ischemia and Cox proportional hazards models to determine the association with CVD events (myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, transient ischemic attack or death). Models were adjusted for age, gender, race, smoking, history of heart failure, blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Of the 1,020 participants 192 (19%) had MAC. Participants with MAC were more likely than those without MAC to have inducible ischemia (adjusted odds ratio 2.06, 95% confidence interval 1.41 to 3.01, p = 0.0002). During an average of 6.26 2.11 years of follow-up, there were 310 deaths, 161 hospitalizations for heart failure, 118 myocardial infarctions, and 55 cerebrovascular events. MAC was associated with an increased rate of cardiovascular events (adjusted hazard ratio 1.39, 95% confidence interval 1.08 to 1.79, p = 0.01). In conclusion, we found that MAC was associated with inducible ischemia and subsequent CVD events in ambulatory patients with CAD. MAC may indicate a high atherosclerotic burden and identify patients at increased risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:22245404

  2. Functional Electrical Stimulation as a Safe and Effective Treatment for Equine Epaxial Muscle Spasms: Clinical Evaluations and Histochemical Morphometry of Mitochondria in Muscle Biopsies.

    PubMed

    Ravara, Barbara; Gobbo, Valerio; Carraro, Ugo; Gelbmann, Lin; Pribyl, Jamie; Schils, Sheila

    2015-03-11

    Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) has been used extensively over several decades to reverse muscle atrophy during rehabilitation for spinal cord injury patients. The benefits of the technology are being expanded into other areas, and FES has been recently utilized for injury rehabilitation and performance enhancement in horses. Six retired horses (age from 10 to 17 yrs) that had been previously used mainly for dressage riding were selected for this study. Clinical evaluation found epaxial muscle spasms in all horses with minimal to no pelvic extension when manually palpated. FES treatments were performed on the sacral/lumbar region 3 times per week for a period of 8 weeks, obtaining a total of 22 treatments per horse. The Modified Ashworth Scale for grading muscle spasms found a one grade improvement after approximately four FES treatments, indicating improved functional movement of the sacral/lumbar region, supporting the evidence by clinical palpations that a reduction in epaxial muscle spasms occurred. Skeletal muscle biopsies Pre and Post FES treatments were obtained from the longissimus lumborum muscle. Cryosections were stained with a Hemotoxylin-Eosin (H-E), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide tetrazolium reductase reaction (NADH-TR). The eventual size change of the muscle fibers were evaluated by morphometry in the H-E and NADH-TR stained cryosections, while in the NADH-TR slides the histochemical density and distribution of mitochondria were also determined. The main results of the morphometric analyses were: 1) As expected for the type of FES treatment used in this study, only a couple of horses showed significant increases in mean muscle fiber size when Pre- vs Post-FES biopsies were compared; 2) In the older horses, there were sparse (or many in one horse) very atrophic and angulated muscle fibers in both Pre- and Post-FES samples, whose attributes and distribution suggests that they were denervated due to a distal neuropathy; 3) The hypothesis of generalized FES-induced muscle fiber damage during epaxial muscle training is not supported by our data since: 3.1) Denervated muscle fibers were also present in the Pre-FES biopsies and 3.2) Only one horse presented with several long-term denervated muscles fibers Post-FES; 4) Preliminary data indicate an increased density and distribution of mitochondria in Post-FES biopsies, suggesting that the clinical improvements in the FES treated horses may be related to daily increased muscle contraction and perfusion induced by FES training. In conclusion, FES in horses is a safe treatment that provides clinical improvements in equine epaxial muscle spasms. PMID:26913151

  3. Functional Electrical Stimulation as a Safe and Effective Treatment for Equine Epaxial Muscle Spasms: Clinical Evaluations and Histochemical Morphometry of Mitochondria in Muscle Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Ravara, Barbara; Gobbo, Valerio; Carraro, Ugo; Gelbmann, Lin; Pribyl, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) has been used extensively over several decades to reverse muscle atrophy during rehabilitation for spinal cord injury patients. The benefits of the technology are being expanded into other areas, and FES has been recently utilized for injury rehabilitation and performance enhancement in horses. Six retired horses (age from 10 to 17 yrs) that had been previously used mainly for dressage riding were selected for this study. Clinical evaluation found epaxial muscle spasms in all horses with minimal to no pelvic extension when manually palpated. FES treatments were performed on the sacral/lumbar region 3 times per week for a period of 8 weeks, obtaining a total of 22 treatments per horse. The Modified Ashworth Scale for grading muscle spasms found a one grade improvement after approximately four FES treatments, indicating improved functional movement of the sacral/lumbar region, supporting the evidence by clinical palpations that a reduction in epaxial muscle spasms occurred. Skeletal muscle biopsies Pre and Post FES treatments were obtained from the longissimus lumborum muscle. Cryosections were stained with a Hemotoxylin-Eosin (H-E), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide tetrazolium reductase reaction (NADH-TR). The eventual size change of the muscle fibers were evaluated by morphometry in the H-E and NADH-TR stained cryosections, while in the NADH-TR slides the histochemical density and distribution of mitochondria were also determined. The main results of the morphometric analyses were: 1) As expected for the type of FES treatment used in this study, only a couple of horses showed significant increases in mean muscle fiber size when Pre- vs Post-FES biopsies were compared; 2) In the older horses, there were sparse (or many in one horse) very atrophic and angulated muscle fibers in both Pre- and Post-FES samples, whose attributes and distribution suggests that they were denervated due to a distal neuropathy; 3) The hypothesis of generalized FES-induced muscle fiber damage during epaxial muscle training is not supported by our data since: 3.1) Denervated muscle fibers were also present in the Pre-FES biopsies and 3.2) Only one horse presented with several long-term denervated muscles fibers Post-FES; 4) Preliminary data indicate an increased density and distribution of mitochondria in Post-FES biopsies, suggesting that the clinical improvements in the FES treated horses may be related to daily increased muscle contraction and perfusion induced by FES training. In conclusion, FES in horses is a safe treatment that provides clinical improvements in equine epaxial muscle spasms. PMID:26913151

  4. Infantile spasms and 15q11.2q13.1 chromosome duplication in two successive generations.

    PubMed

    Riikonen, Raili Sylvia; Wallden, Tiina; Kokkonen, Hannaleena

    2016-01-01

    Familial cases of West syndrome have been reported only in Japan. In that study no chromosomal analyses were made. It has been suggested that microarray analysis should be included in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with infantile spasms and developmental delay, when an evaluation for structural brain lesions and metabolic disorders reveal no abnormal findings. We report here the first case of infantile spasms and 15q11.2q13.1 chromosome duplication in two successive generations. The daughter and mother with infantile spasms, and the autistic son had the duplication. The clinical course of infantile spasms was very similar in the mother and daughter. The spasms were primarily considered to be of unknown aetiology. Chromosomal microarray analysis revealed a 6.2Mb size 15q11.2q13.1 duplication. The duplication belongs to the 15q11q13 duplication syndrome (OMIM 608636) which when maternally derived is characterised by neuro-behavioural disorders like autism, hypotonia, cognitive deficit, language delay and epilepsy. The proportion of patients with unknown aetiology for infantile spasms will decrease when more careful chromosomal studies are made. Our report expands the phenotype of chromosome 15q duplication syndrome and is the first report of this abnormality in two successive generations of infantile spasms. PMID:26685108

  5. Massive expansion of SCA2 with autonomic dysfunction, retinitis pigmentosa, and infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    Shafrir, Y.; Hrivnak, J.; Patterson, M.C.; Tennison, M.B.; Clark, H.B.; Gomez, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide clinical data on a cohort of 6 patients with massive expansion (>200 CAG repeats) of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) and investigate possible pathways of pathogenesis using bioinformatics analysis of ATXN2 networks. Methods: We present data on 6 patients with massive expansion of SCA2 who presented in infancy with variable combinations of hypotonia, global developmental delay, infantile spasms, and retinitis pigmentosa. ATXN2 is known to interact with a network of synaptic proteins. To investigate pathways of pathogenesis, we performed bioinformatics analysis on ATXN2 combined with known genes associated with infantile spasms, retinitis pigmentosa, and synaptic function. Results: All patients had a progressive encephalopathy with autonomic dysfunction, 4 had retinitis pigmentosa, and 3 had infantile spasms. The bioinformatics analysis led to several interesting findings. First, an interaction between ATXN2 and SYNJ1 may account for the development of retinitis pigmentosa. Second, dysfunction of postsynaptic vesicle endocytosis may be important in children with this progressive encephalopathy. Infantile spasms may be associated with interactions between ATXN2 and the postsynaptic structural proteins MAGI2 and SPTAN1. Conclusions: Severe phenotype in children with massive expansion of SCA2 may be due to a functional deficit in protein networks in the postsynapse, specifically involving vesicle endocytosis. PMID:21880993

  6. Randomised Clinical Efficacy Trial of Topiramate and Nitrazepam in Treatment of Infantile Spasms

    PubMed Central

    FALLAH, Razieh; SALOR, Fahimah; AKHAVAN KARBASI, Sedighah; MOTAGHIPISHEH, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Infantile spasms (IS) are among the most catastrophic epileptic syndromes of infancy. The purpose of this study was to compare efficacy and safety of topiramate (TPM) and nitrazepam (NZP) as first-line drugs in the treatment of IS. Materials & Methods In a parallel single-blinded randomized clinical trial, 50 patients with IS referred to Pediatric Neurology Clinic of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran, were evaluated from September 2008 to March 2010. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups to be treated with TPM or with NZP for 6 months. The primary endpoint was efficacy in cessation of all spasms or reduction of more than 50% in weekly seizure frequency, which was evaluated before and 6 months after the drug use. Secondary outcome was clinical sideeffects of the drugs. Results Twenty boys (40%) and 30 girls (60%) with the mean age of 9.43.8 months were evaluated. Cessation of all spasms occurred in 12 (48%) infants in TPM group and 4(16%) in NZP group. Eight (32%) children in TPM group and 7 (28%) in NZP group had more than 50% reduction in spasms frequency. So, TPM was more effective. Side effects were seen in 32% of TPM and in 36% of NZP groups. Conclusion Topiramate is an effective and safe drug, which might be considered as the firstline drug for the treatment of ISs. PMID:24665322

  7. Optimizing Care With a Standardized Management Protocol for Patients With Infantile Spasms.

    PubMed

    Fedak, Erin M; Patel, Anup D; Heyer, Geoffrey L; Wood, Eric G; Mytinger, John R

    2015-09-01

    The primary aim of this quality improvement initiative was to increase the number of patients receiving first-line therapy (adrenocorticotropic hormone, corticosteroids, vigabatrin) as the initial treatment for infantile spasms. We implemented a standardized management protocol for infantile spasms based on the best available data and expert consensus. To assess the impact of this intervention, we compared the 3-month remission rates between prestandardization (January 2009 to August 2012) and poststandardization (September 2012 to May 2014) cohorts. We found that the percentage of patients receiving first-line therapy as the initial treatment was 57% (31/54) in the prestandardization cohort and 100% (35/35) in the poststandardization cohort (P < .001). The rate of infantile spasms remission was higher poststandardization compared to prestandardization (78.8% vs 30.6%, P < .001). Management standardization led to all patients receiving first-line therapy as the initial treatment and was associated with a significantly improved rate of infantile spasms remission 3 months after diagnosis. PMID:25535057

  8. Treatment of infantile spasms with very high dose prednisolone before high dose ACTH

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Shaun A.; Shinnar, Shlomo; Kwong, Grace; Lerner, Jason T.; Matsumoto, Joyce H.; Wu, Joyce Y.; Shields, W. Donald; Sankar, Raman

    2013-01-01

    Summary Objective This study investigated the short-term response to a standardized hormonal therapy protocol for treatment of infantile spasms. Methods Twenty-seven children with video-EEG confirmed infantile spasms received very high dose (8 mg/kg/day, max 60 mg/day) oral prednisolone for 2 weeks. Response (absence of both hypsarrhythmia and spasms) to prednisolone was ascertained by repeat overnight video-EEG. Responders were tapered off over 2 weeks and non-responders were immediately transitioned to high dose (150 IU/m2/day) intramuscular ACTH for 2 additional weeks. Response was again determined by overnight video-EEG after ACTH therapy. Results Sixty-three percent (17/27) of patients responded completely to prednisolone. Subsequently, 40% (4/10) of prednisolone non-responders exhibited a complete response after an additional 2-week course with ACTH. Among 27 subjects with median follow-up of 13.5 months (interquartile range 4.8-25.9), 12% (2/17) of prednisolone responders and 50% (2/4) of ACTH responders experienced a relapse between 2 and 9 months after initial response. Significance Very high dose prednisolone demonstrated significantly higher efficacy than previously reported for lower doses in prior studies. High dose ACTH may be superior to very high dose prednisolone, and in lieu of a definitive clinical trial, the choice between prednisolone and ACTH for initial treatment of infantile spasms remains controversial. PMID:24446954

  9. Reduced Visual Function Associated with Infantile Spasms in Children on Vigabatrin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hammoudi, Dena S.; Lee, Sophia S. F.; Madison, Adena; Mirabella, Giuseppe; Buncic, J. Raymond; Logan, William J.; Snead, O. Carter; Westall, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To use visual evoked potential (VEP) testing to determine whether visual deficits are present in children with a history of vigabatrin use. Methods Contrast sensitivity and visual acuity were assessed by visual evoked potential testing and compared between 28 children (mean age, 4.90 4.92 years) with seizure disorders who had taken vigabatrin and 14 typically developing children (mean age, 3.14 1.70 years). Exclusion criteria were heritable eye disease, suspected cortical visual impairment, nystagmus, and prematurity >2 weeks. The effects of the following factors on contrast sensitivity and visual acuity were examined: type of seizure (infantile spasms versus other), ERG result, duration of vigabatrin therapy, cumulative dosage of vigabatrin, and other seizure medications (other versus no other medication). Results Contrast sensitivity and visual acuity were reduced in vigabatrin-treated children with infantile spasms compared with vigabatrin-treated children with other seizure disorders and typically developing control subjects. The other factors examined had no significant effect on contrast sensitivity or visual acuity, with adjustment for seizure type. Conclusions Children with infantile spasms on vigabatrin may have compromised visual function, even in the absence of suspected cortical visual impairment. The children tested in the present study have reduced vision, probably associated with infantile spasms rather than vigabatrin. PMID:15671276

  10. Microvascular decompression for atypical hemifacial spasm: lessons learned from a retrospective study of 12 cases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiang; Yuan, Yue; Fang, Ying; Zhang, Li; Xu, Xiao-Li; Liu, Hong-Ju; Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Yan-Bing

    2016-02-01

    OBJECT Typical hemifacial spasm (HFS) commonly initiates from the orbicularis oculi muscle to the orbicularis oris muscle. Atypical HFS (AHFS) is different from typical HFS, in which the spasm of muscular orbicularis oris is the primary presenting symptom. The objective of this study was to analyze the sites of compression and the effectiveness of microvascular decompression (MVD) for AHFS. METHODS The authors retrospectively analyzed the clinical data for 12 consecutive patients who underwent MVD for AHFS between July 2008 and July 2013. RESULTS Postoperatively, complete remission of facial spasm was found in 10 of the 12 patients, which gradually disappeared after 2 months in 2 patients. No recurrence of spasm was observed during follow-up. Immediate postoperative facial paralysis accompanied by hearing loss occurred in 1 patient and temporary hearing loss with tinnitus in 2. All 3 patients with complications had gradual improvement during the follow-up period. CONCLUSIONS The authors conclude that most cases of AHFS were caused by neurovascular compression on the posterior/rostral side of the facial nerve distal to the root entry zones. MVD is a safe treatment for AHFS, but the incidence of postoperative complications, such as facial paralysis and decrease in hearing, remains high. PMID:26339846

  11. Capecitabine-induced coronary artery vasospasm in a patient who previously experienced a similar episode with fluorouracil therapy.

    PubMed

    Karakulak, U?ur Nadir; Alada?, Elifcan; Maharjan, Naresh; vn, Kenan

    2016-01-01

    Capecitabine is a chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of metastatic colon cancer and metastatic breast cancer. It is metabolized into fluorouracil (5-FU) in the liver; hence, its mechanism of action is similar to that of 5-FU. Cardiac toxicity, although rarely seen, may be of concern in some patients. Although multiple hypotheses have been proposed for the mechanism of cardiotoxicity, coronary vasospasm is the most commonly accepted one, as patients usually present with chest pain resembling acute myocardial infarction. Electrocardiography may demonstrate ST-segment elevation, and cardiac biomarkers may be elevated. Cardiotoxicity with 5-FU has been reported widely. Capecitabine has been shown to be much less cardiotoxic compared to 5-FU, with only a handful of cases reporting cardiotoxicity with capecitabine. There are no cases reporting cardiotoxicity with both 5-FU and capecitabine in the same patient. In this case report, we present a patient with adverse cardiac effect with capecitabine whose previous 5-FU therapy was stopped due to cardiotoxicity. PMID:26875134

  12. Arrhythmia and acute coronary syndrome suppression and cardiac resuscitation management with bretylium.

    PubMed

    Bacaner, Marvin; Dembo, Donald H

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that electric shock can both initiate and terminate ventricular fibrillation. Refractory ventricular fibrillation (RVF) may often be an iatrogenic paradoxical result of early, frequent, excessive salvos of DC current countershocks and inappropriate off-label drug use, particularly aggressive epinephrine administration. Evidence suggests that the current advanced cardiac life support pharmacology protocol for cardiac resuscitation may contribute to disappointing survival in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Controlled studies and new theoretical consideration suggest the protocol may induce RVF. In contrast, studies suggest that immediate adequate intravenous bretylium administration therapy together with sustained effective chest compressions can induce chemical defibrillation or facilitate electrical defibrillation as well as reduce the intensity, or even need for potentially heart-damaging countershock, where early frequent excessive current shocks are likely to increase refractory arrhythmia as demonstrated in animals and in humans. Salvos of shocks do not allow time between shocks for uniform recovery of normal electrical parameters needed to restore a stable heart rhythm. This may occur by inadvertently administering shock during the vulnerable period of the cardiac cycle. There are compelling existing data to demonstrate that bretylium and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) delivered before initiating shock therapy is likely to provide the best outcome in cardiac arrest. But, most importantly, adequate CPR chest compressions administered while bretylium is being infused also provide the opportunity to wash out electrically destabilizing electrolytes that have leaked from or are abnormally transported by functionally damaged membranes of fibrillation-induced ischemic myocytes. This may cause abnormal compartment redistribution of electrolytes that may facilitate RVF by heterogeneously partially depolarizing ischemic myocytes. Although efforts have been made to provide hard science for advanced life support, the guidelines are a product of consensus, the give and take of collegiality and intuition rather than rigorous controlled studies. Bretylium has a direct antifibrillatory action normalizing myocyte membrane currents, which restores intracompartmental normal electrolyte balance. In addition, adrenergic blockade by bretylium dilates coronary arteries, increasing effective O2 delivery by CPR. The free and aggressive use of epinephrine is toxic. Catechalomines cause coronary spasm and puts myocardial metabolism into damaging hypermetabolic overdrive to support the "fight or flight reflex" rapidly depleting adenosine triphosphate needed for cardiac electrical and mechanical recovery. Moreover, the value of epinephrine to resuscitation has never been demonstrated in a controlled human study, whereas its potential damage has been largely ignored. Epinephrine's potential deleterious actions that might compromise resuscitation are well established and reviewed here. PMID:19542875

  13. Prenatal corticosteroids modify glutamatergic and GABAergic synapse genomic fabric: insights from a novel animal model of infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Iacobas, D A; Iacobas, S; Chachua, T; Goletiani, C; Sidyelyeva, G; Velkov, J; Velek, L

    2013-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to corticosteroids has long-term postnatal somatic and neurodevelopmental consequences. Animal studies indicate that corticosteroid exposure-associated alterations in the nervous system include hypothalamic function. Infants with infantile spasms, a devastating epileptic syndrome of infancy with characteristic spastic seizures, chaotic irregular waves on interictal electroencephalogram (hypsarhythmia) and mental deterioration, have decreased concentrations of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol in cerebrospinal fluid, strongly suggesting hypothalamic dysfunction. We have exploited this feature to develop a model of human infantile spasms by using repeated prenatal exposure to betamethasone and a postnatal trigger of developmentally relevant spasms with NMDA. The spasms triggered in prenatally primed rats are more severe compared to prenatally saline-injected ones and respond to ACTH, a treatment of choice for infantile spasms in humans. Using autoradiography and immunohistochemistry, we have identified a link between the spasms in our model and the hypothalamus, especially the arcuate nucleus. Transcriptomic analysis of the arcuate nucleus after prenatal priming with betamethasone but before trigger of spasms indicates that prenatal betamethasone exposure down-regulates genes encoding several important proteins participating in glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission. Interestingly, there were significant sex-specific alterations after prenatal betamethasone in synapse-related gene expression but no such sex differences were found in prenatally saline-injected controls. A pairwise relevance analysis revealed that, although the synapse gene expression in controls was independent of sex, these genes form topologically distinct gene fabrics in males and females and these fabrics are altered by betamethasone in a sex-specific manner. These findings may explain the sex differences with respect to both normal behaviour and the occurrence and severity of infantile spasms. Changes in transcript expression and their coordination may contribute to a molecular substrate of permanent neurodevelopmental changes (including infantile spasms) found after prenatal exposure to corticosteroids. PMID:23763471

  14. Prenatal corticosteroids modify glutamatergic and GABAergic synapse genomic fabric: Insights from a novel animal model of infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    Iacobas, D.A.; Iacobas, S.; Chachua, T.; Goletiani, C.; Sidyelyeva, G.; Velíšková, J.; Velíšek, L.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Prenatal exposure to corticosteroids has long-term postnatal somatic and neurodevelopmental consequences. Animal studies indicate that corticosteroid exposure-associated alterations in the nervous system include hypothalamic function. Infants with infantile spasms, a devastating epileptic syndrome of infancy with characteristic spastic seizures, chaotic irregular waves on interictal electroencephalogram (EEG; hypsarhythmia) and mental deterioration, have decreased concentrations of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol in cerebrospinal fluid strongly suggesting hypothalamic dysfunction. We have exploited this feature to develop a model of human infantile spasms by using repeated prenatal exposure to betamethasone and postnatal trigger of developmentally relevant spasms with N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA). The spasms triggered in prenatally primed rats are more severe compared to prenatally saline-injected ones and respond to ACTH, a treatment of choice for infantile spasms in humans. Using autoradiography and immunohistochemistry, we have identified a link between the spasms in our model and hypothalamus, especially the arcuate nucleus. Transcriptomic analysis of the arcuate nucleus after prenatal priming with betamethasone but before trigger of spasms indicates that prenatal betamethasone exposure down-regulates genes encoding several important proteins participating in glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission. Interestingly, there were significant sex-specific alterations after prenatal betamethasone in synapse-related gene expression but no such sex differences were found in prenatally saline-injected controls. A pair-wise relevance analysis revealed that, although the synapse gene expression in controls was independent of sex, these genes form topologically distinct gene fabrics in males and females and these fabrics are altered by betamethasone in a sex-specific manner. These findings may explain the sex differences in both normal behaviour and occurrence and severity of infantile spasms. Changes in transcript expression and their coordination may contribute to a molecular substrate of permanent neurodevelopmental changes (including infantile spasms) found after prenatal exposure to corticosteroids. PMID:23763471

  15. Hemifacial spasm: a long term follow-up of patients treated by posterior fossa surgery and facial nerve wrapping.

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, A H; Adams, C B

    1981-01-01

    Sixteen patients with hemifacial spasm were treated by posterior fossa surgery and wrapping of sponge around their facial nerve. A good or excellent result has been obtained in fourteen of the sixteen cases, and in seven cases followed by four years or longer. Two patients had a mild recurrence of their hemifacial spasm after a cessation of their spasm for eighteen months and two years following surgery. Contrary to the experience of other authors a definite vascular abnormality was found in only four cases. In the other twelve cases circumferential fibrosis about the nerve is again proposed as a mechanism for the effectiveness of the procedure. PMID:7334404

  16. Stress, coronary disease, and coronary death.

    PubMed

    Siltanen, P

    1987-01-01

    Evidence of a positive association between cardiovascular illness and psychological stress presented in the literature is generally not totally convincing, which in part is due to methodological problems in defining and measuring psychophysiological and psychosocial variables. However, both reports in the literature and the clinical experience of most physicians present numerous examples of sudden, unexpected cardiac death, in which the event in all probability has been either induced or hastened by stressful life experiences. This applies to fatal and non fatal cardiac attacks, since both are often preceded by emotional stress. There is pathoanatomical evidence of specific myocardial damage induced by catecholamine release during stressful emotions. Histochemical studies have revealed copious amounts of noradrenaline stored in myocardium especially in patients with ischaemic heart disease. Epidemiological surveys on the relationships between life-stress and coronary mortality and morbidity have demonstrated certain positive associations in many cross-sectional studies as well as in certain prospective studies. Most positive evidence has been accumulated from studies on the influence of loneliness on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Animal experiments have demonstrated repeatedly that psychological stress evoked by aversive sensoric stimuli or unsuccessful social striving induce cardiovascular pathology including myocardial damage, hypertension, vascular changes and increased risk of sudden cardiac death. PMID:2889418

  17. Nitric oxide activity in the human coronary circulation. Impact of risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Quyyumi, A A; Dakak, N; Andrews, N P; Husain, S; Arora, S; Gilligan, D M; Panza, J A; Cannon, R O

    1995-01-01

    The bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) in the human coronary circulation at rest and after acetylcholine (ACH)-induced vasodilation was investigated in 32 patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries. The effects of intracoronary L-NG monomethyl arginine (L-NMMA) were investigated at rest and after ACH, sodium nitroprusside, and adenosine. L-NMMA (64 mumol/min) increased resting coronary vascular resistance by 22% (P < 0.001), reduced distal epicardial coronary artery diameter by 12.6% (P < 0.001), and inhibited ACH-induced coronary epicardial and microvascular vasodilation. These effects were reversed with intracoronary L-arginine. L-NMMA did not inhibit dilation in response to sodium nitroprusside and adenosine. 23 patients were exposed to one or more coronary risk factors. The vasoconstrictor effect of L-NMMA on the epicardial and microvessels was greater in patients free of risk factors: Coronary vascular resistance was 36% higher in patients without risks, compared to 17% higher in patients with risks (P < 0.05). Both epicardial and microvascular dilator effects of ACH were greater in patients without risk factors, and the inhibition of these effects by L-NMMA was also greater in patients without risk factors. Thus: (a) NO contributes importantly to resting epicardial and coronary microvascular tone, (b) coronary vascular dilation in response to ACH is predominantly due to increased production of NO, and (c) despite the absence of angiographic evidence of atherosclerosis, exposure to coronary risk factors is associated with reduced resting and stimulated bioavailability of NO from the human coronary circulation. PMID:7706483

  18. [Coronary artery aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Russo, Alessandra; Favero, Luca; Sacc, Salvatore; Caico, Salvatore Ivan; Cernetti, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery aneurysms are defined as coronary dilations as greater than 1.5 times the largest diameter of the adjacent coronary segment. They are a relatively rare finding on coronary angiography, with prevalence ranging from 0.3% to 5% depending on case series. The identification of a coronary artery aneurysm is often a dilemma for both the clinician and the interventionist in terms of diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. This review summarizes the etiologic, pathogenetic, clinical and therapeutic aspects of coronary artery aneurysms in the light of the latest research on this topic. PMID:26228610

  19. Prevention of experimental coronary thrombosis by hirudin.

    PubMed

    Bucha, E; Nowak, G; Markwardt, F

    1988-01-01

    The antithrombotic activity of hirudin was studied in a rat coronary thrombosis model. The thrombus formation was induced by external application of silver nitrate solution onto the left anterior descending coronary artery. Following subcutaneous injection, hirudin in doses of 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg reduced the development of coronary thrombosis in a dose-dependent manner. The most pronounced antithrombotic effect of hirudin in the described model was related with plasma concentrations between 0.20 and 0.35 microgram hirudin/ml. PMID:2459032

  20. Assessment of Inducible Myocardial Ischemia, Quality of Life, and Functional Status After Successful Percutaneous Revascularization in Patients With Chronic Total Coronary Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Rossello, Xavier; Pujadas, Sandra; Serra, Antoni; Bajo, Ester; Carreras, Francesc; Barros, Antonio; Cinca, Juan; Pons-Lladó, Guillermo; Vaquerizo, Beatriz

    2016-03-01

    The benefits of chronic total coronary occlusion (CTO) revascularization are not well established. In this prospective cohort study, 47 consecutive patients with successful percutaneous recanalization of CTO underwent adenosine stress cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), 6-minute walk test (6MWT), and the Short Form-36 Health Survey before and 6 months after the procedure. Successful recanalization of a CTO was followed by significant improvement of (1) global physical and mental health status; (2) the distance walked in the 6MWT; (3) the incidence of chest pain at the end of the 6MWT; and (4) the score of a novel CMR ischemic burden index on the basis of the characteristics of adenosine stress perfusion defects (extension, persistence, transmurality, and induced contractile regional dysfunction). Patients with greater CMR ischemic index before percutaneous revascularization showed better improvement in the 6MWT. In conclusion, successful recanalization of a CTO leads to a concurrent improvement in ischemic burden, exercise tolerance, angina frequency, and quality of life scores. Patients with a high ischemic CMR score before CTO recanalization showed the better improvement in exercise tolerance. PMID:26747733

  1. [Coronary endothelial dysfunction in hypertension].

    PubMed

    Antony, I; Nitenberg, A

    1997-11-01

    Intracoronary injection of acetylcholine leads to coronary vasodilatation in normal subjects and vasoconstriction in hypertensive subjects, suggesting an abnormality of endothelial function in hypertension. In order to study the response to physiological stimulation which induces endothelium-dependent vasodilatation, the effects of sympathetic stimulation (cold pressor test) and of the increase in flow velocity in the left anterior descending artery were analysed in 10 control and 26 hypertensive subjects. All had angiographically normal coronary arteries and normal lipid profiles. None of the subjects were smokers or diabetic. During the cold test (12 patients), the flow velocity increased by 47 +/- 26% (p < 0.05) in controls and by 68 +/- 48% (p < 0.01) in the hypertensives. Dilatation of the coronary arteries was observed in controls (+12.0 +/- 4.5%, p < 0.001) and constriction in the hypertensives (-10.3 +/- 8.5%, p < 0.001). Injection of papaverine in the distal left anterior descending artery (14 patients) induced proximal dilatation in controls (+17.0 +/- 10.6%, p < 0.001) and was ineffective in hypertensives (-0.4 +/- 1.5%), whereas the flow velocity increased by 521 +/- 129% and 406 +/- 120% (p < 0.001) respectively. Intracoronary injection of 2 mg of isosorbide dinitrate induced comparable dilatation in control subjects (+30.0 +/- 12.9%, p < 0.001) and in the 26 hypertensives (+22.8 +/- 6.5%, p < 0.001). In 10 hypertensive patients, intravenous injection of an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, perindoprilat, immediately re-established the vasodilatory response to these two stimuli. The authors conclude that the coronary responses to physiological stimuli (sympathetic stimulation, increase in flow velocity) are altered in hypertensive subjects with angiographically normal coronary arteries with no other risk factors. Normal vasomotion may be restored by an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. PMID:9515110

  2. The Effect of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Blockade Medications on Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhijun; Zhang, Huan; Jin, Wei; Liu, Yan; Lu, Lin; Chen, Qiujing; Zhang, Ruiyan

    2015-01-01

    Background Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is the main complication of contrast media administration (CM) in patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). There are inconsistent results in the literature regarding the effect of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockers (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors [ACEIs] and angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]) on CIN. We evaluated the association between the administration of ACEI/ARBs and CIN, as well as the effect of ACEI/ARBs on post-procedural changes in renal function index, in patients undergoing CAG. Methods We searched Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and ClinicalTrials.gov for relevant studies. The primary search generated 893 potentially relevant articles. A total of 879 studies were excluded because they did not meet the selection criteria. Finally, 14 studies were eligible for inclusion. There were 7,288 patients that received ACEI/ARBs and 8,159 patients that received placebo or naive to ACEI/ARBs in the study. A random or a fixed effect model was used to calculate the pooled odd ratios (ORs). Results The risk of CIN was significantly increased in the ACEI/ARBs group compared to the control group (OR= 1.50, 95%CI: 1.03-2.18, P =0.03). The magnitude of association was significantly reinforced in the observational studies (OR=1.84, 95%CI 1.19-2.85, P=0.006) but not in the randomized controlled trials (OR=0.88, 95%CI 0.41-1.90 P=0.74). The summary adjusted OR of 4 observational studies was 1.56 (95%CI 1.25-1.94, P<0.0001) and was weaker than the unadjusted OR. Conclusions Although there is some evidence to suggest that the administration of RAAS blockers was associated with the increased risk of CIN in patients undergoing CAG, the robustness of our study remains weak. The results are based on small observational studies and need further validation. PMID:26083525

  3. Continuous myocloni and tonic spasms in a 2-month-old infant with enterovirus 71 brain stem encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Yeon; Yeh, Hye-Ryun

    2015-02-01

    Brain stem encephalitis is a cardinal presentation of central nervous system involvement in enterovirus 71 infection, and manifests as myoclonus, ataxia, tremor, and autonomic dysfunction. A 2-month-old infant with enterovirus 71 brain stem encephalitis demonstrated continuous myocloni and tonic spasms. On admission, the patient's myoclonus, which mainly involved the shoulders and the arms, was considerably worse during wakefulness and occurred once or twice a minute. Several hours after admission, the myoclonic jerks steadily worsened, appeared ceaselessly every 1 to 2?seconds, and were intermixed with tonic spasms of all four extremities accompanied by crying. Video electroencephalography revealed a normal background without epileptiform discharges and no ictal electroencephalographic changes during the myoclonic jerks and tonic spasms. Complete remission was achieved without complications after completion of a 3-day immunoglobulin therapy. This case suggests that the brain stem may be a major origin site for not only myoclonus but also tonic spasm. PMID:25290724

  4. CGRP receptors mediating CGRP-, adrenomedullin- and amylin-induced relaxation in porcine coronary arteries. Characterization with Compound 1' (WO98/11128), a non-peptide antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Hasbak, Philip; Sams, Anette; Schifter, Sren; Longmore, Jenny; Edvinsson, Lars

    2001-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), amylin and adrenomedullin (AM) belong to the same family of peptides. Accumulating evidence indicate that the calcitonin (CT) receptor, the CT receptor-like receptor (CRLR) and receptor-activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) form the basis of all the receptors in this family of peptides. Using reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction the presence of mRNA sequences encoding the CRLR, RAMP1 and RAMP2 were demonstrated in porcine left anterior descending (LAD) coronary arteries, whereas porcine calcitonin (CT) receptor mRNA was not present. The partial porcine mRNA sequences shared 8292% nucleotide identity with human sequences. The human peptides ?CGRP, ?CGRP, AM and amylin induced relaxation with pEC50 values of 8.1, 8.1, 6.7 and 6.1?M respectively. The antagonistic properties of a novel non-peptide CGRP antagonist Compound 1' (WO98/11128), ?CGRP837 and the proposed AM receptor antagonist AM2252 were compared to the well-known CGRP1 receptor antagonist ?CGRP837. The ?CGRP837 and ?CGRP837 induced concentration-dependent (10?710?5?M) rightward shift of both the ?CGRP and ?CGRP concentration-response curves. ?CGRP837 (10?6?M) had the same effect as ?CGRP837 (10?6?M), but with less potent rightward shift of the concentration-response curves for ?CGRP, AM and amylin. Preincubation with Compound 1' (10?710?5?M) and AM2252 (10?6?M) had no significant antagonistic effect. In conclusion, the building blocks forming CGRP and AM receptors were present in the porcine LAD, whereas those of the amylin receptor were not. ?CGRP, ?CGRP, AM and amylin mediated vasorelaxation via the CGRP receptors. No functional response was detected to adrenomedullin via the adrenomedullin receptor. PMID:11498528

  5. ACTH TREATMENT OF INFANTILE SPASMS: MECHANISMS OF ITS EFFECTS IN MODULATION OF NEURONAL EXCITABILITY

    PubMed Central

    Brunson, K. L.; Avishai-Eliner, S.; Baram, T. Z.

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of ACTH, particularly in high doses, for rapid and complete elimination of infantile spasms (IS) has been demonstrated in prospective controlled studies. However, the mechanisms for this efficacy remain unknown. ACTH promotes the release of adrenal steroids (glucocorticoids), and most ACTH effects on the central nervous system have been attributed to activation of glucocorticoid receptors. The manner in which activation of these receptors improves IS and the basis for the enhanced therapeutic effects of ACTH compared with steroids for this disorder are the focus of this chapter. First, a possible common excitatory pathway, which is consistent with the many etiologies of IS and explains the confinement of this disorder to infancy, is proposed. This notion is based on the fact that all of the entities provoking IS activate the native stress system of the brain. This involves increased synthesis and release of the stress-activated neuropeptide, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), in limbic, seizure-prone brain regions. CRH causes severe seizures in developing experimental animals, as well as limbic neuronal injury. Steroids, given as therapy or secreted from the adrenal gland upon treatment with ACTH, decrease the production and release of CRH in certain brain regions. Second, the hypothesis that ACTH directly influences limbic neurons via the recently characterized melanocortin receptors is considered, focusing on the effects of ACTH on the expression of CRH. Experimental data showing that ACTH potently reduces CRH expression in amygdala neurons is presented. This downregulation was not abolished by experimental elimination of steroids or by blocking their receptors and was reproduced by a centrally administered ACTH fragment that does not promote steroid release. Importantly, selective blocking of melanocortin receptors prevented ACTH-induced downregulation of CRH expression, providing direct evidence for the involvement of these receptors in the mechanisms by which ACTH exerts this effect. Thus, ACTH may reduce neuronal excitability in IS by two mechanisms of action: (1) by inducing steroid release and (2) by a direct, steroid-independent action on melanocortin receptors. These combined effects may explain the robust established clinical effects of ACTH in the therapy of IS. PMID:12040892

  6. Coronary artery stents.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, A. J.; Coltart, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of coronary stents to treat the acute complications of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and to reduce the restenosis rate following this procedure is reviewed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8761499

  7. Coronary artery disease

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... heart muscle itself. Damage to or blockage of a coronary artery can result in injury to the heart. Normally, blood flows through a coronary artery unimpeded. However, a process called atherosclerosis ...

  8. Coronary artery disease (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... through these arteries is critical for the heart. Coronary artery disease usually results from the build-up of fatty material and plaque, a condition called atherosclerosis. As the coronary arteries narrow, the flow of blood to the ...

  9. Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    MedlinePLUS

    In coronary artery disease (CAD), the arteries that supply blood and oxygen to your heart muscle grow hardened and narrowed. ... these treatments don't help, you may need coronary artery bypass surgery. The surgery creates a new path ...

  10. Counseling the Coronary Patient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmler, Caryl; Semmler, Maynard

    1974-01-01

    The article discusses counseling sessions designed to a) help the coronary patient adjust to cardiovascular disease, b) diminish patient anxieties and fears, and c) educate the patient and family members on controlling risk factors to deter another coronary attack. (JS)

  11. Clinical Application of Fractional Flow Reserve-Guided Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Stable Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Valay; Agnihotri, Kanishk; Kadavath, Sabeeda; Patel, Nileshkumar J; Abbott, J Dawn

    2016-03-01

    Revascularization in stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) is indicated in patients on optimal medical therapy with angina and/or demonstrable ischemia and a significant stenosis in one or more epicardial coronary arteries. Angiography alone, however, cannot accurately determine the hemodynamic significance of coronary lesions, particularly those of intermediate stenosis severity. A lesion may appear significant on coronary angiogram but may not have functional significance. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of functionally insignificant coronary artery lesions may have serious consequences; therefore, judicious decision-making in the cardiac catheterization laboratory is indicated. For this reason, it is becoming increasingly important to show that a stenosis is capable to induce myocardial ischemia prior to intervention. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) has emerged as a useful tool for this purpose. In this review, we will briefly discuss the principle of FFR, current evidence and rationale supporting its use, and comparison with other modalities. PMID:26915010

  12. Does inhibition of coronary nitric oxide synthesis alter coronary vascular tone in normal dogs?

    PubMed

    Endo, T; Kaneko, H; Kiuchi, K; Fujita, S; Yamamoto, T; Takagi, G; Takahashi, N; Asai, K; Suzuki, I; Najima, J; Suzuki, Y; Hayakawa, H

    1996-04-01

    To examine whether endothelial nitric oxide formation contributes to the vascular tone of resistance coronary vessels in vivo, we administered NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (10 and 100 micrograms/kg/min), a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, as well as D-enantiomer into the left circumflex artery in normal dogs. Intracoronary L-NAME, which was associated with dose-related reductions in acetylcholine-induced coronary vasodilation, significantly reduced the baseline left circumflex blood flow by 6% and increased coronary vascular resistance of the left circumflex artery by 6%. D-enantiomer was ineffective in altering baseline coronary blood flow and vascular resistance of the left circumflex artery. These results indicate that continuous nitric oxide formation in the vasculature is important in the regulation of the coronary vascular tone of resistance vessels in vivo, and serves to maintain the vessels in a dilated state. PMID:8936416

  13. The coronary circulation in exercise training

    PubMed Central

    Bowles, Douglas K.; Duncker, Dirk J.

    2012-01-01

    Exercise training (EX) induces increases in coronary transport capacity through adaptations in the coronary microcirculation including increased arteriolar diameters and/or densities and changes in the vasomotor reactivity of coronary resistance arteries. In large animals, EX increases capillary exchange capacity through angiogenesis of new capillaries at a rate matched to EX-induced cardiac hypertrophy so that capillary density remains normal. However, after EX coronary capillary exchange area is greater (i.e., capillary permeability surface area product is greater) at any given blood flow because of altered coronary vascular resistance and matching of exchange surface area and blood flow distribution. The improved coronary capillary blood flow distribution appears to be the result of structural changes in the coronary tree and alterations in vasoreactivity of coronary resistance arteries. EX also alters vasomotor reactivity of conduit coronary arteries in that after EX, α-adrenergic receptor responsiveness is blunted. Of interest, α- and β-adrenergic tone appears to be maintained in the coronary microcirculation in the presence of lower circulating catecholamine levels because of increased receptor responsiveness to adrenergic stimulation. EX also alters other vasomotor control processes of coronary resistance vessels. For example, coronary arterioles exhibit increased myogenic tone after EX, likely because of a calcium-dependent PKC signaling-mediated alteration in voltage-gated calcium channel activity in response to stretch. Conversely, EX augments endothelium-dependent vasodilation throughout the coronary arteriolar network and in the conduit arteries in coronary artery disease (CAD). The enhanced endothelium-dependent dilation appears to result from increased nitric oxide bioavailability because of changes in nitric oxide synthase expression/activity and decreased oxidant stress. EX also decreases extravascular compressive forces in the myocardium at rest and at comparable levels of exercise, mainly because of decreases in heart rate and duration of systole. EX does not stimulate growth of coronary collateral vessels in the normal heart. However, if exercise produces ischemia, which would be absent or minimal under resting conditions, there is evidence that collateral growth can be enhanced. While there is evidence that EX can decrease the progression of atherosclerotic lesions or even induce the regression of atherosclerotic lesions in humans, the evidence of this is not strong due to the fact that most prospective trials conducted to date have included other lifestyle changes and treatment strategies by necessity. The literature from large animal models of CAD also presents a cloudy picture concerning whether EX can induce the regression of or slow the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Thus, while evidence from research using humans with CAD and animal models of CAD indicates that EX increases endothelium-dependent dilation throughout the coronary vascular tree, evidence that EX reverses or slows the progression of lesion development in CAD is not conclusive at this time. This suggests that the beneficial effects of EX in CAD may not be the result of direct effects on the coronary artery wall. If this suggestion is true, it is important to determine the mechanisms involved in these beneficial effects. PMID:21984538

  14. [Cannabis and acute coronary syndrome with ST segment elevation].

    PubMed

    Ghannem, M; Belhadj, I; Tritar, A; Moukala, T; Amri, N; Noury, A; Zaghdoudi, M

    2013-12-01

    Cannabis is the most common substance of drug abuse in the world and has euphoric and hallucinogenic effects. Its cardiovascular effects are well-known. However, there is limited information concerning cannabis-induced acute coronary syndrome and the exact contribution of cannabis smoking to coronary artery disease. We report and discuss a case of ST-Elevation acute coronary syndrome occurring in a young patient aged 24 years, who was a heavy cannabis smoker. PMID:24182845

  15. Coronary venous oximetry using MRI.

    PubMed

    Foltz, W D; Merchant, N; Downar, E; Stainsby, J A; Wright, G A

    1999-11-01

    Based on the Fick law, coronary venous blood oxygen measurements have value for assessing functional parameters such as the coronary flow reserve. At present, the application of this measure is restricted by its invasive nature. This report describes the design and testing of a noninvasive coronary venous blood oxygen measurement using MRI, with a preliminary focus on the coronary sinus. After design optimization including a four-coil phased array and an optimal set of data acquisition parameters, quality tests indicate measurement precision on the order of the gold standard optical measurement (3%O(2)). Comparative studies using catheter sampling suggest reasonable accuracy (3 subjects), with variability dominated by sampling location uncertainty ( approximately 7%O(2)). Intravenous dipyridamole (5 subjects) induces significant changes in sinus blood oxygenation (22 +/- 9% O(2)), corresponding to flow reserves of 1.8 +/- 0.4, suggesting the potential for clinical utility. Underestimation of flow reserve is dominated by right atrial mixing and the systemic effects of dipyridamole. Magn Reson Med 42:837-848, 1999. PMID:10542342

  16. Idiopathic carotid and coronary vasospasm: A case treated by carotid artery stenting

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimoto, Haruko; Asakuno, Keizo; Matsuo, Seigo; Ishida, Atsushi; Shiramizu, Hideki; Niimura, Kaku; Yuzawa, Miki; Yamagishi, Yasumichi; Munakata, Takehiko; Moriyama, Takashi; Hori, Tomokatsu

    2014-01-01

    Background: We previously reported a case of cerebral infarction complicated by myocardial infarction. The pathogenesis of both infarctions was thought to be vasospasm; thus, we named this condition idiopathic carotid and coronary vasospasm. Various medical treatments for the prevention of carotid vasospasm have been unsuccessfully tried. Thus, other effective treatments should be established for patients who frequently suffer cerebral ischemic attacks. Case Description: We treated the present case of idiopathic carotid and coronary vasospasm by carotid artery stenting (CAS). The first stenting, of the carotid bifurcation, failed to prevent internal carotid artery (ICA) vasospasm. However, after an additional stent placement to the prepetrous portion, ischemic attacks were dramatically reduced. Conclusion: The effect of CAS for extracranial ICA vasospasm was dramatic and control of the spasm at the prepetrous portion seems to be essential. Further validation of the effectiveness and safety of CAS for ICA vasospasm will be necessary. PMID:25422789

  17. [Sandifer's syndrome in a 5-month-old child with suspicion of infantile spasms].

    PubMed

    Wirth, M; Bonnemains, C; Auger, J; Raffo, E; Leheup, B

    2016-02-01

    Sandifer's syndrome is a dystonic movement disorder in infants with gastroesophageal reflux (GER). It is probably misdiagnosed as epileptic seizures. We report the case of a 5-month-old infant with no past medical history admitted to a pediatric unit for suspicion of infantile spasms. She presented with dystonic movements of the upper left limb with left blepharospasm and an occasional dystonic head posture. Physical examination, EEG, brain MRI, and blood analysis were normal. Since the baby experienced regurgitations, Sandifer's syndrome was suspected and confirmed by 24-h esophageal pH monitoring that documented pathological GER. The dystonic symptoms quickly disappeared under treatment with thickened infant formula and sodium alginate. Infantile spasms remain the first diagnosis to explore with axial or para-axial dystonic postural events. Sandifer's syndrome should be retained when neurological investigations are normal and abnormal movements disappear under treatment of proven GER. Prognosis is excellent. PMID:26697813

  18. Clinical profile of vigabatrin as monotherapy for treatment of infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Jason T; Salamon, Noriko; Sankar, Raman

    2010-01-01

    Vigabatrin, the first therapeutic agent to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of infantile spasms, as well as for adjunctive use in the treatment of refractory complex partial epilepsy, represents an important advance for patients with difficult-to-manage epilepsy. This review summarizes the complex history, chemistry, and pharmacology, as well as the clinical data leading to the approval of vigabatrin for infantile spasms in the US. The long path to its approval reflects the visual system and white matter toxicity concerns with this agent. This review provides a brief description of these concerns, and the regulatory safety monitoring and mitigation systems that have been put in place to enhance benefit over risk. PMID:21127692

  19. Occurrence of bilaterally independent epileptic spasms after a corpus callosotomy in West syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Endoh, Fumika; Toda, Yoshihiro; Oka, Makio; Baba, Hiroshi; Ohtsuka, Yoko; Yoshinaga, Harumi

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with intractable West syndrome whose epileptic spasms (ESs) were initially bilaterally synchronous, as is typical; after a complete corpus callosotomy, however, bilaterally independent ESs originated in either hemisphere. Activity of probable cortical origin associated with ESs was detected by observing ictal gamma oscillations. Brain MRI revealed no structural abnormality before surgery. This case suggests that ESs with a hemispheric origin may appear generalized because of synchronizing effects in the corpus callosum in some patients. PMID:25998967

  20. Negative antibody response to long-term treatment of facial spasm with botulinum toxin.

    PubMed

    Gonnering, R S

    1988-03-15

    Over a period of 163 weeks, 223 injections of botulinum A toxin were administered to 38 patients with facial spasm syndromes. The maximum cumulative toxin dose was 553 units, the maximum number of injections in any given patient was 16, and the maximum dosage of any given injection was 52.5 units. Sera from these patients showed no antibody production when measured with a standard mouse lethality bioassay. PMID:3344788

  1. CDKL5/STK9 is mutated in Rett syndrome variant with infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    Scala, E; Ariani, F; Mari, F; Caselli, R; Pescucci, C; Longo, I; Meloni, I; Giachino, D; Bruttini, M; Hayek, G; Zappella, M; Renieri, A

    2005-01-01

    Background: Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder, almost exclusively affecting females and characterised by a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Both the classic form and preserved speech variant of Rett syndrome are due to mutations in the MECP2 gene. Several other variants of Rett syndrome have been described. In 1985, Hanefeld described a variant with the early appearance of convulsions. In this variant, the normal perinatal period is soon followed by the appearance of seizures, usually infantile spasms. We have observed two patients with signs of Rett syndrome showing acquired microcephaly and stereotypic midline hand movements. The disease started with generalised convulsions and myoclonic fits at 1.5 months in the first patient and with spasms at 10 days in the other, suggesting a diagnosis of the Hanefeld variant. In these patients, MECP2 point mutations and gross rearrangements were excluded by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography and real time quantitative PCR. The ARX and CDKL5 genes have been associated with West syndrome (infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia, and mental retardation). Methods: Based on the clinical overlap between the Hanefeld variant and West syndrome, we analysed ARX and CDKL5 in the two girls. Results: We found frameshift deletions in CDKL5 in both patients; one in exon 5 (c.163_166delGAAA) and the other in exon 18 (c.2635_2636delCT). CDKL5 was then analysed in 19 classic Rett and 15 preserved speech variant patients, all MECP2 negative, but no mutations were found. Conclusion: Our results show that CDKL5 is responsible for a rare variant of Rett syndrome characterised by early development of convulsions, usually of the spasm type. PMID:15689447

  2. SCN2A mutation is associated with infantile spasms and bitemporal glucose hypometabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Senthil K; Chugani, Harry T; Tiwari, Vijay N; Huq, AHM M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Genetic mutations play crucial role in the etiology of cryptogenic infantile spasms but the cause is still unknown in a significant proportion of patients. Whole exome sequencing technology shows great promise in identifying genetic causes of infantile spasms. METHODS We performed whole exome sequencing and 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography scan of a male child with infantile spasms. Exome sequencing was also performed in parents to identify any de novo mutations. RESULTS The positron emission tomography scan showed a pattern of bilateral symmetric temporal lobe glucose hypometabolism. A total of 8171 non-synonymous variants were identified in the child. Despite the large number of nonsynonymous variants, there was only a single de novo missense mutation in SCN2A in the child (NCBI hg19 assembly, position: Chr2:166234116, K1422E). Subsequent Sanger sequencing confirmed the de novo status of this variant. This mutation has never been reported in 6500 individuals of the exome variant server database. Similarly, this variant is not reported in online mendelian inheritance in man database or human gene mutation database. It has previously been shown that SCN2A mutations are associated with hippocampal hyperexcitability. Therefore, we speculate that IS and bitemporal hypometabolism in our patient might have been caused by hippocampal hyperexcitability due to SCN2A mutation. CONCLUSIONS The simultaneous presence of an SCN2A mutation and bitemporal hypometabolism in this patient with infantile spasms suggests a plausible hippocampal origin. However, additional mechanistic and clinical studies are required to validate this link. PMID:23827426

  3. High-dose Corticotropin (ACTH) Versus Prednisone for Infantile Spasms: A Prospective, Randomized, Blinded Study

    PubMed Central

    Baram, Tallie Z.; Mitchell, Wendy G.; Tournay, Anne; Snead, O. Carter; Hanson, Rebecca A.; Horton, E. J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of corticotropin (ACTH) (150 U/m2/day) and prednisone (2 mg/kg/day), given for 2 weeks, in suppressing clinical spasms and hypsarrhythmic electroencephalogram (EEG) in infantile spasms (IS). ACTH and prednisone are standard treatments for IS. ACTH at high doses causes severe dose- and duration-dependent side effects, but may be superior to prednisone, based on retrospective or uncontrolled studies. Blinded prospective studies have shown equal efficacy of prednisone and low-dose ACTH, and low versus high-dose ACTH. Design A prospective, randomized, single-blinded study. Subjects and Methods Patient population consisted of consecutive infants fulfilling entry criteria, including the presence of clinical spasms, hypsarrhythmia (or variants) during a full sleep cycle video-EEG, and no prior steroid/ACTH treatment. Response required both cessation of spasms and elimination of hypsarrhythmia by the end of the 2-week treatment period, as determined by an investigator blinded to treatment. Treatment of re-sponders was tapered off over 12 days; those failing one hormone were crossed-over to the other. Results Of 34 eligible infants, 29 were enrolled. Median age of patients was 6 months. Twenty-two infants were symptomatic with known or suspected cause, and seven were cryptogenic (two normal). Of 15 infants randomized to ACTH, 13 responded by both EEG and clinical criteria (86.6%); seizures stopped in an additional infant, but EEG remained hypsarrhythmic (considered a failure). Four of 14 patients given prednisone responded (28.6%, with complete clinical-EEG correlation), significantly less than with ACTH, (?2 test). Conclusions Using a prospective, randomized approach, a 2-week course of high-dose ACTH is superior to 2 weeks of prednisone for treatment of IS, as assessed by both clinical and EEG criteria. PMID:8604274

  4. Coronary stent entrapment

    PubMed Central

    Presura, Razvan Mihai; Anghel, Larisa; Stanciu, Bogdan; Lovin, Nicusor; Haret, Roberto; Arsenescu-Georgescu, Catalina

    2014-01-01

    A 64-year-old woman with a history of coronary artery bypass and coronary angioplasty with unexpanded stent entrapment blocked in the circumflex coronary artery and left main is now presenting with crescendo angina pectoris. The Department of Cardiovascular Surgery established that a new surgical intervention presents a very high risk. In this condition, we decide for elective percutaneous coronary intervention for stent restenosis, which is a very difficult procedure in the particular condition of unexpanded stent blocked in the circumflex coronary artery and left main. PMID:25489311

  5. Diagnostic Ultrasound Induced Inertial Cavitation to Non-Invasively Restore Coronary and Microvascular Flow in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Feng; Gao, Shunji; Wu, Juefei; Lof, John; Radio, Stanley; Vignon, Francois; Shi, William; Powers, Jeffry; Unger, Evan; Everbach, E. Carr; Liu, Jinjin; Porter, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound induced cavitation has been explored as a method of dissolving intravascular and microvascular thrombi in acute myocardial infarction. The purpose of this study was to determine the type of cavitation required for success, and whether longer pulse duration therapeutic impulses (sustaining the duration of cavitation) could restore both microvascular and epicardial flow with this technique. Accordingly, in 36 hyperlipidemic atherosclerotic pigs, thrombotic occlusions were induced in the mid-left anterior descending artery. Pigs were then randomized to either a) dose tissue plasminogen activator (0.5 mg/kg) alone; or same dose plasminogen activator and an intravenous microbubble infusion with either b) guided high mechanical index short pulse (2.0 MI; 5 usec) therapeutic ultrasound impulses; or c) guided 1.0 mechanical index long pulse (20 usec) impulses. Passive cavitation detectors indicated the high mechanical index impulses (both long and short pulse duration) induced inertial cavitation within the microvasculature. Epicardial recanalization rates following randomized treatments were highest in pigs treated with the long pulse duration therapeutic impulses (83% versus 59% for short pulse, and 49% for tissue plasminogen activator alone; p<0.05). Even without epicardial recanalization, however, early microvascular recovery occurred with both short and long pulse therapeutic impulses (p<0.005 compared to tissue plasminogen activator alone), and wall thickening improved within the risk area only in pigs treated with ultrasound and microbubbles. We conclude that although short pulse duration guided therapeutic impulses from a diagnostic transducer transiently improve microvascular flow, long pulse duration therapeutic impulses produce sustained epicardial and microvascular re-flow in acute myocardial infarction. PMID:23922797

  6. Diagnostic ultrasound induced inertial cavitation to non-invasively restore coronary and microvascular flow in acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Xie, Feng; Gao, Shunji; Wu, Juefei; Lof, John; Radio, Stanley; Vignon, Francois; Shi, William; Powers, Jeffry; Unger, Evan; Everbach, E Carr; Liu, Jinjin; Porter, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasound induced cavitation has been explored as a method of dissolving intravascular and microvascular thrombi in acute myocardial infarction. The purpose of this study was to determine the type of cavitation required for success, and whether longer pulse duration therapeutic impulses (sustaining the duration of cavitation) could restore both microvascular and epicardial flow with this technique. Accordingly, in 36 hyperlipidemic atherosclerotic pigs, thrombotic occlusions were induced in the mid-left anterior descending artery. Pigs were then randomized to either a) dose tissue plasminogen activator (0.5 mg/kg) alone; or same dose plasminogen activator and an intravenous microbubble infusion with either b) guided high mechanical index short pulse (2.0 MI; 5 usec) therapeutic ultrasound impulses; or c) guided 1.0 mechanical index long pulse (20 usec) impulses. Passive cavitation detectors indicated the high mechanical index impulses (both long and short pulse duration) induced inertial cavitation within the microvasculature. Epicardial recanalization rates following randomized treatments were highest in pigs treated with the long pulse duration therapeutic impulses (83% versus 59% for short pulse, and 49% for tissue plasminogen activator alone; p<0.05). Even without epicardial recanalization, however, early microvascular recovery occurred with both short and long pulse therapeutic impulses (p<0.005 compared to tissue plasminogen activator alone), and wall thickening improved within the risk area only in pigs treated with ultrasound and microbubbles. We conclude that although short pulse duration guided therapeutic impulses from a diagnostic transducer transiently improve microvascular flow, long pulse duration therapeutic impulses produce sustained epicardial and microvascular re-flow in acute myocardial infarction. PMID:23922797

  7. Defining the at risk patients for contrast induced nephropathy after coronary angiography; 24-h urine creatinine versus Cockcroft-Gault equation or serum creatinine level

    PubMed Central

    Assareh, Ahmadreza; Yazdankhah, Saeed; Ahmadzadeh, Ahmad; Yadollahzadeh, Mahdi; Nasehi, Nasim; Haybar, Habib

    2012-01-01

    Background: Definitions of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in many catheterization laboratories have relied on the serum creatinine (Scr) rather than glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Regarding that CKD is the primary predisposing factor for contrast induced nephropathy (CIN), we compared the sensitivity of calculated GFR by 24-h Urine creatinine with Cockcroft-Gault (CG) equation and Scr level to define at risk patients for CIN who were undergone coronary angiography (CAG). Materials and Methods: Two hundred fifty four subjects who were candidate for CAG and had normal creatinine level were enrolled. Before CAG, GFR was calculated from a 24-h urine collection, CG equation and a single Scr sample regarding to previously described protocol. Contrast volume used for each case <100 ml. CIN was defined as a 0.5 mg/dL or 25% elevation in the Scr. Results: CIN occurred in 10.6%. Baseline GFR, the volume of contrast agent, and diabetes were the independent risk factors for CIN. GFR was less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 in 28% and 23.2% of patients regarding to 24-h urine creatinine and CG equation, respectively. In CIN prediction, 24-h urine creatinine estimated GFR had 85.2%, 59.3% and CG equation GFR had 78.9%, 81.1% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Conclusion: Although, GFR estimated by CG equation has less sensitivity than GFR calculated from 24-h creatinine in CIN probability, but it is better than Scr alone and because of cost-effectiveness and convenience using of this method, we suggest at least using CG equation for GFR calculation before CIN, especially in diabetic and/or older than 60 years cases. PMID:23826014

  8. Contrast Volume/Raw eGFR Ratio for Predicting Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hoon Suk; Kim, Chan Joon; Yi, Jeong-Eun; Hwang, Byung-Hee; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Koh, Yoon Seok; Park, Hun-Jun; Her, Sung-Ho; Jang, Sung Won; Park, Chul-Soo; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Hee Yeol; Jeon, Doo Soo; Kim, Pum-Joon; Yoo, Ki-Dong; Chang, Kiyuk; Jin, Dong Chan; Seung, Ki-Bae

    2015-01-01

    Background Considering that contrast medium is excreted through the whole kidney in a similar manner to drug excretion, the use of raw estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) rather than body surface area (BSA)-normalized eGFR is thought to be more appropriate for evaluating the risk of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). Methods This study included 2,189 myocardial infarction patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the independent risk factors. We used receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves to compare the ratios of contrast volume (CV) to eGFR with and without BSA normalization in predicting CI-AKI. Results The area under the curve (AUC) of the ROC curve for the model including all the significant variables such as diabetes mellitus, left ventricular ejection fraction, preprocedural glucose, and the CV/raw modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) eGFR ratio was 0.768 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.720-0.816; p < 0.001]. When the CV/raw MDRD eGFR ratio was used as a single risk value, the AUC of the ROC curve was 0.650 (95% CI, 0.590-0.711; p < 0.001). When the CV/MDRD eGFR ratio with BSA normalization ratio was used, the AUC of the ROC curve further decreased to 0.635 (95% CI, 0.574-0.696; p < 0.001). The difference between the two AUCs was significant (p = 0.002). Conclusions Raw eGFR is a better predictor for CI-AKI than BSA-normalized eGFR. PMID:25759701

  9. Effects of the New Aldose Reductase Inhibitor Benzofuroxane Derivative BF-5m on High Glucose Induced Prolongation of Cardiac QT Interval and Increase of Coronary Perfusion Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Di Filippo, C.; Ferraro, B.; Maisto, R.; Trotta, M. C.; Di Carluccio, N.; Sartini, S.; La Motta, C.; Ferraraccio, F.; Rossi, F.; D'Amico, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the new aldose reductase inhibitor benzofuroxane derivative 5(6)-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-ylmethoxy)benzofuroxane (BF-5m) on the prolongation of cardiac QT interval and increase of coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) in isolated, high glucose (33.3 mM D-glucose) perfused rat hearts. BF-5m was dissolved in the Krebs solution at a final concentration of 0.01 μM, 0.05 μM, and 0.1 μM. 33.3 mM D-glucose caused a prolongation of the QT interval and increase of CPP up to values of 190 ± 12 ms and 110 ± 8 mmHg with respect to the values of hearts perfused with standard Krebs solution (11.1 mM D-glucose). The QT prolongation was reduced by 10%, 32%, and 41%, respectively, for the concentration of BF-5m 0.01 μM, 0.05 μM, and 0.1 μM. Similarly, the CPP was reduced by 20% for BF-5m 0.05 μM and by 32% for BF-5m 0.1 μM. BF-5m also increased the expression levels of sirtuin 1, MnSOD, eNOS, and FOXO-1, into the heart. The beneficial actions of BF-5m were partly abolished by the pretreatment of the rats with the inhibitor of the sirtuin 1 activity EX527 (10 mg/kg/day/7 days i.p.) prior to perfusion of the hearts with high glucose + BF-5m (0.1 μM). Therefore, BF-5m supplies cardioprotection from the high glucose induced QT prolongation and increase of CPP. PMID:26839893

  10. A Case of Hemifacial Spasm Caused by an Artery Passing Through the Facial Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang Hyun; Shim, Yu Shik; Park, Hyeonseon

    2015-01-01

    Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a clinical syndrome characterized by unilateral facial nerve dysfunction. The usual cause involves vascular compression of the seventh cranial nerve, but compression by an artery passing through the facial nerve is very unusual. A 20-year-old man presented with left facial spasm that had persisted for 4 years. Compression of the left facial nerve root exit zone by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) was revealed on magnetic resonance angiography. During microvascular decompression surgery, penetration of the distal portion of the facial nerve root exit zone by the AICA was observed. At the penetrating site, the artery was found to have compressed the facial nerve and to be immobilized. The penetrated seventh cranial nerve was longitudinally split about 2 mm. The compressing artery was moved away from the penetrating site and the decompression was secured by inserting Teflon at the operative site. Although the facial spasm disappeared in the immediate postoperative period, the patient continued to show moderate facial weakness. At postoperative 12 months, the facial weakness had improved to a mild degree. Prior to performing microvascular decompression of HFS, surgeons should be aware of a possibility for rare complex anatomy, such as compression by an artery passing through the facial nerve, which cannot be observed by modern imaging techniques. PMID:25810866

  11. A case of hemifacial spasm caused by an artery passing through the facial nerve.

    PubMed

    Oh, Chang Hyun; Shim, Yu Shik; Park, Hyeonseon; Kim, Eun-Young

    2015-03-01

    Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a clinical syndrome characterized by unilateral facial nerve dysfunction. The usual cause involves vascular compression of the seventh cranial nerve, but compression by an artery passing through the facial nerve is very unusual. A 20-year-old man presented with left facial spasm that had persisted for 4 years. Compression of the left facial nerve root exit zone by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) was revealed on magnetic resonance angiography. During microvascular decompression surgery, penetration of the distal portion of the facial nerve root exit zone by the AICA was observed. At the penetrating site, the artery was found to have compressed the facial nerve and to be immobilized. The penetrated seventh cranial nerve was longitudinally split about 2 mm. The compressing artery was moved away from the penetrating site and the decompression was secured by inserting Teflon at the operative site. Although the facial spasm disappeared in the immediate postoperative period, the patient continued to show moderate facial weakness. At postoperative 12 months, the facial weakness had improved to a mild degree. Prior to performing microvascular decompression of HFS, surgeons should be aware of a possibility for rare complex anatomy, such as compression by an artery passing through the facial nerve, which cannot be observed by modern imaging techniques. PMID:25810866

  12. Effect of Price Increase of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone on Treatment Practices of Infantile Spasms

    PubMed Central

    Wray, Carter D.; Benke, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    Intramuscular adrenocorticotropic hormone putatively constitutes the most efficacious treatment for infantile spasms. Adrenocorticotropic hormone in the United States is an orphan drug, made by a single manufacturer. The price of adrenocorticotropic hormone increased almost 14-fold on August 27, 2007. We sought to evaluate the impact of this price increase on treatment practices at our institution, using a retrospective chart review of all children with infantile spasms treated during 2007-2009. We identified 97 patients whose spasms were treated using antiepileptic drugs, and we determined the length of stay for those hospitalized to initiate adrenocorticotropic hormone. Patients before the price increase were more likely to have been treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone as first medication, and were hospitalized 2.2 0.5 S.D. days for initiation. Patients after the price increase were more likely to have been treated initially with oral antiepileptic drugs rather than adrenocorticotropic hormone (P < 0.002). Those commencing adrenocorticotropic hormone after the price increase were hospitalized significantly longer (5.1 0.6 days S.D., P < 0.001). Treatment choices need to be evidence-based, but other factors often influence them. PMID:20691936

  13. Reduced Grating Acuity Associated with Retinal Toxicity in Children with Infantile Spasms on Vigabatrin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Durbin, Sivan; Mirabella, Giuseppe; Buncic, J. Raymond; Westall, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether visual functions are decreased in children with infantile spasms and vigabatrin-attributed retinal toxicity. Methods Contrast sensitivity and grating acuity were measured by using sweep visual evoked potential (VEP) testing in 42 children with infantile spasms (mean age, 29.23 18.31 months). All children had been exposed to vigabatrin (VGB) for a minimum of 1 month. These children were divided into retinal toxicity and no toxicity groupings based on 30-Hz flicker amplitude reductions on the full-field electroretinogram. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) compared visual functions between children with and without retinal toxicity. Results The MANOVA showed that visual function was significantly affected by VGB retinal toxicity. Further univariate analysis revealed that grating acuity was significantly reduced in children with toxicity. No differences in contrast sensitivity were found between children with toxicity and those without. Conclusions Reduced visual functions from VGB-attributed retinal toxicity can be detected in children with infantile spasms with the sweep VEP. PMID:19279311

  14. Association of Vitamin D Status With Mental Stress Induced Myocardial Ischemia in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ramadan, Ronnie; Vaccarino, Viola; Esteves, Fabio; Sheps, David S.; Bremner, James Douglas; Raggi, Paolo; Quyyumi, Arshed A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental stress-induced (MSIMI) or physical stress-induced (PSIMI) myocardial ischemia portends a worse prognosis in CAD patients. Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes, but its relationship to myocardial ischemia remains unclear. We hypothesized that vitamin D insufficiency will be associated with a higher prevalence of myocardial ischemia in CAD patients. Methods In 255 patients with stable CAD, myocardial perfusion imaging was performed to assess ischemia in response to mental and physical stress protocols. Vitamin D insufficiency was defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D [25(OH)D] levels below 30 ng/ml, collected on the day of stress testing. Results Mean 25(OH)D level was 30.812.8 ng/ml, and 139 (55%) patients had vitamin D insufficiency. MSIMI occurred in 30 (12%) patients and PSIMI in 67 (27%). Individuals with MSIMI had significantly lower levels of 25(OH)D as compared to those without MSIMI (24.08.6 vs. 31.712.9, p=0.002). The prevalence of MSIMI was higher in those with as compared to those without vitamin D insufficiency (17% vs. 6%, p=0.009). Moreover, low 25(OH)D levels remained independently associated with MSIMI after adjusting for potential confounders. Conversely, 25(OH)D levels were similar between those with or without PSIMI (29.813.0 vs. 31.412.7; p=0.37), as was the prevalence of PSIMI in those with or without vitamin D insufficiency (29% vs. 24%, p=0.42). Conclusions Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with a higher prevalence of MSIMI, but not PSIMI among stable CAD patients. Whether this association serves as a potential mechanism linking low vitamin D status to adverse cardiovascular outcomes warrants further investigation. PMID:25222601

  15. CDKL5 mutations cause infantile spasms, early onset seizures, and severe mental retardation in female patients

    PubMed Central

    Archer, H L; Evans, J; Edwards, S; Colley, J; Newbury?Ecob, R; O'Callaghan, F; Huyton, M; O'Regan, M; Tolmie, J; Sampson, J; Clarke, A; Osborne, J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To determine the frequency of mutations in CDKL5 in both male and female patients with infantile spasms or early onset epilepsy of unknown cause, and to consider whether the breadth of the reported phenotype would be extended by studying a different patient group. Methods Two groups of patients were investigated for CDKL5 mutations. Group 1 comprised 73 patients (57 female, 16 male) referred to Cardiff for CDKL5 analysis, of whom 49 (42 female, 7 male) had epileptic seizure onset in the first six months of life. Group 2 comprised 26 patients (11 female, 15 male) with infantile spasms previously recruited to a clinical trial, the UK Infantile Spasms Study. Where a likely pathogenic mutation was identified, further clinical data were reviewed. Results Seven likely pathogenic mutations were found among female patients from group 1 with epileptic seizure onset in the first six months of life, accounting for seven of the 42 in this group (17%). No mutations other than the already published mutation were found in female patients from group 2, or in any male patient from either study group. All patients with mutations had early signs of developmental delay and most had made little developmental progress. Further clinical information was available for six patients: autistic features and tactile hypersensitivity were common but only one had suggestive Rett?like features. All had a severe epileptic seizure disorder, all but one of whom had myoclonic jerks. The EEG showed focal or generalised changes and in those with infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia. Slow frequencies were seen frequently with a frontal or fronto?temporal predominance and high amplitudes. Conclusions The spectrum of the epileptic seizure disorder, and associated EEG changes, in those with CDKL5 mutations is broader than previously reported. CDKL5 mutations are a significant cause of infantile spasms and early epileptic seizures in female patients, and of a later intractable seizure disorder, irrespective of whether they have suspected Rett syndrome. Analysis should be considered in these patients in the clinical setting. PMID:16611748

  16. Effects of exercise training on coronary transport capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, M.H.

    1985-02-01

    Coronary transport capacity was estimated in eight sedentary control and eight exercise-trained anesthetized dogs by determining the differences between base line and the highest coronary blood flow and permeability-surface area product (PS) obtained during maximal adenosine vasodilation with coronary perfusion pressure constant. The anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery was cannulated and pump- perfused under constant-pressure conditions (approximately equal to 100 Torr) while aortic, central venous, and coronary perfusion pressures, heart rate, electrocardiogram, and coronary flow were monitored. Myocardial extraction and PS of /sup 51/Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid were determined with the single-injection indicator-diffusion method. The efficacy of the 16 +/- 1 wk exercise training program was shown by significant increases in the succinate dehydrogenase activities of the gastrocnemius, gluteus medialis, and long head of triceps brachii muscles. There were no differences between control and trained dogs for either resting coronary blood flow or PS. During maximal vasodilation with adenosine, the trained dogs had significantly lower perfusion pressures with constant flow and, with constant-pressure vasodilation, greater coronary blood flow and PS. It is concluded that exercise training in dogs induces an increased coronary transport capacity that includes increases in coronary blood flow capacity (26% of control) and capillary diffusion capacity (82% of control).

  17. Coronary vasomotion dysfunction after everolimus-eluting stent implantation

    PubMed Central

    Giudice, Pietro; Di Maio, Marco; Bellino, Elisabetta M.; Polito, Maria V.; Baldi, Cesare; Vigorito, Francesco; Di Muro, Michele R.; Tomasello, Salvatore D.; Galassi, Alfredo R.; Piscione, Federico

    2014-01-01

    First generation drug-eluting stent can cause a paradoxical in-segment coronary vasoconstriction. This phenomenon was seen with sirolimus, paclitaxel, and, more recently, also with zotarolimus-eluting stent. For the first time, we describe a case of coronary-induced vasoconstriction by everolimus-eluting stents (EES). PMID:25598992

  18. Coronary vasomotion dysfunction after everolimus-eluting stent implantation.

    PubMed

    Giudice, Pietro; Attisano, Tiziana; Di Maio, Marco; Bellino, Elisabetta M; Polito, Maria V; Baldi, Cesare; Vigorito, Francesco; Di Muro, Michele R; Tomasello, Salvatore D; Galassi, Alfredo R; Piscione, Federico

    2014-12-01

    First generation drug-eluting stent can cause a paradoxical "in-segment" coronary vasoconstriction. This phenomenon was seen with sirolimus, paclitaxel, and, more recently, also with zotarolimus-eluting stent. For the first time, we describe a case of coronary-induced vasoconstriction by everolimus-eluting stents (EES). PMID:25598992

  19. Midkine: A Novel and Early Biomarker of Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Bachorzewska-Gajewska, Hanna; Koc-Zorawska, Ewa; Malyszko, Jacek S.; Kobus, Grazyna; Dobrzycki, Slawomir

    2015-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis whether midkine could represent an early biomarker of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI) in 89 patients with normal serum creatinine undergoing PCI. Midkine, serum and urinary NGAL, and cystatin C were evaluated before and 2, 4, 8, 24, and 48 hours after PCI using commercially available kits. Serum creatinine was assessed before and 24 and 48 hours after PCI. We found a significant rise in serum midkine as early as after 2 hours (P < 0.001) when compared to the baseline values. It was also significantly higher 4 hours after PCI and then returned to the baseline values after 24 hours and started to decrease after 48 hours. When contrast nephropathy was defined as an increase in serum creatinine by >25% of the baseline level 48 hours after PCI, the prevalence of CIN was 10%. Patients with CIN received significantly more contrast agent (P < 0.05), but durations of PCI were similar. Midkine was significantly higher 2, 4, and 8 hours after PCI in patients with CIN. Since the “window of opportunity” is narrow in CIAKI and time is limited to introduce proper treatment after initiating insult, particularly when patients are discharged within 24 hours after the procedure, midkine needs to be investigated as a potential early marker for renal ischemia and/or nephrotoxicity. PMID:25629054

  20. Catheter-induced dissection of the left main coronary artery, the nemesis of an invasive cardiologist A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jain, Deepak; Kurowski, Volkhard; Katus, Hugo A; Richardt, Gert

    2002-10-01

    An elderly gentleman had a dissection of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) during coronary angiography. There were critical lesions in the left anterior descending (LAD) and left circumflex arteries. Both the LMCA and the LAD lesions were successfully stented in the same sitting. Thereafter the patient remained symptom free and the six-month follow-up angiogram revealed good angioplasty results in both lesions. We report this case for two reasons - first, acute dissection of the LMCA is a rare but devastating complication of selective coronary angiography and the situation becomes graver if the branch vessels have critical stenosis; that this could be managed percutaneously needs to be highlighted, and second, the case offers an opportunity to review literature pertinent to this awesome occurrence in the catheterization laboratory. PMID:12395225

  1. A systematic review of the pathophysiology of 5-fluorouracil-induced cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiotoxicity is a serious side effect to treatment with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the pathophysiology of 5-FU- induced cardiotoxicity. Methods We systematically searched PubMed for articles in English using the search terms: 5-FU OR 5-fluorouracil OR capecitabine AND cardiotoxicity. Papers evaluating the pathophysiology of this cardiotoxicity were included. Results We identified 27 articles of 26 studies concerning the pathophysiology of 5-FU-induced cardiotoxicity. The studies demonstrated 5-FU-induced: hemorrhagic infarction, interstitial fibrosis and inflammatory reaction in the myocardium; damage of the arterial endothelium followed by platelet aggregation; increased myocardial energy metabolism and depletion of high energy phosphate compounds; increased superoxide anion levels and a reduced antioxidant capacity; vasoconstriction of arteries; changes in red blood cell (RBC) structure, function and metabolism; alterations in plasma levels of substances involved in coagulation and fibrinolysis and increased endothelin-1 levels and N-terminal-pro brain natriuretic peptide levels. Based on these findings the proposed mechanisms are: endothelial injury followed by thrombosis, increased metabolism leading to energy depletion and ischemia, oxidative stress causing cellular damage, coronary artery spasm leading to myocardial ischemia and diminished ability of RBCs to transfer oxygen resulting in myocardial ischemia. Conclusions There is no evidence for a single mechanism responsible for 5-FU-induced cardiotoxicity, and the underlying mechanisms might be multifactorial. Further research is needed to elucidate the pathogenesis of this side effect. PMID:25186061

  2. How Is Coronary Angioplasty Done?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Done? Before you have percutaneous coronary ... wall, relieving the blockage and improving blood flow. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Figure A shows the location of ...

  3. What Causes Coronary Microvascular Disease?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Angina Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors ... Microvascular Disease? The same risk factors that cause atherosclerosis may cause coronary microvascular disease. Atherosclerosis is a ...

  4. Coronary haemodynamics in left ventricular hypertrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Wallbridge, D. R.; Cobbe, S. M.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Left ventricular hypertrophy is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have shown that patients with left ventricular hypertrophy develop electrocardiographic changes and left ventricular dysfunction during acute hypotension, and suggest that the lower end of autoregulation may be shifted upwards. AIM: To measure coronary blood flow (velocity) and flow reserve during acute hypotension in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. PATIENTS: Eight patients with atypical chest pain and seven with hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy; all with angiographically normal epicardial vessels. SETTING: Tertiary referral centre. METHODS: The physiological range of blood pressure was determined by previous ambulatory monitoring. Left ventricular mass was determined by echocardiography. At cardiac catheterisation, left coronary blood flow velocity was measured using a Judkins style Doppler tipped catheter. During acute hypotension with sodium nitroprusside, coronary blood flow velocity was recorded at rest and during maximal hyperaemia induced by intracoronary injection of adenosine. Quantitative coronary angiography was performed manually. RESULTS: For both groups coronary blood flow velocity remained relatively constant over a range of physiological diastolic blood pressures and showed a steep relation with diastolic blood pressure during maximal hyperaemia with intracoronary adenosine. Absolute coronary blood flow (calculated from quantitative angiographic data), standardised for left ventricular mass, showed reduced flow in the hypertensive group at rest and during maximal vasodilatation. CONCLUSION: The results are consistent with an inadequate blood supply to the hypertrophied heart, but no upward shift of the lower end of the autoregulatory range was observed. PMID:8705764

  5. Postpartum coronary artery dissection.

    PubMed Central

    Shaver, P J; Carrig, T F; Baker, W P

    1978-01-01

    A 27-year-old woman experienced anterior myocardial infarction three weeks after the delivery of her second child. Coronary arteriography subsequently showed primary dissection of the left coronary artery. This patient is believed to be the second reported survivor of angiographically proven peripartal left coronary artery dissection and the only such patient to achieve and maintain asymptomatic status for a prolonged period without operative intervention. Images PMID:626669

  6. Assessment of coronary thrombolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Geltman, E.M.; Abendschein, D.R.; Devries, S.R.

    1987-02-01

    The efficacy of coronary thrombolysis may be assessed by several invasive and noninvasive means, including coronary angiography, contrast and radionuclide angiography, thallium 201 or /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate scintigraphy, positron emission tomography, cardiac ultrasonography, electrocardiography, and analysis of plasma creatine kinase activity. Each technique has its own strengths and limitations, but when used in concert these methods may provide insight into the physiology of coronary reperfusion and the efficacy of reperfusion in individual patients and populations. 104 references.

  7. Selective Coronary Arteriography

    PubMed Central

    Parker, John O.; Challis, Thomas W.; West, Roxroy O.

    1966-01-01

    The technique of selective coronary arteriography, as described originally by Sones, was employed in 255 patients. Successful catheterization of both coronary arteries was carried out in 88% of these patients, and in the last 100 examinations both coronary arteries were entered in 95 patients. Selective coronary arteriography is a useful diagnostic tool but is a potentially hazardous form of examination as we encountered four episodes of ventricular fibrillation in the present series. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Figs. 3A-DFig. 3EFig. 3FFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:5902704

  8. The lipoprotein lipase gene serine 447 stop variant influences hypertension-induced left ventricular hypertrophy and risk of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Talmud, Philippa J; Flavell, David M; Alfakih, Khaled; Cooper, Jackie A; Balmforth, Anthony J; Sivananthan, Mohan; Montgomery, Hugh E; Hall, Alistair S; Humphries, Steve E

    2007-06-01

    LVH [LV (left ventricular) hypertrophy] is an independent risk factor for CHD (coronary heart disease). During LVH, the preferred cardiac energy substrate switches from FAs (fatty acids) to glucose. LPL (lipoprotein lipase) is the key enzyme in triacylglycerol (triglyceride) hydrolysis and supplies FAs to the heart. To investigate whether substrate utilization influences cardiac growth and CHD risk, we examined the association between the functional LPL S447X (rs328) variant and hypertension-induced LV growth and CHD risk. LPL-X447 has been shown to be more hydrolytically efficient and would therefore release more free FAs than LPL-S477. In a cohort of 190 hypertensive subjects, LPL X447 was associated with a greater LV mass index [85.2 (1.7) in S/S compared with 91.1 (3.4) in S/X+X/X; P=0.01], but no such association was seen in normotensive controls (n=60). X447 allele frequency was higher in hypertensives with than those without LVH {0.14 [95% CI (confidence interval), 0.08-0.19] compared with 0.07 (95% CI, 0.05-0.10) respectively; odds ratio, 2.52 (95% CI, 1.17-5.40), P=0.02}. The association of LPL S447X with CHD risk was then examined in a prospective study of healthy middle-aged U.K. men (n=2716). In normotensive individuals, compared with S447 homozygotes, X447 carriers were protected from CHD risk [HR (hazard ratio), 0.48 (95% CI, 0.23-1.00); P=0.05], whereas, in the hypertensives, X447 carriers had increased risk [HR, 1.54 (95% CI, 1.13-2.09) for S/S (P=0.006) and 2.30 (95% CI, 1.53-3.45) for X447+ (P<0.0001)] and had a significant interaction with hypertension in CHD risk determination (P=0.007). In conclusion, hypertensive LPL X447 carriers have increased risk of LVH and CHD, suggesting that altered FA delivery constitutes a mechanism through which LVH and CHD are associated in hypertensive subjects. PMID:17291198

  9. Predictive Value of Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase Levels for Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Who Underwent Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Oksuz, Fatih; Yarlioglues, Mikail; Cay, Serkan; Celik, Ibrahim Ethem; Mendi, Mehmet Ali; Kurtul, Alparslan; Cankurt, Tayyar; Kuyumcu, Serdar; Canpolat, Uğur; Turak, Osman

    2015-09-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is associated with adverse short- and long-term outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) for risk of CIN in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction who underwent PPCI. A total of 473 patients were enrolled in the study. A relative increase in serum creatinine ≥25%, or an absolute increase ≥0.5 mg/dl, from the baseline within 72 hours of contrast exposure was defined as CIN. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to GGT tertiles (tertile 1, GGT <19 U/L; tertile 2, GGT 19 to 33 U/L; and tertile 3, GGT >33 U/L) on admission. Demographics, clinical risk factors, laboratory parameters, CIN incidence, and other inhospital clinical outcomes were compared among GGT tertiles. CIN incidence was significantly higher in tertile 3 (29%) compared with tertiles 1 (11%) and 2 (11%, p <0.001). Inhospital death incidence was significantly increased across tertiles (from tertile 1 to tertiles 2 and 3, 1%, 4%, and 5%, respectively, p <0.05). In receiver operating characteristic analysis, a threshold value of GGT >26.5 U/L had 70% sensitivity and 60% specificity for CIN. After including variables found significant in univariate analysis, the presence of diabetes mellitus (odds ratio [OR] 1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22 to 2.31, p <0.001), C-reactive protein (for each 1 mg/L increase; OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.02, p = 0.007), contrast volume (for each 1-ml increase; OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.02, p = 0.012), and GGT >26.5 U/L (OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.48 to 4.53, p <0.001) were found as independent associates of CIN in multivariate regression analysis. Each 1 U/L increase in GGT was also associated with CIN risk (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.06, p <0.001). In conclusion, GGT on admission was a significant and independent predictor of CIN after PPCI in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. PMID:26116992

  10. A novel mutation in STXBP1 causing epileptic encephalopathy (late onset infantile spasms) with partial respiratory chain complex IV deficiency.

    PubMed

    Barcia, G; Barnerias, C; Rio, M; Siquier-Pernet, K; Desguerre, I; Colleaux, L; Munnich, A; Rotig, A; Nabbout, R

    2013-12-01

    STXBP1 (MUNC18.1), encoding syntaxin binding protein 1, has been reported in Ohtahara syndrome, a rare epileptic encephalopathy with suppression burst pattern on EEG, in patients with infantile spasms and in a few patients with nonsyndromic mental retardation without epilepsy. We report a patient who presented late onset infantile spasms. Epilepsy was controlled but the patient developed severe mental delay. A first diagnosis of mitochondrial disease was based on clinical presentation and on a partial deficit of respiratory chain complex IV, but molecular screening for mitochondrial genes was negative. The sequencing of STXBP1 gene found a de novo nonsense mutation (c.585C>G/p.Tyr195X). This observation widens the clinical spectrum linked to STXBP1 mutations with the description of a patient with late onset infantile spasms. It raises the question of the value of epilepsy genes screening in patients with uncertain, partial or unconfirmed mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:24095819

  11. Adrenal Function Testing Following Hormone Therapy for Infantile Spasms: Case Series and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mytinger, John R.; Bowden, Sasigarn A.

    2015-01-01

    Prednisolone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) are “hormone” therapies for infantile spasms. There is limited data on the occurrence of decreased adrenal reserve or signs of clinical adrenal insufficiency after hormone therapy. This is a retrospective medical record review of patients referred to our Infantile Spasms Program. Our standardized infantile spasms management guideline began in September 2012 and initially included a post-hormone laboratory assessment of adrenal function. Medical records were assessed for hormone treatments, adrenal function testing, and signs of adrenal insufficiency. Forty-two patients who received one or both hormone therapies met inclusion criteria. A post-hormone laboratory assessment of adrenal function was done in 14 patients. Of these 14 patients, 2 had an abnormal laboratory assessment of adrenal function, both by adrenal stimulation testing – one after ACTH and one after prednisolone. One patient received hydrocortisone replacement and the other received stress dose hydrocortisone as needed; neither patient developed signs of adrenal insufficiency. Another patient treated with both types of hormone therapy in tandem, who did not have a post-hormone laboratory assessment, developed signs of mild adrenal insufficiency and required replacement hydrocortisone. Our study suggests that adrenal suppression can occur after modern hormone therapy regimens. We found two patients with abnormal adrenal function testing after hormone therapy and another patient with signs adrenal insufficiency. Given the seriousness of adrenal crisis, caregiver education on the signs of adrenal insufficiency is critical. Greater vigilance may be indicated in patients receiving both types of hormone therapy in tandem. Although a routine post-hormone laboratory assessment of adrenal function may not be feasible in all patients, replacement or stress dose hydrocortisone is necessary for all patients with suspected adrenal insufficiency. PMID:26696958

  12. Failed microvascular decompression surgery for hemifacial spasm due to persistent neurovascular compression: an analysis of reoperations.

    PubMed

    Bigder, Mark Gregory; Kaufmann, Anthony M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT Microvascular decompression (MVD) surgery for hemifacial spasm (HFS) is potentially curative. The findings at repeat MVD in patients with persistent or recurrent HFS were analyzed with the aim to identify factors that may improve surgical outcomes. METHODS Intraoperative findings were determined from review of dictated operative reports and operative diagrams for patients who underwent repeat MVD after prior surgery elsewhere. Clinical follow-up was obtained from the hospital and clinic records, as well as telephone questionnaires. RESULTS Among 845 patients who underwent MVD performed by the senior author, 12 had been referred after prior MVD for HFS performed elsewhere. Following repeat MVD, all patients improved and complete spasm resolution was described by 11 of 12 patients after a mean follow-up of 91 55 months (range 28-193). Complications were limited to 1 patient with aggravation of preexisting hearing loss and mild facial weakness and 1 patient with aseptic meningitis without sequelae. Significant factors that may have contributed to the failure of the first surgery included retromastoid craniectomies that did not extend laterally to the sigmoid sinus or inferiorly to the posterior fossa floor in 11 of 12 patients and a prior surgical approach that focused on the cisternal portion of the facial nerve in 9 of 12 patients. In all cases, significant persistent neurovascular compression (NVC) was evident and alleviated more proximally on the facial root exit zone (fREZ). CONCLUSIONS Most HFS patients will achieve spasm relief with thorough alleviation of NVC of the fREZ, which extends from the pontomedullary sulcus root exit point to the Obersteiner-Redlich transition zone. PMID:26295916

  13. Molecular characterization of a cohort of 73 patients with infantile spasms syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boutry-Kryza, Nadia; Labalme, Audrey; Ville, Dorothee; de Bellescize, Julitta; Touraine, Renaud; Prieur, Fabienne; Dimassi, Sarra; Poulat, Anne-Lise; Till, Marianne; Rossi, Massimiliano; Bourel-Ponchel, Emilie; Delignires, Aline; Le Moing, Anne-Gaelle; Rivier, Clotilde; des Portes, Vincent; Edery, Patrick; Calender, Alain; Sanlaville, Damien; Lesca, Gaetan

    2015-02-01

    Infantile Spasms syndrome (ISs) is a characterized by epileptic spasms occurring in clusters with an onset in the first year of life. West syndrome represents a subset of ISs that associates spasms in clusters, a hypsarrhythmia EEG pattern and a developmental arrest or regression. Aetiology of ISs is widely heterogeneous including many genetic causes. Many patients, however, remain without etiological diagnosis, which is critical for prognostic purpose and genetic counselling. In the present study, we performed genetic screening of 73 patients with different types of ISs by array-CGH and molecular analysis of 5 genes: CDKL5, STXBP1, KCNQ2, and GRIN2A, whose mutations cause different types of epileptic encephalopathies, including ISs, as well as MAGI2, which was suggested to be related to a subset of ISs. In total, we found a disease-causing mutation or CNV (Copy Number Variation) in 15% of the patients. These included 6 point mutations found in CDKL5 (n=3) and STXBP1 (n=3), 3 microdeletions (10Mb in 2q24.3, 3.2Mb in 5q14.3 including the region upstream to MEF2C, and 256kb in 9q34 disrupting EHMT1), and 2 microduplications (671kb in 2q24.3 encompassing SCN2A, and 11.93Mb in Xq28). In addition, we discuss 3 CNVs as potential risk factors, including one 16p12.1 deletion, one intronic deletion of the NEDD4 gene, and one intronic deletion of CALN1 gene. The present findings highlight the efficacy of combined cytogenetic and targeted mutation screening to improve the diagnostic yield in patient with ISs. PMID:25497044

  14. Acute coronary syndromes in young women the scale of the problem and the associated risks

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of the cardiovascular system mainly affect elderly patients, but they are increasingly often encountered in young individuals. It is estimated that 1 in 20 patients with ischemic heart disease is under the age of 45 years. Only 20% of them are women. According to the PL-ACS register, cases of acute coronary syndromes in young women represent 0.6% of all acute coronary syndrome cases. The most common etiology is atherosclerosis (80%). Other causes include dissections and spasms of the coronary arteries as well as clotting disorders. Smoking tobacco is the most important risk factor, followed by hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. The long-term prognosis is usually favorable, but it deteriorates significantly in the event of complications. The literature on this subject is not extensive. Most data come from non-randomized studies of young patients conducted regardless of sex. The purpose of this paper is to present the problem posed by acute coronary syndromes in young women. PMID:26336495

  15. Tonic spasms and short myelitis in an elderly woman-unique onset of neuromyelitis optica.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Shahd; Elsone, Liene; Mutch, Kerry; Hunt, David P J; Murray, Katy; Reid, John M; Jacob, Anu

    2015-12-01

    Neuromyelitis optica typically presents at a median age of 40-50?years. The myelitis is usually of acute onset, long (>3 vertebral segments) and causes severe sensorimotor and bladder and bowel disturbances. We describe a 73-year-old Caucasian woman with aquaporin-4 antibody-positive neuromyelitis optica whose index event was intermittent paroxysmal tonic spasms (and no other myelitis features) that recurred for 6?months and was associated with a short spinal cord lesion on MRI. This case reiterates recent observations that neuromyelitis optica can occur in older persons, and its myelitis can be 'short' and clinically mild. PMID:26245509

  16. Hypofibrinogenemia caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone for infantile spasms: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Atsushi; Araya, Nami; Akasaka, Manami; Mizuma, Kanako; Asami, Maya; Tanifuji, Sachiko; Chida, Shoichi

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 7-month-old boy who developed hypofibrinogenemia (66.6 mg/dL; reference value, 170-405 mg/dL) during adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy for infantile spasms. Although the patient showed no clinical signs of a bleeding diathesis, we recommend that plasma fibrinogen levels should be monitored during ACTH therapy, which should be discontinued when fibrinogen levels fall below hemostatic levels (60.0mg/dL) or when bleeding tendencies are recognized. PMID:24735983

  17. [A woman in her forties with cancer, syncope and spasms].

    PubMed

    Warsame, Mahad Omar; Gamboa, Danil; Nielsen, Erik Waage

    2014-10-14

    A female in her forties with advanced incurable rectal cancer presented to our emergency department after loss of consciousness followed by brief myoclonic jerks in her legs. A cerebral MRI was normal. Her electrocardiogram showed a prolonged QTc interval of 596 milliseconds and hypokalemia was present. She had no family history of congenital long QT syndrome or of cardiovascular disease. She was not on any medication apart from having ingested 100 g caesium carbonate over the previous 11 days as an alternative cancer treatment. Caesium chloride is postulated to increase pH and thereby induce apoptosis in cancer cells. In treatment doses caesium competes with potassium for membrane transport proteins in the cardiac cell membrane and in the reabsorption tubuli of the kidneys. A result is hypokalemia shortly after depolarization during the cardiomyocytes' repolarisation phase or delayed post-depolarisation. Torsade de pointes ventricular arrhythmias, ventricular tachycardia, pump failure and death can follow. A few case reports of adverse effects from caesium ingestion have been published, as well as reports on how caesium is used in animal models to induce ventricular tachycardia, but the hazards of caesium ingestion and its long half-life are not well known in the medical care profession or among patients. As this patient's QTc interval normalised slowly to 413 milliseconds 60 days after stopping caesium ingestion, we consider caesium intoxication and convulsive syncope from a self-terminating ventricular tachycardia as the most probable aetiology. The main message from this case is that alternative medicine can have life-threatening side effects. PMID:25314987

  18. Acute Coronary Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2015 So youve never heard of an acute coronary syndrome. But what about heart attack , or unstable angina ? Those well-known conditions are ... too many doctors say, Youre having an acute coronary syndrome. They say, Youre having a heart attack. What are the symptoms? Chest pain or discomfort ...

  19. Coronary Heart Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tumblr. Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Coronary Heart Disease? Español Coronary heart ... web site. If you share this video on Twitter, please use #NationalWearRedDay. The NHLBI "Grand Opportunity" Exome ...

  20. Percutaneous coronary intervention in a patient with single coronary artery

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, T.K.; Mishra, C.K.; Das, B.

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery anomalies are found in 1–5% of all coronary angiograms. Single coronary artery is a rare congenital anomaly. The prevalence of the anomaly is 0.024–0.066% of the general population and percutaneous coronary intervention in this anomaly is performed infrequently. The highest incidence of this condition is reported from India. We report a case of a 55 year old patient of anterior wall ST elevation myocardial infarction with L1 group of single coronary artery who underwent successful angioplasty and stenting to left anterior descending artery. The unique features and inherent risks of percutaneous coronary intervention to single coronary artery are discussed. PMID:24973852

  1. Functional contribution of P2Y1 receptors to the control of coronary blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Berwick, Zachary C.; Laughlin, M. Harold; Tune, Johnathan D.

    2011-01-01

    Activation of ADP-sensitive P2Y1 receptors has been proposed as an integral step in the putative nucleotide axis regulating coronary blood flow. However, the specific mechanism(s) and overall contribution of P2Y1 receptors to the control of coronary blood flow have not been clearly defined. Using vertically integrative studies in isolated coronary arterioles and open-chest anesthetized dogs, we examined the hypothesis that P2Y1 receptors induce coronary vasodilation via an endothelium-dependent mechanism and contribute to coronary pressure-flow autoregulation and/or ischemic coronary vasodilation. Immunohistochemistry revealed P2Y1 receptor expression in coronary arteriolar endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. The ADP analog 2-methylthio-ADP induced arteriolar dilation in vitro and in vivo that was abolished by the selective P2Y1 antagonist MRS-2179 and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester. MRS-2179 did not alter baseline coronary flow in vivo but significantly attenuated coronary vasodilation to ATP in vitro and in vivo and the nonhydrolyzable ATP analog ATP?S in vitro. Coronary blood flow responses to alterations in coronary perfusion pressure (40100 mmHg) or to a brief 15-s coronary artery occlusion were unaffected by MRS-2179. Our data reveal that P2Y1 receptors are functionally expressed in the coronary circulation and that activation produces coronary vasodilation via an endothelium/nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. Although these receptors represent a critical component of purinergic coronary vasodilation, our findings indicate that P2Y1 receptor activation is not required for coronary pressure-flow autoregulation or reactive hyperemia. PMID:21940850

  2. Coronary Artery Perforation Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael S; Shamouelian, Albert; Dahodwala, Mufaddal Q

    2016-03-01

    Coronary artery perforation (CAP) is a rare but serious complication of percutaneous coronary intervention. Risk factors for CAP include female gender, older age, and lesion complexity. The most common causes of CAP include wire perforation, atherectomy, and aggressive sizing of balloons and stents. Complications of CAP vary greatly from clinical insignificance to hemodynamic collapse and death, depending on the severity of the CAP. Early recognition is of utmost importance to surviving CAP. Generally accepted treatment options depend on lesion severity, and include balloon inflation to tamponade the vessel, reversal of anticoagulation, covered stents, and embolization. Emergent pericardiocentesis or surgical evacuation may be required for the most severe cases. PMID:26945255

  3. Quantitative angiography after directional coronary atherectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Serruys, P W; Umans, V A; Strauss, B H; van Suylen, R J; van den Brand, M; Suryapranata, H; de Feyter, P J; Roelandt, J

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess by quantitative analysis the immediate angiographic results of directional coronary atherectomy. To compare the effects of successful atherectomy with those of successful balloon dilatation in a series of patients with matched lesions. DESIGN--Case series. SETTING--Tertiary referral centre. PATIENTS--62 patients in whom directional coronary atherectomy was attempted between 7 September 1989 and 31 December 1990. INTERVENTIONS--Directional coronary atherectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Increase in minimal luminal diameter of coronary artery segment. RESULTS--Angiographic success on the basis of intention to treat was obtained in 54 patients (87%). In four patients the lesion could not be crossed by the atherectomy device; all four had an uneventful conventional balloon angioplasty. Four of the 58 patients who underwent atherectomy were subsequently referred for coronary bypass surgery because of failure or complications; three of them sustained a transmural infarction. In the successful cases, coronary atherectomy resulted in an increase in the minimal luminal diameter from 1.1 mm to 2.5 mm with a concomitant decrease of the diameter stenosis from 62% to 22%. In the subset of 37 patients in which the changes induced were compared with conventional balloon angioplasty atherectomy increased the minimal luminal diameter more than balloon angioplasty (1.6 v 0.8 mm; p less than 0.0001). Conventional histology showed media or adventitia in 26% of the atherectomy specimens. In hospital complications occurred in six patients who had undergone a successful procedure: two transmural infarctions, two subendocardial infarctions, one transient ischaemia attack, and one death due to delayed rupture of the atherectomised vessel. All patients were clinically evaluated at one and six months. One patient had persisting angina (New York Heart Association class II), one patient sustained a myocardial infarction, one patient underwent a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for early restenosis, and one patient underwent coronary bypass surgery because of a coronary aneurysm formation. At six months 80% (36/47) of the patients were symptom free. CONCLUSIONS--Coronary atherectomy achieved a better immediate angiographic result than balloon angioplasty; however, in view of the complication rate in this preliminary series, which may be related to a learning curve, a randomised study is needed to show whether this procedure is as safe as a conventional balloon angioplasty. Images PMID:1883662

  4. [Pregnancy and coronary artery dissection].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Quintana, Efrén; Rodríguez-González, Fayna

    2015-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction during pregnancy is associated with high maternal and fetal mortality. Coronary atherosclerosis is the most common cause due to an increase in the age of the patients and the association with cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, and the existence of family history of coronary disease. However, thrombosis, coronary dissection or coronary vasospasms are other causes that may justify it. We report the case of a 33 weeks pregnant first-time mother, without cardiovascular risk factors, who presented an acute coronary event in the context of atherosclerotic disease and coronary dissection after percutaneous coronary intervention. PMID:25795261

  5. Whole-exome sequencing improves the diagnosis yield in sporadic infantile spasm syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dimassi, S; Labalme, A; Ville, D; Calender, A; Mignot, C; Boutry-Kryza, N; de Bellescize, J; Rivier-Ringenbach, C; Bourel-Ponchel, E; Cheillan, D; Simonet, T; Maincent, K; Rossi, M; Till, M; Mougou-Zerelli, S; Edery, P; Saad, A; Heron, D; des Portes, V; Sanlaville, D; Lesca, G

    2016-02-01

    Infantile spasms syndrome (ISs) is characterized by clinical spasms with ictal electrodecrement, usually occurring before the age of 1 year and frequently associated with cognitive impairment. Etiology is widely heterogeneous, the cause remaining elusive in 40% of patients. We searched for de novo mutations in 10 probands with ISs and their parents using whole-exome sequencing (WES). Patients had neither consanguinity nor family history of epilepsy. Common causes of ISs were excluded by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), metabolic screening, array-comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and testing for mutations in CDKL5, STXBP1, and for ARX duplications. We found a probably pathogenic mutation in four patients. Missense mutations in SCN2A (p.Leu1342Pro) and KCNQ2 (p.Ala306Thr) were found in two patients with no history of epilepsy before the onset of ISs. The p.Asn107Ser missense mutation of ALG13 had been previously reported in four females with ISs. The fourth mutation was an in-frame deletion (p.Phe110del) in NR2F1, a gene whose mutations cause intellectual disability, epilepsy, and optic atrophy. In addition, we found a possibly pathogenic variant in KIF3C that encodes a kinesin expressed during neural development. Our results confirm that WES improves significantly the diagnosis yield in patients with sporadic ISs. PMID:26138355

  6. The Significance of Intraoperative Electromyographic Lateral Spread in Predicting Outcome of Microvascular Decompression for Hemifacial Spasm

    PubMed Central

    Eckardstein, Kajetan von; Harper, Charles; Castner, Marina; Link, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives?During microvascular decompression (MVD) of the facial nerve for hemifacial spasm (HFS), an abnormal muscle response can be recorded upon stimulation of the facial nerve, also known as the lateral spread response. This response may vanish after MVD and has been associated with a successful outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine if resolution of lateral spread correlated with the elimination of HFS in a single surgeon's experience. Design and Setting?(1) Retrospective analysis of 38 patients undergoing MVD with intraoperative electromyography for HFS. (2) Meta-analysis of studies from the literature. Main Outcome Measure?Presence or absence of HFS and any complications. Results?Lateral spread response was seen in 36 patients; 20 patients had full resolution. Of these, 15 patients became HFS free, and 5 five patients still had some degree of HFS. Sixteen patients had a persistent lateral spread response despite a technically successful MVD; 11 of these became spasm free, and 5 still suffered from some degree of facial twitching. Analyzing 16 studies reporting a total of 1301 patients, a significant correlation (p?

  7. Disturbed calcium and phosphate homeostasis during treatment with ACTH of infantile spasms.

    PubMed Central

    Riikonen, R; Simell, O; Jskelinen, J; Rapola, J; Perheentupa, J

    1986-01-01

    Kidney histology of five infants who died during or immediately after treatment with adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) showed severe tubular and interstitial calcinosis. We therefore studied serum concentrations of calcium, inorganic phosphate, and parathormone, serum activities of alkaline phosphatase, and urinary excretion of calcium, inorganic phosphate, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in 16 other children with infantile spasms before, during, and after 6 weeks of treatment with ACTH. During the treatment the following observations were made: hypocalcaemia developed in three infants; the mean daily urinary excretion of calcium in the group increased threefold and seven infants had hypercalciuria; the excretion of phosphate increased but its tubular reabsorption remained stable; and in most infants serum parathormone and urinary cAMP excretion increased, and in four infants they increased to supranormal concentrations. These biochemical changes were reversible in most infants. Radiographs suggested loss of bone mass by 3-4 weeks of treatment, with rapid recovery after treatment. We conclude that infants treated with ACTH for infantile spasms are at risk of suffering disturbance in calcium and phosphate homeostasis, which leads to nephrocalcinosis. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3017235

  8. Postoperative complications of microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm: lessons from experience of 2040 cases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Ho; Jee, Tae Keun; Lee, Jeong Ah; Park, Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular decompression (MVD) is an effective and safe treatment option that offers the prospect of definitive cure for hemifacial spasm (HFS). However, there are potential risks of complications for MVD associated with retromastoid suboccipital craniectomy (RmSOC) and cranial nerves in particular. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical characteristics of possible complications after MVD for HFS and to establish appropriate management concept of these complications. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 2040 patients who underwent RmSOC with MVD for HFS at Samsung medical center between January 1998 and March 2013. Of 2040 patients, 2027 were followed (99.4 %). Of the 2027 patients, 1841 (90.8 %) exhibited complete relief or minimal symptoms, and 113 (5.6 %) reported improved spasm but had mild remnant symptoms. After operation, the most frequently developed complications were facial nerve palsy (8.19 %), followed by middle ear effusion (4.90 %) and hearing loss (3.63 %). There were two cases of supratentorial subdural hemorrhage, three cases of infarction. MVD was found to be safe and effective treatment for HFS, in consistent with previous reports. Some of the complications such as facial nerve palsy, middle ear effusion, and hearing loss are relatively common. However, they have mild clinical courses that are usually transient. PMID:26382646

  9. A Triplet Repeat Expansion Genetic Mouse Model of Infantile Spasms Syndrome, Arx(GCG)10+7, with Interneuronopathy, Spasms in Infancy, Persistent Seizures, and Adult Cognitive and Behavioral Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Price, Maureen G.; Yoo, Jong W.; Burgess, Daniel L.; Deng, Fang; Hrachovy, Richard A.; Frost, James D.; Noebels, Jeffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Infantile spasms syndrome (ISS) is a catastrophic pediatric epilepsy with motor spasms, persistent seizures, mental retardation, and in some cases, autism. One of its monogenic causes is an insertion mutation (c.304ins (GCG)7) on the X chromosome, expanding the first polyalanine tract of the interneuron-specific transcription factor ARX from 16 to 23 alanine codons. Null mutation of the Arx gene impairs GABA- and cholinergic interneuronal migration but results in a neonatal lethal phenotype. We developed the first viable genetic mouse model of ISS that spontaneously recapitulates salient phenotypic features of the human triplet-repeat expansion mutation. Arx (GCG)10+7 (Arx Plus7) pups display abnormal spasm-like myoclonus and other key EEG features, including multifocal spikes, electrodecremental episodes, and spontaneous seizures persisting into maturity. The neurobehavioral profile of Arx mutants was remarkable for lowered anxiety, impaired associative learning, and abnormal social interaction. Laminar decreases of Arx+ cortical interneurons and a selective reduction of calbindin-, but not parvalbumin- or calretinin-expressing interneurons in neocortical layers and hippocampus indicate that specific classes of synaptic inhibition are missing from the adult forebrain, providing a basis for the seizures and cognitive disorder. A significant reduction of calbindin, NPY-expressing and cholinergic interneurons in the mutant striatum suggest that dysinhibition within this network may contribute to the dyskinetic motor spasms. This mouse model narrows the range of critical pathogenic elements within brain inhibitory networks essential to recreate this complex neurodevelopmental syndrome. PMID:19587282

  10. Cyclobenzaprine and naproxen versus naproxen alone in the treatment of acute low back pain and muscle spasm.

    PubMed

    Borenstein, D G; Lacks, S; Wiesel, S W

    1990-01-01

    Two groups of 20 patients each, with mild to moderate acute low back pain with associated muscle spasm of ten days' duration or less, were treated with a combination of cyclobenzaprine and naproxen or naproxen alone in a randomized, 14-day open-label trial. Cyclobenzaprine was added to the naproxen regimen as an adjunct to rest and physical therapy for relief of muscle spasm associated with acute, painful, musculoskeletal conditions. The clinical characteristics of each study group, including the number of worker's compensation patients, were comparable. Combination therapy was associated with less objective muscle spasm and tenderness and greater motion of the lumbosacral spine (P less than 0.05). There were trends toward faster resolution of functional deficits and pain with combined therapy. Combination therapy was associated with more side effects, due primarily to drowsiness from the cyclobenzaprine. The results of this study demonstrated that patients with muscle spasm associated with acute low back strain benefited from the use of combination therapy consisting of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent (naproxen) and a muscle relaxant (cyclobenzaprine). PMID:2141299

  11. [The single coronary artery].

    PubMed

    Godart, F; Berzin, B; Rihani, R; Pecheux, M; Dutoit, A

    1992-04-01

    Single coronary artery is a fairly rare entity which may nevertheless be found in 0.4 per cent of coronary arteriograms. The authors report 3 cases seen in 2 departments of cardiology. In each patient, despite the existence of definite cardiovascular risk factors, this distribution was a factor worsening coronary ischemia, leading to complete thrombosis in one case. Although most often a chance discovery, a review of the literature justifies the attribution to this anomaly of the onset of angina, infarction or even sudden death. PMID:1642437

  12. (1) Coronary Events Caused by Myocardial Bridge

    PubMed Central

    Yoko, Kawawa; Ehiichi, Kohda; Toshiharu, Ishii

    2009-01-01

    Myocardial bridge (MB), which covers a part of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), is a normal anatomical variant structure (45% in frequency by autopsy) in LAD. MB contraction plays the role of a “double-edged sword” on the coronary events, suppressing coronary atherosclerosis under the MB, yet generating abnormal blood flow associated with coronary heart diseases (CHDs). High shear stress driven by MB compression causes the suppression of vascular permeability and vasoactive protein expression such as e-NOS and endothelin-1, which leads to the suppression of atherosclerosis in the LAD segment under the MB. However, despite the prevalent view of MB as benignancy by conventional coronary angiography (5-6% in frequency), with advance of imaging technique such as multislice spiral computed tomography [(MSCT); 16% in frequency], cardiologists are now frequently aware of symptomatic MB occurring not only in hospitalized patients, but also in young athletes free from atherosclerosis. Moreover, the large mass volume of MB muscle induces atherosclerosis evolution at the settled site in LAD proximal to MB and contributes to the occurrence of myocardial infarction. These events upon the coronary events result from the different pathophysiological mechanisms induced by contractile force of MB, which is solely determined just by the integration of anatomical properties of MB, such as the location, length and thickness of MB in an individual LAD. A recent MSCT provides the objective quantification of the anatomical variables that correlate with the histopathological results in relation to the occurrence of CHD. In this review, we therefore discuss the necessity to explore MB as a inherent chance anatomical risk factor for CHD. PMID:23555365

  13. Tortuous right coronary artery to coronary sinus fistula.

    PubMed

    Mitropoulos, Fotios; Samanidis, George; Kalogris, Panagiotis; Michalis, Alkiviadis

    2011-12-01

    We are reporting the successful surgical treatment of a 23-year-old female with a giant right coronary artery to coronary sinus fistula. This woman had complaints of chest pain and dyspnea on exertion for few months. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) showed a large tortuous right coronary artery and a dilated coronary sinus. Preoperative multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) coronary angiography and cardiac catheterization confirmed the diagnosis of a right coronary artery to coronary sinus fistula. The patient underwent surgical closure of the fistula and division of the communication between the right coronary artery and the coronary sinus with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. The patient was discharged home on postoperative day 5 and at one-year follow-up is symptom-free. PMID:21908886

  14. Regional Coronary Endothelial Function is Closely Related to Local Early Coronary Atherosclerosis in Patients with Mild Coronary Artery Disease: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hays, Allison G.; Kelle, Sebastian; Hirsch, Glenn A.; Soleimanifard, Sahar; Yu, Jing; Agarwal, Harsh K.; Gerstenblith, Gary; Schr, Michael; Stuber, Matthias; Weiss, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Coronary endothelial function (endoFx) is abnormal in patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD) and was recently shown by MRI to relate to the severity of luminal stenosis. Recent advances in MRI now allow the non-invasive assessment of both anatomic and functional (endoFx) changes that previously required invasive studies. We tested the hypothesis that abnormal coronary endoFx is related to measures of early atherosclerosis such as increased coronary wall thickness (CWT). Methods and Results Seventeen arteries in fourteen healthy adults and seventeen arteries in fourteen patients with non-obstructive CAD were studied. To measure endoFx, coronary MRI was performed before and during isometric handgrip exercise, an endothelial-dependent stressor and changes in coronary cross-sectional area (CSA) and flow were measured. Black blood imaging was performed to quantify CWT and other indices of arterial remodeling. The mean stress-induced change in CSA was significantly higher in healthy adults (13.5%12.8%, meanSD, n=17) than in those with mildly diseased arteries (-2.26.8%, p<0.0001, n=17). Mean CWT was lower in healthy subjects (0.90.2mm) than in CAD patients (1.40.3mm, p<0.0001). In contrast to healthy subjects, stress-induced changes in CSA, a measure of coronary endoFx, correlated inversely with CWT in CAD patients (r= -0.73, p=0.0008). Conclusions There is an inverse relationship between coronary endothelial function and local CWT in CAD patients but not in healthy adults. These findings demonstrate that local endothelial-dependent functional changes are related to the extent of early anatomic atherosclerosis in mildly diseased arteries. This combined MRI approach enables the anatomic and functional investigation of early coronary disease. PMID:22492483

  15. Symptomatic Coronary Cameral Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Nagpal, Prashant; Khandelwal, Ashish; Saboo, Sachin S.; Garg, Gunjan; Steigner, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Coronary cameral fistula is a rare entity and is characterized by an abnormal communication between coronary artery and a cardiac chamber. It is usually congenital and asymptomatic in majority of patients. If symptomatic the patients usually present in childhood. We present a case of 45-year-old male who presented with anginal chest pain and dyspnea on exertion for last 1 year. His exercise treadmill test was positive for ischemic changes and ECG-gated contrast enhanced CT was done for further evaluation. CT showed a large right coronary artery to right atrium fistula. It also ruled out any coronary atherosclerosis as reason for chest pain and ischemic symptoms on exercise treadmill test. The fistula was successfully closed by surgery and there was resolution of chest pain and dyspnea. PMID:26240737

  16. Coronary Artery Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease. It is the leading cause of death ... both men and women. CAD happens when the arteries that supply blood to heart muscle become hardened ...

  17. Infantile Spasms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a specific type of seizure seen in an epilepsy syndrome of infancy and childhood known as West ... supports broad and varied programs of research on epilepsy and other seizure disorders. This research is aimed ...

  18. Coronary Artery Imaging in Children

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery problems in children usually have a significant impact on both short-term and long-term outcomes. Early and accurate diagnosis, therefore, is crucial but technically challenging due to the small size of the coronary artery, high heart rates, and limited cooperation of children. Coronary artery visibility on CT and MRI in children is considerably improved with recent technical advancements. Consequently, CT and MRI are increasingly used for evaluating various congenital and acquired coronary artery abnormalities in children, such as coronary artery anomalies, aberrant coronary artery anatomy specific to congenital heart disease, Kawasaki disease, Williams syndrome, and cardiac allograft vasculopathy. PMID:25741188

  19. Late-onset epileptic spasms in a patient with 22q13.3 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Nobutsune; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Fujii, Yuji; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Patients with 22q13.3 deletion syndrome present with diverse neurological problems such as global developmental delays, hypotonia, delayed or absent speech, autistic behavior, and epilepsy. Seizures occur in up to one-third of patients with 22q13.3 deletion syndrome; however, only a few reports have provided details regarding the seizure manifestations. The present report describes a patient with 22q13.3 deletion syndrome who presented with late-onset epileptic spasms (ES) and electroencephalography features like Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. An array comparative genomic hybridization analysis revealed that a chromosomal deletion of this patient included SHANK3. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first confirmed case of late-onset ES occur in patients with 22q13.3 deletion syndrome with a SHANK3 deletion. PMID:26094094

  20. Brain-adrenal axis hormones are altered in the CSF of infants with massive infantile spasms

    PubMed Central

    Baram, T.Z.; Mitchell, W.G.; Snead, O.C.; Horton, E.J.; Saito, M.

    2011-01-01

    Massive infantile spasms (MIS), a seizure disorder unique to infants, is considered an age-dependent response of the immature brain to various insults and stressors. The seizures improve with ACTH and glucocorticoids, both major components of the brain-adrenal axis. We hypothesized that CNS levels of these hormones are abnormal in infants with MIS and studied CSF from 14 infants with MIS and 13 age-matched controls by analysis for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), ACTH, cortisol, and interleukin-1-beta. ACTH levels in CSF of patients were significantly lower than those of controls, but differences in cortisol levels between patients and controls were not statistically significant. CRH levels in both groups were similar and fluctuated diurnally. These results indicate an alteration of specific CNS components of the brain-adrenal axis in MIS. PMID:1318521

  1. Late-onset epileptic spasms in a female patient with a CASK mutation.

    PubMed

    Nakajiri, Tomoshi; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Oka, Makio; Miya, Fuyuki; Kosaki, Kenjiro; Yoshinaga, Harumi

    2015-10-01

    We report a female patient with late-onset epileptic spasms (ESs) of a rare form, distinct from those seen in typical West syndrome, in association with a heterozygous frameshift CASK mutation (c.1896dupC (p.C633fs(?)2)). She has a phenotype of microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH), and has had intractable ESs in clusters since 3 years 8 months of age with multifocal, particularly bifrontal, epileptic discharges in electroencephalogram. The available literature on patients with both ESs and CASK mutations has been reviewed, revealing that four of the five female children, including the present girl, had late-onset ESs, in contrast to the four males, who tended toward early-onset ESs. PMID:25765806

  2. [Transposition technique of microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm without using a brain retractor].

    PubMed

    Shigeno, Taku; Kumai, Junichiro; Horikawa, Hiroshi; Aihara, Kouki; Endo, Masaru; Oya, Soichi; Ishikawa, Osamu; Nishido, Hajime; Sakamoto, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    A unique transposition technique in microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm (HFS) was employed in patients with compression by either the peripheral artery or the main trunk of the vertebral artery. Complete transposition that secured free space between the offending artery and the root exit zone (REZ) was accomplished by introducing GORE-TEX tape around the artery and suturing it to the petrous dura. An adequate working space, as if operating in a shallow basin, was essential. Throughout the procedure, it was not necessary to use a brain retractor. Instead, a gentle wrapping retraction technique using a sucker was employed over the brain covered by a sheet of Gelfoam (Pfizer Japan Inc., Tokyo) and cotton. All patients showed complete cure of HFS immediately after surgery with this technique. The difficulty of transposing the vertebral artery can be overcome by well-designed surgical strategy and skillfulness. PMID:19175031

  3. Blink reflex recovery curves in blepharospasm, torticollis spasmodica, and hemifacial spasm.

    PubMed

    Eekhof, J L; Aramideh, M; Bour, L J; Hilgevoord, A A; Speelman, H D; Ongerboer de Visser, B W

    1996-01-01

    R1 and R2 blink reflex responses to single and paired stimuli were investigated in 23 control subjects, 21 patients with blepharospasm (BSP), 20 patients with torticollis spasmodica (TS), and 23 with hemifacial spasm (HFS). For paired stimuli, we compared measurements of area and peak responses at two and three times R2 threshold. R1 and R2 indices were calculated as the average of the recovery values at 0.5-, 0.3-, and 0.21-s interstimulus intervals to test individual patients. Peak amplitude measurements at three times R2 threshold were optimal. The R2 index was abnormal in 67% of BSP patients, 37% of TS patients, and 50% of HFS patients on the affected side and 20% on the unaffected side. A normal R2 index in one third of patients with BSP may indicate that different pathophysiological mechanisms are involved in this type of focal dystonia. PMID:8538655

  4. The mechanism of hemifacial spasm: a new understanding of the offending artery.

    PubMed

    Dou, Ning-Ning; Zhong, Jun; Zhou, Qiu-Meng; Zhu, Jin; Wang, Yong-Nan; Xia, Lei; Yang, Xiao-Sheng; Ying, Ting-Ting; Zheng, Xue-Sheng; Li, Shi-Ting

    2015-02-01

    Although neurovascular confliction was believed to be the cause of hemifacial spasm (HFS), the mechanism of the disorder remains unclear to date. Current theories, merely focusing on the facial nerve, have failed to explain the clinical phenomenon of immediate relief following a successful microvascular decompression surgery (MVD). With the experience of thousands of microvascular decompression surgeries and preliminary investigations, we have learned that the offending artery may play a more important role than the effect of merely mechanical compression in the pathogenesis of the disease. We believe that the attrition of neurovascular interface is the essence of the etiology, and the substance of the disease is emersion of ectopic action potentials from the demyelinated facial nerve fibers, which were triggered by the sympathetic endings from the offending artery wall. In this paper, we put forward evidence to support this hypothesis, both logically and theoretically. PMID:25034027

  5. Injection of botulinum toxin for the treatment of post-laryngectomy pharyngoesophageal spasm-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Lightbody, K A; Wilkie, M D; Kinshuck, A J; Gilmartin, E; Lewis-Jones, H; Jones, T M; Lancaster, J

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Pharyngoesophageal spasm (PES) can cause dysphagia, central valve leak (CVL), and dypshonia in post-laryngectomy patients. Botulinum toxin has been used effectively for the treatment of PES, but data regarding patient-reported outcomes and efficacy for CVL are limited. We evaluated the results of botox injection for PES spasm using subjective and objective measures. Methods Data were collected prospectively (February 2010 to August 2013) on 13 patients undergoing botox injection for PES as identified by video fluoroscopy. We collected digital voice recordings, air-pressure measurements (APMs) for speech, and quality of life (QoL) data before and after the procedure: University of Washington QoL questionnaire (UW-QoL), MD Anderson Swallowing Inventory (MDADI) and the Voice Handicap Index (VHI-30). Results APMs for a sustained vowel decreased by 18% after botox injection, whereas maximum phonatory times increased by 63% (mean increase, 8 to 13 seconds). Sustained vowel amplitude decreased (mean, 87db to 83db) with an associated reduction in sustained vowel frequency (117Hz to 77Hz). MDADI scores improved by 10.2% overall, and UW-QoL scores showed an improvement in score of 7.6%. Mean scores for VHI-30 deteriorated by 2% overall but, when considering only those patients experiencing dysphonia, an improvement of 9.4% was seen. There was an overall net reduction for the CVL cohort of 12 speech valves in the year after injection. Conclusions Our series confirm the safety and objective efficacy of botox injection for PES. QoL measurements were less convincing, and this disparity between subjective and objective measurements must be considered when treating such patients. PMID:26414361

  6. Transient left temporal lobe lesion in Menkes disease may influence the generation of tonic spasms.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiromichi; Mori, Kenji; Sakata, Miho; Naito, Etsuo; Harada, Masafumi; Kagami, Shoji

    2011-04-01

    We report a 7-month-old boy with Menkes disease who presented West syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed atrophy of the frontal and parietal lobes, subdural hematoma on the right side, and left temporal lobe lesion (low intensity in T1-weighted imaging (T1-WI), high intensity in T2-weighted imaging (T2-WI) and low intensity in diffusion-weighted imaging (DW-I)) at 7 months of age. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was 1.6810(-3)mm(2)/s in the left temporal lobe lesion and 1.1510(-3)mm(2)/s on the contralateral side. (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) revealed a decrease in N-acetylaspartate/(creatine+phosphocreatine) (NAA/Cr) (0.71) and a lactate peak in the left temporal lobe lesion. At 8 months of age, the left temporal lobe lesion disappeared, the ADC of this lesion was within the normal range (1.1010(-3)mm(2)/s), and (1)H-MRS revealed a slight increase in NAA/Cr (1.12) and disappearance of the lactate peak. We suspected that the transient temporal lobe lesion in Menkes disease was mainly vasogenic edema. Electroencephalography (EEG) revealed left hemisphere dominant hypsarrhythmia and slowing in the left hemisphere. Ictal EEG revealed generalized slow wave burst with P3, T3 spike antecedence and the antecedent spike was consistent with left temporal lobe lesion. After disappearance of the left temporal lobe lesion, tonic spasms disappeared and EEG findings improved. In this case, the clinical course and ictal EEG suggested that epileptic activity from the left temporal lobe lesion may have given rise to tonic spasms. PMID:21382542

  7. Constitutively active 5-HT2/?1 receptors facilitate muscle spasms after human spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    D'Amico, Jessica M.; Murray, Katherine C.; Li, Yaqing; Chan, K. Ming; Finlay, Mark G.; Bennett, David J.

    2013-01-01

    In animals, the recovery of motoneuron excitability in the months following a complete spinal cord injury is mediated, in part, by increases in constitutive serotonin (5-HT2) and norepinephrine (?1) receptor activity, which facilitates the reactivation of calcium-mediated persistent inward currents (CaPICs) without the ligands serotonin and norepinephrine below the injury. In this study we sought evidence for a similar role of constitutive monoamine receptor activity in the development of spasticity in human spinal cord injury. In chronically injured participants with partially preserved sensory and motor function, the serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram facilitated long-lasting reflex responses (spasms) previously shown to be mediated by CaPICs, suggesting that in incomplete spinal cord injury, functional descending sources of monoamines are present to activate monoamine receptors below the lesion. However, in participants with motor or motor/sensory complete injuries, the inverse agonist cyproheptadine, which blocks both ligand and constitutive 5-HT2/?1 receptor activity, decreased long-lasting reflexes, whereas the neutral antagonist chlorpromazine, which only blocks ligand activation of these receptors, had no effect. When tested in noninjured control participants having functional descending sources of monoamines, chlorpromazine was effective in reducing CaPIC-mediated motor unit activity. On the basis of these combined results, it appears that in severe spinal cord injury, facilitation of persistent inward currents and muscle spasms is mainly mediated by the activation of constitutive 5-HT2 and ?1 receptor activity. Drugs that more selectively block these constitutively active monoamine receptors may provide better oral control of spasticity, especially in motor complete spinal cord injury where reducing motoneuron excitability is the primary goal. PMID:23221402

  8. [Coronary pseudoaneurysm after percutaneous treatment of a coronary perforation].

    PubMed

    Martnez-Quintana, Efrn; Rodrguez-Gonzlez, Fayna

    2015-01-01

    Coronary pseudoaneurysms are rare and usually occur after percutaneous procedures, spontaneous dissections, aortocoronary bypass, or chest trauma. Although most of the cases are casual, other patients present as acute myocardial infarction, fistula formation or cardiac tamponade. We report the case of a coronary pseudoaneurysm after percutaneous treatment of a coronary perforation. PMID:25977196

  9. Lateral rectus palsy following coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Luke; Jones, Ruth; Hughes, David S

    2014-01-01

    We present a rare case of unilateral lateral rectus palsy following an elective coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention in a 78-year-oldwoman. Ophthalmoplegia following coronary angiography is extremely rare and this is the first case of a unilateral lateral rectus palsy following the procedure. PMID:24536054

  10. Coronary subclavian steal syndrome following coronary by-pass surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Kneale, B. J.; Irvine, A. T.; Coltart, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    The coronary steal syndrome is an uncommon but well recognised occurrence following coronary artery by-pass surgery using the internal mammary artery. We report a case of coronary steal successfully treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of a subclavian stenosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8758016

  11. Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of CCTA for patients who have: suspected abnormal anatomy of the coronary arteries. low or intermediate risk ... examination is used to identify the coronary artery anatomy, plaque, narrowing of the vessel, and, in certain ...

  12. Integrative physiology of coronary microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Kajiya, F; Goto, M

    1999-06-01

    Coronary microvessels play a crucial role for mechanoenergetic interaction between blood flow and myocardial function, which is not uniform transmurally. Thus, highly organized vascular regulations are required for matching local blood flow with myocardial energy requirement. Recently, new technologies to investigate in vivo coronary microcirculation with new knowledge of the signaling molecules for vascular regulation have revolutionized our abilities to understand the integrative regulation of coronary microcirculation. In this review, the mechanical aspects of the interaction between coronary blood flow and myocardium, coronary arte-rial tree and its roles in myocardial blood flow regulation, hierarchical and dynamic control of coronary flow, capillary network and function, function of venous drainage system, and molecular and cellular aspects of integrative coronary blood flow regulation are discussed, focusing on their integrational roles in maintaining coronary microvascular function and cell signaling. PMID:10529484

  13. Functional Testing Underlying Coronary Revascularisation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-08

    Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease; Vessel Disease; Stable Angina; Unstable Angina or Stabilized Non-ST Elevated Myocardial Infarction; Patients With ST-elevated Myocardial Infarction; Revascularization of Culprit Coronary Artery

  14. Intravascular Ultrasound to Guide Percutaneous Coronary Interventions

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) as an adjunctive imaging tool to coronary angiography for guiding percutaneous coronary interventions. Background Intravascular Ultrasound Intravascular ultrasound is a procedure that uses high frequency sound waves to acquire 3-dimensional images from the lumen of a blood vessel. The equipment for performing IVUS consists of a percutaneous transducer catheter and a console for reconstructing images. IVUS has been used to study the structure of the arterial wall and nature of atherosclerotic plaques, and obtain measurements of the vessel lumen. Its role in guiding stent placement is also being investigated. IVUS is presently not an insured health service in Ontario. Clinical Need Coronary artery disease accounts for approximately 55% of cardiovascular deaths, the leading cause of death in Canada. In Ontario, the annual mortality rate due to ischemic heart disease was 141.8 per 100,000 population between 1995 and 1997. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), a less invasive approach to treating coronary artery disease, is used more frequently than coronary bypass surgery in Ontario. The number of percutaneous coronary intervention procedures funded by the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-term Care is expected to increase from approximately 17, 780 in 2004/2005 to 22,355 in 2006/2007 (an increase of 26%), with about 95% requiring the placement of one or more stents. Restenosis following percutaneous coronary interventions involving bare metal stents occurs in 15% to 30% of the cases, mainly because of smooth muscle proliferation and migration, and production of extracellular matrix. In-stent restenosis has been linked to suboptimal stent expansion and inadequate lesion coverage, while stent thrombosis has been attributed to incomplete stent-to-vessel wall apposition. Since coronary angiography (the imaging tool used to guide stent placement) has been shown to be inaccurate in assessing optimal stent placement, and IVUS can provide better views of the vessel lumen, the clinical utility of IVUS as an imaging tool adjunctive to coronary angiography in coronary intervention procedures has been explored in clinical studies. Method A systematic review was conducted to answer the following questions: What are the procedure-related complications associated with IVUS? Does IVUS used in conjunction with angiography to guide percutaneous interventions improve patient outcomes compared to angiographic guidance without IVUS? Who would benefit most in terms of clinical outcomes from the use of IVUS adjunctive to coronary angiography in guiding PCIs? What is the effectiveness of IVUS guidance in the context of drug-eluting stents? What is the cost-effectiveness ratio and budget impact of adjunctive IVUS in PCIs in Ontario? A systematic search of databases OVID MEDLINE, EMBASE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, The Cochrane Library, and the International Agency for Health Technology Assessment (INAHTA) database for the period beginning in May 2001 until the day of the search, November 4, 2005 yielded 2 systematic reviews, 1 meta-analysis, 6 randomized controlled trials, and 2 non-randomized studies on left main coronary arteries. The quality of the studies ranged from moderate to high. These reports were combined with reports from a previous systematic review for analysis. In addition to qualitative synthesis, pooled analyses of data from randomized controlled studies using a random effect model in the Cochrane Review Manager 4.2 software were conducted when possible. Findings of Literature Review & Analysis Safety Intravascular ultrasound appears to be a safe tool when used in coronary interventions. Periprocedural complications associated with the use of IVUS in coronary interventions ranged from 0.5% in the largest study to 4%. Coronary rupture was reported in 1 study (1/54). Other complications included prolonged spasms of the artery after stenting, dissection, and femoral aneurysm. Effectiveness Based on pooled analyses of data from randomized controlled studies, the use of intravascular ultrasound adjunctive to coronary intervention in percutaneous coronary interventions using bare metal stents yielded the following findings: For lesions predominantly at low risk of restenosis: There were no significant differences in preintervention angiographic minimal lumen diameter between the IVUS-guided and angiography-guided groups. IVUS guidance resulted in a significantly larger mean postintervention angiographic minimal lumen diameter (weighted mean difference of 0.11 mm, P = .0003) compared to angiographic guidance alone. The benefit in angiographic minimal lumen diameter from IVUS guidance was not maintained at 6-month follow-up, when no significant difference in angiographic minimal lumen diameter could be detected between the two arms (weighted mean difference 0.08, P = .13). There were no statistically significant differences in angiographic binary restenosis rates between IVUS-guidance and no IVUS guidance (Odds ratio [OR] 0.87 in favour of IVUS, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] [0.64–1.18], P = 0.37). IVUS guidance resulted in a reduction in the odds of target lesion revascularization (repeat percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary bypass graft) compared to angiographic guidance alone. The reduction was statistically significant at a follow-up period of 6 months to 1 year, and at a follow-up period of 18 month to 2 years (OR 0.52 in favour of IVUS, 95% CI [0.33–0.81], P = .004). Total revascularization rate (either target lesion or target vessel revascularization) was significantly lower for IVUS-guided patients at 18 months to 2.5 years after intervention (OR 0.43 in favour of IVUS, 95% CI [0.29–0.63], p < .0001). There were no statistically significant differences in the odds of death (OR 1.36 in favour of no IVUS, P =0.65) or myocardial infarction (OR 0.95 in favour of IVUS, P = 0.93) between IVUS-guidance and angiographic guidance alone at up to 2.5 years of follow-up The odds of having a major cardiac event (defined as death, myocardial infarction, and target lesion or target vessel revascularization) were significantly lower for patients with IVUS guidance compared to angiographic guidance alone during follow-up periods of up to 2.5 years (OR 0.53, 95% CI [0.36–0.78], P = 0.001). Since there were no significant reductions in the odds of death or myocardial infarction, the reduction in the odds of combined events reflected mainly the reduction in revascularization rates. For lesions at High Risk of Restenosis: There is evidence from one small, randomized controlled trial (n=150) that IVUS-guided percutaneous coronary intervention in long de novo lesions (>20 mm) of native coronary arteries resulted in statistically significant larger minimal lumen Diameter, and statistically significant lower 6-month angiographic binary restenosis rate. Target vessel revascularization rate and the rate of combined events were also significantly reduced at 12 months. A small subgroup analysis of a randomized controlled trial reported no benefit in clinical or angiographic outcomes for IVUS-guided percutaneous coronary interventions in patients with diabetes compared to those guided by angiography. However, due to the nature and size of the analysis, no firm conclusions could be reached. Based on 2 small, prospective, non-randomized controlled studies, IVUS guidance in percutaneous coronary interventions of left main coronary lesions using bare metal stents or drug-eluting stents did not result in any benefits in angiographic or clinical outcomes. These findings need to be confirmed. Interventions Using Drug-Eluting Stents There is presently no evidence on whether the addition of IVUS guidance during the implantation of drug-eluting stents would reduce incomplete stent apposition, or improve the angiographic or clinical outcomes of patients. Ontario-Based Economic Analysis Cost-effectiveness analysis showed that PCIs using IVUS guidance would likely be less costly and more effective than PCIs without IVUS guidance. The upfront cost of adjunctive use of IVUS in PCIs ranged from $1.56 million at 6% uptake to $13.04 million at 50% uptake. Taking into consideration cost avoidance from reduction in revascularization associated with the use of IVUS, a net saving of $0.63 million to $5.2 million is expected. However, since it is uncertain whether the reduction in revascularization rate resulting from the use of IVUS can be generalized to clinical settings in Ontario, further analysis on the budget impact and cost-effectiveness need to be conducted once Ontario-specific revascularization rates are verified. Factors to be Considered in the Ontario Context Applicability of Findings to Ontario The interim analysis of an Ontario field evaluation that compared drug-eluting stents to bare metal stents showed that the revascularization rates in low-risk patients with bare metal stents were much lower in Ontario compared to rates reported in randomized controlled trials (7.2% vs >17 %). Even though IVUS is presently not routinely used in the stenting of low-risk patients in Ontario, the revascularization rates in these patients in Ontario were shown to be lower than those reported for the IVUS groups reported in published studies. Based on this information and previous findings from the Ontario field evaluation on stenting, it is uncertain whether the reduction in revascularization rates from IVUS guidance can be generalized to Ontario. In light of the above findings, it is advisable to validate the reported benefits of IVUS guidance in percutaneous coronary interventions involving bare metal stents in the Ontario context. Licensing Status As of January 16, 2006, Health Canada has licensed 10 intravascular ultrasound imaging systems/catheters for transluminal intervention procedures, most as class 4 medical devices. Current Funding IVUS is presently not an insured procedure under the Ontario Health Insurance Plan and there are no professional fees for this procedure. All costs related to the use of IVUS are covered within hospitals’ global budgets. A single use IVUS catheter costs approximately $900CDN and the procedure adds approximately 20 minutes to 30 minutes to a percutaneous coronary intervention procedure. Diffusion According to an expert consultant, current use of IVUS in coronary interventions in Ontario is probably limited to high-risk cases such as interventions in long lesions, small vessels, and bifurcated lesions for which images from coronary angiography are indeterminate. It was estimated that IVUS is being used in about 6% of all percutaneous coronary interventions at a large Ontario cardiac centre. Expert Opinion IVUS greatly enhances the cardiac interventionists’ ability to visualize and assess high-risk lesions such as long lesions, narrow lesions, and bifurcated lesions that may have indeterminate angiographic images. Information from IVUS in these cases facilitates the choice of the most appropriate approach for the intervention. Conclusion The use of adjunctive IVUS in PCIs using bare metal stents in lesions predominantly at low risk for restenosis had no significant impact on survival, myocardial infarction, or angiographic restenosis rates up to 2.5 years after intervention. The use of IVUS adjunctive to coronary angiography in percutaneous coronary interventions using bare metal stents in lesions predominantly at low risk for restenosis significantly reduced the target lesion and target vessel revascularization at a follow-up period of 18 months to 2.5 years. One small study suggests that adjunctive IVUS in PCIs using bare metal stents in long lesions (>20 mm) significantly improved the 6-month angiographic restenosis rate and one-year target lesion revascularization rate. These results need to be confirmed with large randomized controlled trials. Based on information from the Ontario field evaluation on stenting, it is uncertain whether the reduction in revascularization rate resulting from the use of IVUS in the placement of bare metal stents can be generalized to clinical settings in Ontario. There is presently insufficient evidence available to determine the impact of adjunctive IVUS in percutaneous interventions in high-risk lesions (other than long lesions) or in PCIs using drug-eluting stents. PMID:23074482

  15. Indications and Timings of Re-operation for Residual or Recurrent Hemifacial Spasm after Microvascular Decompression: Personal Experience and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Hatayama, Toru; Kono, Takuji; Harada, Yoichi; Yamashita, Keiichi; Utsunomiya, Toshifumi; Hayashi, Mototaka; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Hatanaka, Ryo; Shimada, Daisuke; Takemura, Atsuhito; Tabata, Hidefumi; Tobishima, Hana

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed reports about the postoperative course of hemifacial spasm (HFS) after microvascular decompression (MVD), including in our own patients, and investigated treatment for delayed resolution or recurrence of HFS. Symptoms of HFS disappear after surgery in many patients, but spasm persists postoperatively in about 10-40%. Residual spasm also gradually decreases, with rates of 1-13% at 1 year postoperatively. However, because delayed resolution is uncommon after 1 year postoperatively, the following is advised: (1) In patients with residual spasms after 1 year postoperatively (incomplete cure) or who again experience spasm ? 1 year postoperatively (recurrence), re-operation is recommended if the spasms are worse than before MVD. (2) When re-operation is considered, preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and intraoperative videos should be reviewed to ensure that no compression due to a small artery or vein was missed, and to confirm that adhesions with the prosthesis are not causing compression. If any suspicious findings are identified, the cause must be eliminated. Moreover, because of the risk of nerve injury, decompression of the distal portion of the facial nerve should be performed only in patients in whom distal compression is strongly suspected to be the cause of symptoms. (3) Cure rates after re-operation are high, but complications such as hearing impairment and facial weakness have been reported in 10-20% of cases, so surgery must be performed with great care. PMID:26226977

  16. Indications and Timings of Re-operation for Residual or Recurrent Hemifacial Spasm after Microvascular Decompression: Personal Experience and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    HATAYAMA, Toru; KONO, Takuji; HARADA, Yoichi; YAMASHITA, Keiichi; UTSUNOMIYA, Toshifumi; HAYASHI, Mototaka; NAKAJIMA, Hiroyuki; HATANAKA, Ryo; SHIMADA, Daisuke; TAKEMURA, Atsuhito; TABATA, Hidefumi; TOBISHIMA, Hana

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed reports about the postoperative course of hemifacial spasm (HFS) after microvascular decompression (MVD), including in our own patients, and investigated treatment for delayed resolution or recurrence of HFS. Symptoms of HFS disappear after surgery in many patients, but spasm persists postoperatively in about 1040%. Residual spasm also gradually decreases, with rates of 113% at 1 year postoperatively. However, because delayed resolution is uncommon after 1 year postoperatively, the following is advised: (1) In patients with residual spasms after 1 year postoperatively (incomplete cure) or who again experience spasm ? 1 year postoperatively (recurrence), re-operation is recommended if the spasms are worse than before MVD. (2) When re-operation is considered, preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and intraoperative videos should be reviewed to ensure that no compression due to a small artery or vein was missed, and to confirm that adhesions with the prosthesis are not causing compression. If any suspicious findings are identified, the cause must be eliminated. Moreover, because of the risk of nerve injury, decompression of the distal portion of the facial nerve should be performed only in patients in whom distal compression is strongly suspected to be the cause of symptoms. (3) Cure rates after re-operation are high, but complications such as hearing impairment and facial weakness have been reported in 1020% of cases, so surgery must be performed with great care. PMID:26226977

  17. Factors influencing the functional significance in intermediate coronary stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li-Jie; Wang, Gui-Song; Cui, Ming; Guo, Li-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Zhen; Zhang, Fu-Chun; Niu, Jie; Han, Jiang-Li; Xu, Wei-Xian; Zhu, Dan; Gao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the influencing factors of the functional significance determined by fractional flow reserve (FFR) in intermediate coronary artery stenosis. Methods The study enrolled 143 patients with 203 intermediate coronary lesions. Pressure-derived FFR of these lesions was gained at maximal hyperemia induced by intravenous adenosine infusion. An FFR < 0.80 was considered as abnormal functional significance. Anatomic parameters at the lesion sites were obtained by off-line quantitative coronary angiography analysis (QCA). The predictive value of the demographic characteristics and anatomic parameters for FFR in these intermediate lesions was assessed using multiple linear and binary logistic regression analysis. Results Overall, FFR < 0.8 was found in 70 (34%) of the total 203 intermediate coronary lesions. FFR values were positively correlated with QCA-measured minimum lumen diameters (MLD, r = 0.372, P = 0.000) and the reference vessel diameters (RVD, r = 0.217, P = 0.002) were negatively correlated with percent area stenosis (AS, r = ?0.251, P = 0.000) and percent diameter stenosis (DS, r = ?0.210, P = 0.000). Age, MLD and the lesion location in different coronary arteries were the independent determinants of FFR < 0.8. Conclusions MLD can predict the functional significance of intermediate coronary stenosis, while age and the lesion location in different coronary arteries should be taken into account as important influencing factors of FFR values. PMID:25870612

  18. Balloon-assisted tracking during primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Pavlidis, Antonios N; Karamasis, Grigoris V; Rees, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Radial artery spasm is one of the most commonly encountered problems during transradial interventions with a reported incidence in the range of 6-10%. Balloon-assisted tracking (BAT) of guide catheter has recently been described as a novel technique to overcome difficult radial artery anatomies including tortuosity, loops and spasm. In this report, we describe the successful use of BAT in a patient with radial artery spasm during primary angioplasty. PMID:25635748

  19. Effects of the Selective Stretch-Activated Channel Blocker GsMtx4 on Stretch-Induced Changes in Refractoriness in Isolated Rat Hearts and on Ventricular Premature Beats and Arrhythmias after Coronary Occlusion in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Barrabés, José A.; Inserte, Javier; Agulló, Luis; Rodríguez-Sinovas, Antonio; Alburquerque-Béjar, Juan J.; Garcia-Dorado, David

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical factors may contribute to ischemic ventricular arrhythmias. GsMtx4 peptide, a selective stretch-activated channel blocker, inhibits stretch-induced atrial arrhythmias. We aimed to assess whether GsMtx4 protects against ventricular ectopy and arrhythmias following coronary occlusion in swine. First, the effects of 170-nM GsMtx4 on the changes in the effective refractory period (ERP) induced by left ventricular (LV) dilatation were assessed in 8 isolated rat hearts. Then, 44 anesthetized, open-chest pigs subjected to 50-min left anterior descending artery occlusion and 2-h reperfusion were blindly allocated to GsMtx4 (57 μg/kg iv. bolus and 3.8 μg/kg/min infusion, calculated to attain the above concentration in plasma) or saline, starting 5-min before occlusion and continuing until after reflow. In rat hearts, LV distension induced progressive reductions in ERP (35±2, 32±2, and 29±2 ms at 0, 20, and 40 mmHg of LV end-diastolic pressure, respectively, P<0.001) that were prevented by GsMTx4 (33±2, 33±2, and 32±2 ms, respectively, P=0.002 for the interaction with LV end-diastolic pressure). Pigs receiving GsMtx4 had similar number of ventricular premature beats during the ischemic period as control pigs (110±28 vs. 103±21, respectively, P=0.842). There were not significant differences among treated and untreated animals in the incidence of ventricular fibrillation (13.6 vs. 22.7%, respectively, P=0.696) or tachycardia (36.4 vs. 50.0%, P=0.361) or in the number of ventricular tachycardia episodes during the occlusion period (1.8±0.7 vs. 5.5±2.6, P=0.323). Thus, GsMtx4 administered under these conditions does not suppress ventricular ectopy following coronary occlusion in swine. Whether it might protect against malignant arrhythmias should be tested in studies powered for these outcomes. PMID:25938516

  20. Effects of the Selective Stretch-Activated Channel Blocker GsMtx4 on Stretch-Induced Changes in Refractoriness in Isolated Rat Hearts and on Ventricular Premature Beats and Arrhythmias after Coronary Occlusion in Swine.

    PubMed

    Barrabés, José A; Inserte, Javier; Agulló, Luis; Rodríguez-Sinovas, Antonio; Alburquerque-Béjar, Juan J; Garcia-Dorado, David

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical factors may contribute to ischemic ventricular arrhythmias. GsMtx4 peptide, a selective stretch-activated channel blocker, inhibits stretch-induced atrial arrhythmias. We aimed to assess whether GsMtx4 protects against ventricular ectopy and arrhythmias following coronary occlusion in swine. First, the effects of 170-nM GsMtx4 on the changes in the effective refractory period (ERP) induced by left ventricular (LV) dilatation were assessed in 8 isolated rat hearts. Then, 44 anesthetized, open-chest pigs subjected to 50-min left anterior descending artery occlusion and 2-h reperfusion were blindly allocated to GsMtx4 (57 μg/kg iv. bolus and 3.8 μg/kg/min infusion, calculated to attain the above concentration in plasma) or saline, starting 5-min before occlusion and continuing until after reflow. In rat hearts, LV distension induced progressive reductions in ERP (35±2, 32±2, and 29±2 ms at 0, 20, and 40 mmHg of LV end-diastolic pressure, respectively, P<0.001) that were prevented by GsMTx4 (33±2, 33±2, and 32±2 ms, respectively, P=0.002 for the interaction with LV end-diastolic pressure). Pigs receiving GsMtx4 had similar number of ventricular premature beats during the ischemic period as control pigs (110±28 vs. 103±21, respectively, P=0.842). There were not significant differences among treated and untreated animals in the incidence of ventricular fibrillation (13.6 vs. 22.7%, respectively, P=0.696) or tachycardia (36.4 vs. 50.0%, P=0.361) or in the number of ventricular tachycardia episodes during the occlusion period (1.8±0.7 vs. 5.5±2.6, P=0.323). Thus, GsMtx4 administered under these conditions does not suppress ventricular ectopy following coronary occlusion in swine. Whether it might protect against malignant arrhythmias should be tested in studies powered for these outcomes. PMID:25938516

  1. Total arterial coronary revascularization-patient selection, stenoses, conduits, targets.

    PubMed

    Tatoulis, James

    2013-07-01

    Graft patency determines prognosis in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Numerous reports over the past 20 years have documented superior patencies and prognosis when multiple arterial grafts are used, yet less than 10% of CABG have multiple arterial grafts. Several conduits have been proposed, with varying degrees of success. Saphenous vein grafts (SVG) begin to fail with intimal hypertrophy and then atheroma after 5 years, with patency rates of 50% to 60% at 10 years, and <30% at 15 years. In contrast, left internal thoracic artery (LITA) patency is >95% at 10 years and >90% at 20 years. The radial artery is extremely versatile and can reach all territories, but is muscular and vulnerable to spasm and competitive flow. Similarly, the right gastroepiploic artery is also muscular, and is best suited to the posterior descending coronary artery, especially in reoperations and is also affected by competitive flow. In addition, bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting (BITA) grafts and total arterial revascularization (TACR) can be performed with identical perioperative mortality (1%) and perioperative morbidity to LITA + SVG. Importantly, survival is superior-85% to 90% at 10 years versus 75% to 80% respectively. BITA/TACR patients also suffer fewer late cardiac events and reoperations, with superior results for older patients, those requiring urgent surgery, diabetics, patients with renal dysfunction and in reoperations. Contraindications to BITA include obesity, insulin dependent diabetics, and severe chronic obstructive airways disease. As such, arterial grafts have better patencies and clinical results. BITA/TACR is often underutilized, but can be achieved in the majority of patients. Opportunities exist to enhance BITA/TACR use in CABG to the potential benefit of our patients. PMID:23977629

  2. Treadmill exercise promotes cyclic alterations in coronary blood flow in dogs with coronary artery stenoses and endothelial injury.

    PubMed Central

    Eidt, J F; Ashton, J; Golino, P; McNatt, J; Buja, L M; Willerson, J T

    1989-01-01

    We have previously shown in anesthetized, open-chest dogs with coronary stenosis and endothelial injury that serotonin and/or thromboxane A2 (TXA2) receptor activation play a major role in the mediation of platelet-dependent, intermittent coronary occlusion. Using a similar model in awake, closed-chest dogs, we tested the following hypotheses: (a) treadmill exercise promotes the development of cyclic flow variations in dogs with coronary stenoses and endothelial injury; (b) ventricular pacing does not induce cyclic flow variations in the same dogs; and (c) TXA2 and/or serotonin are important mediators of exercise-induced cyclic flow variations in this model. The surgical preparation consisted of the application of a hard, flow-limiting constrictor and a Doppler ultrasonic flow probe around the left coronary artery of 11 dogs. Treadmill exercise resulted in the prompt development of cyclic flow variations in all 11 dogs. Ventricular pacing at rates as high as 170 beats/min induced cyclic flow variations in only one of five dogs. Exercise-induced cyclic flow variations were abolished by TXA2 and/or serotonin receptor antagonists in all but one dog. Thus, (a) treadmill exercise promotes the development of cyclic flow variations in dogs with coronary stenoses and endothelial injury; (b) ventricular pacing does not induce cyclic flow variations in most dogs in the same model; and (c) TXA2 and/or serotonin are important mediators of cyclic flow variations in this model. PMID:2760199

  3. Sudden cardiac arrest at the finish line: in coronary ectopia, the cause of ischemia is from intramural course, not ostial location.

    PubMed

    Joggerst, Steven; Monge, Jorge; Uribe, Carlo; Sherron, Scott; Angelini, Paolo

    2014-04-01

    A 26-year-old woman, a well-trained runner, had a sudden cardiac arrest just before crossing the finish line of a marathon. She was rapidly resuscitated and was later found to have an ectopic origin of the left coronary artery. This anomaly was surgically repaired by translocating the ostium from the right to the left sinus of Valsalva. Her difficult postoperative course prompted further coronary evaluation, which revealed severe stenosis of the neoostium. The patient underwent a second operation: this time, the stenosis was bypassed via a left internal mammary artery-to-left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) graft. Hypoplasia of the LAD and spasm during manipulation caused the graft to fail, necessitating double-stent angioplasty of the left main ostium and the LAD 2 months later. At the patient's 6-month follow-up examination, she had no further evidence of functional ischemia, and she resumed jogging. Because the mode and mechanism of the patient's condition and events were documented in unusual detail, this case furthers our understanding of sudden cardiac arrest in athletes who have rare coronary anomalies. We conclude that ectopia of a coronary artery does not itself cause potentially fatal ischemia. Rather, these events are due to the ectopic artery's intramural proximal course within the aortic media, which might result in critical stenosis by means of hypoplasia or lateral compression of the artery. PMID:24808787

  4. Disruption of the Serine/Threonine Kinase 9 Gene Causes Severe X-Linked Infantile Spasms and Mental Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Kalscheuer, Vera M.; Tao, Jiong; Donnelly, Andrew; Hollway, Georgina; Schwinger, Eberhard; Kbart, Sabine; Menzel, Corinna; Hoeltzenbein, Maria; Tommerup, Niels; Eyre, Helen; Harbord, Michael; Haan, Eric; Sutherland, Grant R.; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Gcz, Jozef

    2003-01-01

    X-linked West syndrome, also called X-linked infantile spasms (ISSX), is characterized by early-onset generalized seizures, hypsarrhythmia, and mental retardation. Recently, we have shown that the majority of the X-linked families with infantile spasms carry mutations in the aristaless-related homeobox gene (ARX), which maps to the Xp21.3-p22.1 interval, and that the clinical picture in these patients can vary from mild mental retardation to severe ISSX with additional neurological abnormalities. Here, we report a study of two severely affected female patients with apparently de novo balanced X;autosome translocations, both disrupting the serine-threonine kinase 9 (STK9) gene, which maps distal to ARX in the Xp22.3 region. We show that STK9 is subject to X-inactivation in normal female somatic cells and is functionally absent in the two patients, because of preferential inactivation of the normal X. Disruption of the same gene in two unrelated patients who have identical phenotypes (consisting of early-onset severe infantile spasms, profound global developmental arrest, hypsarrhythmia, and severe mental retardation) strongly suggests that lack of functional STK9 protein causes severe ISSX and that STK9 is a second X-chromosomal locus for this disorder. PMID:12736870

  5. Novel Biomarkers of Acute Kidney Injury After Contrast Coronary Angiography.

    PubMed

    Connolly, M; McEneaney, D; Menown, Ian; Morgan, N; Harbinson, M

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI), defined as a rise in serum creatinine of greater than 25% from baseline measured at 48 hours after renal insult, may follow iodinated contrast coronary angiography. Termed contrast-induced nephropathy, it can result in considerable morbidity and mortality. Measurement of serum creatinine as a functional biomarker of glomerular filtration rate is widely used for detection of AKI, but it lacks sensitivity for the early diagnosis of AKI (typically rising 24 hours after functional loss) and, as a solely functional marker of glomerular filtration rate, is unable to differentiate among the various causes of AKI. These intrinsic limitations to creatinine measurement and the recognition that improved clinical outcomes are linked to a more timely diagnosis of AKI, has led investigators to search for novel biomarkers of "early" kidney injury. Several studies have investigated the utility of renal injury biomarkers in a variety of clinical settings including angiography/percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass graft surgery, sepsis in intensive care patients, and pediatric cardiac surgery. In this article, we discuss the use of iodinated contrast for coronary procedures and the risk factors for contrast-induced nephropathy, followed by a review the potential diagnostic utility of several novel biomarkers of early AKI in the clinical settings of coronary angiography/percutaneous coronary intervention. In particular, we discuss neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin in depth. If validated, such biomarkers would facilitate earlier AKI diagnosis and improve clinical outcomes. PMID:25699983

  6. Hypsarrhythmia paroxysm index: A tool for early prediction of infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Altunel, Attila; Sever, Ali; Altunel, Emine zlem

    2015-03-01

    Recurrence of infantile spasms (ISs) is common subsequent to treatment with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) for West syndrome, and prolonged hypsarrhythmia results in psychomotor deterioration. The evolution to hypsarrhythmia involves conversion of prehypsarrhythmic EEG findings to sporadic hypsarrhythmia paroxysms (HPs), and when paroxysms reach a certain frequency, ISs begin to occur. This retrospective chart study aimed to determine the HP threshold frequency after which ISs begin. Recorded either prior (Group A) or subsequent (Group B) to IS relapse, 248 EEGs were examined in 42 patients. The number of HPs in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep divided by NREM duration constituted the countable hypsarrhythmia paroxysms index (cHPI). After reaching a rate of approximately 10/min, the cHPI lost its feasibility due to the merging of HPs. The durational HPI (dHPI) was also calculated (total duration of HPs during NREM/NREM sleep time100). ACTH treatment was administered if cHPI was ?2/min, with the aim of preventing relapse. The mean cHPI value without a concomitant spasm relapse (in Group A) was 1.20/min. Following relapse, this value rose to 4.10/min. EEGs performed subsequent to relapse (in Group B) were classified into three subgroups (B1, B2, and B3) according to the duration of the time interval between IS relapse and the succeeding EEG recording. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that cHPI values differed significantly between the Group B subgroups. In subgroups B2 and B3, a higher number of EEGs were evaluated via dHPI. Linear regression analysis established that the interval between recurrence and the succeeding EEG recording significantly predicted cHPI values and accounted for 54.2% of the explained variability in cHPI values. Therefore, use of the cHPI for early recognition and intervention may aid in preventing the onset and recurrence of ISs and further deterioration of psychomotor development. PMID:25769373

  7. Protective and Therapeutic Effects of Chinese Medicine Formula Jiajian Yunvjian on Experimental Cardiac Remodeling after Myocardial Infarction Induced by Coronary Artery Ligation

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jun; Gu, Wei-liang; Chen, Chang-xun; Wang, Ying; Lv, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. This study was designed to explore the effect and mechanism of a classic Chinese medicine formula Jiajian Yunvjian (JJYNJ) on cardiac remodeling. Cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI) model was achieved by coronary artery ligation (CAL). Methodology. When dosed orally once daily, the effects of JJYNJ on hemodynamics, left ventricular weight index (LVWI), heart weight index (HWI), concentration, and gene expression of neuroendocrine factors as well as the histomorphological observation were determined. Results. After 4 weeks, mild cardiac remodeling in CAL group was characterized compared with sham group, but after 4 weeks of treatment of JJYNJ, hemodynamics improved, HWI reduced, and circulating angiotensin II (Ang II), endothelin-1 (ET-1), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and hydroxyproline (Hyp) concentrations as well as Ang II receptor type 1 (AT1R) mRNA, transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) mRNA, and TNF-? mRNA levels in myocardium were lower than in CAL group. Decreased plasma aldosterone (ALD) concentration, cross-sectional area of cardiomyocyte, collagen volume fraction (CVF), collagen types I and III, perivascular collagen area (PVCA), and upregulated nitric oxide (NO) levels were observed at the same time. Conclusions. These findings suggest that JJYNJ may have a protective and therapeutic function on cardiac remodeling related to MI. PMID:26185521

  8. Coronary Pressure Measurement Based Decision Making for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Kohichiro; Kusachi, Shozo

    2009-01-01

    The fractional flow reserve (FFR) is a simple, reliable, and reproducible physiologic index of lesion severity. In patients with intermediate stenosis, FFR?0.75 can be used to safely defer percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and patients with FFR?0.75 have a very low cardiac event rate. Coronary pressure measurement can determine which lesion should be treated with PCI in patients with tandem lesions, and PCI on the basis of FFR has been demonstrated to result in an acceptably low repeat PCI rate. FFR can identify patients with equivocal left main coronary artery disease who benefit from coronary bypass surgery. Coronary pressure measurement distinguishes patients with an abrupt pressure drop pattern from those with a gradual pressure drop pattern, and the former group of patients benefit from PCI. Coronary pressure measurement is clinically useful in evaluating sufficient recruitable coronary collateral blood flow for prevention of ischemia, which affects future cardiac events. FFR is useful for the prediction of restenosis after PCI. As an end-point of PCI, FFR ?0.95 and ?0.90 would be appropriate for coronary stenting and coronary angioplasty, respectively. In summary, if you encounter a coronary stenosis in doubt you should measure pressure rather than dilate it. PMID:21037849

  9. Relation between the Persistence of an Abnormal Muscle Response and the Long-Term Clinical Course after Microvascular Decompression for Hemifacial Spasm

    PubMed Central

    TOBISHIMA, Hana; HATAYAMA, Toru; OHKUMA, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    Mentalis muscle responses to electrical stimulation of the zygomatic branch of the facial nerve are considered abnormal muscle responses (AMRs) and can be used to monitor the success of decompression in microvascular decompression (MVD) surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the long-term outcome of MVD surgery in which the AMR disappeared to the outcome of surgery in which the AMR persisted. From 2005 to 2009, 131 patients with hemifacial spasm received MVD surgery with intraoperative monitoring of AMR. At 1 week postsurgery, spasms had resolved in 82% of cases in the AMR-disappearance group and 46% of cases in the persistent-AMR group, mild spasms were present in 10% of cases in the AMR-disappearance group and 31% of cases in the persistent-AMR group, and moderate were present spasms in 8% of cases in the AMR-disappearance group and 23% of cases in the persistent-AMR group (P < 0.05). At 1 year postsurgery, spasms had resolved in 92% of cases in the AMR-disappearance group and 84% of cases in the persistent-AMR group, mild spasms were present in 6% of cases in the AMR-disappearance group and 8% of cases in the persistent-AMR group, and moderate spasms were present in 3% of cases in the AMR-disappearance group and 8% of the cases in the persistent-AMR group (P = 0.56). These results indicate that the long-term outcome of MVD surgery in which the AMR persisted was no different to that of MVD surgery in which the AMR disappeared. PMID:24305017

  10. Evolution of Coronary Flow in an Experimental Slow Flow Model in Swines: Angiographic and Pathological Insights

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yupeng; Hu, Liqun; Yu, Delong; Peng, Sheng; Liu, Xiaogang; Zhang, Mingjing; Gu, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Pathomechanism of coronary slow flow phenomenon remains largely unclear now. Present study observed the pathological and angiographic evolution in a pig model of coronary slow flow. Methods. Coronary slow flow was induced by repeat coronary injection of small doses of 40?m microspheres in 18 male domestic pigs and angiographic and pathological changes were determined at 3 hours, 7 days, and 28 days after microspheres injection. Results. Compared to control group treated with coronary saline injection (n = 6) and baseline level, coronary flow was significantly reduced at 3 hours and 7 days but completely recovered at 28 days after coronary microsphere injection in slow flow group. Despite normal coronary flow at 28 days after microsphere injection, enhanced myocardial cytokine expression, left ventricular dysfunction, adverse remodelling, and ischemia/microembolism related pathological changes still persisted or even progressed from 3 hours to 28 days after coronary microsphere injection. Conclusions. Our results show that this large animal slow flow model could partly reflect the chronic angiographic, hemodynamic, and pathological changes of coronary slow flow and could be used to test new therapy strategies against the slow flow phenomenon. PMID:26539516

  11. Cocaine-induced microvascular vasoconstriction but differential systemic haemodynamic responses in Yucatan versus Yorkshire varieties of swine.

    PubMed Central

    Miao, L.; Nez, B. D.; Susulic, V.; Wheeler, S.; Carrozza, J. P.; Ross, J. N.; Morgan, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    1. Systemic and coronary haemodynamics were measured in 6 Yorkshire swine and 6 Yucatan miniature swine under isoflurane anaesthesia to investigate the influence of cocaine following its intravenous administration at 1, 3 and 7 mg kg-1. 2. Cocaine in Yorkshire swine decreased mean arterial pressure and rate pressure product (systolic pressure x heart rate), suggesting a cardiac depressant effect, whereas cocaine in Yucatan miniature swine increased these parameters, consistent with a hyperadrenergic state. 3. Cocaine in both Yorkshire swine and Yucatan miniature swine decreased coronary blood flow and coronary flow reserve, and increased coronary vascular resistance. 4. A modest generalized epicardial coronary artery constriction was observed by angiography, without evidence of focal spasm. 5. Our results confirm a marked vasoconstrictor effect of cocaine on the coronary arterial circulation, predominantly distal to the epicardial coronary arteries, but also indicate important differences in the systemic cardiovascular responses to the drug between two closely related strains of animals within the same species. Due to the similarities between the swine and human coronary arterial vasculature, we suggest that vasoconstriction in the coronary microcirculation may produce cardiac toxicity in man. PMID:8821549

  12. The Effect of Microvascular Decompression for Hemifacial Spasm Caused by Vertebrobasilar Dolichoectasia

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeong-Han; Kang, Dong-Wan; Chung, Sang Sup

    2012-01-01

    Objective Hemifacial spasm (HFS) caused by vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD) is very rare, and in theses cases, it is difficult to decompress the nerve from its vascular compression. The objective of this study was to investigate the outcome of microvascular decompression (MVD) for HFS caused by VBD. Methods There were 10 patients of HFS caused by VBD at our hospital between September 1978 and September 2008. We evaluated magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and time of flight magnetic resonance imaginge (TOF MRI) findings using the criteria for VBD. We compared the clinical outcomes of MVD for the 10 patients with VBD with the overall outcomes of the total 2058 MVDs performed for HFS. Results The results of MVD for HFS caused by VBD were successful in 90.9% of cases. The postoperative complication rate in VBD was 45.5%. Offending vessels in patients with VBD were identified visually during surgery. Adverse effects after MVD were found in 4 patients. We found that the diameter of VBD was significantly greater in patients with complications than in those with no complications (p=0.028). Conclusion Our data shows that MVD may be a good treatment modality for HFS caused by VBD but care must be taken to avoid adverse effects from the procedure. It is important to detach the dolichoectatic artery from its surrounding structures sufficiently to allow it to be easily movable. In addition, attempts should be made to lessen the retraction of the cerebellum during release of the dolichoectatic artery. PMID:23091664

  13. Supine No-Retractor Method in Microvascular Decompression for Hemifacial Spasm: Results of 100 Consecutive Operations.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Katsuyoshi; Matsumoto, Masaki; Wada, Akira; Sugiyama, Tatsuya; Tanioka, Daisuke; Okumura, Hirotaka; Fujishima, Hirotake; Nakajo, Takato; Nakayama, Sadayoshi; Yabuzaki, Hajime; Mizutani, Tohoru

    2015-06-01

    Objectives?In microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm (HFS), the patient is placed in the lateral or park-bench position that is complicated and uncomfortable for anesthesiologists, nurses, and even the patient. Careless retraction of the cerebellum by a spatula could be the major cause of surgical complications. In our method, a patient is laid supine avoiding the complicated positioning. The subfloccular approach from a small cranial window sited on the more lateral and basal side of the occipital cranium enables the surgeon to reach all the segments of the facial nerve root without a spatula. We introduce our surgical procedures in detail along with our excellent results. Methods?A total of 100 consecutive patients experiencing primary HFS were operated on with MVD by a single surgeon in our institution from August 2012 to April 2014. Results?Overall, 94 patients showed the complete disappearance or a satisfactory alleviation of HFS. De novo neurologic deficits were not encountered after surgery including hearing impairment. In 47 cases, multiple offending vessels were observed in multiple possible affected sites in addition to the root entry/exit zone. Conclusions?We believe this approach is superior for the safe and precise decompression of any part of the facial nerve root. PMID:26225302

  14. Microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm secondary to vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia: surgical strategies, technical nuances and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Hasan A; Awad, Al-Wala; Chowdhry, Shakeel A; Fusco, David; Nakaji, Peter; Spetzler, Robert F

    2015-01-01

    Hemifacial spasm (HFS) due to direct compression of the facial nerve by a dolichoectatic vertebrobasilar artery is rare. Vessels are often non-compliant and tethered by critical brainstem perforators. We set out to determine surgical strategies and outcomes for this challenging disease. All patients undergoing surgery for HFS secondary to vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia were reviewed. Hospital records, clinic notes and radiographic imaging were collected for outcome measures. Seventeen patients (eight males, nine females) were identified. Sixteen patients (94%) were treated with Teflon pledgets (DuPont, Wilmington, DE, USA) and one (6%) patient had a vascular sling placed around a severely diseased vertebral artery. All patients had significant reduction in symptoms and 82% of patients had complete resolution of symptoms (average follow-up: 41.4 months). One patient suffered persistent facial nerve paresis and swallowing difficulty. Two other patients suffered a 1 point decrease in the House-Brackmann facial nerve grading scale. Four patients (23%) required re-operation (infection, cerebrospinal fluid leak, and two patients with delayed recurrence of HFS). Of the latter, one patient required repositioning of a Teflon pledget and another patient underwent a sling decompression. There were no perioperative strokes or death. Excellent relief of symptoms with acceptable preoperative morbidity can be achieved using Teflon pledgets alone in most cases. In recalcitrant cases, sling transposition can be used to further augment the decompression. Careful attention must be paid to prevent vascular kinking and preserve brainstem perforators. PMID:25510536

  15. The Incidence of Early Postoperative Conductive Hearing Loss after Microvascular Decompression of Hemifacial Spasm.

    PubMed

    Ying, Tingting; Thirumala, Parthasarathy; Gardner, Paul; Habeych, Miguel; Crammond, Donald; Balzer, Jeffrey

    2015-12-01

    Objectives?To evaluate the incidence and discuss the pathogenesis of early postoperative conductive hearing loss (CHL) after microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm (HFS). Design?Pre- and postoperative audiogram data and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) from patients who had underwent MVD for HFS were analyzed. Setting?The study was conducted at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. Participants?MVD for HFS patients who had pre- and postoperative audiogram data, BAEP data, and normal structure of the external and middle ear were included in the study. Main Outcome Measures?CHL was diagnosed if there was an air-bone gap in pure tone audiometry of at least 10?dB at 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 kHz. Results?The incidence of early postoperative CHL in the ipsilateral ear was 18.7% postoperatively. No CHL was observed in the contralateral side. No significant relationship between CHL and intraoperative BAEP changes was found. Demographic parameters were not significantly different between groups with and without CHL. Conclusions?Early postoperative CHL is a significant complication after MVD. Fluid entering the mastoid air cells and/or bone-dust deposition during craniotomy may result in CHL. Long-term audiograms will be needed to evaluate the risk factors that lead to permanent CHL. PMID:26682118

  16. Central TSC2 missense mutations are associated with a reduced risk of infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    van Eeghen, Agnies M; Nellist, Mark; van Eeghen, Elmer E; Thiele, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant syndrome with a variable neurocognitive phenotype. Recently, different intelligence profiles were observed for distinct mutation types and locations, suggesting that individuals with missense mutations represent a subgroup with milder neurocognitive outcomes. We applied these recent insights to the analysis of the epilepsy phenotype in a large cohort of patients with TSC. Associations between genotype and a history of epilepsy and/or infantile spasms (IS) were explored retrospectively, using data from 478 TSC patients from the databases of the Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance and the Herscot Center at Massachusetts General Hospital. Absolute and relative risks for IS and other types of epilepsy were calculated for various mutation classes, selected according to type and location. As expected, TSC2 mutations were associated with a significantly higher occurrence of IS and other epilepsy types. However, missense mutations located in the central region of TSC2 (exons 23-33) were associated with a significantly reduced incidence of IS. Our study further delineates the epilepsy phenotype in TSC patients. Identifying distinct epilepsy phenotypes for specific mutation subgroups may help identify relevant biomarkers and assist clinicians in making treatment decisions. PMID:22867869

  17. A Case of Infantile Alexander Disease Accompanied by Infantile Spasms Diagnosed by DNA Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Mu; Kim, Ae Suk; Lee, Sun Ju; Cho, Sung Min; Lee, Dong Seok; Choi, Sung Min; Ki, Chang Seok; Kim, Jong Won

    2006-01-01

    Alexander disease (AD) is a rare leukodystrophy of the central nervous system of unknown etiology. AD is characterized by progressive failure of central myelination and the accumulation of Rosenthal fibers in astrocytes, and is inevitably lethal in nature. Symptomatically, AD is associated with leukoencephalopathy with macrocephaly, seizures, and psychomotor retardation in infants, and usually leads to death within the first decade. Its characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings have been described as demyelination predominantly in the frontal lobe. Moreover, dominant mutations in the GFAP gene, coding for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a principal astrocytic intermediate filament protein, have been shown to lead to AD. The disease can now be detected by genetic diagnosis. We report the Korean case of an 8-month-old male patient with AD. He was clinically characterized due to the presence of psychomotor retardation, megalencephaly, spasticity, and recurrent seizures including infantile spasms which is a remarkable presentation. Demyelination in the frontal lobe and in a portion of the temporal lobe was demonstrated by brain MRI. Moreover, DNA analysis of peripheral blood showed the presence of a R239L mutation in the GFAP gene, involving the replacement of guanine with thymine. PMID:17043438

  18. Developing an animal model for infantile spasms: pathogenesis, problems and progress

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Eric D.; Golden, Jeffrey A.

    2009-01-01

    Infantile spasms (IS), the most common of the early epileptic encephalopathies, afflicts thousands of children each year and results in significant disability. Also known as West syndrome, IS is characterized by intractable stereotyped seizures, poor developmental outcome and a characteristic electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern. IS often progresses into another epileptic encephalopathy known as Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, and continues with the patient being burdened by lifelong epilepsy and varying degrees of mental retardation. Little is known about the biological basis of IS. As the etiologies of IS are diverse, the multiple causes must converge into a final common pathway that results in this specific epilepsy phenotype. Finding a model or models to test this final pathway is necessary both to understand why the greatest susceptibility to seizure development occurs during infancy and early childhood, and what underlies the decreased cognitive potential associated with IS. Furthermore, appropriate models would permit better testing of potential therapies directed specifically at IS. This review will describe the clinical features and etiologies of IS; the ideal features that IS models should contain; and the IS models that exist currently. Finally, we will discuss the limitations of these models and the potential avenues for future research on IS. PMID:19553693

  19. D-bifunctional protein deficiency associated with drug resistant infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Buoni, Sabrina; Zannolli, Raffaella; Waterham, Hans; Wanders, Ronald; Fois, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Peroxisomal disorders appear with a frequency of about 1:5000 in newborns. Peroxisomal D-bifunctional protein (D-BP), encoded by the HSD17B4 gene (gene ID: 3294; locus tag: HGNC:5213, chromosome 5q2; official symbol: HSD17B4; name: hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase; gene type: protein coding) (OMIM *601860), comprises an 80 kDa multifunctional enzyme involved in peroxisomal beta-oxidation of certain fatty acids and the synthesis of bile acids. Its deficiency causes a very severe, Zellweger-like clinical phenotype and most patients die within the first year of life. In this paper, we report a case of D-BP deficiency in a patient with two heterozygous trinucleotide deletions (233_235 del AAG and 824_826 del AGA) in the HSD17B4 gene. The patient suffered from a peculiar epileptic phenotype (i.e. a West syndrome with a "modified hypsarrhythmic pattern"--Hrachovy et al. Epilepsia 1984;25:317-25), clinically appearing as drug-resistant asymmetric spasms. Vigabatrin seemed the most effective among the antiepileptic drugs. The patient died at the age of 23 months owing to respiratory complications. To date, only a few patients with D-BP deficiency have been described in the literature. This case adds to our knowledge of the clinical presentation of bifunctional protein deficiency. PMID:16919904

  20. Botulinum Toxin as an Alternative to Treat the Spasm of the Near Reflex.

    PubMed

    Laria, Carlos; Merino-Surez, Mara L; Piero, David P; Gmez-Hurtado, Arantxa; Prez-Cambrod, Rafael J

    2015-12-01

    We describe the case of an eight-year-old girl with complaints of headaches and blurred vision (uncorrected visual acuity: 0.1 decimal) that showed on examination miotic pupils, pseudomyopia, no ocular motility restrictions, and no associated neurological disease. After initial treatment with cyclopentolate for two months, pseudomyopia persisted with an intermittent and variable esotropia. Spectacles of +1 both eyes and atropine 1% one drop daily were then prescribed. The situation improved and remained stable for several weeks, with pseudomyopia and esotropia reappearing later. Finally, botulinum toxin (2.5 iu Botox) was injected in the medial rectus muscle on two occasions and a visual therapy program based on the stimulation of fusional divergence, diplopia, and stereopsis consciousness was recommended. This prescription was combined with the use of atropine during the first few weeks. Orthotropia and corrected distance visual acuity of 1.0 were found three months after treatment. The evolution and clinical results of this case report suggest that botulinum toxin in combination with other therapeutic alternatives may be useful in the treatment of spasm of the near reflex. PMID:24809739

  1. Ventricular tachycardia in coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Benito, Begoa; Josephson, Mark E

    2012-10-01

    Ventricular arrhythmias are important contributors to morbidity and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. Ventricular fibrillation accounts for the majority of deaths occurring in the acute phase of ischemia, whereas sustained, monomorphic ventricular tachycardia due to reentry generated in the scar tissue develops most often in the setting of healed myocardial infarction, especially in patients with lower left ventricular ejection fraction. Despite determinant advances in population education and myocardial infarction management, the ventricular tachycardia risk in the overall population with coronary artery disease continues to be a major problem in clinical practice. The initial evaluation of a patient presenting with ventricular tachycardia requires a 12-lead electrocardiogram, which can be helpful to confirm the diagnosis, suggest the presence of potential underlying heart disease, and identify the location of the ventricular tachycardia circuit. An invasive electrophysiologic study is usually crucial to determine the mechanism of the arrhythmia once induced and to provide guidance for ablation. The approach for ventricular tachycardia ablation depends on several factors, including inducibility, sustainability, and clinical tolerance of ventricular tachycardia. The paper also reviews other therapeutic options for patients with ventricular tachycardia associated with coronary artery disease, including antiarrhythmic drug therapy, surgical ablation, and current implantable cardioverter-defibrillator indications. PMID:22951088

  2. [Diagnosis and treatment of spastic angina revealed by cardiac arrest].

    PubMed

    Halna du Fretay, X; Mohammed Saeed, D; Benamer, H

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of vasospastic angina is said to be low in Europe, but maybe because of a lack of diagnosis in the daily practice. However, coronary spasm is a common cause of cardiac arrest, especially among patients free of cardiac illness, and it should be systematically investigated after an unexplained cardiac arrest. Intracoronary spasm provocation test exposes patients to a lower risk compared to the risk of spontaneous spastic angina. Accurate modalities and diagnostic criteria have to be clarified for European population. Avoiding external causes of coronary spasm (such as cigarette smoking or more generally consuming coronary spasm inducing drugs) and prescribing antispastic medicine (first of all calcium channel blockers) are the basis of vasospastic angina treatment. However, recurrent coronary spasms have been reported despite an appropriate treatment and implantable automatic defibrillator has been implanted after case discussion when the onset of illness was cardiac arrest. We report the case of a patient recovering from cardiac arrest who had a positive spasm coronary provocation test, and was treated with calcium channel blockers and had been an automatic defibrillator implanted, with a coronary spasm provocation test performed afterward still contentious. While discussing this case, we are making a literature review of the diagnosis and treatment of spastic angina revealed by cardiac arrest. PMID:25450997

  3. Circulating Factors Induce Coronary Endothelial Cell Activation Following Exposure to Inhaled Diesel Exhaust and Nitrogen Dioxide in Humans: Evidence From a Novel Translational In Vitro Model

    PubMed Central

    Channell, Meghan M.; Paffett, Michael L.; Devlin, Robert B.; Madden, Michael C.; Campen, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    The vascular toxicity of inhaled agents may be caused by soluble factors that are released into the systemic circulation. To confirm this in a straightforward manner, we obtained plasma from healthy human volunteers before and after exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Plasma samples were obtained from human volunteers exposed to 100 ?g/m3 DE or filtered air for 2 h. A second cohort was exposed to 500 ppb NO2 or filtered air in an identical protocol. Primary human coronary artery endothelial cells (hCAECs) were grown to confluence and treated for 24 h with a 10 or 30% (in media) mixture of plasma obtained before, immediately post or 24 h postexposure to pollutant exposures. Messenger RNA (mRNA) was isolated from hCAECs following the incubation and probed for intracellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) expression. ICAM-1 mRNA expression was increased by plasma obtained at both timepoints following the NO2 exposures. VCAM-1 was significantly elevated in cells treated with plasma obtained 24 h following diesel exposure and at both timepoints following NO2 exposure. Interleukin-8 protein was elevated in the hCAEC supernatant when cells were incubated with plasma from NO2 exposures. These data indicate that proinflammatory circulating factors are elevated acutely following exposure to both DE and a primary component thereof, NO2. These functional translational assays offer novel approaches to assessing the cardiovascular risk associated with air pollution exposure. PMID:22331494

  4. Laser Coronary Endarterectomy: Proposed Treatment for Diffuse Coronary Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Livesay, James J.; Cooley, Denton A.

    1984-01-01

    A new surgical technique with a hand-held laser is proposed as an adjunct for coronary revascularization. High intensity light energy from a carbon dioxide laser may be used to cut atherosclerotic plaques, to relieve coronary stenosis, and to reopen totally occluded arteries. The recent development of a small, portable CO2 laser provides a practical surgical tool for treatment of diffuse coronary atherosclerosis. PMID:15227061

  5. Motexafin lutetium in graft coronary artery disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodburn, Kathryn W.; Rodriquez, Shari L.; Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Hayase, Motoya; Robbins, Robert C.; Kessel, David

    2000-03-01

    Graft coronary artery disease (GCAD) is the chief complication following cardiac transplantation. Presently, there are limited treatment options. Insights into more expedient diagnosis and amelioration, if only partially, of GCAD are fervently sought. The selectivity of Antrin Injection (Lu-Tex) with subsequent photoactivation has been evaluated in several preclinical atherosclerosis models. The inhibitory effect of Lu-Tex induced photosensitization was demonstrated with human bypass coronary smooth muscle cells. The biodistribution of Lu-Tex was evaluated in a rat model of heterotopic cardiac allografts 60 days following transplantation. Lu-Tex was retained in the cardiac allograft, exhibiting a five-fold increase in retention between the allograft and native heart. These findings lead us to suggest that further studies are warranted to ascertain the merits of Lu-Tex for the diagnosis and possible attenuation of chronic graft vascular disease.

  6. Revascularization Options: Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Kappetein, A Pieter; van Mieghem, Nicolas M; Head, Stuart J

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CAGB) is superior to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in reducing mortality in certain patients and improving the composite end points of angina, recurrent myocardial infarction, and repeat revascularization procedures. However, CABG is associated with a higher perioperative stroke risk. For patients with less complex disease or left main coronary disease, PCI is an acceptable alternative to CABG. Lesion complexity is an essential consideration for stenting, whereas patient comorbidity is an essential consideration for CABG. All patients with complex multivessel coronary artery disease should be reviewed by a heart team including a cardiac surgeon and interventional cardiologist. PMID:26567980

  7. Types of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting There are several types of coronary ... for you based on your needs. Traditional Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Traditional CABG is used when at ...

  8. Chemokine-guided angiogenesis directs coronary vasculature formation in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Michael R M; Bussmann, Jeroen; Huang, Ying; Zhao, Long; Osorio, Arthela; Burns, C Geoffrey; Burns, Caroline E; Sucov, Henry M; Siekmann, Arndt F; Lien, Ching-Ling

    2015-05-26

    Interruption of the coronary blood supply severely impairs heart function with often fatal consequences for patients. However, the formation and maturation of these coronary vessels is not fully understood. Here we provide a detailed analysis of coronary vessel development in zebrafish. We observe that coronary vessels form in zebrafish by angiogenic sprouting of arterial cells derived from the endocardium at the atrioventricular canal. Endothelial cells express the CXC-motif chemokine receptor Cxcr4a and migrate to vascularize the ventricle under the guidance of the myocardium-expressed ligand Cxcl12b. cxcr4a mutant zebrafish fail to form a vascular network, whereas ectopic expression of Cxcl12b ligand induces coronary vessel formation. Importantly, cxcr4a mutant zebrafish fail to undergo heart regeneration following injury. Our results suggest that chemokine signaling has an essential role in coronary vessel formation by directing migration of endocardium-derived endothelial cells. Poorly developed vasculature in cxcr4a mutants likely underlies decreased regenerative potential in adults. PMID:26017769

  9. Absence of early resetting of coronary baroreceptors in anaesthetized dogs

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Nicholas C; Drinkhill, Mark J; Hainsworth, Roger

    1998-01-01

    Both carotid and aortic arch baroreceptors have been shown to reset after as little as 20 min exposure to a different conditioning pressure; the mid-point of the stimulus-response curve is displaced towards the conditioning pressure.Coronary baroreceptors operate over much lower pressures and induce slower reflex vasoconstriction than the other baroreceptors and this investigation was designed to determine whether their resetting characteristics are also different.In chloralose anaesthetized dogs, a perfusion circuit allowed independent control of pressures distending carotid, aortic and coronary baroreceptors. Stimulus-response curves were obtained for carotid and coronary baroreceptors after maintaining the distending pressure at 60 or 180 mmHg for 20 min.Neither the magnitude of the responses nor the baroreceptor pressure corresponding to 50 % of the response (BP50) of the coronary curves was changed by the conditioning regime. In contrast, conditioning carotid baroreceptors with the same regime produced significant shifts in the BP50 towards the conditioning pressure.No changes were obtained after conditioning the coronary baroreceptors at 60 or 120 mmHg for 40 min.These results confirm early resetting of carotid baroreceptors but show that coronary baroreceptors do not reset over a period of at least 40 min. PMID:9807002

  10. Chronic nitric oxide synthase inhibition prevents new coronary capillary generation.

    PubMed

    Girardot, Daphn; Jover, Bernard; Moles, Jean-Pierre; Deblois, Denis; Moreau, Pierre

    2004-09-01

    L-NAME-induced hypertension has been shown to produce concentric (eutrophic) remodeling of the heart despite an enhanced afterload. We postulated that nitric oxide synthase inhibition could limit coronary capillary growth to explain the nature of remodeling. To test our hypothesis, we aimed at determining the effect of endogenous and exogenous nitric oxide on coronary neovascularization. Aortic and coronary rings from normotensive animals were incubated in a three-dimensional type I collagen matrix in the presence of L-NAME or the nitric oxide donor SNAP. L-NAME inhibited, while SNAP stimulated, neovascularization from aortic and coronary rings after 12 days of in vitro incubation. In arterial rings harvested from rats treated with L-NAME for 14 days and in which no further in vitro treatment was added, only coronary rings showed a reduction in new capillary generation. While confirming that chronic L-NAME-treated rats develop concentric remodeling, the evaluation of capillary density did not reveal any difference as compared with the controls in 3 areas of the myocardium. In conclusion, chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis in vivo produces a long-lasting reduction in the capacity of coronary arteries to generate new capillaries in vitro. Thus, our results lend support to the hypothesis that an inhibition of new capillary formation could prevent the development of compensatory ventricular hypertrophy, in favor of concentric remodeling. PMID:15475829

  11. Suppression of exercise-induced angina by magnesium sulfate in patients with variant angina

    SciTech Connect

    Kugiyama, K.; Yasue, H.; Okumura, K.; Goto, K.; Minoda, K.; Miyagi, H.; Matsuyama, K.; Kojima, A.; Koga, Y.; Takahashi, M.

    1988-11-01

    The effects of intravenous magnesium on exercise-induced angina were examined in 15 patients with variant angina and in 13 patients with stable effort angina and were compared with those of placebo. Symptom-limited bicycle exercise and thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy were performed after intravenous administration of 0.27 mmol/kg body weight of magnesium sulfate and after placebo on different days. In all patients, serum magnesium levels after administration of magnesium sulfate were about twofold higher than levels after placebo. Exercise-induced angina associated with transient ST segment elevation occurred in 11 patients with variant angina receiving placebo and in only 2 of these patients receiving magnesium (p less than 0.005). On the other hand, exercise-induced angina was not suppressed by magnesium in any patient with stable effort angina. In these patients there was no significant difference in exercise duration after administration of placebo versus after administration of magnesium. The size of the perfusion defect as measured by thallium-201 scintigraphy was significantly less in patients with variant angina receiving magnesium than that in those receiving placebo (p less than 0.001), whereas it was not significantly different in patients with stable effort angina receiving placebo versus magnesium. In conclusion, exercise-induced angina is suppressed by intravenous magnesium in patients with variant angina but not in patients with stable effort angina. This beneficial effect of magnesium in patients with variant angina is most likely due to improvement of regional myocardial blood flow by suppression of coronary artery spasm.

  12. Perioperative prostate specific antigen levels among coronary artery bypass grafting patients: Does extracorporeal circulation and body temperature induce prostate specific antigen levels alterations?

    PubMed Central

    Patris, Emmanuel; Giakoumidakis, Konstantinos; Patris, Vasileios; Kuduvalli, Manoj; Argiriou, Mihalis; Charitos, Christos; Kalaitzis, Christos; Touloupidis, Stavros

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to compare the perioperative total prostate specific antigen (tPSA) levels among coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients with and without extracorporeal circulation (ECC), to investigate the changes overtime of tPSA in each group separately and to determine the effect of body core temperature on tPSA levels. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted. Our sample was allocated to: (a) Seven patients who underwent off pump CABG (Group I) and (b) 16 CABG patients with ECC (Group II). The levels of tPSA were measured preoperatively (baseline), intra-operatively and at the 4th postoperative day. We compared the two groups on their tPSA levels and we investigated the changes of tPSA overtime in each group separately. Results: Intra-operative serum samples were obtained in significantly lower body temperature in patients of Group II than in those of Group I (31C vs. 36.9C, P < 0.001). In each group separately, postoperative tPSA levels were increased significantly compared to the baseline values (2.55 ng/ml vs. 0.39 ng/ml for Group I, P = 0.005 and 4.36 ng/ml vs. 0.77 for Group II, P < 0.001). CABG patients with ECC had significantly lower intra-operative tPSA levels than the baseline values (0.67 ng/ml vs. 0.77 ng/ml, P = 0.008). We did not observe significant differences of tPSA levels between the two groups. Conclusions: CABG surgery affects similarly the perioperative tPSA independently the involvement of ECC. Although all patients had significantly higher early postoperative tPSA levels, only those who underwent CABG with ECC had exceeded normal values and significantly decreased intra-operative tPSA. Hypothermia seems to be the causal factor of tPSA reduction. PMID:25657546

  13. Northern contaminant mixtures induced morphological and functional changes in human coronary artery endothelial cells under culture conditions typifying high fat/sugar diet and ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Florian, Maria; Yan, Jin; Ulhaq, Saad; Coughlan, Melanie; Laziyan, Mahemuti; Willmore, William; Jin, Xiaolei

    2013-11-16

    It has been reported that Northern populations are exposed to mixtures of various environmental contaminants unique to the Arctic (Northern contaminant mixtures - NCM) at a large range of concentrations, depending on their geological location, age, lifestyle and dietary habits. To determine if these contaminants may contribute to a cardiovascular health risk, especially when combined with a high fat and sugar diet and ethanol exposure, we treated human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) with two mixtures of 4 organic (NCM1) or 22 organic and inorganic (NCM2) chemicals detected in Northerners' blood during 2004-2005 in the presence or absence of low-density lipoprotein (1.5mg/ml), very-low-density lipoprotein (1.0mg/ml) and glucose (10mmol/L) (LVG), and in the absence or presence of 0.1% ethanol. After 24h of exposure, cell morphology and markers of cytotoxicity and endothelial function were examined. NCM1 treatment did not affect cell viability, but increased cell size, disrupted cell membrane integrity, and decreased cell density, uptake of small peptides, release of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI), while causing no changes in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein expression and nitric oxide (NO) release. In contrast, NCM2 decreased cell viability, total protein yield, uptake of small peptides, eNOS protein expression, and NO release and caused membrane damage, but caused no changes in the secretion of ET-1, prostacyclin and PAI. The presence of LVG and/or alcohol did or did not influence the effects of NCM1 or NCM2 depending on the endpoint and the mixture examined. These results suggested that the effects of one or one group of contaminants may be altered by the presence of other contaminants, and that with or without the interaction of high fat and sugar diet and/or ethanol exposure, NCMs at the concentrations used caused endothelial dysfunction in vitro. It remains to be investigated if these effects of NCMs also occur in vivo. PMID:23384447

  14. [Pathology of coronary arterial calcification].

    PubMed

    Yutani, Chikao

    2007-03-01

    Calcification is an invariable component of advanced coronary artery atherosclerosis. Recent study showed that genetic variations such as matrix inhibitory proteins, polymorphisms for tumor necrosis factor, and inflammatory cytokines may influence coronary artery calcification. And also there have been numerous studies on screening patients for coronary artery disease using electron beam computed tomography, but details of mechanism on calcification have still been unclear. An example of coronary calcification in diabetic patients disclosed that its diffuse distribution might be metabolic on calcification mechanism. PMID:17339736

  15. Transcatheter Coronary Artery Diagnostic Techniques including Impedance-Catheter and Impedance-Guidewire Measurement of Absolute Coronary Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Robert A.; Martin, Lisa W.

    1989-01-01

    Interventional cardiology requires precise assessment of coronary anatomy and physiology. Unfortunately, however, important interventional decisions are frequently made on the basis of arteriographic data alone. Increasing evidence suggests that visual interpretation of coronary arteriographic studies is irreproducible, inaccurate, and poorly predictive of coronary physiology. Moreover, arteriography is of little value in assessing endothelial ulceration and mural thrombus, which are important pathophysiologic features of unstable angina and acute myocardial infarction. In response to these limitations, several diagnostic transcatheter techniques have been developed that allow more complete assessment of coronary physiology and function. These include fiberoptic angioscopy, reflection spectroscopy (which can combine automated laser therapy with diagnosis), ultrasonic catheterization, and translesional gradient determination. Doppler catheterization permits the assessment of overall coronary flow reserve with the aid of induced hyperemia, whereas subselective digital radiography allows the evaluation of regional coronary flow reserve. The coronary flow reserve, however, may be falsely lowered immediately after balloon dilation, because of endothelial injury, repeated ischemia, or the administration of vasoactive drugs. To circumvent this problem, we have developed impedance-catheter and impedance-guidewire systems that, by applying impedance technology and the principles of indicator dilution, are capable of measuring absolute coronary blood flow. For a flow indicator, we use 0.5 mL of glucose solution (D5W), which has little effect on intrinsic blood flow. The validity of this approach has been demonstrated in experimental and clinical studies. The impedance guidewire is less obstructive than the catheter system, so it probably will become the method with clinical application. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1989;16:195-203) Images PMID:15227207

  16. XIENCE PRIME Everolimus Eluting Coronary Stent System (EECSS) China Single-Arm Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-07-31

    Angioplasty; Cardiovascular Disease; Chronic Coronary Occlusion; Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG); Coronary Artery Disease; Coronary Heart Disease; Coronary Restenosis; Myocardial Infarction; Myocardial Ischemia; Stent Thrombosis; Vascular Disease

  17. The management of oromandibular motor disorders and facial spasms with injections of botulinum toxin.

    PubMed

    Clark, Glenn T

    2003-11-01

    Although much work is yet to be done in this area, nine general conclusions can be derived: 1. Local site-of-injection side effects from botulinum toxin injections are rare, assuming proper technique is used. 2. The two most common medication-related side effects from botulinum toxin orofacial injections are alterations in salivary consistency and inadvertent weakness of the swallowing, speech, and facial muscles. These complications are injection site-specific (eg, more common with lateral pterygoid injections and palatal and tongue muscle injections) and dose-dependent problems. These problems are bothersome but are not contraindications for the therapy if it is needed. 3. The data presented in this article are mostly case series-based and open trial-based information that is promising, but randomized, blinded, controlled trials are needed to establish the true efficacy of this method for the orofacial motor and pain disorders. 4. The novice should begin with injection of muscles he or she can inject with low risk of incorrect placement. The hard-to-find muscles should be avoided when starting out. The novice clinician should inject and dissect a few cadavers to improve injection technique. 5. The general latency for botulinum toxin type A is 1 week, its duration is 2 to 3 months, and it is recommended that injection be done no more than once every 12 weeks to avoid development of antibodies against the toxin. 6. Depending on the target muscle, injection dose is 10 to 50 U of Botox type A per site with a total dose of 200 U in the masticatory system. More than this can be used (400 U maximum) if other sites in the head and neck are included in the injection protocol. 7. Regarding injecting painful muscles that do not exhibit palpable muscle hardness or EMG-determined spasticity or observable involuntary movements but have chronic myofascial trigger points or the patient localizes them as the site of their chronic daily headache pain, botulinum toxin injections might be helpful used in this manner, but conclusive data for this controversial application of botulinum toxin are still missing. 8. Hemifacial spasm has the largest number of open-label, clinical trials, some of which have a 10-year follow-up. The conclusions reached by all of these reports is that treatment of hemifacial spasm with repeated injections of botulinum toxin has been highly successful and that the dose and relative effect of the injections are stable over time. 9. Although EMG-guided injection may be useful, EMG is neither practical nor needed in most situations for orofacial injections because most of the orofacial muscles are easily palpable muscles or have definitive bony landmarks to help with the localization process. PMID:14580034

  18. 11,12,20-Trihydroxy-eicosa-8(Z)-enoic acid: a selective inhibitor of 11,12-EET-induced relaxations of bovine coronary and rat mesenteric arteries

    PubMed Central

    Bukhari, Ishfaq A.; Shah, Abdul Jabbar; Gauthier, Kathryn M.; Walsh, Katherine A.; Koduru, Sreenivasulu Reddy; Imig, John D.; Falck, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Arachidonic acid is metabolized to four regioisomeric epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) by cytochrome P-450. 5,6-, 8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15-EET are equipotent in relaxing bovine coronary arteries (BCAs). Vasorelaxant effects of EETs are nonselectively antagonized by 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid. The 11,12-EET analogs, 20-hydroxy-11,12-epoxyeicosa-8(Z)-enoic acid (20-H-11,12-EE8ZE) and 11,12,20-trihydroxyeicosa-8(Z)-enoic acid (11,12,20-THE8ZE) were synthesized and tested for antagonist activity against EET-induced relaxations in BCAs. In U-46619-preconstricted arterial rings, 5,6-, 8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15-EET caused concentration-dependent relaxations with maximal relaxations ranging from 80 to 96%. Preincubation of arteries with 20-H-11,12-EE8ZE (10?5 M) inhibited relaxations to 14,15- and 11,12-EET, but not 5,6- and 8,9-EET; however, greatest inhibitory effect was against 11,12-EET (maximal relaxation = 80.6 4.6 vs. 26.7 7.4% without and with 20-H-11,12-EE8ZE, respectively). Preincubation with the soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor (tAUCB, 10?6 M) significantly enhanced the antagonist effect of 20-H-11,12-EE8ZE against 14,15-EET-induced relaxations (maximal relaxation = 86.6 4.4 vs. 27.8 3.3%, without and with 20-H-11,12-EE8ZE and tAUCB) without any change in its effect against 11,12-EET-induced relaxations. In contrast to the parent compound, the metabolite, 11,12,20-THE8ZE (10?5 M), significantly inhibited relaxations to 11,12-EET and was without effect on other EET regioisomers. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed conversion of 20-H-11,12-EE8ZE to 11,12,20-THE8ZE by incubation with BCA. The conversion was blocked by tAUCB. 14,15-Dihydroxy-eicosa-5Z-enoic acid (a 14,15-EET antagonist), but not 11,12,20-THE8ZE (an 11,12-EET antagonist), inhibited BCA relaxations to arachidonic acid and flow-induced dilation in rat mesenteric arteries. These results indicate that 11,12,20-THE8ZE is a selective antagonist of 11,12-EET relaxations and a useful pharmacological tool to elucidate the function of 11,12-EET in the cardiovascular system. PMID:22307677

  19. Clinical analysis of hemifacial spasm patients with delay symptom relief after microvascular decompression of distinct offending vessels.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yuxiang; Ni, Hongbin; Xu, Wu; Lu, Tianyu; Liang, Weibang

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates symptom relief in patients whose hemifacial spasms (HFS) were completely relieved following microvascular decompression (MVD). Patients with HFS who were operated on from January 2007 to May 2011, at our department, were studied. The medical records and operation videos of each patient were reviewed. Follow-up was performed via telephone communication. A total of 410 patients with HFS were divided into two groups: Group A (277 cases): HFS caused by small vascular compression, and Group B (133 cases): HFS caused by vertebral artery compression. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on all the patients to rule out those with secondary HFS. Patients who had undergone previous MVD were also excluded at that time. In all, 462 patients underwent MVD for HFS in our center during the study period. Follow-up was available for 410 patients. In the small vascular compression cohort, 72 (72/277, 26.0 %) HFS patients achieved relief with delayed healing. While in the vertebral artery compression cohort, 52 (52/133, 39.1 %) HFS patients experienced relief with delayed healing. There was significant difference between these two cohorts (P < 0.05). 93.75% of delayed healing patients were cured and experienced spasm relief within 6 months. Surgeons should be aware that delayed symptom relief after MVD for HFS is more common than has been reported, and time course of symptom relief is various as well as unpredictable; however, most HFS patients are cured, and experience spasm relief within 6 months. PMID:25894350

  20. Botulinum toxin injections for the treatment of hemifacial spasm over 16 years.

    PubMed

    Sorgun, Mine Hayriye; Yilmaz, Rezzak; Akin, Yusuf Alper; Mercan, Fatma Nazli; Akbostanci, Muhittin Cenk

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and side effects of botulinum toxin (BTX) in the treatment of hemifacial spasm (HFS). We also focused on the divergence between different injection techniques and commercial forms. We retrospectively evaluated 470 sessions of BTX injections administered to 68 patients with HFS. The initial time of improvement, duration and degree of improvement, and frequency and duration of adverse effects were analysed. Pretarsal and preseptal injections and Botox (Allergan, Irvine, CA, USA) and Dysport (Ipsen Biopharmaceuticals, Paris, France) brands were compared in terms of efficacy and side effects, accompanied by a review of papers which reported BTX treatment of HFS. An average of 34.5 units was used per patient. The first improvement was felt after 8 days and lasted for 14.8 weeks. Patients experienced a 73.7% improvement. In 79.7% of injections, no adverse effect was reported, in 4.9% erythema, ecchymosis, and swelling in the injection area, in 3.6% facial asymmetry, in 3.4% ptosis, in 3.2% diplopia, and in 2.3% difficulty of eye closure was detected. Patients reported 75% improvement on average after 314 sessions of pretarsal injections and 72.7% improvement after 156 sessions of preseptal injections (p=0.001). The efficacy and side effects of Botox and Dysport were similar. BTX is an effective and safe treatment option for HFS. No difference was determined between Botox and Dysport, and pretarsal injection is better than preseptal injection regarding the reported degree of improvement. PMID:26100157

  1. [Pre-surgical simulation of microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm using 3D-models].

    PubMed

    Mashiko, Toshihiro; Yang, Qiang; Kaneko, Naoki; Konno, Takehiko; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Eiju

    2015-01-01

    We have been performing pre-surgical simulations using custom-built patient-specific 3D-models. Here we report the advantageous use of 3D-models for simulating microvascular decompression(MVD)for hemifacial spasms. Seven cases of MVD surgery were performed. Two types of 3D-printers were used to fabricate the 3D-models:one using plaster as the modeling material(Z Printer450, 3D systems, Rock Hill, SC, USA)and the other using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene(ABS)(UP! Plus 3D printer, Beijing Tiertime Technology, Beijing). We tested three types of models. Type 1 was a plaster model of the brainstem, cerebellum, facial nerve, and the artery compressing the root exit zone of the facial nerve. Part of the cerebellum was digitally trimmed off to observe "the compressing point" from the same angle as that used during actual surgery. Type 2 was a modified Type 1 in which part of the skull was opened digitally to mimic a craniectomy. Type 3 was a combined model in which the cerebellum and the artery of the Type 2 model were replaced by a soft retractable cerebellum and an elastic artery. The cerebellum was made from polyurethane and cast from a plaster prototype. To fabricate elastic arteries, liquid silicone was painted onto the surface of an ABS artery and the inner ABS model was dissolved away using solvent. In all cases, the 3D-models were very useful. Although each type has advantages, the Type-3 model was judged extremely useful for training junior surgeons in microsurgical approaches. PMID:25557098

  2. High Frequency EEG Activity Associated With Ictal Events in an Animal Model of Infantile Spasms

    PubMed Central

    Frost, James D.; Lee, Chong L.; Hrachovy, Richard A.; Swann, John W.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY PURPOSE To describe high frequency (HF) electrographic activity accompanying ictal discharges in the tetrodotoxin (TTX) model of infantile spasms. Previous studies of HF oscillations in humans and animals suggest that they arise at sites of seizure onset. We compared HF oscillations at several cortical sites to determine regional differences. METHODS TTX was infused for 4 weeks into the neocortex of rats beginning on postnatal days 11 or 12. EEG electrodes were implanted two weeks later and Video/EEG recordings were analyzed between postnatal days 3147. EEGs were digitally sampled at 2048 Hz. HF EEG activity (20900 Hz) was quantified using compressed spectral arrays and band-pass filtering. RESULTS Multiple seizures were analyzed in 10 rats. Ictal onset was associated with multiple bands of rhythmic HF activity that could extend to 700 Hz. The earliest and most intense discharging typically occurred contralaterally to where TTX was infused. HF activity continued to occur throughout the seizure (even during the electrodecrement that is recorded with more traditional filter settings), although there was a gradual decrease of the intensity of the highest frequency components as the amplitude of lower frequency oscillations increased. Higher frequencies sometimes reappeared in association with spike/sharp waves at seizure termination. DISCUSSION The findings show that HF EEG activity accompanies ictal events in the TTX model. Results also suggest that the seizures in this model do not originate from the TTX infusion site. Instead HF discharges are usually most intense and occur earliest contralaterally, suggesting that these homologous regions may be involved in seizure generation. PMID:21204817

  3. Infantile spasms (West syndrome): update and resources for pediatricians and providers to share with parents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Infantile spasms (IS; West syndrome) is a severe form of encephalopathy that typically affects infants younger than 2 years old. Pediatricians, pediatric neurologists, and other pediatric health care providers are all potentially key early contacts for families who have an infant with IS. The objective of this article is to assist pediatric health care providers in the detection of the disease and in the counseling and guidance of families who have an infant with IS. Methods Treatment guidelines, consensus reports, and original research studies are reviewed to provide an update regarding the diagnosis and treatment of infants with IS. Web sites were searched for educational and supportive resource content relevant to providers and families of patients with IS. Results Early detection of IS and pediatrician referral to a pediatric neurologist for further evaluation and initiation of treatment may improve prognosis. Family education and the establishment of a multidisciplinary continuum of care are important components of care for the majority of patients with IS. The focus of the continuum of care varies across diagnosis, initiation of treatment, and short- and long-term needs. Several on-line educational and supportive resources for families and caregivers of patients with IS were identified. Conclusions Given the possibility of poor developmental outcomes in IS, including the emergence of other seizure disorders and cognitive and developmental problems, early recognition, referral, and treatment of IS are important for optimal patient outcomes. Dissemination of and access to educational and supportive resources for families and caregivers across the lifespan of the child with IS is an urgent need. Pediatric health care providers are well positioned to address these needs. PMID:22830456

  4. Facial Weakness, Otalgia, and Hemifacial Spasm: A Novel Neurological Syndrome in a Case-Series of 3 Patients With Rheumatic Disease.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Julius

    2015-10-01

    Bell palsy occurs in different rheumatic diseases, causes hemifacial weakness, and targets the motor branch of the 7th cranial nerve. Severe, persistent, and refractory otalgia having features of neuropathic pain (ie, burning and allodynic) does not characteristically occur with Bell palsy. Whereas aberrant regeneration of the 7th cranial nerve occurring after a Bell palsy may lead to a variety of clinical findings, hemifacial spasm only rarely occurs. We identified in 3 rheumatic disease patients (2 with Sjgren syndrome, 1 with rheumatoid arthritis) a previously unreported neurological syndrome of facial weakness, otalgia with neuropathic pain features, and hemifacial spasm. We characterized symptoms, examination findings, and response to therapy. All 3 patients experienced vertigo, as well as severe otalgia which persisted after mild facial weakness had completely resolved within 1 to 4 weeks. The allodynic nature of otalgia was striking. Two patients were rendered homebound, as even the barest graze of outdoor breezes caused intolerable ear pain. Patients developed hemifacial spasm either at the time of or within 3 months of facial weakness. Two patients had a polyphasic course, with recurrent episodes of facial weakness and increased otalgia. In all cases, otalgia and hemifacial spasm were unresponsive to neuropathic pain regimens, but responded in 1 case to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. No patients had vesicles or varicella zoster virus in spinal-fluid studies. We have defined a novel neurological syndrome in 3 rheumatic disease patients, characterized by facial weakness, otalgia, and hemifacial spasm. As described in infectious disorders, the combination of otalgia, facial weakness, and 8th cranial nerve deficits suggests damage to the geniculate ganglia (ie, the sensory ganglia of the 7th cranial nerve), with contiguous involvement of other cranial nerves causing facial weakness and vertigo. However, the relapsing nature and association with hemifacial spasm constitute a unique part of this neurological syndrome. PMID:26447997

  5. Facial Weakness, Otalgia, and Hemifacial Spasm: A Novel Neurological Syndrome in a Case-Series of 3 Patients With Rheumatic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bell palsy occurs in different rheumatic diseases, causes hemifacial weakness, and targets the motor branch of the 7th cranial nerve. Severe, persistent, and refractory otalgia having features of neuropathic pain (ie, burning and allodynic) does not characteristically occur with Bell palsy. Whereas aberrant regeneration of the 7th cranial nerve occurring after a Bell palsy may lead to a variety of clinical findings, hemifacial spasm only rarely occurs. We identified in 3 rheumatic disease patients (2 with Sjögren syndrome, 1 with rheumatoid arthritis) a previously unreported neurological syndrome of facial weakness, otalgia with neuropathic pain features, and hemifacial spasm. We characterized symptoms, examination findings, and response to therapy. All 3 patients experienced vertigo, as well as severe otalgia which persisted after mild facial weakness had completely resolved within 1 to 4 weeks. The allodynic nature of otalgia was striking. Two patients were rendered homebound, as even the barest graze of outdoor breezes caused intolerable ear pain. Patients developed hemifacial spasm either at the time of or within 3 months of facial weakness. Two patients had a polyphasic course, with recurrent episodes of facial weakness and increased otalgia. In all cases, otalgia and hemifacial spasm were unresponsive to neuropathic pain regimens, but responded in 1 case to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. No patients had vesicles or varicella zoster virus in spinal-fluid studies. We have defined a novel neurological syndrome in 3 rheumatic disease patients, characterized by facial weakness, otalgia, and hemifacial spasm. As described in infectious disorders, the combination of otalgia, facial weakness, and 8th cranial nerve deficits suggests damage to the geniculate ganglia (ie, the sensory ganglia of the 7th cranial nerve), with contiguous involvement of other cranial nerves causing facial weakness and vertigo. However, the relapsing nature and association with hemifacial spasm constitute a unique part of this neurological syndrome. PMID:26447997

  6. CT coronary angiography vs. invasive coronary angiography in CHD

    PubMed Central

    Gorenoi, Vitali; Schnermark, Matthias P.; Hagen, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Scientific background Various diagnostic tests including conventional invasive coronary angiography and non-invasive computed tomography (CT) coronary angiography are used in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease (CHD). Research questions The present report aims to evaluate the clinical efficacy, diagnostic accuracy, prognostic value cost-effectiveness as well as the ethical, social and legal implications of CT coronary angiography versus invasive coronary angiography in the diagnosis of CHD. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted in electronic data bases (MEDLINE, EMBASE etc.) in October 2010 and was completed with a manual search. The literature search was restricted to articles published from 2006 in German or English. Two independent reviewers were involved in the selection of the relevant publications. The medical evaluation was based on systematic reviews of diagnostic studies with invasive coronary angiography as the reference standard and on diagnostic studies with intracoronary pressure measurement as the reference standard. Study results were combined in a meta-analysis with 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Additionally, data on radiation doses from current non-systematic reviews were taken into account. A health economic evaluation was performed by modelling from the social perspective with clinical assumptions derived from the meta-analysis and economic assumptions derived from contemporary German sources. Data on special indications (bypass or in-stent-restenosis) were not included in the evaluation. Only data obtained using CT scanners with at least 64 slices were considered. Results No studies were found regarding the clinical efficacy or prognostic value of CT coronary angiography versus conventional invasive coronary angiography in the diagnosis of CHD. Overall, 15 systematic reviews with data from 44 diagnostic studies using invasive coronary angiography as the reference standard (identification of obstructive stenoses) and two diagnostic studies using intracoronary pressure measurement as the reference standard (identification of functionally relevant stenoses) were included in the medical evaluation. Meta-analysis of the nine studies of higher methodological quality showed that, CT coronary angiography with invasive coronary angiography as the reference standard, had a sensitivity of 96 % (95 % CI: 93 % to 98 %), specificity of 86 % (95 % CI: 83 % to 89 %), positive likelihood ratio of 6.38 (95 % CI: 5.18 to 7.87) and negative likelihood ratio of 0.06 (95 % CI: 0.03 to 0.10). However, due to non-diagnostic CT images approximately 3.6 % of the examined patients required a subsequent invasive coronary angiography. Using intracoronary pressure measurement as the reference standard, CT coronary angiography compared to invasive coronary angiography had a sensitivity of 80 % (95 % CI: 61 % to 92 %) versus 67 % (95 % CI: 51 % to 78 %), a specificity of 67 % (95 % CI: 47 % to 83 %) versus 75 % (95 % CI: 60 % to 86 %), an average positive likelihood ratio of 2.3 versus 2.6, and an average negative likelihood ratio 0.3 versus 0.4, respectively. Compared to invasive coronary angiography, the average effective radiation dose of CT coronary angiography was higher with retrospective electrocardiogram (ECG) gating and relatively similar with prospective ECG gating. The health economic model using invasive coronary angiography as the reference standard showed that at a pretest probability of CHD of 50 % or lower, CT coronary angiography resulted in lower cost per patient with true positive diagnosis. At a pretest probability of CHD of 70 % or higher, invasive coronary angiography was associated with lower cost per patient with true positive diagnosis. Using intracoronary pressure measurement as the reference standard, both types of coronary angiographies resulted in substantially higher cost per patient with true positive diagnosis. Two publications dealing explicitly with ethical aspects were identified. The first addressed ethical aspects regarding the principles of beneficence, autonomy and justice,

  7. Technique of Coronary Transfer for TGA with Single Coronary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Ho; Jung, Jae Jun; Kim, Yong Han; Yang, Ji-Hyuk; Jun, Tae-Gook

    2014-01-01

    An eight-day-old neonate was diagnosed with dextro-transposition of the great arteries, atrial septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, and a single sinus origin of the coronary arteries. The single coronary artery originated from the left sinus (sinus 2), had a proximal left circumflex arterial branch, and passed anteriorly to the right side of the aorta, further branching into the right coronary and left anterior descending arteries. We successfully performed an arterial switch operation and coronary transfer by tube graft reconstruction with autologous aortic tissue to treat the dextro-transposition of the great arteries and atrial septal defect with a single-sinus origin of the coronary arteries. PMID:25551074

  8. Transient global amnesia and cortical blindness after vertebral angiography: further evidence for the role of arterial spasm.

    PubMed

    Jackson, A; Stewart, G; Wood, A; Gillespie, J E

    1995-04-01

    We describe a series of six patients who experienced severe retrograde amnesia (five cases) or cortical blindness (one case) during selective vertebral angiography. All angiograms were obtained with the same nonionic contrast medium. Analysis of the contrast batch demonstrated no abnormalities, but investigation of the angiographic suite revealed a faulty contrast warming cabinet resulting in injection of contrast material above body temperature. The warming cabinet was withdrawn, and the complication has not recurred. We believe that these symptoms reflect ischemia caused by vertebral arterial spasm. PMID:7611084

  9. Microvascular decompression under neuroendoscopic view in hemifacial spasm: rostral-type compression and perforator-type compression.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Mami; Tanaka, Yuichi; Watanabe, Eiju

    2015-02-01

    We report microvascular decompression (MVD) under neuroendoscopic view in hemifacial spasm (HFS) patients with rostral- and perforator-type compression of the root exit zone (REZ) of the facial nerve. Using either a wireless iPad Mini as a monitor on the microscope or a high-resolution monitor, microscopic and endoscopic views enabled MVD for complete cure of HFS with rostral-type compression (the offender compressing the REZ on the opposite rostral side to the operative approach) or perforator-type compression (the offender tethered to the REZ by the perforator). MVD under neuroendoscopic view may offer more accurate MVD and complete resolution of HFS. PMID:25502988

  10. Does Coronary Stenting Following Balloon Angioplasty Improve Myocardial Fractional Flow Reserve?

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Masaaki; Himeno, Etsuro

    1998-11-15

    Purpose: Suboptimal distal coronary flow reserve after successful balloon angioplasty has been attributed to angiographically unrecognized inadequate lumen expansion, and adjunct coronary stenting has been shown to improve coronary flow reserve. The aim of this study was to investigate whether myocardial fractional flow reserve (FFRmyo) would increase further after coronary stenting compared with balloon angioplasty alone in the same patient group. Methods: FFRmyo and quantitative coronary angiography were obtained before and after pre-stent balloon dilation, and again after stent placement in 11 patients (7 left anterior descending artery, 3 right coronary artery and 1 left circumflex artery). FFRmyo was calculated as the ratio of Pd/Pa during intracoronary adenosine 5'-triphosphate (50 {mu}g and 20 {mu}g in the left and right coronary arteries, respectively)-induced maximum hyperemia, where Pd represents mean distal coronary pressure measured by a 2.1 Fr infusion catheter and Pa represents mean aortic pressure measured by the guiding catheter. Results: Percent diameter stenosis significantly decreased after balloon angioplasty (74% {+-} 15% vs 37% {+-} 17%, p < 0.001), and decreased further after stent placement (18% {+-} 10%, p < 0.001 vs baseline and balloon angioplasty). FFRmyo after coronary stenting (0.85 {+-} 0.09) was significantly higher than that at baseline (0.51 {+-} 0.16, p < 0.001) and after balloon angioplasty (0.77 {+-} 0.11, p < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between angiographic variables and FFRmyo. The increase in lumen dimensions after coronary stenting was followed by a further significant improvement of FFRmyo. Conclusion: These results suggest that coronary stenting may provide a more favorable functional status and lumen geometry of residual coronary stenosis compared with balloon angioplasty alone.

  11. High frequency rotational ablation: an alternative in treating coronary artery stenoses and occlusions.

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, U; Erbel, R; Rupprecht, H J; Weidmann, S; Meyer, J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To prove the safety and effectiveness of high frequency rotational ablation of coronary artery stenoses and occlusion in humans. SUBJECTS--106 patients with symptoms (91 men, 15 women) who had 67 significant stenoses, mainly types B and C, and 46-chronic occlusions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Mean change in diameter stenosis after rotational angioplasty alone and in combination with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty immediately after treatment and 24 hours and six months later; restenosis rates at six months; complication of treatment. RESULTS--Rotational ablation could not be used in five stenoses and 16 chronic occlusions because of inability to reach or cross the lesion with the Rotablator guide wire. In four cases rotational ablation failed. Initial angiographic and clinical success by rotational ablation was achieved in 40 of the 67 stenoses (60%) and in 18 of the 46 chronic occlusions (39%). Additional balloon angioplasty was performed in 45 patients, increasing the success rates to 79% and 54%, respectively. In the 62 stenoses treated by rotational ablation the angiographic diameter stenoses were reduced from 76% (SD 14%) to 32% (14%) after Rotablator treatment alone and from 75% (11%) to 33% (17%) with additional balloon angioplasty. In the 30 chronic occlusions treated by rotational ablation the angiographic diameter stenoses were reduced to 38% (18%). At six months angiographic restenosis was evident in nine of the 25 (36%) stenoses treated with rotational ablation alone, in seven of the 22 (32%) stenoses treated with rotational and balloon angioplasty, and in 14 of the 24 (58%) chronic occlusions. There were no procedural deaths and two patients (2%) underwent emergency coronary artery bypass grafting. Although no transmural infarction occurred, there were five (6%) non-Q wave infarctions (two embolic side branch occlusions, two subacute occlusions, and one acute occlusion). Clinically insignificant slight increases in creatine kinase activity were seen in five patients (6%). Severe coronary artery spasm unresponsive to medical treatment was provoked in seven cases (8%). CONCLUSIONS--High frequency rotational ablation is a safe and effective method for treating type B and C coronary artery lesions with results comparable to percutaneous transluminal coronary balloon angioplasty. The combined use of rotational ablation and balloon angioplasty is feasible and is necessary in about half of all procedures, in most cases because the lumen created by the biggest burr is too small. Images PMID:8217440

  12. [Uncommon indications for coronary angioplasty].

    PubMed

    Vojcek, J; Krupicka, P; Aschermann, M; Holm, F; Humhal, J

    1993-07-01

    During the period between March 16, 1989 and October 7, 1992 at the Second Medical Clinic of the First Medical Faculty, Charles University Prague a total of 173 coronary angioplasties were performed. With expanding experience and greater availability of controllable super thin conductors and balloon catheters with a small profile, gradually the indication criteria of coronary angioplasty were extended. In 93.1% of patients simple balloon dilatation of a significant stenosis of the coronary arteries was performed and in 6.9% before dilatation in addition an attempt of recanalization of a chronic occlusion of the coronary artery was made. In 74% of the patients one coronary stenosis was dilated, in 16.7% several stenoses, in 1.2% of the patients a covered stenosis of the trunk of the left coronary was dilated and in the same number an aortocoronary bypass was performed. Even in the group of patients where only one coronary stenosis was dilated the type B coronary affection according to the classification ACC/AHA predominated and the same applied to the entire group of patients. PMID:8372458

  13. Coronary Arteriovenous Fistulae: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Challoumas, Dimitris; Pericleous, Agamemnon; Dimitrakaki, Inetzi A.; Danelatos, Christos; Dimitrakakis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Coronary arteriovenous fistulae are a coronary anomaly, presenting in 0.002% of the general population. Their etiology can be congenital or acquired. We present a review of recent literature related to their epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic approach, and therapeutic management. PMID:24940026

  14. The Coronary Patient in Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, B.

    1971-01-01

    The coronary patient, as he pertains to industry particularly NASA, is discussed. Concepts of precoronary care, acute attacks which may develop while on the job, and the return of the cardiac patient to work are covered. Major emphasis was on the prevention of sudden death due to coronary disease.

  15. Analysis of coronary angiography related psychophysiological responses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Coronary angiography is an important tool in diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. However, it is the administration is relatively stressful and emotionally traumatic for the subjects. The aim of this study is to evaluate psychophysiological responses induced by the coronary angiography instead of subjective methods such as a questionnaire. We have also evaluated the influence of the tranquilizer on the psychophysiological responses. Methods Electrocardiography (ECG), Blood Volume Pulse (BVP), and Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) of 34 patients who underwent coronary angiography operation were recorded. Recordings were done at three phases: "1 hour before," "during," and "1 hour after" the coronary angiography test. Total of 5 features obtained from the physiological signals were compared across these three phases. Sixteen of the patients were administered 5 mg of a tranquilizer (Diazepam) before the operation and remaining 18 were not. Results Our results indicate that there is a strong correlation between features (LF/HF, Bk, DN1/DN2, skin conductance level and seg_mean) in terms of reflecting psychophysiological responses. However only DN1/DN2 feature has statistically significant differences between angiography phases (for diazepam: p = 0.0201, for non_diazepam p = 0.0224). We also note that there are statistically significant differences between the diazepam and non-diazepam groups for seg_mean features in "before", "during" and "after" phases (p = 0.0156, 0.0282, and 0.0443, respectively). Conclusions The most intense sympathetic activity is observed in the "during" angiography phase for both of the groups. The obtained features can be used in some clinical studies where generation of the customized/individual diagnoses styles and quantitative evaluation of psychophysiological responses is necessary. PMID:21834993

  16. Coronary artery compression three months after transcatheter pulmonary valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Dehghani, Payam; Kraushaar, Greg; Taylor, Dylan A

    2015-03-01

    We report a case of a 29-year-old man who developed exercised-induced myocardial infarction 3 months post Melody valve implantation. We introduce the concept of ruling out dynamic coronary artery compression by simulating transcatheter pulmonary valve implant while increasing cardiac output and thus aortic dimensions in the catheterization laboratory. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25115934

  17. Lipid-Induced Epigenomic Changes in Human Macrophages Identify a Coronary Artery Disease-Associated Variant that Regulates PPAP2B Expression through Altered C/EBP-Beta Binding

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Da; Soilleux, Elizabeth J.; Morris, Andrew J.; Smyth, Susan S.; O'Callaghan, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 40 loci that affect risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and the causal mechanisms at the majority of loci are unknown. Recent studies have suggested that many causal GWAS variants influence disease through altered transcriptional regulation in disease-relevant cell types. We explored changes in transcriptional regulation during a key pathophysiological event in CAD, the environmental lipid-induced transformation of macrophages to lipid-laden foam cells. We used a combination of open chromatin mapping with formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements (FAIRE-seq) and enhancer and transcription factor mapping using chromatin immuno-precipitation (ChIP-seq) in primary human macrophages before and after exposure to atherogenic oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), with resultant foam cell formation. OxLDL-induced foam cell formation was associated with changes in a subset of open chromatin and active enhancer sites that strongly correlated with expression changes of nearby genes. OxLDL-regulated enhancers were enriched for several transcription factors including C/EBP-beta, which has no previously documented role in foam cell formation. OxLDL exposure up-regulated C/EBP-beta expression and increased genomic binding events, most prominently around genes involved in inflammatory response pathways. Variants at CAD-associated loci were significantly and specifically enriched in the subset of chromatin sites altered by oxLDL exposure, including rs72664324 in an oxLDL-induced enhancer at the PPAP2B locus. OxLDL increased C/EBP beta binding to this site and C/EBP beta binding and enhancer activity were stronger with the protective A allele of rs72664324. In addition, expression of the PPAP2B protein product LPP3 was present in foam cells in human atherosclerotic plaques and oxLDL exposure up-regulated LPP3 in macrophages resulting in increased degradation of pro-inflammatory mediators. Our results demonstrate a genetic mechanism contributing to CAD risk at the PPAP2B locus and highlight the value of studying epigenetic changes in disease processes involving pathogenic environmental stimuli. PMID:25835000

  18. Coronary Sinus Lead Extraction.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Edmond M; Wilkoff, Bruce L

    2015-12-01

    Expanded indications for cardiac resynchronization therapy and the increasing incidence of cardiac implantable electronic device infection have led to an increased need for coronary sinus (CS) lead extraction. The CS presents unique anatomical obstacles to successful lead extraction. Training and facility requirements for CS lead extraction should mirror those for other leads. Here we review the indications, technique, and results of CS lead extraction. Published success rates and complications are similar to those reported for other leads, although multiple techniques may be required. Re-implantation options may be limited, which should be incorporated into pre-procedural decision making. PMID:26596810

  19. Noninvasive assessment of coronary stenoses by myocardial imaging during pharmacologic coronary vasodilation. VI. Detection of coronary artery disease in human beings with intravenous N-13 ammonia and positron computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Schelbert, H.R.; Wisenberg, G.; Phelps, M.E.; Gould, K.L.; Henze, E.; Hoffman, E.J.; Gomes, A.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1982-04-01

    The possibility of detecting mild coronary stenoses with positron computed tomography and nitrogen (N-13) ammonia administered during pharmacologic coronary vasodilation was previously demonstrated in chronically instrumented dogs. The feasibility of using this technique in human beings and its sensitivity in determining the degree and extent of coronary artery disease were examined in 13 young normal healthy volunteers and 32 patients with angiographically documented coronary artery disease. N-13 ammonia was administered intravenously and its distribution in the left ventricular myocardium recorded at rest and during dipyridamole-induced coronary hyperemia. In the 13 volunteers, N-13 activity was homogeneous at rest and during hyperemia, whereas 31 of the 32 patients had regional defects on the hyperemic images not present during rest. All six patients with double, all 10 with triple and 15 of 16 patients with single vessel disease (97 percent) were correctly identified with the technique. Two vessel involvement was correctly identified in five of the six patients with double vessel disease and three vessel disease in six of 10 patients. Of all 58 coronary stenoses, 52 (90 percent) were correctly identified. In a subgroup of 11 patients, the technique was compared with exercise thallium-201 planar images, which were abnormal in 10 (91 percent) whereas N-13 images were abnormal in all 11. Of the 19 stenosed coronary arteries in this subgroup, 11 (58 percent) were correctly identified with thallium-201 and 17 (89 percent) with tomography (p less than 0.01). It is concluded that cross-sectional imaging of the myocardial distribution of N-13 ammonia administered during pharmacologic coronary vasodilation is a highly sensitive and accurate means for noninvasive detection of coronary stenoses in human beings and for estimating the extent of coronary artery disease.

  20. Coronary Thrombosis without Dissection following Blunt Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Sibel, Michael; Thomas, Peter; Burt, Francis; Cipolla, James; Puleo, Peter; Baker, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Blunt trauma to the chest resulting in coronary thrombosis and ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a rare but well-described occurrence in adults. Angiography in such cases has generally disclosed complete epicardial coronary occlusion with thrombus, indistinguishable from the findings commonly found in spontaneous plaque rupture due to atherosclerotic disease. In all previously reported cases in which coronary interrogation with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) was performed in association with acute revascularization, coronary artery dissection was implicated as the etiology of coronary thrombosis. We present the first case report of blunt trauma-associated coronary thrombosis without underlying atherosclerosis or coronary dissection, as documented by IVUS imaging. PMID:27006836

  1. Valproate metabolites in serum and urine during antiepileptic therapy in children with infantile spasms: abnormal metabolite pattern associated with reversible hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Fisher, E; Siemes, H; Pund, R; Wittfoht, W; Nau, H

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify abnormal metabolite patterns of valproate (VPA) as possible early indicators of VPA-induced